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Sample records for lingual tonsil size

  1. Lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing severe dysphagia: treatment with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation).

    PubMed

    Mowry, Sarah E; Ament, Marvin; Shapiro, Nina L

    2010-03-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is an uncommon cause of upper aerodigestive tract pathology. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed severe dysphagia and subsequent weight loss as a result of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. He was successfully treated with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation). In the past, traditional surgical procedures for lingual tonsil hypertrophy were difficult to perform and recovery was difficult, but the introduction of Coblation has made lingual tonsillectomy much easier.

  2. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the throat. One such infection is called pharyngitis. Tonsillitis is very common in children. Symptoms Common ... Difficulty swallowing Ear pain Fever and chills Headache Sore throat, which lasts longer than 48 hours and may ...

  3. Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein-Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy. PMID:25051184

  4. Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein–Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy. PMID:21718574

  5. Evaluation of coblation lingual tonsil removal technique for obstructive sleep apnea in Asians: preliminary results of surgical morbidity and prognosticators.

    PubMed

    Wee, Jee Hye; Tan, Kenglu; Lee, Woo-Hyun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-09-01

    Retroglossal obstruction is one of the etiologies causing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and can be addressed by removing some tissues of the tongue base. However, because of its deep-seated location, its surgical removal is still challenging. Although coblation technique has been introduced, its efficacy and morbidity need further evaluation, particularly in Asians. This study aimed to assess its safety and effectiveness and to identify outcome prognosticators. Forty-seven OSA patients who underwent coblation lingual tonsil removal were included. Retroglossal obstruction was confirmed by drug-induced sleep videofluoroscopy. Attended full-night polysomnography was performed twice; before and 6 months after surgery in 27 patients. The tongue base was fully exposed with three deep-seated traction sutures, visualized with a 30° or 70° endoscope, and ablated using a coblator. Surgical success was defined with postoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <20 and reduction >50 %. Postoperative morbidities were evaluated. Demographic and polysomnographic parameters between success and failure groups were compared. None of the patients had immediate postoperative hemorrhage. Postoperatively, one patient had delayed hemorrhage and one patient severe respiratory difficulty. Taste loss, tongue dysmotility, dental injury or severe oropharyngeal stricture were absent. A mean AHI decreased from 37.7 ± 18.6 to 18.7 ± 14.8/h (P < 0.001). The success rate was 55.6 %. Their mean minimal oxygen saturation was significantly lower (P = 0.004) in the failure group. Coblation lingual tonsil removal technique showed minimal morbidity and favorable outcome in Koreans. The surgical outcome might be associated with the severity of single respiratory events.

  6. Place of brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the tonsil with lingual extension

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, J.H.; Leborgne, F.; Barlocci, L.A.; Ortega, B.

    1986-10-01

    One hundred forty-four of 170 patients (85%) were seen with cancer of the tonsil and received radical irradiation between 1959 and 1980. A 39% crude 3-year disease-free survival rate and a 51% locoregional control rate were observed. Locoregional relapse related to T Stage was 6, 43, 58, and 64% for T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Fifty-four of 144 patients (37%) showed tongue extension, 20% in T1-T2 stages and 50% in T3-T4 stages. Local relapse was 64% and the 3-year disease-free survival rate was 23% in 39 patients with tongue extension treated with external irradiation alone, versus 33 and 43% respectively for 90 patients with no tongue extension. The increase of lymph node metastases or neck recurrences was not related to tongue extension. In 15 patients with tongue extension, treated with external radiation plus brachytherapy, the local relapse was 40% and the 3-year survival rate 60%. External irradiation plus brachytherapy was significantly related to lower local relapse and increased survival rate compared to external irradiation alone in cancer of the tonsil with tongue extension. The combined modality was not associated with increased risk of radiation complications.

  7. Tonsils and Adenoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... first treatment for infected tonsils and adenoids is antibiotics. If you have frequent infections or trouble breathing, you may need surgery. Surgery to remove the tonsils is tonsillectomy. Surgery to remove adenoids is adenoidectomy.

  8. Tonsils and Adenoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections of the nose and throat, and significant enlargement that causes nasal obstruction and/or breathing, swallowing, ... disturbed. Other signs of adenoid and or tonsil enlargement are: •Breathing through the mouth instead of the ...

  9. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  10. Terminology of the tonsils.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, C; Simoens, P; Van den Broeck, W

    2011-06-01

    Many terms used for referring to tonsillar structures are applied in immunological research. However, in many cases, the use of these terms is not in compliance with official veterinary anatomical nomenclature. This is partly attributable to ambiguous descriptions present in conventional anatomical textbooks. This study gives an overview of pertaining controversial terms and promotes the official anatomical terminology applicable to the tonsils, to enhance the unequivocal transfer of knowledge generated during immunological research.

  11. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort.

  12. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  13. Quantification of cells expressing markers of proliferation and apoptosis in chronic tonsilitis.

    PubMed

    Avramović, V; Petrović, V; Jović, M; Vlahović, P

    2015-10-01

    During chronic tonsillitis, the relationship between proliferation and apoptosis of lymphocytes in tonsillar follicles can be disturbed, which gives rise to attenuation of tonsil immunocompetence and diminishing its contribution in systemic immunity. In this study, we have quantified the cells expressing the markers of proliferation and apoptosis in the follicles of the palatine tonsil. Six tonsils from patients aged 10-29 years with hypertrophic tonsillitis and five tonsils from patients aged 18-22 years with recurrent tonsillitis were studied. The sections of paraffin blocks of tonsillar tissue were stained by the immunohistochemical LSAB/HRP method with the utilisation of antibodies for: Ki-67 antigen-cell marker of proliferation; Bcl-2 and survivin anti-apoptotic factors and Fas/CD95, caspase-3 and Bax pro-apoptotic factors. The size of lymphoid follicles, i.e. mean follicle area and number of lymphoid follicle immunopositive cells per mm2 of a slice area, i.e. numerical areal density were determined by the quantitative image analysis. The localisation of Ki-67, Bcl-2, survivin, Fas/CD95, caspase-3 and Bax- immunopositive cells inside the palatine tonsil was similar in both types of tonsillitis. The number of Ki-67 immunopositive cells was significantly (p < 0.01) larger in the tonsils with hypertrophic tonsillitis (14681.4 ± 1460.5) in comparison to those with recurrent tonsillitis (12491.4 ± 2321.6), although the number of survivin and caspase-3 immunopositive cells was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in recurrent tonsillitis (survivin, 406.9 ± 98.4; caspase-3, 350.4 ± 119.4) when compared to those with hypertrophic tonsillitis (survivin, 117.4 ± 14.5; caspase-3, 210 ± 24). Our results show that the rate of the proliferation and apoptosis of follicular lymphocytes is different in various types of tonsillitis. This suggests that the immunological potential of the palatine tonsil varies in patients with hypertrophic and recurrent tonsillitis, which in

  14. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglotic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) charact...

  15. Fusobacterium necrophorum tonsillitis: an important cause of tonsillitis in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Hansen, T M; Bank, S; Kristensen, L H; Prag, J

    2015-03-01

    The role of Fusobacterium necrophorum in tonsillitis in adolescents and young adults was retrospectively investigated by culture examination. We compared the prevalence of F. necrophorum in 212 subjects with confirmed clinical tonsillitis and in 176 subjects with confirmed no clinical tonsillitis. The prevalence of F. necrophorum was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in subjects with clinical tonsillitis (27%) compared to subjects with no clinical tonsillitis (6%). These results clearly demonstrate the role of F. necrophorum in tonsillitis. By diagnosing and treating F. necrophorum tonsillitis with, for example, penicillin, metronidazole, or both, we might prevent some cases of Lemierre syndrome.

  16. Psychogenic Lingual Paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M S; Bhatia, Navneet Kaur; Bhatia, Navleen Kaur

    2015-05-01

    Oral paresthesias are common in clinical practice but they often go unnoticed and untreated. Psychogenic oral paresthesia is an unpleasant sensation of tingling or pricking or a feeling of swelling or burning, with spontaneous onset.It can result due to local, systemic, psychogenic or idiopathic causes. Among psychogenic causes; anxiety disorder and depression are common. We describe a 32-year-old patient presented with lingual paresthesia and features suggestive of depression. He responded to an antidepressant, fluoxetine 40 mg /day. PMID:26155542

  17. Ectopic Lingual Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Khamassi, Khaled; Jaafoura, Habib; Masmoudi, Fahmi; Lahiani, Rim; Bougacha, Lobna; Ben Salah, Mamia

    2015-01-01

    Ectopy of the thyroid gland is an abnormal embryological development. Its occurrence in children is rare. In this study, we report the case of a 12-year-old girl that presented with dysphagia and nocturnal dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a lingual thyroid. Thyroid scintigraphy showed intense and elective uptake of radiotracer at the base of the tongue. Hormonal tests revealed hypothyroidism. Treatment consisted of opotherapy based on levothyroxine. Evolution has been favourable and the patient showed significant improvement with reduction of the dyspnea and the dysphagia and normalization of thyroid hormone tests. PMID:25893126

  18. Psychogenic Lingual Paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Navneet Kaur; Bhatia, Navleen Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Oral paresthesias are common in clinical practice but they often go unnoticed and untreated. Psychogenic oral paresthesia is an unpleasant sensation of tingling or pricking or a feeling of swelling or burning, with spontaneous onset.It can result due to local, systemic, psychogenic or idiopathic causes. Among psychogenic causes; anxiety disorder and depression are common. We describe a 32-year-old patient presented with lingual paresthesia and features suggestive of depression. He responded to an antidepressant, fluoxetine 40 mg /day. PMID:26155542

  19. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  20. Lymphoepithelial Cyst in the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Balta, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) is the most commonly encountered congenital neck pathology in the lateral part of the neck. A 66-year-old woman presented to the ENT clinic due to difficulty in swallowing persisting for approximately 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass at right tonsil. Surgery was performed due to this unilateral tonsillar mass, which was excised together with the right tonsil. LEC was diagnosed at histopathological examination. LEC in the palatine tonsil is rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of LEC in the palatine tonsil. PMID:27722002

  1. Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was a retrospective case series in a tertiary referral sleep center. Twenty-five adults with moderate to severe OSA and determined to have retropalatal and tongue base obstruction based on Friedman tongue position III and fiberoptic endoscopy underwent CELL in combination with modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, known as relocation pharyngoplasty. CELL involves transoral resection of tongue base muscle tissue and lingual tonsil using Coblation under endoscopic guidance. The mean operation time for CELL was 42.6 ± 13.7 min. Total blood loss for CELL plus relocation pharyngoplasty was <50 ml in all patients. Mean postoperative pain score (sum of total pain scores/sum of total hospitalization day, visual analog scale, 0-10) was 2.6 ± 0.6. Postoperative bleeding and taste disturbance extending beyond 3 months occurred in one patient (4 %) individually. No patients reported tongue weakness or speech dysfunction. Epworth sleepiness scale improved from 9.6 ± 4.9 to 7.5 ± 4.3 (p = 0.023). Apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 45.7 ± 21.7 to 12.8 ± 8.2 events/hour (p < 0.001) 6 months after surgery. The overall response rate was 80 %. CELL is feasible, safe and effective in treating tongue base obstruction in OSA patients who underwent simultaneous relocation pharyngoplasty.

  2. Neonatal lingual choristoma with thyroid hemiagenesis.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Joy, Jasmi; Pai, Kanthilatha

    2015-05-06

    A 45-day-old infant presented with choking spells and cyanosis. Examination revealed a lingual cyst. Contrast-enhanced CT confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cyst with incidental thyroid hemiagenesis. The child underwent excision of the lesion, which was reported as lingual choristoma.

  3. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a larger adenoid. Others may have temporary enlargement of their adenoid due to colds or other ... especially common among young children. Constant swelling or enlargement can cause other health problems such as ear ...

  4. Tonsils

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  5. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937

  6. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.

    PubMed

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in pig tonsils.

    PubMed

    Torres, F; Santamaria, R; Jimenez, M; Menjón, R; Ibanez, A; Collell, M; Azlor, O; Fraile, L

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of antimicrobials in pig tonsils is hardly known. The objective of the study was to quantify the tildipirosin (TD) penetration in tonsils. Animals were randomly divided into six groups (control, T1, T2 (1), T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15)) of eight animals. T1 and T2 groups received a dose of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw in one shot (Zuprevo® MSD Animal Health), respectively, and the control group received 2 mL of saline solution. The animals were sacrificed by intravenous administration of pentobarbital sodium 24 h after finishing the treatment for the control, T1, and T2(1) groups, whereas animals of T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15) groups were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 days, post-treatment, respectively. Tonsils and blood samples were taken at necropsy to obtain plasma, and the tildipirosin concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The concentration in plasma was always significantly lower than in tonsil. Average TD tonsil concentrations increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the tonsil TD vs. plasma TD concentration ratio was approximately 75 for the doses of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw at 24 h post-treatment. Moreover, the maximum concentration of tildipirosin in tonsil was observed at 1 day postadministration, and this concentration decreased gradually from this day until 15 days postadministration for the dose of 4 mg of TD/kg bw. Finally, the ratio AUCtonsil/AUCplasma was 97.9, and the T1/2 (h) was clearly higher in tonsil than in plasma. PMID:26935349

  8. Lingual osteoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Grau-Roma, L; Roura, X; Majó, N

    2012-08-01

    An 11-year-old male Belgian shepherd dog was evaluated for a one-week history of progressive lethargy, decreased appetite and excessive panting. On physical examination, a pedunculated mass protruding from the right side of the tongue base was observed. The mass was solid, irregular and multi-lobulated, and it measured approximately 4 × 2 cm. The mass was surgically excised. The histological examination was consistent with a lingual osteoma and the margins were free of neoplastic cells. The dog was euthanased eight months after the diagnosis because of an unrelated problem and no evidence of recurrence at the surgical site was appreciated at that time. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a lingual osteoma in a dog, and, therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of masses on the tongue, especially pedunculated masses located at the base of the tongue.

  9. Lingual thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, P.; Sakati, N.; Rifai, A.; Woodhouse, N.

    1987-11-01

    We describe four patients who presented with a lingual thyroid condition (three females and one male, aged between 7 and 22 years). Only the male patient was symptomatic with mild dysphagia and hemoptysis. The diagnosis was suspected in three patients, and was confirmed by iodine 123 or 131 scanning in all patients and by a computed tomographic scan in the one patient studied. The patient with dysphagia received a 10-mCl therapeutic dose of iodine 131 before thyroxine replacement was started. The diagnosis and management of lingual thyroid is discussed. All patients need lifelong thyroxine suppression. Unenhanced computed tomographic scans have a diagnostic appearance due to the iodine content of the ectopic thyroid tissue.

  10. [Endolacunar laser radiation of the tonsils in conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Staroverova, T K; Shul'diakov, V A; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tatarenko, D A

    2007-01-01

    Vegetative and immune system indices, clinical symptoms of chronic tonsillitis exacerbation were compared in laser radiation of the tonsils with two methods - surface pharyngeal and endolacunar. The results show that under endolacunar method the symptoms regress 1.46 times faster, the number of late exacerbations decrease 1.5-2-fold.

  11. Spontaneous lingual abscess in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Kettaneh, Nick; Williamson, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    Acute lingual abscess is a rare yet life-threatening clinical entity. Lingual abscess must be appropriately diagnosed and treated in the emergency department to avoid acute airway compromise. A 68-year-old woman on immunomodulatory medication for rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department with left facial pain and swelling. An anterior lingual abscess was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The most common cause of lingual abscess is direct trauma, although immunocompromised state is a predisposing risk factor. Intravenous antibiotics are the primary treatment modality, with consideration given to adjunctive surgical drainage. We present this case to increase awareness surrounding this diagnosis among emergency physicians. Spontaneous lingual abscess should be considered in immunocompromised patients who present to the emergency department with tongue pain and edema even in the absence of lingual trauma. PMID:24332904

  12. Fully-customized lingual appliances: how lingual orthodontics became a viable treatment option.

    PubMed

    George, Richard D; Hirani, Sunil

    2013-09-01

    Despite being available for over 30 years, it is perhaps only over the past decade or so that lingual therapy has entered into the mainstream and become a viable treatment option. This paper outlines the problems encountered with traditional lingual techniques and describes how fully-customized lingual appliances have been designed to overcome many of the issues that had risked confining lingual orthodontics to the margins of clinical practice.

  13. A frequent phenotype for paediatric sleep apnoea: short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Huseni, Shehlanoor; Lo, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    A short lingual frenulum has been associated with difficulties in sucking, swallowing and speech. The oral dysfunction induced by a short lingual frenulum can lead to oral-facial dysmorphosis, which decreases the size of upper airway support. Such progressive change increases the risk of upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Clinical investigation of the oral cavity was conducted as a part of a clinical evaluation of children suspected of having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) based on complaints, symptoms and signs. Systematic polysomnographic evaluation followed the clinical examination. A retrospective analysis of 150 successively seen children suspected of having SDB was performed, in addition to a comparison of the findings between children with and without short lingual frenula. Among the children, two groups of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) were found: 1) absence of adenotonsils enlargement and short frenula (n=63); and 2) normal frenula and enlarged adenotonsils (n=87). Children in the first group had significantly more abnormal oral anatomy findings, and a positive family of short frenulum and SDB was documented in at least one direct family member in 60 cases. A short lingual frenulum left untreated at birth is associated with OSAS at later age, and a systematic screening for the syndrome should be conducted when this anatomical abnormality is recognised. PMID:27730205

  14. Lingual Kinematics and Coordination in Speech-Disordered Children Exhibiting Differentiated versus Undifferentiated Lingual Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine; Murdoch, Bruce; Ozanne, Anne; Cheng, Yan; Hill, Anne; Gibbon, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Background: Electropalatographic investigations have revealed that a proportion of children with articulation/phonological disorders exhibit undifferentiated lingual gestures, whereby the whole of the tongue contacts the palate simultaneously during lingual consonant production. These undifferentiated lingual gestures have been interpreted to…

  15. Bacteriologic findings in tonsillitis and pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Jousimies-Somer, H; Savolainen, S; Leppänen, J; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1996-07-01

    Bacteriologic samples from 31 young men were cultured quantitatively for aerobes and anaerobes; these samples included 31 specimens of tonsils (16 infected and 15 healthy), 16 specimens from pericoronal pockets of lower third molars (11 infected and 5 symptom-free), and 6 postoperative specimens from lower-third-molar extraction sockets. Anaerobes were isolated more often from infected third molars than from infected tonsils (14.5 isolates vs. 8.4 isolates, respectively; P < .001). Infected tonsil samples contained significantly more anaerobic species if an adjacent partly erupted lower third molar was present rather than absent (10.3 isolates vs. 6.9 isolates, respectively; P < .05). Eubacterium aerofaciens, Clostridium species, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Prevotella oris were frequently isolated. Streptococcus salivarius was found more frequently in tonsillar specimens, whereas Corynebacterium species, Prevotella denticola, Capnocytophaga species, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Lactobacillus species were more common in pericoronal pocket samples. Thus, partial eruption of lower third molars increases the number of anaerobic bacterial species on tonsils and many species can be isolated simultaneously from both tonsils and lower third molars.

