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Sample records for lingual tonsil size

  1. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Bradley L; Donnelly, Lane F; Shott, Sally R; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A; Chini, Barbara A; Amin, Raouf S

    2006-06-01

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome.

  2. Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy: rescuing the airway with videolaryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Souki, Fouad Ghazi; Yemul-Golhar, Shweta Rahul; Zeyed, Yosaf; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2016-12-01

    Lingual tonsils are lymphatic tissues located at the base of the tongue that may hypertrophy causing difficulty and sometimes inability to ventilate or intubate during anesthesia. Routine airway assessment fails to diagnose lingual tonsil hypertrophy. There is limited experience with use of videolaryngoscopy in cases of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. We present a case of difficult airway due to unanticipated lingual tonsil hypertrophy successfully managed by atypical video laryngoscope positioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The frequency of lingual tonsil enlargement in obese children.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Carolina V A; Kalra, Maninder; Donnelly, Lane F; Shott, Sally R; Fitz, Kelly; Singla, Saroj; Amin, Raouf S

    2008-04-01

    Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is being increasingly recognized as a not uncommon and treatable cause of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly in patients with Down syndrome who have undergone palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. We have recognized an increasing number of patients who are obese and have obstructive sleep apnea with enlarged lingual tonsils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enlarged lingual tonsils in obese children. Seventy-one obese children (mean body mass index = 41.6 kg/m(2)) underwent sagittal fast spin-echo inversion recovery imaging. Lingual tonsils were identified and measured in the greatest anteroposterior diameter. Lingual tonsils > 10 mm were considered markedly enlarged. The subgroup with absent palatine tonsils (previous tonsillectomy) (n = 41) were compared with those with palatine tonsils present (n = 30). Forty-four (62%) of the obese children had measurable lingual tonsils, which is greater than the frequency previously reported in normal subjects (0%), subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (33%), or subjects with Down syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (50%). Ten (14%) had lingual tonsils > 10 mm. Obese subjects with absent palatine tonsils (previous tonsillectomy) had a higher prevalence of measurable lingual tonsils than those with palatine tonsils (78% vs 22%, respectively; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of lingual tonsils > 10 mm (90% vs 10%, p < 0.001). Obese children have a high frequency of enlargement of the lingual tonsils with a significantly higher prevalence in those with previous tonsillectomy. Enlarged lingual tonsils may play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea in obese children.

  4. Lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing severe dysphagia: treatment with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation).

    PubMed

    Mowry, Sarah E; Ament, Marvin; Shapiro, Nina L

    2010-03-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is an uncommon cause of upper aerodigestive tract pathology. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed severe dysphagia and subsequent weight loss as a result of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. He was successfully treated with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation). In the past, traditional surgical procedures for lingual tonsil hypertrophy were difficult to perform and recovery was difficult, but the introduction of Coblation has made lingual tonsillectomy much easier.

  5. Asymmetric tonsil size in children.

    PubMed

    Harley, Earl H

    2002-07-01

    To assess the clinical implications of asymmetrically enlarged tonsils in children. A prospective controlled study of asymmetric tonsil size in children scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Data were recorded on tonsil size and position, tonsillar fossa depth, degree of asymmetry, and pathological findings. Control patients were matched for age, sex, race, diagnosis, and surgical procedure. A total of 258 children, aged 2 to 18 years, scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy during a 27-month period. A tertiary care academic medical center. Forty-seven children (18.2%) were determined to have asymmetric tonsils. There were 43 matched controls with symmetric tonsils. Three-dimensional quantitative measurements of the resected tonsils revealed little or no actual asymmetry in tonsil size even though preoperative intraoral observations gave the impression that one tonsil was larger than the other. Statistically, tonsillar asymmetry was more apparent than real. When measured by volume, there was asymmetry in both groups. However, there was no statistical difference in the degree of asymmetry between the groups (P =.50). A difference in the depth of the tonsil fossa contributed to the putative asymmetry (P<.001). No malignant neoplasms were identified on microscopic examination in either group. Tonsillar asymmetry in children may often be an illusion secondary to a difference in the depth of the tonsillar fossa. Tonsillar asymmetry in children in the absence of other findings such as ipsilateral cervical adenopathy or other constitutional symptoms may not indicate a malignancy.

  6. Application of lingual tonsillectomy to sleep apnea syndrome involving lingual tonsils.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kawakatsu, Kenji; Hattori, Chikaya; Hattori, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Yoichi; Yonekura, Arata; Yagisawa, Mikio; Nishimura, Tadao

    2003-01-01

    In sleep apnea syndrome, surgical treatment is applied in obstructive-type cases and some mixed-type cases. If the obstructive part is in the root of the tongue, forward transfer of the tongue, lingual tonsillectomy and laser midline glossectomy are applied. In this study, we demonstrate the surgical technique of lingual tonsillectomy using an ultrasonic coagulating dissector (SonoSurg) with a blade tip shape developed in our department. We conclude that lingual tonsillectomy using SonoSurg, which we have frequently used, should be the first choice of treatment for snoring and sleep apnea caused by hypertrophy of the lingual tonsils from the viewpoints of effectiveness, prevention of hemorrhage, safety and handling.

  7. Complicated Airway Due to Unexpected Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Aarti Bhavesh; Davidian, Edward; Reebye, Uday

    2012-01-01

    We report an unexpected failed laryngeal mask airway in a patient with unrecognized lingual tonsil hypertrophy (LTH). A 19-year-old obese woman presented for extraction of multiple teeth via intravenous general anesthesia. Surgery was interrupted due to a laryngospasm midway through the procedure. The laryngospasm required the existing laryngeal mask airway to be removed so the patient could be suctioned. Although it is unclear the extent of obstruction caused by LTH, the surgery had to be postponed due to the discovery of enlarged lingual tonsils, which prevented endotracheal intubation. One reason for unexpected difficult airways is attributed to LTH. It is recognized that LTH is more common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea; however, LTH also has an increased prevalence in obese children with prior palatine tonsillectomies or adenoidectomies. Unexpected LTH can complicate general anesthesia by making placement of a laryngeal mask airway difficult. Thus, further research needs to be conducted to gain a deeper understanding on how to reduce the risks presented by LTH during sedation surgeries. PMID:22822995

  8. [Effectiveness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope in a case of unexpected difficult airway due to lingual tonsil hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Cruz, P; Alarcón, L; Del Castillo, T; Cabrerizo, P; Díaz, S

    2015-05-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy can cause varying degrees of airway obstruction and is considered a risk factor for difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation. We report a case of unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unknown lingual tonsil hypertrophy that was solved with the use of the GlideScope video laryngoscope.

  9. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat - tonsillitis ... back of the mouth and top of the throat. They help to filter out bacteria and other ... bacterial or viral infection can cause tonsillitis. Strep throat is a common cause. The infection may also ...

  10. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... e., acute, recurrent, chronic). What causes tonsillitis? The herpes simplex virus, Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), ... small ulcers on their surfaces in individuals with herpes simplex virus (HSV) tonsillitis. • Unilateral bulging above and to ...

  11. Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Georgalas, Christos C; Tolley, Neil S; Narula, Anthony

    2009-10-26

    The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein-Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy.

  12. Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein–Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy. PMID:21718574

  13. Effects of Tonsil size on Pulmonary Function test Results after Tonsillectomy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Shakeri, Hossein; Khanjani, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is a typical cause of surgery in children. Evaluation and identification of patients as potential candidates tonsillectomy is a primary concern for otolaryngologists. This study focuses on the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after tonsillectomy in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 50 patients suffering from tonsillar hypertrophy in 2013. Full details and results of otolaryngology examinations were recorded. Moreover, patients were examined with respect to forced inspiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FIF50%), forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF50%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEV1/forced expired volume in 0.5 seconds (FEV0.5) before and after surgery using spirometry. All data were analyzed using SPSS Software (version 19), and central descriptive measures, and data were compared by performing T-test and Chi-square tests. Results: According to tonsil size, patients were distributed as follows: 18 patients (36%) with +1 tonsil size, 18 patients (36%) with +2 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +3 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +4 tonsil size. Thirty-three (66%) and 17 patients (34%) were female and male, respectively, with a mean of age of 9.7±2.97 years (range, 7–18 years). Seventy-eight percent of patients were aged 10 years or less. Moreover, 25 patients (50%), 17 patients (34%), and eight patients (16%), respectively, reported obstructive symptoms, recurrent tonsillitis, and both symptoms. In patients with +3 and +4 tonsil size, spirometric parameters indicated relief of symptoms of obstruction. Only in patients with +4 tonsil size were the changes statistically significant. Conclusion: Tonsillectomy can relieve obstructive symptoms in patients with tonsils larger than +3 to a great extent. Additionally, spirometry can identify patients with +3 and +4 tonsils who do not have

  14. Transcervical ultrasonographic examination of palatine tonsil size and its correlation with age, gender and body-mass index in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the palatine tonsil size with transcervical ultrasonography in healthy children and to analyze whether the palatine tonsil size is correlated with age, gender and body-mass index (BMI). This series consisted of 680 healthy children (340 females, 340 males) who underwent transcervical ultrasonography for evaluation of palatine tonsil size. A total of seventeen age groups (range: 1-17 years) comprised of 40 children (20 females, 20 males) were constituted. Demographic data including gender, height, weight and BMI were noted. Correlation between baseline descriptive data and tonsil volume was investigated. The average age was 102.51 ± 59.24 months (range: 12 to 204) and body-mass index was 17.50-5.16 kg/m2 (min: 12.4-max:25.8). The average tonsil volume was 1819.5-2023.5 mm(3) (min:601, max: 4007). The tonsil volume did not differ significantly between females and males (p = 0.108). However, there was a significant difference between tonsil volumes of various age groups (p < 0.001). Tonsil size seemed to be greater in parallel with advancement of age (p < 0.001) and increased BMI (p < 0.001). Transcervical ultrasonography can be an accurate, safe, cheap, non-invasive and accessible measure for evaluation of the size of tonsils objectively. There were strongly positive correlations between age, BMI and palatine tonsil size in healthy children and variability with respect to descriptive characteristics must be considered during diagnostic procedures and preoperative evaluation. In our study, we suggest that transcervical ultrasonography can be an accurate, safe, cheap, non-invasive and accessible measure for evaluation of the size of tonsils. There were positive correlations between age, BMI and palatine tonsil size in healthy children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of tonsil size in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Li, A; Wong, E; Kew, J; Hui, S; Fok, T

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Lateral neck radiograph was performed on 35 children referred consecutively to a university paediatric chest clinic for suspected OSA secondary to tonsillar hypertrophy. The tonsil size was determined by measuring the TP ratio on the radiographs. The severity of OSA was assessed by overnight polysomnography. Results: A total of 24 boys and 11 girls (median age 6.2 years) were studied. All presented with symptoms of OSA, and tonsillar hypertrophy was detected on clinical examination. The median apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) was 16.93 (interquartile range: 8.41 to 28.29). The median TP ratio was 0.76 (interquartile range: 0.65 to 0.80). AHI was positively correlated with the TP ratio. The clinical tonsil size did not correlate with the AHI or the TP ratio. Using a TP ratio of 0.479, the sensitivity and specificity in predicting cases with moderate/severe OSA (AHI >10) were 95.8% and 81.8% respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values were 92.0% and 90.0% respectively. Conclusions: Results show that in a population of children with OSA, tonsillar hypertrophy as assessed by lateral neck radiograph correlates positively with the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. The TP ratio has high sensitivity and specificity in predicting those with moderate/severe disease and this feature may be used as a clinical screening method in prioritising patients with OSA for further assessment. PMID:12138072

  16. Correlation on cine MR imaging of size of adenoid and palatine tonsils with degree of upper airway motion in asymptomatic sedated children.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Lane F; Casper, Keith A; Chen, Bin

    2002-08-01

    The objective of this study was to use MR fluoroscopy to evaluate variations in size of the adenoid and palatine tonsils and the relationship between tonsil enlargement and airway motion dynamics in asymptomatic children during sleep. We performed sagittal midline cine MR imaging (fast gradient-echo series: TR/TE, 8.2/3.6 sec; flip angle, 80 degrees; slice thickness, 8 mm; 128 consecutive images; imaging time, 2 min; displayed in cine mode) in children referred for MR imaging of the brain who required sedation. The largest transverse diameter of the adenoids was recorded. A subjective impression was made as to whether the adenoids were enlarged or normal in size. Palatine tonsils were considered enlarged when a soft-tissue mass was identified on the midline cine images, and maximum diameter was recorded. Enlarged and nonenlarged adenoid and palatine tonsil groups were compared using motion parameters (chi-square or Fisher's exact test): mouth position (opened or closed); vertical motion (present, absent); nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal motion (static patent, dynamic patent, intermittent collapsed, or static collapsed, and greatest change in size). We studied 148 subjects who had a mean age of 3.4 years. The adenoid tonsils were considered enlarged in 64 patients (43%), and the palatine tonsils were considered enlarged in 29 patients (20%). The mean size of the enlarged adenoid tonsils was 11.6 mm and of the nonenlarged adenoid tonsils was 6.2 mm. Enlarged adenoids correlated with the open mouth position (p = 0.0242) and increased dynamic motion of the oropharynx (p = 0.0413). A trend was also seen for increased dynamic motion of the nasopharynx (p = 0.0723). Enlarged palatine tonsils correlated with an increased frequency of dynamic motion of the oropharynx (p = 0.0006) and the nasopharynx (p = 0.0033) and a trend for increased frequency of the open mouth position (p = 0.0692). Large adenoid and palatine tonsil size affects breathing dynamics of

  17. Tuberculous tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Celik, O; Yalçin, S; Hançer, A; Celik, P; Ozercan, R

    1995-10-01

    The epidemiology of tuberculosis has changed recently with an increasing incidence of unusual presentations. A case of tuberculous tonsillitis, which is a rare condition, is presented in this report. The manifestations of this entity are tonsillar hypertrophy and painful ulceration. Final diagnosis of tuberculous tonsillitis is usually made after histopathologic examination of tonsillectomy material. Cultures should be obtained from the tissue specimens, and acid-fast bacilli must be investigated to confirm the diagnosis. Systemic signs of tuberculosis may not be seen in this clinical form. These features may confuse tuberculous tonsillitis with malignancies. In this article, general information and literature about tuberculous tonsillitis are reviewed, and a case of tuberculous tonsillitis is reported to draw attention to this rare clinical form of tuberculosis.

  18. The size of palatine tonsils cannot be used to decide the indication of tonsillectomy for IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Mika; Kosukegawa, Hideyuki; Nomura, Yuri; Watanabe, Kenichi; Sato, Toshinobu; Taguma, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Tonsillectomy is one of the treatment strategies for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). The relationship between the indication of tonsillectomy and the size of palatine tonsils (PTs) in patients with IgAN remains controversial. Methods. This retrospective cohort study investigated 57 patients with IgAN who underwent tonsillectomy combined with steroid pulse therapy (SPT). They were classified into two groups, the hypertrophy group and the nonhypertrophy group, according to the weight of their excised PTs. The effects of tonsillectomy combined with SPT on clinical remission (CR) and the histopathological findings of PTs were compared between the two groups. Results. During the mean follow-up period of 45.5 (range 6–133) months, 78.9% of the patients achieved CR (79.3 versus 78.6%, P = 0.945) and the baseline serum creatinine doubled only in one patient in the nonhypertrophy group (0 versus 3.6%, P = 0.491). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of CR between the two groups by the Kaplan–Meier method (P = 0.839). The predictor for CR, identified in Cox proportional hazards models, was baseline proteinuria [hazard ratio 0.14 (95% CI 0.032–0.621) P = 0.010]. Although macroscopic pus plugs were observed on the surface of PTs in almost 60% of patients in each group, microscopic pus plugs in the crypt and the enlarged interfollicular area were observed in all patients. Conclusions. The treatment effect of tonsillectomy combined with SPT and the pathological features of PTs in IgAN were equal, regardless of the size of the PTs. Therefore, the size of PTs should not be included as a factor when deciding the indication of tonsillectomy for IgAN. PMID:28396738

  19. Apoptosis in chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Önal, Merih; Yılmaz, Taner; Bilgiç, Elif; Müftüoğlu, Sevda Fatma; Kuşçu, Oğuz; Günaydın, Rıza Önder

    2015-02-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is the persistent inflammation of the tonsillar tissue that occurs due to recurrent, acute or subclinical infection. The recurrent and chronic inflammation of palatine tonsils sometimes results in hypertrophy. Apoptosis provides an important balance between lymphocytes in tonsillar lymphoid tissue. The aim of this study is to investigate the apoptosis in tonsillar diseases. 43 patients with chronic tonsilitis and tonsillar hypertrophy underwent tonsillectomy. The specimens were examined immunohistochemically for apoptosis. Tonsils were assembled into groups according to their size. Specimens were compared for their apoptotic cell count. The apoptosis difference between the tonsil size groups is not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, when the study group was divided into two at age 6, the difference was not statistically significant for patients at and below 6 years of age; but, the difference was statistically significant for patients above 6 years of age (p<0.05). The comparison of apoptosis in microcompartments of tonsil tissue (intrafollicular, interfollicular, subepithelial and intraepithelial) between tonsil size stages and between chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy groups revealed no statistical significance (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between intrafollicular and interfollicular, interfollicular and intraepithelial & subepithelial and intraepithelial areas (p<0.05). In the light of these findings, it was concluded that apoptosis played a role in the tonsillar hypertrophy and atrophy. Apoptosis functioned to balance lymphocyte proliferation in tonsil tissue. The association of apoptosis with tonsillar hypertrophy seemed to be age-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Image cytometry appliance in chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Zabel-Olejnik, Joanna; Grzegorowski, Michał; Warchoł, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    Enlargement of palatinar tonsils in the course of chronic inflammatory process has been thought till now to reflect pronounced lymphocyte proliferation even if such mechanism fails to explain the persistent increase in size of the organ. The studies were performed on 92 tonsils obtained from 4 to 16 years old children in whom the tonsils were removed due to chronic inflammatory processes in upper respiratory tract or in ears. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and by image analysis. The data show that apoptosis in the tonsils is accompanying lymphocyte proliferation in the course of chronic inflammatory process. Evaluation of homeostasis in palatine tonsils could be helpful in referring children for tonsillectomy. Imagine analysis may objectivize and specify diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis.

  1. Lingual thyroid: a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Quarracino, María; Aguas, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an abnormal formation appearing as the result of a deficient descent during embryological development of the thyroid gland through the thyroglossal duct to its normal pretracheal location. The lesion consists of a tumor mass of thyroid tissue located at the base of the tongue, in the region of the foramen caecum linguae. The size can vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. More than 400 cases of lingual thyroid have been documented in the literature to date. Lingual thyroid has been identified in 10% of the tongues examined in some autopsy series. Its identification is of great significance, since it may constitute the only functional thyroid tissue in the body, and may inadvertently be destroyed as a result of histological biopsy procedures. The present study presents a clinical case of lingual thyroid in a 17-year-old female.

  2. Palatine tonsil volume estimation using different methods after tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Sağıroğlu, Ayşe; Acer, Niyazi; Okuducu, Hacı; Ertekin, Tolga; Erkan, Mustafa; Durmaz, Esra; Aydın, Mesut; Yılmaz, Seher; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2016-06-15

    This study was carried out to measure the volume of the palatine tonsil in otorhinolaryngology outpatients with complaints of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis who had undergone tonsillectomy. To date, no study has investigated palatine tonsil volume using different methods and compared with subjective tonsil size in the literature. For this purpose, we used three different methods to measure palatine tonsil volume. The correlation of each parameter with tonsil size was assessed. After tonsillectomy, palatine tonsil volume was measured by Archimedes, Cavalieri and Ellipsoid methods. Mean right-left palatine tonsil volumes were calculated as 2.63 ± 1.34 cm(3) and 2.72 ± 1.51 cm(3) by the Archimedes method, 3.51 ± 1.48 cm(3) and 3.37 ± 1.36 cm(3) by the Cavalieri method, and 2.22 ± 1.22 cm(3) and 2.29 ± 1.42 cm(3) by the Ellipsoid method, respectively. Excellent agreement was found among the three methods of measuring volumetric techniques according to Bland-Altman plots. In addition, tonsil grade was correlated significantly with tonsil volume.

  3. ISOLATED TONSIL TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The occurrence of tuberculosis of the upper respiratory tract including oral cavity has become uncommon. Isolated tuberculosis of tonsil in the absence of active pulmonary tuberculosis is very rare clinical entity. Here is a report of tonsil tuberculosis, presented with complaints of sore throat. PMID:21264086

  4. Tonsillitis (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Video: Getting an X-ray Tonsillitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Tonsillitis Print A A A en español Amigdalitis ...

  5. The size of the cross-lingual masked phonological priming effect does not depend on second language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Duyck, Wouter; Diependaele, Kevin; Drieghe, Denis; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Using a masked phonological priming paradigm, Brysbaert, Van Dyck, and Van de Poel (1999) showed that Dutch-French bilinguals perform better at identifying tachistoscopically presented L2 words (e.g., oui [yes]) when those words are primed by L1 words or nonwords that are homophonic to the L2 target word according to the L1 grapheme-phoneme conversion rules (e.g., wie [who]). They noted that this priming effect was smaller for balanced bilinguals than for less proficient bilinguals, although the interaction failed to reach significance. Findings of Gollan, Forster, and Frost (1997) suggest that this could be attributed to a greater reliance on phonology in L2 reading, caused by a smaller proficiency in this language. However, in this study we show that the Dutch-French cross-lingual phonological priming effect is equally large for perfectly balanced and less proficient bilinguals. Our findings are in line with more recent work of Van Wijnendaele and Brysbaert (2002).

  6. Tonsillitis (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't use that person's cups, glasses, silverware, toothbrush, or other utensils. And if you have tonsillitis, ... brushing your teeth, make sure to rinse your toothbrush well with tap water, and let it dry ...

  7. DEFB1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to recurrent tonsillitis in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Zupin, Luisa; Polesello, Vania; Grasso, Domenico Leonardo; Crovella, Sergio; Segat, Ludovica

    2016-04-01

    The tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs fundamental for immune system response against pathogens within the oral cavity. Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils that may include the adenoids and the lingual tonsils and that can be acute, recurrent, and chronic. Viral or bacterial infections, as well as immunologic factors are the main trigger to tonsillitis and disease's chronicity: the host immune responses, especially the innate one, could play an important role in susceptibility to the disease. The current study aims at investigating the role of functional polymorphisms in the 5'UTR (c.-52G>A, c.-44G>C and c.-20G>A) of DEFB1 gene, encoding for the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin 1, in the predisposition to recurrent tonsillitis in children from North Eastern Italy. No significant correlation was found between DEFB1 allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies and recurrent tonsillitis susceptibility with the exception of an increased risk to disease development in patients carrying DEFB1 rare haplotypes. Our results may suggest that DEFB1 polymorphisms alone may not influence pathology susceptibility, however they could possibly concur, together with other factors involved in the genetic control of innate immune system, in the predisposition towards recurrent tonsillitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Main anatomical and histological features of the tonsils in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Achaaban, M R; Mouloud, M; Tligui, N S; El Allali, K

    2016-12-01

    The tonsils, located around the pharyngeal cavity, constitute the first defence barrier against intruding microorganisms and antigens. The present work aimed to study the anatomical and histological aspects of camel tonsils in order to elucidate their role. The study was carried out on 12 camel heads fixed by infusion with 10 % neutral buffered formalin. A careful dissection of the oral cavity, the soft palate and the pharynx was conducted to explore the morphological aspect of different tonsils. Sagittal sections of some camel heads were also performed to explore their internal conformation, whereas the histological study was carried out on five specimens. All the six types of tonsils exist in the camel. Compared to other domestic species, they are well developed and all visible particularly the palatine one. The lingual, palatine, velar and paraepiglottic tonsils are arranged into closely assembled lymphoid follicles and show multitude crypt opennings into the oropharyngeal tube. The crypts epithelium is infiltrated with lymphoid cells allowing close contact with antigens. While the nasopharynx tonsils (pharyngeal and tubal) include loosely connected follicles which extend into the overlaying epithelium. The relatively great development and particular arrangement of the tonsils in the camel as well as the abundance of cryptic formations in all these tonsils constitute another aspect of adaptation and resistance of this species to its environment.

  9. Ankyloglossia and Lingual Frenotomy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jonathan; Links, Anne; Boss, Emily; Tunkel, David

    2017-02-01

    Objectives (1) Describe trends in the diagnosis of ankyloglossia and the use of lingual frenotomy and (2) analyze patient- and hospital-level factors as compared with the total pediatric discharge population. Study Design National database analysis. Methods We reviewed available data from 1997 to 2012 using the Kids' Inpatient Database, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. All weighted pediatric discharges with ankyloglossia, newborn feeding difficulty, or lingual frenotomy were analyzed for variables of sex, payer, zip code median income, hospital ownership, location/teaching status, bed size, region, and children's hospital status. Chi-square analysis with 95% CIs and odds ratio were used to identify differences between the study group and the total database discharge population. Results Diagnosis of ankyloglossia increased each year of publication (every third year)-with 3934, 5430, 7785, 11,397, 19,459, and 32,837 children, respectively, from 1997 to 2012-with the largest increase in the last 6 years. Similarly, frenotomy increased with 1279, 1633, 2538, 3988, 6900, and 12,406 procedures. Compared with the total discharge population, children with ankyloglossia or frenotomy were more often male (63.6% ankyloglossia, 65.3% frenotomy vs 51.2%), privately insured (60.1%, 62.1% vs 43.6%), from a higher median-income zip code (78.1%, 78.2% vs 68.6%), and in Midwest region (29.3%, 32.3% vs 21.7%). Conclusion These pilot data show increases in diagnoses of ankyloglossia and use of frenotomy. There is a preponderance of children who are male, privately insured, or Midwest residents being diagnosed and treated for ankyloglossia. This broad variation may reflect local practice patterns or imply cultural and socioeconomic bias.

  10. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  11. [Lithiasis of the tonsil. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Bourdon, A J; Vermeulin, G; Beudez, C; Atassi, R; Abbar, H; Lemasson, P; Cikurel, M; Heran, J; Le-Quang, V; Roussy, M

    1994-01-01

    Imaging, clinical and frequency of the tonsil's calculi in function of the size of the calculi: inframillimetric calculi much frequent, not visible by imaging; small calculi from 1 to 7 mm frequent, visible by the imaging and much often asymptomatic; big ones superior of 7 mm rare, becoming exceptional and much often symptomatic above 15 mm.

  12. Self ligating lingual appliance

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S.S.; Jayan, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  13. Lingual Orthodontics: The future?

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mohammad Owaise; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais Humair

    2015-01-01

    The increase in demand for adult orthodontics has been mirrored by an increased availability and demand of cosmetic appliances. This article focuses on one type of cosmetic appliance--the lingual appliance. Factors to consider in case selection as well as the advantages and disadvantages of lingual appliances are discussed. This paper also outlines the sequence of treatment using these appliances by way of two treated cases.

  14. Tonsil concretions and tonsilloliths.

    PubMed

    Pruet, C W; Duplan, D A

    1987-05-01

    Although infrequently seen in many clinical practices, tonsillar concretions can be the source of both fetor oris and physical and social concern for the patient. Though stones rarely form in the tonsil or peritonsillar area, the findings of calcified objects or stones anywhere within the body has long been a subject of interest. The salient features of these entities and their relevance to clinical practice are discussed in this article.

  15. Tonsillitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here Tonsillitis (American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery) Tonsillitis (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) ... Adenoids PostOp (American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery) Tonsils and Tonsillectomies (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also ...

  16. [Submucosal lingual schwannoma].

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Bülent; Bozdemir, Kazım; Ersoy Çallıoğlu, Elif; Kutluhan, Ahmet; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma or neurilemmoma is a slow growing, solitary, and encapsulated benign tumor originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves. Lingual schwannomas are rare. A 46-year-old male patient admitted with a complaint of swelling on the right half of the tongue for one year. An approximately 1x1 cm submucosal mass was detected on the right side of the tongue. The submucosal mass was totally excised under local anesthesia. Pathological examination was consistent with schwannoma. Lingual schwannomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tongue masses.

  17. Transient lingual papillitis.

    PubMed

    Kornerup, Ida M; Senye, Mireya; Peters, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    A case of recurrent, clinically innocuous, but painful papules involving the tongue dorsum of a 25-year-old man is presented. The lesions were interpreted to represent a transient lingual papillitis. This a poorly understood, but benign and self-limited condition involving the tongue fungiform papillae, which does not appear to be widely recognized.

  18. Streptococcal tonsillitis as a cause of urticaria: tonsillitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Calado, G; Loureiro, G; Machado, D; Tavares, B; Ribeiro, C; Pereira, C; Luís, A S

    2012-01-01

    The primary role of infections in chronic urticaria (CU) is controversial. We hypothesised that streptococcal tonsillitis (ST) could be a primary cause of CU or acute recurrent urticaria (ARU). Retrospective study of 14 outpatients observed between January 2000 and December 2009, with CU/ARU and clinical and/or laboratorial suspicion of an aetiopathogenic link with ST. Clinical history, objective examination and laboratorial study were looked for. Three groups were defined: spontaneous resolution of urticaria, resolution after tonsillectomy, and still symptomatic. In these patients, a causal relationship between ST and urticaria is supported by: markers of streptococcal infection, the perception of a clinical relationship between tonsillitis and urticaria, the decrease of urticaria severity with early antibiotherapy to tonsillitis and urticaria resolution after tonsillectomy. Our study encourages the investigation of tonsillitis in these otherwise idiopathic patients, especially until young adulthood and even in the absence of any symptoms. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser midline glossectomy and lingual tonsillectomy as treatments for sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Arata; Kawakatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenji; Nishimura, Tadao

    2003-01-01

    Preservation treatments for sleep respiratory disorders, such as the use of a dental device and the technique of nasal continuous positive air pressure, cause discomfort to the patient and are not radical treatments. Therefore, we performed operative therapy instead. Laser midline glossectomy was performed to treat constriction at the root of the tongue in 16 patients diagnosed with sleep apnea syndrome. We also tried lingual tonsil excision using the Harmonic Scalpel in three patients with stenosis at the base of the tongue.

  20. Quantification of cells expressing markers of proliferation and apoptosis in chronic tonsilitis.

    PubMed

    Avramović, V; Petrović, V; Jović, M; Vlahović, P

    2015-10-01

    During chronic tonsillitis, the relationship between proliferation and apoptosis of lymphocytes in tonsillar follicles can be disturbed, which gives rise to attenuation of tonsil immunocompetence and diminishing its contribution in systemic immunity. In this study, we have quantified the cells expressing the markers of proliferation and apoptosis in the follicles of the palatine tonsil. Six tonsils from patients aged 10-29 years with hypertrophic tonsillitis and five tonsils from patients aged 18-22 years with recurrent tonsillitis were studied. The sections of paraffin blocks of tonsillar tissue were stained by the immunohistochemical LSAB/HRP method with the utilisation of antibodies for: Ki-67 antigen-cell marker of proliferation; Bcl-2 and survivin anti-apoptotic factors and Fas/CD95, caspase-3 and Bax pro-apoptotic factors. The size of lymphoid follicles, i.e. mean follicle area and number of lymphoid follicle immunopositive cells per mm2 of a slice area, i.e. numerical areal density were determined by the quantitative image analysis. The localisation of Ki-67, Bcl-2, survivin, Fas/CD95, caspase-3 and Bax- immunopositive cells inside the palatine tonsil was similar in both types of tonsillitis. The number of Ki-67 immunopositive cells was significantly (p < 0.01) larger in the tonsils with hypertrophic tonsillitis (14681.4 ± 1460.5) in comparison to those with recurrent tonsillitis (12491.4 ± 2321.6), although the number of survivin and caspase-3 immunopositive cells was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in recurrent tonsillitis (survivin, 406.9 ± 98.4; caspase-3, 350.4 ± 119.4) when compared to those with hypertrophic tonsillitis (survivin, 117.4 ± 14.5; caspase-3, 210 ± 24). Our results show that the rate of the proliferation and apoptosis of follicular lymphocytes is different in various types of tonsillitis. This suggests that the immunological potential of the palatine tonsil varies in patients with hypertrophic and recurrent tonsillitis, which in

  1. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction in children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lionel M

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction in the treatment of children with a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with tonsillar obstructive hypertrophy. Prospective, nonrandomized, case series feasibility study of children meeting the criteria for tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of an obstructive sleep-related breathing disorder. Community-based hospital. Patients Ten children, aged 4 to 13 years, presenting consecutively to a community-based otolaryngology practice with tonsillar or adenotonsillar obstructive hypertrophy implicated clinically in causing a sleep-related breathing disorder; their parents consenting to temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction instead of surgical tonsillectomy. Intervention Temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction, along with surgical adenoidectomy, if adenoids were present, under general anesthesia. Tonsil size reduction, treatment morbidity, and symptom improvement with follow-up to 1 year. Baseline and 3-month posttreatment polysomnographic data were used. There was a reduction in tonsil size at 1 year of 75.0% on average, without evidence of regrowth during the 1-year follow-up. All children were drinking liquids in the recovery room, and most were eating soft diets within 6 hours; 8 of the 10 children were eating a normal diet by day 5. On average, the return to normal activity was 3.9 days, with 2.9 days of parental loss of work time. Quality-of-life variables all improved. Snore indexes decreased by 88.6%. Polysomnography at 3 months revealed an 84.2% reduction in the apnea index and a 52.3% reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index. There were no complications. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction seems to be a safe, effective, and minimally morbid treatment for tonsil hypertrophy in children with obstructive sleep-related breathing disorders.

  2. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglotic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) charact...

  3. Assessment of the appearance, location and morphology of mandibular lingual foramina using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    He, Xuejiao; Jiang, Junqiang; Cai, Wei; Pan, Yun; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Ke; Zheng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the appearance, location and morphology of mandibular lingual foramina (MLF) in the Chinese Han population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of the mandibular body in 200 patients (103 female patients and 97 male patients, age range 10-70 years) were retrospectively analysed to identify MLF. The canal number, location and direction were assessed. Additionally, the diameter of the lingual foramen, the distance between the alveolar crest and the lingual foramen, the distance between the tooth apex and the lingual foramen and the distance from the mandibular border to the lingual foramen were examined to describe the MLF characteristics. Gender and age differences with respect to foramina were also studied. CBCT can be utilized to visualise lingual foramina. In this study, 683 lingual foramina were detected in 200 CBCT scans, with 538 (78.77%) being ≤1 mm in diameter and 145 (21.23%) being >1 mm. In total, 85.07% of MLF are median lingual canals (MLC) and 14.93% are lateral lingual canals (LLC). Two typical types of lingual foramina were identified according to their relationship with the tooth apex. Most lingual foramina (74.08%) were found below the tooth apex, and those above the tooth apex were much smaller in diameter. Male patients had statistically larger lingual foramina. The distance between the lingual foramen and the tooth apex changed with increasing age. Determination of the presence, position and size of lingual foramina is important before performing a surgical procedure. Careful implant-prosthetic treatment planning is particularly important in male and/or elderly patients because of the structural characteristics of their lingual foramina. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult eland (Taurotragus oryx) by scanning electron microscopy. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae of the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and smaller secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was flower-bud shaped. The filiform papillae of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and were big as compared to that of the lingual apex. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla resembled that of the lingual apes. The lenticular papillae of large size were limited on the lingual prominence. The connective tissue core of the lenticular papilla consisted of numerous small spines. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval shaped and the papillae were surrounded by a semicircular trench. The connective tissue core of the vallate papilla was covered with numerous small spines. The lingual surface of the eland closely resembled that of the family Bovidae.

  5. [Current techniques in tonsil surgery].

    PubMed

    Coromina Isern, Jordi; Esteller Moré, Eduard

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, consolidation of tonsillar hypertrophy as the principal surgical procedure has led to the emergence of new techniques. Most aim to reduce volume (tonsillectomy or tonsil reduction). These techniques have considerably decreased intra- and postoperative hemorrhages and pain intensity. The present article describes the mechanisms and the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques, including electro-dissection using electrical scalpels, reduction using a microdebrider, ultrasonic scalpel, radiofrequency (with its different variations) and CO(2) laser. When techniques that reduce tonsil volume are used, the possibility of recurrence of the tonsillar hypertrophy is high if less than 85% of the tonsil is removed. There is also a considerable possibility of infection of the remaining tonsils, whichever technique is used, and therefore these techniques are not valid in the case of repetitive tonsillitis. Recently, alternatives to classical adenoidectomy using adenoid curette have also appeared. Bleeding can be minimized by using a microdebrider, radiofrequency or a blood coagulator. We also discuss the concept of partial adenoidectomy, which is preferred in patients at risk of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  6. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  7. Tonsil removal - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... back of the throat. The tonsils and the adenoid glands can be removed at the same time. The adenoid glands are located above the tonsils, in the ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 49. Wetmore RF. Tonsils and adenoids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  8. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in tonsil cancers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence of tonsil cancers has increased in several countries. French data on HPV prevalence in tonsil cancers are scarce. The objective of this study was thus to assess the overall and type specific HPV prevalence in tonsil histological samples. Methods This French retrospective multicenter study involved 12 centres located throughout the country. Were included 185 histological samples collected from year 2000 to 2009 with a validated diagnosis of tonsil invasive carcinomas. HPV prevalence was studied according to gender, age and histological type of cancer. Results Overall HPV prevalence was 57% in tonsil cancers. Mean age of diagnosis was comparable in HPV positive tonsils cases (60 ± 11.2) and HPV negative tonsil cases (59 ± 9.6). HPV prevalence was significantly higher in female than in male cases (28/35 versus 78/150 in tonsil cases, respectively, P = 0.003). About 53% of tonsil cases were infected by a single HPV type. Only eight (4%) samples were infected by more than one HPV type. Among HPV positive samples, HPV 16 was found in 89% of tonsil cases. All other HPV types had prevalence below 5%. Conclusions Our results indicate that HPV is common in tonsil carcinomas and emphasize the predominant role of HPV 16. PMID:21299882

  9. Enzymatic study of tonsil tissue alkaline and acid phosphatase in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsil hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Jesic, Snezana; Stojiljkovic, Ljuba; Stosic, Svetlana; Nesic, Vladimir; Milovanovic, Jovica; Jotic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Indications for tonsillectomy in recurrent tonsillitis are defined according to the number of episodes of acute bacterial infections in a year. However, little is known about the tonsil immune competence status in patients presenting with recurrent tonsillitis with either hypertrophied or atrophied tonsils, or in patients presenting with obstructive sleep apnoea. In this study we examined the tonsil immune status in children with 3-5 acute recurrent infections a year and in children with obstructive sleep apnoea by comparing the activity of tonsil and adenoid tissue nonspecific alkaline and acid phosphatase. Specific activity of tonsil and adenoid tissue nonspecific alkaline and acid phosphatase was investigated in children who underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for recurrent infection (72 children) and for obstructive sleep apnoea (10 children). Tissue enzyme activities were measured using p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate. Tissue samples were examined by the haematoxylin-eosin histological technique. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v. 16 software. The tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase activity was similar in hypertrophied tonsils in the recurrent infection group and in the obstructive sleep apnoea group (3.437+/-1.226 and 3.978+/-0.762 U/mg of protein, respectively). The enzyme activity in both hypertrophied tonsil groups was significantly higher as compared to atrophied tonsils in the recurrent tonsillitis group, p=0.021 and p=0.006, respectively. The enzyme activity was significantly higher in the adenoids compared to the tonsils from all three groups. Contrary to this, no significant differences were noticed for tonsil and adenoid acid phosphatase activities among the groups. Similar acid phosphatase activity in all three groups implies that all three groups have preserved antigen presenting cell activity. In patients with hypertrophied tonsils similar tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase activity suggests preserved B cell

  10. Lingual articulation in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Roderick A.; Rothgerber, John R.; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lingual articulation in humans is one of the primary means of vocal tract resonance filtering that produces the characteristic vowel formants of speech. In songbirds, the function of the tongue in song has not been thoroughly examined, although recent research has identified the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity as a resonance filter that is actively tuned to the frequency of the song. In northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), the volume of this cavity is inversely proportional to the frequency of the song above 2 kHz. However, cardinal song extends below this range, leaving the question of whether and how the vocal tract is tracking these low frequencies. We investigated the possible role of the tongue in vocal tract filtering using X-ray cineradiography of northern cardinals. Below 2 kHz, there was prominent tongue elevation in which the tip of the tongue was raised until it seemed to touch the palate. These results suggest that tongue elevation lowers the resonance frequency below 2 kHz by reducing the area of the passage from the oral cavity into the beak. This is consistent with a computational model of the songbird vocal tract in which resonance frequencies are actively adjusted by both changing the volume of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity and constricting the opening into the beak. PMID:26685174

  11. Immunoregulatory cytokines and chronic tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Todorović, Miroljub M.; Zvrko, Elvir Z.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to determine the distribution of cells producing cytokines: tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in different morphological sections of tonsils in patients with tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and recurrent tonsillitis (RT), to analyze the level of production of these cytokines in TH and RT and evaluate the potential of peripheral blood lymphocytes for production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). Analyzed materials consisted of the tonsils after tonsillectomy and blood taken from patients right before tonsillectomy (study group) and blood taken from healthy donors (control group). We used histological and immunohistochemical method, morphometric methods for the quantification of TNF-α and IL-6 producing cells and immunological methods for determining the concentration of IFN-γ and IL-4. Most of TNF-α producing cells are settled in the subepithelial region (55%). Numerical density of TNF-α producing cells in the crypt epithelium, subepithelial and interfollicular region was significantly higher in RT compared with TH. The concentration of IFN-γ is three times higher in RT then in TH. After the stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in culture there was no significant increase in concentrations of IL-4. The index of stimulation of IFN-γ was the highest in the RT, and of IL-4 in TH. The production of Th1-type cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) is higher in RT compared with TH. In both forms of tonsillitis, production of Th1-type cytokines is higher in relation to the production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-6 and IL-4). PMID:24289758

  12. Immunoregulatory cytokines and chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Miroljub M; Zvrko, Elvir Z

    2013-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to determine the distribution of cells producing cytokines: tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in different morphological sections of tonsils in patients with tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and recurrent tonsillitis (RT), to analyze the level of production of these cytokines in TH and RT and evaluate the potential of peripheral blood lymphocytes for production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). Analyzed materials consisted of the tonsils after tonsillectomy and blood taken from patients right before tonsillectomy (study group) and blood taken from healthy donors (control group).We used histological and immunohistochemical method, morphometric methods for the quantification of TNF-α and IL- 6 producing cells and immunological methods for determining the concentration of IFN-γ and IL-4. Most of TNF-α producing cells are settled in the subepithelial region (55%). Numerical density of TNF-α producing cells in the crypt epithelium, subepithelial and interfollicular region was significantly higher in RT compared with TH. The concentration of IFN-γ is three times higher in RT then in TH. After the stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in culture there was no significant increase in concentrations of IL- 4. The index of stimulation of IFN-γ was the highest in the RT, and of IL- 4 in TH. The production of Th1-type cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) is higher in RT compared with TH. In both forms of tonsillitis, production of Th1-type cytokines is higher in relation to the production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-6 and IL-4).

  13. [Morphological radioautographic study of the palatine tonsils in chronic tonsillitis and healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T; Gospodar', M A; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Pal'tsyn, A A; Poliakova, T S; Chervonskaia, N V; Konstantinova, N B

    2006-01-01

    A pilot morphological (radioautographic) study of healthy and affected palatine tonsils (in hypertrophy and toxic-allergic form of chronic tonsillitis) in children and adults has shown that intensity of biosynthetic processes (protein-synthetic -- RNA synthesis and proliferative activity -- DNA synthesis) in the cells of palatine tonsils and structural changes of their tissues depend on characteristics of pathological process. Microbial penetration into the tonsils with formation of an active focus of chronic infection is traced.

  14. The role of the actinomyces in obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis in pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kutluhan, Ahmet; Salvız, Mehti; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Kandemir, Olcay; Yeşil, Cemile

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tonsillar Actinomyces in subjects with recurrent tonsillitis and those with obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy, and to determine the association between the presence of Actinomyces and tonsillar volume, and crypt abscess. A prospective designed cross-sectional study consisted of 90 children subjects who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy. The subjects of recurrent tonsillitis (Group A) and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy (Group B) were compared to the presence of Actinomyces. The relationship between the presence of Actinomyces and the presence of crypt abscess, and tonsillar volume were also compared. Actinomyces was found to be significantly more prominent in obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy group (61.5%) compared to recurrent tonsillitis group (26.6%) (p<0.001). Additionally, the mean tonsillar volume was significantly higher in tonsils with Actinomyces than those without (p<0.001). The histopathological study revealed that there was no significant inflammatory response to the existence of Actinomyces. According to the presented study, Actinomyces was seen more prominent in subjects with obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy compared those with recurrent tonsillitis. Furthermore Actinomyces had a pathological influence on tonsil size. This study showed there was a significant relation between Actinomyces and enlargement of tonsillar tissue. However, how causes tonsillar hypertrophy is not understood yet in tonsillar disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Palatine tonsils--their evolution and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Slípka, J

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the palatine tonsils in an evolutionary line of mammals and its development in man was studied. The homologies between the thymus and tonsils were pointed out. Both primordia come from the same source and their epithelium reticulizes and can form concentric corpuscles. The tonsil develops from a doubled primordium and consists of two lobes. Attention is drawn to the close relation between tonsils and glands. In the evolution the glands diminish and more crypts are formed. After antigenous stimulation, proliferation of the crypt epithelium takes place which provokes the increase of venules. They bring new populations of lymphoid elements which penetrate into the reticulated epithelium and finally form new follicles.

  16. Anaerobic Bacteriological Microbiota in Surface and Core of Tonsils in Chronic Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Ankle, Nitin R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tonsillar infection may stem from bacteria within tonsillar crypts or parenchyma rather than from those on the surface. Pathogens isolated from surface culture may be colonizing the tonsil, but not essentially infecting it. Anaerobes though not often studied, are known to cause chronic tonsillitis. Aim To study the correlation of anaerobic bacterial isolates in surface and core cultures from recurrently infected and inflamed tonsils. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Charitable Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belagavi from January 2014 to December 2014 on 100 patients of chronic tonsillitis who underwent tonsillectomy. Swabs were obtained from tonsil surface and core and analysed for anaerobes as per standard protocol. Chi-square test and Fischer-Exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results Twenty eight out of 63 (44.4%) patients had anaerobic growth on tonsil surface and 30 out of 62 (48.4%) patients had anaerobic growth in tonsil core. Porphyromonas sp. was the most common anaerobe isolated from the surface as well as from the core. There was no statistical significance between anaerobes isolated in the tonsil surface and core. Conclusion Anaerobic organisms obtained from tonsil surface and core cultures were similar. A throat swab satisfactorily depicts the core organism and is reliable in recognizing the bacteriology of chronic tonsillitis. Anaerobic organisms known to inhabit the surface as well as the core of tonsils may be treated with suitable antibiotic therapy. PMID:28050412

  17. Effortless way of bonding a lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Pai, Vikram; Pai, Ramya; Revenkar, Ameet; Jasoria, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    Post orthodontic treatment, retention is one of the most important step for prevention of relapse. Over the years many direct and indirect techniques for placing a bonded lingual retainer have been practiced clinically. Present clinical practice demands a much convenient and effortless technique for bonding a lingual retainer. This article describes a simplified technique of bonding a lingual retainer.

  18. [History of the tonsil surgery].

    PubMed

    De Diego, J I; Prim, M P; Sánchez-Carrión, S

    2007-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the more frequent surgical techniques in the otolaryngological practice. In the first century A. D., Cornelius Celsus in Rome described the removal of the tonsils. Since them, devices used for tonsillectomy included a wide variety of instruments as snares, guillotines, scalpels ("cold" and ultrasonic), forceps and lasers. Likewise, the improvement of the anesthetic procedures and the perioperative management have contributed greatly to success with this surgical procedure. To sum up, the instruments and procedures used for tonsillectomy have evolved to render it a precise operation.

  19. Lingual thyroid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Bassem; Monib, Sherif

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lingual thyroid (LT) gland is a rare clinical entity which was found to occur due to the failure of the thyroid gland to descend to its normal cervical location during embryogenesis. The presence of an ectopic thyroid gland located at the base of the tongue may present with symptoms like dysphagia, dysphonia, upper airway obstruction or even hemorrhage at any time from infancy through adulthood. Presentation of case We are presenting a case of 5-year-old girl who presented with lingual thyroid, treated with Suppression treatment followed by elective surgical resection. Discussion Incidence of ectopic lingual thyroid gland is reported as 1:100,000. It is more common in females. Most of presentations due to oropharyngeal obstruction, including dysphagia, dyspnea and dysphonia. Investigations include thyroid function tests, neck US, Technetium scanning and C.T. Conclusion Lingual thyroid is a rare anomaly. Dysphagia and dysphonia are common presenting symptoms. Pathogenesis of this ectopic is unknown. Different types of surgical approaches have been described in the management. PMID:22096763

  20. Invisible orthodontics part 2: lingual appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Ailbhe; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this second article of the three part series is to sum up the current developments in lingual orthodontics. This article attempts to review the development, advantages and disadvantages, bonding techniques, bracket mechanics, patient factors and types of lingual appliance systems available. In addition, the article shows examples of treated cases with lingual appliances. Lingual appliances are a useful addition to the armamentarium of invisible orthodontic appliances, with significant developments over the last few years. Clinicians need to be aware of the advances and predictable results achievable with lingual appliances.

  1. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics. Penicillin taken by mouth for 10 days is the ... A streptococcus. If your child is allergic to penicillin, your doctor will prescribe an alternative antibiotic. Your ...

  2. Changes in tonsil B cell phenotypes and EBV receptor expression in children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Wohlford, Eric M; Baresel, Paul C; Wilmore, Joel R; Mortelliti, Anthony J; Coleman, Carrie B; Rochford, Rosemary

    2017-09-08

    Palatine tonsils are principally B cell organs that are the initial line of defense against many oral pathogens, as well as the site of infection for others. While the size of palatine tonsils changes greatly in the first five years of life, the cellular changes during this period are not well studied. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a common orally transmitted virus that infects tonsillar B cells. Naïve B cells are thought to be the target of primary infection with EBV in vivo, suggesting that they are targeted by the virus. EBV enters B cells through CD21, but studies of older children and adults have not shown differences in surface CD21 between naïve B cells and other tonsil B cell populations. In this study we used an 11-color flow cytometry panel to detail the changes in B cell subpopulations in human tonsils over the first five years of life from 33 healthy US children. We provide reference ranges for tonsil B cell subpopulations over this age range. We show that the frequency of naïve tonsil B cells decreases over the early years of life, and that naïve B cells expressed higher surface levels of CD21 relative to other tonsil B cell populations. We show that young children have a higher frequency of naïve tonsil B cells, and importantly that these cells express increased surface EBV receptor, suggesting that young children have a larger pool of cells that can be infected by the virus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937

  4. Prevalence of Fusobacterium necrophorum in tonsils from patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Dapefrid, Anna; Lundström, Birgitta; Tano, Krister

    2017-03-01

    There was a high prevalence of Fusobacterium necrophorum (FN) in patients with chronic tonsillitis in the age group 15-23 years. This indicates that FN might play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis in this age group, which is also the age group in which chronic or recurrent tonsillitis is most common. The role of FN in patients with acute and chronic tonsillitis is unclear. Thus, this study investigated the occurrence of FN in tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of FN in patients that underwent tonsillectomy due to chronic tonsillitis. This study also investigated if FN was found at different areas in the tonsils. One hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients undergoing tonsillectomy due to chronic tonsillitis were included from the ENT clinics at Sunderby Hospital and Gällivare Hospital, Sweden. Both children and adults were included to encompass various age groups (age =2-57 years). Culture swabs were taken from three different levels of the tonsils - the surface, the crypts, and the inner core of the tonsils. Selective agar plates for detecting FN were used for culture. Culture was also made for detecting β-hemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Arcanobacterium. FN was the most common pathogen (19%). The highest prevalence of FN was found in the age group 15-23 years (in 34% of the patients). FN was detected both at the surface and in the core of the tonsils. Furthermore, in the few patients where FN was not detected in all three areas, FN was always detected at the tonsillar surface, in spite of being an anaerobic bacterium. Streptococci group G and C also occurred most frequently (30%) in the same age group as FN (15-23 years), whereas Streptococci group A was more evenly spread among the age groups.

  5. Lingual thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, P.; Sakati, N.; Rifai, A.; Woodhouse, N.

    1987-11-01

    We describe four patients who presented with a lingual thyroid condition (three females and one male, aged between 7 and 22 years). Only the male patient was symptomatic with mild dysphagia and hemoptysis. The diagnosis was suspected in three patients, and was confirmed by iodine 123 or 131 scanning in all patients and by a computed tomographic scan in the one patient studied. The patient with dysphagia received a 10-mCl therapeutic dose of iodine 131 before thyroxine replacement was started. The diagnosis and management of lingual thyroid is discussed. All patients need lifelong thyroxine suppression. Unenhanced computed tomographic scans have a diagnostic appearance due to the iodine content of the ectopic thyroid tissue.

  6. Should More Kids Have Their Tonsils Out?

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical guidelines might be warranted for sore throat, sleep problems To use the sharing features on this page, ... infections and 80 percent of the time for sleep problems, according to the academy. Swollen tonsils can block ...

  7. Bilateral lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Henry H; Lovell, Mark A; Chan, Kenny H

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangiomatous polyps of the tonsils are rare with less than 30 cases reported in the literature. All have been unilateral. We report a case of a child with bilateral lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsils that was suspected on preoperative examination as opposed to an incidental postoperative histologic finding. These findings were also correlated with a further imaging study to establish this entity as a localized rather than a generalized histologic phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Chronic tonsillitis--pathogenesis, symptomatology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Andratschke, M; Hagedorn, H

    2005-09-29

    Chronic tonsillitis is a common disease entity which, on account of the possibility of the tonsils becoming a focus of infection, must not be made light of. The patient's complaints are highly uncharacteristic, and it is not always possible to establish the diagnosis on the local findings alone. Rather, the patient's history and general state of health must also be considered when considering the diagnosis. By reason of the pathogenesis, the treatment of choice can only be tonsillectomy.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in pig tonsils.