  16. Unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Boovalli, Mythri M; Kumar, R Praveen; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    We present two unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil in elderly patients. Both the cases were initially diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, second case, in addition, showed lung metastasis. On subsequent follow-up, the first case developed cutaneous metastasis in the right frontoparietal region while second case showed granulocytosis as paraneoplastic manifestation. The association of cutaneous metastasis and paraneoplastic granulocytosis with carcinoma of tonsil is rare. Cutaneous metastasis has been described only once in the literature while paraneoplastic granulocytosis is being reported for the first time. Both the conditions need long-term follow-up as they manifest at the extreme edges of the neoplastic process. PMID:26604503

  17. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae. PMID:25431362

  18. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  19. Comparative analysis of slot dimension in lingual bracket systems

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances requires - among others - the correct clinical expression of torque, which depends on the precise fitting of archwire and slot. Especially in the lingual technique torque problems become clinically more evident than in labial appliances also with respect to the vertical alignment of teeth due to different distances from the center of resistance. The purpose of the present study was to compare the preciseness of slot dimensions of different lingual bracket systems. Methods Three lingual bracket systems were included in the study (7th Generation and STb, Ormco, Glendora, CA, USA; Incognito, TOP-Service/3 M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Non destructive analysis of vertical slot dimensions was performed using precision pin gauges (Azurea, Belprahon, Switzerland) that were tapered in increments of 0.002 mm (0.00008 inch). The sizes of 240 incisor and canine brackets were measured per system (total: 720). Data were compared using one-way ANOVA. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Average slot dimensions were 0.467 mm ± 0.007 mm (0.0184 inch ± 0.0003 inch) for the 7th Generation bracket system, 0.466 mm ± 0.004 mm (0.0183 inch ± 0.0001) inch for the STb bracket system and 0.459 mm ± 0.004 mm (0.0181 inch ± 0.0001) inch for the Incognito bracket system. Differences between systems were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions The analyzed bracket systems for lingual treatment exhibited significant differences in slot dimension that will clinically result in torque play. These aspects must be considered in lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:20003510

  20. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  1. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  2. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. PMID:26572928

  3. An unusual case of lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Hope, Nicholas; Patricia Smith, Caroline; Moran, Michael; Primrose, William

    2016-05-01

    Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is an unusual presentation of voice change. If managed incorrectly this group of patients has the potential to deteriorate significantly causing airway obstruction and potentially death.

  4. Stabilising Springs for Fixed Lingual Retainer

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M.K.; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R.; Rajvikram, N.; Kuppuchamy

    2013-01-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove. PMID:24392431

  5. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Japanese marten.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2007-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult Japanese marten (Martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. A small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. A small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of several small processes. A large filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. A large filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of processes of various size. The fungiform papillae are round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla had a top with several round depressions. The four vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body and each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. A zigzag surface structure appeared on the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue and some ridges and grooves were exposed reciprocally. A zigzag surface structures appeared on the connective tissue cores of the ridges of the foliate papillae.

  6. Acute tonsillitis and its complications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, A; Bola, S; Williams, R

    2015-01-01

    Acute tonsillitis may be defined as inflammation of the tonsils, predominantly due to infection. It is part of the spectrum of pharyngitis, which ranges from localised tonsillar infection to generalised infection of the pharynx and commonly affects young healthy adults. Simple sore throats secondary to viral or bacterial pharyngitis are very common and generally do not require hospital admission or antimicrobial treatment. Supportive management in the form of analgesia and adequate hydration is often sufficient. However, there is potential for life-threatening complications to develop, highlighting the need for basic knowledge in the management of these conditions. This article aims to provide an overview of acute tonsillitis and its complications, including peritonsillar and parapharyngeal abscess formation. Specific attention will be given to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, investigation and management of each condition, in particular advising on emergency pre-shore treatment and indications for referral to an Ear, Nose and Throat Department. We will also summarise important guidelines and evidence from the literature to support these management decisions. PMID:26292396

  7. Lingual deficits in neurotrophin double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Irina V; Agerman, Karin; Marinescu, Andrea; Ernfors, Patrik; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2004-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) are members of the neurotrophin family and are expressed in the developing and adult tongue papillae. BDNF null-mutated mice exhibit specific impairments related to innervation and development of the gustatory system while NT-3 null mice have deficits in their lingual somatosensory innervation. To further evaluate the functional specificity of these neurotrophins in the peripheral gustatory system, we generated double BDNF/NT-3 knockout mice and compared the phenotype to BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. Taste papillae morphology was severely distorted in BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice compared to single BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. The deficits were found throughout the tongue and all gustatory papillae. There was a significant loss of fungiform papillae and the papillae were smaller in size compared to BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. Circumvallate papillae in the double knockouts were smaller and did not contain any intraepithelial nerve fibers. BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice exhibited additive losses in both somatosensory and gustatory innervation indicating that BDNF and NT-3 exert specific roles in the innervation of the tongue. However, the additional loss of fungiform papillae and taste buds in BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice compared to single BDNF knockout mice indicate a synergistic functional role for both BDNF-dependent gustatory and NT-3-dependent somatosensory innervations in taste bud and taste papillae innervation and development. PMID:16217617

  8. Laser Doppler flowmetry in diagnoses of chronic tonsillitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareew, Gleb O.; Mareew, Oleg V.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Ivliev, Igor I.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Lychagov, Vladislav V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2005-06-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is one of the most common diseases in ENT all over the world. There are two ways of treatment-surgical tonsillectomy and conservative therapeutically treatment. But still doctors have no possibility to make objective decisions for this painful and tonsil-destructive operation. In this article we try to research how the degree of sclerosis in tonsillar tissue affects the blood flow in tonsils, by using laser Doppler flowmetry.

  9. Ectopic salivary tissue of the tonsil: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wise, Jeffrey B; Sehgal, Kriti; Guttenberg, Marta; Shah, Udayan K

    2005-04-01

    To report one patient with an ectopic salivary tissue tag on the tonsil, and review the embryology, management, and implications of this benign disorder. Case report with literature review. Ectopic salivary tissue presented on the tonsil of a child as a painless, growing, unilateral pale exophytic mass. Tonsillectomy was performed to provide diagnosis, and was curative. Ectopic salivary tissue of the tonsil is a rare finding. Tonsillectomy allows for definitive diagnosis and treatment.

  10. [The role of bacteriological examination in diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Tovmasian, A S; Antonova, N A; Drabykina, I V; Liasnikova, O E; Kudelina, M A; Zhukhovitskiĭ, V G

    2008-01-01

    A bacteriological examination was made in 105 patients with various forms of chronic tonsillitis. Eighteen cultures of beta-hemolytic streptococcus (BHSA) were isolated from 36 patients with paratonsillar abscesses. BHSA seeding in paratonsillar abscess was 50.0%. Eight BHSA cultures were isolated from 69 patients with chronic tonsillitis. BHSA seeding in chronic tonsillitis was 11.6%. Adequate set of culture media for BHSA growth was optimized. The technique of the sample collection from tonsillar lacunes was improved. The significance of bacteriological diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis increases considerably due to optimization of out- and intralaboratory tests at the preanalytic stage of the study.

  11. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  12. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  13. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  14. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis II. Surgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, a total of 84,332 patients had undergone extracapsular tonsillectomies (TE) and 11,493 a tonsillotomy (TT) procedure in Germany. While the latter is increasingly performed, the number of the former is continually decreasing. However, a constant number of approximately 12,000 surgical procedures in terms of abscess-tonsillectomies or incision and drainage are annually performed in Germany to treat patients with a peritonsillar abscess. The purpose of this part of the clinical guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through the surgical treatment options to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical treatment options encompass intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsil surgery and are related to three distinct entities: recurrent episodes of (1) acute tonsillitis, (2) peritonsillar abscess and (3) infectious mononucleosis. Conservative management of these entities is subject of part I of this guideline. (1) The quality of evidence for TE to resolve recurrent episodes of tonsillitis is moderate for children and low for adults. Conclusions concerning the efficacy of TE on the number of sore throat episodes per year are limited to 12 postoperative months in children and 5-6 months in adults. The impact of TE on the number of sore throat episodes per year in children is modest. Due to the heterogeneity of data, no firm conclusions on the effectiveness of TE in adults can be drawn. There is still an urgent need for further research to reliably estimate the value of TE compared to non-surgical therapy of tonsillitis/tonsillo-pharyngitis. The impact of TE on quality of life is considered as being positive, but further research is mandatory to establish appropriate inventories and standardized evaluation procedures, especially in children. In contrast to TE, TT or comparable procedures are characterized by a substantially lower postoperative

  15. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Santana; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland malignancy in both adults and children. It has a slight female predilection and usually presents as a painless, rubber-like or soft mass, which may be fixed or mobile. Histologically, MEC is comprised of a mixture of cell types including mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells that can be arranged in solid nests or cystic structures. In the oral cavity, it most frequently occurs at the palate or buccal mucosa. The present paper aimed to describe an unusual case of MEC arising in the palatine tonsil. PMID:26550506

  16. Isolated lingual involvement in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Neera; Joshi, Laxmikant; Duggal, Ashish; Puri, Vinod; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Lingual involvement can occur in a variety of neurological disorders including pyramidal, extrapyramidal and lower motor neuron disorders. It can be seen in the form of tremor, bradykinesia, dystonia, atrophy and weakness of tongue movements and can clinically present as difficulty in swallowing and dysarthria which can be a source of great discomfort to the patient. We describe a patient who presented with isolated lingual involvement and was diagnosed to have Wilsons's disease. This case emphasizes the clinical variability in presentation of Wilson's disease and importance of early clinical diagnosis.

  17. Coblation cryptolysis to treat tonsil stones: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher Y; Thrasher, Richard

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a novel and potentially effective approach in the treatment of tonsil stones using Coblation technology. A retrospective pilot case series was performed demonstrating the effectiveness of a technique that we call Coblation tonsil cryptolysis. This technique is unique in that it can be performed in adult patients without sedation using only local anesthesia, much like laser tonsil cryptolysis. As with laser cryptolysis, pain is significant for only a few days and most adults can resume normal diet and activity within 1 week. In contrast, tonsillectomy entails significant morbidity for several weeks. However, Coblation avoids the significant disadvantages of laser use, including the potential for airway fire, retinal damage from reflected scatter, dealing with plume from vaporized tissues, oral/facial burns, and the high cost of purchasing and maintaining laser equipment. After a single session of Coblation tonsil cryptolysis, a significant decrease and even elimination of tonsil stones can potentially be achieved.

  18. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion. PMID:26816905

  19. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  20. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  1. A Rare Complication of Radiofrequency Tonsil Ablation: Horner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ozbay, Isa; Yildirim, Nadir; Zeybek Sivas, Zuhal; Canbaz Kabay, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is a common disease, and several different surgical techniques are used to treat this condition. In recent years, techniques such as radiofrequency ablation and coblation have been commonly used for tonsil surgery. In this report, we present the cases of two pediatric patients who developed ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos (Horner syndrome) after radiofrequency ablation for tonsil reduction and discuss the technique of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. In the early postoperative period, miosis and ptosis were observed on the right side in one patient and on the left side in the other patient. Both patients were treated with 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone, which were tapered by halving the dose every 3 days. Miosis and ptosis improved after treatment in both patients. Along with the case presentation, we discuss the effectiveness and complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. These unusual complications of tonsil ablation may help ENT physicians who do not yet have a preferred surgical technique for tonsillectomy to make an informed decision. Limited data are available about the possible complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. The present report contributes to the literature on this topic. PMID:26064747

  2. 1125-nm quantum dot laser for tonsil thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    Thermal therapy has the potential to provide a nonexcisional alternative to tonsillectomy. Clinical implementation requires that the lymphoid tissue of tonsils is heated homogeneously to produce an amount of primary thermal injury that corresponds to gradual postoperative tonsil shrinkage, with minimal risk of damage to underlying critical blood vessels. Optical constants are derived for tonsils from tissue components and used to calculate the depth of 1/e of irradiance. The 1125 nm wavelength is shown to correspond to both deep penetration and minimal absorption by blood. A probe for tonsil thermal therapy that comprises two opposing light emitting, temperature controlled surfaces is described. For ex vivo characterization of tonsil heating, a prototype 1125 nm diode laser is used in an experimental apparatus that splits the laser output into two components, and delivers the radiation to sapphire contact window surfaces of two temperature controlled cells arranged to irradiate human tonsil specimens from opposing directions. Temperatures are measured with thermocouple microprobes at located points within the tissue during and after irradiation. Primary thermal damage corresponding to the recorded thermal histories are calculated from Arrhenius parameters for human tonsils. Results indicate homogeneous heating to temperatures corresponding to the threshold of thermal injury and above can be achieved in advantageously short irradiation times.

  3. A Rare Complication of Radiofrequency Tonsil Ablation: Horner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kucur, Cuneyt; Ozbay, Isa; Oghan, Fatih; Yildirim, Nadir; Zeybek Sivas, Zuhal; Canbaz Kabay, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is a common disease, and several different surgical techniques are used to treat this condition. In recent years, techniques such as radiofrequency ablation and coblation have been commonly used for tonsil surgery. In this report, we present the cases of two pediatric patients who developed ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos (Horner syndrome) after radiofrequency ablation for tonsil reduction and discuss the technique of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. In the early postoperative period, miosis and ptosis were observed on the right side in one patient and on the left side in the other patient. Both patients were treated with 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone, which were tapered by halving the dose every 3 days. Miosis and ptosis improved after treatment in both patients. Along with the case presentation, we discuss the effectiveness and complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. These unusual complications of tonsil ablation may help ENT physicians who do not yet have a preferred surgical technique for tonsillectomy to make an informed decision. Limited data are available about the possible complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. The present report contributes to the literature on this topic.

  4. A Rare Complication of Radiofrequency Tonsil Ablation: Horner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kucur, Cuneyt; Ozbay, Isa; Oghan, Fatih; Yildirim, Nadir; Zeybek Sivas, Zuhal; Canbaz Kabay, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is a common disease, and several different surgical techniques are used to treat this condition. In recent years, techniques such as radiofrequency ablation and coblation have been commonly used for tonsil surgery. In this report, we present the cases of two pediatric patients who developed ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos (Horner syndrome) after radiofrequency ablation for tonsil reduction and discuss the technique of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. In the early postoperative period, miosis and ptosis were observed on the right side in one patient and on the left side in the other patient. Both patients were treated with 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone, which were tapered by halving the dose every 3 days. Miosis and ptosis improved after treatment in both patients. Along with the case presentation, we discuss the effectiveness and complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. These unusual complications of tonsil ablation may help ENT physicians who do not yet have a preferred surgical technique for tonsillectomy to make an informed decision. Limited data are available about the possible complications of radiofrequency ablation of the tonsils. The present report contributes to the literature on this topic. PMID:26064747

  5. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  6. Conservative management for lingual thyroid ectopic.

    PubMed

    Sigua-Rodriguez, Eder Alberto; Rangel Goulart, Douglas; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes Manzano, Afonso Celso

    2015-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare clinical entity. The presence of an ectopic thyroid gland located at the base of the tongue may be presented with symptoms like dysphagia, dysphonia, and upper airway obstruction. We are introducing a case of an 8-year-old girl who had lingual thyroid that presented dysphagia and foreign body sensation in the throat. The diagnostic was reached with clinical examination, thyroid scintigraphy with Tc(99m) and ultrasound. A laryngoscopy was performed which confirmed a spherical mass at base of tongue. Investigation should include thyroid function tests. In this case we observed subclinical hypothyroidism. There are different types of surgical approaches for the treatment of this condition; however, the treatment with Levothyroxine Sodium allowed the stabilization of TSH levels and clinical improvement of symptoms in a follow-up of 2 years.

  7. Immunity of tonsil and IgA nephropathy--relationship between IgA nephropathy and tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kuki, Kiyonori; Gotoh, Hironobu; Hayashi, Masaki; Hujihara, Keiji; Tamura, Shinji; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2004-12-01

    Our study hypothesized that cytokines or chemokines induced in tonsils by infectious stimulations play an important role on the exacerbation of the glomerular injuries in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Tonsils from six patients with IgAN diagnosed by renal biopsy were studied after getting their written informed consents Tonsils from six patients with tonsil disorders with non-renal disorders were examined as controls. Tonsillar mononuclear cells (TMCs) were isolated and resuspended with RPMI 1640 with 10% FCS. These cells were incubated for 48 h with staphlococcus enterotoxin-B (SEB) or lipopolysaccaride (LPS). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and MCP-1 in the supernatants were measured by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The actual cytokine concentrations were calculated by determining the standard curves. The experiments were performed in duplicate, and the mean value was calculated. We found that tonsillar mononuclear cells of IgA nephropathy produced mesangial proliferative chemokines (MCP-1, IL-8) in higher amounts compared to tonsils from non-IgA nephropathy. This result suggests that upper respiratory tract infections such as tonsillitis may be one of the risk factors of the aggravation in patients with IgA nephropathy.

  8. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  9. Lingual Osseous Choristoma Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Mohamed H.; Elmangoush, Arej M.

    2007-01-01

    Lingual osseous choristoma is an extremely rare condition, of which only 61 cases have been reported. Monserrat in 1913 was the first to report this bony lesion on the dorsum of the tongue and it was labelled as lingual osteoma, the term that normally describes neoplastic pathology. Krolls et al changed this term later to osseous choristoma, which means normal tissue in an abnormal location. The aetiology and pathogenesis of lingual osseous choristoma remain debatable. We report a case of lingual osseous choristoma and review the literature. PMID:21503232

  10. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  11. Inferior alveolar and lingual nerve imaging.

    PubMed

    Miloro, Michael; Kolokythas, Antonia

    2011-03-01

    At present, there are no objective testing modalities available for evaluation of iatrogenic injury to the terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve, making such clinical diagnosis and management complicated for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Several imaging modalities can assist in the preoperative risk assessment of the trigeminal nerve as related to commonly performed procedures in the vicinity of the nerve, mostly third molar surgery. This article provides a review of all available imaging modalities and their clinical application relative to preoperative injury risk assessment of the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve, and postinjury and postsurgical repair recovery status.

  12. Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children

  13. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  14. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Patagonian cavy.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2011-11-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis patagonum) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the Patagonian cavy is about 8 cm long and the lingual body had lingual prominence on the posterior third. There were no fungiform papillae in the lingual dorsal surface. The fungiform papillae were observed in both lateral sides of the lingual apex. The filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a large conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla showed many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was flower-bud shaped. Two vallate papillae were located on between lingual body and root, and insert in two grooves. The connective tissue core of the vallate papilla was covered with numerous small spines. Many foliate papillae were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. After removing epithelium from the foliate papillae many vertical depressions became apparent. These findings suggest that in the structure of the lingual papillae of the Patagonian cavy there is similar to that of the capybara. PMID:22519071

  15. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  16. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them.

    PubMed

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-28

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  17. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  18. [Palatine tonsil lymphoma in children with tonsillar asymmetry. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Martínez Font, Agustín; Demarchi, María Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; García Rivello, Hernán; Morandi, Ana; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Tonsil malignancy is uncommon in children. Tonsillar asymmetry is usually secondary to a benign process, either inflammatory conditions, differences in the tonsillar fossa depth or anterior pillar asymmetry. However, it may indicate a serious underlying disorder such as lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common childhood malignancy in the head and neck. Approximately, 15% of the cases affect the Waldeyer's ring. The most common clinical manifestations of palatine tonsils lymphoma are unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy, alteration in the appearance of the mucosa and ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of great importance in the prognosis. We present a case of palatine tonsil lymphoma in a child with tonsillar asymmetry and we emphasize the importance of the examination of the oral cavity and the neck to identify suspicious alterations compatible with tonsillar lymphoma.

  19. [Palatine tonsil lymphoma in children with tonsillar asymmetry. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Martínez Font, Agustín; Demarchi, María Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; García Rivello, Hernán; Morandi, Ana; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Tonsil malignancy is uncommon in children. Tonsillar asymmetry is usually secondary to a benign process, either inflammatory conditions, differences in the tonsillar fossa depth or anterior pillar asymmetry. However, it may indicate a serious underlying disorder such as lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common childhood malignancy in the head and neck. Approximately, 15% of the cases affect the Waldeyer's ring. The most common clinical manifestations of palatine tonsils lymphoma are unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy, alteration in the appearance of the mucosa and ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of great importance in the prognosis. We present a case of palatine tonsil lymphoma in a child with tonsillar asymmetry and we emphasize the importance of the examination of the oral cavity and the neck to identify suspicious alterations compatible with tonsillar lymphoma. PMID:26172022

  20. The association of sore throat and psoriasis might be explained by histologically distinctive tonsils and increased expression of skin-homing molecules by tonsil T cells.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, S L; Thorleifsdottir, R H; Valdimarsson, H; Johnston, A

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the palatine tonsils in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, particularly among patients with recurrent throat infections. However, the underlying immunological mechanism is not well understood. In this study we confirm that psoriasis tonsils are infected more frequently by β-haemolytic Streptococci, in particular Group C Streptococcus, compared with recurrently infected tonsils from patients without skin disease. Moreover, we show that tonsils from psoriasis patients contained smaller lymphoid follicles that occupied a smaller tissue area, had a lower germinal centre to marginal zone area ratio and contained fewer tingible body macrophages per unit area compared with recurrently infected tonsils from individuals without skin disease. Psoriasis patients' tonsils had a higher frequency of skin-homing [cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA(+) )] CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and this correlated significantly with their frequency of blood CLA(+) T cells. The psoriasis patients also had a higher frequency of tonsil T cells expressing the interleukin (IL)-23 receptor that was expressed preferentially by the CLA(+) T cell population. In contrast, recurrently infected tonsils of individuals without skin disease had a higher frequency of tonsil T cells expressing the activation marker CD69 and a number of chemokine receptors with unknown relevance to psoriasis. These findings suggest that immune responses in the palatine tonsils of psoriasis patients are dysregulated. The elevated expression of CLA and IL-23 receptor by tonsil T cells may promote the egression of effector T cells from tonsils to the epidermis, suggesting that there may be functional changes within the tonsils, which promote triggering or exacerbation of psoriasis.

  1. Mucocele of the anterior lingual salivary glands: from extravasation to an alarming mass with a benign course.

    PubMed

    Andiran, N; Sarikayalar, F; Unal OF; Baydar, D E; Ozaydin, E

    2001-11-01

    Mucoceles are common cystic lesions in the oral cavity. However, mucoceles located on the ventral surface of the tongue originating from anterior lingual salivary glands are rare. Only 24 cases were reported in the medical literature, of which most were relatively small lesions measuring less than 20 mm in diameter. This report describes a large-sized mucocele of the anterior lingual salivary glands in an 8-year-old boy who was treated by surgical excision of the lesion. The authors emphasize the importance of preoperative awareness and en bloc excision of the lesion even in asymptomatic patients to avoid further enlargement and complications.

  2. [Societal cost of pre-lingual deafness].

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Bartolucci, M A; Broglio, D; Boner, A

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss still remain an important medical and social problem for the delayed language development. Object of this study is to provide an updated and close estimate of the economic burden involved in pre-lingual hearing loss. Data were provided by the Ministry of Health data bank, the Ministry of Education national data bank, the National Institute of Social Insurance national data bank and the Italian Central Statistics Institute. The information was collected by means of a specially provided Societal Cost Questionnaire (SCQ). Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect welfare costs involved in deafness were included in the cost estimate. Was enrolled in the study a sample of subjects with pre-lingual deafness, with a mean bilateral neuro-sensorial hearing impairment equal to 60 dB or more for 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz frequency tones in the better ear detected in neonatal age, had prevented speech from developing. The statistical assessment was performed according to an actuarial approach, considering the estimated life expectancy at birth, based on updated population data from census 2001. Based on life expectancy, the lifetime mean cost assessed for a subject affected by profound pre-lingual deafness turned out to be equal to Euro 737,994.76 for a male and Euro 755,404.02 for a female. Unlike other disabling affections, deafness weighs significantly more on the social system than on the health system. As a matter of fact, the direct medical costs, such as audiological diagnosis, hearing aids, etc., only account for 3.8% of the societal cost, whereas education, rehabilitation and welfare costs reach 96.2% of the total. Finally, our results suggest that societal costs can only be reduced by zeroing in on promotion and broadening of effective prevention strategies. The appropriate public health measures (such as the universal newborn hearing screening) set up and implemented in several European and non-European countries proved

  3. [Societal cost of pre-lingual deafness].

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Bartolucci, M A; Broglio, D; Boner, A

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss still remain an important medical and social problem for the delayed language development. Object of this study is to provide an updated and close estimate of the economic burden involved in pre-lingual hearing loss. Data were provided by the Ministry of Health data bank, the Ministry of Education national data bank, the National Institute of Social Insurance national data bank and the Italian Central Statistics Institute. The information was collected by means of a specially provided Societal Cost Questionnaire (SCQ). Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect welfare costs involved in deafness were included in the cost estimate. Was enrolled in the study a sample of subjects with pre-lingual deafness, with a mean bilateral neuro-sensorial hearing impairment equal to 60 dB or more for 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz frequency tones in the better ear detected in neonatal age, had prevented speech from developing. The statistical assessment was performed according to an actuarial approach, considering the estimated life expectancy at birth, based on updated population data from census 2001. Based on life expectancy, the lifetime mean cost assessed for a subject affected by profound pre-lingual deafness turned out to be equal to Euro 737,994.76 for a male and Euro 755,404.02 for a female. Unlike other disabling affections, deafness weighs significantly more on the social system than on the health system. As a matter of fact, the direct medical costs, such as audiological diagnosis, hearing aids, etc., only account for 3.8% of the societal cost, whereas education, rehabilitation and welfare costs reach 96.2% of the total. Finally, our results suggest that societal costs can only be reduced by zeroing in on promotion and broadening of effective prevention strategies. The appropriate public health measures (such as the universal newborn hearing screening) set up and implemented in several European and non-European countries proved

  4. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique

    PubMed Central

    Kairalla, Silvana Allegrini; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Triviño, Tarcila; Velasco, Leandro; Lombardo, Luca; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. METHODS: The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D) and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25%) - an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%). T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. CONCLUSION: The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed. PMID:25715725

  5. Lingual Nerve Entrapment in Muscular and Osseous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Georgios, Androutsos; Panagiotis, Skandalakis

    2010-01-01

    Running through the infratemporal fossa is the lingual nerve (i.e. the third branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve). Due to its location, there are various anatomic structures that might entrap and potentially compress the lingual nerve. These anatomical sites of entrapment are: (a) the partially or completely ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligaments; (b) the large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process; and (c) the medial fibers of the anterior region of the lateral pterygoid muscle. Due to the connection between these nerve and anatomic structures, a contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle, for example, might cause a compression of the lingual nerve. Any variations in the course of the lingual nerve can be of clinical significance to surgeons and neurologists because of the significant complications that might occur. To name a few of such complications, lingual nerve entrapment can lead to: (a) numbness, hypoesthesia or even anesthesia of the tongue's mucous glands; (b) anesthesia and loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue; (c) anesthesia of the lingual gums; and (d) pain related to speech articulation disorder. Dentists should, therefore, be alert to possible signs of neurovascular compression in regions where the lingual nerve is distributed. PMID:21404967

  6. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  7. Histological and histochemical studies on the chicken lingual glands.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, A M; Lorvik, S; Ceccarelli, P; Pedini, V

    1991-09-01

    1. Morphological and histochemical observations were done on the chicken anterior and posterior lingual glands. Histology, ultrastructure and glycoconjugate histochemistry were investigated by means of light and electron microscopy using staining specific for complex carbohydrates. 2. In the anterior lingual glands there are lateral and medial zones showing different morphological and tinctorial features. The secretory cells are typical mucous cells. 3. Histochemical reactions revealed the presence of acidic glycoconjugates with terminal sialic acid residues, and glycoconjugates vicinal diol and sulphate groupings in the secretory granules. 4. It is suggested that the main functions of lingual glands are the lubrication of boli and protection from micro-organisms.

  8. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  9. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the giraffe.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex consisted of slender and thick conical papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was flower-bud-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual body consisted of large conical papillae and the fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was rose-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual prominence consisted of more large conical papillae than that of the lingual body. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was trianglar in shape. The large lenticular papillae were limited on the lingual prominence. The connective tissue core of the lenticular papilla consisted of small spines. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a semicircular trench. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines. PMID:23614981

  10. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.

  11. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  12. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callıoglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kazım; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented. PMID:26064746

  13. The legal implications of lingual nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, David

    2002-10-01

    Hopefully this analysis is useful. In summary let us make three simple points: Be conscious of your position in the "personal injury" market, but do not be afraid to use your judgment. If you are an expert, do not set a standard of perfection when working out what is reasonable care. Your communication skills are the most important skill you have in order to avoid claims. And on a final note, a draft "consent form" that will provide complete protection is often requested. There is no such thing. The issue is communication with your patient so that they will accept what has happened to them if their lingual nerve is damaged. Ideally this involves a clear explanation, provision of a written outline and a written acknowledgement from the patient that they have received this explanation. The latter requirement is because we are all human--and humans forget things when they are in pain, or distress. The author is currently working with the Australian Dental Association Victorian Branch Inc. and other professional associations in relation to written material to be distributed to make warnings more effective. No doubt, you will receive more information about this initiative in due course.

  14. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Shah, Shalin J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Kupferman, Michael E.; Ang, Kian K.; Rosenthal, David I.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n = 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  15. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more

  16. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the jaguar.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult jaguar (Panthera onca) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the jaguar was about 17 cm long, and the center of the lingual apex became hollow. There were 7 vallate papillae in total. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and some secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was mountain-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was mushroom-like in shape. The filiform papilla on the anterior part of the lingual body was large and cylinder-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a big conical papilla and many rod-like papillae. The filiform papilla on the central part of the lingual body was a big conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a rod process and bowl-like structure. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines. PMID:23614980

  17. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the jaguar.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult jaguar (Panthera onca) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the jaguar was about 17 cm long, and the center of the lingual apex became hollow. There were 7 vallate papillae in total. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and some secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was mountain-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was mushroom-like in shape. The filiform papilla on the anterior part of the lingual body was large and cylinder-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a big conical papilla and many rod-like papillae. The filiform papilla on the central part of the lingual body was a big conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a rod process and bowl-like structure. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines.

  18. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyomatous lingual hamartoma. Differential diagnosis, especially for midline tongue mass and other paediatric tongue lesions are discussed. We also discuss the epidemiology, histopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of lingual hamartoma based on the literature review. PMID:27790477

  19. Ectopic lingual goiter treated by transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pellini, R; Mercante, G; Ruscito, P; Cristalli, G; Spriano, G

    2013-10-01

    Multinodular goiter in lingual thyroid is quite rare. Surgical removal is indicated in symptomatic patients and when cancer is suspected. An external approach is most often used, but is associated with morbidity and sequelae. In this study, we present for the first time the technique of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for removal of a massive lingual goiter. Prospective patient data were collected, including demographics, medical history, symptoms, comorbidities and drugs prescribed. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for a transoral approach to the oropharynx. The technique was validated in a 31-year-old woman with signs and symptoms of multinodular goiter presenting since childhood. The procedure required 115 min, with intervals as follows: tracheotomy, 25 min; robot setting time, 20 min; and console time, 70 min. TOR S is feasible in cases of multinodular goiter in a lingual thyroid. The procedure appears to be safe, with quick recovery of swallowing and speech. PMID:24227901

  20. A polarized light and scanning electron microscopic study of human fissure and lingual enamel of unerupted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, K; Holmen, L; Qvortrup, K

    1999-01-01

    Using histological and ultrastructural techniques the aims of this study were to investigate whether the mineralization pattern and surface microanatomy of the caries-susceptible fissure enamel were different from those on the caries-inactive lingual surface. The material consisted of 31 unerupted third mandibular molars. The specimens were initially grouped into four categories: (1) without, (2) with initial, (3) with almost completed and (4) with completed root formation. One ground section with fissure-like morphology was selected from each tooth. Using water as a medium the observed birefringence was negative along the lingual and fissure transverses in specimens with almost completed and with completed root formation, while the observed birefringence was positive at different distances in the enamel in sections representing less maturation stages. Qualitative imbibition studies revealed hypomineralized enamel in the lower part of the fissures in specimens representing almost and completed root formation. Imbibed in quinoline, parts of the hypomineralized enamel behaved like a molecular sieve due to the presence of micropores, indicating that the structural arrangement is different from that in the enamel adjacent to this areas. After division of the sections into a lingual and a buccal part, SEM features were described from lower and upper parts of the buccal fissure wall and on lingual enamel in the area corresponding to the bottom part of the fissure. The surface microanatomy varied greatly. Negative developmental irregularities such as fissures and holes were associated with the immature enamel, while matured enamel - particularly fissures - housed many positive developmental irregularities such as enamel caps and protrusions. The crystal size in the mature specimens appeared smaller and more uniform than the crystals from the immature specimens. Apart from the occurrence of hypomineralized enamel in fissures and numerous positive developmental

  1. Is the difference in the volume of the pharyngeal space, as measured by acoustic pharyngometry, before and after tonsillectomy proportional to the volume of the excised tonsils?

    PubMed Central

    Di Francesco, Renata C.; Kreibich, Mariana Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adenotonsillectomy is recognized as an effective therapy for snoring and sleep disorders in children. It is important to understand whether adenotonsillectomy significantly increases the volume of the pharyngeal space. The goal of this study was to evaluate the change in oropharyngeal volume after adenotonsillectomy and the correlation of this change with the objective volume of the tonsils and body mass index. METHODS: We included 27 subjects (14 males) with snoring caused by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. The mean age of the subjects was 7.92 (±2.52) years. Children with craniofacial malformations or neuromuscular diseases or syndromes were excluded. The parents/caregivers answered an adapted questionnaire regarding sleep-disordered breathing. All patients were subjected to weight and height measurements and body mass index was calculated. The subjects underwent pharyngometry before and after adenotonsillectomy and the volume of both excised tonsils together was measured in cm3 in the operating room. RESULTS: Pharyngometric analysis showed that the mean pharyngeal volume was 28.63 (±5.57) cm3 before surgery and 31.23 (±6.76) cm3 after surgery; the volume of the oropharynx was significantly increased post-surgery (p=0.015, Wilcoxon test). No correlation was found between the objective tonsil volume and the post-surgical volume increase (p=0.6885). There was a fair correlation between the oropharyngeal volume and body mass index (p=0.0224). CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy increases the volume of the pharyngeal space, but this increase does not correlate with the objective tonsil size. Furthermore, greater BMI was associated with a smaller increase in the pharyngeal volume. Oropharyngeal structures and craniofacial morphology may also play a role in the increase in oropharyngeal volume. PMID:27276399

  2. Morphology of the filiform lingual papillae in porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A

    2011-04-01

    The light and scanning electron microscopic structure of the filiform lingual papillae was studied in five adult porcupine (three males and two females). The tongue was characterised by a round tip, a rostral median sulcus and a deep lingual fossa which was situated just rostral to a prominent inter-molar eminence corresponding to a torus linguae. The filiform papillae were curved, enclosed a large connective tissue core and were separated by wide inter-papillary zones covered by a thick epithelium. Most filiform papillae had a cylindrical shape, but the rostral and central parts of the tongue contained a number of flat, comb-shaped papillae with rounded tips.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma linguale type strain (1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Lail, Kathleen; Sikorski, Johannes; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Detter, J. Chris; Schutze, Andrea; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Spirosoma linguale Migula 1894 is the type species of the genus. S. linguale is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, known for its peculiar ringlike and horseshoe-shaped cell morphology. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete ge-nome sequence and annotation. This is only the third completed genome sequence of a member of the family Cytophagaceae. The 8,491,258 bp long genome with its eight plas-mids, 7,069 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacte-ria and Archaea project.