    PubMed

    Torres, F; Santamaria, R; Jimenez, M; Menjón, R; Ibanez, A; Collell, M; Azlor, O; Fraile, L

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of antimicrobials in pig tonsils is hardly known. The objective of the study was to quantify the tildipirosin (TD) penetration in tonsils. Animals were randomly divided into six groups (control, T1, T2 (1), T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15)) of eight animals. T1 and T2 groups received a dose of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw in one shot (Zuprevo® MSD Animal Health), respectively, and the control group received 2 mL of saline solution. The animals were sacrificed by intravenous administration of pentobarbital sodium 24 h after finishing the treatment for the control, T1, and T2(1) groups, whereas animals of T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15) groups were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 days, post-treatment, respectively. Tonsils and blood samples were taken at necropsy to obtain plasma, and the tildipirosin concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The concentration in plasma was always significantly lower than in tonsil. Average TD tonsil concentrations increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the tonsil TD vs. plasma TD concentration ratio was approximately 75 for the doses of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw at 24 h post-treatment. Moreover, the maximum concentration of tildipirosin in tonsil was observed at 1 day postadministration, and this concentration decreased gradually from this day until 15 days postadministration for the dose of 4 mg of TD/kg bw. Finally, the ratio AUCtonsil/AUCplasma was 97.9, and the T1/2 (h) was clearly higher in tonsil than in plasma.

  10. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.

    PubMed

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  11. Polysomnographic outcomes following lingual tonsillectomy for persistent obstructive sleep apnea in down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prosser, J Drew; Shott, Sally R; Rodriguez, Oscar; Simakajornboon, Narong; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Ishman, Stacey L

    2017-02-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is a common cause of persistent airway obstruction in patients with Down syndrome (DS) following adenotonsillectomy (T&A); however, little is known about the effect of lingual tonsillectomy (LT) on polysomnographic outcomes in these patients. Our objective was to describe changes in sleep-related respiratory outcomes following LT in children with DS and persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) following T&A. Retrospective case series. We included all children with DS who underwent polysomnography before and after LT at a tertiary care center from 2003 to 2013. Nonparametric analysis of variables was performed. Forty patients with DS underwent LT; 21 met inclusion criteria. The mean age at surgery was 9.3 ± 4.3 years and 47.6% were female. The median apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 9.1 events/hour (range, 3.8 to 43.8 events/hour) before surgery and 3.7 events/hour (range, 0.5 to 24.4 events/hour) after surgery. The median improvement in overall AHI and the obstructive AHI (oAHI) were 5.1 events/hour (range, -2.9 to 41) and 5.3 events/hour (range, -2.9 to 41), respectively (P <.0001). The mean oxygen saturation nadir improved from 84% to 89% (P =.004). The mean time with CO2 > 50 mm Hg, central index, and percentage of rapid eye movement sleep were not significantly different. After surgery, the oAHI was <5 events/hour in 61.9% and ≤1 in 19% of patients. In children with DS, persistent OSA after T&A and lingual tonsil hypertrophy, LT significantly improved AHI, oAHI, and O2 saturation nadir. We recommend that children with DS should be evaluated for lingual tonsil hypertrophy if found to have persistent OSA following T&A. 4 Laryngoscope, 2016 127:520-524, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Fractalkine receptor polymorphism and chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Babakurban, Seda Turkoglu; Erbek, Selim S; Terzi, Yunus Kasim; Arslan, Fatih; Sahin, Feride I

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine whether there is an association of fractalkine gene receptor polymorphisms with chronic tonsillitis. This is a cross-sectional study in the setting of a tertiary referral center. The study group included 79 patients with chronic tonsillitis and 76 controls without history of chronic tonsillitis. Genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses after polymerase chain reaction. c.745G>A (V249I) single nucleotide polymorphism and the frequencies of the G and A alleles did not differ in the patient and control groups (p = 0.363; p = 0.743, respectively). c.839C>T (T280M) single nucleotide polymorphism was found to be higher in controls than in the patients with chronic tonsillitis (p < 0.001). Consistent with this result, T allele frequency was higher in controls than in the patients with chronic tonsillitis (p < 0.001). In this study, we suggested that fractalkine gene receptor c.839C>T (T280M) single nucleotide polymorphism could be associated with a reduced risk of chronic tonsillitis.

  13. A frequent phenotype for paediatric sleep apnoea: short lingual frenulum.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, Christian; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Lo, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    A short lingual frenulum has been associated with difficulties in sucking, swallowing and speech. The oral dysfunction induced by a short lingual frenulum can lead to oral-facial dysmorphosis, which decreases the size of upper airway support. Such progressive change increases the risk of upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Clinical investigation of the oral cavity was conducted as a part of a clinical evaluation of children suspected of having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) based on complaints, symptoms and signs. Systematic polysomnographic evaluation followed the clinical examination. A retrospective analysis of 150 successively seen children suspected of having SDB was performed, in addition to a comparison of the findings between children with and without short lingual frenula. Among the children, two groups of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) were found: 1) absence of adenotonsils enlargement and short frenula (n=63); and 2) normal frenula and enlarged adenotonsils (n=87). Children in the first group had significantly more abnormal oral anatomy findings, and a positive family of short frenulum and SDB was documented in at least one direct family member in 60 cases. A short lingual frenulum left untreated at birth is associated with OSAS at later age, and a systematic screening for the syndrome should be conducted when this anatomical abnormality is recognised.

  14. A frequent phenotype for paediatric sleep apnoea: short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Huseni, Shehlanoor; Lo, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    A short lingual frenulum has been associated with difficulties in sucking, swallowing and speech. The oral dysfunction induced by a short lingual frenulum can lead to oral-facial dysmorphosis, which decreases the size of upper airway support. Such progressive change increases the risk of upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Clinical investigation of the oral cavity was conducted as a part of a clinical evaluation of children suspected of having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) based on complaints, symptoms and signs. Systematic polysomnographic evaluation followed the clinical examination. A retrospective analysis of 150 successively seen children suspected of having SDB was performed, in addition to a comparison of the findings between children with and without short lingual frenula. Among the children, two groups of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) were found: 1) absence of adenotonsils enlargement and short frenula (n=63); and 2) normal frenula and enlarged adenotonsils (n=87). Children in the first group had significantly more abnormal oral anatomy findings, and a positive family of short frenulum and SDB was documented in at least one direct family member in 60 cases. A short lingual frenulum left untreated at birth is associated with OSAS at later age, and a systematic screening for the syndrome should be conducted when this anatomical abnormality is recognised. PMID:27730205

  15. Lingual Kinematics and Coordination in Speech-Disordered Children Exhibiting Differentiated versus Undifferentiated Lingual Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine; Murdoch, Bruce; Ozanne, Anne; Cheng, Yan; Hill, Anne; Gibbon, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Background: Electropalatographic investigations have revealed that a proportion of children with articulation/phonological disorders exhibit undifferentiated lingual gestures, whereby the whole of the tongue contacts the palate simultaneously during lingual consonant production. These undifferentiated lingual gestures have been interpreted to…

  16. Protrusive Lingual Force and Lingual Diadochokinetic Rates: A Comparative Analysis Between Normal and Lisping Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, James P.

    1978-01-01

    Examined were protrusive lingual force and lingual diadochokinetic rates in 45 normal and 45 front-lisping speakers (7-12-years old). Results revealed that normal speaking Ss scored significantly higher on lingual force and diadochokinetic rate measurements, challenging the theory that lisping is purely a functional articulatory disorder. (CL)

  17. Lingual Kinematics and Coordination in Speech-Disordered Children Exhibiting Differentiated versus Undifferentiated Lingual Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine; Murdoch, Bruce; Ozanne, Anne; Cheng, Yan; Hill, Anne; Gibbon, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Background: Electropalatographic investigations have revealed that a proportion of children with articulation/phonological disorders exhibit undifferentiated lingual gestures, whereby the whole of the tongue contacts the palate simultaneously during lingual consonant production. These undifferentiated lingual gestures have been interpreted to…

  18. [Endolacunar laser radiation of the tonsils in conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Staroverova, T K; Shul'diakov, V A; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tatarenko, D A

    2007-01-01

    Vegetative and immune system indices, clinical symptoms of chronic tonsillitis exacerbation were compared in laser radiation of the tonsils with two methods - surface pharyngeal and endolacunar. The results show that under endolacunar method the symptoms regress 1.46 times faster, the number of late exacerbations decrease 1.5-2-fold.

  19. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  20. [Classification and therapeutic strategy for chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to further develop and substantiate classification of chronic tonsillitis with due regard for etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. The author pays special attention to the fact that the toxico-allergic effect of focal infection of palatine tonsils (chronic tonsillitis, CT) is significantly more pronounced than that of focal infections of a different localization. The toxico-allergic manifestations of chronic tonsillitis are not infrequently realized through the associated non-specific infectious local and general complications and catalyze pathogenesis of the concomitant diseases. The classification developed taking into consideration etiology and pathogenesis of CT distinguishes two forms of chronic tonsillitis, viz. simple and toxico-allergic (TAF) CT, the latter being subdivided into two variants differing in the character of manifestations (TAF-1 and TAF-II). The clinical, morphological, and immunological characteristics of either form are described. It is emphasized that the most informative signs and symptoms of CT include the recurrence rate of tonsillitis in the medical history, purulent discharge from the tonsillar crypts apparent upon compression of their anterior surface with a spatula, and toxico-allergic reactions in combination with local signs and tonsillitis in the medical history. The therapeutic strategies for each forms of CT are specifies. The use of conservative therapy is recommended as the principal method for the treatment of the simple form, the strict compliance with the prescribed therapeutic modalities and repetition of the second therapeutic course within 3-4 months after the initial one being of primary importance. The treatment of TAF-1 should be started from conservative therapy the duration of which needs to be reduced in the absence of the marked desired effect bearing in mind the possibility of development of local and systemic complications. TAF-II requires urgent tonsillectomy because

  1. A simple technique for bonding lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Hattarki, Rohan S; Rastogi, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The present article describes an easy method to place a bonded lingual retainer. This technique is also helpful in limiting the flow of the acid etchant used for etching and also limiting the flow of the adhesive on to the lingual surfaces of the teeth.

  2. Stabilising springs for fixed lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, M K; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R; Rajvikram, N; Kuppuchamy

    2013-11-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove.

  3. Unusual complication of dental extraction: lingual abscess.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Lalee; Agarwal, Pratibha; Rupa, Vedantam

    2013-01-01

    Acute lingual swelling is a potentially life threatening clinical condition which is encountered very rarely, the differential diagnosis of which includes hemorrhage, infarction, abscess, tumor and edema. Herein we report a case of lingual abscess that presented with acute tongue swelling and respiratory distress after extraction of lower two incisor teeth.

  4. Bacteriologic findings in tonsillitis and pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Jousimies-Somer, H; Savolainen, S; Leppänen, J; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1996-07-01

    Bacteriologic samples from 31 young men were cultured quantitatively for aerobes and anaerobes; these samples included 31 specimens of tonsils (16 infected and 15 healthy), 16 specimens from pericoronal pockets of lower third molars (11 infected and 5 symptom-free), and 6 postoperative specimens from lower-third-molar extraction sockets. Anaerobes were isolated more often from infected third molars than from infected tonsils (14.5 isolates vs. 8.4 isolates, respectively; P < .001). Infected tonsil samples contained significantly more anaerobic species if an adjacent partly erupted lower third molar was present rather than absent (10.3 isolates vs. 6.9 isolates, respectively; P < .05). Eubacterium aerofaciens, Clostridium species, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Prevotella oris were frequently isolated. Streptococcus salivarius was found more frequently in tonsillar specimens, whereas Corynebacterium species, Prevotella denticola, Capnocytophaga species, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Lactobacillus species were more common in pericoronal pocket samples. Thus, partial eruption of lower third molars increases the number of anaerobic bacterial species on tonsils and many species can be isolated simultaneously from both tonsils and lower third molars.

  5. Influence of formalin fixation on tissue dimensions in palatal tonsils.

    PubMed

    Vent, J; Zimmermann, Ch; Drebber, U; Wedemeyer, I; Eckel, H E; Huettenbrink, K B; Preuss, S F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the change of tissue dimensions after formalin fixation, and to determine the optimal time of fixation. Formalin fixation may lead to shrinkage in tissue dimensions and may thus alter tumor stages. It is often observed in tumor surgery that the dimensions in vivo seem larger than after resection, and tissue appears to shrink further after formalin fixation. This might alter dimensions and assessment of spread of the tumor and thus lead to a lesser tumor classification and stage. In cases where the decision for adjuvant chemoradiation is based upon the stage, it may thus be of relevance for the patient to evaluate the pathologic and not the in vivo dimensions of the tumor. In order to obtain comparable tissues, we investigated 100 palatal tonsils after cold steel dissection tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis. There were four time points investigated: directly after excision in the operating room and after four, 24 and 72 h of fixation in formaldehyde (4% Formaldehyde in phosphate buffer pH 7.4). The tissue was measured in the following dimensions: volume (ml), weight (g) and length, broadness and width (mm). The tissue size did not change significantly in dimensions except for an increase in length. The time of fixation did not influence the size. Formalin fixation does not significantly influence the tissue dimensions of palatal tonsils in comparison to direct ex vivo measurements. A minimal time of fixation of 20 h is required in order to stop all degenerative processes; however, longer fixation does not change the dimensions of the specimen. The null hypothesis has to be withdrawn that tissue dimensions are altered by formalin fixation. Thus, the histopathological measurements do not influence TNM staging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Biologically active neutrophil chemokine pattern in tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    RUDACK, C; JÖRG, S; SACHSE, F

    2004-01-01

    To gain an insight into the mechanisms of chronic and acute inflammation, the production of neutrophil chemokines in different types of tonsillitis – hyperplastic tonsillitis (HT), recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and peritonsillar abscesses (PA) – was investigated. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α), epithelial cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78) and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) were detected and shown to have different biological activities. With respect to the biological properties of CXC chemokines, the biological activity of the chemokines was identified using a three-step high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, a bioassay involving measurement of neutrophil chemotaxis in a single Boyden chamber in tissue of HT, RT and PA. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the chemokine concentrations were determined in the different tonsillitis entities. The chemokine pattern was dominated in PA by IL-8 and GRO-α and in RT by GRO-α. Hyperplastic tonsils of patients without a history of infection generated about five times lower IL-8 than PA. A protein concentration of GCP-2 was induced in PA and RT, whereas ENA-78 remained the same in all entities. In conclusion, it would appear that IL-8 was up-regulated in acute inflammation, whereas GRO-α dominated in chronic inflammation. ENA-78 seems not to play a pivotal role in inflammatory processes in tonsils. GCP-2 may serve as a substitute chemokine in certain inflammatory conditions as its quantity of mRNA and protein was higher in RT and PA than in HT. PMID:15008987

  7. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  8. Effect of antibiotic use on bacterial flora of tonsil core in patients with recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Gumral, Ramazan; Kilic, Abdullah; Tosun, Fuat; Gerek, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of commonly used antibiotics on bacterial flora of the tonsil core. Patients who underwent tonsillectomy for recurrent chronic tonsillitis were included in the study. Three groups were formed: group 1 was treated for 10 days preoperatively with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; group 2 was treated for 10 days preoperatively with clarithromycin; and group 3 included patients who underwent tonsillectomy without preoperative antibiotic use. The removed palatine tonsils were sent to our microbiology department in sterile tubes for bacteriological analysis. Seventy-three patients (group 1 = 19, group 2 = 20, group 3 = 34 patients) aged 3-18 years (mean 7 years) were included in the study. At least one bacterium was isolated from all tonsils, except for two cases in group 1; the difference in single bacterial growth among groups was not significant (p = 0.06). On the other hand, the numbers of patients with pathogenic bacterial growth was significantly lower in group 2 (n = 2) compared with group 1 (n = 10) and group 3 (n = 27) (p < 0.001). The bacterium isolated most frequently from the tonsils was Streptococcus viridans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the only pathogenic bacterium that grew in all three groups. Clarithromycin was more effective than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in eradicating pathogenic bacteria in the tonsil core. Pseudomonas aeruginosa might be responsible for resistant or recurrent tonsil infections. To prevent endocarditis, antibiotic prophylaxis toward S. viridians, which is the most prevalent bacterium in the tonsil core, should be kept in mind for patients with heart valve damage.

  9. Management of recurrent tonsillitis in children.

    PubMed

    El Hennawi, Diaa El Din; Geneid, Ahmed; Zaher, Salah; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat

    To compare azithromycin (AZT) and benzathine penicillin (BP) in the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in children. The study comprised of 350 children with recurrent streptococcal tonsillitis, 284 of whom completed the study and 162 children received conventional surgical treatment. The rest of the children, 122, were divided randomly into two equal main groups. Group A children received a single intramuscular BP (600,000IU for children≤27kg and 1,200,000IU for ≥27kg) every two weeks for six months. Group B children received single oral AZT (250mg for children≤25kg and 500mg for ≥25kg) once weekly for six months. Both groups showed marked significant reduction in recurrent tonsillitis that is comparable to results of tonsillectomy. There were no statistical differences between group A and B regarding the recurrence of infections and drug safety after six-month follow-up. Group B showed better compliance. AZT proved to be good alternative to BP in the management of recurrent tonsillitis with results similar to those obtained after tonsillectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pericoronitis and tonsillitis: clinical and darkfield microscopy findings.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Leppänen, J; Savolainen, S; Meurman, J H

    1996-05-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections and tonsillitis and pharyngitis in particular increase the risk of lower third molar pericoronitis. The study was made to investigate clinical and microbiologic associations between pericoronitis and tonsillitis. The subjects were 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts. Thirty-eight patients had tonsillitis without and 33 patients had tonsillitis with a symptom-free erupting lower third molar; 27 patients had pericoronitis but healthy tonsils. All subjects were examined clinically. Bacterial samples were taken from healthy and diseased tonsils and from healthy and diseased third molar pericoronal pockets. The microbes were classified morphologically with the use of a darkfield microscope. Eighty-two percent of infected tonsils had deep crypts and 52% of them exudated pus compared with 36% (p < 0.001) and 0% (p < 0.001) in healthy tonsils, respectively. Infected lower third molars were less than half erupted and had on average 8.8 mm deep pericoronal pockets compared with pockets 5.5 mm deep recorded in symptom-free cases (p < 0.001). Spirochetes were more common in infected pockets than in symptom-free cases comprising 8.2% versus 3.0% of the total bacterial count (p = 0.044). Rods were more common in infected tonsils than healthy ones (8.9% versus 4.8%, p = 0.041). There were similarities in morphologic microbiota of pericoronitis and tonsillitis. However, clinical findings of tonsils did not appear to link with the findings of third molars.

  11. Stabilising Springs for Fixed Lingual Retainer

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M.K.; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R.; Rajvikram, N.; Kuppuchamy

    2013-01-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove. PMID:24392431

  12. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Japanese marten.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2007-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult Japanese marten (Martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. A small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. A small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of several small processes. A large filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. A large filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of processes of various size. The fungiform papillae are round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla had a top with several round depressions. The four vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body and each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. A zigzag surface structure appeared on the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue and some ridges and grooves were exposed reciprocally. A zigzag surface structures appeared on the connective tissue cores of the ridges of the foliate papillae.

  13. Dysphonia associated with lingual thyroid gland and hypothyroidism: improvement after lingual thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Orbelo, Diana; Ekbom, Dale C; Thompson, Dana M

    2011-12-01

    We present a unique and medically complex case of improved voice after lingual thyroidectomy. A 10-year-old boy with multifactorial dysphonia presented with bilateral vocal fold lesions and sulci in the context of hypothyroidism as a result of a congenital lingual thyroid gland. Despite hormone replacement, medical treatment for asthma, allergy, cough, and possible reflux, as well as voice therapy, the dysphonia persisted. Significant improvement in both subjective and objective voice measures was achieved after surgical removal of the lingual thyroid gland, which allowed for maintenance of a consistent euthyroid state. Lingual thyroidectomy is typically reserved for cases of bleeding and dysphagia. This case supports dysphonia as a possible additional indication for lingual thyroidectomy.

  14. Lymphoid papillary hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Abbud-Neme, F; Deutsch, E

    1983-09-01

    A rare case of papillary hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils is reported in a 9-year-old girl who presented with pharyngeal obstruction. The obstruction was due to the bilateral enlargement of the palatine tonsils with a papillary surface configuration so atypical that a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm was clinically considered. Histopathological study showed a peculiar form of lymphoid hyperplasia. No other members of the family were affected. As far as we know, this is the only case reported in recent years in an Occidental patient although a few similar cases have been reported from Japan. The importance of recognizing this peculiar abnormality rests in the fact that in spite of the clinical features simulating a cancer or multiple epithelial papillomas, the process is benign, probably non-neoplastic, and easily cured by bilateral tonsillectomy.

  15. Chronic tonsillitis: histological and immunohistochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mogoantă, Carmen Aurelia; Ioniţă, Elena; Pirici, D; Mitroi, Mihaela; Anghelina, Fl; Ciolofan, S; Pătru, Emilia

    2008-01-01

    Chronic tonsillitis represents the most common inflammatory lesions of the pharynx determining numerous local or distant evolutive complications. We decided to study the histological and especially immunohistochemical expression of this pathology. We have studied 112 surgical samples representing tonsils resected from 56 patients with chronic tonsillitis. The tonsillectomies were performed in the ENT Clinic of the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, between 01.01.2007--31.12.2007. The processed histological samples were stained using Hematoxylin-Eosin, light green trichromic and argental impregnation. For the immunohistochemical study, we used LSAB method with CD20, CD45 RO, CD68 antibodies in order to reveal and differentiate T- and B-lymphocytes and also the macrophages. In all samples, we found hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the lymphoid follicle with excessive developing of the clear germinal center as a normal reaction to antigens presence. In some cases, we remarked micro hemorrhages and hematic extravasations inside the follicles, probably due to the excessive virulence of the pathogens causing endothelial lesions. The conjunctive stroma was enriched in collagen fibbers, in some cases organized in strong fascicles with an obvious tendency to divide the tonsils in lobules. The young fibroblastic type cells were numerous. The specific reticulin fibbers had a low representation being disorganized. The immunohistochemical study proved that the clear center of the lymphoid follicles was occupied by B-lymphocytes, but the T-lymphocytes were present in the cortical region of the follicles, perifollicles and in the surface epithelium. In some pathological cases, the predominant cellular population of the clear center was formed by T-lymphocytes.

  16. [A case of palatine tonsil stone].

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, B; Pogorzelski, A

    1993-01-01

    The authors presented a case of big stone of palatine tonsil surgical treated successfully. Qualitative and quantitative examination of tonsillith chemical composition was carried out with a LINK 90 spectrometer. It was found that the main components were calcium (Ca/K alpha), (Ca/K beta) about 60% and phosphorus (P) about 30%. Potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sulphur (S), aluminum (Al and magnesium (Mg) were found in trace amounts.

  17. Nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) contain extrathymic corticothymocytes.

    PubMed

    Buscone, Serena; Garavello, Werner; Pagni, Fabio; Gaini, Renato Maria; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Adenoidal tissue (also known as nasopharyngeal tonsils) of 58% of humans in the pediatric age group contains immature T-lymphoid cells with the phenotype of thymocytes (TdT+, CD1abc+, cytoplasmic CD3+, coexpressing CD4 and CD8, lacking an Intraepithelial Lymphocyte-associated phenotype). The notable difference in comparison to palatine tonsils is the clustering in groups and sheets, comprising hundreds or thousands of cells (1.7%±0.2 of total T cells). The thymic epithelium is morphologically and phenotypically absent. Adenoids share with tonsils and lymph nodes the presence of immature B cell precursors (TdT+, CD1a-, Pax5+, Surrogate light chain±), however in these latter the presence of TdT+, CD1a+, Pax5- precursors is absent or limited to individual cells. Human adenoids are distinct among the Waldeyer's ring lymphoid tissue because of the known embryogenic derivation from the third pharyngeal pouch, from which the thymus develops; in addition, they may display phenotypic incomplete features of a vestigial thymus.

  18. Nasopharyngeal Tonsils (Adenoids) Contain Extrathymic Corticothymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Buscone, Serena; Garavello, Werner; Pagni, Fabio; Gaini, Renato Maria; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Adenoidal tissue (also known as nasopharyngeal tonsils) of 58% of humans in the pediatric age group contains immature T-lymphoid cells with the phenotype of thymocytes (TdT+,CD1abc+, cytoplasmic CD3+, coexpressing CD4 and CD8, lacking an Intraepithelial Lymphocyte-associated phenotype). The notable difference in comparison to palatine tonsils is the clustering in groups and sheets, comprising hundreds or thousands of cells (1.7%±0.2 of total T cells). The thymic epithelium is morphologically and phenotypically absent. Adenoids share with tonsils and lymph nodes the presence of immature B cell precursors (TdT+, CD1a-, Pax5+, Surrogate light chain±), however in these latter the presence of TdT+, CD1a+, Pax5- precursors is absent or limited to individual cells. Human adenoids are distinct among the Waldeyer's ring lymphoid tissue because of the known embryogenic derivation from the third pharyngeal pouch, from which the thymus develops; in addition, they may display phenotypic incomplete features of a vestigial thymus. PMID:24858437

  19. Maternal microchimerism in juvenile tonsils and adenoids.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Anna Maria; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Granath, Anna; Haggstrom, Jenny; Schaffer, Marie; Uzunel, Mehmet; Westgren, Magnus

    2010-09-01

    During pregnancy small amounts of cells pass between the mother and the fetus, and this transfer may give rise to a chimeric state that persist for years in both individuals. Both fetal and maternal microchimerism (MMc) have been associated with different autoimmune disorders. Information about MMc in tissues of healthy individuals is sparse but is important when looking for maternal cells within affected tissues of certain diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of maternal cells in tonsils and adenoids of 20 healthy children between the ages of 2 and 15 years. All the children underwent surgery because of recurrent tonsillitis or respiratory obstruction. MMc was detected using an RT-PCR assay based on differences in gene polymorphisms between mother and child. We found maternal cells in the tonsils and/or adenoids in four of 20 children. This frequency is less than the frequency of maternal cells found in the peripheral blood of healthy adults but in agreement with the previously reported frequency of maternal chimerism in control tissues

  20. Cryolaser segmentary lacunotomy of palatine tonsils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahrushev, Sergey G.; Burenkov, Gennadey I.; Andrijanova, Irina V.; Bekuzarov, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    For reduction of a zone of a thermal damage limphoid tissue and certain influence on the changed wall of a lacuna cryolaser segment lacunotomy with use Nd:YAG laser is offered at chronic tonsillitis. The tip of the lighttube of a type side-focus was entered into a gleam of a lacuna. The tip was cooled by a line method of pairs nitrogen. Parameters of radiation length of a wave 1.32 microns, capacity -25 Wt, exposition -3 sec. The comparative analysis 90 histologic tissue specimens of palatal tonsils with pathological change of lacunas is carried out. The influence ona segment of lacuna up to 90 degrees, allows to expand a gleam of lacuna, by keeping thus lymphoepithelial barrier of an opposite wall. The zone of the necrobiotical changes and infiltration of a lymphoid tissue on preparations undergone to laser influence with cooling average in 2 times is less, than at application of laser influence. The operation was spent to 50 patients chronic tonsillitis.

  1. [Activity of acid aspartic proteinase Candida strains isolated from palatine tonsils].

    PubMed

    Rózga, A; Jaskółowska, A; Kurnatowski, P

    2001-01-01

    We have evalueated the activity of acidous asparagine protease in 48 strains of Candida isolated from homogenates of palatine tonsils from 116 patients after tonsilectomy. Strains most frequently isolated were C. albicans (66.7 +/- 6.8%) and C. tropicalis (14.6 +/- 5.09%). The range of proteolysis zone for Candida strains was 4.6 to 12.5 mm. Over 60% of the studied strains showed high and very high proteolytic activity (>6.6 mm) and the remaining strains showed moderate activity (4.6-6.5). There were no strains with low medium activity (to 4.5 mm zone). The range of the number of rosettes E formed by lymphocytes obtained from the studied tonsils was 0-268.3. Lymphocytes isolated from 70 % of tonsils infected with Candida formed only 0-130 rosettes E; in the remaining cases the number ranged between 131 and 220. The number of lymphocytes T forming rosettes E isolated from palatine tonsils from patients not infected with fungi was 2.5 times higher. There was no correlation between the size of proteolysis zone and the number of rosettes E.

  2. Speech and discomfort during lingual orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    The increased use of lingual appliances has meant a continued evolution in the design of lingual brackets. These changes in appliance and bracket design have tended to focus on reducing bracket thickness, with the aim of making appliances more comfortable. A thinner bracket design appears to have had some positive effects on the quality of speech, as well as comfort whilst appliances are in place. However, despite these improvements, some patients do struggle with their speech during treatment, far more than others. It is important therefore, when consenting patients for lingual orthodontic treatment, to ensure that they are made aware of the potential for speech to be disturbed, particularly in the early stages of treatment. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the issues associated with speech problems and discomfort during lingual appliance treatment, so that practitioners are able to advise patients who may be considering this kind of treatment. Advice given during the consent process, including appliance selection, procedures for maintaining oral comfort and management of individual speech issues, will all help lingual patients cope with any speech problems they may experience during their treatment.

  3. Laser Doppler flowmetry in diagnoses of chronic tonsillitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareew, Gleb O.; Mareew, Oleg V.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Ivliev, Igor I.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Lychagov, Vladislav V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2005-06-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is one of the most common diseases in ENT all over the world. There are two ways of treatment-surgical tonsillectomy and conservative therapeutically treatment. But still doctors have no possibility to make objective decisions for this painful and tonsil-destructive operation. In this article we try to research how the degree of sclerosis in tonsillar tissue affects the blood flow in tonsils, by using laser Doppler flowmetry.

  4. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Tonsils and Posterior Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, D. M.; Lee, D. M.; Snow, A. F.; Fairley, C. K.; Peel, J.; Bradshaw, C. S.; Hocking, J. S.; Lahra, M. M.; Chen, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the factors influencing gonorrhea detection at the pharynx. One hundred men infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae were swabbed from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx. N. gonorrhoeae was reisolated from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx in 62% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.041). Culture positivity was greater with higher gonococcal DNA loads at the tonsils (P = 0.001) and oropharynx (P < 0.001). N. gonorrhoeae can be cultured from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx with greater isolation rates where gonococcal loads are higher. PMID:26292303

  5. Effect of phonetics training on lingual awareness.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Patricia; Fucci, Donald

    2003-02-01

    This investigation assessed the effect of phonetics training on lingual awareness in normal adult speakers of English. The study also compared Trained subjects' scores from a study in 2000 by Lohman and Fucci to subjects' posttraining scores in this investigation. Subjects were 36 students (M age=19.7, SD=.7) enrolled in an undergraduate phonetics class. All passed a speech and hearing screening. A pretest-posttest design was used. Subjects received approximately 40 hours of phonetics training over a 10-wk. period. The lingual awareness test required subjects imitate seven syllables and respond to four multiple-choice questions about each syllable. Subjects were aided by a line drawing of the oral cavity. A significant improvement in lingual awareness was found following training. However, scores for only two phonemes (sh and k) improved significantly. No significant difference was found between posttest scores and scores from Lohman and Fucci's Trained group.

  6. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  7. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  8. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  9. Relationship between phonemic and lingual awareness.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Patricia; Fucci, Donald

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to assess the relationship between knowledge of speech sounds (phonemes) and lingual awareness in normal adult speakers of English. The study also examined subjects' descriptions of lingual contact. 36 subjects (M age=19.6, SD=.71) who were enrolled in an undergraduate phonetics class participated. All passed a speech and hearing screening and reported having received no prior speech therapy or classes in articulation, phonetics, or speech science. During the first class meeting, the subjects were given two tests. The measure of phonemic awareness consisted of (a) judging which two (out of three) printed words began (or ended) with the same phoneme, (b) counting, substituting, reversing phonemes in words, and (c) indicating primary stress in two-syllable words. The lingual awareness test consisted of subjects imitating a syllable, then responding to a multiple-choice question regarding (a) tongue position (front to back), (b) tongue height (high to low), (c) contact with the teeth, and (d) contact with other oral cavity structures. Subjects were requested to imitate the syllable prior to answering each question, e.g., "Say tuh. Did you feel your tongue in the front, middle, or back of your mouth?" Seven English phonemes (t, k, s, sh, r, l, and voiceless th) were presented in a consonant-vowel syllable with the central vowel "uh." Subjects were aided by a line drawing of the oral cavity. A significant correlation of .53 was found between the two tests, suggesting that individuals who possess greater awareness of speech sounds tend to exhibit heightened lingual awareness. Sound-symbol knowledge was the best predictor of lingual awareness. Subjects had the most difficulty describing lingual contact for phonemes that are often troublesome for children to articulate (sh, r, l, and s).

  10. [Postoperative changes of immunity in children undergoing adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation or with partial tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengyong; Dai, Zhiyao

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the changes of humoral and cellular immune responses in children with OSAHS after adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation or partial tonsillectomy by a plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based device. Seventy children with OSAHS were enrolled in the study. According to the size of tonsils, they were divided into two groups: the adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation group and the adenoidectomy with partial tonsillectomy group. 4 ml of peripheral venous blood was drawn before and 1 month, 3 months after operation. Serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were measured. In the adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation group, the level of CD3+ and CD4+ /CD8+ ration were slightly increased, while the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ were slightly reduced at 1 month after operation as compared to preoperative period. However, in the adenoidectomy with partial tonsillectomy group, the levels of CD8+ at 1 month after operation were slightly increased compared with that in preoperative examination, while the CD3+, CD4+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were slightly reduced during the same period. In addition, the levels of serum immunoglobulins showed no significant difference between the two groups, and returned to the preoperative levels at 3 months after operation in both groups (P > 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that the humoral and cellular immunity is not affected in children with OSAHS who undergo adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation or partial tonsillectomy using plasma-mediated radiofrequency ablation. The patients' immune functions can return to normal levels at 3 months after the surgery.

  11. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  12. [Lingual orthodontics: why is it progressing?].

    PubMed

    Fillion, D; Leclerc, J F

    1991-01-01

    At the early stages of the 80's, most of the practitioners and the patients have been seduced by lingual orthodontic. But the difficulties of the technic have rapidly given a disappointment. Today ten years later the authors present the progress which have been realized: the evolution of the brackets, the accuracy of their placement in the lab procedure with the new targ, the making of the wire, the patient's comfort increase. The placement brackets are customized by making an anatomical resin pad. Placement of the brackets have evoluted from a quantized system in two dimensions (Targ 1) to a no quantized system in three dimensions (Class System) and finally to a real quantized system in three dimensions (Targ 2 with a compass of thickness with measures the first order band). Data System DALI (Drawing Arch Lingual Ideal) allows to draw the exact design of the wire. A video tape shows the different laboratory and clinical phases. By using light cured periodontal protection like Barricaid from Caulk: the patients have a greater adaptation with their appliance. All this progress give to lingual orthodontic credibility. Lingual is a reality to day and it's the first concept with customized brackets extremely accuracy, full quantized in the three orders, using the computer progress.

  13. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  14. A lingual abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Amanda T; Hsia, Jennifer C; Mendez, Eduardo; Clarridge, Jill E

    2012-04-01

    Lingual abscesses are rare. We describe a case in a healthy female with no recent history of trauma. The organism recovered by culture of drainage material collected prior to antibiotic treatment was Streptococcus intermedius, an organism recognized as flora of the oropharynx and associated with abscess formation. The isolate was resistant to clindamycin, which was the antibiotic therapy that the patient received.

  15. [Lingualized occlusion in the South African context].

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, T G; Geerts, G A V M

    2002-01-01

    The search for the ideal artificial tooth arrangement that maximizes denture stability, comfort, aesthetics, and function has occupied the dental literature for many years and still continues to do so. Of the many occlusal schemes that have been presented to the dental profession, that of lingualized occlusion has emerged as one of the more popular. The popularity of lingualized occlusion stems from the simplicity and flexibility of the concept and from its wide application to clinical practice (Parr & Ivanhoe, 1996). The registration of a repeatable correct centric jaw relation is not always possible. We don't know whether the patient will use centric relation during normal function. It is therefore useful to provide the patient with some freedom of movement around centric. lingualized occlusion provides freedom in centric. For many dentists the arrangement of artificial denture teeth into balanced occlusion is difficult and time consuming. As a result this task is most often performed by the dental technician. In the South African countryside dental laboratories are often far away. If dentists perform the arrangement of the denture teeth, time and costs can be saved. The mounting of denture teeth in lingualized occlusion is simple and fast. This will motivate dentists to arrange denture teeth themselves, with obvious benefits for both the patient and the dentist. The School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch teaches this concept to its undergraduate students in order to improve the prosthetic service to the large edentulous population of South Africa.

  16. Lingualized occlusion. An occlusion for all reasons.

    PubMed

    Parr, G R; Ivanhoe, J R

    1996-01-01

    This authors make practical recommendations for a wide variety of clinical situations, including various anteroposterior and buccolingual arch discrepancies. Many of the ideals of the anatomical and mechanical schools of thought are blended. In addition to being a valuable clinical adjunct, Lingualized Occlusion also has great application in undergraduate dental education. It is a simpler occlusal scheme to teach and learn.

  17. [Changes in platelet function in children with acute or chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Mareev, O V; Diudina, O Iu

    2004-01-01

    Children with a compensated or uncompensated form of acute or chronic tonsillitis demonstrate high platelet aggregation resultant in faster formation of platelet aggregates, an increased maximum size of these aggregates, faster achievement of the maximum platelet aggregation. Local drug therapy, combined drug + ultrasound and laser therapy failed to normalize platelet aggregation. The best effect on platelet aggregation was obtained in combined treatment with ultrasound and laser.

  18. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  19. Bacteriology of adenoids and tonsils in children with recurrent adenotonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, I; Shah, K

    2001-09-01

    Adenoids and tonsils electively removed from 25 children with a history of recurrent group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) adenotonsillitis were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Two hundred twenty-four organisms (112 aerobes and facultatives, 110 anaerobes, and 2 Candida albicans) were isolated from the tonsils, and 229 (111 aerobes and facultatives and 118 anaerobes) were isolated from the adenoids. Mixed infection was present in all instances, with an average of 9.1 isolates per specimen. The predominant aerobes were Streptococcus sp, Haemophilus influenzae, and GABHS, and the prevalent anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium spp. Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria were detected in 72 isolates recovered from 22 tonsils (88%) and in 74 isolates recovered from 21 adenoids (84%). Discrepancies in the organisms recovered were found between the tonsils and adenoids. Of the aerobic isolates, 20% were isolated only in tonsils and 18% only in adenoids. Of the anaerobes, 20% were found only in tonsils and 26% only in adenoids. This study demonstrates a polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic flora in both adenoids and tonsils, and discrepancies in recovery of pathogens such as GABHS. The adenoids may serve as a potential source of tonsillitis caused by GABHS.

  20. Association between intussusception and tonsil disease in childhood.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Hanne; Westergaard, Tine; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pipper, Christian; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in infancy and early childhood, but its etiology remains unknown. The present study analyzes whether some children with intussusception subsequently have a higher risk of tonsil disease, suggesting an enhanced tendency to lymphoid hyperplasia. This nationwide cohort study included all Danish children younger than age 15 years, who were born in 1977-2001 and diagnosed with intussusception at a hospital (n = 2018). The cohort was followed-up for tonsil disease in the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Health Security System. A total of 172 children were identified with tonsil disease following intussusception. The risk of tonsil disease was 48% higher (95% confidence interval = 27%-72%) after intussusception compared with the general population of the same age. Age, sex, age at intussusception, and time since intussusception did not modify risk of tonsil disease. The risks of acute tonsillitis, chronic disease of the tonsils, and tonsillectomy were equally increased after intussusception. Intussusception was associated with an increased risk of tonsil disease in childhood. Children with a general tendency to lymphoid hyperplasia may be at increased risk of intussusception.

  1. Functional characterization of T-cells from palatine tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Geißler, Katharina; Markwart, Robby; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Weigel, Cynthia; Schubert, Katja; Scherag, André; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    The palatine tonsils, localized in the oropharynx, are easily accessible secondary lymphoid tissue in humans. Inflammation of the palatine tonsils, local and chronic in case of chronic tonsillitis (CT) or acute in the presence of a peritonsillar abscess (PTA), ranks among the most common diseases in otolaryngology. However, the functionality of tonsillar immune cells, notably T-cells, in the context of these immune pathologies is poorly understood. We have examined the functional status of human tonsillar T-cells in CT and compared it to the acute inflammatory setting of a PTA. Patients presenting with CT (n = 10) or unilateral PTA (n = 7) underwent bilateral tonsillectomy and a subgroup of 8 patients underwent additional blood sampling. T-cells were purified via automated magnetic selection and subjected to flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping. In addition, the response to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was assessed at the level of proximal signaling, activation marker expression and proliferation. We observed no difference between the percentage of T helper (CD4(+)) cells from tonsil tissue in CT and PTA, but observed a trend towards a higher percentage of T helper cells in the blood of patients with PTA versus CT, probably reflecting an acute, systemic bacterial infection in the former cohort. Tonsils from CT harbored more PD-1(+) CD4(+) T-cells, pointing to T-cell exhaustion due to chronic infection. This notion was supported by functional studies that showed a tendency to weaker TCR responses of tonsillar T-cells from CT. Intriguingly, tonsillar T-cells recurrently featured a dampened response to T-cell receptor stimulation at the level of receptor proximal signaling steps compared to peripheral T-cells. In sum, our study documents distinct differences in tonsillar T-cell class distribution and function between the various pathological conditions. Our observations are consistent with the concept that tonsillar T-cells react to infections by eliciting

  2. [Tonsil calculi in the orthopantomography image].

    PubMed

    Crameri, Manuel; Bassetti, Renzo; Werder, Peter; Kuttenberger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Tonsilloliths are calcifications within the tonsillar crypts. Affected are especially the palatine tonsils. The prevalence is ranging between 16 and 46.1%. Tonsilloliths can be the reason for chronic halitosis, irritating cough, dysphagia, otalgia, foreign body sensation or foul taste in the mouth. They are often asymptomatic. Tonsilloliths can be discovered incidentally in orthopantomography (OPT) as singular or multiple radioopacities in the area of the ramus mandibulae. The aim of this case report is to present two cases with asymptomatic tonsilloliths detected based on an OPT and confirmed in a computed tomography (CT) or by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  3. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion. PMID:26816905

  4. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion.

  5. Influence of radiofrequency surgery on architecture of the palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Plzak, Jan; Macokova, Pavla; Zabrodsky, Michal; Kastner, Jan; Lastuvka, Petr; Astl, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency surgery is a widely used modern technique for submucosal volume reduction of the tonsils. So far there is very limited information on morphologic changes in the human tonsils after radiofrequency surgery. We performed histopathological study of tonsillectomy specimens after previous bipolar radiofrequency induced thermotherapy (RFITT). A total of 83 patients underwent bipolar RFITT for hypertrophy of palatine tonsils. Tonsil volume reduction was measured by 3D ultrasonography. Five patients subsequently underwent tonsillectomy. Profound histopathological examination was performed to determine the effect of RFITT on tonsillar architecture. All tonsillectomy specimens showed the intact epithelium, intact germinal centers, normal vascularization, and no evidence of increased fibrosis. No microscopic morphological changes in tonsillectomy specimens after bipolar RFITT were observed. RFITT is an effective submucosal volume reduction procedure for treatment of hypertrophic palatine tonsils with no destructive effect on microscopic tonsillar architecture and hence most probably no functional adverse effect.

  6. Coblation cryptolysis to treat tonsil stones: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher Y; Thrasher, Richard

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a novel and potentially effective approach in the treatment of tonsil stones using Coblation technology. A retrospective pilot case series was performed demonstrating the effectiveness of a technique that we call Coblation tonsil cryptolysis. This technique is unique in that it can be performed in adult patients without sedation using only local anesthesia, much like laser tonsil cryptolysis. As with laser cryptolysis, pain is significant for only a few days and most adults can resume normal diet and activity within 1 week. In contrast, tonsillectomy entails significant morbidity for several weeks. However, Coblation avoids the significant disadvantages of laser use, including the potential for airway fire, retinal damage from reflected scatter, dealing with plume from vaporized tissues, oral/facial burns, and the high cost of purchasing and maintaining laser equipment. After a single session of Coblation tonsil cryptolysis, a significant decrease and even elimination of tonsil stones can potentially be achieved.

  7. Unique histologic features of tonsils from patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Kalpana; Correa, Hernan; Boyd, Kelli; Roland, Joseph; Edwards, Kathryn

    2017-07-26

    The objective of this study is to compare the histology and immune cell composition of tonsils from patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome to those from patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Patients with PFAPA and age-matched controls with OSA who had undergone tonsillectomy at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital were recruited. After informed consent, archival paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tonsil tissues were obtained. Sizes of major histologic regions were measured. Cores of germinal centers, crypts, and squamous epithelium were assembled on a tissue microarray for immunohistochemical staining and digital image analysis. Features of tonsils from PFAPA and OSA patients were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Samples from 16 cases with PFAPA and 16 controls with OSA were evaluated. Tonsils from PFAPA cases had significantly smaller germinal centers (0.18 vs. 0.47 mm(2), p = 0.001) and wider squamous epithelia (176 vs. 138 μm, p = 0.008) than those of OSA patients. The percentages of B and T lymphocytes and myeloid cells were comparable in germinal centers, crypts, and squamous epithelia from PFAPA and OSA patients. Longer time from the last febrile episode in PFAPA cases was associated with larger germinal center area (Spearman's rho = 0.61, p = 0.02). We found differences in the sizes of germinal centers and squamous epithelia in tonsils of patients with PFAPA and OSA, but the cellular compositions within these areas were comparable. Our results suggest that tonsils from patients with PFAPA change histologically over time with enlarging germinal centers following a febrile episode. Additional studies are needed to understand the pathogenesis of PFAPA.

  8. Measurement of Lingual Cortical Plate Thickness and Lingual Position of Lower Third Molar Roots Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Anindita; Vidya, K. C.; Waran, Akshat; Rout, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the potential risk of tooth/root displacement into the soft tissue during the third molar surgery. While performing third molar surgeries, one of the many complications is displacement of the tooth into the soft tissues. This can be due perforation of the lingual cortical bone during surgery or the position of the tooth root which may be close to the lingual bone. Materials and Methods: Retrospective samples of 251 patients were collected who had undergone cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for various reasons. Measurements were performed independently and recorded twice by one surgeon and one radiologist; the average of the two measurements was calculated and evaluated using MyRay CBCT. Results: On the right and the left side, the average distances in males for AL were 3.31 and 2.96 mm, respectively, whereas in females was found to be 3.98 and 3.56 mm which were statistically significant. On the right and left side, the average distances in males for RL were 2.03 and 1.78 mm, respectively, whereas in females, it was 2.41 and 1.99 mm, respectively, with the significant P value in the right side. Conclusion: Despite the sample size being of 251 patients, a large number of root of the third molar (95.62%) were not in contact with lingual cortical bone, but still practitioner should be careful during surgery as there might be the risk for displacement of the tooth. The images used were of impacted molar used in this study and these teeth were not subjected to surgery. Hence, the results can be only correlated theoretically, i.e., there would be a risk of displacement of the tooth during extraction. PMID:28713761

  9. 1125-nm quantum dot laser for tonsil thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    Thermal therapy has the potential to provide a nonexcisional alternative to tonsillectomy. Clinical implementation requires that the lymphoid tissue of tonsils is heated homogeneously to produce an amount of primary thermal injury that corresponds to gradual postoperative tonsil shrinkage, with minimal risk of damage to underlying critical blood vessels. Optical constants are derived for tonsils from tissue components and used to calculate the depth of 1/e of irradiance. The 1125 nm wavelength is shown to correspond to both deep penetration and minimal absorption by blood. A probe for tonsil thermal therapy that comprises two opposing light emitting, temperature controlled surfaces is described. For ex vivo characterization of tonsil heating, a prototype 1125 nm diode laser is used in an experimental apparatus that splits the laser output into two components, and delivers the radiation to sapphire contact window surfaces of two temperature controlled cells arranged to irradiate human tonsil specimens from opposing directions. Temperatures are measured with thermocouple microprobes at located points within the tissue during and after irradiation. Primary thermal damage corresponding to the recorded thermal histories are calculated from Arrhenius parameters for human tonsils. Results indicate homogeneous heating to temperatures corresponding to the threshold of thermal injury and above can be achieved in advantageously short irradiation times.

  10. A Rare Complication of Radiofrequency Tonsil Ablation: Horner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ozbay, Isa; Yildirim, Nadir; Zeybek Sivas, Zuhal; Canbaz Kabay, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is a common disease, and several different surgical techniques are used to treat this condition. In recent years, techniques such as radiofrequency ablation and coblation have been commonly used for tonsil surgery. In this report, we present the cases of two pediatric patients who developed ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos (Horner syndrome) after radiofrequency ablation for tonsil reduction and discuss the technique of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. In the early postoperative period, miosis and ptosis were observed on the right side in one patient and on the left side in the other patient. Both patients were treated with 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone, which were tapered by halving the dose every 3 days. Miosis and ptosis improved after treatment in both patients. Along with the case presentation, we discuss the effectiveness and complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. These unusual complications of tonsil ablation may help ENT physicians who do not yet have a preferred surgical technique for tonsillectomy to make an informed decision. Limited data are available about the possible complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. The present report contributes to the literature on this topic. PMID:26064747

  11. Peritonsillar Abscess: Complication of Acute Tonsillitis or Weber's Glands Infection?

    PubMed

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Rusan, Maria; Fuursted, Kurt; Ovesen, Therese

    2016-08-01

    To review the literature concerning the 2 primary hypotheses put forth to explain the pathogenesis of peritonsillar abscess: "the acute tonsillitis hypothesis" (peritonsillar abscess is a complication of acute tonsillitis) and "the Weber gland hypothesis" (peritonsillar abscess is an infection of Weber's glands). PubMed, EMBASE. Data supporting or negating one hypothesis or the other were elicited from the literature. Several findings support the acute tonsillitis hypothesis. First, the 2 main pathogens in peritonsillar abscess have been recovered from pus aspirates and bilateral tonsillar tissues with high concordance rates, suggesting that both tonsils are infected in patients with peritonsillar abscess. Second, studies report signs of acute tonsillitis in the days prior to and at the time of peritonsillar abscess. Third, antibiotic treatment reduces the risk of abscess development in patients with acute tonsillitis. However, some findings suggest involvement of the Weber's glands in peritonsillar abscess pathogenesis. First, high amylase levels have been found in peritonsillar pus. Second, the majority of peritonsillar abscesses are located at the superior tonsillar pole in proximity of the Weber's glands. We propose a unified hypothesis whereby bacteria initially infect the tonsillar mucosa and spread via the salivary duct system to the peritonsillar space, where an abscess is formed. Our findings support the rationale for antibiotic treatment of patients with severe acute tonsillitis to reduce the risk of abscess development. Improved understanding of peritonsillar abscess pathogenesis is important for the development of efficient prevention strategies. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. [Suture of lingual nerve: Technical note].

    PubMed

    Garconnet, J; Foletti, J-M; Guyot, L; Chossegros, C

    2015-06-01

    Because of its anatomical position, the lingual nerve may be severed during oral surgical procedures, such as third molar removal. Early suturing of the nerve promotes better recovery. We describe the end-to-end suture of this nerve. The suture is carried-out under general anesthesia. The approach is made in the mouth floor, in the same way as for submandibular gland lithiasis transoral removal. This approach allows good exposure and some laxity to displace the nerve stumps. The latter can then be sutured under microscope assistance before closing the mucosa. Lingual nerve suture is a simple, quick and inexpensive procedure. Unlike other procedures, it cannot be used in case of large loss of substance because of the small amount of laxity of the nerve. Nerve function recovery is better if performed before the 6th post-traumatic month, and in young patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of in vivo protein synthesis in human palatine tonsil.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, Anna; Klaude, Maria; Loré, Karin; Andersson, Jan; Ringdén, Olle; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2005-02-01

    The palatine tonsils are constantly exposed to ingested or inhaled antigens which, in turn, lead to a permanent activation of tonsillar immune cells, even in a basic physiological state. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the immunological activation of the human palatine tonsil is reflected by a high metabolic activity, as determined by in vivo measurement of protein synthesis. The protein synthesis rate of the tonsil was also compared with that of the circulating T-lymphocytes, the total blood mononuclear cells and the whole population of blood leucocytes. Phenotypic characterization of immune-competent cells in tonsil tissue and blood was performed by flow cytometry. Pinch tonsil biopsies were taken after induction of anaesthesia in healthy adult patients (n=12) scheduled for ear surgery, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or nose surgery. Protein synthesis was quantitatively determined during a 90-min period by a flooding-dose technique. The in vivo protein synthesis rate in the palatine tonsils was 22.8+/-5.7%/24 h (mean+/-S.D.), whereas protein synthesis in the circulating T-lymphocytes was 10.7+/-3.4%/24 h, in mononuclear cells was 10.8+/-2.8%/24 h and in leucocytes was 3.2+/-1.2%/24 h. CD3+ lymphocytes were the most abundant cell population in the tonsil. The in vivo protein synthesis rate in human tonsils was higher compared with the circulating immune cells. This high metabolic rate may reflect the permanent immunological activity present in human tonsils, although cell phenotypes and activity markers do not explain the differences.