  4. Variation in Lingual Nerve Course: A Human Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amery, Samah M.; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Naidu, Murali

    2016-01-01

    The lingual nerve is a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve. It is varied in its course and in its relationship to the mandibular alveolar crest, submandibular duct and also the related muscles in the floor of the mouth. This study aims to understand the course of the lingual nerve from the molar area until its insertion into the tongue muscle. This cadaveric research involved the study of 14 hemi-mandibles and consisted of two parts: (i) obtaining morphometrical measurements of the lingual nerve to three landmarks on the alveolar ridge, and (b) understanding non-metrical or morphological appearance of its terminal branches inserting in the ventral surface of the tongue. The mean distance between the fourteen lingual nerves and the alveolar ridge was 12.36 mm, and they were located 12.03 mm from the lower border of the mandible. These distances were varied when near the first molar (M1), second molar (M2) and third molar (M3). The lingual nerve coursed on the floor of the mouth for approximately 25.43 mm before it deviated toward the tongue anywhere between the mesial of M1 and distal of M2. Thirteen lingual nerves were found to loop around the submandibular duct for an average distance of 6.92 mm (95% CI: 5.24 to 8.60 mm). Their looping occurred anywhere between the M2 and M3. In 76.9% of the cases the loop started around the M3 region and the majority (69.2%) of these looping ended at between the first and second molars and at the lingual developmental groove of the second molar. It gave out as many as 4 branches at its terminal end at the ventral surface of the tongue, with the presence of 2 branches being the most common pattern. An awareness of the variations of the lingual nerve is important to prevent any untoward complications or nerve injury and it is hoped that these findings will be useful for planning of surgical procedures related to the alveolar crest, submandibular gland/ duct and surrounding areas. PMID:27662622

  5. Morphology of the filiform lingual papillae in porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A

    2011-04-01

    The light and scanning electron microscopic structure of the filiform lingual papillae was studied in five adult porcupine (three males and two females). The tongue was characterised by a round tip, a rostral median sulcus and a deep lingual fossa which was situated just rostral to a prominent inter-molar eminence corresponding to a torus linguae. The filiform papillae were curved, enclosed a large connective tissue core and were separated by wide inter-papillary zones covered by a thick epithelium. Most filiform papillae had a cylindrical shape, but the rostral and central parts of the tongue contained a number of flat, comb-shaped papillae with rounded tips. PMID:21105901

  6. Lingual Propulsive Pressures across Consistencies Generated by the Anteromedian and Posteromedian Tongue by Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Laura L.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Hageman, Carlin F.; LaPointe, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated lingual propulsive pressures generated in the normal swallow by the anterior and posterior lingual segments for various consistencies and maximum isometric tasks. Method: Lingual pressures for saliva, thin, and honey-thick liquid boluses were measured via the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument…

  7. Teratogenic effects of the interaction acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol: morphologic and morphometric evaluation of the lingual epithelium in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, S A; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; de Moraes Grisi, M F; Novaes, A B; de Souza, S L S; Taba, M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of the interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol on the epithelium of the lingual mucosa in rat fetuses. On the 10th pregnancy day, a single intraperitoneal ethanol dose (2.96 g/kg body weight) (Group I), ASA (200 mg/kg body weight) (Group II) and ASA plus ethanol, in the same doses (Group III), or saline (Group IV - control), were administrated. The epithelial alterations were assessed by means of histological and morphometric methods, on posterior dorsal, anterior dorsal and ventral regions of the tongue. ASA reduced, in rat fetuses, the ethanol deleterious effects on nuclear size in the epithelial prickle cell of the lingual mucosa. On the other hand, ASA did not influence the effects of ethanol in both epithelial layers of the lingual mucosa, when the nuclear shape, cell volume or epithelial layers thickness were evaluated.

  8. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  9. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  10. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  11. A subjective comparison of two lingual bracket systems.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Ehmer, Ulrike

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study was to compare the influence of two lingual bracket systems on subjective oral comfort, speech, mastication and oral hygiene. Forty-two native speakers of standard German (32 females, 10 males; mean age 27.1 years, standard deviation 12.2) were enrolled and completed a standardized questionnaire directly before insertion of lingual brackets (T0), within 24 hours of bond-up (T1) and 3 months (+/- 1 week) later (T2). Eighteen of the patients were treated with prefabricated brackets (Ormco, seventh generation) (PB group) and 24 with customized brackets (Incognito) (CB group). While no significant intergroup differences were recorded at any of the times with respect to tongue position, conversation pattern, swallowing or oral hygiene, the CB group experienced significantly fewer tongue space restrictions, speech disturbances and impairments in chewing and biting than the PB group at T1 and T2. At T2, pressure sores, reddening or lesions to the tongue were recorded significantly less often in the CB group than in the PB group. This enhanced patient comfort in the CB group was attributed to the smaller dimensions of the customized brackets. This aspect could play a role in attracting more patients to lingual orthodontics in the future. Information given to the patient on the duration and extent of the restrictions associated with lingual orthodontics must be differentiated according to the bracket system used. PMID:16043479

  12. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion. PMID:23502971

  13. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  14. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  15. Lingual nerve injury following use of a supraglottic airway device.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Andrew; Crosher, Richard; Mohammed-Ali, Ricardo; Parsons, Kirsty

    2014-03-01

    We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who lost sensation on the left side of her tongue after an orthopaedic procedure under general anaesthetic. It provides evidence that anaesthetic airway devices can injure the lingual nerve. PMID:24332877

  16. Class II correction with the Incognito lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito fully customized lingual appliance provides excellent torque control. This offers the potential for class II correction using inter-maxillary traction without the usual iatrogenic effects associated with their use. A case is presented showing the potential of these appliances in controlling torque and achieving full class II correction on a non-extraction basis.

  17. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

  18. A Case of Lingual Thyroid Presenting with Severe Hematemesis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sudke, Amol; Dey, Amit Kumar; Dhamanskar, Suchin; Kulkarni, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is a rare anomaly with symptoms such as upper airway obstruction, dysphagia, or hypothyroidism. However, bleeding is a very rare manifestation. This report describes a case of lingual thyroid in women with 28 weeks of amenorrhea and hematemesis, and its course of diagnosis and treatment. The pathogenesis of lingual thyroid is unknown. Although ectopic lingual thyroid is usually not managed surgically, excision of ectopic lingual thyroid can be lifesaving when it is causing bleeding or airway obstruction. However, during pregnancy, surgery is the preferred mode of treatment. PMID:27134565

  19. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with Fusobacterium necrophorum-positive acute tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, Ann Marlene Gram; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Ovesen, Therese; Klug, Tejs Ehlers

    2015-06-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum (FN) is the predominant pathogen in peritonsillar abscesses, which is a relatively frequent complication of acute tonsillitis. The study aimed to explore if FN is a significant pathogen in acute tonsillitis, examine the prevalence of FN in acute tonsillitis patients, and describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of FN-positive patients. A 6-month prospective study was conducted in a Danish general practice with eight physicians. One hundred acute tonsillitis patients and 100 healthy controls aged 15-40 years were included in the study. The prevalence of FN was (non-significantly) higher among acute tonsillitis patients (16 %) compared to healthy individuals (9 %) (P = 0.199). This trend was border significant for patients aged 15-29 years (24 vs 9 %) (P = 0.050). Significantly, more FN-positive patients were men (75 %) compared to patients growing other bacteria (17 %) or mixed oral flora (27 %) (P < 0.001). Centor scores, individual clinical symptoms, and infection markers were similar between patient growing FN and mixed oral flora. FN is possibly a significant and prevalent pathogen in acute tonsillitis among teenagers and young adults. Patients with FN-positive acute tonsillitis do not seem to be more clinically or biochemically affected than patients without growth of bacterial pathogens.

  20. Studies of Tonsils in Basic and Clinical Perspectives: From the Past to the Future.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Keiji; Ichimiya, Shingo; Kamekura, Ryuta; Nagaya, Tomonori; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Takano, Kenichi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The tonsils are located at the entrance of the pharynx as a cardinal constituent of Waldeyer's ring, taking part not only in local immune responses, but also in systemic immunity. Functional deficits of tonsils primarily underlie the pathogenesis of various characteristic disorders, including tonsillar focal infections such as palmoplantar pustulosis and IgA nephropathy, in addition to the highly prevalent sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unknown, the tonsils have long been postulated as a unique and enigmatic immune organ. Lymphoid cells and tissues from surgically resected tonsils are often employed to analyze the human immune response from a retrospective view. This approach has provided much new fundamental evidence for understanding innate and acquired immune responses, thereby facilitating further studies in the fields of mucosal immunity and specific humoral immunity originating in the germinal center. Future studies of the tonsils in basic and clinical research are expected to reveal the mechanisms of tonsil-related disorders as well as the nature of human immunity. In this review, which is primarily based on our original research over the past 3 decades, we summarize our findings and discuss the future prospects of studies focusing on the tonsils. PMID:27116026

  1. The microanatomy of the palatine tonsils of the buffalo (Bos bubalus).

    PubMed

    Zidan, Mohamed; Pabst, Reinhard

    2011-02-15

    The palatine tonsils play a key role in initiating immune responses against antigens entering the body through the mouth. They are also replication sites of some pathogens. There is no data available about the structure of the palatine tonsils of the Egyptian water buffalo. Therefore, palatine tonsils of 14 clinically healthy buffalo bulls (2-3 years old) were examined macroscopically and microscopically using light, and transmission electron microscopes. The tonsils had an elongated kidney shape with a central invagination (tonsillar fossa) containing a single macroscopic opening leading to a small central cavity (tonsillar sinus). A number of macroscopic crypts originated from this sinus (internal crypts). Besides the tonsillar fossa, also small macroscopic crypts (external crypts) were present. The tonsils were enclosed by a thin connective tissue capsule and septa divided the tonsils into incomplete lobes. Within these encapsulated organs mucous glands were very obvious. Each crypt was highly branched and lined with stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium. Several lymphoid cells infiltrated between the epithelial cells forming patches of lymphoepithelium. The crypt lumen contained lymphocytes, neutrophils and erythrocytes. Lymph nodules with clear germinal centers extended under the epithelial surface. Diffusely distributed lymphocytes were found in the narrow interfollicular region. High endothelial venules, interdigitating dendritic cells, macrophages and plasma cells were observed among the diffuse lymphocytes. Lymphatics filled with lymphocytes drained the tonsils.

  2. Synapsin I-like immunoreactivity in nerve fibers associated with lingual taste buds of the rat.

    PubMed

    Finger, T E; Womble, M; Kinnamon, J C; Ueda, T

    1990-02-01

    Immunoreactivity to synapsin I, a neuronal phosphoprotein, was localized in free-floating tissue sections prepared from lingual tissue of rats. Many nerve fibers within the tissue exhibited clear immunoreactivity including motor endplates on striated muscle, autonomic fibers innervating blood vessels or glands, and sensory fibers innervating muscles or the lingual epithelium including taste buds. Numerous immunoreactive fibers occurred within each taste bud, with fewer, fine fibers being dispersed in the epithelium between taste buds. The majority of the intragemmal immunoreactive fibers extended throughout the taste buds most of the distance outward from the basal lamina toward the surface of the epithelium. Fine, perigemmal fibers reached nearly to the epithelial surface. Ultrastructural analysis of the immunoreactive sensory fibers revealed that synapsin I-immunoreactivity occurred diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, and heavily in association with microvesicles. The synaptic vesicles at the taste receptor cell-to-afferent fiber synapse were, however, not immunoreactive for synapsin I, although these vesicles fall into the size class shown to be immunoreactive in other systems. This absence of synapsin I may be a common property of vesicles in axonless short receptor cells. PMID:2108194

  3. Do G protein-coupled receptors expressed in human lingual epithelium interact with HPV11?

    PubMed

    Durzyński, Lukasz; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Breuils, Laure; Szydłowski, Jaroslaw; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna; Haertlé, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses infect epithelia but little is known about the nature of cell surface receptors interacting with the viral particles. It has been proposed that glycosaminoglycans and integrins may be involved in the attachment process. In the present study, the putative interactions of virus-like particles of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11), which present a tropism for nasopharyngeal epithelia, with olfactory and taste receptors expressed in the human lingual epithelium were studied. The L1 protein of HPV11 was produced in insect cells. The presence of L1 virus-like particles was analyzed by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies specific for full-size particles and by electron microscopy. Using immunofluorescence, it was observed that virus-like particles interacted with taste buds from murine tongue, with the tagged human olfactory receptor hJCG5 expressed in HEK-293 but not with the tagged taste receptor hT2R4. This therefore suggests that hJCG5 may be involved in the adsorption process of HPV11 to lingual epithelium serving as a so-called "adsorption-adhesive molecule." PMID:17705193

  4. Expression of microRNAs in HPV negative tonsil cancers and their regulation of PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Samantha; Ahadi, Alireza; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tran, Nham

    2016-06-01

    Global rates of tonsil cancer have been increasing since the turn of the millennia, however we still have a limited understanding of the genes and pathways which control this disease. This array dataset which is linked to our publication (Zhang et al., 2015) describes the profiling of human miRNAs in tonsil and normal adjacent tissues. With this dataset, we identified a list of microRNA (miRNA) which were highly over represented in tonsil cancers and showed that several miRNAs were able to regulate the tumour suppressor PDCD4 in a temporal manner. The dataset has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE75630). PMID:27222808

  5. Lymphangiomatous Polyp of Palatine Tonsil in A Child Presenting with Dysphagia and Dysarthria

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Yasmeen; Gite, Vinod; Shoeb, Mohammed; Oraon, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Pedunculated lymphangiomatous polyps of the tonsil are rare benign lesions that have been described in literature using varied nomenclature. Majority of the cases have been reported in adults with varying clinical symptoms. We report a case of lymphangiomatous polyp of left palatine tonsil in a 14-year-old male child who presented with dysphagia and dysarthria. Clinical examination revealed a large pedunculated polyp arising from upper pole of left tonsil. Patient underwent left tonsillectomy with excision of the polyp. Based on histopathological features a diagnosis of pedunculated lymphangiomatous polyp was made. We discuss the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion with differential diagnosis and short review of literature. PMID:26155482

  6. The dorsal lingual epithelium of Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima incisa (Chelonia, Cryptodira).

    PubMed

    Josef Beisser, Christian; Lemell, Patrick; Weisgram, Josef

    2004-03-01

    This study employed light microscopic (LM), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods to provide detailed morphological information on the histological and ultrastructural features of the dorsal tongue epithelium of Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima incisa. SEM revealed columnar papillae laterally, as well as papillae, which tend to have a ridge-like appearance in the center of the tongue. LM and TEM showed three different zones of lingual epithelium: a stratified apical area with serous cells at the top of the papillae, a stratified lateral area with both serous and mucus cells, and an unstratified glandular area consisting of distinct glandular ducts with mucus cells. Comparison with morphological data from other turtles shows that the lingual epithelial structure in R. p. incisa is in accordance with that observed for other generalized omnivores which prefer a terrestrial lifestyle, thus matching the ecological information about this species.

  7. The structure and source of lingual proprioceptors in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M J; Sachithanandan, S R

    1979-01-01

    The proprioceptive innervation of the tounge has been investigated in the Cynamolgus monkey by silver impregnation methods following unilateral section of lingual, hypoglossal, and cervical nerves. Muscle spindles were constantly present in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. They varied greatly in number, averaged half the length of lumbrical spindles, and showed an unusual arrangement of chain fibre nuclei. Other, inconstant proprioceptors included tendon endings, Ruffini endings, Pacinian corpuscles, paciniform and lamellated endings. Topologically, the endings other than spindles were extra-muscular, so that the overall pattern of proprioceptive innervation resembled that of skeletal muscle in general. Lingual nerve section was without apparent effect on the proprioceptors. Section of the hypoglossal nerve at its point of entry into the tongue caused severe depletiion of ipsilateral proprioceptors and of fusimotor nerves. In the anterior tongue there was evidence of transmedian overlap by efferent and afferent axons contained in the hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal section at the skull base caused degeneration of fusimotor nerves but not of proprioceptors. Section of (a), the connexion of C2-C3 ventral rami with the hypoglossal, together with section of (b), the ramus descendens hypoglossi, coused depletion of lingual proprioceptors; again there was evidence of transmedian overlap. Procedures (a) or (b) alone had a lesser effect. It was concluded that lingual proprioceptive afferent fibres occupy the distal hypoglossal nerve, leaving it in the ramus descendens and in the C2-C3 connexion to enter the spinal cord via nerves C2 and C3. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 17 Figs. 18,20 Fig. 19 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 PMID:157344

  8. Interventions in the Alteration on Lingual Frenum: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla Poliseni; Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Gomes, Erissandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Altered lingual frenum modifies the normal tongue mobility, which may influence the stomatognathic functions, resulting in anatomical, physiological and social damage to the subject. It is necessary that health professionals are aware of the process of evaluation, diagnostics and treatment used today, guiding their intervention. Objective  To perform a systematic review of what are the treatment methods used in cases of lingual frenum alteration. Data Synthesis  The literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and IBECS, delimited by language (Portuguese, English, Spanish), date of publication (January 2000 to January 2014) and studies performed in humans. The selection order used to verify the eligibility of the studies were related to: full text availability; review the abstract; text analysis; final selection. Of the total 443 publications, 26 remained for analysis. The surgical approach was used in all studies, regardless of the study population (infants, children and adults), with a range of tools and techniques employed; speech therapy was recommended in the post surgical in 4 studies. Only 4 studies, all with infants, showed scientific evidence. Conclusion  Surgical intervention is effective for the remission of the limitations caused by the alteration on lingual frenum, but there is a deficit of studies with higher methodological quality. The benefits of speech therapy in the post surgical period are described from improvement in the language of mobility aspects and speech articulation. PMID:27413412

  9. Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the

  10. Isolated Kaposi Sarcoma of the Tonsil: A Case Report and Review of the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pittore, Barbara; Pelagatti, Carlo Loris; Deiana, Francesco; Ortu, Francesco; Maricosu, Elena; Cossu, Sergio; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a tumour caused by human herpes virus 8, also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus. It usually affects the skin and oral mucosa; however, it can also sometimes affect the lungs, the liver, the stomach, the bowel, and lymph nodes. Several body sites may be affected simultaneously. The involvement of the tonsils is rare. We described an isolated localization of Kaposi's sarcoma of the right tonsil in a HIV-positive patient. PMID:25755902

  11. [Necrotizing tonsillitis and renal vein thrombosis due to acute myeloid leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Akram, Javed; Josefsson, Pernilla; Rømeling, Frans

    2012-09-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with severe tonsillitis with unilateral necrotizing tonsillitis. She suddenly got fever, malaise, difficulties swallowing, pain in the throat and deterioration despite four days of penicillin treatment. During hospitalisation, she experienced abdominal pain, and blood tests showed pancytopenia. She was transferred to a haematological department, where a bone marrow biopsy showed acute myeloid leukaemia. Subsequently, an abdominal computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed bilateral renal vein thrombosis, probably because of coagulopathy due to leukaemia.