  14. Bacteriologic comparison of tonsil core in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Lee, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ri A; Lee, Young Sup; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kang, Jung Oak; Tae, Kyung

    2007-12-01

    Although many bacteriology studies on tonsillar diseases have been completed, all have been confined to children and were characterized by a paucity of cases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the underlying bacterial pathogens in tonsillar disease. A retrospective study was performed on 824 patients who underwent elective tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. We analyzed the differences between the bacterial pathogens in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy with regard to age, season, and antibiotic sensitivity. Among 824 cases, 966 bacterial strains from the tonsil core were isolated. In recurrent tonsillitis, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (30.3%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae (15.5%) and group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, 14.4%). In patients over 14 years of age, quite differently from other age groups, Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated at a significantly higher percentage. In tonsillar hypertrophy, H. influenzae was isolated most commonly (31.4%) regardless of age, followed by S. pyogenes (24.2%), S. aureus (22.9%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.6%). Furthermore, mixed infection was common because of its high resistance to penicillin. In both groups, S. pneumoniae was more common in younger patients, whereas K. pneumoniae was relatively common in adults. We found no differences in the detection rate by season; however, H. influenzae was frequently isolated in the tonsillar hypertrophy group regardless of seasonal variations. We also found no difference in the antibiotic sensitivity between the two groups; however, strains resistant to penicillin were relatively prevalent and showed a high sensitivity to third-generation cephalosporin. We observed some differences in the types of bacteria in the tonsillar core between the recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy groups. Our study indicates that essential bacteria have been changing and, thus, we need to change our choice of

  15. Chondroid choriostoma of palatine tonsil - a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Ghosh, Nivedita; Arora, Prerna; Goyal, Vasudha

    2013-08-01

    A choristoma or heterotopias is an aggregate of microscopically normal cells or tissues which occurs in aberrant locations. A choristoma is a tumour like mass, whereas heterotopias refers to a displaced tissue which is necessarily not a swelling or a neoplasm. We are reporting a case of a 24 year old female who presented with recurrent tonsillitis and halitosis. On examination, the tonsils were found to be enlarged. Because of the persistent symptoms, a tonsillectomy was performed. The histopathological examination showed features of chronic tonsillitis, along with presence of mature islands of hyaline cartilage which were surrounded by lymphoid follicles and focal areas of calcification and osseous metaplasia.

  16. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tonsil: a very rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, S J; Giangrande, V; Brennan, P A

    2013-08-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant salivary gland tumour. However, short series or individual case reports have identified this tumour in the maxilla, mandible, breast tissue and thymus. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma originates from minor salivary glands, and it is therefore surprising that it is not more commonly seen in the tonsil. To date, we believe there has been only one previously reported case in the world literature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurring in the tonsil 1. We present a very rare case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from within the structure of the palatine tonsil, rather from the adjacent pharyngeal wall, together with a short review of the literature.

  17. Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage). Finally, the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was calculated and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Material and methods: Calculations were based on data as published by the Federal Institute of Statistics or on request, if needed. The latest data were provided for 2013. Results: The total number of the aforementioned diseases (stratified by ICD-10) decreased from 142,574 (in 2000) to 87,624 in 2013 (38.5%). Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, was performed in a total of 833,896 patients between 2006 and 2013 in Germany. The yearly number decreased continually from 120,993 in 2006 to 84,332 procedures in 2013 (30.3%). The most significant decrease was registered in patients younger than 20 years of age for this time period: 70.92 per 10,000 in 2010 to 58.68 per 10,000 in 2013. If all age groups were included, the rate decreased from 13.34 per 10,000 to 10.90 per 10,000. In contrast, an increasing number of tonsillotomies was observed between 2007 (4,659 procedures) and 2013 (11,493). The cumulated number of procedures was 59,049. A constant number of 15,000 cases with peritonsillar abscess were diagnosed per year in Germany (19 patients per 100,000). The prevalence increased significantly at an age of 15 years and there was a preponderance of female patients below that age. Compared to the

  18. Optimal utilization of histopathologic analysis of tonsil and adenoid specimens in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Sturm-O'Brien, Angela K; Hicks, John M; Giannoni, Carla M; Sulek, Marcelle; Friedman, Ellen M

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the optimal utilization of histopathologic analysis of tonsil and adenoid specimens in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was performed on 7837 tonsil and adenoid specimens submitted from January 2004 to April 2008. The records were reviewed for the patients' age, sex, and pathologic analysis. The time and cost per analysis of each specimen were determined. Histopathology was performed on 347 specimens based on clinical suspicion by the surgeon, a difference of 0.5 cm or more among tonsils, gross abnormalities, and history of malignancy, transplant, or immunocompromise. Malignancy was diagnosed in 0.026% of patients. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was diagnosed in 6 of 24 immunocompromised patients. The use of these criteria resulted in a savings of $518,088.47 and 461 h of dedicated technician time per year. Histologic examinations in selected specimens should be based on specific criteria that should be determined by each hospital based on hospital size, finances and input from their pathologists and otolaryngogists. Storage of a representative specimen for possible retrospective review may be useful. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography and Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Rosin, Miriam; Sun, Ivan; Zhang, Lewei; Hakimi, Mehrnoush; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre M.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, we present co-registered autofluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography (AF/OCT) of excised human palatine tonsils to evaluate the capabilities of OCT to visualize tonsil tissue components. Despite limited penetration depth, OCT can provide detailed structural information about tonsil tissue with much higher resolution than that of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and Ultrasound. Different tonsil tissue components such as epithelium, dense connective tissue, lymphoid nodules, and crypts can be visualized by OCT. The co-registered AF imaging can provide matching biochemical information. AF/OCT scans may provide a non-invasive tool for detecting tonsillar cancers and for studying the natural history of their development. PMID:25542010

  20. A solitary tonsil can cause severe obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Michael C; Narang, Indra; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Propst, Evan J

    2013-07-01

    Hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids is the most common cause of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Bilateral tonsillectomy, most commonly performed with adenoidectomy, is the accepted treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. We report the unusual case of a child who underwent unilateral tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy at another institution and subsequently presented to us with persistent severe obstructive sleep apnea and a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The adenoids were not obstructing the choanae. The remaining tonsil was removed and the patient's sleep apnea resolved. This is the first objectively documented report of a solitary tonsil causing severe obstructive sleep apnea (using polysomnography) that resolved after removal of the remaining tonsil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ciprofloxacin concentrations in tonsils following a single intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    Falser, N; Dalhoff, A; Weuta, H

    1984-09-01

    Penetration of ciprofloxacin into human tonsils was studied following an intravenous infusion of 200 mg over 15 minutes to adult humans undergoing tonsilectomy. Samples were taken one-and-a-half to four hours after dosing. Generally, tissue levels exceeded corresponding serum concentrations by 50% (range of intraindividual ratios between tonsil and serum concentrations 100% to 288%). Ciprofloxacin distribution was homogeneous and independent of sampling time.

  2. Memotain: A CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Neal D; Grauer, Dan; Schumacher, Pascal; Jo, Yong-Min

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 1/2 of maxillary and 1/5 of mandibular multi-stranded lingual retainers fail during retention in some form, either bond failure or wire breakage. Memotain is a new CAD/CAM fabricated lingual retainer wire made of custom-cut nickel-titanium, as an alternative to multi-stranded lingual retainers. It offers numerous perceived advantages to the traditional multi-stranded stainless steel wire, including precision fit, avoidance of interferences, corrosion resistance and even the potential for minor tooth movement as an active lingual retainer. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the tiger.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Chen, Huayue; Shoumura, Shizuko

    2004-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was examined by macroscopical and scanning electron microscopical observations. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dosal surface of the tongue. The fungiform papillae were present rounded bodies, and more densely distributed on the lingual apex. There were 4 vallate papillae in total on borderline between the lingual body and lingual radix. Each papilla was surrounded by a groove. No foliate papillae were seen on the dorsal surface. Openings of the glandular ducts on the regions of the vallate papillae were found.

  4. Incidence of lingual nerve paraesthesia following mandibular third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jeevan; Tiwari, Arunesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar is associated with minor but expected complications like pain, swelling, bruising and trismus. The lingual nerve damage sometimes occurs after the removal of mandibular third molar producing impaired sensation or permanent sensory loss. This complication is usually unexpected and unacceptable for the patients particularly if no prior warning has been given. Aims: The aim of the present clinical prospective study was to determine the clinical incidence of lingual nerve injury following mandibular third molar removal and to analyze possible factors for the lingual nerve injury. Settings and Design: Clinical prospective study in the Department of Oral Surgery, Punjab Government Dental College and Hospital, Amritsar. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients were selected randomly, amongst the patients, who reported to our department from January 2009 to December 2009 for the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. To minimize the risk of lingual nerve injury, the standard terence wards incision was made in all cases and only buccal flap was raised. Statistical Analysis: The small number of paraesthesia precluded statistical analysis. Results: Out of 90 patients, six patients were diagnosed with lingual nerve paraesthesia. The overall incidence rate of lingual nerve injury was 6.6%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lingual nerve paraesthesia can occur with or without reflection of lingual flap in spite of all the measures taken to protect it. It may be contributed to the fact of anatomical variations of lingual nerve. PMID:22639500

  5. Neutrophil chemokines in epithelial inflammatory processes of human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, F; Ahlers, F; Stoll, W; Rudack, C

    2005-01-01

    CXC chemokines are thought to play an important role at sites of inflammation. Because ELR+ CXC chemokines are expressed in different types of tonsillitis we investigated the role of the surface/crypt epithelium of human tonsils in producing ELR+ CXC chemokines: interleukin (IL)-8 (CXCL8), ENA-78 (CXCL5), GRO-α (CXCL1) and GCP-2 (CXCL6). Tonsillar tissue was obtained from patients undergoing tonsillectomy and chemokine expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry. A549 cells were used as a model to study kinetics of chemokine expression in epithelial cells. Cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and supernatants derived from aerobic/anaerobic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Chemokine expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed epithelial expression of IL-8, GRO-α and GCP-2 in different types of tonsillitis, whereas ENA-78 was rarely expressed. In A549 cells abundant expression of ENA-78 was detected. IL-8 and GCP-2 are expressed in an acute type of tonsillitis whereas GRO-α was frequently detectable both in chronically and acutely inflamed tonsils. ENA-78 does not seem to play a pivotal role in tonsillitis in vivo. PMID:15807854

  6. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Dilek, Fatma Husniye; Sahin, Onder; Tokyol, Cigdem; Mazlum, Mustafa; Aycicek, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Prostaglandins are critical mediators of inflammation and affect both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Recent findings show that T and B cells express COX-2 upon activation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential occurrence of COX-1 and COX-2 immunoreactivity in cases of chronic tonsillitis and to determine the sites of their expression. In addition, their expression in adult patients is compared with that in child patients. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to evaluate the expression of the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, in chronic tonsillitis tissue specimens from adults (n = 15) and children (n = 15). There was no staining in surface epithelium or reticulated crypt epithelium. COX-1 and COX-2 expressions were observed mainly in the intraepithelial lymphoid cells in reticulated crypt epithelium and subepithelial cells. Also, COX-1 and COX-2 stained cells were found in the germinal center. There was no difference of the expressions of COX-1 and COX-2 among adults and children. The only significant difference noted between the adults and children was that, the adults had rich subepithelial plasma cells. Activated B and T cells express COX-1 and COX-2 in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of chronic tonsillitis. Further studies need to be performed to elucidate expression of COX enzymes and their immunologic role in tonsil diseases. They will play an important role in the treatment of chronic tonsillitis. Additional studies are warranted to study the effects of NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors in chronic tonsillitis.

  7. Free radicals and scavenging enzymes in chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Irfan; Ilhan, Nevin; Karlidag, Turgut; Keles, Erol; Yalçin, Sinasi; Cetiner, Hasan

    2003-09-01

    This study aimed to define the relationship between chronic tonsillitis and levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in free radical and antioxidant forms. It is suggested that free oxygen radicals may play a role in chronic tonsillitis. Materials and methods One hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study. Tonsillectomy was performed via the usual dissection-snare method. Venous blood was taken preoperatively and at 2 weeks postoperatively. Blood samples and tonsil specimens were evaluated for malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase analysis. The levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in plasma were compared preoperatively and postoperatively, and there were statistically significant differences between these levels (P < 0.05). In contrast, the levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in tonsil tissue were not correlated with the plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in pretonsillectomy and posttonsillectomy terms (P > 0.05). The presence of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in plasma and tonsil tissue reinforces the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of chronic tonsillitis.

  8. Actinomycosis in the etiology of recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy: answer from a histopathologic point of view.

    PubMed

    Ozgursoy, Ozan Bagis; Kemal, Ozgur; Saatci, Mustafa Rahmi; Tulunay, Ozden

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the histopathologic profile and clinical presentation of tonsillar disease in the presence of Actinomycetes in children. A qualitative and quantitative histopathologic analysis of the palatine tonsil was performed. Tonsillectomy specimens from patients who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were searched for Actinomycetes. Histologic evaluation of the specimens was done on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides as blinded to patients' clinical category for disease groups. Four histologic compartments of the tonsil, including the surface epithelium, reticulated crypt epithelium (lymphoepithelium), lymphoid tissue, and interfollicular region, were examined. Actinomycetes was more prevalent in patients with obstructive symptoms treated with adenotonsillectomy. The number of subjectively quantitated total lymphoid follicles and small and medium-sized lymphoid follicles of the palatine tonsil were significantly increased in patients demonstrating "sulphur granules" in their crypts. Highly thick squamous metaplasia of the lymphoepithelium and dilatation of crypts were more prevalent in tonsil tissue revealing Actinomycetes. The presence of Actinomycetes in tonsillectomy specimens does not indicate active tissue infection. However, the histopathologic outcome may indicate the possible etiologic role of Actinomycetes in the development of prominent lymphoid hyperplasia and hypertrophy and, in turn, obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy.

  9. Motor evoked potentials in unilateral lingual paralysis after monohemispheric ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Muellbacher, W.; Artner, C.; Mamoli, B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The occurrence of a lingual paralysis after unilateral upper motor neuron lesions is an infrequent clinical phenomenon, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the cortical motor representations of ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles in healthy controls and in a selected group of stroke patients, to clarify the variable occurrence of a lingual paralysis after recent monohemispheric ischaemia.
METHODS—A special bipolar surface electrode was used to record the ipsilateral and contralateral compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the lingual muscles after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human motor cortex and peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) of the hypoglossal nerve medial to the angle of the jaw. Four patients with a lingual paralysis (group 1) and four patients with symmetric lingual movements (group 2) after monohemispheric first ever stroke were studied and compared with 40 healthy controls.
RESULTS—In controls, TMS of either hemisphere invariably produces CAMPs in the ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles, elicited through crossed and uncrossed central motor pathways, respectively. In the 40 healthy controls, TMS of either hemisphere elicited CMAPs of significantly greater amplitudes and shorter onset latencies from the contralateral muscles compared with the ipsilateral responses (p<0.0001). In the patient groups, TMS of the affected hemisphere failed to evoke any CMAP from either lingual side; TMS of the unsevered hemisphere always produced normal ipsilateral and contralateral responses, irrespective of whether the ipsilateral muscles were paralysed or not.
CONCLUSIONS—Bilateral crossed and uncrossed corticonuclear projections are invariably existent in humans. After unilateral interruption of these pathways, some people do exhibit a lingual paralysis whereas others do not. The development of a central lingual paralysis is most likely dependent on

  10. Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children

  11. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  12. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  13. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  14. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  15. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  16. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  17. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  18. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    PubMed

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment.

  19. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the eastern grey kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus gigantues) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex and anterior body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex had several processes. The filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body were thread-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body consisted of many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. Three vallate papillae with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly consisted of a groove and pad. Several conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The surface structure of the tongue in the eastern grey kangaroo resembles that of the red kangaroo.

  20. The effect of tonsillotomy on chronic recurrent tonsillitis in children.

    PubMed

    Foki, Elisabeth; Seemann, Rudolf; Stelter, Klaus; Lill, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether partial tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy) impacts the occurrence of acute or recurrent tonsillitis in children. One hundred and eighty patients (1-14 years) were retrospectively surveyed by a questionnaire or by data analysis of a regional database. Subjects who suffered from severe systemic diseases or immunodeficiency syndromes were excluded. Episodes of acute tonsillitis before and after surgery, rate of antibiotic treatment, postoperative hemorrhage, and re-operation were obtained. Fifty-one patients suffered from preoperative tonsillitis. The rate of reinfection was 9.8%. The frequency of tonsillitis was significantly reduced in children after tonsillotomy (p < .001). Further, tonsillotomy led to a significant reduction of antibiotic treatment (p < .001). The rate of definitive tonsillectomy was 1.1% and thus effectiveness was very high. About 1.7% of all children suffered from postoperative bleeding, of which one (0.6%) required surgical revision. None of the bleedings was life threatening. Tonsillotomy is beneficial for patients with recurrent tonsillitis and carries less risk of postoperative complications than tonsillectomy.

  1. Phenotypic Characterization of Five Dendritic Cell Subsets in Human Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Kelly L.; Hock, Barry D.; McKenzie, Judith L.; Hart, Derek N. J.

    2001-01-01

    Heterogeneous expression of several antigens on the three currently defined tonsil dendritic cell (DC) subsets encouraged us to re-examine tonsil DCs using a new method that minimized DC differentiation and activation during their preparation. Three-color flow cytometry and dual-color immunohistology was used in conjunction with an extensive panel of antibodies to relevant DC-related antigens to analyze lin− HLA-DR+ tonsil DCs. Here we identify, quantify, and locate five tonsil DC subsets based on their relative expression of the HLA-DR, CD11c, CD13, and CD123 antigens. In situ localization identified four of these DC subsets as distinct interdigitating DC populations. These included three new interdigitating DC subsets defined as HLA-DRhi CD11c+ DCs, HLA-DRmod CD11c+ CD13+ DCs, and HLA-DRmod CD11c− CD123− DCs, as well as the plasmacytoid DCs (HLA-DRmod CD11c− CD123+). These subsets differed in their expression of DC-associated differentiation/activation antigens and co-stimulator molecules including CD83, CMRF-44, CMRF-56, 2-7, CD86, and 4-1BB ligand. The fifth HLA-DRmod CD11c+ DC subset was identified as germinal center DCs, but contrary to previous reports they are redefined as lacking the CD13 antigen. The definition and extensive phenotypic analysis of these five DC subsets in human tonsil extends our understanding of the complexity of DC biology. PMID:11438475

  2. Tonsillectomy or adeno-tonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Martin J; Glasziou, Paul P

    2009-01-21

    episodes of any type of sore throat. The cost of this reduction is one inevitable and predictable episode of postoperative pain. The 'average' patient will have 17 rather than 22 sore throat days but some of these 17 days (between five and seven) will be in the immediate postoperative period. Whilst the concept of the 'average' patient is attractive, in practice, wide variability is likely.One reason why the impact of surgery is so modest, is that many untreated patients get better spontaneously. There is a trade-off for the physician and patient who must weigh up a number of different uncertainties: what proportion of my throat symptoms are attributable to my tonsils, and will I get better without any treatment? Similarly, the potential 'benefit' of surgery must be weighed against the risks of the procedure. Adeno-/tonsillectomy is effective in reducing the number of episodes of sore throat and days with sore throats in children, the gain being more marked in those most severely affected. The size of the effect is modest, but there may be a benefit to knowing the precise timing of one episode of pain lasting several days - it occurs immediately after surgery as a direct consequence of it.It is clear that some children get better without any surgery, and that whilst removing the tonsils will always prevent 'tonsillitis', the impact of the procedure on 'sore throats' due to pharyngitis is much less predictable.

  3. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique

    PubMed Central

    Kairalla, Silvana Allegrini; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Triviño, Tarcila; Velasco, Leandro; Lombardo, Luca; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. METHODS: The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D) and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25%) - an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%). T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. CONCLUSION: The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed. PMID:25715725

  4. Ciprofloxacin concentrations in tonsils following single or multiple administrations.

    PubMed

    Falser, N; Dalhoff, A; Weuta, H

    1988-01-01

    Penetration of ciprofloxacin into human tonsils was studied in 20 adult humans undergoing tonsilectomy. Ten patients received a single intravenous infusion of 200 mg ciprofloxacin within 15 min (group A) and 14 patients were treated orally for three days with 500 mg ciprofloxacin b.i.d. prior to a preoperative infusion of 200 mg (group B). Ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum and tonsils were determined microbiologically. Mean ciprofloxacin serum concentrations did not differ significantly between both groups. Similarly, mean distribution ratios between tonsils and serum were not dissimilar, being on average 150% irrespective of whether the drug was administered once or repeatedly. Thus, a significant accumulation of ciprofloxacin was not observed either in the intravascular or in the extravascular space.

  5. Acute necrotizing herpetic tonsillitis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Walaa M; Dababo, Mohammed A; Thompson, Lester D R; Saleem, M; Pashley, N

    2015-03-01

    The finding of herpetic tonsillitis is rare. Tonsillectomies are usually done for children with recurrent chronic tonsillitis, while viral throat infections are generally self-limiting. We present two cases: A 5 year-old girl, with atypical hemolytic anemia managed with Eculizumab, who presented with a pharyngeal infection and tonsillar enlargement that did not respond to intravenous antibiotics or antifungal therapies; and a 30 year-old man who presented with upper airway obstruction and fever; bilateral tonsillectomies were performed. Histopathological examination showed a necrotizing tonsillitis with numerous ground-glass intranuclear inclusions, characteristic of herpes viral infection, further confirmed by Herpes simplex virus in situ hybridization. Both patients were managed by intravenous Acyclovir, with dramatic improvement.

  6. [Treatment of chronic tonsillitis: prognostic criteria of efficacy].

    PubMed

    Tarakanova, A G; Shatokhina, S N; Zenger, V G; Kokoreva, S A; Pykhteeva, E N

    2007-01-01

    An original method of wedge dehydration of biological fluids assessing the ability for separation of organic and mineral constituents was for the first time used in patients with different forms of chronic tonsillitis (CT). The method was used in 102 patients aged 8-68 years with chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils out of exacerbation. A dehydrated drop of tonsillar lacuna discharge (TLD), facia, was studied morphologically under microscope at small magnification (x10--x50). Three types of TLD facia were identified in CT patients. These types characterized severity of the pathological process in the palatine tonsils. Changes of facia type in patients with different CT forms were compared. Basic regularities in the disease progress were determined. This enabled prognosis of a further course of CT in an individual patient and, therefore, planning treatment policy for each case.

  7. [Environmental scanning electron microscopy for biofilm detection in tonsils].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; González-Tallón, Ana Isabel; Gómez, David; Trinidad, Almudena; Ibáñez, Andrés; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Verdaguer, José María; González-García, José Angel; San Román, Julio

    2008-01-01

    To describe an environmental scanning electron microscopic method for the study of biofilms in clinical samples. A comparison with standard scanning electron microscopy is performed. Nine patients with a past history of recurrent tonsillitis underwent tonsillectomy. Samples from each patient were obtained for both conventional and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The tonsils removed from 2 patients with sleep apnoea syndrome were used as controls. Eight of nine tonsils had biofilms on their surface. Scanning electron microscopy showed accumulations of bacteria covered by fibrillar structures resulting from the sample dehydration process. Environmental scanning electron microscopy provided a view of bacteria embedded in a homogeneous, amorphous substance that was preserved during the examination. Environmental scanning electron microscopy permits the imaging of wet systems at different degrees of dehydration. It therefore allows researchers to observe biofilms in their natural hydrated state.

  8. [Palatine tonsil lymphoma in children with tonsillar asymmetry. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Martínez Font, Agustín; Demarchi, María Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; García Rivello, Hernán; Morandi, Ana; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Tonsil malignancy is uncommon in children. Tonsillar asymmetry is usually secondary to a benign process, either inflammatory conditions, differences in the tonsillar fossa depth or anterior pillar asymmetry. However, it may indicate a serious underlying disorder such as lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common childhood malignancy in the head and neck. Approximately, 15% of the cases affect the Waldeyer's ring. The most common clinical manifestations of palatine tonsils lymphoma are unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy, alteration in the appearance of the mucosa and ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of great importance in the prognosis. We present a case of palatine tonsil lymphoma in a child with tonsillar asymmetry and we emphasize the importance of the examination of the oral cavity and the neck to identify suspicious alterations compatible with tonsillar lymphoma.

  9. Palatine tonsillar metastasis of a small pulmonary adenocarcinoma showing an invasive micropapillary carcinoma pattern and Pagetoid spread at the tonsil: a case suggesting retrograde lymphatic metastasis from bulky lymph node metastases of the neck.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis rarely occurs in the palatine tonsils. Among primary pulmonary carcinoma subtypes, small cell carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to this site. Herein, we present an exceedingly rare case of a small pulmonary adenocarcinoma that metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes and the right palatine tonsil in a 62-year-old man. In spite of the small size of the primary site, such extensive metastasis may have occurred because of the invasive micropapillary carcinoma pattern seen in the metastatic sites. The manner of metastasis to the palatine tonsil was considered retrograde lymphatic metastasis originating from carcinoma cells in the cervical lymph nodes. Furthermore, Pagetoid spread was observed at the palatine tonsil. Although there have been only a few cases showing retrograde lymphatic metastasis and Pagetoid spread at the metastatic site, we should be careful when speculating about the primary site based on such metastatic sites, especially when dealing with a biopsy sample exhibiting Pagetoid spread.

  10. Medullary carcinoma in a lingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Yaday, S; Singh, I; Singh, J; Aggarwal, N

    2008-03-01

    Total ectopia of thyroid is a rare phenomenon and malignant change in an ectopic thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of medullary carcinoma in a total ectopic lingual thyroid occurring in a 45-year-old woman who presented with dysphagia, plummy voice and a round sessile mass at the base of the tongue. The mass was extirpated using Trotter's midline approach. Upon examination, it was found to be medullary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid. Permanent substitution therapy with thyroxine secured the euthyroid status of the patient. The embrylogical basis and a review of literature regarding carcinomatous change in an ectopic thyroid are also discussed. There is a need to investigate for an ectopic thyroid, or even total ectopia, in the case of any smooth mass found at the base of the tongue.

  11. The association of sore throat and psoriasis might be explained by histologically distinctive tonsils and increased expression of skin-homing molecules by tonsil T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, S L; Thorleifsdottir, R H; Valdimarsson, H; Johnston, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the palatine tonsils in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, particularly among patients with recurrent throat infections. However, the underlying immunological mechanism is not well understood. In this study we confirm that psoriasis tonsils are infected more frequently by β-haemolytic Streptococci, in particular Group C Streptococcus, compared with recurrently infected tonsils from patients without skin disease. Moreover, we show that tonsils from psoriasis patients contained smaller lymphoid follicles that occupied a smaller tissue area, had a lower germinal centre to marginal zone area ratio and contained fewer tingible body macrophages per unit area compared with recurrently infected tonsils from individuals without skin disease. Psoriasis patients' tonsils had a higher frequency of skin-homing [cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA+)] CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and this correlated significantly with their frequency of blood CLA+ T cells. The psoriasis patients also had a higher frequency of tonsil T cells expressing the interleukin (IL)-23 receptor that was expressed preferentially by the CLA+ T cell population. In contrast, recurrently infected tonsils of individuals without skin disease had a higher frequency of tonsil T cells expressing the activation marker CD69 and a number of chemokine receptors with unknown relevance to psoriasis. These findings suggest that immune responses in the palatine tonsils of psoriasis patients are dysregulated. The elevated expression of CLA and IL-23 receptor by tonsil T cells may promote the egression of effector T cells from tonsils to the epidermis, suggesting that there may be functional changes within the tonsils, which promote triggering or exacerbation of psoriasis. PMID:23750651

  12. Lingual Nerve Entrapment in Muscular and Osseous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Georgios, Androutsos; Panagiotis, Skandalakis

    2010-01-01

    Running through the infratemporal fossa is the lingual nerve (i.e. the third branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve). Due to its location, there are various anatomic structures that might entrap and potentially compress the lingual nerve. These anatomical sites of entrapment are: (a) the partially or completely ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligaments; (b) the large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process; and (c) the medial fibers of the anterior region of the lateral pterygoid muscle. Due to the connection between these nerve and anatomic structures, a contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle, for example, might cause a compression of the lingual nerve. Any variations in the course of the lingual nerve can be of clinical significance to surgeons and neurologists because of the significant complications that might occur. To name a few of such complications, lingual nerve entrapment can lead to: (a) numbness, hypoesthesia or even anesthesia of the tongue's mucous glands; (b) anesthesia and loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue; (c) anesthesia of the lingual gums; and (d) pain related to speech articulation disorder. Dentists should, therefore, be alert to possible signs of neurovascular compression in regions where the lingual nerve is distributed. PMID:21404967

  13. Relationship between the lingual frenulum and craniofacial morphology in adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, So-Jeong; Cha, Bong-Kuen; Ngan, Peter; Choi, Dong-Soon; Lee, Suk-Keun; Jang, Insan

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the length of the lingual frenulum and craniofacial morphology and test the hypothesis that skeletal Class III malocclusion is related to tongue-tie, in which the lingual frenulum is short and restricts the mobility of the tongue. The sample consisted of 50 skeletal Class I patients (0° < ANB angle < 4°), 50 skeletal Class II patients (ANB angle > 4°), and 50 skeletal Class III patients (ANB angle <0°). Direct and indirect measuring methods were used to quantify the length of the lingual frenulum. The median lingual frenulum length was measured directly with a lingual frenulum ruler. It was evaluated indirectly by measuring the differences between the maximum mouth opening with and without the tip of the tongue touching the incisive papilla. A lateral cephalogram was taken for each subject and a computerized cephalometric analysis was used to assess the cranial morphology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences among the 3 groups. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to detect any relationship between the lingual frenulum length and cephalometric variables. The median lingual frenulum length was significantly longer in the skeletal Class III subjects compared with the skeletal Class I and Class II subjects. The maximum opening of the mouth was significantly reduced in the skeletal Class III subjects compared with Class I and Class II subjects. Significant correlations were also found among the median lingual frenulum length, maximum mouth opening reduction, and the cephalometric variables such as the SNB and ANB angles, Wits appraisal, mandibular length, and the interincisal angle. The present study supports the hypothesis that skeletal Class III malocclusion is related to long median lingual frenulum or a tongue-tie tendency. Patients diagnosed with tongue-tie might have a tendency toward skeletal Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of

  14. [Viral-bacterial-fungal associations in chronic tonsillitis in children].

    PubMed

    Gudima, I A; Vasil'eva, L I; Bragina, L E; Suchkov, I Iu

    2001-01-01

    The microflora of palatal tonsils was studied in 84 children with chronic tonsillitis in comparison with that in the control group of 38 healthy children. In most of the sick children viral-bacterial and less frequently viral-bacterial-fungal associations were detected with the prevalence of reo- and adenoviruses, Epstein-Barr viruses, coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as peptostreptococci. Adhesive activity and persistence factors among the main bacterial pathogens were shown to be widely prevalent. The depth of the lesion of tonsillar tissue by the infective agents of bacterial and fungal nature, as well as their persistence potential, depended on the taxonomic position of these microorganisms.

  15. [Report of a case: large tonsillolith in palatine tonsil].

    PubMed

    Cogolludo Pérez, F J; Martín del Guayo, G; Olalla Tabar, A; Poch Broto, J

    2002-03-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with a one-year history of dysphagia and a hard overgrowth of the right palatine tonsil visible in oral examination. Computerized Tomography scan showed a big calcified lesion inside the tonsil not seen in a pharyngoscopy. Tonsillectomy was performed and a giant tonsillolith was found inside the resected piece. The calculus was 3 x 2 x 2.3 cm and with an irregular-pyramidal shape. Normal tonsillar tissue with many colonies of Actionomyces inside the tonsillar crypts was the definitive pathological feature.

  16. [Simultaneous pulmonar, laryngeal and lingual affectation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Díaz Manzano, J A; Castillo Romero, J L; Padilla Romero, M J; Sánchez Laínez, J J; Castillo Aguilar, C; Cegarra Navarro, M F

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis has lately increased in developed countries. The most frequent affectation is the pulmonar one and in the ORL area the laryngeal. The lingual affectation is exceptional. We present a case of a man 39 years old, with bilateral pulmonar, left vocal cord and mobile tongue affectation, negative Mantoux, positive spit culture and presence of acido-alcohol resistent bacillus in lingual and laryngeal biopsies. After antituberculosis treatment during 6 months the laryngeal and lingual lesions disappeared. We have only found two cases published of simultaneous tuberculosis in these three localisations in the last 30 years.

  17. Fabrication of lingual orthodontic appliances: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ian; Lee, Jang Yeol

    2013-09-01

    Lingual orthodontics is increasing in popularity, with more adults receiving orthodontic treatment and opting for truly invisible appliances that do not have any limitations on the type of tooth movement they can achieve. In addition, there are a growing number of children receiving lingual appliances as they have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of decalcification. Combining this growth in popularity with advances in computer technology, it is possible to treatment plan, design the appliance and have it custom made all with the click of a button. This article highlights the different methods that have been utilized in the fabrication of lingual appliances.

  18. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2016-11-04

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid.

  19. [Optimization of the final lingual occlusion: an analysis].

    PubMed

    Fourquet, Lucile; Philippe, Julien; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of orthodontic treatment are to achieve a functional, aesthetic and sustainable occlusion. However, its analysis is often limited to the study of its buccal side, easy to check in mouth. Yet, the lingual occlusion is also of paramount importance. After calling to mind the ideal static objectives of treatment, described by some authors and defined by some scientific societies, this article studies the different supports for the analysis of lingual static occlusion and proposes a new protocol for the carving of orthodontic casts. The lingual occlusion end-of-treatment objectives lack details, whether by the scientific societies or literature, although we possess simple ways to study them. The lingual part of occlusion is rarely studied in our daily practice, particularly because its analysis cannot be achieved by a direct intraoral examination. However, it is of major importance in the success and stability of our treatments. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  20. Relationship between chronic tonsillitis and Henoch-Schonlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Wang, Zhan; Niu, Na; Zhao, Jianxia; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between children's chronic tonsillitis and Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). We randomly selected 56 cases of HSP children with chronic tonsillitis during December 2009 to December 2012, 26 cases for surgery group and 30 cases for non-surgery. The duration of abdominal pain and rash, 24 hours urine protein quantity, urine red blood cell count, titre of anti streptolysin O (ASO) and complement C3 (C3) were compared and analyzed with statistical method. Compared with the non-surgery group, the duration of abdominal pain and rash, overcast days of urine protein and occult blood in the surgery group were improved significantly (P < 0.05). 24 hours urine protein quantity and urine red blood cell count of the surgery group were improved significantly after surgery (P < 0.01). Chronic tonsillitis was one of the important factors leading to recurrent rash and inducing Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis. Tonsillectomy was an alternative mean to treat HSP children with chronic tonsillitis.

  1. First report: Yersinia enterocolitica recovered from canine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brenda P; Drummond, Niall; Ringwood, Tamara; O'Sullivan, Edmund; Buckley, James F; Whyte, Paul; Prentice, Mike B; Fanning, Séamus

    2010-12-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is a known zoonotic pathogen and is often found in pig tonsils as the primary site of colonisation. In this study we investigated whether or not Y. enterocolitica could be recovered from canine tonsils. During a study on the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in animal populations in Ireland, 144 canine tonsils and 72 canine rectal swabs were procured over a ten-month period and subjected to microbiological examination for the presence of this human pathogen. Molecular methods were used to determine virulence and all strains were negative for the chromosomally mediated virulence factor (ail) and plasmid-encoded adhesion molecule (pYad). Y. enterocolitica was recovered from 25 of 216 (12%) samples. Twenty-four strains were from tonsils along with one from a rectal swab. All were biotype 1A. Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed two of 25 (8%) were resistant to cephalothin and the remaining strains were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin with six of these additionally resistant to streptomycin. Our evidence that a human pathogen may be harboured in the oral cavity of dogs' adds a new dimension to the epidemiology of this organism, identifying a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs.

  2. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  3. A pilot to examine the logistical and feasibility issues in testing deceased tissue donors for vCJD using tonsil as the analyte.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Ruth M; Armitage, W John; Chandrasekar, Akila; Mallinson, Gary; Poniatowski, Stefan; Clarkson, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Transplanted tissues have transmitted transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and in the UK there have been more cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) than elsewhere in the world. A pilot study was undertaken to look at the feasibility of testing for vCJD in deceased donors using tonsillar tissue. This pilot showed that obtaining consent for removal and testing tonsil tissue was feasible. Donor eligibility for inclusion in the pilot was limited to tissue donors from the National Health Service Blood and Transplant, Tissue Services and to donors shared with the Corneal Transplant Service Eye Banks. Obtaining tonsillar tissue in the immediate post-mortem period was limited by the presence of rigor mortis. Tonsillar tissue was suitable for routine analysis for the presence of prion associated with vCJD in deceased tissue donors. Production and processing of tissue was straightforward and a low assay background was obtained from most samples. Since palatine and lingual tonsil tissue can be obtained in pairs it was possible, in the majority of cases, to set aside an intact sample for confirmatory testing if required. In one instance a sample was reactive by Western blot. However, the pattern of reactivity was not typical for that obtained from vCJD patients. Unfortunately the sample was not of sufficient quality for the confirmatory test to provide a conclusive result.

  4. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    significant reductions in both perplexity and recognition errors. We also compare our cross-lingual adaptation scheme to monolingual language model adaptation...as an intermedi- ate step. In a monolingual setting, the mutual infor- mation between lexical pairs co-occurring anywhere within a long “window” of...inspiration to propose the follow- ing notion of cross-lingual lexical triggers. In a monolingual setting, a pair of words xyQz is considered a trigger

  5. Lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric speakers with PD (DPD), non-dysarthric speakers with PD (NDPD) and a group of healthy controls. Electromagnetic articulography was used to record tongue-tip and tongue-back movement in five DPD and five NDPD participants during rapid repetition of /ta/and /ka/syllables, and matched with six healthy controls. Results revealed significant between-group differences for most of the kinematic parameters measured but comparable rapid syllable repetition rates. Post-hoc analyses indicated that the DPD participants, when compared with the NDPD participants, had similar range but prolonged duration of lingual movement. The DPD and NDPD participants had primarily increased range and prolonged duration of lingual movement accompanied by increased speed parameters, when compared with healthy controls. The findings of the present study contradict theories that suggest that the clinical features of hypokinetic dysarthria, including articulatory imprecision, are the outcome of restrictions in the range of movement of the muscles of the articulators. The observed prolonged duration of lingual movement in PD may plausibly be due to the observed increased range of lingual movement rather than slowness of lingual movement. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  6. Predisposing factors and management of complications in acute tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Gahleitner, Constanze; Hofauer, Benedikt; Stark, Thomas; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    RPA and NF was diagnosed with a sensitivity/specificity of 100%/94% in patients with acute tonsillitis and without suspicion for disease complication after ENT examination, but an age >35 years and serum CRP >15.5mg/dl. Acute tonsillitis represents a frequent disease in the otorhinolaryngology. Some patients exhibit disease aggravations resulting in (descending) peritonsillar abscess (PTA, dPTA), para-/retropharyngeal abscess (PPA, RPA), or necrotising fasciitis (NF). The study analyses the underlying predisposing factors. The retrospective cohort study includes a total of 1636 patients comprising 852 outpatients with acute bacterial tonsillitis, 279 in-patients with acute bacterial tonsillitis, 452 patients with PTA, 31 patients with dPTA/PPA, 12 patients with RPA, and 10 patients with NF. Patients were analysed for disease-related data. While leucocytes do not distinguish the sub-groups, C-reactive protein demonstrated a significant increase resulting in the highest level for RPA and NF (p < 0.0001). PTA and RPA are usually caused by streptococcus, dPTA/PPA by anaerobic bacterias, and NF mixed infections (p < 0.0001). Patients with PTA were younger than dPTA/PPA (p = 0.002) or RPA/NF (p < 0.0001). Subsequently, the rate of internistic comorbidities was significantly increased in RPA/NF (p < 0.0001). ROC-analysis identified cut-offs for age <36 years and CRP <15.5mg/dl to distinguish acute bacterial tonsillitis from RPA.

  7. [Disphagia caused by a lingual thyroid: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Rocha-Ruiz, Ana; Beltrán, Constanza; Harris, Paul R; Orellana, Pilar; García, Cristián; Martínez-Aguayo, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    We report an 11 year-old boy who presented with difficulty in swallowing without symptoms of hypothyroidism. The physical examination revealed a mass at the base of the tongue. The thyroid hormone profile showed a primary hypothyroidism (a serum TSH of 10.8 IU/mL with normal-low thyroxin of 6.0 microg/dL and low triiodothyronine of 57.8 ng/dL). Antithyroid antibodies were negative. The fiberoptic endoscopy showed a reddish mass, without evidence of haemorrhage or ulceration, confirmed as a well circumscribed, hypodense mass in the base of the tongue by computed tomography of the oropharynx and neck. Tc-99-pertechnetate scanning showed an abnormal area of uptake at the base of the tongue and no uptake in the normal thyroid location, concordant with an ectopic lingual thyroid gland. Levothyroxine in a suppressive dose was started that resulted in a reduction of the size of the mass and disappearance of dysphagia.

  8. Detection of the archetypal regulatory region of JC virus from the tonsil tissue of patients with tonsillitis and tonsilar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Takasaka, Tomokazu; Tominaga, Takashi; Ishikawa, Akira; Zheng, Huai-Ying; Yogo, Yoshiaki

    2004-08-01

    The regulatory regions of JC virus (JCV) DNAs in the brain of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) (designated as PML-type regulatory regions) are hypervariable, whereas those in the urine and renal tissue of individuals without PML have the same basic structure, designated as the archetype. It is thought that JCV strains with the archetypal regulatory region circulate in the human population. Nevertheless, Monaco et al (J Virol 70: 7004-7012, 1996) reported that PML-type regulatory regions occur in human tonsil tissue. The purpose of this study is to confirm their findings. Using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the authors detected the regulatory region of JCV DNA in the tonsil tissue from 14 (44%) of 32 donors with tonsillitis and tonsilar hypertrophy. Sequencing of the detected regulatory regions indicated that they were identical with the archetypal regulatory regions detected previously or, in a few cases, slightly deviated from the archetype. This finding suggests not only that tonsil tissue is the potential site of initial JCV infection but also that archetypal JCV strains circulate in the human population.

  9. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.

  10. Transport pathways in rat lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Simon, S A; Robb, R; Schiffman, S S

    1988-02-01

    Measurements of ion transport across isolated lingual epithelium of rat were correlated with electrophysiological recordings from taste nerves. At hyperosmotic concentrations of NaCl, sodium ions enter the mucosal membrane of the isolated epithelium partially through an amiloride-inhibitable pathway and exit the serosal membrane through a Na+-K+-ATPase. At hyposmotic concentrations of KCl, potassium ions enter the mucosal membrane through a K+ pathway that is inhibited by 4-aminopyridine and exit at the serosal membrane through a K+ pathway that is inhibited by BaCl2. The inhibition of sodium transport by amiloride and potassium transport by 4-aminopyridine is consistent with previously published electrophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve bundle (CT) and recordings from nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) obtained here. The responses to NaCl are greater than the responses to KCl at equimolar concentrations over the entire concentration range both in epithelial and neural measurements. At hyposmotic concentrations of NaCl the epithelial responses include inward sodium and outward chloride components. Isolated rat tongue is only slightly stimulated by D-glucose or sucrose as are the CT and NTS responses. These data suggest that events in taste transduction can be understood, in part, by measuring the epithelial responses of isolated rat tongue.

  11. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callıoglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kazım; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented. PMID:26064746

  12. Toll-like receptors in cellular subsets of human tonsil T cells: altered expression during recurrent tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Mansson, Anne; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2006-01-01

    Background The palatine tonsils have a pivotal role in immunological detection of airborne and ingested antigens like bacteria and viruses. They have recently been demonstrated to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), known to recognize molecular structures on such microbes and activate innate immune responses. Their activation might also provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, the expression profile of TLR1-TLR10 was characterized in human tonsil T cells, focusing on differences between subsets of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The study was also designed to compare the TLR expression in T cells from patients with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hyperplasia. Methods Tonsils were obtained from children undergoing tonsillectomy, and classified according to the clinical diagnoses and the outcome of tonsillar core culture tests. Two groups were defined; recurrently infected tonsils and hyperplastic tonsils that served as controls. Subsets of T cells were isolated using magnetic beads. The expression of TLR transcripts in purified cells was assessed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The corresponding protein expression was investigated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Results T cells expressed a broad repertoire of TLRs, in which TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, TLR9 and TLR10 predominated. Also, a differential expression of TLRs in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was obtained. TLR1 and TLR9 mRNA was expressed to a greater extent in CD4+ cells, whereas expression of TLR3 mRNA and protein and TLR4 protein was higher in CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells from infected tonsils expressed higher levels of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR5 compared to control. In contrast, CD4+ cells exhibited a down-regulated TLR9 as a consequence of infection. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the presence of a broad repertoire of TLRs in T cells, a differential expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells, along with infection-dependent alterations in TLR

  13. Relationships among nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture and maxillofacial form in Class II and Class III children.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tomonori; Sato, Hideo; Suga, Hokuto; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Kakuno, Eriko; Kanomi, Ryuzo; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between upper airway factors (nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture) and maxillofacial forms in Class II and III children. Sixty-four subjects (mean age, 9.3 years) with malocclusion were divided into Class II and Class III groups by ANB angles. Nasal resistance was calculated using computational fluid dynamics from cone-beam computed tomography data. Adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture were evaluated in the cone-beam computed tomography images. The groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and Student t tests. The Spearman rank correlations test assessed the relationships between the upper airway factors and maxillofacial form. Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly larger than that of the Class III group (P = 0.005). Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly correlated with inferior tongue posture (P <0.001) and negatively correlated with intermolar width (P = 0.028). Tonsil size of the Class III group was significantly correlated with anterior tongue posture (P <0.001) and mandibular incisor anterior position (P = 0.007). Anterior tongue posture of the Class III group was significantly correlated with mandibular protrusion. The relationships of upper airway factors differ between Class II and Class III children. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Lingual Frenulum Lengths in Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshi, Swarna; Jagannathan, Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orofacial musculature plays a pivotal role in maintaining a balance in positioning of the teeth and any imbalance which occurs in this , results in malocclusion. Lingual frenum is a soft tissue structure which tethers the ventral surface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. Objective: This study was performed to analyze the lingual frenal lengths in skeletal class I, class II and Class III malocclusion and to correlate relationship between both. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 30 subjects, with 10 in each group and an impression was made with the maximum mouth opening position and the tip of tongue touching the incisive papilla. The length of the lingual frenum was then measured from the casts. The maximum mouth opening position was also determined by measuring the interincisal distance with the maximum mouth opening position. Statistical analysis was done to analyze the relationship between both. Results: The lingual frenum was found to be longest in class III malocclusion, with a statistical significant value of p<0.01. The class II and class I malocclusion did not show much difference. The maximum mouth opening position was also increased in class III malocclusion, followed by class II and class I malocclusion, in a descending order. Conclusion: The lingual frenum exerts erratic forces and a long lingual frenum pushes the mandibular anteriors forwards, resulting in malocclusion. Hence, a relationship between the lingual frenum and malocclusion is essential, so that the erratic forces can be eliminated and excellent results can be achieved, following the correction of malocclusion. PMID:24783137

  15. N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase in chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zagor, Mariola; Minarowska, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Krajewska, Katarzyna; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Marciniak, Justyna; Bierć, Marcin; Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Minarowski, Lukasz; Jackowska, Anna; Jackowski, Tomasz; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX) in palatine tonsils with chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy give insight in tonsillar tissue remodeling and constitute a potential marker for diagnosis and treatment of chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. Determining the concentration and specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase in palatine tonsils with hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis. HEX activity was analyzed by the method of Marciniak et al. with p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-β-glucosaminepyranoside as a substrate. The concentration and specific activity of HEX in palatine tonsils in patients with tonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis both in childhood and adulthood significantly increase in comparison to healthy individuals. Our data demonstrate the presence of HEX in palatine tonsils and indicate on significant increase of its concentration and specific activity. Based on content and specific HEX activity we suggest that tonsils with hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis should be treated as identical unit irrespectively of age. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Practical issues in multi-lingual research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Kim, Sangmi; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2016-02-01

    With an increasing number of ethnic minority populations, the use of multiple languages in one research study has increased in recent years. The use of multiple languages helps increase comprehensiveness of educational materials and/or survey questionnaires, and promote ethnic minorities' participation in research. However, little has been clearly known about practical issues in using multiple languages in one research study. The purpose of this paper is to explore practical issues in using multiple languages in a study among diverse sub-ethnic groups of Asian American breast cancer survivors in order to propose future directions for the use of multiple languages in research projects. Throughout the research process, research team made written records of practical issues and possible reasons for the issues as they arose. Weekly group discussions among research team members were administered, and the written records of these discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis. The unit of analysis was individual words. The words in the data (memos and written records) were classified into idea categories that emerged from the coding process. The idea categories included issues in: (a) collaborators from various sub-ethnic groups; (b) IRB protocol submissions; (c) consistencies in translation process, (d) conceptual equivalence; (e) cultural differences; (f) existing translated versions; and (g) authorship issues. Based on the issues, we made the following suggestions for multi-lingual research: (a) networking and setting multiple communication channels with potential collaborators; (b) checking the institution's IRB policies related to the use of multiple languages; (c) setting the rules and procedures for translation process; (d) checking existing different language versions of instruments; and (e) setting the rules for authorship in advance. The suggestions made in this study would help the researchers be prepared in advance to deal with the

  17. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the jaguar.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult jaguar (Panthera onca) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the jaguar was about 17 cm long, and the center of the lingual apex became hollow. There were 7 vallate papillae in total. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and some secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was mountain-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was mushroom-like in shape. The filiform papilla on the anterior part of the lingual body was large and cylinder-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a big conical papilla and many rod-like papillae. The filiform papilla on the central part of the lingual body was a big conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a rod process and bowl-like structure. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines.

  18. [Prevalence of chronic family tonsillitis and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Khasanov, S A; Asrorov, A A; Vokhidov, U N

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate prevalence, main causes and social factors of chronic tonsillitis (CT), we examined 321 families 335 children (age 1-15 years) from which had diagnosis of CT. The examination detected CT in the other 114 children from these families. Families of 120 healthy children matched for age served control. Family tonsillitis was detected in 171 (53.3%) families of the study group and 15 (17.5%) families of the control group (p < 0.05). Of 307 mothers of reproductive age, 84 (26.3%) were diagnosed to have CT, 36 (11.2%) of them had a history of tonsillectomy. Our data suggest the existence of family CT. To prevent it, early preventive measures should be taken.

  19. Distribution of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Milan; Vlahovic, Predrag; Avramovic, Verica; Todorovic, Miroljub

    2008-05-01

    In the pathogeneses of recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and tonsillar hypertrophy (TH), different immunological mechanisms are involved. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) and aminopeptidase N (APN) participate in the regulation of the immune response during inflammation. In this study, the localization of DPP IV and the enzymatic activities of DPP IV and APN in 32 patients, 13 with RT and 19 with TH, who underwent tonsillectomy were investigated. The localization of DPP IV in tonsils was studied using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The enzymatic activities of DPP IV and APN in tonsillar lymphocytes and the patients' sera were determined kinetically at 37 degrees C using Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide (for DPP IV) and Ala-p-nitroanilide (for APN) as chromogenic substrates. In samples from both RT and TH patients, DPP IV was found to localize mainly in extrafollicular areas of tonsillar tissue in a pattern corresponding to the T-cell distribution. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) levels of DPP IV and APN activities in sera from patients with TH than in sera from patients with RT were found. A correlation of DPP IV activities in sera and tonsillar lymphocytes from patients with TH was also found (r = 0.518; P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show that DPP IV and APN activities in sera decreased significantly with age. Tonsillar lymphocytes demonstrated a wide range of DPP IV and APN activities, without significant differences between the investigated groups. The results of this study show that the localization of DPP IV does not depend on the type of tonsillitis, whereas the variety in levels of DPP IV and APN activities in sera of patients with TH and RT suggests different patterns of participation of antigen-stimulated tonsils in the immune system.

  20. The curious case of the orange coloured tonsils.

    PubMed

    Ravesloot, M J L; Bril, H; Braamskamp, M J; Wiegman, A; Wong Chung, R P

    2014-12-01

    Tangier disease is an extremely rare and severe form of high density lipoprotein deficiency. Even though there is no specific therapy for patients with Tangier disease, it is important to recognize the clinical presentation as patients are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. The case discussed in this report, illustrates the importance of recognizing that orange discoloured tonsils are an indication that the patient could be suffering from Tangier's disease.

  1. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Shah, Shalin J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Kupferman, Michael E.; Ang, Kian K.; Rosenthal, David I.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n = 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  2. Asymptomatic Group A Streptococcus carriage in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pontin, Isabela P Olivetti; Sanchez, Daniela Cristina Janolli; Di Francesco, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most important bacterial cause of acute tonsillitis in children. Some children are chronic GAS carriers, and this carriage is poorly understood. We determined the frequency of GAS detection using a rapid antigen detection test in pediatric patients with indications for tonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy or recurrent GAS infections. Seventy-two patients underwent a tonsil swab for a rapid antigen detection test. The GAS rapid antigen detection test was positive in 18.1% of children. GAS was not associated with sex, age or previous history of recurrent tonsillitis. Also, the prevalence of GAS was similar between patients with either recurrent tonsillitis or tonsil hypertrophy. In our study, the GAS carriage rate was similar to other reports, and GAS carrier state was not correlated with recurrent tonsillitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Conservative therapy of chronic tonsillitis: comparison of different methods].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, K I; Mishen'kin, N V; Makarova, L V; Verimeevich, L I

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis was made of efficacy of chronic tonsillitis (CT) treatment with high frequency ultrasound (HFU), low frequency ultrasound (LFU) and laser. The study covered 172 CT patients aged 7 to 35 (65 males and 107 females) with CT history 5-32 years. Clinical examination included micropharyngoscopy, blood count, urine tests, microbiological investigation of tonsillar lacune lavage and nasal mucus, immunological tests, consultation of the therapist. Tonsillar prints were analysed for 40 patients. A compensated CT form was diagnosed in 58 patients, a decompensated one--in 114. The treatment efficacy was evaluated in the course of therapy and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after it. Immediate results were the best in patients treated with LFU on the palatine tonsils (73%). Patients exposed to LFU and laser showed good response in 35-37% in equal number of unsatisfactory outcomes. Repeated courses of all three therapies improved results in all the groups: good and satisfactory results were 69%, 51% and 43% for LFU, HFU, laser, respectively. Thus, LFU (Tonsillor device) is the most efficient up-to-date conservative therapy of CT which provides mechanical elimination of pathogens from the tonsils, a bactericidal effect, recovery of the barrier function.