  12. [Topographic features of lingual nerve and its relationship with other anatomical structures in maxillolingual groove].

    PubMed

    Dyidyikin, S S; Syomkin, V A; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2016-01-01

    By surgical interventions in maxillolingual groove area one should consider anatomical variations and topography of vessels, glands ducts and lingual nerve to prevent their injury. At the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov we carried out anatomical study on cadavers (men and women, n=30).The study revealed topographical features of the lingual nerve and its relationship to other anatomical structures in the maxillolingual groove. It was found out that at the level of the second molar (96%) lingual nerve "crosses" duct of submandibular salivary gland, at the level of the third molar lingual nerve is located under the duct and lateral to it, closer to the inner surface of the body of the mandible. At the level of the first molar lingual nerve is located above and medial to Wharton duct and passes along sublingual-lingual muscles (m.hyoglossus).

  13. Lingual cyst lined by respiratory epithelium: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Manish; Boaz, Karen; Srikant, N; Nandita, K P; Vidya, M

    2011-01-01

    The present report describes a case of a lingual cyst lined by a respiratory epithelium occurring in a 1-year-old girl. The article also reviews the cases published in the literature under the heading of lingual cysts and segregates all the cases having predominant respiratory epithelium as the cystic lining. Reclassification, with more descriptive histologic terminology to name the lingual cysts, has been proposed.

  14. slan/M-DC8+ cells constitute a distinct subset of dendritic cells in human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Micheletti, Alessandra; Finotti, Giulia; Calzetti, Federica; Lonardi, Silvia; Zoratti, Elisa; Bugatti, Mattia; Stefini, Stefania; Vermi, William; Cassatella, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    Human blood dendritic cells (DCs) include three main distinct subsets, namely the CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs (mDCs) and the CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). More recently, a population of slan/M-DC8+ cells, also known as “slanDCs”, has been described in blood and detected even in inflamed secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues. Nevertheless, hallmarks of slan/M-DC8+ cells in tissues are poorly defined. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of the phenotype and function of slan/M-DC8+ cells present in human tonsils. We found that tonsil slan/M-DC8+ cells represent a unique DC cell population, distinct from their circulating counterpart and also from all other tonsil DC and monocyte/macrophage subsets. Phenotypically, slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsils display a CD11c+HLA-DR+CD14+CD11bdim/negCD16dim/negCX3CR1dim/neg marker repertoire, while functionally they exhibit an efficient antigen presentation capacity and a constitutive secretion of TNFα. Notably, such DC phenotype and functions are substantially reproduced by culturing blood slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsil-derived conditioned medium (TDCM), further supporting the hypothesis of a full DC-like differentiation program occurring within the tonsil microenvironment. Taken together, our data suggest that blood slan/M-DC8+ cells are immediate precursors of a previously unrecognizedcompetent DC subset in tonsils, and pave the way for further characterization of slan/M-DC8+ cells in other tissues. PMID:26695549

  15. Effect of dietary vanadium on cecal tonsil T cell subsets and IL-2 contents in broilers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuanxin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Wang, Kangping; Cui, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of dietary excess vanadium on intestinal immune function by histopathological observation of cecal tonsil and changes of the cecal tonsil T cell subsets by method of flow cytometry. Four hundred twenty 1-day-old avian broilers were divided into six groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same diet amended to contain 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg vanadium supplied as ammonium metavanadate. In comparison with those of control group, lymphocytes in the lymphatic nodule of cecal tonsil were apparently decreased in 45 and 60 mg/kg groups. The percentage of CD(3)(+) T cells was decreased (p < 0.05) in 45 mg/kg group at 28 and 42 days of age and significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in 60 mg/kg group at 28 and 42 days of age. The percentages of CD(3)(+)CD(4)(+) and CD(3)(+)CD(8)(+) T cells were markedly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in 60 mg/kg group from 14 to 28 days of age and were decreased (p < 0.05) in 45 mg/kg group at 28 and 42 days of age. However, changes of the CD(4)(+)/CD(8)(+) ratio were not significant. Meanwhile, the cecal tonsil interleukin-2 (IL-2) contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in 45 and 60 mg/kg groups from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary vanadium in excess of 30 mg/kg reduced the percentages of cecal tonsil T cells subsets and IL-2 contents, and caused cecal tonsil lesions, which impaired cecal tonsil function and impacted the local mucosal immune function of the intestines in broilers.

  16. Lingual thyroid in a young female: role of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Mahajan, Shivani; Rana, Prakash Jagdishchandra; Patel, Narottam Ambavibhai

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with dysphagia and a feeling of fullness in the throat. On examination a midline smooth, rubbery and reddish mass was seen at the base of the tongue, which moved with deglutination and protrusion of the tongue. A thyroid function test was within normal limits. On ultrasonography, absences of thyroid gland in its normal position with a smooth-contoured, round-shaped nodular mass at the tongue base with internal vascularity within. The mass was hyperdense and homogeneously enhancing on postcontrast. A clinical diagnosis of ectopic lingual was made based on the ultrasonography and CT scan features. PMID:25336556

  17. [Surgical treatment of short lingual frenulum in children].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum resulting in varying degrees of difficulty of tongue mobility. It may be asymptomatic or it may present with breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dentition disorders, and social problems related to the functional limitation of the tongue. While it is a common and known pathology, controversies and diversity of opinions persist regarding the indication, timing and method of surgical correction. We describe our experience with 35 children presenting this condition; they underwent successful surgical treatment.

  18. [Surgical treatment of short lingual frenulum in children].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum resulting in varying degrees of difficulty of tongue mobility. It may be asymptomatic or it may present with breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dentition disorders, and social problems related to the functional limitation of the tongue. While it is a common and known pathology, controversies and diversity of opinions persist regarding the indication, timing and method of surgical correction. We describe our experience with 35 children presenting this condition; they underwent successful surgical treatment. PMID:25362917

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of a case of lingual thyroid ectopia.

    PubMed

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Claroni, Giulia; Scarano, Angela Lia; Schillaci, Orazio; Floris, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid ectopia can occur when the process of thyroid embryogenesis fails. Here, we present the case of a 30-year-old woman with thyroid ectopia that was discovered during magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine for referred neck pain. Imaging revealed the presence of an encapsulated mass at the base of her tongue. The patient was not symptomatic for any compression of the airways. Diagnosis of ectopic lingual thyroid was confirmed by (99m)TC scintigraphy. Incidental diagnosis of thyroid ectopia in asymptomatic adult patients is rare, and it should be considered on diagnostic imaging in case of an anterior midline cervical mass. PMID:27594942

  20. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V; Mattes, Richard D

    2014-06-15

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were masticated by 15 healthy human subjects at the rate of one chew per second with and without lipase inhibitor orlistat. Salivary NEFA concentrations were measured. To determine the role of lingual lipase in oral fat detection, sensory ratings were obtained from the same 15 human subjects for almond butter with and without orlistat. Lingual lipase was active during oral processing of almond and coconut. No activity of lingual lipase was detected during processing of almond butter. There was only weak evidence lingual lipase is a determinant of oral fat detection. Lingual lipase may only contribute to NEFA generation and oral fat detection of fatty foods that require stronger oral processing effort. PMID:24694384

  1. The Mutual Symbiosis between Inclusive Bi-Lingual Education and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors postulate a mutual symbiosis between multicultural and inclusive bi-lingual education. Combining bi-lingual and multicultural education to create a symbiotic relationship can stimulate reform in schools and can promote inclusive educational systems, thereby keeping native languages and cultures alive for minority…

  2. Mandibular first molars with disto-lingual roots: review and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Abella, F; Patel, S; Durán-Sindreu, F; Mercadé, M; Roig, M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this review was (i) to conduct a literature review on the prevalence and morphologic classification of mandibular first molars with disto-lingual (DL) roots, and (ii) to discuss the clinical approach to diagnosis and root canal treatment of these teeth. A search was carried out on electronic (MEDLINE, PubMed and Cochrane) and hand databases, which covered all publications from 1970 to December 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies and recorded type of study, origin and sample sizes, number of teeth with three roots and type of root canal configuration. Forty-five studies were identified with a total of 19,056 mandibular first molar teeth. The frequency of DL roots was 14.4% and was associated with certain ethnic populations. The most common canal configuration of mesial and distal roots was Vertucci types IV and I, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of DL roots according to gender. Variable results related to side were observed as well as a trend in bilateral occurrence. The root length of the DL roots was in general shorter than that of the disto-buccal roots (DB). Most DL roots had a greater angle of curvature and a smaller radius of curvature in a bucco-lingual orientation. The best methods to identify DL roots are a 25° mesial parallax periapical radiograph or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A trapezoidal shape access cavity is desirable to locate the orifice of the DL canal. Clinicians should be aware of the variable furcation levels during coronal pre-flaring or post-space preparation to avoid furcal/strip perforations and a weakening of DL roots.

  3. [Histopathological and immunological analysis of hyperplastic palatine tonsils and adenoids in children with coexisting atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Marek; Grochowski, Paweł; Zawisza, Edward; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2003-01-01

    Allergic sensitisation of the airways occurs in the mucosa of the shock organ, or in the lymphatic stations draining these structures. The lymphatic structure closest to the nasal mucosa in humans is the adenoid and tonsils. Research done in respect to Waldeyer's ring on people dealing at the same time with allergy, is seldom the subject of dissertation in polish as well as world wide medical literature. In the enclosed dissertation, writers present the results of histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of hyperplastic tonsils and adenoid, taken from children with coexisting atopy. The authors describe an immunohistochemical analyses of the hyperplastic human palatine tonsil. They present the expression of antigen CD3, CD20, CD45, CD68, EMA, SMA, Vimentin, Desmin, S-100, von Willebrand Factor, p35, Bcl-2, melanin, cytokeratin, estrogen receptor, progesteron receptor, kolagen IV and NSE in every region of pallatine tonsil. It is worthwhile to remark, that many of these cases, the presence of eosinophilia and subepithelial oedema was observed. Our immunohistochemical findings support the hypothesis that allergic sensitization takes place in the adenoid and tonsils. Furthermore, this study confirms that dendritic cells ad macrophages are involved and important in allergic disease.

  4. Isolation of viable and functional T-cells from human palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Cynthia; Geißler, Katharina; Markwart, Robby; Schubert, Katja; Rubio, Ignacio; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Requardt, Robert Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Increasing clinical evidence indicates that removal of the palatine tonsils enhances the risk for adults to suffer from severe illnesses. Together with recent experimental findings pointing to the presence of immunologically competent immune cells these findings illustrate that adult palatine tonsils likely play an appreciable role in the host immune response. T-cells are abundant in the palatine tonsil and are a pivotal entity of the adaptive immune response. However, investigation of T-cells from tonsils has been widely neglected and largely restricted to immune phenotyping. Accordingly, methodological literature describing the experimental preparation and isolation of T-cells from tonsils is scarce and has rarely been complemented with rigorous tests of T-cell functionality. We report here on a comparative investigation of three isolation protocols composed of permutations of different tissue grinding approaches, density gradient centrifugation and automated magnetic collection of CD4/CD8 T-cells. Importantly we put a strong emphasis on assessing the impact of the preparative procedures on the functionality of T-cells at the level of viability and functional response to T-cell receptor (TCR) ligation. The reported, optimized preparation protocols allow for the rapid isolation of highly viable, functional T-cells within 2.5h and represent a useful, affordable approach for the analysis of tonsillar T-cells. PMID:26472683

  5. Dorsal Lingual Surface and Halitosis: a Morphological Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Giuseppe, Marzo; Adelaide, Continenza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective The interest in the study of the tongue papillary niches and the related biofilm has increased in recent years because they form a suitable source of periodontal microorganisms and are associated with development of halitosis. Tongue dorsum structure represents a factor favoring a particular and complex bacterial biofilm where periodontal pathogens are frequently found. The aim of this preliminary study was to associate the tongue papillary structure with the biofilm causing halitosis by means of a new clinical protocol. Material and Methods In this study, one subject affected by oral malodor was selected and included. A photograph of lingual dorsum was taken to spot the areas with visible lingual coating. A tongue dorsum impression was obtained, divided and cut with a blade in six parts, according to Winkel Tongue Coated Index by means of the 2-step double-mix impression technique. The contours of the six parts were observed by the stereomicroscope LEICA LED2000 and analyzed by ImageJ software. Results The results showed that the depth of papillae was associated with visible presence of the tongue biofilm and indirectly correlated with halitosis in patients.. Conclusions The morphological papillary structure of the tongue dorsal surface influences the presence of the tongue biofilm. The presented protocol can be further considered in clinical application for a correct diagnosis and a personalized treatment of halitosis. PMID:27789913

  6. Angiosarcoma: A Case Report of Gingival Disease with Both Palatine Tonsils Localization

    PubMed Central

    Chamberland, Frédéric; Maurina, Tristan; Degano-Valmary, Séverine; Spicarolen, Thierry; Chaigneau, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are one of the rarest subtypes of sarcomas; those are malignant vascular tumors arising from vascular endothelial cells. Occurrence of intra-oral angiosarcoma is extremely rare (0.0077% of all cancers in Europe). We present here, to our knowledge, the first case of a 83-year-old man with gingival and both palatine tonsils localization of a grade-two angiosarcoma discovered after a two months history of a painful lesion followed by hematoma and spontaneous bleeding. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and hemostatic radiotherapy were inefficient and he died seven months after the first symptoms. It is essential to use the vascular markers, such as CD34, CD31, ERG and FLI1, for a correct histological diagnosis, which remains difficult because it displays a wide range of morphological appearances and multiple patterns may be present in the same tumor. The main prognostic factors are chronic pre-existing lymphedema and tumor size greater than five centimeters. Malignancy grade and stage classification should be provided in all cases in which this is feasible because of predictive meaning. When possible, wide surgical resection with negative margins remains the cornerstone for the treatment of localized angiosarcomas, but despite the improvement of surgical techniques the prognosis is poor with more than half of patients died within the first year. Adjuvant radiotherapy is the standard treatment of high–grade (two and three), deep lesions, regardless of size, because it improved the local recurrence-free survival. For advanced disease, if possible, metastasectomy should be considered. The first-line chemotherapy with doxorubicin or paclitaxel should be discussed compared to best supportive care according to patient comorbidities and preference. PMID:27746875

  7. Peritonsillar abscess: risk of disease in the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J A; Godballe, C; Andersen, N H; Jørgensen, K

    1991-06-01

    The occurrence of disease in the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, was studied in 536 patients. No patient had a history of previous severe tonsillitis at the time of the unilateral tonsillectomy, 6.1 per cent of the patients were readmitted for surgery of the remaining tonsil during the follow-up period. Ninety-seven per cent of these patients were younger than 30 years of age. Previous investigations have shown increasing frequency by age of pharyngitis after bilateral tonsillectomy. We suggest bilateral tonsillectomy in all cases of patients younger than 30 years old who suffer from peritonsillar abscess irrespective of previous tonsillar disease. Patients older than 30 should be treated with unilateral ablation, unless there is a clear indication for bilateral tonsillectomy. PMID:2072012

  8. [Peritonsillar abscess. Occurrence of disease requiring surgery in the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Sørensen, J A; Andersen, N H; Jørgensen, K E

    1991-09-23

    The occurrence of disease requiring surgery of the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was studied in 536 patients. None of the patients histories of previous severe tonsillitis at the time of the unilateral had tonsillectomy. 9.3% of the patients under 30 years of age were readmitted for surgery on the remaining tonsil during the follow up period. Only 0.5% of the patients over 30 years were readmitted. Previous investigations have shown increasing frequency of pharyngitis after bilateral tonsillectomy. The present authors suggest bilateral tonsillectomy in all patients under 30 years of age who suffer from peritonsillar abscess irrespectively of previous tonsillar disease. In patients over 30 years, unilateral ablation is recommended unless clear indication for bilateral tonsillectomy are present. PMID:1949288

  9. [Microflora of the mucous membrane of human tonsils in the normal state and in pathology].

    PubMed

    Khusnutdinova, L M

    2006-01-01

    A total of 50 healthy persons and 50 chronic tonsillitis patients were examined with the use of the bacteriological method. The microflora of tonsillar mucous membrane was represented by 8 genera of facultative anaerobic microorganisms. In the biocenosis of the tonsillar mucosa of the healthy subjects the occurrence of Streptococcus was 1.5-fold greater than in that of the patients; microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed on the tonsillar mucosa of chronic tonsillitis patients 1.3-fold prevailed more often and Klebsiella and Neisseria prevailed 4-fold more often. Among the microorganisms isolated from the patients, cultures simultaneously having two or more pathogenicity markers occurred twice as often as among the representatives of the microbiocenosis obtained from the healthy subjects. The microflora of the tonsillar mucosa of the chronic tonsillitis patients was characterized by resistance to penicillins, macrolides and aminoglygosides, but was simultaneously sensitive to lincosamides and glycopeptides. PMID:16532644

  10. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-02-16

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  11. [State of the immune system in children with tonsillitis-induced lesions of the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Smiian, O I; Mozhova, Iu A; Bynda, T P; Sichnenko, P I; Romaniuk, O K; Slyva, V V

    2013-03-01

    Purpose of work was study the state of the immune system in children with non-inflammatory tonzillogenic lesions of the cardiovascular system. The article describes the main features of the immune status of children 6-18 years with chronic tonsillitis with lesions of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed the content of serum lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, T-helper cells, T-suppressor, null cells, B-cells, the concentration of immunoglobulin (Ig) A, G, M, immunoregulatory index. Found that children with chronic tonsillitis and tonzillogenic heart disease immune status changes were more significant in contrast to children with chronic tonsillitis without cardiac complications and manifested significant increase in T-suppressor cells, Ig M and decreased T-lymphocytes (P < 0.01).

  12. RAG1 and RAG2 expression by B cell subsets from human tonsil and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Girschick, H J; Grammer, A C; Nanki, T; Mayo, M; Lipsky, P E

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that B cells acquire the capacity for secondary V(D)J recombination during germinal center (GC) reactions. The nature of these B cells remains controversial. Subsets of tonsil and blood B cells and also individual B cells were examined for the expression of recombination-activating gene (RAG) mRNA. Semiquantitative analysis indicated that RAG1 mRNA was present in all tonsil B cell subsets, with the largest amount found in naive B cells. RAG2 mRNA was only found in tonsil naive B cells, centrocytes, and to a lesser extent in centroblasts. Neither RAG1 nor RAG2 mRNA was routinely found in normal peripheral blood B cells. In individual tonsil B cells, RAG1 and RAG2 mRNAs were found in 18% of naive B cells, 22% of GC founder cells, 0% of centroblasts, 13% of centrocytes, and 9% of memory B cells. Individual naive tonsil B cells containing both RAG1 and RAG2 mRNA were activated (CD69(+)). In normal peripheral blood approximately 5% of B cells expressed both RAG1 and RAG2. These cells were uniformly postswitch memory B cells as documented by the coexpression of IgG mRNA. These results indicate that coordinate RAG expression is not found in normal peripheral naive B cells but is up-regulated in naive B cells which are activated in the tonsil. With the exception of centroblasts, RAG1 and RAG2 expression can be found in all components of the GC, including postswitch memory B cells, some of which may circulate in the blood of normal subjects.

  13. Regimes of oscillation and reed vibrations in lingual organ pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Eric; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    We compare the sound generation in six lingual organ pipes including two trompette pipes, two oboes pipes, a krummhorn, and a rankett, the latter two of which were described in a previous paper [Cox and Rossing, paper 2aMU8, 142nd ASA meeting]. With the resonator attached, each pipe sounds in distinct regimes of oscillation, separated by discontinuities. The nominal frequencies of the pipes are generally slightly lower than the resonance frequency of the resonator but slightly higher than the natural frequency of the reed. The air mass loading of both the resonator and shallot lowers the reed frequency. Changing the blowing pressure has little effect on the sounding frequency but a modest effect on sound level.

  14. [Univariate analysis of influential parameters for lingual temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xie, Haiwei; Zhu, Kai

    2010-12-01

    The parameters which can influence heat transfer of tongue were analyzed in order to reveal the reason why the tongue temperature fields of people with different diseases are distinct. Firstly, the research parameters were determined by experiment results, including the reference humidity of tongue surface, metabolic heat of tongue tissue, the entrance position of root vessel, the diameter of root vessel, the blood flow rate, and the bifurcation exponent of vascular tree. Then the effect of each parameter on the value and the distributing rule of tongue temperature field was analyzed by using a mathematic model of lingual temperature field. Results show that all these parameters have effects on the temperature value of tongue. The reference humidity of tongue surface, the metabolic heat of tongue tissue and the entrance position of root vessel are distinct influences on the distributing rule of tongue temperature. PMID:21374967

  15. Evaluation of location and dimensions of mandibular lingual canals: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-M; Ju, Y-R; Pan, W-L; Chan, C-P

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the presence, location, and diameter of the mandibular lingual canals in a Taiwanese population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), to help improve the safety of mandibular surgical procedures. A total of 101 patients (46 men and 55 women), with a mean age of 55 years, were enrolled. Cross-sectional CBCT images of the mandible were used to define the orifice and diameter of each lingual canal detected. The relevance of all data for both sexes was assessed and analyzed statistically using non-paired t-tests. The canals were categorized as median (MLC) and lateral lingual canals (LLC) based on the position of the mandible. The midline of the symphysis showed the highest frequency of lingual canals (97.0%), and all patients exhibited at least one lingual perforating bone canal in the mandible. The lingual canal diameter ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 mm (mean 0.61 mm) in the midline region and from 0.25 to 1.60mm (mean 0.58 mm) in the lateral region. Significant differences in diameter were observed between the sexes in the MLC and LLC groups (men>women). The results suggest that mandibular lingual vascular canals are common and detected regularly using CBCT. PMID:25890920

  16. Airway obstruction after lingual frenulectomy in two infants with Pierre-Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Skinner, Margaret L; Bailey, Patti J; Capone, Randolph B; Byrne, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS) is defined as the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and affects approximately 1/8500 births. Airway obstruction is common in infants with PRS and results from glossoptosis leading to pharyngeal obstruction. Any procedure that increases the severity of glossoptosis, such as lingual frenulectomy, may increase the risk of obstruction or aggravate existing obstruction. This report discusses two cases of significant airway decompensation after lingual frenulectomy requiring surgical intervention in infants with PRS. We suggest that lingual frenulectomy be contraindicated in infants with PRS or suspected PRS due to the possible increased risk of airway obstruction.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LR

  18. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  19. Marek’s disease virus induces transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...

  20. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  1. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman J; Valdez, Tulio A; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky's classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations.

  2. Active replication of HIV-1 at the lymphoepithelial surface of the tonsil.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, S. S.; Tenner-Racz, K.; Racz, P.; Wenig, B. M.; Hansen, C. H.; Heffner, D.; Nelson, A. M.; Pope, M.; Steinman, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Cells that are infected with HIV-1 were visualized at the mucosal surface of the nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils in 14 specimens from patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of 200 to 900/microliter and 2- to 10-year histories of HIV-1 infection. Most of the cells with intracellular HIV-1 protein were small but multinucleated. The majority of these syncytia could be double labeled for HIV-1 RNA and a dendritic cell marker S100. In the palatine tonsil, the infected cells were not found in the stratified squamous epithelium that is adjacent to the pharynx. Instead, the S100+ infected syncytia were localized to the surface of tonsil invaginations or crypts. This mucosa, termed lymphoepithelium, contains antigen-transporting M cells that lie above regions where S100+ dendritic cells are juxtaposed with CD4+ lymphocytes. Likewise, infected cells were found in lymphoepithelium and not respiratory epithelium of nasopharyngeal tonsils or adenoids. We propose that lymphoepithelia, the histological term that describes the specialized regions where antigens access mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are sites where HIV-1 replication can be enhanced in syncytia derived from dendritic cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9212735

  3. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anshuman J.; Valdez, Tulio A.; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky’s classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations. PMID:27446667

  4. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman J; Valdez, Tulio A; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky's classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations. PMID:27446667

  5. Deep brush-based cytology in tonsils resected for benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia; Combes, Jean-Damien; Dalstein, Véronique; Caudroy, Stéphanie; Clifford, Gary; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Clavel, Christine; Lacau St Guily, Jean; Birembaut, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    A fraction of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), especially in the tonsil, is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), mainly HPV16. Noninvasive diagnostic methods to detect precancerous lesions in the tonsil would be useful, e.g., liquid-based cytology (LBC). However, ill-characterized precancerous lesions may be hidden in the depth of the tonsillar crypts. We therefore conducted a study on HPV and tonsillar precancerous lesions to evaluate, among other things, the utility of LBC obtained by deep brushing of the resected tonsils. Two hundred non-paediatric patients (mean age: 30.3 years) who underwent tonsillectomy for infection-related conditions (69%) or other conditions (mainly obstructive sleep apnoea, 31%) were included. An ultra-sensitive Luminex bead-based platform was used to test for the DNA of 21 mucosal HPV types; 56% of slides were unsatisfactory due to low number of squamous epithelial cells or the masking effect of a large number of lymphocytes. Three patients (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.5-4.3) showed suspicious cytological findings (atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, ASC-H) while 3 others were HPV-positive (2 for HPV16 and 1 for HPV39). None of the ASC-H patients and HPV-positive patients showed dysplasia at histological examination. The rarity of HPV infection in the tonsil conflicts with the relatively frequent detection of the virus in the mouth. In conclusion, aggressive deep brushing of tonsils, while hardly applicable in vivo, is unlikely to be a reliable method to detect precancerous lesions. The absence of OPC screening modalities places the priority on multi-purpose primary prevention strategies, i.e., HPV vaccination and reduction of smoking and drinking.

  6. A Posterior Lingual Sulcoplasty in Implant Therapy: A Case History Report.

    PubMed

    Perri de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio; Janjacomo, Luiz Antonio; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This case history report describes the deepening of a patient's posterior mandibular lingual sulcus in combination with an acrylic resin guiding device fixed to an osseointegrated dental implant to maintain the patency of the new sulcular depth. PMID:26929959

  7. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox. PMID:25274405

  8. Lingual nerve injury after third molar removal: Unilateral atrophy of fungiform papillae

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablo-Garcia-Cuenca, Alba; Bescós-Atín, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain and sensory changes due to lingual nerve injury are one of the most common alterations that follow surgical removal of third molar. They are usually transient but other less common complications, such as the atrophy of fungiform papillae, have an uncertain prognosis. Case Description: We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented a unilateral lingual atrophy of fungiform papillae after third molar extraction accompanied by severe dysesthesia that altered her daily life significantly during the following months and how this complication evolved over time. We conducted a literature review on the different factors that can lead to a lingual nerve injury. Clinical Implications: The clinical evolution of temporary and permanent somatosensitve injuries is an important fact to take into consideration during the postoperative management because it will indicate the lesion prognosis. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar removal, somatosensitive alteration, papillae atrophy, permanent injury, temporary injury. PMID:24790723

  9. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox.

  10. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum.

  11. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  12. A comparative assessment of forces and moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal forces and moments generated in the sagittal plane. Incognito™ lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb™ lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded on three identical maxillary acrylic resin models, with a palatally displaced right lateral incisor. The transfer trays for the indirect bonding of the lingual brackets were constructed in certified laboratories. Each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system and ten 0.013 inch CuNiTi wires were used for each bracket type. The wire was ligated with elastomerics and each measurement was repeated once after re-ligation. The labiopalatal forces and the moments in the sagittal plane were recorded on the right lateral incisor. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe pairwise comparisons were used to assess the effect on bracket type on the generated forces and moments. The magnitude of forces ranged from 1.62, 1.27, and 1.81 N for the STb, conventional, and Incognito brackets, respectively; the corresponding moments were 2.01, 1.45, and 2.19 N mm, respectively. Bracket type was a significant predictor of the generated forces (P < 0.001) and moments (P < 0.001). The produced forces were different among all three bracket types, whereas the generated moments differed between conventional and lingual brackets but not between lingual brackets.

  13. New classification of lingual arch form in normal occlusion using three dimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were 1) to classify lingual dental arch form types based on the lingual bracket points and 2) to provide a new lingual arch form template based on this classification for clinical application through the analysis of three-dimensional virtual models of normal occlusion sample. Methods Maxillary and mandibular casts of 115 young adults with normal occlusion were scanned in their occluded positions and lingual bracket points were digitized on the virtual models by using Rapidform 2006 software. Sixty-eight cases (dataset 1) were used in K-means cluster analysis to classify arch forms with intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar widths and width/depth ratios as determinants. The best-fit curves of the mean arch forms were generated. The remaining cases (dataset 2) were mapped into the obtained clusters and a multivariate test was performed to assess the differences between the clusters. Results Four-cluster classification demonstrated maximum intercluster distance. Wide, narrow, tapering, and ovoid types were described according to the intercanine and intermolar widths and their best-fit curves were depicted. No significant differences in arch depths existed among the clusters. Strong to moderate correlations were found between maxillary and mandibular arch widths. Conclusions Lingual arch forms have been classified into 4 types based on their anterior and posterior dimensions. A template of the 4 arch forms has been depicted. Three-dimensional analysis of the lingual bracket points provides more accurate identification of arch form and, consequently, archwire selection. PMID:25798413

  14. Positional targets for lingual consonants defined using electromagnetic articulography.

    PubMed

    Yunusova, Yana; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S; Rudy, Krista; Baljko, Melanie; Daskalogiannakis, John

    2012-08-01

    The study examined the positional targets for lingual consonants defined using a point-parameterized approach with Wave (NDI, Waterloo, ON, Canada). The overall goal was to determine which consonants had unique tongue positions with respect to other consonants. Nineteen talkers repeated vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) syllables that included consonants /t, d, s, z, , k, g/ in symmetrical vowel contexts /i, u, a/, embedded in a carrier phrase. Target regions for each consonant, characterized in terms of x,y,z tongue positions at the point of maximum tongue elevation, were extracted. Distances and overlaps were computed between all consonant pairs and compared to the distances and overlaps of their contextual targets. Cognates and postalveolar homorganics were found to share the location of their target regions. On average, alveolar stops showed distinctively different target regions than alveolar fricatives, which in turn showed different target region locations than the postalveolar consonants. Across talker variability in target locations was partially explained by differences in habitual speaking rate and hard palate characteristics.

  15. Reed vibration in lingual organ pipes without the resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, András; Angster, Judit; Pitsch, Stephan; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-02-01

    Vibrations of plucked and blown reeds of lingual organ pipes without the resonators have been investigated. Three rather surprising phenomena are observed: the frequency of the reed plucked by hand is shifted upwards for large-amplitude plucking, the blown frequency is significantly higher than the plucked one, and peaks halfway between the harmonics of the fundamental frequency appear in the spectrum of the reed velocity. The dependence of the plucked frequency on the length of the reed reveals that the vibrating length at small vibrations is 3 mm shorter than the apparent free length. The frequency shift for large-amplitude plucking is explained by the periodic change of the vibrating length during the oscillation. Reed vibrations of the blown pipe can be described by a physical model based on the assumption of air flow between the reed and the shallot. Aerodynamic effects may generate and sustain the oscillation of the reed without acoustic feedback. The appearance of subharmonics is explained by taking into account the periodic modulation of the stress in the reed material by the sound field. Therefore, a parametric instability appears in the differential equation of vibration, leading to the appearance of subharmonics.

  16. Control of closure/constriction duration in lingual consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2003-10-01

    This study examines tongue movements in the production of lingual consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction is varied for linguistic purposes. Earlier work has shown that the tongue continues to move during the closure/constriction. The magnitude of the movement path during the closure/constriction is influenced by the vowel environment. Since the tongue has to stay in contact with the hard palate to maintain the closure/constriction, one might expect that the movement during the closure will be about the same for short and long consonants. To maintain the contact, a speaker would thus have to make a slower movement for the long consonants. Tongue and jaw movements were recorded in native Japanese speakers using a magnetometer system. Preliminary results for three speakers show that the closure/constriction duration for the long consonants was usually more than twice as long as that for the short consonants. The results also show a slightly longer movement path during the closure/constriction for the long consonants. As expected, the average speed of the tongue movement during the closure/constriction was systematically slower for the long consonants. In addition there was a positive correlation between closure/constriction duration and the path during the closure/constriction. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-01

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  18. Use of CO2 laser in lingual and labial frenectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotti, Renata C.; Bellini, Bruno S.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.; Nicola, Ester M. D.

    2000-03-01

    Ankiloglossia or frenum lingual alteration leads to important tongue dysfunction, which, besides discomfort and pain during function, is generally responsible for the difficulty to express specific phonemes. In other cases, a heavy muscular abnormal attachment of labial frenum can promote clinical changes. In such case, an eventual orthodontic therapy is indicated and aesthetic alteration is observed. In both cases, surgical removal is indicated. The surgery, for prevention purposes, must be done as soon as possible, but considering that the majority of patients are young (5 - 14 years old), difficulties during surgery are expected to occur. Correction of speech or orthodontic dysfunction in advanced ages is much more complex and difficult than in childhood. In the present work we demonstrate that the use of CO2 lasers in these cases are advantageous and simple. The laser energy causes the tissue of the frenum to open in the classic shape with no bleeding and no need for suture, reducing the risk of cross- contamination and of postoperative infection. Scarring and other complications are also minimized. A CO2 laser (continuous, 8 W, 10.6 micrometers) was used assisted with local anesthesia. The major advantage of laser is the possibility of its application in early ages, preventing further problems.

  19. Moving towards a new era in the research of tonsils and mucosal barriers.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The palatine and nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) are lymphoepithelial tissues located in strategic anatomical areas of the oral pharynx and nasopharynx. These immunocompetent tissues represent the first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign proteins such as bacteria, viruses, or food antigens. Accompanying the advances being made in the field of medicine today, the role of the tonsils in immunocompetence is becoming extremely important. Upper respiratory tract infections such as acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis and acute pharyngo-tonsillitis are diseases that occur with extremely high frequency, and the antimicrobial agents used to treat these diseases account for a large proportion of health care costs. The increasingly refractory nature of upper respiratory tract infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria has become a major worldwide concern. The elucidation of the immune functions of the tonsils and mucosal membranes of the upper respiratory tract is considered to have important significance. The tonsils are also considered to play an important role as one of the causes of sleep apnea syndrome, and have been reported to be intimately involved in the manifestation of IgA nephropathy and palmoplantar pustulosis, a kind of skin disorder. Interest has continued to grow in this symposium with each session ever since it was first held in Kyoto, Japan in 1987. Since then, the symposium has been held every 3-4 years; in Pavia in 1991, in Sapporo in 1995, in Ghent in 1999, in Wakayama in 2003, and in Siena in 2006. Since the 5th symposium in Wakayama, the topics were extended to mucosal barriers of upper airways including the mucosal immune system, innate immunity, and mucosal vaccine. Recent fine technologies and information on molecular biological approaches for upper airways will continue to advance our understanding of epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of tonsil-related disorders and various upper respiratory

  20. A telefluoroscopic study of lingual contacts made by persons with palatal defects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C W; Philips, B J

    1975-01-01

    Telefluoroscopic tapes were viewed to obtain evaluations of lingual contacts during the production of six consonant sounds by 69 subjects who had a history of cleft palate or velopharyngeal inadequacy. Using phonetic textbook descriptions of normal lingual contacts as standards, these observed contacts were judged to be either normal or deviant in placement, and direction of deviation was noted. Clinical records of subjects afforded medical and surgical histories as well as evaluations of the subjects' intelligibility, nasal resonance and nasal emission at the time of the taping. Evaluations of velopharyngeal adequacy made from these tapes were also available. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that some but not all speakers who have a history of palatal problems use deviant lingual contacts to produce consonant sounds. The use of deviant lingual contacts does not appear to be related to the type of palatal problem, but is significantly related to the adequacy of the velopharyngeal mechanism for speech. Those with adequate mechanisms show the least use of deviant lingual contacts, subjects with borderline adequacy show a greater use, and those with inadequate closure show the greatest use of deviant contacts. There is a significant relationship between the use of deviant lingual contacts and the presence of abnormal intelligibility and abnormal nasal resonance. The tendency toward the use of deviant lingual contacts by those with velopharyngeal insufficiency suggests that these are compensations for the inadequate valving. These compensations may increase both the intelligibility and nasal resonance problems caused by the inadequate valving. Subjects who achieved adequacy of velopharyngeal mechanism for speech before the age of mastery of consonant sounds showed significantly less tendency to use deviant contacts than those who never attained adequacy. This was reflected in intelligible speech and less tendency toward abnormal nasal resonance. It

  1. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores CTCs, after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and foliate papillae) of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Following unique features were found; typical vallate papillae with a circumferential furrow were not observable. Instead, numerous large fungiform papillae were rather densely distributed on the posterior of the lingual prominence. Taste buds were observable only on the dorsal epithelium. Serous lingual gland was not seen in the lamina propria; however, mucous-rich mixed lingual glands were found and in a few of orifices were seen on the large fungiform tops. Lingual prominence was diminished their width. Rather long and slender conical papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence and were similar to nonruminant herbivore, that is donkey. Beside this narrow lingual prominence, lateral slopes were situated with numerous short spine-like protrusions. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs of lateral slopes exhibited attenuated flower bud structures. Large-conical papillae were situated on the root of the tongue. These large conical papillae were not seen among ruminants and seen on the lingual root of omnivores and carnivores. It implies that lingual structure of common hippopotamus possessed mixed characteristics between Perissodactyls, Ruminantia, and nonherbivores such as Suiformes because of their unique evolutionally taxonomic position. Moreover, adaptation for soft grass diet and associating easier mastication may be also affecting these mixed morphological features of the tongue.