  4. Relation between peritonsillar infection and acute tonsillitis: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kordeluk, Sofia; Novack, Lena; Puterman, Moshe; Kraus, Mordechai; Joshua, Ben-Zion

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between tonsillar and peritonsillar infections. Retrospective population-based study and a retrospective case series review. Tertiary academic medical facility. All individuals hospitalized with peritonsillar abscess (PTA) or peritonsillar cellulitis (PTC) during 2004-2008 were reviewed. Patient age, gender, diagnosis of PTA or PTC, recurrence, and date of presentation were recorded. In addition, a database of patients diagnosed in the community with acute tonsillitis (AT) was reviewed for the same time period. The weekly number of patients with AT was recorded, and a comparison between incidence of tonsillar infections and peritonsillar infection was performed. A total of 685 patients were hospitalized with either PTA (467) or PTC (218). Incidence of both upper respiratory infections and AT peaked in January and February of every year with a nadir in August. In contrast, PTA and PTC showed a consistent rate of infection throughout the year. Likewise, assessment based on weekly intervals showed that peaks of PTA and PTC did not follow those of acute tonsillitis with a 1 to 2 weekly lag as would be expected if peritonsillar infection is a complication of AT. Rather, an association between peritonsillar infection and tonsillitis was found within the same week (P = .04). Higher rates of occurrence of PTA or PTC following AT outbreaks were not found. These results lend further support to the theory that peritonsillar infection is associated not only with complications of AT but may occur from infection of Weber glands or other unknown causes.

  5. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyomatous lingual hamartoma. Differential diagnosis, especially for midline tongue mass and other paediatric tongue lesions are discussed. We also discuss the epidemiology, histopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of lingual hamartoma based on the literature review. PMID:27790477

  6. Ectopic lingual goiter treated by transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pellini, R; Mercante, G; Ruscito, P; Cristalli, G; Spriano, G

    2013-10-01

    Multinodular goiter in lingual thyroid is quite rare. Surgical removal is indicated in symptomatic patients and when cancer is suspected. An external approach is most often used, but is associated with morbidity and sequelae. In this study, we present for the first time the technique of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for removal of a massive lingual goiter. Prospective patient data were collected, including demographics, medical history, symptoms, comorbidities and drugs prescribed. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for a transoral approach to the oropharynx. The technique was validated in a 31-year-old woman with signs and symptoms of multinodular goiter presenting since childhood. The procedure required 115 min, with intervals as follows: tracheotomy, 25 min; robot setting time, 20 min; and console time, 70 min. TOR S is feasible in cases of multinodular goiter in a lingual thyroid. The procedure appears to be safe, with quick recovery of swallowing and speech.

  7. Accidental debondings: Buccal vs fully individualized lingual multibracket appliances.

    PubMed

    Ziebura, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Flieger, Stefanie; Stamm, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the frequency and localizations of bond failures (BFs) in patients treated with either lingual (TOP-Service für Lingualtechnik GmbH, a 3M Company, Bad Essen, Germany) or buccal (Mini Diamond brackets/Accent molar tubes; Ormco, Orange, Calif) full multibracket appliances in both dental arches. Data were acquired by an independent investigator from the patient records of 3 practitioners. To establish a standardized observation period, the first year of treatment was analyzed for each patient. Statistical analysis comprised the Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. The significance level was set at P <0.05. The mean number of BFs per patient in the first year of treatment did not differ significantly between the lingual group (n = 59; mean age, 31.1 years; mean BFs per patient, 2.63; SD, 2.77; minimum, 0; maximum, 13) and the buccal group (n = 44; mean age, 15.14 years; mean BFs per patient, 2.61; SD, 3.41; minimum, 0; maximum, 14) (P = 0.428) or with respect to sex (lingual group, P = 0.251; buccal group, P = 0.414) or practitioner (lingual group, P = 0.755; buccal group, P = 0.060), but molar attachments were more prone to BFs than were premolar brackets (lingual group, P = 0.015; buccal group, P = 0.049), and premolar brackets were more prone to BF than anterior brackets (lingual group, P = 0.005; buccal group, P = 0.004). With both appliances, a mean of 2.62 BFs per patient in the first year of treatment can be expected; this benchmark provides a reference for patient briefing, which is very important considering the large interindividual variances and budgeting considerations. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fine needle aspiration in chronic tonsillitis: reliable and valid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Mary; Sheelan, Suchitra; Jeyaseelan, L; Bramhadathan; Thomas, Kurien

    2003-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the tonsil as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the microflora in chronic tonsillitis has not been popularized. A prospective study of 30 patients with chronic tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy was undertaken. FNA of the tonsil core was done under local/general anaesthesia. The reliability of the culture by FNA of the tonsil core was then validated with the reference (gold) standard which is the dissected tonsil core. The sensitivity of FNA culture as compared to core culture was 100 per cent and 93 per cent under general and local anaesthesia respectively. The positive predictive value of FNA culture as compared to core culture was 92 per cent and 82 per cent for general and local anaesthesia respectively. These factors indicate that FNA of the tonsil core is reliable and valid. It can safely be performed as an out-patient procedure under local anaesthesia. This is reported for the first time. Identifying the bacterial organism within the infected tonsil for appropriate antibiotic therapy could revolutionize the management of chronic tonsillitis.

  9. The microanatomy of the palatine tonsils of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Zidan, Mohamed; Pabst, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Tonsils form a first line of defense against foreign antigens and are also a route of entry and a replication site for some pathogens. The palatine tonsils are the largest of all the tonsils. Despite their general importance, little is known about the microanatomy of the palatine tonsils of the one-humped camel. Palatine tonsils of 10 clinically healthy male camels were obtained directly after slaughtering for human consumption. The tonsils were examined macroscopically and by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Palatine tonsils had the unique form of several spherical macroscopic nodules protruding into the pharyngeal lumen. These spherical masses were numerous and close together in the lateral oropharyngeal wall, with a few solitary nodules in the dorsal wall. Each nodule had one or two apical openings to crypts, and was enclosed by an incomplete connective tissue capsule and covered apically with stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The tonsillar crypt was lined with stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium. Several lymphocytes infiltrated the epithelial layer, forming patches of reticular epithelium. Lymphoid follicles with obvious germinal centers extended under the epithelial surface. Diffusely localized lymphocytes were seen in the interfollicular region. High endothelial venules, dendritic cells, macrophages, and plasma cells were observed among these lymphocytes. The unique arrangement of palatine tonsils in separate units with individual crypts results in a very large surface exposed to antigen and indicates a significant immunological role of palatine tonsils in the camel. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more

  11. Lingual nerve paralysis after endobronchial ultrasound utilizing laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; O'Leary, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman developed loss of sensation and taste in the anterior two thirds of her tongue after undergoing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). This was believed to be due to bilateral lingual nerve injury, likely caused by stretching of tissue of the upper airway because of repetitive movements of LMA during attempts to obtain a clearer ultrasound image to direct needle insertion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of lingual nerve injury after an endobronchial ultrasound procedure using LMA.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma linguale type strain (1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Lail, Kathleen; Sikorski, Johannes; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Detter, J. Chris; Schutze, Andrea; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Spirosoma linguale Migula 1894 is the type species of the genus. S. linguale is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, known for its peculiar ringlike and horseshoe-shaped cell morphology. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete ge-nome sequence and annotation. This is only the third completed genome sequence of a member of the family Cytophagaceae. The 8,491,258 bp long genome with its eight plas-mids, 7,069 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacte-ria and Archaea project.

  13. Morphology of the filiform lingual papillae in porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A

    2011-04-01

    The light and scanning electron microscopic structure of the filiform lingual papillae was studied in five adult porcupine (three males and two females). The tongue was characterised by a round tip, a rostral median sulcus and a deep lingual fossa which was situated just rostral to a prominent inter-molar eminence corresponding to a torus linguae. The filiform papillae were curved, enclosed a large connective tissue core and were separated by wide inter-papillary zones covered by a thick epithelium. Most filiform papillae had a cylindrical shape, but the rostral and central parts of the tongue contained a number of flat, comb-shaped papillae with rounded tips.

  14. Variation in Lingual Nerve Course: A Human Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amery, Samah M.; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Naidu, Murali

    2016-01-01

    The lingual nerve is a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve. It is varied in its course and in its relationship to the mandibular alveolar crest, submandibular duct and also the related muscles in the floor of the mouth. This study aims to understand the course of the lingual nerve from the molar area until its insertion into the tongue muscle. This cadaveric research involved the study of 14 hemi-mandibles and consisted of two parts: (i) obtaining morphometrical measurements of the lingual nerve to three landmarks on the alveolar ridge, and (b) understanding non-metrical or morphological appearance of its terminal branches inserting in the ventral surface of the tongue. The mean distance between the fourteen lingual nerves and the alveolar ridge was 12.36 mm, and they were located 12.03 mm from the lower border of the mandible. These distances were varied when near the first molar (M1), second molar (M2) and third molar (M3). The lingual nerve coursed on the floor of the mouth for approximately 25.43 mm before it deviated toward the tongue anywhere between the mesial of M1 and distal of M2. Thirteen lingual nerves were found to loop around the submandibular duct for an average distance of 6.92 mm (95% CI: 5.24 to 8.60 mm). Their looping occurred anywhere between the M2 and M3. In 76.9% of the cases the loop started around the M3 region and the majority (69.2%) of these looping ended at between the first and second molars and at the lingual developmental groove of the second molar. It gave out as many as 4 branches at its terminal end at the ventral surface of the tongue, with the presence of 2 branches being the most common pattern. An awareness of the variations of the lingual nerve is important to prevent any untoward complications or nerve injury and it is hoped that these findings will be useful for planning of surgical procedures related to the alveolar crest, submandibular gland/ duct and surrounding areas. PMID:27662622

  15. Differential proteome analysis of tonsils from children with chronic tonsillitis or with hyperplasia reveals disease-associated protein expression differences.

    PubMed

    Just, Tino; Gafumbegete, Evariste; Gramberg, Jan; Prüfer, Ines; Mikkat, Stefan; Ringel, Bruno; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Glocker, Michael O

    2006-03-01

    A proteomic approach has been used to establish a proteome map and differentiate between the protein composition of tonsils from patients with chronic tonsillitis (CT) and that of tonsils with hyperplasia (HPL). Two-dimensional gel analysis was performed with material from four patients with HPL and five patients with CT. An average of approximately 600 spots were detected in each gel. A total of 127 different proteins were identified in 158 spots analyzed by mass spectrometry. Our study revealed disease-associated differences between protein abundance for two protein spots, an HSP27 isoform and UMP-CMP kinase. Both protein spots were more abundant in the CT group. HSP27 ELISA was performed for 32 patients, 12 belonging to the HPL group and 20 to the CT group. ELISA could not be used to differentiate HSP27 isoforms nor to distinguish CT from HPL. HSP27 was found to migrate to two further protein spots in the 2D gels. The differently expressed HSP27 isoform migrated as the most acidic of all the HSP27 isoforms detected, indicating the highest degree of phosphorylation. The sum of all three HSP27 abundances in the gels from the CT group was not different from that of the HPL group, consistent with the ELISA results. Our results suggest that phosphorylation differences caused the observed migration differences of HSP27. Together with the UMP-CMP kinase abundance differences, we conclude that kinase and/or phosphatase activity are different in CT and HPL.

  16. Carbon-dioxide laser-assisted tonsil ablation for adults with chronic tonsillitis: a 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Marc; Keghian, Jerome; Lawson, Georges; Jamart, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    Sixty-six adult patients with a mean age of 44 years (range: 16-78) with chronic tonsillitis underwent laser-assisted tonsil ablation between January 1998 and January 2002. Instead of vaporization of the tonsil surface, extended serial tonsillectomy was performed, namely, vaporizing 80-90% of the palatine lymphoid tissue. Of the 66 patients, 49 (74%) underwent local anesthesia (LA group) and 17 (26%) general anesthesia (GA group). In the LA group, one surgical session sufficed for 40 patients (82%); two sessions were required for seven patients (14%) and three sessions for two patients (4%). Monopolar electrocautery was necessary to ensure hemostasis in two patients (3%). Median value results revealed a pain-intensity score of 4.5 (range: 0-10) for the GA group and 5 (range: 0-10) for the LA group. Pain lasted for 3 days (range: 0-15) in both groups (nonsignificant difference). A satisfaction score of 10 (range: 1-10) was recorded for the GA group and 8 (range: 1-10) for the LA group (P=0.029). The minimum follow-up was 6 months. Forty of the 49 LA group patients (82%) and 16 of the 17 GA group patients (94%) would recommend the surgical procedure and would accept undergoing the same operation again (nonsignificant difference).

  17. Lingual Propulsive Pressures across Consistencies Generated by the Anteromedian and Posteromedian Tongue by Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Laura L.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Hageman, Carlin F.; LaPointe, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated lingual propulsive pressures generated in the normal swallow by the anterior and posterior lingual segments for various consistencies and maximum isometric tasks. Method: Lingual pressures for saliva, thin, and honey-thick liquid boluses were measured via the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument…

  18. Lingual Propulsive Pressures across Consistencies Generated by the Anteromedian and Posteromedian Tongue by Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Laura L.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Hageman, Carlin F.; LaPointe, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated lingual propulsive pressures generated in the normal swallow by the anterior and posterior lingual segments for various consistencies and maximum isometric tasks. Method: Lingual pressures for saliva, thin, and honey-thick liquid boluses were measured via the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument…

  19. Teratogenic effects of the interaction acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol: morphologic and morphometric evaluation of the lingual epithelium in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, S A; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; de Moraes Grisi, M F; Novaes, A B; de Souza, S L S; Taba, M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of the interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol on the epithelium of the lingual mucosa in rat fetuses. On the 10th pregnancy day, a single intraperitoneal ethanol dose (2.96 g/kg body weight) (Group I), ASA (200 mg/kg body weight) (Group II) and ASA plus ethanol, in the same doses (Group III), or saline (Group IV - control), were administrated. The epithelial alterations were assessed by means of histological and morphometric methods, on posterior dorsal, anterior dorsal and ventral regions of the tongue. ASA reduced, in rat fetuses, the ethanol deleterious effects on nuclear size in the epithelial prickle cell of the lingual mucosa. On the other hand, ASA did not influence the effects of ethanol in both epithelial layers of the lingual mucosa, when the nuclear shape, cell volume or epithelial layers thickness were evaluated.

  20. Is the difference in the volume of the pharyngeal space, as measured by acoustic pharyngometry, before and after tonsillectomy proportional to the volume of the excised tonsils?

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Renata C; Kreibich, Mariana Schmidt

    2016-05-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is recognized as an effective therapy for snoring and sleep disorders in children. It is important to understand whether adenotonsillectomy significantly increases the volume of the pharyngeal space. The goal of this study was to evaluate the change in oropharyngeal volume after adenotonsillectomy and the correlation of this change with the objective volume of the tonsils and body mass index. We included 27 subjects (14 males) with snoring caused by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. The mean age of the subjects was 7.92 (±2.52) years. Children with craniofacial malformations or neuromuscular diseases or syndromes were excluded. The parents/caregivers answered an adapted questionnaire regarding sleep-disordered breathing. All patients were subjected to weight and height measurements and body mass index was calculated. The subjects underwent pharyngometry before and after adenotonsillectomy and the volume of both excised tonsils together was measured in cm3 in the operating room. Pharyngometric analysis showed that the mean pharyngeal volume was 28.63 (±5.57) cm3 before surgery and 31.23 (±6.76) cm3 after surgery; the volume of the oropharynx was significantly increased post-surgery (p=0.015, Wilcoxon test). No correlation was found between the objective tonsil volume and the post-surgical volume increase (p=0.6885). There was a fair correlation between the oropharyngeal volume and body mass index (p=0.0224). Adenotonsillectomy increases the volume of the pharyngeal space, but this increase does not correlate with the objective tonsil size. Furthermore, greater BMI was associated with a smaller increase in the pharyngeal volume. Oropharyngeal structures and craniofacial morphology may also play a role in the increase in oropharyngeal volume.

  1. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

  2. Multi-Lingual, but Not Making It in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusuma-Powell, Ochan

    2004-01-01

    International schools are increasingly identifying Functionally Multi-Lingual children in their student populations. These students, bilingual or multilingual at surface levels of conversation, have not established academic competence in any single language. In many cases, the teacher may assume that another, more robust language exists, when in…

  3. Idiopathic Lingual Artery Aneurysm: CT Findings and Endovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, R.S.; Fernandez, P.M.; Sattenberg, R.J.; Flynn, M.B.; Heidenreich, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe a 65-year-old woman with an asymptomatic idiopathic lingual artery aneurysm which is suspected to be congenital. We review the literature on external carotid artery branch aneurysms, diagnostic evaluation and discuss treatment options for the various types and the specific chosen in the case presented. PMID:20377988

  4. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  5. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  6. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  7. Multi-Lingual Rehabilitation Terminology; A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    In order to assess the need and status of sources of multi-lingual rehabilitation terminology references, a questionnaire was sent to 96 related national and international organizations and selected individuals inquiring about the existance of present or developing terminology references. Results of the questionnaires indicated the availability of…

  8. A System for Supporting Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanne; Diagne, Abdel Kader; Erbach, Gregor; Uszkoreit, Hans; Leisenberg, Anne; Leisenberg, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    Describes the MULINEX system that supports cross-lingual searching of the World Wide Web. Users can formulate queries, filter the search results and read documents by using their native language. Discusses dictionary-based query translation, multilingual document categorization, and automatic translation that supports French, German, and English.…

  9. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  10. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  11. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  12. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  13. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  14. The effect of taste and palatability on lingual swallowing pressure.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Cathy A; Dhanaraj, Glory E

    2006-04-01

    There is evidence that a strong, unpalatable, sour bolus improves swallowing in neurogenic dysphagia. It is not known whether other tastes may alter swallowing physiology. This study investigated the effect of moderate versus high taste concentrations (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and barium taste samples on lingual swallowing pressure in ten healthy young adults, using a three-bulb lingual pressure array secured to the hard palate. Palatability of the samples was analyzed using the nine-point hedonic scale. Results showed that moderate sucrose, high salt, and high citric acid elicited significantly higher lingual swallowing pressures compared with the pressures generated by water. Pressures in the anterior bulb were significantly higher than those recorded from the middle or posterior bulb. There was no significant effect of palatability on lingual swallowing pressures. High salt and citric acid are known to elicit chemesthesis mediated by the trigeminal nerve. These results suggest that chemesthesis may play a crucial role in swallowing physiology. If true, dysphagia diet recommendations that include trigeminal irritants such as carbonation may be beneficial to individuals with dysphagia. However, before this recommendation more research is needed to examine how food properties and their perception affect swallowing in individuals with and without dysphagia.

  15. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of lingual dystonia induced by speaking.

    PubMed

    Budak, F; Aydın, E; Koçkaya, A; Ilbay, G

    2013-01-01

    Primary lingual dystonia is a rare condition, especially when it is only induced by speaking. Trihexyphenidyl failed to improve the symptoms. Several case series have demonstrated the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection for the management of focal lingual movement disorders. Only 1 case of botulinum toxin injection for primary lingual dystonia induced by speaking has been reported, but this treatment has limited effectiveness. Our patient was treated with botulinum toxin using a superficial approach for injection into the tongue with continuing excellent results. Lingual botulinum toxin injection is a fairly simple, safe and viable treatment option for lingual dystonia induced by speaking.

  16. Distribution of the lingual foramina in mandibular cortical bone in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Moon Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The interforminal region, between the mandibular foramen, is known as a relatively safe area that is free of anatomic structures, such as inferior alveolar nerve, submandibular fossa, and lingual side of the mandible is occasionally neglected for its low clinical importance. Even in the case of a severely constricted alveolus, perforation of the lingual cortical bone had been intended. However, anterior extension of the inferior alveolar canal, important anatomic structure, such as concavity of lingual bone, lingual foramina, and lingual canal, has recently been reported through various studies, and untypical bleeding by perforation of the lingual plate on implantation has also been reported. Therefore, in this study, we performed radiographic and statistical analysis on distribution and appearance frequencies of the lingual foramina that causes perforation of the mandibular lingual cortical bone to prevent complications, such as untypical bleeding, during surgical procedure. Materials and Methods We measured the horizontal length from a midline of the mandible to the lingual foramina, as well as the horizontal length from the alveolar crest to the lingual foramina and from the lingual foramina to the mandibular border by multi-detector computed tomography of 187 patients, who visited Dankook University Dental Hospital for various reasons from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2012. Results From a total of 187 human mandibles, 110 (58.8%) mandibles had lingual foramina; 39 (20.9%) had bilateral lingual foramen; 34 (18.2%) had the only left lingual foramen; and 37 (19.8%) had the only right lingual foramen. Conclusion When there is consistent bleeding during a surgical procedure, clinicians must consider damages on the branches of the sublingual artery, which penetrate the lingual foramina. Also, when there is a lingual foramina larger than 1 mm in diameter on a pre-implantation computed tomography, clinicians must beware of vessel damage. In order to prevent

  17. Lingual split versus surgical bur technique in the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steel, Ben

    2012-09-01

    The relative merits of different surgical techniques to extract impacted mandibular third molars have been debated for many years. A simple classification is those using a bur and those using a chisel. This article seeks to identify any differences in postoperative outcomes between the surgical bur and lingual split techniques. Using inclusion criteria allowing randomized controlled trials only, 5 studies are identified of which 4 are used in the analysis. The following outcomes are investigated: pain, swelling, trismus, bleeding, delayed healing/infection, and disturbance to lingual and inferior alveolar nerve function. The limited analysis allowed by the number and size of the studies leads to tentative conclusions of no difference between postoperative pain and swelling, and some evidence of less trismus for the lingual split technique. There is some weak evidence of a similar incidence of neurological sequelae between the 2 techniques, but this is not a strong conclusion owing to the small size of the included studies. There are inadequate data regarding bleeding and delayed healing/infection for analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of in-feed versus injected oxytetracycline on piglet nasal and tonsil microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies have revealed the core microbiome of pig nasal and tonsil regions. However, little is known about how antibiotics and their different routes of administration affect the microbiome of these areas. Such questions are important areas to research since the tonsil and nasal regions are p...

  19. Identification and immunolocalization of the innate immune receptor CD14 in hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yaakov, Avraham; Maly, Bella; Abu-Ita, Rani; Elidan, Josef; Gross, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the expression of CD14 as a marker of the innate immunity in hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils. Twenty-four pediatric patients (age <12 years) with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy, confirmed by sleep study were included in this study. Intensity and expression of positive CD14 infiltrating cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry in specific histologic areas. In tonsils, CD14 immunoreactivity was demonstrated in intraepithelial lymphocytes located in the basal layer of the stratified squamous mucoepithelium. CD14 expression was significantly higher in mucosal layers and inter-follicular areas of tonsils than adenoid tissues [(p < 0.001), (p = 0.021), respectively]. CD14 expression was significantly higher in the submucosal layers of adenoids than tonsil tissues (p = 0.002). Hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils from children with OSA are prominent sites of innate defense, with over expression of CD14. The enhanced expressions of CD14 cells in adenoids and tonsils may be an important factor for the development and persistence of adenoids and tonsils enlargement causing OSA in children. CD14 expression in adenoids and tonsils illustrates an important immunological sentinel function of the innate immunity of the upper airway.

  20. Correlation between throat-related symptoms and histological examination in adults with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Pribuišienė, Rūta; Šarauskas, Valdas; Kuzminienė, Alina; Uloza, Virgilijus

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate correlations between throat-related symptoms and histological findings in adults with chronic tonsillitis. A prospective cohort study was carried out. Throat-related symptoms (complaints, tonsillitis rate, and pharyngeal findings) of 81 adults with histologically proven chronic tonsillitis followed by tonsillectomy were analyzed. Four types of histological changes in removed tonsils were determined: (1) pure hyperplasia, (2) chronic inflammation, (3) chronic inflammation with hyperplasia, (4) chronic inflammation with scarring/fibrosis. The power of correlation was tested using the Pearson contingency coefficient (CC). Recurrent throat infections were the most common complaint (74.1%). The mean tonsillitis rate was 3.6 (SD 1.9) episodes per year. Tonsillar cryptic debris (61.7%) and hyperemia of the anterior pillars (59.3%) were the most common pharyngeal findings. Chronic inflammation with hyperplasia was predominant (38.3%) histological type of chronic tonsillitis. The statistically significant correlations between histological type and combination of tonsillitis rate ≥3 times per year with cryptic debris (CC=0.346; P=0.010) and cryptic debris alone (CC=0.294; P=0.051) were detected. Assessment of throat-related symptoms is complementary to histological examination in adults with chronic tonsillitis. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Contour of lingual surface in lower complete denture formed by polished surface impression.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yu-Ri; Kim, Hee-Jung; Son, Mee-Kyoung; Chung, Chae-Heon

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the shapes of lingual polished surfaces in lower complete dentures formed by polished surface impressions and to provide reference data for use when manufacturing edentulous trays and lower complete dentures. Twenty-six patients with mandibular edentulism were studied. After lower wax dentures were fabricated, wax was removed from the lingual side of the wax denture and a lingual polished surface impression was obtained with tissue conditioner. The definitive denture was scanned with a three-dimensional scanner, and scanned images were obtained. At the cross-sections of the lingual frenum, lateral incisors, first premolars, first molars, and anterior border of the retromolar pads, three points were marked and eight measurements were taken. The Kruskal-Wallis test and a post hoc analysis with the Mann-Whitney test were performed. Each patient showed similar values for the same areas on the left and right sides without a statistically significant difference. The height of the contour of the lingual polished surface at the lingual frenum was halfway between the occlusal plane and lingual border, it moved gradually in a downward direction. The angle from the occlusal plane to the height of the contour of the lingual polished surface was increased as it progressed from the lingual frenum towards the retromolar pads. The shape of the mandibular lingual polished surface was convex at the lingual frenum, lateral incisors and gradually flattened towards the first molars and retromolar pads.

  2. Contour of lingual surface in lower complete denture formed by polished surface impression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to analyze the shapes of lingual polished surfaces in lower complete dentures formed by polished surface impressions and to provide reference data for use when manufacturing edentulous trays and lower complete dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-six patients with mandibular edentulism were studied. After lower wax dentures were fabricated, wax was removed from the lingual side of the wax denture and a lingual polished surface impression was obtained with tissue conditioner. The definitive denture was scanned with a three-dimensional scanner, and scanned images were obtained. At the cross-sections of the lingual frenum, lateral incisors, first premolars, first molars, and anterior border of the retromolar pads, three points were marked and eight measurements were taken. The Kruskal-Wallis test and a post hoc analysis with the Mann-Whitney test were performed. RESULTS Each patient showed similar values for the same areas on the left and right sides without a statistically significant difference. The height of the contour of the lingual polished surface at the lingual frenum was halfway between the occlusal plane and lingual border, it moved gradually in a downward direction. The angle from the occlusal plane to the height of the contour of the lingual polished surface was increased as it progressed from the lingual frenum towards the retromolar pads. CONCLUSION The shape of the mandibular lingual polished surface was convex at the lingual frenum, lateral incisors and gradually flattened towards the first molars and retromolar pads. PMID:28018565

  3. Lingual access for third molar surgery: a 20-year retrospective audit.

    PubMed

    Moss, C E; Wake, M J

    1999-08-01

    We describe a technique for obtaining lingual access for the insertion of a wide metal retractor to protect the lingual nerve from accidental damage during third molar surgery. We also report an audit of a single practice over a 20-year period using the technique described. The approach involves raising soft tissues on the lingual side of the lower third molar tooth to allow insertion of a broad Hovell's lingual retractor. We conclude that raising lingual tissues to form a wide tension-free flap and inserting a specifically designed retractor does not increase the incidence of lingual nerve morbidity. Indeed, the overall incidence of lingual nerve damage was particularly low compared with those in other published series.

  4. A rare cause of tonsil mass in a child: Lymphoid polyp

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongzhao; Ulualp, Seckin O; Sengupta, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Solitary mass lesions of the palatine tonsils are rare in children. While a tonsillar mass can be concerning for a neoplasm, benign conditions may present with a mass arising from the surface of the palatine tonsils in children. We describe clinical and histopathological characteristics of a lymphoid polyp in a child with unilateral tonsillar mass. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 6-year-old girl presented for evaluation of recurrent acute tonsillitis and a mass on the left palatine tonsil. A pedunculated mass with the base attached to the left palatine tonsil was observed. The mass was completely removed by tonsillectomy. The final diagnosis was lymphoid polyp. Conclusion: Pediatricians, otolaryngologists, and pathologists should be aware of the occurrence of tonsillar lymphoid polyp in the pediatric age group. PMID:28228963

  5. RGB Measurements From Endoscopic Photography as a New and Objective Diagnostic Method for Chronic Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, Alper; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan; Meric Hafiz, Aysenur

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic role of a digital photographic assessment of chronic tonsillitis. This study was performed at a tertiary referral center. Three cohorts of children were studied based on their diagnoses: current chronic tonsillitis (before tonsillectomy), previous chronic tonsillitis (3 months after tonsillectomy), and healthy children (control group). Oropharyngeal regions of all subjects were examined and photographed endoscopically. Red/green/blue (RGB) values of particular oropharyngeal points were then measured. The current chronic tonsillitis group differed significantly from the other 2 groups. The RGB values of the current chronic tonsillitis group were significantly higher than those of the previous chronic tonsillitis group (3 months after tonsillectomy) and the control group (P = 0.018 (red), P = 0.024 (green), and P = 0.004 (blue)). The RGB values did not differ significantly between the previous chronic tonsillitis group and the control group (P = 0.684 [red], P = 0.890 [green], and P = 0.672 [blue]). The RGB values of the previous chronic tonsillitis group decreased significantly 3 months after tonsillectomy (P = 0.015 [red], P = 0.033 [green], and P = 0.001 [blue]). Sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 90%, the positive predictive value was 59%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the general power of the test was 88.6% regarding the power and competence of the RGB test in the diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis. Measuring RGB values may be an inexpensive and simple way to quickly provide objective and corroborative information on hyperemia of the anterior pillars in diagnosing chronic tonsillitis in conjunction with subjective methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling of the buccal and lingual bone walls of fresh extraction sites following implant installation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Wennström, Jan L; Lindhe, Jan

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether the reduction of the alveolar ridge that occurs following tooth extraction and implant placement is influenced by the size of the hard tissue walls of the socket. Six beagle dogs were used. The third premolar and first molar in both quadrants of the mandible were used. Mucoperiostal flaps were elevated and the distal roots were removed. Implants were installed in the fresh extraction socket in one side of the mandible. The flaps were replaced to allow a semi-submerged healing. The procedure was repeated in the contra later side of the mandible after 2 months. The animals were sacrificed 1 month after the final implant installation. The mandibles were dissected, and each implant site was removed and processed for ground sectioning. Marked hard tissue alterations occurred during healing following tooth extraction and implant installation in the socket. The marginal gap that was present between the implant and the walls of the socket at implantation disappeared as a result of bone fill and resorption of the bone crest. The modeling in the marginal defect region was accompanied by marked attenuation of the dimensions of both the delicate buccal and the wider lingual bone wall. Bone loss at molar sites was more pronounced than at the premolar locations. Implant placement failed to preserve the hard tissue dimension of the ridge following tooth extraction. The buccal as well as the lingual bone walls were resorbed. At the buccal aspect, this resulted in some marginal loss of osseointegration.

  7. Scanning electron microscopic study of the lingual papillae in the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Jackowiak, H; Godynicki, S; Skieresz-Szewczyk, K; Trzcielińska-Lorych, J

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to show the distribution and the three-dimensional structure of the lingual papillae in the arctic fox. The macro- and microscopic structure of the tongue and its lingual papillae was studied in 11 adult arctic foxes. Two types of mechanical papillae were distinguished on the dorsal surface of the tongue--filiform papillae and conical papillae. The gustatory papillae in the arctic fox are represented by fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae. The keratinized filiform papillae on the anterior part of tongue are composed of one big posterior process accompanied by 10-12 secondary anterior processes. The number of anterior processes of filiform papillae undergo a complete reduction within the area between the posterior part of the body of the tongue and area of the vallate papillae. The conical papillae cover the whole dorsal surface of the root of the tongue, including the lateral parts surrounding the area of the vallate papillae and the posterior part of the root. The size of the conical papillae increases towards the root of the tongue but their density decreases. In the arctic fox, there are three pairs of vallate papillae distributed on the plan of a triangle. The diameter of vallate papillae in each successive pair is bigger. The wall surrounding the body of the vallate papilla and its gustatory trench is composed of six to eight conical papillae joined at various degree. The foliate papillae on both margins of the tongue consist of seven to nine laminae.

  8. Tubal tonsil hypertrophy: a cause of recurrent symptoms after adenoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Emerick, Kevin S; Cunningham, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    To assess the incidence of symptomatic tubal tonsil hypertrophy (TTH) after adenoidectomy and to attempt to differentiate the clinicoradiographic presentation of TTH from that of recurrent or residual adenoid. Retrospective case series review. Pediatric otolaryngology practice in a tertiary care hospital. The charts of all patients scheduled to undergo revision adenoidectomy or nasopharyngeal examination under anesthesia over a 5-year period in 1 pediatric otolaryngologist's practice were reviewed. Presence of TTH in patients with recurrent symptoms after previous adenoidectomy. Forty-two patients were identified, 24 of whom satisfied the established criteria of recurrent symptoms after previous adenoidectomy. Ten (42%) of these patients were identified as having TTH. The average age at presentation was 7 years 2 months, at an average time interval of 4 years 2 months after adenoidectomy. The comparative incidence of recurrent or residual adenoid was 54%. The symptomatic manifestations of TTH included nasal obstruction, obstructive sleep disorder, rhinosinusitis, recurrent otitis media, and otitis media with effusion. Preoperative radiographic evaluation was not useful in distinguishing TTH from recurrent or residual adenoid; nasopharyngoscopy appears to have better diagnostic potential. Thermal ablation with suction cautery was therapeutically effective. Tubal tonsil hypertrophy is a significant clinical entity as a cause of recurrent symptoms after adenoidectomy. The study patients demonstrated the entire spectrum of signs and symptoms seen in patients with adenoid hypertrophy. Operative nasopharyngeal examination is required to definitively distinguish TTH from recurrent or residual adenoid.

  9. Systemic matrix metalloproteinase-8 response in chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Lont, Triin; Hagström, Jaana; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Munck-Wickland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2017-04-01

    The development of several life-long diseases, such as coronary heart disease, is affected by low-grade systemic inflammation. Data on the potential long-term health effects of chronic tonsillitis are limited. Many inflammatory conditions present with enhanced systemic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 response. In head and neck cancer, high plasma level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 predicts poor prognosis. We analyzed S-MMP-8 with immunofluorometric assay and S-TIMP-1 with an immunosorbent assay in 175 consecutive patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign tonsillar disease, and in 33 control patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. Tonsillar human papillomavirus (HPV) status was determined by PCR. In patients with benign tonsillar disease, chronic tonsillitis without hypertrophy was associated with enhanced systemic MMP-8 response. Compared to patients with benign tonsillar disease, patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma had significantly higher concentrations of S-MMP-8 and S-TIMP-1. Neither S-MMP-8 nor S-TIMP-1 correlated with tonsillar HPV positivity.

  10. Quality of life after tonsillectomy in children with recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Nira A; Stewart, Michael G; Witsell, David L; Hannley, Maureen T; Weaver, Edward M; Yueh, Bevan; Smith, Timothy L; Orvidas, Laura J

    2008-01-01

    To describe changes in disease-specific and global quality of life (QOL) for children with recurrent or chronic tonsillitis at 6 months and 1 year after tonsillectomy using two validated instruments, the Tonsil and Adenoid Health Status Instrument (TAHSI) and the Child Health Questionaire-PF28 (CHQ-PF28). A multicenter, prospective observational outcomes study. Ninety-two children, mean age (SD) 10.6 (3.4) years, enrolled with follow-up available for 58 children at 6 months and 38 children at 1 year. The children showed significant improvements in all subscales of the TAHSI including airway and breathing, infection, health care utilization, cost of care, eating and swallowing (all P < 0.001), and behavior (P = 0.01). Significant improvements were also found on several subscales of the CHQ-PF28, such as general health perceptions, physical functioning, parental impact, and family activities (all P < 0.001). This uncontrolled study provides prospective evidence of improved disease-specific and global QOL in children after tonsillectomy.

  11. Spatial organisation of microbiota in quiescent adenoiditis and tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Swidsinski, A; Göktas, Ö; Bessler, C; Loening‐Baucke, V; Hale, L P; Andree, H; Weizenegger, M; Hölzl, M; Scherer, H; Lochs, H

    2007-01-01

    Background The reasons for recurrent adenotonsillitis are poorly understood. Methods The in situ composition of microbiota of nasal (5 children, 25 adults) and of hypertrophied adenoid and tonsillar tissue (50 children, 20 adults) was investigated using a broad range of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes targeted to bacterial rRNA. None of the patients had clinical signs of infection at the time of surgery. Results Multiple foci of ongoing purulent infections were found within hypertrophied adenoid and tonsillar tissue in 83% of patients, including islands and lawns of bacteria adherent to the epithelium, with concomitant marked inflammatory response, fissures filled with bacteria and pus, and diffuse infiltration of the tonsils by bacteria, microabscesses, and macrophages containing phagocytosed microorganisms. Haemophilusinfluenzae mainly diffusely infiltrated the tissue, Streptococcus and Bacteroides were typically found in fissures, and Fusobacteria,Pseudomonas and Burkholderia were exclusively located within adherent bacterial layers and infiltrates. The microbiota were always polymicrobial. Conclusions Purulent processes persist during asymptomatic periods of adenotonsillitis. Most bacteria involved in this process are covered by a thick inflammatory infiltrate, are deeply invading, or are located within macrophages. The distribution of the bacteria within tonsils may be responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. PMID:16698947

  12. [The role of chronic tonsillitis in the development of reproductive pathology in women of child-bearing age].

    PubMed

    Slavskiĭ, A N

    2009-01-01

    Women of child-bearing age with decompensated form of chronic tonsillitis should be regarded as being at high risk of endocrine infertility. Early identification and sanitization of the chronic infectious focus (chronic tonsillitis) is necessary to avoid irreversible changes in the functional capacity of the reproductive system. Sanitization of palatine tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis and reproductive pathology promotes normalization of their hormonal status. Therefore, a gynecologist examining women with menstrual disturbances should take into consideration their possible association with chronic tonsillitis and refer such patients to otorhinolaryngologist.

  13. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct. PMID:25861502

  14. Identification of lingual glands and ducts ventrally in pigs' tongues.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K

    1989-01-01

    Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778

  15. Cytokines locally produced by lymphocytes removed from the hypertrophic nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Komorowska, Anna; Komorowski, Jan; Banasik, Małgorzata; Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Tchórzewski, Henryk

    2005-07-01

    Human palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngheal tonsil are the largest components of the Waldeyer's ring. Subepithelial and intraepithelial lymphocytes of human adenoids and tonsils are responsible for the local and the systemic immune response. We studied the cytokine production by lymphoid cells isolated from 16 nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoid) and 9 palatine tonsils surgically removed by from 25 children (aged from 4 to 15 years) suffering from tonsil hypertrophy. We evaluated (by the cytometry method, using BD Bioscience kits, San Diego, CA) the concentration of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TNF(alpha) and IFN(gamma) released from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MC) (activated or not activated by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)) cultured in vitro during 72 h. The fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis was also performed and the percentage of mononuclear cells (unstimulated or activated by phorbol acetate during 24 h) stained with the monoclonal antibodies anti-CD3 containing the intracellular cytokines was calculated. The increased secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF(alpha) and IFN(gamma) from PHA activated palatine origin immune cell cultures, as compared to adenoids, was revealed. The higher mobilization (Delta%) of CD3+ T-lymphocytes containing IL-12 in palatine cell cultures (798.5+/-276.29%), in comparison with to the adenoids (298.5+/-49.16%; p< or =0.05), was also noted. In palatine tonsils, as compared to adenoids, the cellular immune (Th1) response dominates over humoral immune (Th2) reaction.

  16. Chronic tonsillitis is not associated with beta defensin 1 gene polymorphisms in Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Fatih; Babakurban, Seda Turkoglu; Erbek, Selim S; Sahin, Feride I; Terzi, Yunus Kasım

    2015-04-01

    Defensins are antimicrobial peptides expressed on mucosal surfaces. They function as part of the innate immune system. Palatine tonsils play important roles in innate immune system. However, our knowledge on the pathophysiology of chronic tonsils is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between beta defensin 1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and chronic tonsillitis. Prospective, non-randomized, controlled clinical study. Tertiary referral center. Eighty six patients with chronic tonsillitis and eighty controls without history of chronic tonsillitis were enrolled in this study. Genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses after polymerase chain reaction. Genotype and allele frequencies of the -20G/A (rs11362), -44C/G (rs1800972) and -52G/A (rs1799946) single nucleotide polymorphisms were not statistically different between patients and control groups (p>0.05). In this study, we found that DEFB1 gene -20G/A, -44C/G and -52G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with chronic tonsillitis. Studies, which analyse other polymorphism of the beta defensin 1 gene in large case series, should be conducted to understand the role of DEFB1 gene on chronic tonsillitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered dipeptidyl peptidase IV and prolyl endopeptidase activities in chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Larrinaga, Gorka; Pérez, Itxaro; Sanz, Begoña; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Casis, Luis; Anta, Jose Antonio; Martínez, Agustin; Santaolalla, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    To analyse peptidase activities in the removed tonsils and adenoids from patients with chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia. We have analyzed 48 tissue samples from patients undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia or adenoid hyperplasia. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy samples were collected and frozen for later enzyme analysis. The catalytic activity of a pool of peptidases (dipeptidyl peptidase IV, prolyl endopeptidase, aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase N, aspartyl aminopeptidase, aminopeptidase B, neutral endopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptidase I, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase and cystinyl aminopeptidase) was measured fluorometrically. The activity of prolyl endopeptidase was higher in tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia than in chronic tonsillitis. On the contrary, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was higher in chronic tonsillitis than in hypertrophic tissues. When data were stratified by age and gender, dipeptidyl peptidase IV was also found to be more active in adult and male chronic tonsillitis tissues. Inversely, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was higher in tissues of females with tonsillar hyperplasia. These data indicate the involvement of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and prolyl endopeptidase in the mechanisms underlying chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EBV infection is prevalent in the adenoid and palatine tonsils in adults.

    PubMed

    Seishima, Noriko; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Imoto, Tomoko; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Hatano, Miyako; Ueno, Takayoshi; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases in both adults and children. However, there have been no reports on the prevalence and amount of EBV in the adenoids of adults; thus, it is important to investigate these in the adenoids and tonsils of adults and children. In this study, 67 patients who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were included and divided into two groups: adults aged ≥ 16 years (n = 35) and children aged <16 years (n = 32). Patients' adenoid and tonsil tissues were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA. EBV was detected in 26 (74%) adenoids and 25 (71%) tonsils among the adult group and was detected 21 (66%) adenoids and 20 (63%) tonsils in the child group. There was no significant difference in EBV DNA prevalence between the adenoids and tonsils for each group. However, there was a significant correlation between EBV DNA load in the adenoids and tonsils of the same individual in both groups (r = 0.579, P < 0.01, adult group; r = 0.919, P < 0.01, child group). In conclusion, EBV infection is prevalent in the adenoids and tonsils in adults and children. These results indicate that EBV continuously reside in the nasopharyngeal region after primal infection and may develop several diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Superoxide dismutase in pediatric palatine tonsils and adenoids and its related clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Nae; Yeo, Sang W; Park, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Min-Kyo; Lee, Heung-Youp; Chae, Sayong

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a protective system of pediatric palatine tonsils and adenoids against superoxide radicals (O(2)(-)) and to evaluate the clinical factors including otitis media with effusion that are related to both the expression and activities of copper zinc superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs). CuZnSODs in the palatine tonsils and adenoids were studied using immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry showed that CuZnSODs distribute in the crypt epithelium, mucous membrane, mantle zone, and extrafollicular area of the pediatric adenoids as well as in the palatine tonsils. Otitis media with effusion and paranasal sinusitis were related to CuZnSODs expression in the pediatric adenoids. In addition, the frequency of tonsillitis and presence of recent tonsillitis were significantly related to CuZnSODs expression in the pediatric tonsils (P <.05). In both the pediatric palatine tonsils and adenoids, the mechanism of tissue protection against infection and frequent inflammatory reactions may be closely related to CuZnSODs expression. There may be close relationship between the increased level of O(2)(-) that leads to an increase in CuZnSODs in the pediatric adenoid tissue and the development of otitis media.

  20. The influence of tonsillitis on oral and throat muscles in adults.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) was performed on randomly chosen adults with acute and recurrent tonsillitis to trace changes in muscle activity. Randomized prospective study. Activity of masseter (MS), submental (SUB), and infrahyoid muscles (INF) were examined and statistically analyzed during deglutition being compared to normative databases. For acute tonsillitis, the duration of muscle activity during deglutition was normal with normal amplitude, except for INF muscles. When the acute episode was over, no peculiarities remained. For recurrent tonsillitis, the duration of activity and SUB amplitude remains normal and activity of MS and INF became increased, and this abnormality remained during the remissions. Acute and recurrent tonsillitis affect muscle activity significantly by involving additional muscles (mainly infrahyoid) in swallowing. Acute tonsillitis triggers temporary electric hyperactivity of infrahyoid muscles. Recurrent tonsillitis affects MS and INF even during periods of remission (fixed pathological changes). This data might justify patients' complaints during the period of remission and can be used for comparison purposes to trace possible complications of tonsillitis.

  1. Interventions in the Alteration on Lingual Frenum: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla Poliseni; Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Gomes, Erissandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Altered lingual frenum modifies the normal tongue mobility, which may influence the stomatognathic functions, resulting in anatomical, physiological and social damage to the subject. It is necessary that health professionals are aware of the process of evaluation, diagnostics and treatment used today, guiding their intervention. Objective  To perform a systematic review of what are the treatment methods used in cases of lingual frenum alteration. Data Synthesis  The literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and IBECS, delimited by language (Portuguese, English, Spanish), date of publication (January 2000 to January 2014) and studies performed in humans. The selection order used to verify the eligibility of the studies were related to: full text availability; review the abstract; text analysis; final selection. Of the total 443 publications, 26 remained for analysis. The surgical approach was used in all studies, regardless of the study population (infants, children and adults), with a range of tools and techniques employed; speech therapy was recommended in the post surgical in 4 studies. Only 4 studies, all with infants, showed scientific evidence. Conclusion  Surgical intervention is effective for the remission of the limitations caused by the alteration on lingual frenum, but there is a deficit of studies with higher methodological quality. The benefits of speech therapy in the post surgical period are described from improvement in the language of mobility aspects and speech articulation. PMID:27413412

  2. Spatial and temporal lingual coarticulation and motor control in preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J; Lickley, Robin J

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. METHOD High-speed ultrasound tongue contour data synchronized with the acoustic signal were recorded from 15 children (ages 10-12 years) and 15 adults. Tongue shape contours were analyzed at 9 normalized time points during the fricative phase of schwa-fricative-/a/ and schwa-fricative-/i/ sequences with the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/. RESULTS There was no significant age-related difference in random variability. Where a significant vowel effect occurred, the amount of coarticulation was similar in the 2 groups. However, the onset of the coarticulatory effect on preadolescent /ʃ/ was significantly later than on preadolescent /s/, and also later than on adult /s/ and /ʃ/. CONCLUSIONS Preadolescents have adult-like precision of tongue control and adult-like anticipatory lingual coarticulation with respect to spatial characteristics of tongue posture. However, there remains some immaturity in the motor programming of certain complex tongue movements.

  3. Comparative histochemistry of posterior lingual salivary glands of mouse.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Fletcher, David

    2017-01-01

    Normal posterior deep and superficial salivary glands of tongue were examined in male mice by means of light microscopical histochemistry and neurohistology. Both glands showed acini and simple ducts. Demilunes were present in the superficial gland. Disulphides and neutral mucosubstances occurred in acini and demilunes. Tryptophan staining was seen in acini of the deep gland and demilunes, whereas acid mucosubstances were exclusively localised in the superficial gland. Dehydrogenase activities were widespread. Strong esterase activity occurred throughout the parenchyma of the deep gland and in demilunes; it was variably inhibited by E600, apart from acinar apical regions in the deep gland. Lipase was confined to acini of the deep gland and demilunes. Acid phosphatase staining was similarly localised; it was also seen in periluminal ductal rims of the deep gland, in which ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase was localised basolaterally. Staining for alkaline phosphatase decorated occasional myoepithelial-like arrangements and interstitial capillaries. Acetylcholinesterase was associated with nerve fibres embracing glandular parenchyma. Adrenergic fibres were not seen. The results suggest that the acini of the posterior deep lingual gland secrete neutral glycoproteins, whereas the ducts transport ions and absorb luminal material. The posterior superficial lingual gland mainly secretes acid glycoproteins. Both glands produce lingual lipase, receive cholinergic-type innervation and have inconspicuous myoepithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor cortex neuroplasticity associated with lingual nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kazunori; Lee, Jye-Chang; Hu, James W; Yao, Dongyuan; Sessle, Barry J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if lingual nerve trauma affects the features of face primary motor cortex (MI) defined by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). The left lingual nerve was transected in adult male rats by an oral surgical procedure; sham rats (oral surgery but no nerve transection) as well as naive intact rats served as control groups. ICMS was applied at post-operative days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 to map the jaw and tongue motor representations in face MI by analyzing ICMS-evoked movements and electromyographic activity recorded in the genioglossus (GG) and anterior digastric (AD) muscles. There were no statistically significant effects of acute (day 0) nerve transection or sham procedure (p > 0.05). The surgery in the sham animals was associated with limited post-operative change; this was reflected in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of GG sites in left MI at post-operative day 14 compared to day 0. However, nerve transection was associated with significant increases in the total number of AD and GG sites in left or right MI or specifically the number of GG sites in rats at post-operative days 21 or 28 compared to earlier time periods. There were also significant differences between nerve-transected and sham groups at post-operative days 7, 14, or 21. These findings suggest that lingual nerve transection is associated with significant time-dependent neuroplastic changes in the tongue motor representations in face MI.

  5. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Martin J; Glasziou, Paul P; Chong, Lee Yee; Venekamp, Roderick P

    2014-11-19

    the short duration of follow-up and the differences between studies, we considered the evidence for adults to be of low quality.Two studies in children reported that there was "no statistically significant difference" in quality of life outcomes, but the data could not be pooled. One study reported no difference in analgesics consumption. We found no evidence for prescription of antibiotics.Limited data are available from the included studies to quantify the important risks of primary and secondary haemorrhage. Adeno-/tonsillectomy leads to a reduction in the number of episodes of sore throat and days with sore throat in children in the first year after surgery compared to (initial) non-surgical treatment. Children who were more severely affected were more likely to benefit as they had a small reduction in moderate/severe sore throat episodes. The size of the effect is very modest, but there may be a benefit to knowing the precise timing of one episode of pain lasting several days - it occurs immediately after surgery as a direct consequence of the procedure. It is clear that some children get better without any surgery, and that whilst removing the tonsils will always prevent 'tonsillitis', the impact of the procedure on 'sore throats' due to pharyngitis is much less predictable.Insufficient information is available on the effectiveness of adeno-/tonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment in adults to draw a firm conclusion.The impact of surgery, as demonstrated in the included studies, is modest. Many participants in the non-surgical group improve spontaneously (although some people randomised to this group do in fact undergo surgery). The potential 'benefit' of surgery must be weighed against the risks of the procedure as adeno-/tonsillectomy is associated with a small but significant degree of morbidity in the form of primary and secondary haemorrhage and, even with good analgesia, is particularly uncomfortable for adults.

  6. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Acioglu, Engin; Yigit, Ozgür; Alkan, Zeynep; Server, Ela Araz; Uzun, Hafize; Gelisgen, Ramisa

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) due to dysregulated turnover of connective tissue matrices in children with recurrent tonsillitis (RT). Forty-four patients with RT were enrolled in the study. All patients with RT were graded according to the hypertrophy degree of the tonsillar tissue from grade I to grade IV. Patients with grade I tonsillar hypertrophy and grade II tonsillar hypertrophy were accepted as group A, patients with grade III tonsillar hypertrophy and grade IV tonsillar hypertrophy were accepted as group B Tonsillectomy was performed via the usual dissection-snare method. Tonsillar specimens of superficial and core region were evaluated for MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 analysis. There was no statistical significance according to the MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 activity of superficial part and core regions in both groups individually, MMP-9 level of both the superficial and core regions in group B had statistical significant higher results than group A (p=0.026, p=0.06 respectively). MMP-7 level of the superficial part in group B patients also had statistical significant higher results than group A (p=0.025). However, there was no statistical difference found between superficial and core region MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels of group A and group B. Related to this, balance between MMP-7-9 and TIMP-1 activities tended to slip MMP-7 and MMP-9 sides with increased tonsillar grade. Results from this study suggest that the presence of MMPs in tonsil tissue consolidates the involvement of degraded extracellular matrix proteins in the pathophysiology of chronic tonsillitis. MMPs activity showed diffuse dissemination in the tonsillar tissue and especially MMP-9 and MMP-7 are the main promoters of the extracellular matrix that responded to inflammatory changes in the tonsillar tissue. Further studies are needed concerning the possible

  7. [Efficiency of the hydrovacuumaspiration technique for the treatment of patients with chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Khorov, O G; Aleshchik, I Ch; Rakova, S N; Diurd', T I

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to the conservative treatment of patients with chronic tonsillitis is proposed making use of the hydrovacuumaspiration technique. It is shown that clinical efficiency of the method is significantly higher (p<0.02) compared with traditional treatment using an irrigation cannula. Positive effect was achieved in 85.6% of the patients. The severity of mycotic dysbacteriosis of palatal tonsils was significantly reduced after treatment by hydrovacuumaspiration. It also brought about normalization of pharyngeal microbiocenosis, characteristics of humoral and cellular immunity. As a result, secondary immunodeficiency was compensated. Traditional irrigation of palatal tonsils had a similar outcome in a smaller fraction of the patients.