  2. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores CTCs, after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and foliate papillae) of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Following unique features were found; typical vallate papillae with a circumferential furrow were not observable. Instead, numerous large fungiform papillae were rather densely distributed on the posterior of the lingual prominence. Taste buds were observable only on the dorsal epithelium. Serous lingual gland was not seen in the lamina propria; however, mucous-rich mixed lingual glands were found and in a few of orifices were seen on the large fungiform tops. Lingual prominence was diminished their width. Rather long and slender conical papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence and were similar to nonruminant herbivore, that is donkey. Beside this narrow lingual prominence, lateral slopes were situated with numerous short spine-like protrusions. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs of lateral slopes exhibited attenuated flower bud structures. Large-conical papillae were situated on the root of the tongue. These large conical papillae were not seen among ruminants and seen on the lingual root of omnivores and carnivores. It implies that lingual structure of common hippopotamus possessed mixed characteristics between Perissodactyls, Ruminantia, and nonherbivores such as Suiformes because of their unique evolutionally taxonomic position. Moreover, adaptation for soft grass diet and associating easier mastication may be also affecting these mixed morphological features of the tongue. PMID:19548302

  3. Urgent decisions and a tight spot: embolic infarction of a herniated cerebellar tonsil.

    PubMed

    Mc Donagh, Ruth; Bradley, David; Harbison, Joseph Augustine

    2016-01-01

    A previously well 30-year-old woman presented at 17:30 with a sudden onset of dizziness, ataxia and headache. She was initially investigated with a CT scan of the brain and lumbar puncture, which yielded no diagnosis. Subsequent MR scan revealed multiple posterior circulation infarcts, along with a previously undiagnosed Arnold-Chiari 2 malformation with an associated syrinx of her cervical and thoracic spine. The infarct involved one of the herniated cerebellar tonsils. Oedema of an infarct in the herniated tonsils caused compression of the medulla at the foramen magnum, with associated neurological symptoms including Lhermitte's phenomenon and headache on valsalva manoeuvre. Owing to these symptoms a surgical decompression was performed. The most likely aetiology of her stroke was determined to be a paradoxical embolus via patent foramen ovale. PMID:27489065

  4. [Otitis media and tonsillitis--2 of the most frequent pediatric diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Berner, R

    1998-01-01

    Acute otitis media and tonsillopharyngitis are two of the most common diseases in pediatric clinical practice. Careful examination of the ears and the tonsils are mandatory in the evaluation of a febrile child. Acute otitis media usually can be diagnosed by a carefully taken history and examination alone. The infection usually requires antibiotic treatment, with amoxicillin being still recommended as the first choice drug. Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are more variable in their origin, the majority of cases is caused by different viruses. However, clinical examination alone is not specific enough to rule out the most important bacterial pathogen, group A streptococcus, which still has to be treated by penicillins. Thus, rapid test methods and classic bacteriological culture are used to assess group A streptococcus infections. Infectious mononucleosis and diphtheria are the most important diseases to be considered carefully in each patient.

  5. Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Stucken, Chaz L; Morris, Luc G T; Posner, Marshall R; Genden, Eric M; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  6. Reduced Impact of Nodal Metastases as a Prognostic Factor for Tonsil Cancer in the HPV Era

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Stucken, Chaz L.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Posner, Marshall R.; Genden, Eric M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Methods Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 was obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988–1997 the pre-HPV cohort (N=752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N=2,755). Results Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0% to 74.3% (p<0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9% (p<0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7%, p<0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9%, P<0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9%, p<0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9%, p<0.0001). Conclusion While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  7. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates.

  8. The effect of hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils on the development of posterior crossbite and oral habits.

    PubMed

    Oulis, C J; Vadiakas, G P; Ekonomides, J; Dratsa, J

    1994-01-01

    There are a number of studies in the literature, that associate nasopharyngeal airway obstruction, as a result of adenoid enlargement, to the development of skeletal and dental abnormalities. However, the etiologic role of hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils in developing an aberrant dentofacial growth is not clear, yet. The present investigation attempted to study the incidence of maxillary posterior crossbite and oral habits, in a sample of 120 children, that displayed hypertrophied adenoids with or without enlarged tonsils, and underwent adenoidectomy. An attempt was also made to relate the presence of crossbite to the severity of upper respiratory airway obstruction. The severity of airway obstruction was assessed using radiographic and surgical criteria. A lateral cephalometric radiograph was obtained and studied for each patient. Results indicated, that 47% of the children examined, had developed a posterior crossbite. The presence of crossbite was high in children with severe airway obstruction, particularly in those with hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils. On the contrary, most of the children with a posterior crossbite did not have a history of pacifier or finger sucking. It was also concluded, that the study of a lateral cephalometric radiograph can be a valuable diagnostic method in the evaluation of children with upper airway obstruction.

  9. The Metabolically Active Bacterial Microbiome of Tonsils and Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976

  10. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  11. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT. PMID:27752250

  12. Lingual and fusiform gyri in visual processing: a clinico-pathologic study of superior altitudinal hemianopia.

    PubMed Central

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Deruaz, J P; Assal, G; Regli, F

    1987-01-01

    A macular-sparing superior altitudinal hemianopia with no visuo-psychic disturbance, except impaired visual learning, was associated with bilateral ischaemic necrosis of the lingual gyrus and only partial involvement of the fusiform gyrus on the left side. It is suggested that bilateral destruction of the lingual gyrus alone is not sufficient to affect complex visual processing. The fusiform gyrus probably has a critical role in colour integration, visuo-spatial processing, facial recognition and corresponding visual imagery. Involvement of the occipitotemporal projection system deep to the lingual gyri probably explained visual memory dysfunction, by a visuo-limbic disconnection. Impaired verbal memory may have been due to posterior involvement of the parahippocampal gyrus and underlying white matter, which may have disconnected the intact speech areas from the left medial temporal structures. Images PMID:3585386

  13. Microleakage in facial and lingual Class 5 composite restorations: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; McDonald, N J; Thompson, V P; Blank, L W; Shires, P J

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine if there is a difference in microleakage between facial and lingual enamel and cementum using two different evaluation techniques. Class 5 preparations were made in 50 teeth on the facial and lingual tooth surfaces and restored using dentin bonding and composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled, silver nitrate stained, and longitudinally sectioned into mesial and distal halves through each restoration. The mesial half was scored using a rank order system. A Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was performed. The distal half was scored by measurement, and a two-sample t-test was performed. There were no statistically significant differences (P > or = 0.05) in microleakage between facial and lingual tooth enamel or cementum surfaces using either measurement technique. PMID:9028232

  14. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  15. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The objective method showed a significant difference to be present between the two groups for the/s/sound in the middle position (P < 0.001) at T3. The semiobjective assessment showed worst speech performance in the lingual group to be present at T3 for vowels and blends (P < 0.01) and at T3 and T4 for alveolar and palatal consonants (P < 0.01). The subjective assessment also showed a significant difference between the two groups at T3 (P < 0.01) and T4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  16. Coincidence of congenital infiltrative facial lipoma and lingual myxoma in a newborn Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Hobbenaghi, R; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Nazarizadeh, A

    2015-01-01

    A one-day-old male Holstein calf was presented with a palpable subcutaneous mass, extending from the parotid to the orbital region, involving the entire right side of the face and a large flabby mass without any evidence of inflammation or edema on the tongue. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the lingual mass appeared slightly lobulated, pink, with a mucoid appearance and gelatinous consistency. Histopathological examination confirmed the infiltrative subcutaneous lipoma and lingual myxoma evidenced by low cellularity and abundant basophilic, mucinous stroma. In this report, clinical and detailed histhopathological findings of congenital infiltrative myxoma and its coincidence with infiltrative facial lipoma is reported in a newborn calf.

  17. Coincidence of congenital infiltrative facial lipoma and lingual myxoma in a newborn Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Hobbenaghi, R; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Nazarizadeh, A

    2015-01-01

    A one-day-old male Holstein calf was presented with a palpable subcutaneous mass, extending from the parotid to the orbital region, involving the entire right side of the face and a large flabby mass without any evidence of inflammation or edema on the tongue. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the lingual mass appeared slightly lobulated, pink, with a mucoid appearance and gelatinous consistency. Histopathological examination confirmed the infiltrative subcutaneous lipoma and lingual myxoma evidenced by low cellularity and abundant basophilic, mucinous stroma. In this report, clinical and detailed histhopathological findings of congenital infiltrative myxoma and its coincidence with infiltrative facial lipoma is reported in a newborn calf. PMID:27175195

  18. [A Case of Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of HPV-positive Tonsil Cancer, Being Discriminated as the Branchiogenic Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kambara, Rumi; Tamai, Masamitsu; Horii, Arata

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas have been increasing. The first manifestation of these tumors is frequently as cystic metastasis to cervical lymph nodes that may precede recognition of the primary tumor, so, they often result in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts. We report a case of cystic cervical lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. The patient was a 70-years-old man who noticed a mass on his left neck. The tumor was large and soft, and it was diagnosed as benign in fine-needle aspiration cytology. We diagnosed the tumor as a branchial cleft cyst and undertook surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma arising from a branchiogenic cyst. However, because it did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria, we diagnosed the tumor as an unknown primary tumor. One year later, left tonsil cancer was suspected based on PET-CT imaging and a left tonsillectomy was undertaken, whereafter tonsil cancer was found. In p16 immunostaining, it was positive in both cystic mass and tonsil. The cervical mass was cystic lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. It is important to investigate the oropharynx, when we found cystic cervical mass, because HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma frequently results in cystic neck metastasis.

  19. Higher maturity and connective tissue association distinguish resident from recently generated human tonsil plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Medina, Francisco; Segundo, Carmen; Jiménez-Gómez, Gema; González-García, Inés; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Brieva, José A

    2007-12-01

    Human plasma cells (PC) are present in cell suspensions obtained from the tonsil by mechanical disaggregation (PC(MECH)). The present study shows that a collagenase treatment of tonsillar debris remaining after mechanical disaggregation yielded similar proportions of PC (PC(COLL)). Moreover, PC(MECH) were present in suspensions highly enriched in germinal center cells whereas PC(COLL) contained most of the IgA-secreting cells, suggesting their predominant location in follicular and parafollicular areas and connective tissue-rich zones such as tonsil subepithelium, respectively. Tonsil PC(MECH) and PC(COLL) shared the phenotype CD38(high) CD19(+) CD20(low) CD45(high), expressed equivalent amounts of PRDI BF1/Blimp-1 transcription factor, and carried similarly mutated IgVH6 genes. However, they differed in several features. 1) PC(MECH) still expressed the early B cell transcription factor BSAP and were HLA-DR(high); in contrast, PC(COLL) were BSAP(-)and HLA-DR(low). 2) PC(MECH) were CD95(+) and Bcl-2(+/-) whereas PC(COLL) showed CD95(+/-) and Bcl-2(+) expression; in addition, PC(MECH) exhibited increased spontaneous apoptosis. 3) The two PC subsets exhibited distinctive adhesion molecule profiles, since PC(COLL) expressed higher levels of CD31, CD44, and CD49d, but a lower level of CD11a than PC(MECH). These results suggest that PC(MECH) are recently generated, short-living PC, and PC(COLL) constitutes a subset with higher maturity and survival, which resides in connective tissue-rich areas.

  20. Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education,…

  1. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective. PMID:27656604

  2. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  3. Lingual and facial arteries arising from the external carotid artery in a common trunk.

    PubMed

    Troupis, Theodore G; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Paraschos, Alexandros; Michalinos, Adamantios; Protogerou, Vassilis; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Troupis, George; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2011-02-01

    The present study describes analytically a rare case in which lingual and facial arteries arise together from an external carotid artery in a common trunk. Thirty anatomic dissections were performed on 15 cadavers in the macroscopic laboratory in the Department of Anatomy of the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. One common trunk from which originated lingual and facial arteries was found. The frequency of this morphology is measured at 6 per cent. The length of the common trunk is measured at 7.3 mm between its origin and its diversion at the facial artery and lingual artery, its diameter at 2.8 mm, its distance from carotid bifurcation at 7.9 mm, and from the superior thyroid artery at 3.3 mm. At the left side of the neck region, facial and lingual arteries arose separately. The anatomic variations of the branching pattern of the external carotid artery and the micrometric values of the vessels are especially important as a result of the numerous operations performed in the neck region that implicate various specialties such as general surgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, and maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  5. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  6. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  7. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. Results: The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P < 0.05). In both types of mandibular dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges in the construction of mandibular complete dentures improved denture retention. PMID:26539387

  8. Severe Class II anterior deep bite malocclusion treated with a C-lingual retractor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hun; Park, Young-Guk; Chung, Kyurhim

    2004-04-01

    A C-lingual retractor was placed on the lingual aspects of the six maxillary anterior teeth in a 24-year-old female patient with a Class II anterior deep-bite malocclusion. The treatment plan consisted of extracting both the upper first premolars and intruding and retracting the upper six anterior teeth. Transpalatal arches were soldered to the upper first and second molar bands and used as an intra-arch anchor unit for upper space closure. Double NiTi closed coil springs were used palatally between the hooks of the C-lingual retractor and the transplantar arches. A high-pull headgear was used for anchorage reinforcement during en masse retraction. It took 14 months to treat this patient. The correct overbite and overjet was obtained by simultaneously intruding and retracting the upper six anterior teeth into their proper positions by C-lingual retractor mechanics, which contributed to an improvement in facial balance. The treatment result was stable 6 months after debonding. The application of this new appliance, consideration in case selection, and sequence of treatment are presented.

  9. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective.

  10. Kinematic Investigation of Lingual Movement in Words of Increasing Length in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Meyer, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to use electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to investigate the effect of increasing word length on lingual kinematics in acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement was recorded for five speakers with AOS and a concomitant aphasia (mean age = 53.6 years; SD = 12.60) during target consonant…

  11. Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo

    PubMed Central

    SFONDRINI, Maria Francesca; DEBIAGGI, Maurizia; ZARA, Francesca; BRERRA, Roberto; COMELLI, Mario; BIANCHI, Marco; POLLONE, Sara Ramella; SCRIBANTE, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. Material and Methods A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP) were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU). Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. Results No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters. PMID:22858704

  12. Lingual Kinematic Strategies Used to Increase Speech Rate: Comparison between Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…

  13. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective. PMID:27656604

  14. Initial experience with lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anand; Dutta, A.; Jain, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background To present the feasibility of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty in anterior urethral strictures and appraisal of donor site morbidity. Methods From November 2007 to December 2010, 14 patients underwent dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures. Lingual mucosal graft was harvested from the lateral and undersurface of the tongue. Check micturating cystourethrograms were done 2 weeks after catheter removal and uroflowmetry after 3 months. Success was defined as normal uroflowmetry rates at 3 months in the absence of any postoperative instrumentation. Tongue was assessed for any residual pain, taste disturbances or restricted movement at 3 months. Results Four patients had submucosal fibrosis of the oral cavity and their buccal mucosa was unfit for grafting. Mean (range) stricture length was 5 (3–16) cm and the operation time 170 (140–210) min. Graft width averaged 1.6 cm. Average length of harvested graft was 6.5 cm. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.8 months. Two patients developed stricture at the proximal anastomotic site. There were no donor site complications. Conclusions Lingual mucosal graft harvesting is simple, gives graft lengths comparable to buccal mucosa and is associated with negligible donor site morbidity. PMID:24532928

  15. [Differential diagnostics of chronic tonsillitis based on the severity of manifestations of tonsillogenic intoxication of the organism].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T; Gurov, A V; Aksenova, A V; Guseva, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the objective diagnostic criteria for the differentiation between various forms of chronic tonsillitis (CT) based on the results of clinical, bacteriological, and serological investigations. A total of 13 patients presenting with various forms of CT were available for the examination. The mathematical analysis of the data thus obtained made it possible to identify the most clinically significant diagnostic criteria allowing to verify the form of CT. It is concluded that their application in the combination with the classification of chronic tonsillitis proposed earlier by B.S. Preobrazhensky and V.T. Pal'chun can be recommended for the choice of the most adequate strategy for the treatment of the patients chronic tonsillitis on an individual basis. PMID:26525464

  16. Mortality after tonsil surgery, a population study, covering eight years and 82,527 operations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Østvoll, Eirik; Sunnergren, Ola; Ericsson, Elisabeth; Hemlin, Claes; Hultcrantz, Elisabeth; Odhagen, Erik; Stalfors, Joacim

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate mortality rate and cause of death after tonsil surgery in Sweden. Two national registries were used, both run by The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, an agency of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. In the National Patient register all tonsil surgeries performed in Sweden from 2004 through 2011 were identified. The result from this search was matched with the National Cause of Death Register to identify all deaths that occurred within 30 days of tonsil surgery. Personal identity numbers were used to do the matching of registers. Details on the cause of death were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Two deaths were identified in 82,527 operations. Both patients were male, otherwise healthy, children under the age of five, operated due to tonsil-related upper airway obstruction/snoring with coblation technique. Cause of death was bleeding-related airway obstruction in both cases and hemodynamic failure caused by blood loss. Both deaths occurred after discharge from the hospital within the first postoperative week. No abnormal levels of analgesics were found in the postmortal investigations. Two deaths related to tonsil surgery (performed on benign indications) were identified in 82,527 operations (2004-2011) in a well-defined national population. Both deaths were due to postoperative bleeding. Based on our findings, the frequency of post-tonsil-surgery mortality in Sweden was 1/41,263, 2004-2011. Level of evidence 2b retrospective cohort study.