  8. [A comparative analysis of tonsillectomy and ablation of the palatine tonsils with CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Zbyshko, Ia B

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy and toletance of two methods were compared: ablation of the palatine tonsils with CO2 laser and tonsillectomy. 270 case histories (118 after tonsillectomy and 152 after laser ablation of the palatine tonsils) have been analysed and 50 patients from each group have been examined. The comparison of the methods leads to conclusion that laser ablation of the palatine tonsils prevents intraoperative and postoperative complications; makes postoperative hemostatic therapy unnecessary; allows conduction of the operations in outpatient clinics or day hospitals; causes minimal pain in the postoperative period; shortens duration of disability.

  9. [A rare case of thalassemia concomitant with chronic decompensated tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Izvin, A I; Kuznetsova, N E; Siniakov, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports a rare combination of Cooley's disease (thalassemia B) and the decompensated variant of chronic tonsillitis in a 14-year old girl. The patient presented with the severe form of hypochromic anemia and degenerative changes of erythrocytes. She was treated by means of bilateral tonsillectomy associated with the high risk of postoperative hemorrhage. In the preoperative period, the child received drop intravenous infusion of tranexam at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight together with hemostatic agents. Hemorrhage during the surgical intervention was stopped by pressing tampons impregnated with tranexamic acid known to exert local and systemic hemostatic and antifibrinolytic action. The patient was discharged from the hospital for the further treatment of the primary disease.

  10. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung metastasizing to the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Luca; Thomas, Joel; Kim, Chul; Szabo, Eva; Brown, G. Thomas; Citrin, Deborah; Rajan, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare tumor that typically originates in gastrointestinal tissue, such as the stomach, but can also occasionally originate in the lung. The majority of HACs express α-fetoprotein (AFP) on tumor cells, and serum AFP can be used as a marker of response to treatment or disease progression. HAC has a poor prognosis, although early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can result in long-term survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HAC metastasizing to the tonsil. Irradiation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 30 Gray (Gy) achieved a significant, and durable tumor response. IMRT can be considered for local control of HAC at other metastatic sites of disease. PMID:28529745

  11. [Immune reactions of palatine tonsils in the patients with chronic tonsillitis and the possibilities for their immunological rehabilitation with the use of imudon].

    PubMed

    Aznabaeva, L F; Aref'eva, N A; Gumerova, M I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a rationale for the application of imudon (a bacterial lysate preparation)in the treatment of the patients presenting with chronic tonsillitis based on the elucidation of characteristics of local immunity in the oropharynx (determined from the results of cytograms, immunoenzyme assays for the quantitation of IgG, sIgA, IgA, and IgM antibodies, and calculation of the relative secretion coefficients). A total of 74 patients with chronic tonsillar pathology (24 children and 50 adults) were available for the observation along with 42 subjects having no tonsillar pathology with concomitant chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis. The control group was constituted by 25 practically healthy subjects. It was shown that the local application of imudon in the patients with the preserved function of palatine tonsils (in the absence of symptoms of chronic inflammation) produces the adequate response of the humoral and cellular immunity systems. In the patients with the simple form of chronic tonsillitis imudon therapy ensured statistically significant activation of congenital immunity including the phagocyte function and a tendency toward normalization of antibody formation. It is concluded that alteration of the function of palatine tonsils in the patients presenting with the toxico-allergic form (ТАФ-2) of chronic tonsillitis implies the necessity of surgical treatment (tonsillectomy).

  12. Lingual cyst lined by respiratory epithelium: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Manish; Boaz, Karen; Srikant, N; Nandita, K P; Vidya, M

    2011-01-01

    The present report describes a case of a lingual cyst lined by a respiratory epithelium occurring in a 1-year-old girl. The article also reviews the cases published in the literature under the heading of lingual cysts and segregates all the cases having predominant respiratory epithelium as the cystic lining. Reclassification, with more descriptive histologic terminology to name the lingual cysts, has been proposed.

  13. Retrospective study of the bone morphology in the posterior mandibular region. Evaluation of the prevalence and the degree of lingual concavity and their possible complications

    PubMed Central

    Herranz-Aparicio, Judit; Marques, José; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to choose the appropriate implant size and to prevent complications, an oral surgeon must know the size and shape of the mandible. In the posterior mandibular region, a lingual undercut is often found and could represent a difficulty hard to manage if a lingual or buccal perforation occur. A large series of computed tomography (CT) images of the mandibular first molar was evaluated and the bone morphology, the prevalence and the degree of the lingual concavity in the first molar region were studied. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-one computed tomography (CT) examinations of patients were retrospectively evaluated to determine anatomical variations in bone morphology in the submandibular fossa region. Results A total of 151 subjects were included, consisting of 64 males (M) (42.4%) and 87 females (F) (57.6%). The under-cut type ridge was present in 64.2% of the cases. The concavity angle was 66.6 ± 8.9° (M) and 71.6 ± 8.4° (F) and the linear concavity depth 4.5 ± 2.3 mm (M) and 3.1 ± 1.7 mm (F) (p>0.05). Conclusions Mandibles with any lingual concavity present a potential increased risk of lingual cortical perforation during implant placement surgery. CT imaging allows characterizing the anatomy of the submandibular fossa and provides other important information for the preoperative assessment of the posterior mandible for dental implants placement. Key words:Anatomy, computed tomography, dental implants, intraoperative complications, mandible, panoramic radiography, radiographic examination. PMID:27694785

  14. Piezosurgery for the lingual split technique in mandibular third molar removal: a suggestion.

    PubMed

    Pippi, Roberto; Alvaro, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    The lingual split technique is a surgical procedure for extraction of impacted mandibular third molar throughout a lingual approach. The main disadvantage of this technique is the high rate of temporary lingual nerve injury mainly because of the trauma induced by the lingual flap retraction. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of piezosurgery in performing the lingual cortical plate osteotomy of the third molar alveolar process. Surgical procedure was performed under general anesthesia, and it lasted approximately 60 minutes. After the buccal and lingual full-thickness flaps were incised and elevated, a piezosurgical device was used for osteotomy. A well-defined bony window was then removed, and it allowed the entire tooth was extracted in a lingual direction. The patient did not show any neurological postoperative complication. Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve functionality was normal before as well as after surgery. The use of piezoelectric surgery seems to be a good option in removing lower third molars when a lingual access is clearly indicated. The only disadvantage of this technique can be represented by an operating time lengthening possibly because of a lower power cut of the piezoelectric device, to the high mineralization of the mandibular cortical bone and to the use of inserts with a low degree of sharpening.

  15. The most important throat-related symptoms suggestive of chronic tonsillitis as the main indication for adult tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Pribuišienė, Rūta; Kuzminienė, Alina; Sarauskas, Valdas; Saferis, Viktoras; Pribuišis, Kipras; Rastenienė, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The literature lacks data about the evaluation of throat-related symptoms proving chronic tonsillitis as the most common indication for adult tonsillectomy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the most important throat-related symptoms suggestive of chronic tonsillitis in adults. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The analysis of throat-related symptoms (complaints, tonsillitis rate, pharyngeal signs, and antistreptolysin-O titer) in 81 adults with histologically confirmed chronic tonsillitis was conducted. Recurrent tonsillitis was the most common complaint (74.1%). The mean number of tonsillitis episodes was 3.6 (SD, 1.9) times per year. There were no significant differences comparing the frequencies of all the analyzed pharyngeal signs (P>0.05). The antistreptolysin-O titer (mean, 279.8; SD, 211.6 UL) was pathological in 33.3% of patients. The study identified the most important throat-related symptoms revealing chronic tonsillitis: tonsillar cryptic debris (OR, 8.84; 95% CI, 1.93-40.53; P=0.005) and enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes along with the frequency of tonsillitis episodes exceeding 3 times per year (OR, 8.27; 95% CI, 1.33-51.57; P=0.024). The classification accuracy of 85.2% was obtained. Tonsillar cryptic debris and enlarged regional lymph nodes along with recurrent tonsillitis could support the diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis in adults when considering tonsillectomy.

  16. Relationship of Adenovirus to Lymphocytes in Naturally Infected Human Tonsils and Adenoids

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Veen, J.; Lambriex, M.

    1973-01-01

    Purified lymphocytes from human tonsil and adenoid specimens were cultured with and without phytohemagglutinin. Adenovirus was isolated from lymphocytes of 8 of 90 specimens tested. With one exception, it was necessary to culture the lymphocytes before infectious virus could be detected. Phytohemagglutinin stimulation enhanced the recovery of virus. The results suggest that lymphocytes in tonsils and adenoids may be naturally infected with adenovirus and that, in positive cultures, at least 1 of every 107 cells harbors virus or viral precursor at initiation of the cultures. Adenovirus was demonstrated directly in fresh suspensions of unpurified cells from tonsils and adenoids in seven cases. In five of these cases, at least 1 of every 106 cells contained infectious virus. Adenovirus was isolated from 61 (62%) of 98 tonsil and adenoid specimens by the conventional method of tissue fragment culture after various periods of cultivation. The viruses isolated were of serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6. PMID:4796933

  17. Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the

  18. Adenoidal follicular T helper cells provide stronger B-cell help than those from tonsils.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kozara, Kevin; Salamone, Frank; Benoit, Margo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2016-02-01

    The tonsils and adenoids are secondary lymphoid organs, where antigen processing and immune cell development occur to control bacterial colonization and infection in the upper respiratory tract. Both organs are abundant in follicular T helper cells (TFH), a subset of T cells specialized for promoting B-cell development. There are no prior studies on differences between the immune cells of the tonsils and adenoids and whether the cells function differently. In vitro assays to assess cell phenotype of tonsils and adenoids from young children (median age = 40 months). Mononuclear cells from tonsils and adenoids were cultured with or without 1 µg/mL Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) for 4 days. Cell phenotype and function were assessed by flow cytometry and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that in resting adenoids, TFH expressed higher CXCR5 and inducible costimulator but lower PD-1 than those from the tonsils, and that adenoidal B cells expressed higher CD27. Upon polyclonal stimulation with SEB, both TFH and B cells from the adenoids proliferated to a greater extent, and culture supernatants contained higher levels of interleukin 21. We conclude that the cells of the adenoid are disposed toward the provision of more robust B-cell help than the tonsils. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Adenoidal follicular T helper cells provide stronger B cell help than those from tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kozara, Kevin; Salamone, Frank; Benoit, Margo; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The tonsils and adenoids are secondary lymphoid organs, where antigen processing and immune cell development occurs to control bacterial colonization and infection in the upper respiratory tract. Both organs are abundant in follicular T helper cells (TFH), a subset of T cells specialized for promoting B cell development. There are no prior studies on differences between the immune cells of the tonsils and adenoids and whether the cells function differently. Study design In vitro assays to assess cell phenotype of tonsils and adenoids from young children (median age 40 months). Methods Mononuclear cells from tonsils and adenoids were cultured with or without 1 μg/mL Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) for 4 days. Cell phenotype and function were assessed by flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA. Results We found that in resting adenoids, TFH expressed higher CXCR5 and ICOS but lower PD-1 than those from the tonsils, and that adenoidal B cells expressed higher CD27. Upon polyclonal stimulation with SEB, both TFH and B cells from the adenoids proliferated to a greater extent, and culture supernatants contained higher levels of IL-21. Conclusion We conclude that the cells of the adenoid are disposed toward the provision of more robust B cell help than the tonsils. PMID:26511445

  20. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of contemporary lingual orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Zinelis, Spiros; Sifakakis, Iosif; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the composition and the microstructural and mechanical characterization of three different types of lingual brackets. Incognito™ (3M Unitek), In-Ovation L (DENTSPLY GAC) and STb™ (Light Lingual System, ORMCO) lingual brackets were studied under the scanning electron microscope employing backscattered electron imaging and their elemental composition was analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Additionally, Vickers hardness was assessed using a universal hardness-testing machine, and the indentation modulus was measured according to instrumented indentation test. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted employing bracket type and location (base and wing) as discriminating variable. Significant differences among groups were allocated by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison analysis at 95% level of significance. Three different phases were identified for Incognito and In-Ovation L bracket based on mean atomic number contrast. On the contrary, STb did not show mean atomic contrast areas and thus it is recognized as a single phase. Incognito is a one-piece bracket with the same structure in wing and base regions. Incognito consists mainly of noble metals while In-Ovation L and STb show similar formulations of ferrous alloys in wing and base regions. No significant differences were found between ferrous brackets in hardness and modulus values, but there were significant differences between wing and base regions. Incognito illustrated intermediate values with significant differences from base and wing values of ferrous brackets. Significant differences exist in microstructure, elemental composition, and mechanical properties among the brackets tested; these might have a series of clinical implications during mechanotherapy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Surgical treatment of short lingual frenulum in children].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum resulting in varying degrees of difficulty of tongue mobility. It may be asymptomatic or it may present with breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dentition disorders, and social problems related to the functional limitation of the tongue. While it is a common and known pathology, controversies and diversity of opinions persist regarding the indication, timing and method of surgical correction. We describe our experience with 35 children presenting this condition; they underwent successful surgical treatment.

  2. Mechanisms of cerebellar tonsil herniation in patients with Chiari malformations as guide to clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Misao; Kula, Roger W.; Dlugacz, Yosef D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of Chiari malformations is incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that different etiologies have different mechanisms of cerebellar tonsil herniation (CTH), as revealed by posterior cranial fossa (PCF) morphology. Methods In 741 patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and 11 patients with Chiari malformation type II (CM-II), the size of the occipital enchondrium and volume of the PCF (PCFV) were measured on reconstructed 2D-CT and MR images of the skull. Measurements were compared with those in 80 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals, and the results were correlated with clinical findings. Results Significant reductions of PCF size and volume were present in 388 patients with classical CM-I, 11 patients with CM-II, and five patients with CM-I and craniosynostosis. Occipital bone size and PCFV were normal in 225 patients with CM-I and occipitoatlantoaxial joint instability, 55 patients with CM-I and tethered cord syndrome (TCS), 30 patients with CM-I and intracranial mass lesions, and 28 patients with CM-I and lumboperitoneal shunts. Ten patients had miscellaneous etiologies. The size and area of the foramen magnum were significantly smaller in patients with classical CM-I and CM-I occurring with craniosynostosis and significantly larger in patients with CM-II and CM-I occurring with TCS. Conclusions Important clues concerning the pathogenesis of CTH were provided by morphometric measurements of the PCF. When these assessments were correlated with etiological factors, the following causal mechanisms were suggested: (1) cranial constriction; (2) cranial settling; (3) spinal cord tethering; (4) intracranial hypertension; and (5) intraspinal hypotension. PMID:20440631

  3. Scaffold-free parathyroid tissue engineering using tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Shin; Hwang, Ji-Young; Jun, Yesl; Jin, Yoon Mi; Kim, Gyungah; Kim, Ha Yeong; Kim, Han Su; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jo, Inho

    2016-04-15

    To restore damaged parathyroid function, parathyroid tissue engineering is the best option. Previously, we reported that differentiated tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dTMSC) restore in vivo parathyroid function, but only if they are embedded in a scaffold. Because of the limited biocompatibility of Matrigel, however, here we developed a more clinically applicable, scaffold-free parathyroid regeneration system. Scaffold-free dTMSC spheroids were engineered in concave microwell plates made of polydimethylsiloxane in control culture medium for the first 7days and differentiation medium (containing activin A and sonic hedgehog) for next 7days. The size of dTMSC spheroids showed a gradual and significant decrease up to day 5, whereafter it decreased much less. Cells in dTMSC spheroids were highly viable (>80%). They expressed high levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), the parathyroid secretory protein 1, and cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin. Furthermore, dTMSC spheroids-implanted parathyroidectomized (PTX) rats revealed higher survival rates (50%) over a 3-month period with physiological levels of both serum iPTH (57.7-128.2pg/mL) and ionized calcium (0.70-1.15mmol/L), compared with PTX rats treated with either vehicle or undifferentiated TMSC spheroids. This is the first report of a scaffold-free, human stem cell-based parathyroid tissue engineering and represents a more clinically feasible strategy for hypoparathyroidism treatment than those requiring scaffolds. Herein, we have for the first time developed a scaffold-free parathyroid tissue spheroids using differentiated tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dTMSC) to restore in vivo parathyroid cell functions. This new strategy is effective, even for long periods (3months), and is thus likely to be more feasible in clinic for hypoparathyroidism treatment. Development of TMSC spheroids may also provide a convenient and efficient scaffold-free platform for researchers investigating conditions

  4. [Investigation of Helicobacter pylori colonization in pharyngeal and palatine tonsils with rapid urease test and immunohistochemical analysis].

    PubMed

    Dağtekin-Ergür, Emine Nur; Eren, Funda; Ustün, Mustafa Burak; Eren, Yusuf; Taş, Ebru; Gürsel, Ali Okan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the presence and frequency of Helicobacter pylori in palatine and pharyngeal tonsil tissues of children. The study included 20 patients (15 males, 5 females; mean age 8.2 years; range 5 to 13 years) with chronic or recurrent tonsillitis and/or snoring. Of these, 17 patients underwent adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy, two patients underwent adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with bilateral ventilation tube insertion, and one patient underwent adenoidectomy with bilateral ventilation tube insertion. H. pylori colonization was sought in all tonsillar specimens by rapid urease test and immunohistochemical analysis. Rapid urease test showed H. pylori colonization in the palatine and pharyngeal tonsil specimens of one patient (5%), whereas immunohistochemical analysis showed four H. pylori-positive patients (20%), whose pharyngeal tonsil (n=2) or palatine tonsil (n=2) specimens were individually affected. The presence of H. pylori in both palatine and pharyngeal tonsil tissues of children suggests that these tissues can be a reservoir for H. pylori.

  5. [The Austrian tonsil study 2010--part 1: statistical overview].

    PubMed

    Sarny, S; Ossimitz, G; Habermann, W; Stammberger, H

    2012-01-01

    Tonsillectomy (TE), tonsillotomy (TO) and adenoidectomy (AE) are surgeries performed routinely by otorhinolaryngologists. There were 5 cases of fatal postoperative bleeding in Austria during the years 2006 and 2007, all in children under 6 years of age. The intensive discussion following these sad events resulted in a Consensus Paper of the Austrian Society of ORL, H&NS with the Austrian Society of Pediatrics with modified recommendations towards indications and surgical techniques in different age groups; in addition, the prospective study presented here was initiated. In Austria for the first time a full census could be performed assessing all TE, TO and AE with standardized definitions. Within the study period of 9 months' from October 1, 2009, to June 30, 2010, data on patients' characteristics, indication for surgery, surgical technique and postoperative haemorrhage were prospectively collected. Postoperative haemorrhage was defined as any bleeding after extubation regardless of whether or not a surgical intervention was required. Postoperative bleeding events were categorised into 7 grades depending on severity. More than one million data of 9,405 patients from 32 ENT-departments in Austria were collected and analysed. One third were children younger than 6 years (n=3,474; 37%) and one third were adults (n=3,507, 37%). A TE ±AE was performed in 48.8% (n=4,594), an AE in 37.1% (n=3,492) and a TO in 14.0% (n=1, 319). For the indication "recurrent tonsillitis and tonsilar hypertrophy" 70% of children had a TO but 95% of adults had a TE (p<0.001). Adults with OSAS had a TE whereas in children aged younger than 6 with the same indication a TO was preferably performed in 90% (p<0.001). For TO the Colorado-needle and the Coblation technique were most commonly used. The Adenotome by La Force and the Adenoid curette by Beckmann, with or without endoscopic control, were most frequently used for AE. For the first time a prospective full survey could be performed in

  6. Isolation of follicular dendritic cells from human tonsils and adenoids. III. Analysis of their Fc receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, E; Radoux, D; Kinet-Denoel, C; Moeremans, M; De Mey, J; Simar, L J

    1985-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDC), isolated from human tonsils or adenoids, were tested for their capacity to retain monomeric, aggregated or antigen-bound human antibodies in the absence of serum. FDC retain fluorescein-labelled heat-aggregated human immunoglobulins, but not monomeric ones nor fluorescein-labelled F(ab')2 in monomeric or aggregated form. Ultrastructural observations showed that colloidal gold-labelled monomeric, or antigen-bound, antibodies directed against tetanus toxoid are retained by dendrites and membrane infoldings of FDC but are never located in cytoplasmic vesicles. This retention was inhibited by incubating FDC with unlabelled aggregated or antigen-bound antibodies. When gold-labelled anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies were incubated in the presence of protein-A before the contact with FDC, a strong reduction of their retention occurred. This further suggested the presence of Fc receptors on isolated tonsillar FDC. Endocytosis was not observed in isolated FDC, even after prolonged incubation in presence of labelled immune complexes: their Fc receptors are, thus, not related to a phagocytic activity as they are in macrophages. Simultaneous ultrastructural labelling of Fc and C3b receptors with colloidal gold particles of different sizes did not reveal any clear relations between these two receptors on the surface of FDC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3156811

  7. Simultaneous paresthesia of the lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve caused by a radicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Akiko; Kondoh, Toshirou; Suzuki, Mami; Noguchi, Kazuhide; Ito, Ko; Seto, Kanichi

    2005-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve is sometimes affected by periapical pathoses and mandibular cysts. However, mandibular intraosseous lesions have not been reported to disturb the lingual nerve. A case of simultaneous paresthesia of the right lingual nerve and the right inferior alveolar nerve is presented. The possible mechanisms of this extremely uncommon condition are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of breastfeeding difficulties in newborns with a lingual frenulum: a prospective cohort series.

    PubMed

    Haham, Alon; Marom, Ronella; Mangel, Laurence; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of a lingual frenulum in newborn infants is reportedly 0.3-12%. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of a lingual frenulum based on the Coryllos classification in nonselected newborn infants after delivery, hypothesizing that it is higher than the values reported in the literature. The lingual frenula of 200 healthy infants were evaluated by visual examination and palpation within the first 3 days after delivery. The frenulum was categorized according to the four Coryllos classifications. Each infant's mother responded, immediately after the examination, to a structured questionnaire on the quality and type of feeding. An additional structured telephone interview with the 179 breastfeeding mothers was conducted 2 weeks later. All but one infant (n=199) had an observable or palpable lingual frenulum that was Coryllos type 1 (n=5), type 2 or 3 (n=147), or type 4 (n=47). Although our study was not powered enough to test for any correlation between the cessation of breastfeeding and the type of frenulum, we found no statistical correlation between the Coryllos type of lingual frenulum and the presence of breastfeeding difficulties. A lingual frenulum is a normal anatomical finding whose insertion point and Coryllos classification are not correlated with breastfeeding difficulties. We suggest that the term "lingual frenulum" should be used for anatomical description and that the term "tongue-tie" be reserved for a lingual frenulum associated with breastfeeding difficulties in newborns.

  9. The Mutual Symbiosis between Inclusive Bi-Lingual Education and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors postulate a mutual symbiosis between multicultural and inclusive bi-lingual education. Combining bi-lingual and multicultural education to create a symbiotic relationship can stimulate reform in schools and can promote inclusive educational systems, thereby keeping native languages and cultures alive for minority…

  10. The Mutual Symbiosis between Inclusive Bi-Lingual Education and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors postulate a mutual symbiosis between multicultural and inclusive bi-lingual education. Combining bi-lingual and multicultural education to create a symbiotic relationship can stimulate reform in schools and can promote inclusive educational systems, thereby keeping native languages and cultures alive for minority…

  11. The Role of Ethno-Lingual Relativity in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, James L.

    1993-01-01

    The term "ethno-lingual relativity" is defined as a perspective that is not limited by one's own cultural and linguistic experiences, but rather is open to the contrasting cultural and linguistic patterns of other peoples. It is hypothesized that having an ethno-lingually relative perspective can facilitate one's ability to learn a new language.…

  12. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V; Mattes, Richard D

    2014-06-15

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were masticated by 15 healthy human subjects at the rate of one chew per second with and without lipase inhibitor orlistat. Salivary NEFA concentrations were measured. To determine the role of lingual lipase in oral fat detection, sensory ratings were obtained from the same 15 human subjects for almond butter with and without orlistat. Lingual lipase was active during oral processing of almond and coconut. No activity of lingual lipase was detected during processing of almond butter. There was only weak evidence lingual lipase is a determinant of oral fat detection. Lingual lipase may only contribute to NEFA generation and oral fat detection of fatty foods that require stronger oral processing effort.

  13. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V.

    2014-01-01

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were masticated by 15 healthy human subjects at the rate of one chew per second with and without lipase inhibitor orlistat. Salivary NEFA concentrations were measured. To determine the role of lingual lipase in oral fat detection, sensory ratings were obtained from the same 15 human subjects for almond butter with and without orlistat. Lingual lipase was active during oral processing of almond and coconut. No activity of lingual lipase was detected during processing of almond butter. There was only weak evidence lingual lipase is a determinant of oral fat detection. Lingual lipase may only contribute to NEFA generation and oral fat detection of fatty foods that require stronger oral processing effort. PMID:24694384

  14. The Multi-Lingual Supplement to the Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. M.

    The compilers and translators of the recently released IAU "Astronomy Thesaurus" (affectionately known as TREX), are pleased to announce the availability of the new multi-lingual supplement (ML-TREX) in French, German, Italian and Spanish. The primary terms as well as the non-preferred terms have been translated in the supplement and it is designed enhance the main thesaurus as an online reference tool. Some review copies have been sent out on a limited distribution basis. Although much of current scientific research is reported in English there is a need by librarians to have a reference resource of terminology in a variety of languages. Librarians are aware of the amount of literature in their libraries in all languages both current and historical which must be dealt with and few of us have the multi-lingual skills to cope with it. The supplement is designed to be used as an online reference resource and therefore has been made available via the World Wide Web and an anonymous ftp account at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The files can be down- loaded directly into any preferred word processor or into a computer system as a "knowledge base" together with the main thesaurus. For more information: LIB@aaoepp.aao.gov.au or http://www.aao.gov.au or the thesaurus directory via anonymous ftp access.

  15. Dorsal Lingual Surface and Halitosis: a Morphological Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Giuseppe, Marzo; Adelaide, Continenza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective The interest in the study of the tongue papillary niches and the related biofilm has increased in recent years because they form a suitable source of periodontal microorganisms and are associated with development of halitosis. Tongue dorsum structure represents a factor favoring a particular and complex bacterial biofilm where periodontal pathogens are frequently found. The aim of this preliminary study was to associate the tongue papillary structure with the biofilm causing halitosis by means of a new clinical protocol. Material and Methods In this study, one subject affected by oral malodor was selected and included. A photograph of lingual dorsum was taken to spot the areas with visible lingual coating. A tongue dorsum impression was obtained, divided and cut with a blade in six parts, according to Winkel Tongue Coated Index by means of the 2-step double-mix impression technique. The contours of the six parts were observed by the stereomicroscope LEICA LED2000 and analyzed by ImageJ software. Results The results showed that the depth of papillae was associated with visible presence of the tongue biofilm and indirectly correlated with halitosis in patients.. Conclusions The morphological papillary structure of the tongue dorsal surface influences the presence of the tongue biofilm. The presented protocol can be further considered in clinical application for a correct diagnosis and a personalized treatment of halitosis. PMID:27789913

  16. Advanced oxidation protein product levels as a marker of oxidative stress in paediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, I; Kucur, C; Koçak, F E; Savran, B; Oghan, F

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels can serve as a marker of oxidative stress in paediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis. Thirty children with chronic tonsillitis and 30 healthy children (control group) were recruited from the Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) and Paediatric Surgery departments, respectively, of Dumlupinar University Hospital. In the patient group, blood samples were collected before tonsillectomy, and tonsil tissue was sampled during the operation. Blood samples were also obtained from the control subjects. AOPP levels in the serum and tonsil tissue were measured by the spectrophotometric method. Serum AOPP levels were significantly higher in the patient group (13.1 ± 3.3 ng/ml) than in the control group (11.6 ± 2.3 ng/ml; P < 0.05). In addition, the mean AOPP level (41.9 ± 13.5 ng/mg protein) in the tonsil tissue in the patient group was significantly higher than the mean serum AOPP levels in the control and patient groups (P < 0.05). AOPP levels are elevated in the tonsil tissue and serum of patients with chronic tonsillitis compared to the serum AOPP levels in healthy controls. AOPPs may represent a novel class of pro-inflammatory molecules that are involved in oxidative stress in chronic tonsillitis. AOPPs may be used as a marker of oxidative stress in paediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  17. Direct molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspected to be the specific infection in a case of recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Lukšić, Boris; Kljajić, Zlatko; Roje, Zeljka; Forempoher, Gea; Grgić, Duška; Janković-Katalinić, Vera; Goić-Barišić, Ivana

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of a 21-year-old man with recurrent tonsillitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For a period of 5 months, the patient had tonsillitis seven times and was treated with several oral or parenteral antibiotics. On one of these occasions, tonsillitis was complicated with a peritonsillar abscess that was treated by incision. According to relevant bibliographic data, this is the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confirmed by direct molecular microbiology methods from the tonsillar tissue of a young immunocompetent male reported in Europe. In a case of recurrent tonsillitis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection should be considered as a possible cause.

  18. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the raccoon dog and fox.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue; Shoumura, Shizuko

    2006-11-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of the raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica) were examined by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observations. The distribution and type of the lingual papillae found in the raccoon dog were similar to those in the fox. Filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dosal surface of the tongue. Each filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. The filiform papillae of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. The fungiform papillae were present rounded bodies, and more densely distributed on the lingual apex. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body. Each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. On the periphery of the papillae, large conical papillae were observed.

  19. Prevalence of the Helicobacter pylori in the tonsils and adenoids.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Tuba; Toplu, Yuksel; Otlu, Baris; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Yildirim, Ozge; Kalcioglu, Mahmut Tayyar

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the existence and effects of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in adenotonsillar tissue. A clinical study was conducted to assess the existence of Hp in the adenoid and/or adenotonsillar tissues, which were surgically excised due to chronic adenotonsillitis. Phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for the detection of Hp and cytotoxin-associated gene as virulence gene were examined in 84 adenotonsillar tissues obtained from 64 patients and patients' serum by using polymerase chain reaction. Hp IgG was detected in 57 (89%) patients' serum. A total of seven tissue samples from 64 patients (10.9%) were found positive for Hp DNA, of which five were adenoids and two were tonsil tissues. All polymerase chain reaction positive samples were also positive for the cytotoxin-associated gene, which is a virulence determinant for the organism. This study suggests that children are exposed to Hp at an early age of their life in this province. Hp may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic adenotonsillitis, especially in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from tonsillectomized adult patients with recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Katkowska, Marta; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Stromkowski, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains from 118 tonsillectomized adults due to recurrent tonsillitis (RT). The study included strains isolated from the tonsillar surface prior to tonsillectomy, recovered from the tonsillar core at the time of surgery, and from the posterior throat 2-4 weeks after the procedure. Susceptibility of isolates to 19 antibiotics was tested in line with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Irrespective of the stage, the most commonly isolated bacteria were gram-positive cocci, and among them S. aureus. The tonsillar core was the most common site of S. aureus isolation (30.5%), followed by the tonsillar surface (10.8%) and the posterior pharynx (5.9%). This difference turned out to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). Beta-hemolytic streptococci, most often Streptococcus pyogenes (5.1%), were isolated from 2.5% to 10.2% of patients. Staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to most tested antibiotics (except from penicillin and ampicillin) and rarely showed methicillin resistance (n = 1). Staphylococcus aureus seems to be the most common pathogen isolated from patients tonsillectomized due to RT. Staphylococcal isolates associated with RT are present mostly within the tonsillar core and susceptible to most antibiotics. They are typically isolated from patients between 21 and 30 years of age. Tonsillectomy results in less frequent isolation of S. aureus strains.

  1. Immunoglobulin systems of human tonsils. II. Patients with chronic tonsillitis or tonsillar hyperplasia: quantification of Ig-producing cells, tonsillar morphometry and serum Ig concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Surjan, L; Brandtzaeg, P; Berdal, P

    1978-01-01

    Patients suffering from recurrent tonsillitis (RT), hyperplastic tonsillitis (HT) or idiopathic tonsillar hyperplasia (ITH) were compared in immunological studies with subjects showing clinically normal palatine tonsils. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulins, particularly IgG, were increased in association with tonsillitis. Conversely, the number of IgG-, IgA- and IgM-producing immunocytes was reduced per tonsillar tissue unit. The density of such cells was decreased in the germinal centres of the lymphoid follicles, in the extrafollicular areas and in the reticular parts of the crypt epithelium. However, only small changes in immunocyte class ratios were observed, excepting a significantly raised proportion of IgD-producing cells. The immunohistochemical results indicated a defect in the tonsillar immunological function associated with disease, perhaps as a result of inadequate stimulatory signals for local maturation of B-cell clones. An influence of low age on this result in the HT and ITH groups could not be excluded. In the RT group there was a significant negative correlation between the tonsillar density of IgA-producing cells and the rate of synthesis of serum IgA. This may indicate that compensatory mechanisms are reflected in inversely related levels of local and systemic IgA synthesis. PMID:350458

  2. [Diagnostic strategies for acute tonsillitis in France: a cost-effectiveness study].

    PubMed

    Maizia, Abdelkader; Letrilliart, Laurent; Colin, Cyrille

    2012-04-01

    Inability to identify clinically group A streptococcal (GAS) tonsillitis has resulted for a long time in treating all tonsillitis with antibiotics in France. The use of the rapid detection tests (RDT) for GAS is currently recommended, in order to keep antibiotics only for GAS tonsillitis. Our objective was to carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing various strategies for the management of acute tonsillitis in France. We used a decision analysis model, including seven strategies (S) for tonsillitis management, specifically in children and in adults: S1: observation only (reference strategy); S2: clinical scoring; S3: RDT testing; S4: throat culture; S5: clinical scoring combined with RDT testing; S6: RDT testing combined with throat culture; S7: systematic antibiotic therapy. The criterion for effectiveness was the absence of locoregional suppurative complications. The use of the RDT alone had the best cost-effectiveness ratio in both adults and children. For this strategy, we estimated the cost per suppurative complication avoided at 970€ in children and at 903€ in adults. For the strategy associating a confirmative throat culture to the RDT, the extra cost per suppurative complication avoided was estimated at 106,666€ in children and at 228,000€ in adults. Sensitivity analysis showed the stability of the model while making the main parameters vary. In acute tonsillitis, in both adults and children, RDT testing by practitioners is the more efficient strategy to identify and treat patients with GAS tonsillitis. Combining RDT testing with throat culture can provide additional effectiveness, but at the cost of a significant extra charge for the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. slan/M-DC8+ cells constitute a distinct subset of dendritic cells in human tonsils.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, Alessandra; Finotti, Giulia; Calzetti, Federica; Lonardi, Silvia; Zoratti, Elisa; Bugatti, Mattia; Stefini, Stefania; Vermi, William; Cassatella, Marco A

    2016-01-05

    Human blood dendritic cells (DCs) include three main distinct subsets, namely the CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs (mDCs) and the CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). More recently, a population of slan/M-DC8+ cells, also known as "slanDCs", has been described in blood and detected even in inflamed secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues. Nevertheless, hallmarks of slan/M-DC8+ cells in tissues are poorly defined. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of the phenotype and function of slan/M-DC8+ cells present in human tonsils. We found that tonsil slan/M-DC8+ cells represent a unique DC cell population, distinct from their circulating counterpart and also from all other tonsil DC and monocyte/macrophage subsets. Phenotypically, slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsils display a CD11c+HLA-DR+CD14+CD11bdim/negCD16dim/negCX3CR1dim/neg marker repertoire, while functionally they exhibit an efficient antigen presentation capacity and a constitutive secretion of TNFα. Notably, such DC phenotype and functions are substantially reproduced by culturing blood slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsil-derived conditioned medium (TDCM), further supporting the hypothesis of a full DC-like differentiation program occurring within the tonsil microenvironment. Taken together, our data suggest that blood slan/M-DC8+ cells are immediate precursors of a previously unrecognizedcompetent DC subset in tonsils, and pave the way for further characterization of slan/M-DC8+ cells in other tissues.

  4. slan/M-DC8+ cells constitute a distinct subset of dendritic cells in human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Micheletti, Alessandra; Finotti, Giulia; Calzetti, Federica; Lonardi, Silvia; Zoratti, Elisa; Bugatti, Mattia; Stefini, Stefania; Vermi, William; Cassatella, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    Human blood dendritic cells (DCs) include three main distinct subsets, namely the CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs (mDCs) and the CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). More recently, a population of slan/M-DC8+ cells, also known as “slanDCs”, has been described in blood and detected even in inflamed secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues. Nevertheless, hallmarks of slan/M-DC8+ cells in tissues are poorly defined. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of the phenotype and function of slan/M-DC8+ cells present in human tonsils. We found that tonsil slan/M-DC8+ cells represent a unique DC cell population, distinct from their circulating counterpart and also from all other tonsil DC and monocyte/macrophage subsets. Phenotypically, slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsils display a CD11c+HLA-DR+CD14+CD11bdim/negCD16dim/negCX3CR1dim/neg marker repertoire, while functionally they exhibit an efficient antigen presentation capacity and a constitutive secretion of TNFα. Notably, such DC phenotype and functions are substantially reproduced by culturing blood slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsil-derived conditioned medium (TDCM), further supporting the hypothesis of a full DC-like differentiation program occurring within the tonsil microenvironment. Taken together, our data suggest that blood slan/M-DC8+ cells are immediate precursors of a previously unrecognizedcompetent DC subset in tonsils, and pave the way for further characterization of slan/M-DC8+ cells in other tissues. PMID:26695549

  5. Clinical value of antistreptolysin O levels in adult patients with tonsillitis: report I.

    PubMed

    Trushin, Vladimir; Englender, Moshe

    2017-04-01

    To assess the clinical value of antistreptolysin O (ASO) level in adult patients with acute tonsillitis of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) etiology and its interaction with the Centor score and throat cultures data. ASO antibody titers and throat cultures were obtained from 260 adult patients with acute tonsillitis of GABHS etiology initially proven by the Centor score. The results were compared with the group of 100 adult patients with recurrent tonsillitis who underwent tonsillectomy and with the group of 100 healthy adults. Throat cultures revealed GABHS-positive results in 69 acute cases (26.5%) and in 24 recurrent cases (24%), i.e., with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.845). There was no significant difference between cases with GABHS-positive and with GABHS-negative throat culture in ASO titers results (mean 250 and 280, respectively, p = 0.44) but these titers were significantly higher than established normative data (p < 0.01). For the group of recurrent tonsillitis cases, the mean ASO titer was 363 being significantly higher in comparison with acute cases (p = 0.015). The ASO antibody titers are significantly higher than normative ranges in cases of acute tonsillitis in adults. The detection of the elevated titers may lead to early antibiotherapy to tonsillitis. The Centor score is supported by the ASO data and less supported by throat cultures data. Further research should reveal if these titers might have predictive value for possible further recurrence or serve as an indicator for tonsillectomy in cases of recurrent tonsillitis.

  6. Selectivity of lingual nerve fibers to chemical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cell bodies of the lingual branch of the trigeminal nerve were localized in the trigeminal ganglion using extracellular recordings together with horseradish peroxidase labeling from the tongue. Individual lingual nerve fibers were characterized with regard to their conduction velocities, receptive fields, and response to thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli. Fibers were classified as C, A delta, A beta, cold, and warm. The chemical stimuli included NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, menthol, nicotine, hexanol, and capsaicin. With increasing salt concentration the latency of the response decreased and the activity increased. The responses elicited by salts (to 2.5 M), but not nonpolar stimuli such as menthol, were reversibly inhibited by 3.5 mM of the tight junction blocker, LaCl3. These data suggest that salts diffuse into stratified squamous epithelia through tight junctions in the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum, whereupon they enter the extracellular space. 11 C fibers were identified and 5 were characterized as polymodal nociceptors. All of the C fibers were activated by one or more of the salts NaCl, KCl, or NH4Cl. Three C fibers were activated by nicotine (1 mM), but none were affected by CaCl2 (1 M), menthol (1 mM), or hexanol (50 mM). However, not all C fibers or even the subpopulation of polymodals were activated by the same salts or by nicotine. Thus, it appears that C fibers display differential responsiveness to chemical stimuli. A delta fibers also showed differential sensitivity to chemicals. Of the 35 characterized A delta mechanoreceptors, 8 responded to NaCl, 9 to KCl, 9 to NH4Cl, 0 to CaCl2, menthol, or hexanol, and 2 to nicotine. 8 of 9 of the cold fibers (characterized as A delta's) responded to menthol, none responded to nicotine, 8 of 16 were inhibited by hexanol, 9 of 19 responded to 2.5 M NH4Cl, 5 of 19 responded to 2.5 M KCl, and 1 of 19 responded to 2.5 M NaCl. In summary, lingual nerve fibers exhibit responsiveness to chemicals

  7. Hyperplasia and the degree and activity of inflammation in chronic recurrent tonsillitis: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Wittlinger, Jan; Stankovic, Petar; Girrbach, Ulrike; Gradistanac, Tanja; Güldner, Christian; Teymoortash, Afshin; Hoch, Stephan; Günzel, Thomas; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative haemorrhage following tonsillectomy occurs in 5.98% of all cases with up to 10 deaths reported annually in Germany. When comparing tonsillectomy (TE) and tonsillotomy (TT), the same long-term frequency of ENT infections is displayed in children and young adults. However, taking postoperative haemorrhaging into account, TT is more favourable. Chronic tonsillitis is one of the most common indications for TE in the adult population; however, a histopathological characterization may reveal objective criteria and provide a foundation for routinely performing TT in adults too. Three essential parameters hyperplasia (HP), grade of inflammation (GOI) and activity of inflammation (AOI), which are responsible for, and associated with a clinically relevant disease were histopathologically examined in the tonsils of 100 adult patients with chronic recurrent tonsillitis. The parameters were analysed and compared separately in the pharyngeal and basal parts of the tonsils as well as in three sections (upper and lower pole of the tonsil, middle part) as this may influence the indication for TT. The comparison of the basal and pharyngeal portions displayed a significant difference in the GOI and the HP in all three sections: grade 2 HP as well as GOI were more commonly found in the basal than pharyngeal portions (p > 0.001). AOI (grade 2) displayed the same properties in the middle section (p < 0.002), but did not reach statistical significance in the cranial and caudal sections (p = 0.107 and p = 0.186). An overabundance of grade 1 GOI, AOI, and HP was seen in the pharyngeal sections. The results show that two out of three relevant parameters that demonstrate histopathological changes in recurrent inflamed tonsils have a significantly stronger presence in the basal section of the tonsil as opposed to the pharyngeal section. The processes initiated by inflammation next to the surface responsible for a clinically relevant recurrent tonsillitis seem to cause

  8. Defining the "core microbiome" of the microbial communities in the tonsils of healthy pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine tonsils are the colonization site for many pathogenic as well as commensal microorganisms and are the primary lymphoid tissue encountered by organisms entering through the mouth or nares. The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth characterization of the composition and structure of the tonsillar microbial communities and to define the core microbiome in the tonsils of healthy pigs, using high throughput bar-coded 454-FLX pyrosequencing. Results Whole tonsils were collected at necropsy from 12 16-week-old finisher pigs from two healthy herds. Tonsil brushes were also used to collect samples from four of these animals. Bacterial DNA was isolated from each sample, amplified by PCR with universal primers specific for the bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and the PCR products sequenced using pyrosequencing. An average of 13,000 sequences were generated from each sample. Microbial community members were identified by sequence comparison to known bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The microbiomes of these healthy herds showed very strong similarities in the major components as well as distinct differences in minor components. Pasteurellaceae dominated the tonsillar microbiome in all animals, comprising ~60% of the total, although the relative proportions of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella varied between the herds. Also found in all animals were the genera Alkanindiges, Peptostreptococcus, Veillonella, Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, as well as Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseriaceae. Treponema and Chlamydia were unique to Herd 1, while Arcanobacterium was unique to Herd 2. Tonsil brushes yielded similar results to tissue specimens, although Enterobacteriaceae and obligate anaerobes were more frequently found in tissue than in brush samples, and Chlamydia, an obligately intracellular organism, was not found in brush specimens. Conclusions We have extended and supported our previous studies with 16S clone libraries, using 16S r

  9. The role of oxidants and antioxidants in chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy in children.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Taner; Koçan, Elif Gülin; Besler, H Tanju

    2004-08-01

    To determine the possible role of oxidants and antioxidants in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis (CT) and adenoid hypertrophy (AH) in children. Randomized, prospective, controlled. The study group was made up of children with chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy who are to undergo tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. The control group was constructed with otherwise healthy children with normal ENT examination. The blood levels of antioxidants (retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, laycopene, ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, GSH) and peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) were determined before and 1 month after the operation in the study group and once only in the control group. These antioxidants and peroxidation products were also measured in the tonsil and adenoid tissue that were obtained during operation. In the study group, the blood levels of antioxidants and oxidant before and after the operation were significantly different when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In the study group, the blood antioxidant levels increased and oxidant level decreased significantly after the operation (P < 0.05). These levels after the operation never reached those of the control group. Oxidants and antioxidants played a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy in children. These children are under significant oxidative stress. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy significantly decreased the oxidative stress in these patients, but could not normalize it completely. Further studies are necessary to evaluate their possible therapeutic role in preventing recurrent tonsillitis and treating postoperative patients to help normalize their blood levels of antioxidants.

  10. Fulminant hepatic and multiple organ failure following acute viral tonsillitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bechtel-Grosch, Ursina; Beguelin, Charles; Berezowska, Sabina; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Takala, Jukka; Schefold, Joerg C

    2016-01-20

    Pyogenic tonsillitis may often be observed in the general Western population. In severe cases, it may require antibiotic treatment or even hospitalization and often a prompt clinical response will be noted. Here we present an unusual case of progressive multiple organ failure including fulminant liver failure following acute tonsillitis initially mistaken for "classic" pyogenic (that is bacterial) tonsillitis. A 68-year-old previously healthy white man was referred with suspicion of pyogenic angina. After tonsillectomy, he developed acute liver failure and consecutive multiple organ failure including acute hemodynamic, pulmonary and dialysis-dependent renal failure. Immunohistopathological analysis of his tonsils and liver as well as serum polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed herpes simplex virus-2 to be the causative pathogen. Treatment included high-dose acyclovir and multiorgan supportive intensive care therapy. His final outcome was favorable. Fulminant herpes simplex virus-2-induced multiple organ failure is rarely observed in the Western hemisphere and should be considered a potential diagnosis in patients with tonsillitis and multiple organ failure including acute liver failure. From a clinical perspective, it seems important to note that fulminant herpes simplex virus-2 infection may masquerade as "routine" bacterial severe sepsis/septic shock. This persevering condition should be diagnosed early and treated goal-oriented in order to gain control of this life-threatening condition.

  11. [Clinical pathological analysis of 7 cases of primary tonsil diffuse large B cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Han, Ting-Ting; Wang, Li; Fan, Lei; Xu, Ji; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Tonsil is the most frequent site of the head and neck non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and the diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common pathological type in tonsil NHL. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestation, immunophenotype, prognostic factor of primary tonsil DLBCL and its treatment strategy. The clinical data of 7 newly diagnosed patients with primary tonsil DLBCL from October 2009 to February 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The results indicated that the pharynx or sore throat as the fist symptom was found in all patients. Out of 7 cases, 3 was in Ann Arbor stage I (42.8%), a case was in stage II (57.1%). Pathological immunohistochemical detection showed that the CD10 positive rate was 100%, BCL-2 positive rate was 83.3%, BCL-6 positive rate was 71.4%, Ki-67 ≥ 70% was 66.7%. They were all sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Following up 4 to 40 months, they were all alive. It is concluded that most patients with primary tonsil DLBCL are at early stage, have an obvious characteristics of onset ages, clinical manifestations, pathological histology and achieve better remission through combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  12. Angiosarcoma: A Case Report of Gingival Disease with Both Palatine Tonsils Localization

    PubMed Central

    Chamberland, Frédéric; Maurina, Tristan; Degano-Valmary, Séverine; Spicarolen, Thierry; Chaigneau, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are one of the rarest subtypes of sarcomas; those are malignant vascular tumors arising from vascular endothelial cells. Occurrence of intra-oral angiosarcoma is extremely rare (0.0077% of all cancers in Europe). We present here, to our knowledge, the first case of a 83-year-old man with gingival and both palatine tonsils localization of a grade-two angiosarcoma discovered after a two months history of a painful lesion followed by hematoma and spontaneous bleeding. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and hemostatic radiotherapy were inefficient and he died seven months after the first symptoms. It is essential to use the vascular markers, such as CD34, CD31, ERG and FLI1, for a correct histological diagnosis, which remains difficult because it displays a wide range of morphological appearances and multiple patterns may be present in the same tumor. The main prognostic factors are chronic pre-existing lymphedema and tumor size greater than five centimeters. Malignancy grade and stage classification should be provided in all cases in which this is feasible because of predictive meaning. When possible, wide surgical resection with negative margins remains the cornerstone for the treatment of localized angiosarcomas, but despite the improvement of surgical techniques the prognosis is poor with more than half of patients died within the first year. Adjuvant radiotherapy is the standard treatment of high–grade (two and three), deep lesions, regardless of size, because it improved the local recurrence-free survival. For advanced disease, if possible, metastasectomy should be considered. The first-line chemotherapy with doxorubicin or paclitaxel should be discussed compared to best supportive care according to patient comorbidities and preference. PMID:27746875

  13. Olanzapine-related repetitive focal seizures with lingual dystonia.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Capasso, Margherita; Frazzini, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine-related seizures have rarely been reported despite associated proconvulsant risk factors described in the literature: myoclonic status, increased frequency of seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, as well as fatal status epilepticus. We present a psychiatric patient who developed repetitive focal motor seizures and lingual dystonia when olanzapine was added for psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness. Olanzapine was immediately suspended and the seizures progressively disappeared. A control EEG showed no paroxysmal discharges. Olanzapine shares some pharmacological similarities with clozapine, a neuroleptic with a high risk of dose-dependent seizures. This adverse effect should be taken into account, and olanzapine should be used with caution if concomitant circumstances decrease the seizure threshold. [Published with video sequence online].

  14. An unusual presentation of a lingual dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Durr, Megan L; van Zante, Annemieke; Pletcher, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare lesions of the head and neck that usually present in children as an asymptomatic, slowly growing mass. We report a case that demonstrates that dermoid cysts can present later in life as a recurrent acute infection. Our patient was a 48-year-old man with a 22-year history of recurrent abscesses of the tongue and floor of the mouth that had required a tracheotomy and multiple hospitalizations. Magnetic resonance imaging performed between acute episodes revealed the presence of a 1.8-cm lesion within the tongue musculature. The patient underwent resection, and pathology was consistent with a lingual dermoid cyst. At 2 years of follow-up, he experienced no recurrence of symptoms.

  15. Regimes of oscillation and reed vibrations in lingual organ pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Eric; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    We compare the sound generation in six lingual organ pipes including two trompette pipes, two oboes pipes, a krummhorn, and a rankett, the latter two of which were described in a previous paper [Cox and Rossing, paper 2aMU8, 142nd ASA meeting]. With the resonator attached, each pipe sounds in distinct regimes of oscillation, separated by discontinuities. The nominal frequencies of the pipes are generally slightly lower than the resonance frequency of the resonator but slightly higher than the natural frequency of the reed. The air mass loading of both the resonator and shallot lowers the reed frequency. Changing the blowing pressure has little effect on the sounding frequency but a modest effect on sound level.

  16. An evaluation of torque (moment) on implant/prosthesis with staggered buccal and lingual offset.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A; Kruger, B

    1996-06-01

    The supposition that staggered buccal and lingual implant offset is biomechanically advantageous was examined mathematically. The method of evaluation utilized a standard hypothetical geometric configuration from which implants could be staggered buccally and/or lingually in both arches. Torque (moment) values were calculated at the gold screw, abutment screw, and 3.5 mm apical to the head of the implant. Comparisons were made in percentages of change from the hypothetical standard to the buccal and/or lingual implant offset. In the maxillary arch, buccal offset decreased the torque (moment) while lingual offset increased it. If more lingually offset implants were present in the maxillary restoration, the total torque would be greater than if they were all in a straight line. Staggered buccolingual implant alignment often requires abutment reangulation. The resultant line of force produced by occlusal anatomy usually results in buccal inclination in the maxillary arch and lingual inclination in the mandibular arch. As a result, mandibular implant/prostheses are greatly favored over similar maxillary configurations because the mandibular resultant line of force usually passes lingually, closer to the components and supporting bone and considerably less torque is produced. Therefore, the concept of staggered offset for multiple implant-supported prostheses can be utilized on the mandible but is not recommended for the maxilla where maximum uniform buccal implant orientation is advised.

  17. Anatomical Relationship of Lingual Nerve to the Region of Mandibular Third Molar

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Leite Leal Nunes, Carla Maria; de Almeida Lopes, Maria Cândida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study evaluated the relationship of the lingual nerve with the adjacent anatomical structures of the mandibular third molar region, influencing the dentist to be aware of the variability of these relationships. Material and Methods Samples of 24 human corpse half-heads were selected and divided according with the presence or absence of the mandibular third molars. The lingual nerve (LN) was explored, showing its run from the oblique line until its crossing with the submandibular gland duct. The measurements along the LN and the adjacent anatomical structures were taken at the retromolar, molar and sublingual region with the use of a digital caliper. Results The distance from the LN and the third molar socket, which represents the horizontal distance of the lingual plate to the nerve, on average, was 4.4 mm (SD 2.4 mm). The distance from the LN and the lingual alveolar rim, which represents the vertical relationship between the nerve and the lingual alveolar rim of the third molar socket, on average, was 16.8 mm (SD 5.7 mm). The LN has a varied topography that leaves it very vulnerable during any procedure executed in this region. Conclusions Unless adequate protection of the lingual nerve is acquired by following an adequate surgical technique, the lingual nerve will always be vulnerable to damage during surgical intervention or manipulation in this region. PMID:24478912

  18. Sensory outcomes of the anterior tongue after lingual nerve repair in oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Elfring, T T; Boliek, C A; Seikaly, H; Harris, J; Rieger, J M

    2012-03-01

    Primary treatment of oropharyngeal cancer often involves surgical resection and reconstruction of the affected area. However, during base of tongue reconstruction the lingual nerve is often severed on one or both sides, affecting sensation in the preserved tissue of the anterior tongue. The loss of specific tongue sensations could negatively affect a person's oral function and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different types of lingual nerve intervention on sensory function for patients with base of tongue cancer as compared to healthy, age-matched adults. Subjects included 30 patients who had undergone primary oropharyngeal reconstruction with a radial forearm free-flap and 30 matched controls. Sensations tested were temperature, two-point discrimination, light touch, taste, oral stereognosis and texture on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Results indicated that type of surgical nerve repair may not have a significant impact on overall sensory outcomes, providing mixed results for either nerve repair technique. Sensations for the nonoperated tongue side and operated side with lingual nerve intact were comparable to matched controls, with mixed outcomes for nerve repair. The poorest sensory outcomes were observed in patients with the lingual nerve severed, while all patients with lingual nerve intervention exhibited deteriorated taste sensation on the affected tongue side. Overall, patients in this study who had undergone oropharyngeal reconstruction with lingual nerve intervention exhibited decreased levels of sensation on the operated tongue side, with minimal differences between types of lingual nerve repair. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Changes of the lingual epithelium in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Wistuba, J; Clemen, G

    1998-12-01

    Changes in the lingual epithelium during ontogenesis and after induced metamorphosis in Ambystoma mexicanum are described as observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium of the tongue is always multilayered in the larva as well as in the adult. It consists of a stratum germinativum with little differentiated basal cells and a stratum superficiale (superficial layer) with specialized superficial cells and goblet cells. Usually, there are more than two layers because of a stratum intermedium consisting of replacement cells. The apical cell membrane of the superficial cells is perforated by fine pores. Its most typical feature are microridges. Maturing superficial cells possess microvilli. Goblet cells occur in early larvae primarily in the centre of the tongue. They spread throughout the dorsal face of the tongue as their numbers increase during ontogenesis. The small apices of the goblet cells are intercalated in the wedges between the superficial cells. Leydig cells are not found on the larval tongue but on that of adults. Due to metamorphosis, the epithelium of the tongue changes. It is furrowed in its anterior part. The furrows house the openings of the lingual glands. The surface is further modulated by ridges which are densely coated by microvilli and which bear the taste buds. The villi of the tongue which lack extrusion pores show cilia and microvilli but lack microridges. The Leydig cells disappear during metamorphosis. In addition to the two types of goblet cells found in different regions of the glandular tubules, goblet cells occur in the caudal part. They secrete directly into the cavity of the mouth. The posterior part is characterised by a dense coat of cilia.

  20. Distribution of Y-Receptors in Murine Lingual Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Maria D.; Acosta, Andres; Riveros, Paola P.; Baum, Bruce J.; Ukhanov, Kirill; Brown, Alicia R.; Dotson, Cedrick D.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones and their cognate receptors belonging to neuropeptide Y (NPY) family mediate diverse biological functions in a number of tissues. Recently, we discovered the presence of the gut satiation peptide YY (PYY) in saliva of mice and humans and defined its role in the regulation of food intake and body weight maintenance. Here we report the systematic analysis of expression patterns of all NPY receptors (Rs), Y1R, Y2R, Y4R, and Y5R in lingual epithelia in mice. Using four independent assays, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and RT PCR, we show that the morphologically different layers of the keratinized stratified epithelium of the dorsal layer of the tongue express Y receptors in a very distinctive yet overlapping pattern. In particular, the monolayer of basal progenitor cells expresses both Y1 and Y2 receptors. Y1Rs are present in the parabasal prickle cell layer and the granular layer, while differentiated keratinocytes display abundant Y5Rs. Y4Rs are expressed substantially in the neuronal fibers innervating the lamina propria and mechanoreceptors. Basal epithelial cells positive for Y2Rs respond robustly to PYY3–36 by increasing intracellular Ca2+ suggesting their possible functional interaction with salivary PYY. In taste buds of the circumvallate papillae, some taste receptor cells (TRCs) express YRs localized primarily at the apical domain, indicative of their potential role in taste perception. Some of the YR-positive TRCs are co-localized with neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), suggesting that these TRCs may have synaptic contacts with nerve terminals. In summary, we show that all YRs are abundantly expressed in multiple lingual cell types, including epithelial progenitors, keratinocytes, neuronal dendrites and TRCs. These results suggest that these receptors may be involved in the mediation of a wide variety of functions, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, taste perception and satiation

  1. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children.

    PubMed

    Li'e, Chen; Juan, Che; Dongying, Jiang; Guiling, Feng; Tihua, Zheng; Yanfei, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure were determined for all participants. There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011). We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022). Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001). However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  2. [State of the immune system in children with tonsillitis-induced lesions of the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Smiian, O I; Mozhova, Iu A; Bynda, T P; Sichnenko, P I; Romaniuk, O K; Slyva, V V

    2013-03-01

    Purpose of work was study the state of the immune system in children with non-inflammatory tonzillogenic lesions of the cardiovascular system. The article describes the main features of the immune status of children 6-18 years with chronic tonsillitis with lesions of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed the content of serum lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, T-helper cells, T-suppressor, null cells, B-cells, the concentration of immunoglobulin (Ig) A, G, M, immunoregulatory index. Found that children with chronic tonsillitis and tonzillogenic heart disease immune status changes were more significant in contrast to children with chronic tonsillitis without cardiac complications and manifested significant increase in T-suppressor cells, Ig M and decreased T-lymphocytes (P < 0.01).

  3. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  4. Nickel content of human palatine tonsils: analysis of small tissue samples by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, W; Andersen, I; Zachariasen, H

    1977-06-01

    We describe a method for determining the nickel content of small tissue samples by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in this case biopsy specimens from human palatine tonsils. Contact between tissue samples and metallic objects was avoided, except for the use of biopsy forceps (Type No. 8150.00 Wolf, stainless steel) for collecting samples, to imitate the actual procedure when small biopsy specimens are removed from the nasal mucosal membranes in nickel workers for histopathological and chemical investigations. Nickel contamination from this instrument was insignificant at the precision of the present procedures. The mean concentration of nickel in 15 tonsils was 13.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) microng/100g (wet wt). The mean nickel concentration in eight different samples of the same tonsil was 5.6 +/- 2.7 (SD microng/100 g.

  5. Tonsils--place of botulinum toxin production: results of routine laboratory diagnosis in farm animals.

    PubMed

    Böhnel, H; Wagner, C; Gessler, F

    2008-08-25

    Since a case of a veterinarian was reported, who was likely to be infected/intoxicated by Clostridium botulinum during the handling of a diseased animal, tonsils in animals were tested for botulinum neurotoxin and bacterial forms of neurotoxic Clostridium botulinum during routine botulism laboratory examinations including standard samples (intestinal tract and liver) from 48 cattle, 11 horses, and 14 goats. Ten out of 60 samples from tonsils contained free botulinum toxin, and 12 out of 59 were positive for live toxin producing bacteria. In 32 out of 162 intestinal samples toxin was detected. Toxin producing bacteria were found in 37 samples. Eight of 56 liver samples contained free toxin, and 15 out of 43 toxigenic bacteria. Samples from 10 slaughter pigs were all negative, whereas from slaughter cattle tonsils had a high incidence of toxin (7 of 10) or toxigenic bacteria (2 of 8). The results are discussed in the context of effects on animal health and botulism as zoonosis.

  6. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma: a rare complication of warfarin use

    PubMed Central

    Buyuklu, Mutlu; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Topal, Ergun; Ceyhun, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is commonly used for prevention of embolic events. Bleeding is the main side effect of warfarin. Lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare. In the literature, nine cases have so far been reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who developed spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematomas while on warfarin therapy. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare, but can be potentially life-threatening complications as they cause airway obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of earliest haematoma after warfarin use. PMID:25008335

  7. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma: a rare complication of warfarin use.

    PubMed

    Buyuklu, Mutlu; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Topal, Ergun; Ceyhun, Gokhan

    2014-07-09

    Warfarin is commonly used for prevention of embolic events. Bleeding is the main side effect of warfarin. Lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare. In the literature, nine cases have so far been reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who developed spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematomas while on warfarin therapy. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare, but can be potentially life-threatening complications as they cause airway obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of earliest haematoma after warfarin use. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea) of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in these species and

  9. [Conservative therapy and surgical treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the children].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Ivoĭlov, A Iu; Turovskiĭ, A B; Khamzalieva, R B; Tovmasian, A S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to undertake the statistical analysis of the methods employed to treat tonsillitis in the children with a view to optimizing adequate dispensary observation, planned conservative therapy and surgical treatment of the patients presenting with chronic tonsillitis. The analysis of the excerpts from the annual reports presented by the head of the otorhinolaryngological department of the Children's City Clinical Hospital No 9 involved the patients admitted for the pre-planned and urgent treatment of paratonsillar abscess between 1990 and 2010. It was shown that the number of children with paratonsillar abscess increased during this period from 5.8 to 12.0%. At the same time, the number of such patients undergoing surgery for the treatment of toxico-allergic forms (TAF-I and TAF-II) decreased from 26.7 to 8.7-11.6% of their total number admitted to the department for the treatment of pharyngeal pathology. These diseases developed in the children frequently ill with chronic tonsillitis after its recurrent exacerbations. Importantly, all these children were registered in the dispensaries of district out-patient clinics at the places of residence and repeatedly underwent courses of conservative therapy of chronic tonsillitis that either resulted in the temporary improvement of their health conditions or produced no effect whatever. Nevertheless, no district otorhinolaryngologist recommended tonsillectomy to a child with chronic tonsillitis. It is concluded that adequate regular medical check-ups in combination with the planned courses of conservative treatment and hospitalization of the patients in due time for the surgical treatment (tonsillectomy) permit to reduce the frequency of complications of such an insidious disease as chronic tonsillitis.

  10. Microbiological identification and analysis of swine tonsils collected from carcasses at slaughter

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Terri; Friendship, Robert; Blackwell, Tim; Pearl, David; McEwen, Beverly; Carman, Susy; Slavić, Đurđa; Dewey, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this 7-month study was to determine the prevalence of porcine pathogens of the tonsil of the soft palate of swine at slaughter. Additional objectives were to determine if sampling the carcasses of normal or abnormal hogs provided different microbiological profiles and if the slaughter plant provides a feasible sampling frame and environment for detecting and monitoring important pathogens in tonsils that have health implications for both swine and humans. A total of 395 samples were collected from 264 farms. Of these, 180 tonsils were collected from normal carcasses and 215 tonsils were collected from carcasses that were diverted to the hold rail. Laboratory testing included bacteriological culture and identification as well as real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PPRSV) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2). The most commonly isolated bacteria included: Streptococcus suis (53.7%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (29.9%), Pasteurella multocida (27.3%), and Streptococcus porcinus (19.5%). Virus screening revealed evidence of PRRSV and PCV-2 in 22.0% and 11.9% of the samples, respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated in 0.5% and 1.8% of the samples, respectively. Tonsils collected from the hold rail were more likely to be positive for Staphylococcus hyicus [odds ratio (OR) = 7.51, confidence interval (CI) = 2.89 to 19.54], Streptococcus porcinus (OR = 9.93, CI = 4.27 to 23.10), and Streptococcus suis (OR = 2.16, CI = 1.45 to 3.24). Tonsils collected from abnormal carcasses were less likely to be positive for Staphylococcus aureus (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.005 to 0.482). PMID:21731180

  11. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of lingual retainer wires bonded with three different lingual retainer composites: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita; Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LR

  12. Previous tonsillectomy modifies odds of tonsil and base of tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Jose P; Mazul, Angela L; Rodriguez, Nidia; Weissler, Mark C; Brennan, Paul; Anantharaman, Devasena; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Neil Hayes, D; Olshan, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure that involves removal of the palatine tonsils. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between previous tonsillectomy and odds of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in a large population-based case–control study. We hypothesise that previous tonsillectomy is associated with a decreased odds of tonsil cancer with no impact on the odds of developing base of tongue (BOT) cancer. Methods: This was a population-based, frequency-matched case–control study with multinomial logistic regression, including 1378 controls, 108 BOT cancer cases, and 198 tonsil cancer cases. Demographic and risk factor data were collected using a structured questionnaire during an in-home visit conducted by trained nurse-interviewers. The human papillomavirus (HPV) tumour status was determined through Luminex-based multiplex PCR and p16 status by immunohistochemistry. Results: Previous tonsillectomy was associated with a nearly two-fold increased odds of BOT cancer (OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.25–3.06, P=0.003) and a large decrease in the odds of tonsil cancer (OR=0.22, 95% CI 0.13–0.36, P<0.001). When HPV status was considered, tonsillectomy was associated with a decreased odds of HPV-positive tonsil cancer (OR=0.17, 95% CI 0.08–0.34, P<0.001) and an increased risk of HPV-positive BOT cancer (OR=2.46, 95% CI 1.22–4.95, P=0.012). When p16 status was considered, tonsillectomy was associated with an increased odds of p16-positive BOT cancer (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.16–4.35, P=0.017) and a decreased odds of p16-positive tonsil cancer (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.07–0.31, P<0.001). Conclusions: Previous tonsillectomy modifies the odds of both tonsil and BOT cancer, with decreased odds of tonsil cancer and increased odds of BOT cancer. A history of previous tonsillectomy may play a role in OPSCC risk stratification when considered along with other covariates such as sexual history, smoking status, and age. PMID

  13. Histologic analysis of pediatric tonsil and adenoid specimens: is it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil P; Stoddard, Timothy; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Koempel, Jeffrey A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexpected histologic findings in routine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy specimens. A retrospective medical record review was performed at a tertiary care children's hospital. The pathology records of 2062 children who underwent tonsil or adenoid surgery were analyzed and the final histologic diagnosis was recorded. Four unexpected histologic findings were found on routine tonsil and adenoid specimens. None were clinically significant. A review of the literature shows a very low rate (0.015%) of unexpected clinically significant diagnoses in pediatric adenotonsillectomy specimens. Given rarity of unexpected clinically significant diagnoses in pediatric adenotonsillectomy specimens, the cost and effort of analyzing each specimen histologically is difficult to justify.

  14. Tuberculosis of Waldeyer’s Ring with an Atypical Presentation as Chronic Adeno-Tonsilitis

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; M, Nirupama; Prasad, Vishnu; Majeed, Nazeem A

    2015-01-01

    Primary tuberculosis of the oropharynx and nasopharynx is a rare clinical entity.It usually arises secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We report a rare case of a 20-year-female, who presented with fever and throat pain. Examination revealed hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils, which was ultimately proved as tuberculosis.Enlargement of the palatine tonsils could be due to a multitude of causes, and a thorough evaluation is necessary to arrive at the right diagnosis.Increased awareness of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tuberculosis is important in tropical countries, as the disease may be overlooked resulting in inappropriate management. PMID:25859475

  15. Previous tonsillectomy modifies odds of tonsil and base of tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Zevallos, Jose P; Mazul, Angela L; Rodriguez, Nidia; Weissler, Mark C; Brennan, Paul; Anantharaman, Devasena; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Neil Hayes, D; Olshan, Andrew F

    2016-03-29

    Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure that involves removal of the palatine tonsils. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between previous tonsillectomy and odds of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in a large population-based case-control study. We hypothesise that previous tonsillectomy is associated with a decreased odds of tonsil cancer with no impact on the odds of developing base of tongue (BOT) cancer. This was a population-based, frequency-matched case-control study with multinomial logistic regression, including 1378 controls, 108 BOT cancer cases, and 198 tonsil cancer cases. Demographic and risk factor data were collected using a structured questionnaire during an in-home visit conducted by trained nurse-interviewers. The human papillomavirus (HPV) tumour status was determined through Luminex-based multiplex PCR and p16 status by immunohistochemistry. Previous tonsillectomy was associated with a nearly two-fold increased odds of BOT cancer (OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.25-3.06, P=0.003) and a large decrease in the odds of tonsil cancer (OR=0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.36, P<0.001). When HPV status was considered, tonsillectomy was associated with a decreased odds of HPV-positive tonsil cancer (OR=0.17, 95% CI 0.08-0.34, P<0.001) and an increased risk of HPV-positive BOT cancer (OR=2.46, 95% CI 1.22-4.95, P=0.012). When p16 status was considered, tonsillectomy was associated with an increased odds of p16-positive BOT cancer (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.16-4.35, P=0.017) and a decreased odds of p16-positive tonsil cancer (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.07-0.31, P<0.001). Previous tonsillectomy modifies the odds of both tonsil and BOT cancer, with decreased odds of tonsil cancer and increased odds of BOT cancer. A history of previous tonsillectomy may play a role in OPSCC risk stratification when considered along with other covariates such as sexual history, smoking status, and age.

  16. Purification of human NK cell developmental intermediates from lymph nodes and tonsils.

    PubMed

    Freud, Aharon G; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating data indicate that human natural killer (NK) cells undergo terminal maturation in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) including lymph nodes (LNs) and tonsils. In addition, recent studies have revealed that maturing NK cells progress through at least five functionally discrete stages of development within SLTs. These discoveries provide unique possibilities for researchers to investigate the natural processes governing human NK cell development, as they exist in vivo, through analysis of NK cell maturational intermediates found in situ. Herein we describe a detailed, yet simple, four-step protocol for the viable enrichment and purification of human NK cell developmental intermediates from LNs and tonsils.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in tonsil brushings and gargles in cancer-free patients: The SPLIT study.

    PubMed

    Combes, Jean-Damien; Dalstein, Véronique; Gheit, Tarik; Clifford, Gary M; Tommasino, Massimo; Clavel, Christine; Lacau St Guily, Jean; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the tonsil using extensive ex vivo brushing and gargling in a large age-stratified sample of cancer-free patients. From 2012 to 2016, consecutive patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications in 19 French University Hospitals were invited to participate in the SPLIT study. Immediately after resection, half-tonsils were extensively brushed at the pathology laboratories on the surface epithelium and in tonsil crypts to collect exfoliated cells. In 11 centers, patients aged 15 and over (adults) were also asked to provide gargle samples before surgery. HPV-DNA detection used a very sensitive Luminex technology to evaluate 21 HPV types. Tonsil brushings from 692 patients aged 1-70 years and gargles from 268 adults were tested for HPV. Among adults, overall HPV prevalence was 3.6% in tonsil brushings and 13.1% in gargles and HPV16 prevalence was 2.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Among 139 children, tonsil brushings were positive in two girls (1.4%). Percent agreement in HPV detection in paired tonsil brushings and gargles in adults was 85.8% and positive agreement 9.5%. HPV prevalence in gargles significantly varied by sex (prevalence ratio in men vs women=2.1; 95% confidence interval; 1.1-4.1) and tonsillectomy indication (non-infectious vs. infectious=4.9; 1.4-17.0). HPV infection is infrequent in tonsil brushings of cancer-free children and adults. In contrast, HPV infection in gargles in adults is rather common. Low agreement in paired tonsil brushings and gargles suggests that gargle is not representative of HPV prevalence in the tonsil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lingual nerve injury after third molar removal: Unilateral atrophy of fungiform papillae

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablo-Garcia-Cuenca, Alba; Bescós-Atín, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain and sensory changes due to lingual nerve injury are one of the most common alterations that follow surgical removal of third molar. They are usually transient but other less common complications, such as the atrophy of fungiform papillae, have an uncertain prognosis. Case Description: We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented a unilateral lingual atrophy of fungiform papillae after third molar extraction accompanied by severe dysesthesia that altered her daily life significantly during the following months and how this complication evolved over time. We conducted a literature review on the different factors that can lead to a lingual nerve injury. Clinical Implications: The clinical evolution of temporary and permanent somatosensitve injuries is an important fact to take into consideration during the postoperative management because it will indicate the lesion prognosis. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar removal, somatosensitive alteration, papillae atrophy, permanent injury, temporary injury. PMID:24790723

  19. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum.

  20. Transient lingual papillitis associated with confirmed herpes simplex virus 1 in a patient with kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Kim, Silvia S; Burns, Jane C

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of transient lingual papillitis associated with confirmed herpes simplex virus 1 that developed after a child received intravenous immunoglobulin and infliximab for acute Kawasaki disease.

  1. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  2. Lingual nerve neuropraxia following use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Van Wijk, Roelof M A W; Elhalawani, Islam; Barnes, Ann-Maree

    2014-02-01

    Cranial nerve injury is a rare complication with the use of supraglottic airway devices. A case of lingual nerve injury following the use of a Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme in a 45 year old woman is presented. A review of the literature regarding lingual nerve injury as a complication of the supraglottic airway is also presented. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of transitory lingual nerve impairment on speech: an acoustic study of vowel sounds.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Matti; Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Vähätalo, Kimmo; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Aaltonen, Olli; Happonen, Risto-Pekka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the lingual nerve impairment on phonetic quality of speech by analyzing the main acoustic features of vowel sounds when the normal lingual nerve function was partly distorted by local anesthesia. The study group consisted of 7 men, whose right side lingual nerve was anesthetized with 0.8 mL of Ultracaine D-Suprarenin (Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmpH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The speech material analyzed consisted of 8 vowels produced in sentence context by speakers. Every utterance was repeated 10 times with and without local anesthesia. After recording, the speech samples were analyzed with a computerized speech laboratory. In addition, the vowels of 1 man with permanent nerve impairment were studied. The results show that the deprived function of the tongue after lingual nerve impairment had various effects on vowel quality for every subject. The main acoustic determinants of different vowels, the lowest vocal tract resonances, changed in frequency. In addition, the total duration of vowels changed and the vowels had different fundamental frequencies. However, these effects were extremely individual and variable. According to the results of acoustic analysis, the distortion of lingual nerve function has effects on vowel production. Some of these changes were so extensive that they also could be perceptually detectable. Lingual nerve impairment seems to have potential to change speech production. Copyright 2002 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 60:647-652, 2002

  4. Details of the intralingual topography and morphology of the lingual nerve.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Nimigean, V; Podoleanu, L; Ivaşcu, R V; Niculescu, M C

    2008-09-01

    The lingual nerve supplies the tongue with trigeminal sensory fibers and sensory fibers that originate from the chorda tympani. The aim of this study was to investigate, by dissection, the anatomical features of the lingual nerve at the level of the tongue and to correlate the findings with existing data. Six human adult cadavers dissected bilaterally and 6 specimens of tongue-pharynx-larynx from autopsied adult cadavers were studied. The lingual nerve gives off its terminal branches at the anterior border of the hyoglossus muscle where the anastomotic loops between the lingual and hypoglossal nerves are found. Two morphological types of terminal division of the lingual nerve were seen: a single primary trunk or two primary trunks, a medial one distributed in the middle third of the tongue and a lateral one for the anterior third of the tongue. The primary terminal branches of the lingual nerve were located on the outer surface of the genioglossus muscle, forming a nervous layer over the deep artery of the tongue. The following emerged from the primary trunk(s): thin branches for the ipsilateral mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue and 4-9 thick secondary trunks, with palisade disposition and translingual courses that followed the outer surface of the genioglossus muscle towards the dorsal mucosa of the ipsilateral part of the tongue, anterior to the circumvallate papillae.

  5. New classification of lingual arch form in normal occlusion using three dimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were 1) to classify lingual dental arch form types based on the lingual bracket points and 2) to provide a new lingual arch form template based on this classification for clinical application through the analysis of three-dimensional virtual models of normal occlusion sample. Methods Maxillary and mandibular casts of 115 young adults with normal occlusion were scanned in their occluded positions and lingual bracket points were digitized on the virtual models by using Rapidform 2006 software. Sixty-eight cases (dataset 1) were used in K-means cluster analysis to classify arch forms with intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar widths and width/depth ratios as determinants. The best-fit curves of the mean arch forms were generated. The remaining cases (dataset 2) were mapped into the obtained clusters and a multivariate test was performed to assess the differences between the clusters. Results Four-cluster classification demonstrated maximum intercluster distance. Wide, narrow, tapering, and ovoid types were described according to the intercanine and intermolar widths and their best-fit curves were depicted. No significant differences in arch depths existed among the clusters. Strong to moderate correlations were found between maxillary and mandibular arch widths. Conclusions Lingual arch forms have been classified into 4 types based on their anterior and posterior dimensions. A template of the 4 arch forms has been depicted. Three-dimensional analysis of the lingual bracket points provides more accurate identification of arch form and, consequently, archwire selection. PMID:25798413

  6. Tonsil surgery in youths: good results with a less invasive method.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Elisabeth; Hultcrantz, Elisabeth

    2007-04-01

    Comparison of two types of tonsil surgery for 16- to 25-year-old patients, with respect to primary morbidity, snoring, and recurrent infections after 1 year. Teenagers and young adults are a significant proportion (26%) of the population that receive tonsil surgery each year and appear to suffer more pain than younger children. Recurrent tonsillitis, in combination with obstructive problems, is the main indication for surgery. One hundred fourteen patients 16 to 25 years of age were randomized to tonsillotomy (TT) with radiosurgery (RF) (Ellman International) or to cold tonsillectomy (TE). Pain and analgesics were logged until patients were pain free. Thirty-two patients were operated on with TT and 44 with TE. The TT group had less blood loss during surgery and no postoperative bleedings, compared with the TE group (2 primary and 4 late hemorrhages). The TT group recorded significantly less pain from the first day, had less need of analgesics (diclofenac and paracetamol), and were pain free and in school/at work 4 days earlier than the TE group. After 7 days, the TE patients had lost a mean of 1.8 kg compared with TT, with no significant weight loss. After 1 year, both groups were satisfied. The positive effect on snoring was the same for both groups. There were few throat infections in both groups. TT with RF is an effective method for tonsil surgery for many teenagers and young adults, with much less postoperative morbidity than regular TE. Long-term follow-up is necessary.

  7. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anshuman J.; Valdez, Tulio A.; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky’s classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations. PMID:27446667

  8. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  9. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  10. Assessment of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Bozan, Nazım; Kozan, Ahmet; Belli, Şeyda Bayel; Arslan, Ayşe; Cankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    To emphasize the effectiveness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme, which has important roles in the differentiation of lymphoid cells, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Serum and tissue samples were obtained from 25 patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis. In the control group, which also had 25 subjects, only serum samples were taken as obtaining tissue samples would not have been ethically appropriate. ADA enzyme activity, catalase (CAT), carbonic anhydrase (CA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of patients and control group subjects. The serum values of both groups were compared. In addition, the tissue and serum values of patients were compared. Serum ADA activity and the oxidant enzymes MDA and NO values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.001), the antioxidant enzymes CA and CAT values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, while CA, CAT and NO enzyme levels were found to be significantly higher in the tonsil tissue of the patient group when compared to serum levels (p < 0.05), there was no difference between tissue and serum MDA and ADA activity (p > 0.05). Elevated ADA activity may be effective in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis both by impairing tissue structure and contributing to SOR formation.

  11. Marek’s disease virus induces transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...

  12. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in palatine tonsils and autologous serum from EBV carriers.

    PubMed

    Nadal, David; Blasius, Martin; Niggli, Felix K; Meier, Gabriela; Berger, Christoph

    2002-05-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect and quantitate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in tonsils and autologous sera from EBV-seropositive children. EBV DNA was found in 95% of tonsils from 21 children and in 50% from 18 children with serum IgG titers to the virus capsid antigen (VCA) of > or =1:160 and 1:10 to 1:80, respectively (P = 0.002). Tonsils from children with titers > or =1:160 harbored more EBV DNA copies per mg tissue (mean, 1,237; range, < 2-13,998) than from children with titers 1:10 to 1:80 (mean, 23; range, < 2-226; P < 0.0001). By contrast, EBV DNA was detected only in serum from 25% of 20 children with titers > or = 1:160. Thus, ample differences in tonsillar EBV replication are mirrored inconstantly by detectable EBV in autologous serum suggesting that EBV DNA quantitation in tonsils may serve for refined monitoring of individuals at risk of EBV-associated lymphoproliferation.

  13. Detection of Respiratory Viruses and Atypical Bacteria in Children's Tonsils and Adenoids▿

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Lorenzo; Esposito, Susanna; De Vecchi, Elena; Marchisio, Paola; Blasi, Francesco; Baggi, Elena; Capaccio, Pasquale; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    The tonsils and adenoids of 44 children were analyzed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Viruses were detected in 47.7% of the children and 37.3% of the specimens, with adenovirus and parainfluenza viruses being the most frequently detected microorganisms. PMID:17989193

  14. Detection of respiratory viruses and atypical bacteria in children's tonsils and adenoids.

    PubMed

    Drago, Lorenzo; Esposito, Susanna; De Vecchi, Elena; Marchisio, Paola; Blasi, Francesco; Baggi, Elena; Capaccio, Pasquale; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    The tonsils and adenoids of 44 children were analyzed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Viruses were detected in 47.7% of the children and 37.3% of the specimens, with adenovirus and parainfluenza viruses being the most frequently detected microorganisms.

  15. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in tonsils and adenoids of United Arab Emirates nationals.

    PubMed

    Al-Salam, Suhail; Dhaheri, Shamma Al; Awwad, Aktham; Daoud, Sayel; Shams, Ahmed; Ashari, Mouied Al

    2011-09-01

    Given that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) often inhabits human tonsils and adenoids, it remains to be distinctively determined its prevalence and in which cell and microenvironment the virus is present. To determine the prevalence of EBV in the tonsils and adenoids of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals and to provide a basis for understanding the origin and biology of EBV-infected cells, the immunophenotype of all EBV-infected cells in 46 tonsils and 46 adenoids was determined by EBER in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to T cells (CD3), B cells (CD20), and epithelial cells (cytokeratin AE1/AE3), as well as immunostaining with antibodies to EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1). EBV was found in 43% of tonsillectomy specimens and 15% of adenoidectomy specimens. All EBV-infected cells were found to be B lymphocytes. About 90% of the infected B cells are found in the interfollicular regions of tonsils and adenoids and the remaining 10% are found within the follicles. There is no significant association between EBV infection, age (P=0.324) and gender (P=0.442). EBV is associated with tonsillar hypertrophy and is prevalent in 43% of our cases. EBV is only detected in B lymphocytes and we believe that B lymphocytes are sites of primary infection and latency. In situ hybridization is the gold standard for the detection of EBV in tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of inspiratory pressure in children with enlarged tonsils and adenoids.

    PubMed

    Pires, Melissa Guerato; Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Mello, João Ferreira de

    2005-01-01

    Children with enlarged tonsils and adenoids usually present breathing abnormalities such as snoring, mouth breathing and sleep apnea. It is known that upper airway obstruction and consequent mouth breathing may result in pulmonary diseases. The goal of this preliminary study was to evaluate the inspiratory pressure in children with upper airway obstruction due to enlarged tonsils. Clinical with transversal cohort. We evaluated 37 children (4-3 years old, female/male) with enlarged tonsils who would be submitted to a T&A surgery in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, from October 2002 to March 2003. The control group comprised 28 children without tonsillar disease submitted to the same tests. Inspiratory pressure was obtained using a manometer and vacuum meter. We could observe lower inspiratory pressures in children with upper airway obstruction. The mean of inspiratory pressure in the upper airway obstruction group was 14.607 cm/H2O and in the control group was of 27.580 cm/H2O. Enlarged tonsils and adenoids were associated with poor inspiratory pressure, resulting in increased breathing effort and work of the involved muscles.

  17. Search for Herpesvirus 1 and 2 by in situ hybridization in tonsils and adenoids.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, José; Camargo, Leandro Azevedo de; Chagas, Cristiano Aparecido; Pinto, Glauce Aparecida; Endo, Luiza Hayashi

    2005-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been described as cause of acute tonsillitis. It has also been found in nasopharyngeal florid lymphoid infiltrate, mostly composed of CD4+, CD56+ T-cells, simulating lymphoma. In spite of its widespread prevalence in latent form, to the best of our knowledge no study is available on in situ detection of HSV in chronically hyperplastic nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue. The purpose of the present study was to search for the presence of HSV 1 and 2 in 21 adenoids and 15 tonsils from children (2-12 years of age) in which these organs had been surgically removed due to hypertrophy. Paraffin wax-embedded sections from the 36 cases were submitted to the in situ hybridization technique, using the biotinilated probe to Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (Pan Path, Amsterdam) and the Rembrandt Universal DISH & HRP Detection Kit (Pan Path, Amsterdam). Positive control consisted of a previously tested Herpes infected lung. In none of the 36 cases studied were positive nuclei detected in adenoid and tonsils, either in lymphoid, in stroma or in epithelial cells, as those seen in the positive control. HSV does not seem to be implied in tonsil or adenoid chronic lymphoid hyperplasia. These organs do not seem to harbor the virus latently, or the amount of virus is too low to be detected without amplification methods.

  18. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Nico; Cantisani, Rocco; Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19⁺CD20⁺GM-CSF⁺ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19⁺CD20⁺GM-CSF⁻ B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM⁺IgD⁺, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils.

  19. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Relationship between repeating tonsillitis and Berger's disease. Report of A case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Marcos García, M; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Marqués Rebollo, L; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    Berger's disease, so called IgA nephropathy, is a mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis characterized by recurrent episodes of gross hematuria in relation with ENT infections like tonsillitis. We report a clinical case which presented that association and make a review of the literature about the possible advantages of tonsillectomy on the evolutive course and prognosis of the nephropathy.

  1. Helicobacter pylori in the tonsillar tissue: a possible association with chronic tonsillitis and laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    PubMed

    Siupsinskiene, N; Katutiene, I; Jonikiene, V; Janciauskas, D; Vaitkus, S

    2017-06-01

    To identify Helicobacter pylori infection in tonsillar tissue samples from patients undergoing tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis versus tonsillar hypertrophy, and to assess the possible relationships between H pylori and patients' sociodemographic data and laryngopharyngeal reflux. In this prospective study, 97 patients who underwent tonsillectomy were divided into the following 2 groups: patients with chronic tonsillitis (n = 62) and patients with tonsillar hypertrophy (control group; n = 35). H pylori infection in the tonsillar biopsy samples was identified using histochemical and rapid urease tests. The incidence of H pylori infection was significantly higher in the chronic tonsillitis group (56.5 per cent) compared to the control group (31.4 per cent). Similar findings were obtained for both subgroups of adults (68.6 vs 42.3 per cent) and children (40.7 vs 0.0 per cent). Significant relationships between a positive H pylori finding and laryngopharyngeal reflux related signs of vocal fold oedema, diffuse laryngeal oedema and hypertrophy of the posterior commissure were revealed. H pylori infection may be related to chronic tonsillitis and laryngopharyngeal reflux.

  2. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19+CD20+GM-CSF+ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19+CD20+GM-CSF- B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM+IgD+, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils. PMID:26066485

  3. The ubiquity of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the tonsils and adenoids of children and their impact on airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Faden, Howard; Callanan, Vincent; Pizzuto, Michael; Nagy, Mark; Wilby, Mark; Lamson, Daryl; Wrotniak, Brian; Juretschko, Stefan; St George, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood. Non-acutely ill children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for various reasons were enrolled prospectively in a study to determine the frequency of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in each lymphoid tissue and to relate the number and types of virus to the degree of airway obstruction. Molecular techniques were used to detect 9 respiratory viruses while Brodsky scores and measurements of percentages airway obstruction were used to estimate the degree of airway compromise due to the tonsil and adenoid, respectively. Viruses were detected in 70.9% of tonsils and 94.7% of adenoids, p < 0.001. Adenovirus was the most common virus detected at 71.1%. Adenoids had an average of 2.4 viruses compared to 0.92 for tonsils, p < 0.001. Higher Brodsky scores were only associated with EBV in tonsils, p = 0.03, while greater percentages of airway obstruction in the adenoids were associated with adenovirus, EBV, corona virus, parainfluenza virus and rhinovirus, p ≤ 0.005. Asymptomatic viral infections are common and directly related to the degree of airway obstruction significantly more often in adenoids than tonsils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lingual nerve lesion during ranula surgical treatment: case report.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, F; Battista, V; Marelli, S; Valassina, D; Colombo, V; Bardazzi, A; Tarabbia, F; Colletti, G; Rabbiosi, D; Autelitano, L

    2010-10-01

    Iatrogenic lingual nerve (LN) injuries are quite common in oral surgery both in maxillo-facial surgery and in oral surgery. LN runs superficially into the lateral mouth floor just beneath the mucous layer and this position enhances damage frequency. This article lists the different aetiologies of iatrogenic LN injuries and it almost focuses on lesions due to surgical treatment of ranulas. In the case report a LN lesion due to oral ranula excision is discussed; the patient experienced anaesthesia and hyperpatia in the corrisponded tongue side. It was treated with a microneurosugical anastomosis of LN, after amputation neuroma excision. The partial and definitive recovery of perception happened in six months and was deemed satisfying with 70% of functionality restored (results compared with the functionality of the contralateral side). An algorithm for diagnosis and therapy indication for iatrogenic injuries to nerves is also proposed. In case of surgical treatment, funcitonal recovery manifests after 4-6 month; a functional recovery of 70% of total nerve function is possible. The variable that most affects nerve functional recovery is surgical treatment timing; it must be performed as soon as possible.

  5. Lingual mucosal graft in treatment of Peyronie disease.

    PubMed

    Salem, Emad A; Elkady, Ehab H; Sakr, Ahmed; Maarouf, Aref M; Bendary, Lotfy; Khalil, Salem; Shahin, Ashraf; Kamel, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the use of lingual mucosal graft (LMG) as a substitute for tunica albuginea in the treatment of Peyronie disease (PD). Seventeen patients, reporting normal erectile function, with PD interfering with sexual function were operated on by plaque excision and grafting with LMG. Preoperative assessment included: the International Index of Erectile Function-5 score, penile duplex, and penile curvature angle measurement. Postoperative erectile function and penile deformity were assessed every 3 months for 9-18 months. Mean age of the patients was 52 (± 4.7) years and mean angle of deformity was 60° (± 5.1). Donor site complications occurred in the form of mild transient swelling, numbness, and pain. Postoperative assessment showed complete penile straightening in 15 patients with mild curvature recurrence (<20°) in 2 patients at the third month. De novo mild erectile dysfunction was reported by 1 patient who responded to low-dose phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. Patients' and partners' satisfaction was reported in 16 (94%) patients. These results remained stable until the end of the follow-up period. LMG seems to be a valuable substitute for tunica albuginea in cases of PD. It is readily available and shows early graft take. It also proved safety, reliability, feasibility, and a satisfactory short-term outcome for the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Positional targets for lingual consonants defined using electromagnetic articulography.

    PubMed

    Yunusova, Yana; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S; Rudy, Krista; Baljko, Melanie; Daskalogiannakis, John

    2012-08-01

    The study examined the positional targets for lingual consonants defined using a point-parameterized approach with Wave (NDI, Waterloo, ON, Canada). The overall goal was to determine which consonants had unique tongue positions with respect to other consonants. Nineteen talkers repeated vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) syllables that included consonants /t, d, s, z, , k, g/ in symmetrical vowel contexts /i, u, a/, embedded in a carrier phrase. Target regions for each consonant, characterized in terms of x,y,z tongue positions at the point of maximum tongue elevation, were extracted. Distances and overlaps were computed between all consonant pairs and compared to the distances and overlaps of their contextual targets. Cognates and postalveolar homorganics were found to share the location of their target regions. On average, alveolar stops showed distinctively different target regions than alveolar fricatives, which in turn showed different target region locations than the postalveolar consonants. Across talker variability in target locations was partially explained by differences in habitual speaking rate and hard palate characteristics.

  7. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup. PMID:22166371

  8. Reed vibration in lingual organ pipes without the resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, András; Angster, Judit; Pitsch, Stephan; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-02-01

    Vibrations of plucked and blown reeds of lingual organ pipes without the resonators have been investigated. Three rather surprising phenomena are observed: the frequency of the reed plucked by hand is shifted upwards for large-amplitude plucking, the blown frequency is significantly higher than the plucked one, and peaks halfway between the harmonics of the fundamental frequency appear in the spectrum of the reed velocity. The dependence of the plucked frequency on the length of the reed reveals that the vibrating length at small vibrations is 3 mm shorter than the apparent free length. The frequency shift for large-amplitude plucking is explained by the periodic change of the vibrating length during the oscillation. Reed vibrations of the blown pipe can be described by a physical model based on the assumption of air flow between the reed and the shallot. Aerodynamic effects may generate and sustain the oscillation of the reed without acoustic feedback. The appearance of subharmonics is explained by taking into account the periodic modulation of the stress in the reed material by the sound field. Therefore, a parametric instability appears in the differential equation of vibration, leading to the appearance of subharmonics.

  9. Facial and Lingual Strength and Endurance in Skilled Trumpet Players.

    PubMed

    Potter, Nancy L; Johnson, Lauren R; Johnson, Stephen E; VanDam, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Trumpet players produce and manipulate sound through their instrument by articulating the lips, cheeks, and tongue to create a proper airflow. These sustained muscle contractions may result in increased facial and lingual strength and endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine if adult trumpet players who practice at least 6 hrs/wk differed from adult non-trumpet-playing controls in strength and endurance of the lips, cheeks, and tongue. This case-control study involved 16 trumpet players, 16 healthy controls balanced for age and sex, and 1 trumpet player 25 years post-Bell's palsy. Strength and endurance of lip, cheek, and tongue muscles were measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI Medical, Redmond, WA). Maximum strength was the greatest pressure value of three encouraged trials. Endurance was the length of time the participant was able to sustain 50% of maximum strength. The findings indicate that trumpet players had greater facial strength and endurance, which was objectively quantified using commercially available equipment. The trumpet players had greater cheek strength and greater lip endurance than controls. Tongue strength and endurance did not differ between the trumpet players and controls. Tongue strength was negatively associated with age, which is consistent with previous studies. The trumpet player with a history of Bell's palsy had decreased cheek strength and endurance on his affected side compared to his unaffected side, although this difference was comparable to the differences between right and left cheek strength in trumpet players without a history of facial nerve damage.

  10. Use of CO2 laser in lingual and labial frenectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotti, Renata C.; Bellini, Bruno S.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.; Nicola, Ester M. D.

    2000-03-01

    Ankiloglossia or frenum lingual alteration leads to important tongue dysfunction, which, besides discomfort and pain during function, is generally responsible for the difficulty to express specific phonemes. In other cases, a heavy muscular abnormal attachment of labial frenum can promote clinical changes. In such case, an eventual orthodontic therapy is indicated and aesthetic alteration is observed. In both cases, surgical removal is indicated. The surgery, for prevention purposes, must be done as soon as possible, but considering that the majority of patients are young (5 - 14 years old), difficulties during surgery are expected to occur. Correction of speech or orthodontic dysfunction in advanced ages is much more complex and difficult than in childhood. In the present work we demonstrate that the use of CO2 lasers in these cases are advantageous and simple. The laser energy causes the tissue of the frenum to open in the classic shape with no bleeding and no need for suture, reducing the risk of cross- contamination and of postoperative infection. Scarring and other complications are also minimized. A CO2 laser (continuous, 8 W, 10.6 micrometers) was used assisted with local anesthesia. The major advantage of laser is the possibility of its application in early ages, preventing further problems.

  11. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  12. Effect of artificial rearing of piglets on the volume densities of M cells in the tonsils of the soft palate and ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Prims, S; Pintens, N; Vergauwen, H; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C; Casteleyn, C

    2017-02-01

    The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies. The present study focused on the M cells in the tonsil of the soft palate and in the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP). These epithelial cells are specialized in antigen sampling and play a pivotal role in the induction of adaptive immune responses. The volume densities of the M cells were assessed by stereological analysis of tissue samples from piglets of 0, 3, 8 and 19days of age. During the first three days, piglets suckled the sow, permitting them to ingest colostrum. At the third day, the piglets were either allowed to continue to suckle the sow or were transferred to brooders. The six experimental groups, each containing six piglets, thus consisted of newborn piglets, 3-day-old sow-suckled piglets, and conventionally and artificially reared piglets of 8 and 19days of age. To identify M cells, tissue samples were immersed in 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde and paraffin sections were immunohistochemically stained against cytokeratin 18. The volume densities of M cells in both the crypt epithelium of the tonsils of the soft palate and the follicle-associated epithelium of the iPPs did not show any difference between the various age groups of conventionally reared piglets. However, values were twice as high in the iPPs compared to the tonsils of the soft palate. In contrast, a decrease in volume densities of M cells was observed in the iPPs of piglets after they had been transferred to commercial brooders (P=0.05), resulting in

  13. HHV-6 infection of tonsils and adenoids in children with hypertrophy and upper airway recurrent infections.

    PubMed

    Comar, Manola; Grasso, Domenico; dal Molin, Gianna; Zocconi, Elisabetta; Campello, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), the agent of a self-limiting exanthematic disease in childhood, persists in a silent state in the secondary lymphoid organs and the reactivation is characterized by HHV-6-induced inflammatory cytokines. This study investigates the possible etiological role of HHV-6 in children affected by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. 55 tonsils, 80 adenoids fresh tissues and 74 blood samples were collected from 80 children (mean age 4.8 years, 43.5% female) undergoing elective tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for tissue hypertrophy. Moreover, patients with <5 years old documented upper airway recurrent infections not related to relapsing of acute tonsillitis. Specific IgG antibodies and virus detection (by PCR, variant A/B enzymatic genotyping and real-time PCR) were performed. In our series, HHV-6 seroprevalence was tested at 50%. HHV-6 variant B was the unique strain finding in 25% of adenoids, in 12.7% of tonsils and in 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HHV-6-B was prevalent in tonsils of children affected by upper airway infections (17.8% vs 7.4%) while the adenoids represented the more frequent reservoir (30.7% vs 19.5%) in patients with hypertrophy. HHV-6 viral load was low, ranging from 80 to 600 copies/10(6) cells suggesting a latent/persistent phase of infection. These results reinforce the role of the secondary lymphoid organs as an important reservoir for HHV-6B. Nevertheless, infection of lymphoid cells, sustained by a low level of replication, could be sufficient to increase the local injury through an autologous mechanism of inflammation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Glossopharyngeal Nerve Taste in Children with Recurrent Acute Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Courtney A; Dang, Suveera; Beach, Michael; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare glossopharyngeal taste between healthy children and those with recurrent acute tonsillitis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Pediatric clinics in a tertiary care medical center and satellite location. Subjects and Methods Smell and taste testing was administered to 80 well children and 64 children with recurrent acute tonsillitis (age range, 6-17 years). Smell testing was performed with the NIH Toolbox Odor Identification Test, with scores based on national averages for age and sex. Validated Taste Strips were placed on the midline of the tongue at the circumvallate papillae in random tastant order and in increasing concentrations to test sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Ordinal logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results The healthy and tonsillitis groups were similar, with mean ages of 11.3 and 10.8 years ( P = .34), respectively. The tonsillitis group had fewer boys (n = 18 vs 43, P = .002), higher mean body mass index (BMI) percentile (n = 72.2 vs 59.8, P = .01), and more subjects with public or no insurance (n = 24 vs 13, P = .004). Univariate analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in rate of normal overall taste (67.2% vs 60%, P = .39) and in sweet (79.7% vs 82.5%, P = .67), salty (85.9% vs 82.8%, P = .82), sour (64.1% vs 70%, P = .48), and bitter (90.6% vs 86.3%, P = .45). In multivariate analysis, smell ability, sex, BMI percentile, parent BMI, and insurance type did not affect overall taste or sweet, salty, sour, or bitter alone. Conclusion Despite controlling for potential intrinsic (sex, smell, BMI) and extrinsic (parent BMI, insurance type) confounders, there was no statistically significant difference in taste among children with recurrent acute tonsillitis as compared with healthy children.

  15. Primary Lymphangioma of the Palatine Tonsil in a 9-Year-Old Boy: A Case Presentation and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, Eleftheria; Papapetropoulos, Nektarios; Karamatzanis, Eleftherios; Saravakos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphangiomas or lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign lesions that are described infrequently in the literature. The majority of the published cases concern adults. We report a case of a lymphangiomatous lesion of the right palatine tonsil of a 9-year-old boy. Our clinical suspicion was confirmed by the histological examination after tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of primary lymphangioma of the tonsil was made. In this case we discuss the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion and present a short review of the current literature. PMID:27872780

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores CTCs, after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and foliate papillae) of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Following unique features were found; typical vallate papillae with a circumferential furrow were not observable. Instead, numerous large fungiform papillae were rather densely distributed on the posterior of the lingual prominence. Taste buds were observable only on the dorsal epithelium. Serous lingual gland was not seen in the lamina propria; however, mucous-rich mixed lingual glands were found and in a few of orifices were seen on the large fungiform tops. Lingual prominence was diminished their width. Rather long and slender conical papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence and were similar to nonruminant herbivore, that is donkey. Beside this narrow lingual prominence, lateral slopes were situated with numerous short spine-like protrusions. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs of lateral slopes exhibited attenuated flower bud structures. Large-conical papillae were situated on the root of the tongue. These large conical papillae were not seen among ruminants and seen on the lingual root of omnivores and carnivores. It implies that lingual structure of common hippopotamus possessed mixed characteristics between Perissodactyls, Ruminantia, and nonherbivores such as Suiformes because of their unique evolutionally taxonomic position. Moreover, adaptation for soft grass diet and associating easier mastication may be also affecting these mixed morphological features of the tongue.

  17. A cyclin D1-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of germinal center B-cell-like subtype in the right tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changrui; Shi, Xiuying; Fan, Chuifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cyclin D1-positive tumor cells are commonly found in mantle cell lymphoma but they are very rare in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clinical findings/Patient concerns: Here we present a rare case of cyclin D1-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the right tonsil of a 50-year-old man. Computed tomographic imaging detected a mass, about 2.5 cm × 1.8 cm in size, in the left side of the oropharynx. Diagnoses: Microscopically, the tumor cells were located under the pharyngeal mucosa and diffusely arranged. The tumor cells were large, with marked nuclear atypia. On performing immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining for CD10, CD20, cyclin D1, and Pax-5, and negative staining for CD3, CD15, CD30, CD56, and CK. Bcl-6 and Mum-1 expression were observed in 60% and 80% of tumor cells, respectively. The tumor Ki67 index was about 60%. Based on these findings, The tumor was diagnosed as a rare cyclin D1-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma rather than a mantle cell lymphoma. Conclusion: Cyclin D1-positive large B-cell lymphoma is rare, but as large B-cell lymphoma is a common type of lymphoma, cyclin D1-positive large B-cell lymphoma should be considered a major possibility during differential diagnosis, including in the tonsils. PMID:28296741

  18. Anatomic-histologic study of the floor of the mouth: the lingual lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ananian, Sargis G; Gvetadze, Shalva R; Ilkaev, Konstantin D; Mochalnikova, Valeria V; Zayratiants, Georgiy O; Mkhitarov, Vladimir A; Yang, Xin; Ciciashvili, Aleksandr M

    2015-06-01

    The lingual lymph nodes are inconstant nodes located within the fascial/intermuscular spaces of the floor of the mouth. Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma has been reported to recur and metastasize in lingual lymph nodes with poor prognosis. Lingual lymph nodes are not currently included in basic tongue squamous cell carcinoma surgery. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males, 14 females) were studied, aged from 57 to 94 years (mean age 76.3 years). The gross specimen of the floor of the mouth was divided into blocks: A (median nodes), B, B' (parahyoid), C, C' (paraglandular). Serial histological microslides were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Frequency of lingual lymph nodes in each block and their microscopic features were assessed. The lingual lymph nodes in overall number of 7 were detected in 5 of the 21 cadavers (23.8%). The total incidence of lingual lymph node was 33.3% (7 nodes/21 cadavers). Block A failed to demonstrate any lymph nodes (0%); Blocks B, B'-2 nodes (9.5%) and 2 nodes (9.5%), respectively; Blocks C, C'-1 node (4.8%) and 2 nodes (9.5%), respectively. The mean lingual lymph node length was 4.1 mm (from 1.4 to 8.7 mm), the mean thickness was 2.8 mm (from 0.8 to 7.5 mm). Five cadavers (23.8%) revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Atrophic changes appeared in 4 (57.1%) lingual lymph nodes. The presence of lymph node-bearing tissue in the floor of the mouth is demonstrated. In account of resection radicalism and better local control the fat tissue of the floor of the mouth should be removed in conjunction to glossectomy. Further anatomic and clinical research is required to establish the role of lingual lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence and metastasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

    PubMed Central

    Indu, V. R.; Lucy, K. M.; Chungath, J. J.; Ashok, N.; Maya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 µm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE), also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 µm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 µm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 µm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV) cells, and goblet cells. The

  20. Dental Hygiene and Orthodontics: Effect of Ultrasonic Instrumentation on Bonding Efficacy of Different Lingual Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Collesano, Vittorio; Tovt, Gaia; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Gandini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is crucial for oral health. As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UI on shear bond strength (SBS) and on adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different lingual orthodontic brackets. 200 bovine incisors were divided into 10 groups. Four different lingual (STB, Ormco; TTR, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics; Idea, Leone; 2D, Forestadent) and vestibular control (Victory, 3M) brackets were bonded. UI was performed in half of specimens, whereas the other half did not receive any treatment. All groups were tested with a universal testing machine. SBS and ARI values were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed (significance: P = 0.05). TTR, Idea, and 2D lingual brackets significantly lowered SBS after UI, whereas for other braces no effect was recorded. Appliances with lower mesh area significantly reduced their adhesion capacity after UI. Moreover groups subjected to UI showed higher ARI scores than controls. UI lowered SBS of lingual appliances of small dimensions so particular care should be posed avoiding prolonged instrumentation around bracket base during plaque removal. Moreover, UI influenced also ARI scores. PMID:28904955

  1. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  2. Tonsillotomy or tonsillectomy?--a prospective study comparing histological and immunological findings in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Oliver; Mayr, Doris; Winterhoff, Jan; de la Chaux, Richard; Hagedorn, Hjalmar; Berghaus, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the differences in histological and immunological findings in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hyperplasia and assessed the risk for relapsing tonsillar hyperplasia or recurrent tonsillitis after tonsillotomy in a prospective clinical study. Sixty-four children with recurrent tonsillitis underwent traditional (total) blunt dissection tonsillectomy between October 2003 and July 2004. Partial tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy) using CO(2)-laser technique was performed on 49 children with tonsillar hyperplasia and no history of recurrent tonsillitis between August 2003 and March 2005. The present study compares preoperative serum anti-streptolysin-O antibody and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA and IgM), C-reactive protein levels (CRP) and blood leukocyte counts of the two study groups. Additionally the tonsillar tissue removed by tonsillotomy or tonsillectomy was histologically examined in order to determine the grade of hyperplasia, chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, the grade of fresh inflammation within the tonsillar crypts of the specimens was analysed. The parents of 40 patients treated by laser tonsillotomy were surveyed in average 16 months. There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative serum anti-streptolysin-O antibody and immunoglobulin levels, C-reactive protein levels and blood leukocyte counts between the two study groups. All specimens showed the histological picture of hyperplasia. There was no statistically significant difference in the grades of hyperplasia between the two study groups. Signs of fresh but mild inflammation within the tonsillar crypts could be found in over 70% of both study groups. Fibrosis only occurred in children with recurrent tonsillitis (9%). In all specimens signs of chronic inflammation could be detected. The histological examinations of specimens from children with repeated throat infections more frequently showed a moderate chronic inflammation of the tonsillar tissue

  3. Lingual CD36 and nutritional status differentially regulate fat preference in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Douglas Braymer, H; Zachary, Hannah; Schreiber, Allyson L; Primeaux, Stefany D

    2017-03-14

    Lingual fatty acid receptors (i.e. CD36) mediate the orosensory perception of fat/fatty acids and may contribute to the susceptibility to develop obesity. The current study tested the hypothesis that fat/fatty acid preference in obesity-prone (OP, Osborne-Mendel) and obesity-resistant (OR, S5B/Pl) rats is mediated by nutritional status and lingual CD36. To determine if nutritional status affected linoleic acid (LA) preference in OP and OR rats, rats were either fasted overnight or fed a high fat diet (60% kcal from fat). In OR rats, fasting increased the preference for higher concentrations of LA (1.0%), while consumption of a high fat diet decreased LA preference. In OP rats, fasting increased the preference for lower concentrations of LA (0.25%), however high fat diet consumption did not alter LA preference. To determine if lingual CD36 mediated the effects of an overnight fast on LA preference, the expression of lingual CD36 mRNA was assessed and the effect of lingual application of CD36 siRNA on LA preference was determined. Fasting increased lingual CD36 mRNA expression in OR rats, but failed to alter lingual CD36 mRNA in OP rats. Following an overnight fast, application of lingual CD36 siRNA led to a decrease in LA preference in OR, but not OP rats. Lingual application of CD36 siRNA was also used to determine if lingual CD36 mediated the intake and preference for a high fat diet in OP and OR rats. CD36 siRNA decreased the preference and intake of high fat diet in OR rats, but not OP rats. The results from this study suggest that the dysregulation of lingual CD36 in OP rats is a potential factor leading to increased fat intake and fat preference and an enhanced susceptibility to develop obesity.

  4. Enzyme differentiation of lymphocyte subpopulations in sections of human lymph nodes, tonsils and periodontal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, G J; Dockrell, H M; Greenspan, J S

    1978-01-01

    Five enzymes have been studied to differentiate between T and B lymphocytes in sections of human lymph nodes, tonsils and chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. The presence of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, non-specific esterase and fluoride-resistant esterase activity was determined histochemically. The results indicate that cells in the B area of both lymph nodes and tonsils are negative for enzyme activity, while those in the T area show a single intense granule of activity. These enzymes were unable to differentiate between T blasts, B blasts and plasma cells in the sections studied. The majority of the lymphoid cells in the lesions of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease are enzyme-negative and probably of B-cell origin. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:307463

  5. Pyloric tonsil as a novel gut-associated lymphoepithelial organ of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Oláh, Imre

    2007-09-01

    The pyloric tonsil is a novel peripheral lymphoepithelial organ of the gastrointestinal tract in the chicken. It forms a complete lymphoid ring at the beginning of the duodenum, where crypts of Lieberkühn are transformed to tonsillar crypts with lymphoepithelial lining. The oesophageal (described previously) and pyloric tonsils are characteristic of the chicken, while they are absent in mammals. The lymphoid system develops from the middle germ layer, the mesoderm, and forms connections with the ecto- and endoderm, namely the skin and gut, respectively. These connections are based on the lymphoepithelial lining of the crypts, and provide gates for environmental antigens. Recent findings, taken together with the literature, suggest that in birds the lymphoid system forms connections with the endoderm-derived organs that are anatomically and histologically more extensive than the ectoderm-derived ones, which may be explained by the absence of regional lymph nodes, and the less developed lymphoid circulation of the skin.

  6. Lymphoid papillary hyperplasia of the palatine tonsil: a Chinese case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Yu, Jingjing; Li, Changshui

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid papillary hyperplasia is a rare abnormality of the tonsils with a predilection for affecting young Asian girls. Herein, we report a 31-year-old Chinese woman presented as right lateral recurrent tonsillar hypertrophy with odynophagia and dysphagia over the past 5 years, worsening over a period of for half a year. Clinically, this lesion was similar to papillomatosis or lymphoid polyposis. However, histopathologic study showed a distinctive form of lymphoid hyperplasia with considerable distinct finger-like projections composed of many phyllodes which contained remarkable follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. This is the only Chinese case of lymphoid papillary hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils that has been reported in the most recent English literature so far. The importance of recognizing this disorder rests in the fact that in spite of the clinical features suggestive of both a benign and a malignant tumor, however, the process is a benign tumor-like proliferation, probably non-neoplastic, could easily be cured by tonsillectomy.

  7. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT.

  8. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT. PMID:27752250

  9. Cephalometric appraisal of patients treated with fixed lingual orthodontic appliances: historic review and analysis of cases.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, D T; Kuftinec, M M

    1989-06-01

    In the first part of this article, a retrospective look was taken of evolvement and progression in design of the lingual fixed orthodontic appliance. The second part is a retrospective study of treated lingual cases. By the use of standardized cephalometric radiographs, selected treatment parameters were analyzed:--namely, bite opening, changes in mandibular position, inclination, torque and intrusion of incisors, and soft-tissue effects. For the clinician who uses this treatment modality, the most significant effects are the bite opening, intrusion of the mandibular incisors (particularly in extraction cases), and limited reduction of lower lip protrusion. The mandibular plane angle and torque and inclination of incisors did not follow a consistent and predictable pattern. On the basis of the study's findings, it is suggested that lingual fixed appliance therapy is a useful supplement to our treatment modalities; good results are both realistic and possible.

  10. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the Asian short-clawed otter.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult Asian short-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex had some pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of several rod-like processes, and the connective tissue core with a long process was rarely observed. The filiform papilla on the lingual body had several pointed processes and the fungiform papilla had smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of a large main and several small processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and some pads, and many processes were observed on this surface. The tongue of the Asian short-clawed otter was different from that of the Japanese marten belong to family Mustelidae.

  11. Lingual and fusiform gyri in visual processing: a clinico-pathologic study of superior altitudinal hemianopia.

    PubMed Central

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Deruaz, J P; Assal, G; Regli, F

    1987-01-01

    A macular-sparing superior altitudinal hemianopia with no visuo-psychic disturbance, except impaired visual learning, was associated with bilateral ischaemic necrosis of the lingual gyrus and only partial involvement of the fusiform gyrus on the left side. It is suggested that bilateral destruction of the lingual gyrus alone is not sufficient to affect complex visual processing. The fusiform gyrus probably has a critical role in colour integration, visuo-spatial processing, facial recognition and corresponding visual imagery. Involvement of the occipitotemporal projection system deep to the lingual gyri probably explained visual memory dysfunction, by a visuo-limbic disconnection. Impaired verbal memory may have been due to posterior involvement of the parahippocampal gyrus and underlying white matter, which may have disconnected the intact speech areas from the left medial temporal structures. Images PMID:3585386

  12. Influence of Tonsillar Size on OSA Improvement in Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alice; Benke, James R; Cohen, Aliza P; Ishman, Stacey L

    2015-08-01

    To determine if pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) improves after adenotonsillectomy (AT) regardless of tonsil size. Case series with chart review. Pediatric Otolaryngology Department, Johns Hopkins Hospital. Seventy children 1 to 18 years of age who underwent polysomnography (PSG) before and after AT. Tonsil size was evaluated using the Brodsky grading scale. Children were stratified by tonsil size as 2+ (n = 20), 3+ (n = 36), and 4+ (n = 14). There was a significant improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI), apnea index (AI), and saturation nadir across all 3 groups after AT. Preoperative oAHI, AI, and hypopnea index (HI) were similar regardless of tonsil size (P > .05). Overall, oAHI improved from a median of 11.8 ± 21.7 to 2.0 ± 6.1 events/h, with 40% (28/70) of children having complete resolution. The oAHI (P < .0001-0.02), AI (P < .0001-0.017), HI (P < .0001-0.058), and saturation nadir (P < .0001-0.017) significantly improved for the 2+, 3+, and 4+ groups. Only the HI (P = .058) in the 2+ group did not. The median oAHI improvement was 3.4 ± 26.4 events/h in the 2+ group, 8.3 ± 16.6 events/h in the 3+ group, and 12.3 ± 19.5 events/h in the 4+ group, with 25% (5/20), 50% (18/36), and 36% (5/14), respectively, having complete resolution. There was no correlation between OSA severity and tonsil or adenoid size (P > .32). Tonsil size did not correlate with OSA severity. While a larger proportion of patients classified as 3+ and 4+ had complete resolution after surgery, significant improvement was seen in AI and saturation nadir even in those classified as 2+. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  14. Low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the human lingual nerve.

    PubMed

    Trulsson, M; Essick, G K

    1997-02-01

    Intrafascicular multiunit activity and impulses in single mechanoreceptive afferents were recorded from the human lingual nerve with permucosally inserted tungsten microelectrodes. Nylon filaments and blunt glass probes were used for mechanical stimulation of the mucosa of the dorsal surface of the tongue. The innervation territories of nine nerve fascicles were mapped during multiunit recordings. All fascicle fields included the tip of the tongue, suggesting a particularly high innervation density for this area. Thirty-three single mechanoreceptive afferents were isolated and studied. Of these afferents, 22 were characterized by very small mucosal receptive fields (range: 1-19.6 mm2; geometric mean: 2.4 mm2) and responded to extremely low mechanical forces (force threshold range: 0.03-2 mN; geometric mean: 0.15 mN). As such, it was concluded that these "superficial" units terminated near the surface of the tongue. The remaining 11 units responded to probing of large areas of the tongue (> 200 mm2) and exhibited high force thresholds (> or = 4 mN). It was concluded that these "deep" units terminated in the muscle mass of the tongue. Fourteen of the superficial units were classified as rapidly adapting and resembled the fast-adapting type I afferents described for the glabrous skin of the human hand. The rapidly adapting units responded both during the application and removal of, but not during maintenance of, the mechanical stimuli on the receptive field. Two types of slowly adapting responses were observed. One type (characteristic of only 2 units) was characterized by a pronounced sensitivity to force change during the application and removal of the mechanical stimuli and an irregular static discharge during maintenance of the stimulus on the receptive field. In contrast, the other six units exhibited a weak sensitivity to force change, a highly regular static discharge, and spontaneous activity. As such, these two types of slowly adapting units resembled the

  15. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in children with chronic tonsillitis: micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Unal, Murat; Celik, Ayla; Ateş, Nurcan Aras; Micozkadioğlu, Deniz; Derici, Ebru; Pata, Yavuz Selim; Akbaş, Yücel

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the possible harmful cytogenetic effects associated with chronic tonsillitis by analyzing the micronucleus frequency and other nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells. The study consisted of 20 children with chronic tonsillitis, and 20 control subjects with similar age and sex. The ages ranged between 5 and 12 years old (mean age: 7.5). The patients were diagnosed as having chronic tonsillitis on the basis of history, throat culture and clinical examinations. Buccal cell samples were collected with a wooden spatula. The samples were then applied to clean microscope slides. Smears were air dried and fixed in methanol:acetic acid. Then slides were stained by the Feulgen reaction technique. Three slides were prepared for each subject and 1000 cells were evaluated per slide to determine the frequencies of micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities (binucleats, karyorrhexis and karyolysis). Statistically, Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze and compare the data. The mean micronucleus frequencies in patient and control groups were 5.29+/-1.67 and 1.58+/-0.33, respectively. In the patient group, mean binucleus, karyorrhexis and karyolysis frequencies were 3.13+/-1.2, 2.04+/-0.64, and 1.74+/-0.47, respectively. However, in the control group, mean binucleus, karyorrhexis and karyolysis frequencies were 1.43+/-0.47, 1.26+/-0.45, and 0.88+/-0.27, respectively. The mean frequencies of all parameters in the patient group were higher than the control values, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Our results revealed that children with chronic tonsillitis could be under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  16. The surface epithelium of recurrent infected palatine tonsils is rich in γδ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, K; Hellström, S; Hammarström, M-L

    1998-01-01

    Using a large panel of MoAbs in quantitative morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections, we compared the frequency and distribution of immune cells in palatine tonsils from patients with recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and patients with idiopathic tonsillar hypertrophy (ITH). We found that differences between the two patient groups in leucocyte populations were limited to the surface epithelium, whereas the cellular composition of interfollicular and follicular areas was similar. Most intraepithelial lymphocytes were CD8+ T cells in both groups. However, the number of intraepithelial T cells was significantly higher in RT compared with ITH. This was due to a selective increase in the number of intraepithelial CD8+γδ T cells utilizing Vδ1 and Vγ9. In both patient groups the majority of the intraepithelial γδ T cells expressed Vδ1 and Vγ9. Subepithelially, γδ T cells utilizing Vγ9 dominated over cells utilizing Vγ8, while equal proportions expressed Vδ1 and Vδ2. These results suggest that cells utilizing the otherwise rare combination Vδ1/Vγ9 in their T cell receptors (TCR) may constitute a major γδ T cell population in palatine tonsils and are probably reactive to antigens specific to the tonsillar milieu. Furthermore, they indicate that preferentially this γδ T cell subpopulation is involved in immune reactions within the surface epithelium in RT. We speculate that γδ T cells are involved in clearing infectious bacteria at the tonsillar surface and in limiting inflammatory responses in the tonsils. Both local expansion and infiltration of blood cells probably contribute to the high numbers of γδ T cells in RT patients. PMID:9472659

  17. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The objective method showed a significant difference to be present between the two groups for the/s/sound in the middle position (P < 0.001) at T3. The semiobjective assessment showed worst speech performance in the lingual group to be present at T3 for vowels and blends (P < 0.01) and at T3 and T4 for alveolar and palatal consonants (P < 0.01). The subjective assessment also showed a significant difference between the two groups at T3 (P < 0.01) and T4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  18. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L.; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A.; Lee, Damian J.; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (p<0.007). Nearly all implant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (p<0.046) although the difference was not significant for the Ti implant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  19. Lingual Muscle Activity Across Sleep–Wake States in Rats with Surgically Altered Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Rukhadze, Irma; Kalter, Julie; Stettner, Georg M.; Kubin, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG), geniohyoid (GH), and hyoglossus (HG). This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H) apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic) muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2 h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied five rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during slow-wave sleep (SWS) was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway [8.6 ± 0.7% (SE) vs. 6.1 ± 0.7% of the mean during wakefulness; p = 0.012]. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway. PMID:24803913

  20. The presence of biofilm-producing bacteria on tonsils is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide levels: preliminary data in children who experience recurrent exacerbations of chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Drago, L; Capaccio, P; Baggi, E; Pignataro, L

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial biofilms may be a causative factor in the aetiopathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis. Involvement of exhaled nitric oxide has been previously considered, with conflicting findings. A pilot study was performed to investigate the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide levels and the presence of tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria in children with chronic tonsillitis. Tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria on bioptic specimens taken during tonsillectomy were assessed by means of spectrophotometry. Analysis was based on 24 children aged 5-10 years (median, 7.5 years). Biofilm-producing bacteria were found in 40.9 per cent of specimens. The median exhaled nitric oxide level was 11.6 ppb (range, 3.2-22.3 ppb). There was a significant relationship between the presence of biofilm-producing bacteria and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels (p = 0.03). Children with exhaled nitric oxide levels of more than 8 ppb were at three times greater risk of developing tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria than those with lower levels. Our findings suggest the possibility of discriminating children with chronic biofilm-sustained tonsillar infections on the basis of exhaled nitric oxide levels.

  1. Ghrelin levels in children with adenoid or chronic tonsil hypertrophies before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Koc, Sema; Ozturk, Kayhan; Buyukbas, Sadik; Kocabas, Volkan; Ozer, Bedri; Kara, Medine

    2009-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the ghrelin levels in the children with adenoid or tonsil hyperthrophies. The study included 27 children (17 boys and 10 girls). Mean age was 6.9+/-3.5 years, ranging from 3 to 16. Ghrelin levels in the patients and their weight and height measurements were evaluated before surgery and after 3 months later of the operation. While 18 (67%) children were operated for adenoid hypertrophy, 9 (33%) children were operated for adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy. It was found that postoperative ghrelin levels were significantly decreased whereas weight and BMI scores were significantly increased (p<0.01). A weak correlation was observed between preoperative ghrelin and weight (r=-0.29). This negative correlation became more profound at the postoperative 3rd month examination (r=0.85) (p<0.01). The present study showed that the surgical treatment provides positive contributions on the growing of children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophies. The ghrelin levels were significantly decreased at the postoperative period in the children, and a negative relationship was observed between the ghrelin levels and the weight. These findings suggest that blood ghrelin levels may be useful as a parameter for following the development of the children.

  2. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Role of Palatine Tonsils as a Prion Entry Site in Classical and Atypical Experimental Sheep Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Cancedda, Maria G.; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Demontis, Francesca; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Sorteni, Caterina; Maestrale, Caterina; Lai, Alfio

    2014-01-01

    Atypical and classical scrapie-infected sheep brain tissue was monolaterally injected into the tonsils of lambs to investigate their role as a prion entry point. We first detected classical PrPSc within the inoculated tonsil and in the ipsilateral retropharyngeal lymph node at 3 months postinoculation (p.i.). At 7 months p.i., PrPSc colonized other lymphoid tissues bilaterally, including ileal Peyer's patches. The earliest PrPSc deposition within the brain was ipsilaterally observed at 9 months p.i. in the substantia reticularis of the medulla oblongata. At 12 months p.i., PrPSc deposition was present bilaterally in the nucleus parasympathicus nervi vagi, as well as in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracolumbar spinal cord. No PrPSc was detected in the lambs inoculated with atypical scrapie. These findings suggest that neuroinvasion may naturally occur from the tonsil after a widespread prion replication within the lymphoid tissues during classical scrapie only, thus mimicking the pathogenesis after oral ingestion. PMID:24198416

  4. Pili mediate specific adhesion of Streptococcus pyogenes to human tonsil and skin.

    PubMed

    Abbot, Emily L; Smith, Wendy D; Siou, Gerard P S; Chiriboga, Carlos; Smith, Rebecca J; Wilson, Janet A; Hirst, Barry H; Kehoe, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Very little is known about the biological functions of pili that have recently been found to be expressed by important Gram-positive pathogens such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus agalacticae, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. Using various ex vivo tissue and cellular models, here we show that pili mediate adhesion of serotype M1 S. pyogenes strain SF370 to both human tonsil epithelium and primary human keratinocytes, which represent the two main sites of infection by this human-specific pathogen. Mutants lacking minor pilus subunits retained the ability to express cell-surface pili, but these were functionally defective. In contrast to above, pili were not required for S. pyogenes adhesion to either immortalized HEp-2 or A549 cells, highlighting an important limitation of these extensively used adhesion/invasion models. Adhering bacteria were internalized very effectively by both HEp-2 and A549 cells, but not by tonsil epithelium or primary keratinocytes. While pili acted as the primary adhesin, the surface M1 protein clearly enhanced adhesion to tonsil, but surprisingly, had the opposite effect on adhesion to keratinocytes. These studies provide clear evidence that S. pyogenes pili display an adhesive specificity for clinically relevant human tissues and are likely to play a critical role in the initial stages of infection.

  5. Failure of penicillin to eradicate group A beta-hemolytic streptococci tonsillitis: causes and management.

    PubMed

    Brook, I

    2001-12-01

    Despite the fact that group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) is always susceptible to penicillin, bacteriologic failure occurs in up to 20% of the patients treated with penicillin, and half of these cases are also a clinical failure. Various theories have been offered to explain this phenomenon. One explanation is that beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) "shield" GABHS by inactivating penicillin. Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria were recovered from over 75% of the tonsils of patients who had tonsillectomy for recurrent infection. The absence of interfering aerobic and anaerobic organisms in many patients may also lead to failure of penicillin therapy in these individuals. Other explanations include noncompliance with a 10-day course of therapy, carrier state, re-infection, bacterial interference, GABHS intracellular internalization, and penicillin tolerance. Penicillin is still considered the antibiotic of choice for the therapy of GABHS tonsillitis. However, antibiotics other than penicillin were found to be more effective in eradicating the infection. These included cephalosporins (of all generations), clindamycin, macrolides, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. These agents were more effective than penicillin, especially in treating patients who failed previous penicillin therapy. Treatment of tonsillitis in patients who failed penicillin therapy is aimed at the eradication of the the BLPB that protect GABHS from penicillin, while preserving the oropharyngeal "protective" organisms. This review will describe the scientific and clinical data that demonstrate and explain the phenomena of beta-lactamase production and bacterial interference.

  6. The Metabolically Active Bacterial Microbiome of Tonsils and Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976

  7. Predicting Differential Item Functioning in Cross-Lingual Testing: The Case of a High Stakes Test in the Kyrgyz Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Todd W.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-lingual tests are assessment instruments created in one language and adapted for use with another language group. Practitioners and researchers use cross-lingual tests for various descriptive, analytical and selection purposes both in comparative studies across nations and within countries marked by linguistic diversity (Hambleton, 2005).…

  8. Predicting Differential Item Functioning in Cross-Lingual Testing: The Case of a High Stakes Test in the Kyrgyz Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Todd W.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-lingual tests are assessment instruments created in one language and adapted for use with another language group. Practitioners and researchers use cross-lingual tests for various descriptive, analytical and selection purposes both in comparative studies across nations and within countries marked by linguistic diversity (Hambleton, 2005).…

  9. Intraoral Neurinoma of the Lingual Nerve: An Uncommon Tumor in Floor of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kumar kuppusamy, Santhosh; Ramkumar, Subramaniyam; Narasimhan, Malathi; Azariah Dhiravia Sargunam, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Neurinoma or schwannoma is an uncommon benign tumor that arises primarily from the nerve sheath of Schwann cells. About 25% has been reported in head and neck region extracranially, but only 1% in the intraoral origin. Intraorally, the tongue is the most common site followed by the palate, floor of the mouth, lips and buccal mucosa. In review of literature, intraoral schwannoma of the lingual nerve origin has not been reported frequently. So, we present a case of intraoral neurinoma of the lingual nerve. PMID:24639903

  10. Short Lingual Osteotomy Using a Piezosurgery Ultrasonic Bone-Cutting Device During Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Yuki; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Short lingual osteotomy is a useful method for the performance of sagittal split ramus osteotomy involving interference between the proximal and distal bone fragments when lateral differences exist in the setback distance. However, this procedure occasionally results in abnormal fracture and nerve injury; expert surgical skill is thus required. We herein describe a novel technique involving the use of an ultrasonic bone-cutting device (Piezosurgery; Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) for vertical osteotomy posterior to the mandibular foramen. Successful short lingual osteotomy was performed using this technique with avoidance of abnormal fracture and neurovascular bundle damage.

  11. Guided Tissue Regeneration Involving Piercing-Induced Lingual Recession: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Parra, Carlos; Jeong, Y Natalie; Hawley, Charles E

    Recession on the lingual aspect of mandibular incisors may occur in patients with history of tongue piercing and other factitious traumatic habits. Treatment of these areas is challenging due to the site-specific anatomical features of the region. This case report presents a novel approach for a specific type of mandibular lingual defect caused by tongue piercing. A nonresorbable titanium-reinforced barrier membrane combined with an allograft and enamel matrix derivatives was used to promote regeneration of periodontal attachment. Reentry surgery for membrane removal was performed at 8 weeks. The time from initial surgery to final follow-up was 18 months.

  12. The production of immunoregulatory cytokines is localized to the extrafollicular area of human tonsils.

    PubMed

    Agren, K; Andersson, U; Litton, M; Funa, K; Nordlander, B; Andersson, J

    1996-05-01

    The localization and production at the single cell level of 19 different human cytokines, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNF alpha, TNF beta, IFN gamma, GM-CSF, G-CSF, and TGF beta 1-3, were studied in cryopreserved tonsillar tissue using immunohistochemical staining. The cytokine producing cells, with the exception of IL-1 expressing cells, had a characteristic morphology due to the accumulation of cytokine onto the Golgi organelle. The production of each cytokine was localized to specific compartments in tonsillar tissue sections from children with tonsillar hypertrophy or recurrent tonsillitis in the resting state. Immunoregulatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, G-CSF, GM-CSF and TGF beta were produced in the extrafollicular area and entrapped on the cell membranes as well as in pudels in the extracellular matrix surrounding the producer cells. The dominating cytokines both in tissues from recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy were GM-CSF, G-CSF, and TGF beta 1-3 which were synthezised predominantly in the reticular crypt site. IL-1 alpha, beta and IL-1ra, on the other hand, were localized to the surface and crypt epithelium and to scattered regions in the extrafollicular area. IL-2, IL-6, IFN gamma and IL-10 were found much more often in sections obtained from recurrent tonsillitis tissue compared with those from tonsillar hypertrophy. Reversely, an excessive production of IL-4 was noted in tonsillar hypertrophy compared with that in recurrent tonsillitis. Thus, concomitant production of multiple cytokines was evident with similarities but also differences in cytokine pattern between the two groups studied. The data suggest that T-cell mediated B-cell activation and differentiation take place in the extrafollicular area. Children with recurrent tonsillitis had a higher amount of B-cells and monocytes compared with children with tonsillar hypertrophy. However, the number of CD3, CD4, CD8 or

  13. The Impact of Tobacco Smoking Upon Chronic/Recurrent Tonsillitis and Post Tonsillectomy Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Cinamon, Udi; Goldfarb, Abraham; Marom, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking has many adverse effects on the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. Outcomes may be developing tonsillar infections and predisposing for post tonsillectomy bleeding (PTB). Objective The objective of our study was to determine whether smokers have more chronic/recurrent tonsillitis indicating for tonsillectomy or develop more PTB episodes. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on two groups of adults (age ≥18 years). Cohort 1: Smoking among patients who underwent tonsillectomy for recurrent/chronic tonsillitis. Cohort 2: Smoking among patients requiring control of PTB that were operated primarily for recurrent/chronic tonsillitis. Cohort 1 served as a population-reference for the second. We retrieved the data from medical records. Results Cohort 1: 206 adults aged 18–50 years (mean 26 ± 7.6). 28% (57 patients) were smokers, versus 24% and 20% in the general population (in the years 2000 and 2010; p = 0.5, p = 0.18, respectively). Cohort 2: 114 adults aged 18–73 years (mean 26 ± 7.6). 43% were smokers, double the incidence in the general population (p = 0.004, p = 0.0004, in 2000 and 2010, respectively), and 1.5 times cohort 1 (p = 0.02). Smoking rates among bleeders on post-operative days 8–10 and later than day 10 were 53% and 60% (p = 0.0005 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Five of ten patients presenting a second PTB were smokers. Timing of re-bleedings was similar to their first PTB and dated similarly as first PTB of the entire group, mean 5.6 days (SD ± 3.2). Conclusion Smokers may encounter more chronic/recurrent tonsillitis episodes, indicating tonsillectomy and significantly are more prone for PTB. Smoking cessation may perhaps diminish recurrent/chronic tonsillitis. Whether pre-operative abstinence or its length would reduce PTB incidence is yet to be determined. PMID:28382125

  14. Effect of Salmonella infection on cecal tonsil regulatory T cell properties in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Kogut, Michael H; Arsenault, Ryan J; Swaggerty, Christina L; Cole, Kimberly; Reddish, John M; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2015-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to study regulatory T cell [Treg (CD4⁺CD25⁺)] properties during the establishment of a persistent intestinal infection in broiler chickens. Four-day-old broiler chicks were orally gavaged with 5 × 10⁶ CFU/mL Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) or sterile PBS (control). Samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, and 14 d postinfection. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of CD4⁺CD25⁺ cells by d 4 postinfection that increased steadily throughout the course of the 14-d infection, whereas the number of CD4⁺CD25⁺ cells in the noninfected controls remained steady throughout the study. CD4⁺CD25⁺ cells from cecal tonsils of S. enteritidis-infected birds had a higher (P < 0.05) IL-10 mRNA content than CD4⁺CD25⁺ cells from the noninfected controls at all time-points studied. The amount of IL-2 mRNA content in the cecal tonsil CD4⁺CD25⁻ cells from the infected birds did not differ (P > 0.05) when compared to that of noninfected control birds. At a lower effector/responder cell ratio of 0.25:1, CD4⁺CD25⁺ cells from cecal tonsils of Salmonella-infected birds suppressed T cell proliferation at d 7 and 14 post-S. enteritidis infection, while CD4⁺CD25⁺ cells from noninfected control groups did not suppress T cell proliferation. In the second studu, 1-day-old chickens were orally gavaged with PBS (control) or 1.25 × 10⁸ CFU/bird S. enteritidis. At 7 and 21 d post-Salmonella infection, CD25⁺ cells collected from cecal tonsils of S. enteritidis-infected birds and restimulated in vitro with Salmonella antigen had higher (P < 0.05) IL-10 mRNA content compared to those in the control group. Spleen CD4⁺CD25⁺, CD4⁺, and CD8⁺ cell percentage did not differ (P > 0.05) between the Salmonella-infected and control birds. In conclusion, a persistent intestinal S. enteritidis infection increased the Treg percentage, suppressive properties, and IL-10 mRNA amounts in the cecal tonsils of broiler birds.

  15. CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Ontogeny and Preferential Migration to the Cecal Tonsils in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Thymic CD4+CD25+ cells have regulatory-T-cell-like properties in chickens. This study examined the ontogeny of CD4+CD25+ cells in the thymus and in peripheral compartments in chickens. CD4+CD25+ cells started to appear in the thymus at day 15 of incubation (E15), although at low percentages. Expressed as a percentage of CD4+ cells, CD4+CD25+ cells increased (P<0.01) from 1.7% at E20 to 7.3% at 0 d post-hatch (D0). CD4+CD25+ cells did not appear in the spleen or cecal tonsils of embryos. Expressed as a percentage of CD4+ cells, CD4+CD25+ cells increased (P<0.01) from 0% at D0 to 27% at D1 in cecal tonsils and from 0% at D0 to 11% at D1 in the spleen. Expressed as a percentage of all mononuclear cells, cecal tonsils at D1 had approximately 3.5-fold higher percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells than the spleen at D1. CD4+CD25+ cells from cecal tonsils of chicks at D1 were suppressive. CD4+CD25+ cells from D0 thymus, when injected back into MHC-compatible chicks, migrated to cecal tonsils and lungs and were detected until 10 d post-injection. CD4+CD25+ cells from cecal tonsils had a higher (P = 0.01) relative amount of CCR9 mRNA than CD4+CD25+ cells from the thymus. It could be concluded that in chickens CD4+CD25+ cells migrate from the thymus immediately post-hatch and preferentially colonize the gut associated lymphoid tissues. CD4+CD25+ cells' preferential migration to cecal tonsils is likely directed through the CCR9 pathway in chickens. PMID:22479489

  16. The adequacy of gross pathological examination of routine tonsils and adenoids in patients 21 years old and younger.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D; Brown, Heather M

    2003-10-01

    Most hospitals microscopically examine all routine tonsil and adenoid specimens from healthy pediatric patients with recurrent infections or obstructive sleep apnea. Concern over missing the rare unsuspected, significant diagnosis propagates this practice. Careful gross examination for asymmetry and clinical findings should obviate the need for routine microscopic examination of tonsil and adenoid specimens in patients age 21 years and younger. A retrospective study was conducted using the SNOMED database of 4070 patients age 21 years or younger who underwent tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy between 1970 and July 2001 at the University of Florida. The age distribution of the study group was 0 to 5 years (52%), 6 to 12 years (37%), and 13 to 21 years (11%). Specimens consisted of tonsils only (15%), tonsils and adenoids (40%), and adenoids only (45%). Clinically significant diagnoses were diagnoses that impacted the care of patients and included malignancies and some infections. Non-clinically significant diagnoses included normal, acute or chronic tonsillitis, and tonsillar hyperplasia. Clinically significant pathological processes were seen in the tonsil or adenoid specimens of 3 of the 4070 patients. These 3 cases included a 2-year-old male with Burkitt's lymphoma, a 19-year-old male with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (small noncleaved cell, non-Burkitt's type), and an 11-year-old male with a probable viral process but in whom a lymphoma could not be absolutely excluded. All 3 of these patients had signs and symptoms, including significant cervical lymphadenopathy, meriting microscopic analysis of the specimens. In conclusion, microscopic examination of all routine tonsils and adenoids for individuals 21 years or younger is not indicated. Gross examination is still recommended. Clinical suspicion and specimen asymmetry should be used to determine when thorough histological examination is merited.

  17. Profile of inflammatory mediators in tonsils of patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Patricia M; Araya, Andrea; Pérez, Claudio I; Maul, Ximena; Serrano, Carolina; Beltrán, Constanza; Harris, Paul R; Talesnik, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of white blood cells and profile of proinflammatory Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory tissue cytokines in the tonsils of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) patients to contribute to the pathophysiological understanding of the PFAPA syndrome. A cohort of PFAPA patients who had tonsillectomy during 2010 and 2011 was included and compared to control patients who had tonsillectomy for tonsillar hypertrophy. White blood cell counts were measured during flares in PFAPA patients and before tonsillectomy in the control group. Cytokine gene expression was analyzed in removed tonsils by real-time PCR. Nine PFAPA patients with a median age of 5.3 years (1.7-8 years) and 17 hypertrophic tonsils of patients with a median age of 4.8 years (2.3-8.4 years) participated in this study. Tonsillectomy was performed during afebrile period between PFAPA flares. Three of the nine patients had recurrent episodes of aphthous stomatitis without fever after tonsillectomy. Leukocyte and neutrophil counts were higher in PFAPA patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). Eosinophil counts were lower in PFAPA patients during flares (p = 0.006). IL-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-17, and IFN-γ levels were similar in the tonsils of patients and controls. IL-4 gene expression in the tonsils was lower in PFAPA patients compared to those of the controls (p = 0.04). Proinflammatory, effector, and regulatory cytokine gene expression in tonsil tissue of PFAPA children removed in a noninflammatory asymptomatic interval and in control patients were similar. However, IL-4 cytokine gene expression in the tonsils and peripheral blood eosinophils were lower in the PFAPA patients suggesting a potential pathogenesis pathway based on an inhibition of Th2 responses.

  18. Antero-posterior lingual sliding retraction system for orthodontic correction of hyperdivergent Class II protrusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This report introduces a lingual bonded retraction system (Kinematics of Lingual Bar on Non-Paralleling Technique, KILBON) for efficient sliding mechanics combined with vertical control of the anterior and posterior teeth, which is suitable for Class II hyperdivergent patients. Methods Design and biomechanics of the KILBON System were described. Two adults with hyperdivergent class II malocclusion were treated with the KILBON system and temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) on the palate. The first patient was treated with conventional KILBON system on the upper arch and detailed with lingual appliances. The second patient showed the modified design of the KILBON when applied to a low palatal vault. Results A large amount of intrusion and retraction of the anterior teeth and simultaneous intrusion of the posterior segment were achieved in short treatment time. Concomitant counterclockwise rotation of the mandible improved the esthetic profile. Periodontal support without dehiscence or bone loss was confirmed on anterior region in spite of large amount of retraction. Conclusions This report presented a lingual retraction system that provides simple and effective vertical and sagittal control of both anterior and posterior teeth. The biomechanics are dependable for correcting a dentoalveolar protrusion in a patient with Class II hyperdivergent skeletal pattern. PMID:24897979

  19. Cross-Lingual Neighborhood Effects in Generalized Lexical Decision and Natural Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirix, Nicolas; Cop, Uschi; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory…

  20. Orthodontic Metallic Lingual Brackets: The Dark Side of the Moon of Bond Failures?

    PubMed

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Gandini, Paola; Gioiella, Andrea; Zhou, Feng Xiao; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-07-07

    Lingual orthodontics, among both young and adult patients, increased in popularity during last years. The purposes of the present investigation were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) values and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores of different lingual brackets compared with a vestibular control bracket. One hundred bovine teeth were extracted and embedded in resin blocks. Four different lingual brackets (Idea, Leone; STB, Ormco; TTR, RMO; 2D, Forestadent) and a vestibular control bracket (Victory, 3M) were bonded to the bovine enamel surfaces and subsequently shear tested to failure utilizing a Universal Testing Machine. SBS values were measured. A microscopic evaluation was performed to obtain ARI scores. Statistical analysis was performed at a statistically significant level of p < 0.05 to determine significant differences in SBS values and ARI Scores. No statistically significant variations in SBS were reported among the different groups. Conversely, significant differences were shown in ARI scores among the various groups. Clinical relevance of the present study is that orthodontists can expect similar resistance to debonding forces from lingual appliances as with vestibular brackets.

  1. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. Results: The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P < 0.05). In both types of mandibular dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges in the construction of mandibular complete dentures improved denture retention. PMID:26539387

  2. A new method to correct lingual rolling of lower molars (Amini twister).

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Poosti, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present an uncomplicated approach to overcome lingual rolling of mandibular molars during orthodontic treatment, by using rectangular NiTi arch wire in twist fashion through the molar tube. The sequential steps of the twist manoeuvre on a typodont and a case report are exhibited in this article.

  3. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    PubMed

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin "Versacryl." The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P < 0.05). In both types of mandibular dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). The use of flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges in the construction of mandibular complete dentures improved denture retention.

  4. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  5. [Comparative studies on the vestibular and lingual osteotomy in the removal of lower wisdom teeth].

    PubMed

    Strukmeier, A; Pape, H D

    1980-01-01

    Retained third molars and/or buds in the left and right mandible were removed unilaterally via a vestibular and lingual osteotomy in 50 patients at the department for oral surgery. Postoperative edema in addition to the operative course was registered with a measurement technique developed by the authors: wound healing and general subjective complaints were also compared.

  6. Airway evaluation by indirect laryngoscopy in patients with lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Morillo, Jorge; Gómez-Diago, Lorena; Rodríguez-Gimillo, Pablo; Herrera-Collado, Raúl; Puchol-Castillo, Jorge; Mompó-Romero, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of the lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is unknown but it is believed that its presence is associated with the difficult airway. To investigate this, indirect laryngoscopy was performed on patients in the preoperative evaluation and this pathology was diagnosed. The relationship with difficulty of viewing the larynx, intubation and ventilation, under general anaesthesia and using direct laryngoscopy, was then studied. We performed the demographic variable checks and tests for predicting difficult intubation (mouth opening, thyromental distance, cervical flexion-extension, neck thickness and Mallampati test), in the preoperative step on 300 patients who were going to be submitted to general anaesthesia. We then performed indirect laryngoscopy on them using a 70° rigid laryngoscope to ascertain the frequency of appearance of lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. Next, under general anaesthesia, we carried out direct laryngoscopy to verify whether there was difficulty in viewing the larynx and intubation and ventilation. We then investigated the association of demographic predictors of difficult intubation, including indirect laryngoscopy, with the presence of this condition. Prevalence of lingual tonsillar hypertrophy was 2%. No relationship between the appearance of this entity and the difficulty of viewing the larynx, intubation and ventilation was found. Only indirect laryngoscopy was linked to the appearance of this pathology. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is a relatively frequent disorder, whose presence is not usually associated with difficult airway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Bi-Lingual Skills for Translation through an Online Multimedia-Supported Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eser, Oktay; Saltan, Fatih; Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin; Erdem, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that bi-lingual competence is one of the necessary skills that a translator needs in order to translate (PACTE, 2003). Apart from the mother tongue, a translator must have a command of other working languages. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the online multimedia-supported learning environment concerning…

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  9. Kinematic Investigation of Lingual Movement in Words of Increasing Length in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Meyer, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to use electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to investigate the effect of increasing word length on lingual kinematics in acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement was recorded for five speakers with AOS and a concomitant aphasia (mean age = 53.6 years; SD = 12.60) during target consonant…

  10. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  11. Kinematic Investigation of Lingual Movement in Words of Increasing Length in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Meyer, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to use electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to investigate the effect of increasing word length on lingual kinematics in acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement was recorded for five speakers with AOS and a concomitant aphasia (mean age = 53.6 years; SD = 12.60) during target consonant…

  12. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  13. Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education,…

  14. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective. PMID:27656604

  15. Treatment of mandibular anterior crowding with incisor extraction using lingual orthodontics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Divya; Shetty, Sandeep; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Husain, Akhter

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented with a labially displaced mandibular right central incisor with severe attrition. Her maxillary dentition was well-aligned, and she had a straight profile. The respective central incisor was extracted. Subsequently, all teeth were aligned and the extraction space was closed with 2D lingual brackets. The result was esthetically pleasing.

  16. Lingual-Alveolar Contact Pressure during Speech in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie; Barohn, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary study on lingual-alveolar contact pressures (LACP) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) had several aims: (a) to evaluate whether the protocol induced fatigue, (b) to compare LACP during speech (LACP-Sp) and during maximum isometric pressing (LACP-Max) in people with ALS (PALS) versus healthy controls, (c)…

  17. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  18. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  19. The use of the CO2 laser for lingual frenectomy and excisional biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bullock, N

    1995-11-01

    With the availability of CO2 laser technology, surgical cases that were previously referred out of the general dental practice to specialists can now be treated by the general dentist, with less difficulty than is commonly associated with traditional surgical procedures. This article will demonstrate two cases using the CO2 laser: lingual frenectomy and excisional biopsy.

  20. Frenectomy with anterior lingual sulcoplasty for an implant-supported overdenture: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Perri de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio; Janjacomo, Luiz Antonio; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    This clinical report describes the deepening of a patient's anterior mandibular lingual sulcus in combination with frenectomy and the use of an acrylic resin guiding device fixed to an osseointegrated dental implant to maintain the patency of the new sulcular depth.

  1. Cerebellopontine angle mass mimicking lingual nerve injury after dental implant placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Momota, Y; Kani, K; Takano, H; Azuma, M

    2015-09-01

    This is a rare case report of a cerebellopontine angle (CPA) mass mimicking lingual nerve injury after a dental implant placement. Lingual nerve injury is a common complication following dental implant placement. CPA masses are likely to cause symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia, and thus can mimic and be easily confused with oral diseases. We experienced a case of CPA mass mimicking lingual nerve injury after dental implant placement. The patient was a 57-year-old Japanese female who complained of glossalgia. She underwent dental implant placement in the mandible before visiting our clinic. Panoramic x-ray radiography revealed no abnormalities; the salivary flow rate by gum test was 7.0 ml/10 min. She was diagnosed with lingual nerve injury and secondary burning mouth syndrome. Vitamin B12 and oral moisturizer did not provide relief; furthermore, numbness in the lower lip emerged. A Semmes Weinstein test demonstrated elevation of her sensitivity threshold. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 20-mm diameter mass in the CPA. The patient is now being followed under conservative management. Our experience underscores the importance of including CPA mass in the differential diagnosis of dental diseases. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  2. A comparative assessment of torque generated by lingual and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos; Bourauel, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets. Incognito™ lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb™ lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), In-Ovation L lingual brackets (DENTSPLY GAC), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded on identical maxillary acrylic resin models with levelled and aligned teeth. Each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system and 10 0.0175 × 0.0175 TMA wires were used for each bracket type. The wire was ligated with elastomerics into the Incognito, STb, and conventional brackets and each measurement was repeated once after religation. A 15 degrees buccal root torque (+15 degrees) and then a 15 degrees palatal root torque (-15 degrees) were gradually applied to the right central incisor bracket. After each activation, the bracket returned to its initial position and the moments in the sagittal plane were recorded during these rotations of the bracket. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc multiple comparisons (Tukey test at 0.05 error rate) was conducted to assess the effect on bracket type on the generated moments. The magnitude of maximum moment at +15 degrees ranged 8.8, 8.2, 7.1, and 5.8 Nmm for the Incognito, STb, conventional Gemini, and the In-Ovation L brackets, respectively; similar values were recorded at -15 degrees: 8.6, 8.1, 7.0, and 5.7 Nmm, respectively. The recorded differences of maximum moments were statistically significant, except between the Incognito and STb brackets. Additionally, the torque angles were evaluated at which the crown torque fell well below the minimum levels of 5.0 Nmm, as well as the moment/torque ratio at the last part of the activation/deactivation curve, between 10 and 15 degrees. The lowest torque expression was observed at the self-ligating lingual brackets, followed by the conventional brackets. The Incognito and STb lingual brackets

  3. [Study and analysis on the quantitive detection of EBV-DNA in adenoidal hypertrophic and tonsillitis tissues of children].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Li, Hongyue; Liu, Xuemei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xiangling; Ling, Ying

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of EBV in adenoidal hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis and discuss the affection of EBV on the nosogenesis of adenoidal hypertrophy and tonsillitis of children. Fifty-two children with chronic tonsillitis and/or adenoidal hypertrophy had the operations of the tonsillectomy and/or the adenoidectomy. These tissues resected and plasma of all cases were detected to find EBV-DNA by RQ PCR. The infection rate of EBV in the tissues of adenoidal hypertrophy and tonsillitis of children was 51.9%. The boys' infection rate of EBV was 50.0%, and the girls' infection rate of EBV was 55.6%, which had not significantly different. The EBV infection rate in the tissues of tonsillitis was 40.4%, The EBV infection rate in the tissues of adenoidal hypertrophy was 48.9%, which had not significant difference. The school age group (7- to 14-years-old) presented higher infection rate of EBV in the tissues of adenoid and tonsil (65.5%) than the pre-school children group (2- to 6-years-old) (34.8%). Comparing the copies numbers of EBV-DNA in the different degrees of adenoidal hypertrophy, we found that the copies numbers of EBV-DNA in the severe hypertrophy group were higher than the midrange and slight hypertrophy groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile we detected EBV-DNA in these childrens' blood plasma by RQ-PCR. No blood plasma was detected EBV-DNA copies higher than normal (< 1 x 10(3) copies/ml). The tissues of adenoidal hypertrophy and tonsillitis had same sensitivity to EBV. There was not significant difference between the infection rates of the boys and girls with adenoidal hypertrophy and/or tonsillitis. With these children growing up and the course of diseases prolonging, the infection rate of EBV increased correspondingly. There was a certain correlation between the hypertrophy of adenoid and EBV. There were no EBV-DNA fragments in blood plasma of the children with adenoidal hypertrophy and/or tonsillitis. So there were essential different between benign

  4. [A Case of Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of HPV-positive Tonsil Cancer, Being Discriminated as the Branchiogenic Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kambara, Rumi; Tamai, Masamitsu; Horii, Arata

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas have been increasing. The first manifestation of these tumors is frequently as cystic metastasis to cervical lymph nodes that may precede recognition of the primary tumor, so, they often result in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts. We report a case of cystic cervical lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. The patient was a 70-years-old man who noticed a mass on his left neck. The tumor was large and soft, and it was diagnosed as benign in fine-needle aspiration cytology. We diagnosed the tumor as a branchial cleft cyst and undertook surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma arising from a branchiogenic cyst. However, because it did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria, we diagnosed the tumor as an unknown primary tumor. One year later, left tonsil cancer was suspected based on PET-CT imaging and a left tonsillectomy was undertaken, whereafter tonsil cancer was found. In p16 immunostaining, it was positive in both cystic mass and tonsil. The cervical mass was cystic lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. It is important to investigate the oropharynx, when we found cystic cervical mass, because HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma frequently results in cystic neck metastasis.

  5. The effect of mepivacaine on swine lingual, pulmonary and coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kenichi; Chikuda, Mami; Ohashi, Ayako; Kumagai, Miho; Sato, Masahito; Joh, Shigeharu

    2015-07-14

    Although mepivacaine has a known biphasic action on the aortic and coronary artery in several animal species, its effects on the lingual and pulmonary artery are not well understood and it is not yet known whether mepivacaine produces vasoconstriction in these vessels. The present study aims to investigate the direct effects of mepivacaine on swine lingual, pulmonary and coronary arterial endothelium-denuded rings. Artery rings were perfused with isotonic 40 mM KCl until a stable constricted plateau was reached. The rings were then perfused with isotonic 40 mM KCl plus a particular concentration of mepivacaine (0.4 μM, 4.0 μM, 40 μM, 0.4 mM and 4.0 mM). The isometric tension strengths in each experiment were normalized to the strength of the isometric tension immediately before mepivacaine perfusion and expressed as a percentage. Mepivacaine at 0.4 to 40 μM did not significantly alter 40 mM KCl-induced contraction in the lingual, pulmonary and coronary arterial rings. In contrast, mepivacaine at 4 mM produced attenuated vasoconstriction in the lingual, pulmonary and coronary arterial compared with isotonic 40 mM KCl. Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction at lower concentrations, followed by attenuated vasoconstriction at higher concentrations on swine lingual, pulmonary and coronary arterial endothelium-denuded rings. Mepivacaine (4 μM) appeared to increase isotonic 40 mM KCl-induced contraction, followed by attenuated vasoconstriction at 4 mM. Dentists using 3 % mepivacaine should take into consideration that the risk of complications may be increased if more than six mepivacaine cartridges are used in dental treatment or minor surgery, or if over 15 ml of mepivacaine is administered to a patient with cardiovascular complications during general anesthesia for oral maxillofacial surgery.

  6. Effect of different labio-lingual spaces in tray designs on the displacement of and pressure against a mobile tooth.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Y; Tsuru, K; Kishita, C; Kamashita, Y; Hamano, T; Nagaoka, E

    2008-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of custom tray designs on the displacement of mobile tooth and local impression pressures during the impression procedure, using partially edentulous simulation models with six anterior teeth containing a mobile tooth prepared in previous studies. The custom trays were designed by altering the thickness of the respective spaces on the labial and lingual sides of the remaining tooth arch. In previous studies, the mobile tooth was displaced in the labial direction and local impression pressures of the mobile tooth were greater against the lingual side than the labial side for all custom tray designs. Furthermore, the custom trays perforated with holes on the lingual side were effective to reduce mobile tooth displacement, labial and lingual impression pressures against the mobile tooth, and the differences between them. Therefore, the present study was performed focusing on the labial and lingual thickness of spaces in custom tray designs. It was found that mobile tooth displacement, labial and lingual impression pressures against the mobile teeth and their differences were less in trays with spaces>3.0 mm thick on both the labial and lingual sides, but markedly greater in trays with a 1.5 mm-thick space on the labial side. These results indicate that the thickness of spaces on the labial side in the tray should not be reduced to prevent mobile tooth displacement.

  7. Elevated serum dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, P; Avramović, V; Stanković, M; Savić, S; Todorović, M

    2007-01-01

    Palatine tonsils represent the first place of contact for a variety of antigenic substances present in air and food. Upon antigen stimulation, the interactions between T and B lymphocytes in the tonsil are known to depend on the expression of different co-stimulatory molecules, including proteolytic ectoenzymes. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) and aminopeptidase N (APN), as T lymphocyte co-stimulatory molecules, participate in the regulation of the immune response during inflammation. In this study, the serum and lymphocyte enzymatic activity of DPP IV and APN was investigated in 32 patients, 13 with recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and 19 with tonsillar hypertrophy (TH), before and one month after tonsillectomy. The enzymatic activity of DPP IV and APN in tonsillar lymphocytes and serum was determined kinetically at 37 degrees C using Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide (for DPP IV) and Ala-p-nitroanilide (for APN) as chromogenic substrates. Significantly higher serum DPP IV and APN activities (P<0.001) were found in TH patients compared with those with RT before tonsillectomy. DPP IV activity in TH patients was also elevated compared with the control of the same age (P<0.001), whereas the activity of APN was the same as the control group. The activity of both enzymes was the same as of controls after tonsillectomy. In addition, the results show that DPP IV and APN activities in serum decrease significantly with age. Tonsillar lymphocytes demonstrated a wide range of DPP IV and APN activities without significant differences between the investigated groups. An increased serum DPP IV activity was observed in TH patients compared with both RT patients and controls before tonsillectomy. After tonsillectomy, all activities were similar. The results suggest that serum DPP IV activity may have potential as a diagnostic marker for patients with TH.

  8. The influence of tonsillitis on oral and throat muscles in children.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Krakovsky, Daniel; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2006-05-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) studies were performed on 80 children with acute tonsillitis (AT) and 110 children with recurrent tonsillitis (RT), age 4-12 years, to trace sEMG changes of duration and amplitude of muscle activity during swallowing and continuous drinking. Prospective observational study of randomly chosen patients compared to normative database. Timing and amplitude (in muV) of activity of masseter, submental and infrahyoid muscles were evaluated during voluntary single swallows of saliva ("dry" swallow), water swallows, swallows of excessive amount of water (up to 15 ml), and continuous drinking of 50 ml of water. These parameters were measured for two age groups for both conditions: 4-8 and 9-12 years old. The previously established normative database was taken for control. AT presents prolonged duration of swallowing and electric hyperactivity of infrahyoid muscles but this activity returns to normal after recovery. RT affects masseter and infrahyoid muscles even during periods of remission but do not affect duration of swallowing activity. AT and RT in children age 4-12 years affects muscle activity during swallowing significantly by involving additional muscles (mainly infrahyoid) in this process. AT presents temporary electric hyperactivity of infrahyoid muscles. RT affects masseter and infrahyoid muscles even during periods of remission (pathologic changes are fixed). Abnormally high electric activity of masseter and infrahyoid muscles in patients with RT might serve as an additional indicator for tonsillectomy. Surface EMG of swallowing is a simple, non-invasive and reliable method for diagnostic and preoperative evaluation of dysphagia complaints associated with tonsillitis.

  9. Different Patterns of Acetylation and Dimethylation of Histone H3 between Young and Aged Cases with Chronic Tonsillitis: Influences of Inflammation and Aging.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akihiko; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Egawa, Seiko; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics is now considered to be crucially involved in normal genetics and differentiation and in pathological conditions, such as cancer, aging, and inflammation. Epigenetic mechanisms involve DNA methylation and histone modifications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inflammation on epigenetics in young subjects and the effect of aging. The palatine tonsils were extracted from child and adult patients with chronic tonsillitis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to examine the morphology of the palatine tonsils. A fluorescence immunological examination was also performed to detect acetyl-histone H3 or dimethyl-histone H3. Confocal scanning microscopy was used for observations. Acetylated histone H3 was detected in tonsils from child patients but not from adult patients. Dimethylated histone H3 was not detected in tonsils from either group of patients. Degeneration of the tonsillar structures was apparent in tonsils from adult patients. The differential expression of acetylated histone H3 Lys9 may reflect immunological differences between young and aged tonsils. The decrease observed in the activity of histone methyltransferase induced the down-regulated expression of methylated histone H3. Our results suggest that epigenetic changes participate in chronic inflammation and aging in the palatine tonsils. Although the results do not lead to a direct treatment, the epigenetic pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, such as immunoglobulin A nephropathy, by focal infections will be described in greater detail in future studies, which will lead to new treatments being developed.

  10. Assessing the impact adenotonsilectomy has on the lives of children with hypertrophy of palatine and pharyngeal tonsils.

    PubMed

    Beraldin, Bernard Soccol; Rayes, Tatiana Rocha; Villela, Paulo Henrique; Ranieri, Denise Marchi

    2009-01-01

    The hypertrophy of the palatine and pharyngeal tonsils is extremely common in children, being one of the most frequent causes of visits to otolaryngologists and such problem can impair the child's quality of life. to evaluate the impact of adenotonsillectomy on the lives of children with hypertrophied tonsils. Contemporary longitudinal cohort study. A specific questionnaire used to evaluate the quality of life - OSD-6, was given to seventy five parents or guardians of children previously submitted to adenotonsillectomy, before the surgery and thirty days afterwards. The adenotonsillectomy provided a significant reduction in the questionnaire score. Snoring and nasal obstruction were the symptoms with the highest scores. There is a great concern from the parents with the snoring of the children and a poor statistic correlation between the degree of obstruction degree and a worse quality of life. Adenotonsillectomy causes a relevant impact in the quality of life of children with tonsil hypertrophy.

  11. Is there agreement among general practitioners, paediatricians and otolaryngologists about the management of children with recurrent tonsillitis?

    PubMed

    Capper, R; Canter, R J

    2001-10-01

    Tonsillectomy is the second most common operation undertaken in children in the United Kingdom, but the rate at which tonsillectomy is performed varies greatly across the Health Authorities. The reasons for the variation appear to be related to differences in local medical practice rather than differences in regional morbidity. This study was undertaken to compare the factors used to diagnose tonsillitis in children, the indications for tonsillectomy and the expected benefits of tonsillectomy in children by general practitioners, paediatricians and otolaryngologists. There was poor correlation between general practitioners, paediatricians and otolaryngologists in all study objectives. There appears to be no consistent clinical pathway by which children with recurrent tonsillitis are managed. The wide variation in tonsillectomy rates across the United Kingdom will probably continue until the decision-making process of doctors involved in the treatment of children with recurrent tonsillitis is better understood.

  12. [Antimicrobial and surgical treatment of tonsils. Bacteriological and histological data collected on 44 tonsillectomized children].

    PubMed

    Caers, G; Hensgens, C

    1977-01-01

    The tonsils of 44 operated children were submitted to bacteriological and histological examination. 22 children were given an oral penicillin during 5 days before tonsilectomy. Histological data and bacteriological cultures of pharyngeal exsudate and tonsillar material were very similar in the two groups of treated and non treated patients. These data suggest that, when preventive penicillinic treatment is given, it is worthy to consider the dose, the lasting and the route of administration of the prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Its unreliable activity, and the danger of bacteriemy at the moment of the operation plead for an adequate per-operative antibiotherapy.

  13. Clinically small tonsils are typically not obstructive in children during drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig; Purcell, Patricia L; Dahl, John P; Johnson, Kaalan; Horn, David L; Chen, Maida L; Chan, Dylan K; Parikh, Sanjay R

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether the degree of lateral pharyngeal wall (LPW) obstruction on pediatric drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) correlates with preprocedure tonsillar hypertrophy score on physical examination, and to determine if clinically small tonsils are obstructive. Retrospective review of 154 patients who underwent DISE at a single pediatric tertiary care center over a 4-year period. Inclusion criteria were documentation of Brodsky tonsil score on preoperative physical examination. Exclusion criteria were previous tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or adenotonsillectomy. Lateral pharyngeal wall obstruction was graded for each patient from 0 (no obstruction) to 3 (severe obstruction) using a validated pediatric DISE scoring system known as the Chan-Parikh scoring system (C-P). Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression controlling for age at time of DISE and presence of comorbid conditions. One hundred fifteen patients met criteria for analysis. Median age at DISE was 5.1 years. A moderate positive correlation was calculated between Brodsky score and DISE score, Spearman correlation coefficient 0.55, P = < 0.001. Linear regression modeling determined that for every 1-point increase in tonsil score, there was a 0.7-point increase in C-P LPW score (95% confidence interval [0.45, 0.92]). Sensitivity analysis did not detect a difference in correlation between children with comorbid conditions and children who were otherwise in good health. Of the 65 children with a pre-DISE Brodsky tonsil score of 1, 39 (60%) had a LPW score of 0 (no obstruction); nine (14%) had a score of 1 (< 50% obstruction); 11 (17%) had a score of 2 (> 50% obstruction); and six (9%) had a score of 3 (100% obstruction). There is a positive correlation between Brodsky Score and DISE LPW score. The majority of children with sleep-disordered breathing with a Brodsky score of 1 did not demonstrate LPW obstruction. These children may benefit from DISE for identification of alternative sites

  14. [Analysis of delayed consequences of lowered surgical activity for children with chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Ivoĭlov, A Iu; Zakharova, A F; Matveeva, E V

    2009-01-01

    Materials for the analysis of medical histories of the patients admitted for planned tonsillectomy and those in need of emergency surgical treatment for paratonsillar abscess were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, G.N. Speransky City Children's Clinical Hospital No 9 during the periods from 1990 to 2007. Simultaneously, analysis of the work of the Departments of Cardiorheumatology and Nephrology of the same hospital was undertaken. It was shown that the reduction in the number of surgical interventions for the treatment of different forms of chronic tonsillitis in the last years resulted in the increased frequency of local complications and concomitant morbidity.

  15. [Microbiological aspects of effective antibiotic therapy early after operation in chronic maxillary ethmoiditis and tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Luchsheva, Iu V; Istratov, V G; Zhukhovitskiĭ, V G

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological and chromato-mass-spectrometric examinations were made in 53 patients with chronic maxillary ethmoiditis and 52 patients with chronic tonsillitis. The microflora showed strong resistance to unprotected penicillines and cephalosporins, 100% sensitivity to amoxicilline clavulanate and mupirocine. The role of opportunistic microflora as pathogens of ENT inflammation is growing as well as the percentage of anaerobic microorganisms detected chromato-mass-spectrometrically in chronic inflammation. Administration of mupirocine on polyethylenglicol base early after operation in patients with chronic maxillary ethmoiditis accelerated recovery of the study group patients by 2-3 days vs control patients.

  16. Association between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, tonsillitis and painful crises in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Salles, Cristina; Ramos, Regina Terse T; Daltro, Carla; Nascimento, Valma Maria; Matos, Marcos Almeida

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia; to investigate possible association between the presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months and episodes of painful crises in the same period; and to compare the mean annual hemoglobin level in children and adolescents with and without obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 85 children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. All patients answered a questionnaire and underwent a standard otolaryngology examination, including endoscopic endonasal approach. The diagnosis of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was made according to the Brodsky scale. The prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was 55.3%. Obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was associated with history of difficulty in eating (76.7 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.003), presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months (70.6 vs. 29.4%, p = 0.021), loud snoring (73.0 vs. 27.0%, p = 0.004), and sleep apnea (71.8 vs. 28.2%, p = 0.005). Patients with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy had more episodes of recurrent upper airway tract infection (62.5 vs. 37.5; p = 0.010). The presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months was associated with episodes of painful crises (median = 12 vs. 2, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference between mean annual hemoglobin levels of patients with obstructive adenotonsilar hypertrophy vs. nonobstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy: 7.6 vs. 8.2 g/dL, p = 0.199. The prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was 55.3% in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia; the presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months was associated with episodes of painful crises in the same period; and there was no difference in the mean annual hemoglobin value among those with or

  17. The efficacy of tonsillectomy in chronic tonsillitis patients as demonstrated by the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy are the oldest surgical procedures. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an inflammatory marker. This study aimed to investigate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in chronic tonsillitis patients and to determine whether this ratio reflects the pre- and post-operative inflammatory status in these patients. Patients and healthy individuals were assigned to four groups: the adenoid hypertrophy, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, chronic tonsillitis and control groups. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated for each patient before surgery and one month post-surgery. Pre- and post-operative white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were compared both within and between groups. Pre- and post-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in the chronic tonsillitis group than in the adenoid hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy groups (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). In the chronic tonsillitis group, post-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower than pre-operative ratios (p = 0.045). The pre-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the chronic tonsillitis group than in the adenoid hypertrophy, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and control groups (p = 0.000). In contrast, there was no significant difference in post-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios among all groups (p = 0.584). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio measurement can be used in chronic tonsillitis patients as an effective auxiliary method for determining the necessity and timing of tonsillectomy and post-operative follow up, thereby helping prevent complications due to delayed or inadequate treatment.

  18. Trends and changes in paediatric tonsil surgery in Sweden 1987–2013: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Anna; Nerfeldt, Pia; Friberg, Danielle; Sunnergren, Ola; Stalfors, Joacim

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to longitudinally describe the history of tonsil surgery in Swedish children and adolescents regarding incidence, indications for surgery, surgical methods and the age and gender distributions. Setting A retrospective longitudinal population-based cohort study based on register data from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) and population data from Statistics Sweden. Participants All Swedish children 1–<18 years registered in the NPR with a tonsil surgery procedure 1987–2013. Results 167 894 tonsil surgeries were registered in the NPR 1987–2013. An increase in the total incidence rate was observed, from 22/10 000 person years in 1987 to 47/10 000 in 2013. The most marked increase was noted in children 1–3 years of age, increasing from 17 to 73/10 000 person years over the period. The proportion children with obstructive/sleep disordered breathing (SDB) indications increased from 42.4% in 1987 to 73.6% in 2013. Partial tonsillectomy, tonsillotomy (TT), increased since 1996 and in 2013 55.1% of all tonsil procedures were TTs. Conclusions There have been considerable changes in clinical practice for tonsil surgery in Swedish children over the past few decades. Overall, a doubling in the total incidence rate was observed. This increase consisted mainly of an increase in surgical procedures due to obstructive/SDB indications, particularly among the youngest age group (1–3 years old). TT has gradually replaced tonsillectomy as the predominant method for tonsil surgery. PMID:28087550

  19. Mortality after tonsil surgery, a population study, covering eight years and 82,527 operations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Østvoll, Eirik; Sunnergren, Ola; Ericsson, Elisabeth; Hemlin, Claes; Hultcrantz, Elisabeth; Odhagen, Erik; Stalfors, Joacim

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate mortality rate and cause of death after tonsil surgery in Sweden. Two national registries were used, both run by The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, an agency of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. In the National Patient register all tonsil surgeries performed in Sweden from 2004 through 2011 were identified. The result from this search was matched with the National Cause of Death Register to identify all deaths that occurred within 30 days of tonsil surgery. Personal identity numbers were used to do the matching of registers. Details on the cause of death were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Two deaths were identified in 82,527 operations. Both patients were male, otherwise healthy, children under the age of five, operated due to tonsil-related upper airway obstruction/snoring with coblation technique. Cause of death was bleeding-related airway obstruction in both cases and hemodynamic failure caused by blood loss. Both deaths occurred after discharge from the hospital within the first postoperative week. No abnormal levels of analgesics were found in the postmortal investigations. Two deaths related to tonsil surgery (performed on benign indications) were identified in 82,527 operations (2004-2011) in a well-defined national population. Both deaths were due to postoperative bleeding. Based on our findings, the frequency of post-tonsil-surgery mortality in Sweden was 1/41,263, 2004-2011. Level of evidence 2b retrospective cohort study.

  20. Changes in the oral environment after placement of lingual and labial orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luca; Ortan, Yildiz Öztürk; Gorgun, Özge; Panza, Chiara; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-11

    This study compared the oral hygiene and caries risk of patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances throughout a prospective evaluation of the status of the oral environment before and after bracket placement. A total of 20 orthodontic patients aged 19 to 23 years were included in the study and were divided into two groups: 10 patients wore Roth labial appliance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) and 10 patients wore STb lingual appliance (Ormco Corporation, Glendora, CA, USA). Plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), salivary flow rate, saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in saliva were determined at three time points: before orthodontic appliance placement (T0), 4 weeks after bonding (T1), and 8 weeks after bonding (T2). After appliance placement, all patients were periodically educated to the oral hygiene procedures. Wilcoxon rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine intragroup and intergroup differences as regards qualitative data. To compare quantitative data between the groups, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were undertaken, while intragroup differences were tested with McNemar test. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Statistical analysis of the data obtained revealed a statistically significant difference between the data of T0 and T1 and the data of T0 and T2 of the PI scores and between T0 and T2 of the GBI scores in the group treated with the lingual appliance. The GBI value increased significantly between T0 and T1 but decreased significantly between T1 and T2 (p<0.01) in the group treated with labial appliance. S. mutans counts increased significantly between T0 and T2 in the saliva samples of patients treated with lingual appliance. No statistically significant differences were found between S. mutans and Lactobacillus counts at the three terms of saliva collection in patients treated with labial appliance. No statistically

  1. The Impact of Prior Tonsillitis and Treatment Modality on the Recurrence of Peritonsillar Abscess: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Piao; Wang, Mao-Che; Lin, Hung-Ching; Chou, Pesus

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest an increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) recurrence in patients with prior tonsillitis. However, this association is inconsistent and could be confounded by different treatment modalities. This study aimed to assess the risk of recurrence among PTA patients with different degrees of prior tonsillitis and treatment modalities, and the role of tonsillectomy in current practice. Methods All in-patients with peritonsillar abscess between January 2001 and December 2009 were identified in a nationwide, retrospective cohort study. Recurrence was defined as the first occurrence of PTA ≧30 days from the initial PTA. Factors independently associated with recurrence were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for demographic and clinical data. Results There were 28,837 patients, with a 5.15% recurrence rate and 4.74 years of follow-up. The recurrence rates were significantly higher among subjects with more than five prior tonsillitis or 1–4 prior tonsillitis compared to those without prior tonsillitis (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.82 [95% confidence interval, 2.39–3.33] and 1.59 [95% CI: 1.38–1.82]). The adjusted HR in patients treated with needle aspiration was 1.08 compared to those treated with incision & drainage (95% CI: 0.85–1.38). After age stratification, the adjusted HRs of more than five prior tonsillitis increased to 2.92 and 3.50 in patients aged ≦18 and 19–29 years respectively. The adjusted HR ofneedle aspiration only increased in patients ≦18 years old (aHR: 1.98 [95% CI: 0.99–3.97]). The overall tonsillectomy rate was 1.48% during our study period. Conclusions The risk of PTA recurrence increases with higher degrees of prior tonsillitis in all age groups and management by needle aspiration only in the pediatric population. Patients younger than 30 years old with PTA and more than five prior tonsillitis have the greatest risk of recurrence. PMID:25291179

  2. Differential expression of homing receptors and vascular addressins in tonsils and draining lymph nodes: Effect of Brucella infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Suraud, Vanessa; Olivier, Michel; Bodier, Christelle C; Guilloteau, Laurence A

    2007-02-15

    The differential expression of homing receptors (HR) and complementary vascular addressins was studied in T and B lymphocytes from ovine tonsils and draining lymph nodes (LN) in uninfected and Brucella melitensis-infected sheep. In uninfected sheep, CD4+CD25+ T cells expressed proportionally more L-selectin and beta1 integrin than beta7 integrin in pharyngeal and palatine tonsils and in parotid LN (PLN), retropharyngeal LN (RLN) and the peripheral prescapular LN (PSLN). In contrast, memory CD4+CD45RA- T cells expressed an equivalent proportion of the three HR in PLN and PSLN, whereas beta1 and beta7 integrins were proportionally more expressed than L-selectin in pharyngeal tonsil. beta7 integrin was proportionally more expressed than beta1 integrin or L-selectin in palatine tonsils, RLN and the mucosal mesenteric LN (MLN). beta1 integrin was proportionally more expressed in IgG+ and IgA+ cells than beta7 integrin and L-selectin in tonsils, PLN and RLN. The main endothelial addressin expressed on venules in both pharyngeal and palatine tonsils, the PLN and RLN, as well as in the PSLN, was the peripheral PNAd, while in the MLN it was MAdCAM-1. Conjunctival infection by Brucella resulted in an increase of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD45RA- T cell subsets, which was associated to modifications of HR expression. CD4+CD45RA- T cells expressed proportionally more beta1 and beta7 integrins than L-selectin in regional PLN and RLN, but also in PSLN. The infection induced an increase of IgG+ and IgA+ cell percentages expressing beta1 integrin in all LN, and also beta7 integrin in the RLN. PNAd continued to be expressed on venules of tonsils and draining LN after Brucella infection, and MAdCAM-1 was also weakly expressed on RLN venules. These results suggest that lymphocyte trafficking through tonsils and draining LN could involve L-selectin/PNAd interactions, as well as beta1 or beta7 integrin, possibly in interaction with VCAM-1 or MAdCAM-1. The homing of antigen-specific lymphocytes

  3. Removal of the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space of the mandible via endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Q; Huang, Z X; Wang, Y Y; Hu, W J; Fan, S; Zhang, D M; Chen, W L

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reliability of the use of endoscopy for removal of the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space of the mandible. Seven patients with residual roots of the mandibular wisdom teeth remaining in the lingual space were treated via endoscopy, and the results of their treatments were reviewed retrospectively. The study found that the residual roots of the mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space were removed successfully via endoscopy. The average duration of surgery for each case was 5 min, and no complications were observed in any case. There is little risk involved with removing the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space via endoscopy and the procedure is safe and fast. We conclude that it is worth promoting this clinical procedure for current and future use. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of nano- and micro-sized particles in routine biopsy material - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dvorackova, Jana; Bielnikova, Hana; Kukutschova, Jana; Peikertova, Pavlina; Filip, Peter; Zelenik, Karol; Kominek, Pavel; Uvirova, Magdalena; Pradna, Jana; Cermakova, Zuzana; Dvoracek, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. . Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 µm. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

  5. Carcinoma of the tonsil: the effect of dose-time-volume factors on local control

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.G.; Beale, F.A.; Cummings, B.J.; Harwood, A.R.; Keane, T.J.; Payne, D.G.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-04-01

    Between 1970 and 1979, 372 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil were treated with primary irradiation therapy, with salvage surgery for failures. The median age was 60 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. All patients received external beam radiation which was supplemented in 68 patients with a radioactive implant for disease into adjacent tongue. The overall survival for all patients was 38% at 5 years and 54% when corrected for intercurrent disease. Local control was 87% for T1 lesions, 68% for T2 lesions and 50% for T3 lesions. Regional control was 96% for NO, 67% for N1 and 37% for N2-3. A detailed dose-time-volume analysis revealed that increasing volume improved local control in T1 and T2 lesions. Increasing the dose in the range of 5000 to 6500 rad had no significant effect on primary control in any stage of disease. The addition of a radioactive implant did not increase local control if disease extended into the tongue. This study demonstrates the significance of adequate treatment volume in local control for carcinoma of the tonsil. No significant dose response was found and subsequent surgery was not compromised when a moderate dose of radiation was used.

  6. Lymph drainage from the ovine tonsils: an anatomical study of the tonsillar lymph vessels.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, C; Cornillie, P; Van Ginneken, C; Simoens, P; Van Cruchten, S; Vandevelde, K; Van den Broeck, W

    2014-12-01

    Although the tonsils of sheep have gained much attention during the last decade, only few data are available on their lymph vessel architecture. Tonsillar lymph vessels are immunologically important as they form the efferent routes for locally activated immune cells to reach the draining lymph nodes. To gain insight into the tonsillar lymph drainage in the sheep, Indian ink and a casting polymer were injected into the interstitium of the five tonsils present in the heads of slaughtered sheep. This enabled us to determine the draining lymph node and to examine the microscopic organization of lymph vessels using light and scanning electron microscopy. No lymph vessels were observed within the tonsillar lymphoid follicles. The corrosion casts demonstrated that the lymphoid follicles are surrounded by numerous sacculated lymph sinuses that drain into a dense interfollicular lymph vessel network. From here, the lymph flows into single small lymph vessels that in turn drain into larger lymph vessels extending towards the medial retropharyngeal lymph node. The presented results can be valuable for immunological studies, for example during oral or intranasal vaccine development.

  7. Treatment Challenges of Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngo-Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Itzhak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Despite its in vitro efficacy, penicillin often fails to eradicate Group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) from patients with acute and relapsing pharyngo-tonsillitis (PT). Objective  This review of the literature details the causes of penicillin failure to eradicate GABHS PT and the therapeutic modalities to reduce and overcome antimicrobial failure. Data Synthesis  The causes of penicillin failure in eradicating GABHS PT include the presence of β lactamase producing bacteria (BLPB) that “protect” GABHS from any penicillin; the absence of bacteria that interfere with the growth of GABHS; co-aggregation between GABHS and Moraxella catarrhalis; and the poor penetration of penicillin into the tonsillar tissues and the tonsillo-pharyngeal cells, which allows intracellular GABHS and Staphylococcus aureus to survive. The inadequate intracellular penetration of penicillin can allow intracellular GABHS and S. aureus to persist. In the treatment of acute tonsillitis, the use of cephalosporin can overcome these interactions by eradicating aerobic BLPB (including M. catarrhalis), while preserving the potentially interfering organisms and eliminating GABHS. Conclusion  In treatment of recurrent and chronic PT, the administration of clindamycin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, can eradicate both aerobic and anaerobic BLPB, as well as GABHS. The superior intracellular penetration of cephalosporin and clindamycin also enhances their efficacy against intracellular GABHS and S. aureus. PMID:28680500

  8. Values of mean platelet volume in patients with chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Cevik; Erhan, Yengil; Murat, Tutanc; Ercan, Akbay; Ibrahim, Silfeler; Ihsan, Gulmez; Ertap, Akoglu

    2013-04-01

    Chronic tonsillitis (CT)-adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is the most common cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is one of the most common reasons of nocturnal hypoxia in children. However, there is limited information about the relationship between childhood OSA and atherosclerosis or cardiac diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between mean platelet volume (MPV) and CT-AH which is the most frequent cause leading OSA in children. Methodology : The medical records of 200 children, who underwent adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy with a diagnosis of adenoid hypertrophy and/or chronic tonsillitis between October, 2010 and June, 2012, and 240 healthy controls were evaluated. Subjects were classified into 3 groups. Group I consisted of patients who underwent adenoidectomy, whereas Group II consisted of patients who had adenotonsillectomy. Healthy children were employed as control group. White blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), hemoglobin (Hb) levels and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were recorded individually. MPV values were 6.6±0.8, 6.6±0.7 and 7.3±0.9 in Group I, Group II and control group, respectively. It was found that MPV values in groups I and II were significantly lower than control group. There was no significant difference between group I and II. Conclusion : Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) caused by CT-AH is associated with low MPV values in childhood.

  9. Loracarbef (LY163892) vs. penicillin VK in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Disney, F A; Hanfling, M J; Hausinger, S A

    1992-08-01

    A double blind, randomized clinical trial compared loracarbef (LY163892) with penicillin VK. Two hundred thirty-three pediatric patients (less than or equal to 12 years) with a diagnosis of pharyngitis or tonsillitis resulting from Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were randomized to treatment. Patients in the loracarbef group (n = 120) received loracarbef as a 15-mg/kg/day oral suspension or 200-mg capsule taken twice daily for 10 days. Patients in the penicillin group (n = 113) received penicillin VK as a 20-mg/kg/day oral suspension or 250-mg capsule taken four times daily for 10 days. Successful clinical responses were demonstrated in 101 of the 104 (97.1%) evaluable patients treated with loracarbef compared with 83 of 88 (94.3%) of evaluable patients treated with penicillin. The clinical relapse rate for the loracarbef group was 2.9% vs. 5.7% for the penicillin group. Bacteriologic response data approximated the clinical response data, as eradication of Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci was found in 86.5 and 81.8% of the loracarbef group and the penicillin group, respectively. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions was noted between the two groups. The results indicate that loracarbef taken twice daily was comparable in safety and efficacy to penicillin VK taken four times daily in the treatment of Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus-associated pharyngitis and tonsillitis in children.

  10. Cervical necrotising fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to unilateral tonsillitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Asad; Oko, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive infection with high morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis in a healthy young man, caused by unilateral tonsillitis with a successful outcome without aggressive debridement. Case presentation A 41-year-old man was admitted to our unit with a diagnosis of severe acute unilateral tonsillitis. On admission, he had painful neck movements and the skin over his neck was red, hot and tender. Computed tomography scan of his neck and chest showed evidence of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to underlying pharyngeal disease. He was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. His condition improved over the next 3 days but a tender and fluctuant swelling appeared in the suprasternal region. A repeat scan showed the appearance of an abscess extending from the pretracheal region to the upper mediastinum which was drained through a small transverse anterior neck incision. After surgery, the patient's condition quickly improved and he was discharged on the 18th day of admission. Conclusion Less invasive surgical techniques may replace conventional aggressive debridement as the treatment of choice for cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:19055812

  11. Case report: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Janus, Jeffrey R; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Moore, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes include a variety of disorders that affect the neurologic, endocrine, mucocutaneous, hematologic, and other systems as a result of neoplastic disease. Although their presentations vary, syndromes occur when tumor antigens exhibit cross-reactivity to similar antigens expressed by these systems. The antigens in the nervous system are called "onconeural" antigens. Although many disorders are associated with a comparatively high incidence of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes, only a few cases have been associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tonsil. We report the case of a 69-year-old man who initially presented with weakness and spastic gait. He was subsequently found to have a characteristic paraneoplastic tractopathy on thoracic magnetic resonance imaging. The subsequent workup and operative intervention identified a T2N0M0 SCC of the tonsil. Following resection, the patient's overall symptoms were significantly alleviated, and his gait improved. A thorough literature search yielded no other report of a tonsillar SCC with associated paraneoplastic thoracic spine tractopathy.

  12. Haemophilus influenzae resides in tonsils and uses immunoglobulin D binding as an evasion strategy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kalpana; Nordström, Therése; Mörgelin, Matthias; Brant, Marta; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes respiratory tract infections and is also considered to be a commensal, particularly in preschool children. Tonsils from patients (n = 617) undergoing tonsillectomy due to chronic infection or hypertrophy were examined. We found that 51% of tonsils were positive for Hi, and in 95% of cases analyzed in detail (n = 39) Hi resided intracellularly in the core tonsillar tissue. Patients harbored several intracellular unique strains and the majority were nontypeable Hi (NTHi). Interestingly, the isolated NTHi bound soluble immunoglobulin (Ig) D at the constant heavy chain domain 1 as revealed by recombinant IgD/IgG chimeras. NTHi also interacted with B lymphocytes via the IgD B-cell receptor, resulting in internalization of bacteria, T-cell-independent activation via Toll-like receptor 9, and differentiation into non-NTHi-specific IgM-producing cells. Taken together, IgD-binding NTHi leads to an unspecific immune response and may support the bacteria to circumvent the host defense.

  13. Memory B lymphocytes in human tonsil do not express surface IgD.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, I C; Brisco, M J; Zola, H

    1995-02-01

    To clarify the phenotype of memory B lymphocytes, we have determined the frequency of somatic hypermutations in purified tonsil B cell populations. Our particular interest was the controversial question of whether any memory B-cells express IgD. Ig heavy chain gene rearrangements that used the nonpolymorphic VH6 gene were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All eight sequences obtained from the surface IgD (sIgD)-negative fraction contained point mutations, with frequency of one mutation in every 24 bases of sequence. In contrast, only 4 of 12 sequences obtained from the sIgD-positive fraction contained point mutations, with a mutation frequency of one in 600. This frequency was similar to that found for cord blood B cells (one in 550), a population that does not contain memory B cells. These results indicate that although memory B cells are present in the sIgD-negative fraction, no memory cells can be detected in the sIgD-positive fraction of tonsil B lymphocytes.

  14. The rising rate of admissions for tonsillitis and neck space abscesses in England, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Lau, A S; Upile, N S; Wilkie, M D; Leong, S C; Swift, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sore throats and tonsillitis represent a considerable health burden as well as a significant source of expenditure for the National Health Service (NHS). As part of the recent NHS savings drive, the introduction of 'procedures of low clinical effectiveness' (PoLCE) lists has reinforced a large reduction in the number of tonsillectomies performed. We carried out a cross-sectional study of trends in emergency sore throat admissions in the context of the number of tonsillectomies performed. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data were extracted. Office for National Statistics data were also used. Between 1991 and 2011, the overall tonsillectomy rate fell by 44%. In the same time, the admission rate for tonsillitis rose by 310% (Pearson's r=-0.67, p=0.01). The peritonsillar abscess admission rate rose by 31% (r=-0.79, p<0.01). Between 1996 and 2011, the overall tonsillectomy rate fell by 41% and the retro and parapharyngeal abscess admission rate rose by 39% (r=-0.55, p=0.026). There was a 14% overall increase in tonsillectomy and sore throat associated bed days. This was despite the large fall in tonsillectomy numbers and the reduction in length of hospital stay. Efforts to reduce the tonsillectomy rate are correlated with a significant rise in emergency admissions. The rise in the retro and parapharyngeal abscess rate is perhaps most alarming given the very high mortality of these conditions. Bed day data suggest that no net saving has been made despite the new measures.

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of type III collagen expression in the lingual mucosa of rats during organogenesis of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Asami, Tomoichiro; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Aoyagi, Hidekazu

    2008-07-01

    We examined the distribution of immunofluorescence due to immunostaining of type III collagen, differential interference contrast (DIC) images and images obtained in the transmission mode after toluidine blue staining by laser-scanning microscopy of semi-ultrathin sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples, during morphogenesis of the filiform papillae, keratinization of the lingual epithelium, and myogenesis of the rat tongue. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was distributed widely in the mesenchymal connective tissue in fetuses on day 15 after conception (E15), at which time the lingual epithelium was composed of one or two layers of cuboidal cells and the lingual muscle was barely recognizable. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was clearly detected on the lamina propria in fetuses on E17 and E19, and it was relatively distinct just beneath the lingual epithelium. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was sparsely distributed on the connective tissue around the developing lingual muscle. In fetuses on E19, the epithelium became clearly stratified and squamous. At postnatal stages from newborn (P0) to postnatal day 14 (P14), keratinization of the lingual epithelium advanced gradually with the development of filiform papillae. On P0, myogenesis of the tongue was almost completed. The intensity of the fluorescence immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen at postnatal stages was almost same as that on E19. The immunoreactivity around the fully mature muscle was relatively distinct between P0 and P14. Thus, type III collagen appeared in conjunction with the morphogenesis of filiform papillae and the keratinization of the lingual epithelium as well as in the connective tissue that surrounded the lingual muscle during myogenesis of the rat tongue.

  16. Effects of auditory disruption of lingual tactile sensitivity in skilled and unskilled speaking conditions.

    PubMed

    Krummel, S; Petrosino, L; Fucci, D

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of disruption of the auditory feedback channel on lingual vibrotactile thresholds obtained under skilled and unskilled speaking conditions. Each of 22 adults was asked to read an English (skilled) and French (unskilled) passage under conditions of normal and altered auditory feedback. Bilateral presentation of masking noise was utilized to disrupt auditory feedback. Before each of the experimental sessions and immediately following a reading, lingual vibrotactile thresholds were obtained. Analysis indicated that the mean differences in the pre- and postvibrotactile threshold measurements of the skilled auditory disrupted condition varied significantly from the mean differences in the pre- and postvibrotactile threshold measurements of the three other conditions. The role of feedback in the speech production of skilled and unskilled speakers is discussed.

  17. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of rat lingual lipase cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, A J; Bodmer, M W; Angal, S; Verger, R; Riviere, C; Lowe, P A; Lyons, A; Emtage, J S; Harris, T J

    1985-01-01

    Purified rat lingual lipase (EC3113), a glycoprotein of approximate molecular weight 52,000, was used to generate polyclonal antibodies which were able to recognise the denatured and deglycosylated enzyme. These immunoglobulins were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from mRNA isolated from the serous glands of rat tongue cloned in E. coli expression vectors. An almost full length cDNA clone was isolated and the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence obtained. Comparison with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme confirmed the identity of the cDNA and indicated that there was a hydrophobic signal sequence of 18 residues. The amino acid sequence of mature rat lingual lipase consists of 377 residues and shares little homology with porcine pancreatic lipase apart from a short region containing a serine residue at an analogous position to the ser 152 of the porcine enzyme. Images PMID:3839077

  18. Lingual frenectomy and alveolar tap production: an acoustic and perceptual study.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Zuleica A; Marchesan, I Q; Oliveira, L R; Svicero, M A F; Pereira, L C K; Madureira, S

    2013-12-01

    In this phonetic study, productions of the consonant in the stressed syllable position of the word arara as produced by 13 subjects with short and/or anterior lingual frenulum were compared before and after lingual frenectomy. The results from the measurement of the stressed consonant duration and from the identification of the consonant manners of articulation based on the inspection of spectral characteristics are discussed and related to the answers to a perceptual identification test. After surgery, the number of tap productions did not increase, but alveolar productions did. These clinically relevant findings show frenectomy improved tongue mobility, but, as temporal controls were not totally re-established after surgery and 6-month speech therapy sessions, the production of the alveolar tap remained largely unchanged.

  19. Reduction of neonatal pain following administration of 25% lingual dextrose: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Sinojia, Ankit; Dongara, Ashish

    2013-06-01

    Neonates experience painful procedures during routine care. Orally administered, sweet tasting solutions are commonly used in management of neonatal pain. We conducted a double-blind randomized control trial in neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shri Krishna Hospital, Karamsad-Gujarat-India, of lingual administration of 25% dextrose vs. no intervention, to evaluate reduction of pain following oropharyngeal infant feeding tube insertions. Pain was assessed using Premature Infant Pain Profile score. Almost all the patients in the control group (98%) experienced moderate-to-severe pain as compared with the intervention group (71%). Mean Premature Infant Pain Profile score was statistically significantly lower in the intervention group (8.21) as compared with control group (10.31). (p < 0.001, 95% CI 1.090-3.102). Lingual 25% dextrose is an effective analgesic for relieving pain during orogastric tube insertion.

  20. Procedure for combining a facial porcelain veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface.

    PubMed

    Bishop, K; Priestley, D

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a procedure for making a crown that combines an all-porcelain facial veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface. The procedure combines both the conventional lost wax technique and the use of a refractory cast for firing porcelain. The crown retains the advantages of the traditional all-porcelain crown restoration but reduces the risk of damage to the opposing teeth associated with an all-ceramic occluding surface. Furthermore, compared with porcelain, the metal surface allows more control over the occlusal and lingual contours during construction of the crown. Although the construction of the anterior crown is described, the procedure is equally applicable to posterior full-coverage restorations.

  1. Transient unilateral combined paresis of the hypoglossal nerve and lingual nerve following intubation anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hulya; Besir, Ahmet; Cekic, Bahanur; Kosucu, Muge; Geze, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    Nerve damage may occur in the pharyngolaryngeal region during general anesthesia. The most frequently injured nerves are the hypoglossal, lingual and recurrent laryngeal. These injuries may arise in association with several factors, such as laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation and tube insertion, cuff pressure, mask ventilation, the triple airway maneuver, the oropharyngeal airway, manner of intubation tube insertion, head and neck position and aspiration. Nerve injuries in this region may take the form of an isolated single nerve or of paresis of two nerves together in the form of hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (Tapia's syndrome). However, combined injury of the lingual and hypoglossal nerves following intubation anesthesia is a much rarer condition. The risk of this damage can be reduced with precautionary measures. We describe a case of combined unilateral nervus hypoglossus and nervus lingualis paresis developing after intubation anesthesia.

  2. Topographic relationship between root apex of mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate: cross-sectional analysis using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmiao; He, Xiaotong; Wang, Yanling; Zhou, Guangchao; Sun, Chao; Yang, Lianfeng; Bai, Jianling; Gao, Jun; Wu, Yunong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the topographic relationship between root apex of the mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate of mandible. The original cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 364 teeth from 223 patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate on cross-sectional CBCT images was classified as non-contact (99), contact (145) and perforation (120). The cross-sectional morphology of lingual plate at the level of root apex was defined as parallel (28), undercut (38), slanted (29) and round (4). The distribution of topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate significantly associated with gender, impaction depth, root number and lingual plate morphology. Moreover, the average bone thickness of lingual cortex and distance between root apex and the outer surface of lingual plate were 1.02 and 1.39 mm, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses identified impaction depth and lingual plate morphology as the risk factors for the contact and perforation subtypes between root apex and lingual plate. Collectively, our findings reveal the topographic proximity of root apex of impacted mandibular third molar to the lingual plate, which might be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications during tooth extraction. PMID:27991572

  3. Topographic relationship between root apex of mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate: cross-sectional analysis using CBCT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmiao; He, Xiaotong; Wang, Yanling; Zhou, Guangchao; Sun, Chao; Yang, Lianfeng; Bai, Jianling; Gao, Jun; Wu, Yunong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-12-19

    The present study was aimed to determine the topographic relationship between root apex of the mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate of mandible. The original cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 364 teeth from 223 patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate on cross-sectional CBCT images was classified as non-contact (99), contact (145) and perforation (120). The cross-sectional morphology of lingual plate at the level of root apex was defined as parallel (28), undercut (38), slanted (29) and round (4). The distribution of topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate significantly associated with gender, impaction depth, root number and lingual plate morphology. Moreover, the average bone thickness of lingual cortex and distance between root apex and the outer surface of lingual plate were 1.02 and 1.39 mm, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses identified impaction depth and lingual plate morphology as the risk factors for the contact and perforation subtypes between root apex and lingual plate. Collectively, our findings reveal the topographic proximity of root apex of impacted mandibular third molar to the lingual plate, which might be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications during tooth extraction.

  4. Comparison of current perception threshold electrical testing to clinical sensory testing for lingual nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Ziccardi, Vincent B; Dragoo, Joel; Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    We performed a retrospective study of lingual nerve injury assessment comparing the techniques of current perception threshold testing versus clinical sensory testing. We designed and implemented a cross-sectional study and enrolled a patient sample with lingual nerve injuries presenting for treatment to the principal investigator. The predictor variables were clinical sensory testing modalities (ie, temperature, nocioception, vibration, 2-point discrimination, brush stroke, and von Frey monofilament perception). The primary outcome variable was the electrical current perception thresholds of the tongue dorsum (neurometer measurements at 5, 250, and 2,000 Hz). Comparisons were established with the ipsilateral affected and contralateral unaffected lingual nerve distributions. The associations between the clinical sensory testing and current perception threshold measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients, with the level of statistical significance set at P < .05. A total of 40 patients (13 males and 27 females) were included in the present study. The average age of these patients was 34 years (range 13 to 66). Significant correlations were observed between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 2,000 Hz and the 2-point discrimination, reaction to brushing, reaction to vibration, and von Frey fiber thresholds, between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 250 Hz to the nociceptive and thermal thresholds, and between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 5 Hz to thermal stimuli. The significant correlations observed in the present study indicate that current perception threshold can be a complementary or alternative tool in the assessment and evaluation of lingual nerve injuries. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgical Median Glossotomy for Resection of Lingual Dermoid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Corvers, Kristien; Hens, Greet; Meulemans, Jeroen; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% is present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, four patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue. PMID:27504448

  6. Postoperative swelling and trismus after mandibular third molar removal with the lingual split bone technique.

    PubMed

    Rood, J P; Yates, C; Buchanan, M

    1979-02-01

    Several factors have been suggested as possible causes for the development of the swelling and trismus which occur after the surgical removal of impacted third molar teeth. In this investigation, measurements of swelling and trismus were made before and after lower third molar removal by the lingual split technique, in a series of 53 patients. No single cause of these surgical sequelae was identified and the duration and pattern of both swelling and trismus were recorded.

  7. C. dubliniensis in an immunocompetent patient with metal lingual frenulum piercing.

    PubMed

    Ventolini, Gary; Tsai, Peihsuan; Moore, Lee David

    2016-12-01

    Candida spp. are opportunistic unicellular fungi, known to cause oral, vaginal, lung and occasionally systemic infections. Characteristically, they colonize the oral cavity, the mucosal surfaces of the cheek, palate, and tongue. Usually harmless, oral Candidas may become pathogenic under immunosuppressive conditions, dentures presence, or salivary flow impairment. Accurate species identification is important because C. dubliniensis can rapidly develop fluconazole resistance. We report C. dubliniensis in an immunocompetent patient with a metal lingual frenulum piercing.

  8. Ultrastructure of Lingual Papillae in Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Foetus, Newborn and Adult Specimens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J; San José, I; Levanti, M; Potau, J M; Vega, J A; Cabo, R

    2017-10-01

    Among primates, the two recognized species of chimpanzees (common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes; pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus) are considered to be the most similar to humans. Importantly, in mammals, the food intake behaviour largely determines the tongue morphology, including the type, proportion and distribution of gustatory and non-gustatory tongue papillae. The lingual papillae form during its development and mature in post-natal life depending on the different feeding. In this study, we have used scanning electron microscopy to analyse the age-related changes in the lingual papillae of foetal, newborn and adult P. troglodytes. Four main types of lingual papillae, denominated filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate, and one subtype of filiform papillae called conical papillae, were found. The main age-related changes observed in all kinds of papillae were a progressive keratinization and morphological complexity along the lifespan. During the foetal period, there was scarce keratinization, which progressively increases in young animals to adulthood. The number of filiform increased with ageing, and both filiform and fungiform papillae in adult tongues are divided into pseudopapillae. On the other hand, the vallate papillae vary from smooth simple surfaces in foetal tongues to irregular surfaces with grooves and pseudopapillae (microscopic papilla-shaped formations within the papilla itself) in adults. These results describe for the first time the age-related variations in the three-dimensional aspect of lingual papillae of the chimpanzee tongue and provide new data to characterize more precisely these structures in the human closest specie. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn after lingual frenectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thiago de Santana; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins; Piva, Marta Rabello; Khalil Karam, Frederick

    2012-11-01

    Mucoceles are the most common lesions of the minor salivary glands and typically appear as a fluctuant, bluish, nontender, submucosal swelling with a normal overlying mucosa. Mucoceles of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn (in the anterior portion of the ventral surface of the tongue) have been considered to be uncommon. This article reports an unusual case of a large extravasation mucocele involving the ventral surface of the tongue, which appeared after a lingual frenectomy.

  10. Stiffness comparison of mushroom and straight SS and TMA lingual archwires.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luca; Carlucci, Antonella; Palone, Mario; Mollica, Francesco; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relative stiffness of straight and mushroom lingual archwires of different diameters, cross sections and alloys, plotting their load/deflection graphs and using a modified three-point bending test. Fujita's mushroom archwires and straight lingual archwires of different diameters, cross sections and alloys were derived by a virtual set-up of an equal malocclusion and were cut at their straight distal portion. These distal portions were tested using a modified three-point bending test by an Instron 4467 dynamometer and the forces, were exerted at 1-mm deflection and were compared on each resulting load/deflection curve by means of ANOVA (p < 0.05). All upper lingual mushroom wires exerted significantly lower forces than the straight wire. Lower mushroom archwires were stiffer than their upper counterparts, which were longer and featured inset bends. In the lower arch, similar levels of forces were recorded for the two types of wire. Load-deflection curves were higher for the straight wires, and stiffness increased proportionally with their diameter. The stiffness of an archwire is a function of its diameter, length and the alloy it is made from. In lower lingual wires, there is little difference in stiffness between mushroom and straight wires, but in upper wires, the straight version is considerably stiffer. The greater bearing effect exhibited by the straight wire in the working and finishing phases makes it less susceptible to bowing effect and therefore preferable for sliding mechanics during en masse retraction, particularly in the upper arch.

  11. Minimally Invasive Approach to the Lingual and Hypoglossal Nerves in the Adult Rat.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Edward John; Phillips, Grady W; Gratton, Michael Anne; Long, John P; Varvares, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Surgical manipulation of the sensory and motor nerves of the rat tongue is often employed in studies evaluating the oral cavity functions of mastication and deglutition. A noninvasive, atraumatic approach that will then facilitate sufficient manipulation of these structures is required. In this study, we detail an approach that consistently allows identification of the hypoglossal (motor) and lingual (sensory) nerves of the rat. Six Wistar rats (250-500 g) were anesthetized and dissected either as fresh tissue (N = 3) or following transcardial perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde (N = 3). Both fixed and non-fixed specimens of the rat head and neck were incised in the right submandibular region. The first animal in each group was used to gain a basic understanding of the regional muscular anatomy with reference to the hypoglossal and lingual nerves. Subsequent animals were used for the development of an efficient and minimally invasive approach to these nerves. The resultant approach begins as an incision through skin and platysma, followed by medial reflection of the digastric muscle. This allows visualization of the hypoglossal nerve in the region of the bifurcation of the common trunk into medial and lateral subdivisions. Next, the lingual nerve dissection is approached by reflection rostrally of the transversus mandibularis muscle and a caudal reflection of the mylohyoid muscle. This dissection reveals the geniohyoid muscle which when separated bluntly using forceps, exposes the lingual nerve. The anatomical approach described and illustrated herein will aid investigators in consistent identification of these two nerves as fundamental methods of their projects.

  12. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-13

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>-1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤-1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type.

  13. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  14. Comparative morphological study on the tongue and lingual papillae of horses (Perissodactyla) and selected ruminantia (Artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Jackowiak, H; Frackowiak, H; Yoshimura, K; Kumakura, M; Kobayashi, K

    2005-01-01

    A common characteristic of horses, Rocky Mountain goats, and cattle is that they all have a well developed lingual prominence on the dorsal surface of the posterior area of the tongue. Foliate papillae were found in the horse studied but not in the goat or in cattle. The horse filiform papillae had a long and slender external form with a thin and slender CTC, while in the goat and cattle the external form consisted of a large thick main process and the CTC consisted of a bundle of numerous rod-shaped protrusions. The special papilla found on the lingual prominence resembled larger filiform-like papillae in the horses; however, in the goat and cattle it was a very thick and large tongue like papillae. The horses had two large vallate papillae, while the goat and cattle had 15 or more vallate papillae at the posterior area of the lingual prominence. This suggests that the fine structure of horse tongues may display a more primitive pattern than that present in goats and cattle.

  15. Debonding forces of three different customized bases of a lingual bracket system

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jang-Won; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether extension of the custom base is necessary for enhancement of bond strength, by comparing the debonding forces and residual adhesives of 3 different lingual bracket systems. Methods A total of 42 extracted upper premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups of 14 each for bonding with brackets having (1) a conventional limited resin custom base; (2) an extended gold alloy custom base: Incognito™; and (3) an extended resin custom base: KommonBase™. The bonding area was measured by scanning the bracket bases with a 3-dimensional digital scanner. The debonding force was measured with an Instron universal testing machine, which applied an occlusogingival shear force. Results The mean debonding forces were 60.83 N (standard deviation [SD] 10.12), 69.29 N (SD 9.59), and 104.35 N (SD17.84) for the limited resin custom base, extended gold alloy custom base, and extended resin custom base, respectively. The debonding force observed with the extended resin custom base was significantly different from that observed with the other bases. In addition, the adhesive remnant index was significantly higher with the extended gold alloy custom base. Conclusions All 3 custom-base lingual brackets can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces. We conclude that effective bonding of lingual brackets can be obtained without extension of the custom base. PMID:24228238

  16. Lingual sucrose reduces the pain response to nasogastric tube insertion: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    McCullough, S; Halton, T; Mowbray, D; Macfarlane, P I

    2008-03-01

    To determine whether lingual sucrose modifies the pain response to nasogastric tube insertion in preterm infants. Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Special care baby unit. 20 stable preterm infants who required nasogastric tube insertion for feeding, randomised on 51 occasions. Lingual 24% sucrose or water placebo (0.5-2 ml varying with body weight) administered 2 min before nasogastric tube insertion. Heart rate, oxygen saturation (SaO2), Neonatal Facial Coding Score and presence or absence of cry. Infants who received sucrose demonstrated a significantly lower Neonatal Facial Coding Score during nasogastric tube passage compared with the placebo group (median 1 (range 0-4) vs 3 (0-4), p = 0.004). There was a trend for sucrose-treated infants to have little change in heart rate during nasogastric tube passage compared with the placebo group (mean (SD) -0.73 (23) vs +11 (17), p = 0.055). Mean SaO2 did not change significantly. Pain response measurements quickly returned to baseline after nasogastric tube insertion. Adverse effects, such as apnoea or oxygen desaturation, were few and occurred equally in each group. Nasogastric tube insertion induces a pain response comparable with previously reported responses to heel lance in neonates. Single-dose lingual 24% sucrose is effective in reducing the behavioural and physiological pain response to nasogastric tube insertion in preterm infants and it appears to be safe.

  17. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  18. A case of difficult airway due to lingual tonsillar hypertrophy in a patient with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Ikeda, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Seiji; Makita, Koshi

    2003-09-01

    In this report, we describe airway management of symptomatic lingual tonsillar hypertrophy in a pediatric patient with Down's syndrome. Besides obstructive sleep apnea, the history included a small atrial septal defect with mild aortic regurgitation and Moyamoya disease. Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of 1 mg/kg of propofol, followed by inhalation of sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. Muscle relaxants were not used on induction. Rigid laryngoscopy could not visualize the epiglottis because of hypertrophied tonsillar tissue, and mask ventilation became difficult when spontaneous breathing stopped. We avoided using a laryngeal mask airway because of a slight bleeding tendency presumably caused by preoperative antiplatelet therapy. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy through the nasal cavity in combination with jet ventilation successfully identified the glottis and allowed nasotracheal intubation to be accomplished. After lingual tonsillectomy, the patient was extubated on the seventh postoperative day, after supraglottic edema had resolved. Fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation under inhaled anesthesia may therefore be preferable in pediatric or uncooperative patients with symptomatic lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.

  19. Transient lingual papillitis: A retrospective study of 11 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tosios, Konstantinos I.; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Kamperos, Georgios; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Transient lingual papillitis (TLP) is a common, under-diagnosed, inflammatory hyperplasia of one or multiple fungiform lingual that has an acute onset, and is painful and transient in nature. Material and Methods Eleven cases of TLP were diagnosed based on their clinical features. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, symptoms, individual or family history of similar lesions, medical history, management and follow-up were extracted from the patients’ records. The English literature was reviewed on TLP differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and management. Results The study group included 8 females and 3 males (age: 10-53 years, mean age 31.7±12.88 years). Seven cases were classified as generalized form of TLP and 4 as localized form. Nine cases were symptomatic. Time to onset ranged from 1 to 14 days. A specific causative factor was not identified in any case and management was symptomatic. Conclusions Although TLP is not considered as a rare entity, available information is limited. Diagnosis is rendered clinically, while biopsy is required in cases with a differential diagnostic dilemma. TLP should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute, painful tongue nodules. Key words:Transient lingual papillitis, fungiform papillary glossitis, tongue, nodules. PMID:28149482

  20. Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation and lingual apex repositioning in patients with atypical deglutition

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Fontani, Vania; Mannu, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background Atypical deglutition is exacerbated by stress and anxiety. Several therapeutic approaches have been employed to treat stress and anxiety disorders, ranging from typical psychopharmacological strategies to novel physical protocols, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) stimulation. The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of REAC brain stimulation in atypical deglutition. Methods The position of the lingual apex (Payne method), pattern of free deglutition, and subjective and objective impression of deglutition were evaluated in 128 outpatients suffering from atypical deglutition. Deglutition testing consisted of an operator holding down the lower lip, hence counteracting the strength exerted by the orbicularis muscle. All subjects were treated using two REAC brain stimulation protocols. Patients were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and three months following the last cycle of REAC therapy. Results REAC stimulation led to an improvement in positioning of the lingual apex and a significant decrease of muscle involvement in all patients immediately after REAC treatment, and the improvement was maintained at three-month follow-up. Conclusion In the present study, the REAC therapeutic protocols led to normalization in lingual apex positioning and significant improvement in swallowing in all participants suffering from atypical deglutition. PMID:21811387