  17. The effect of surgical technique on lingual nerve damage during lower 3rd molar removal by dental students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161

  18. Recovery of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in tonsil tissue after oral administration: randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kumpu, Minna; Swanljung, Elisa; Tynkkynen, Soile; Hatakka, Katja; Kekkonen, Riina A; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-06-28

    The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) would lead to the recovery of GG in tonsil tissue. After 3 weeks’ daily consumption of GG as a single strain (n 20), GG as a part of a multispecies combination (n 17) or placebo (n 20), tonsil tissue samples were collected from fifty-seven young adults during tonsillectomy due to chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to detect GG in the tonsil tissue. GG was recovered in the tonsil sample of 40% of the subjects in the GG group, 41% in the multispecies group and 30% in the placebo group (P value between groups 0.79). In all subjects with positive recovery of GG in the tonsil tissue, GG was also recovered in the faecal sample taken at the start of the intervention and at the time of the tissue sample collection, which indicates more persistent adherence of the probiotic. To conclude, GG can be recovered from tonsil tissue after oral administration as a singlestrain probiotic or as a part of a multispecies probiotic combination. The present results suggest that individual variation exists in the ability of GG to adhere to tonsil tissue. Persistence of GG appears to be high in tonsil tissue as well, in addition to persistence in faecal samples, which has been demonstrated previously. Further clinical trials are warranted to evaluate whether probiotic adherence in the tonsil tissue could have a role in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  19. Neurotrophins and their receptors in the pigeon caecal tonsil. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, J; Germanà, A; Catania, S; Laurà, R; Ciriaco, E; Vega, J A

    1998-02-27

    Neurotrophins are growth factors which bind to signal-transducing receptors called Trk proteins. The neurotrophins and their receptor proteins are present in the mammalian and avian lymphoid organs, thus suggesting that these factors could act upon cells of the immune system. Nevertheless, little is known about the cellular distribution of neurotrophins and their receptor proteins in avian lymphoid tissues. In this study we use immunohistochemistry to detect the cellular localisation of neurotrophins and their receptor proteins in the pigeon caecal tonsil, used as a model for avian secondary lymphoid organs. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against neurotrophins (nerve growth factor -NGF-, brain-derived neurotrophic factor -BDNF- and neurotrophin -3 NT-3-) and against specific epitopes of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC proteins were used. Cytokeratins, vimentin, S-100 protein and chromogranin A were studied in parallel to identify cells which seemed to express neurotrophins and Trk proteins. TrkA-like protein was seen in the intestinal epithelium, whereas TrkB-like and TrkC-like proteins was found in cells which we identified as dendritic cells and macrophages. BDNF-like and NT-3-like reactivity was localised in intestinal epithelial cells, especially endocrine cells. Present results add further evidence to the presumptive immune role of neurotrophins and their receptors and the possible functions of these peptides in the caecal tonsil are discussed.

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in/on tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.

    PubMed

    Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna; Filipović, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    A total of 156 tonsils and 156 mandibular lymph nodes from fattening pigs originating from 13 farms were sampled in Croatian slaughterhouses and examined for Salmonella spp. (n=78 per organ) and Yersinia enterocolitica (n=78 per organ) by cultural methods. Salmonella was isolated from two tonsils only, both originated from animals from the same farm (5.12%), while Y. enterocolitica were recovered from 26 tonsils (33.33%) which could be traced back to 10 farms. Salmonella was absent in mandibular lymph nodes, and Y. enterocolitica was isolated from eight lymph nodes (10.25%) which originated from six farms. Y. enterocolitica was present inside the lymph nodes of two pigs. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in/on pig tonsils could be the result of cross-contamination during splitting the carcasses with head. This procedure may result in higher prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on surface of mandibular lymph nodes than in their depth. Traditional veterinary postmortem examination of pig halves will not necessarily contribute to cross-contamination with Salmonella or Yersinia under conditions of present slaughter practice.

  1. Enlarged Tonsils

    Cancer.gov

    A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

  2. Removal of the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space of the mandible via endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Q; Huang, Z X; Wang, Y Y; Hu, W J; Fan, S; Zhang, D M; Chen, W L

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reliability of the use of endoscopy for removal of the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space of the mandible. Seven patients with residual roots of the mandibular wisdom teeth remaining in the lingual space were treated via endoscopy, and the results of their treatments were reviewed retrospectively. The study found that the residual roots of the mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space were removed successfully via endoscopy. The average duration of surgery for each case was 5 min, and no complications were observed in any case. There is little risk involved with removing the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space via endoscopy and the procedure is safe and fast. We conclude that it is worth promoting this clinical procedure for current and future use.

  3. Treatment of recurrent lingual nerve end-neuroma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Justin L; Steinbacher, Derek M; Debrux, J Cart; Magarakis, Michael; Rosson, Gedge D

    2013-10-01

    A neuroma is a collection of disorganized nerve sprouts emanating from an interruption of axonal continuity, forming within a collagen scar as the nerve attempts to regenerate. Lingual neuroma formation secondary to iatrogenic trauma to the tongue is likely not uncommon; however, we could not find a report in the literature of treatment of a distal tongue end-neuroma treated by resection and implantation into muscle. Here we describe a patient who experienced debilitating chronic tongue pain after excision of a benign mass. After failing conservative management, the patient was taken to the operating room where an end-neuroma of the lingual nerve was identified and successfully treated by excision and burying of the free proximal stump in the mylohyoid muscle. At 17 months postoperatively, she remains pain free without dysesthesias.

  4. Infected lingual osseous choristoma. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andressakis, Dionysios D; Pavlakis, Athanasios G; Chrysomali, Evanthia; Rapidis, Alexander D

    2008-10-01

    Osseous choristoma is a rare, benign lesion of the oral cavity occurring usually in the tongue. It appears as a tumorous mass of normal bony structure with mature cells in an ectopic position. The case of a 72 years Caucasian male is presented and analyzed along with 52 similar cases reported in the English literature between 1967 and 2007. Lingual choristoma shows a female predilection, whereas the commonest anatomic location is the posterior third of the tongue, occurring at or close to the foramen caecum and the circumvallate papillae. Histologically the lesions show signs of a well-circumscribed mass of vital bone located under the surface oral epithelium. Some lesions represent developmental malformations, whereas others may be reactive lesions after trauma or chronic irritation. Treatment of lingual osseous choristoma consists of simple excision.

  5. Differential effects of word length and visual contrast in the fusiform and lingual gyri during reading.

    PubMed Central

    Mechelli, A; Humphreys, G W; Mayall, K; Olson, A; Price, C J

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown differential responses in the fusiform and lingual gyri during reading and suggested that the former is engaged in processing local features of visual stimuli and the latter is engaged in global shape processing. We used positron emission tomography in order to investigate how these regions are modulated by two common variables in reading: word length (three, six and nine letters) and perceptive similarity to the background (high and low contrast). Increasing both word length and visual contrast had a positive monotonic effect on activation in the bilateral fusiform. However, in the lingual gyrus, activation increased with increasing word length but decreased with increasing contrast. On the basis of previous studies, we suggest that (i) increasing word length increases the demands on both local feature and global shape processing, but (ii) increasing visual contrast increases the demands on local feature processing while decreasing the demands on global shape processing. PMID:11052544

  6. Effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in post-lingually deafened adults.

    PubMed

    Langereis, M C; Dejonckere, P H; van Olphen, A F; Smoorenburg, G F

    1997-01-01

    The present study addresses the effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in 21 post-lingually deafened Dutch subjects. All subjects received the Nucleus 22 implant (MSP version). Speech recordings were made pre-implantation and 3 and 12 months post-implantation with the implant switched on and off. Nasality measurements were performed on a standard text and on two sentences without nasal phonemes. The results show that post-lingual deafness in individuals can result in a deviant degree of nasality in speech production. However, the nasalance value of 86% of the subjects of our study fell within the normative range defined as the mean +/- 2 standard deviations of the normal population. After implantation we found no statistically significant effect of implant use. However, individual nasality values outside the normative range may improve. Furthermore, 12 months post-implantation we found a significant decrease in the variability of the nasalance values obtained for two sentences without nasal phonemes. PMID:9415736

  7. Application of an enzyme-labeled antigen method for visualizing plasma cells producing antibodies against Strep A, a carbohydrate antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes, in recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Onouchi, Takanori; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Inada, Ken-ichi; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Naito, Kensei; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the main causative pathogen of recurrent tonsillitis. Histologically, lesions of recurrent tonsillitis contain numerous plasma cells. Strep A is an antigenic carbohydrate molecule on the cell wall of S. pyogenes. As expected, plasma cells in subjects with recurrent tonsillitis secrete antibodies against Strep A. The enzyme-labeled antigen method is a novel histochemical technique that visualizes specific antibody-producing cells in tissue sections by employing a biotin-labeled antigen as a probe. The purpose of the present study was to visualize plasma cells producing antibodies reactive with Strep A in recurrent tonsillitis. Firstly, the lymph nodes of rats immunized with boiled S. pyogenes were paraformaldehyde-fixed and specific plasma cells localized in frozen sections with biotinylated Strep A. Secondly, an enzyme-labeled antigen method was used on human tonsil surgically removed from 12 patients with recurrent tonsillitis. S. pyogenes genomes were PCR-detected in all 12 specimens. The emm genotypes belonged to emm12 in nine specimens and emm1 in three. Plasma cells producing anti-Strep A antibodies were demonstrated in prefixed frozen sections of rat lymph nodes, 8/12 human specimens from patients with recurrent tonsillitis but not in two control tonsils. In human tonsils, Strep A-reactive plasma cells were observed within the reticular squamous mucosa and just below the mucosa, and the specific antibodies belonged to either IgA or IgG classes. Our technique is effective in visualizing immunocytes producing specific antibodies against the bacterial carbohydrate antigen, and is thus a novel histochemical tool for analyzing immune reactions in infectious disorders.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgical Median Glossotomy for Resection of Lingual Dermoid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Corvers, Kristien; Hens, Greet; Meulemans, Jeroen; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% is present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, four patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue. PMID:27504448

  9. Mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn after lingual frenectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thiago de Santana; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins; Piva, Marta Rabello; Khalil Karam, Frederick

    2012-11-01

    Mucoceles are the most common lesions of the minor salivary glands and typically appear as a fluctuant, bluish, nontender, submucosal swelling with a normal overlying mucosa. Mucoceles of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn (in the anterior portion of the ventral surface of the tongue) have been considered to be uncommon. This article reports an unusual case of a large extravasation mucocele involving the ventral surface of the tongue, which appeared after a lingual frenectomy.

  10. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  11. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  12. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  13. Comparative morphological study on the tongue and lingual papillae of horses (Perissodactyla) and selected ruminantia (Artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Jackowiak, H; Frackowiak, H; Yoshimura, K; Kumakura, M; Kobayashi, K

    2005-01-01

    A common characteristic of horses, Rocky Mountain goats, and cattle is that they all have a well developed lingual prominence on the dorsal surface of the posterior area of the tongue. Foliate papillae were found in the horse studied but not in the goat or in cattle. The horse filiform papillae had a long and slender external form with a thin and slender CTC, while in the goat and cattle the external form consisted of a large thick main process and the CTC consisted of a bundle of numerous rod-shaped protrusions. The special papilla found on the lingual prominence resembled larger filiform-like papillae in the horses; however, in the goat and cattle it was a very thick and large tongue like papillae. The horses had two large vallate papillae, while the goat and cattle had 15 or more vallate papillae at the posterior area of the lingual prominence. This suggests that the fine structure of horse tongues may display a more primitive pattern than that present in goats and cattle.

  14. Scanning electron microscopic study on the lingual papillae of the Japanese insectivora.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Arai, S; Tomo, S; Shimoda, T; Shimamura, A; Yamada, H

    1989-03-01

    The tongue and lingual papillae of the Japanese Insectivora, the Shinto shrew (Sorex caecuiens saevus), the long-clawed shrew (S. unguiculatus), the dsinezumi shrew (Crocidura dsinezumi dsinezumi) and the Japanese water shrew (Chimarrogale himalyica platycephala), were observed by scanning electron microscope. The tongue of these animals had two vallate papillae. In two species of the Sorex a papilla in the vallate papilla was surrounded by two separated trenches, but in the other species it was surrounded by only a continuous trench and a clear vallum. The fungiform papillae in the Sorex were less developed than those of the other species. In the Sorex and Crocidura, there was no filiform papilla on the lingual apex. These genera, however, have papillary projections in the margin of the lingual apex. The results of this investigation suggest that the Sorex and Crocidura indicate an ancient form of the mammalian tongue. These characters, furthermore, were compared among seven species in six genera added three species observed by Kobayashi et al. (1983) to this study.

  15. Debonding forces of three different customized bases of a lingual bracket system

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jang-Won; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether extension of the custom base is necessary for enhancement of bond strength, by comparing the debonding forces and residual adhesives of 3 different lingual bracket systems. Methods A total of 42 extracted upper premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups of 14 each for bonding with brackets having (1) a conventional limited resin custom base; (2) an extended gold alloy custom base: Incognito™; and (3) an extended resin custom base: KommonBase™. The bonding area was measured by scanning the bracket bases with a 3-dimensional digital scanner. The debonding force was measured with an Instron universal testing machine, which applied an occlusogingival shear force. Results The mean debonding forces were 60.83 N (standard deviation [SD] 10.12), 69.29 N (SD 9.59), and 104.35 N (SD17.84) for the limited resin custom base, extended gold alloy custom base, and extended resin custom base, respectively. The debonding force observed with the extended resin custom base was significantly different from that observed with the other bases. In addition, the adhesive remnant index was significantly higher with the extended gold alloy custom base. Conclusions All 3 custom-base lingual brackets can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces. We conclude that effective bonding of lingual brackets can be obtained without extension of the custom base. PMID:24228238

  16. [The state of antigen-dependent immunity system in children with chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, L E; Khanferian, R A; Borovikov, O V

    2001-01-01

    245 children aged 7-14 years with decompensated chronic tonsillitis were examined and treated in Anapa health resort. Before therapy the children had subnormal concentration of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, elevated absolute and relative concentration of CD16+, low concentration of salivary IgA and SIgA combined with high serum IgM. The treatment brought a positive trend in the above indices, but CD16+, serum IgA and salivary SIgA remained higher than in controls. This may be explained by genetic predisposition of some children (primary defects of IgA and its secretory component synthesis), effects of autoimmune pathology, natural reaction to persistent viral infection.

  17. A case of solitary fibrous tumor arising from the palatine tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Kodama, Kozue; Nokubi, Mitsuhiro; Gotsu, Kazuo; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kusaka, Gen; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinctive, relatively uncommon soft-tissue neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. It occurs at various sites; head and neck lesions are very rare. While most of these tumors have a benign course, a small number have malignant potential. We describe a rare case of SFT arising from the left palatine tonsil in a 66-year-old Japanese woman. The mass was completely resected. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD34 and bcl-2, mildly positive for phosphorylated protein kinase B and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and negative for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and p53. These findings suggested that this tumor was benign. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. We believe that the candidate prognostic marker should be checked to distinguish malignant from benign SFTs.

  18. A case of solitary fibrous tumor arising from the palatine tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Kodama, Kozue; Nokubi, Mitsuhiro; Gotsu, Kazuo; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kusaka, Gen; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinctive, relatively uncommon soft-tissue neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. It occurs at various sites; head and neck lesions are very rare. While most of these tumors have a benign course, a small number have malignant potential. We describe a rare case of SFT arising from the left palatine tonsil in a 66-year-old Japanese woman. The mass was completely resected. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD34 and bcl-2, mildly positive for phosphorylated protein kinase B and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and negative for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and p53. These findings suggested that this tumor was benign. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. We believe that the candidate prognostic marker should be checked to distinguish malignant from benign SFTs. PMID:25738718

  19. The role of the palatine tonsils in the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, S L; Thorleifsdottir, R H; Valdimarsson, H; Johnston, A

    2013-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease with strong genetic associations and environmental triggers. Patients with psoriasis develop sore throats much more frequently than nonpsoriatic individuals and it is well documented that streptococcal throat infections can trigger the onset of psoriasis, and such infections cause exacerbation of chronic psoriasis. It is now generally accepted that psoriatic lesions are caused by abnormal reactivity of specific T lymphocytes in the skin. However, it has been shown in recent years that activation of specific immunity is always preceded by activation of nonspecific innate immune mechanisms, and that abnormalities in the innate immune system can cause dysregulation in specific immune responses. Here we explore the possible immune mechanisms that are involved in the link between infection of the tonsils and this inflammatory skin disease. Moreover, we survey the literature and discuss the suitability of tonsillectomy as a treatment for psoriasis.

  20. The specialised structure of crypt epithelium in the human palatine tonsil and its functional significance.

    PubMed

    Perry, M E

    1994-08-01

    Material from 25 human palatine tonsils was studied by light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Special attention was focused on the structure of the epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts in the context of its ascribed immunological functions. This epithelium was not uniform and contained patches of stratified squamous nonkeratinising epithelium and patches of reticulated sponge-like epithelium. The degree of reticulation of the epithelial cells and the infiltration of nonepithelial cells varied. Reticulated patches were associated with disruptions in the continuity of basement membrane, and often also with desquamation of the upper cell layers, and contained numerous small blood vessels. The epithelial cells showed considerable variation in their morphology when surrounded by infiltrating cells. The rearrangement of their cytoskeleton and redistribution of desmosomal contacts indicate the responsiveness and dynamic nature of such epithelium. Cytoplasmic glycogen granules, located in the upper strata, suggest the possibility of energy-demanding functions such as absorption and secretion. The numerous membrane-coating granules may have contributed to cell membrane thickening and possibly also to tonsillar mucosal protection. Some areas contained a few keratohyalin granules but there was little evidence of keratinisation. The presence, and sometimes the predominance, of nonepithelial cells was characteristic of the reticulated epithelium. T and B cells often infiltrated the whole epithelial thickness, and many plasma cells were located around intraepithelial vessels, while macrophages and interdigitating cells showed a patchy distribution. It is proposed that the major functions of the reticulated epithelium are: (1) to provide a favourable environment for the intimate contact between the effector cells of immune responses; (2) to facilitate direct transport of antigens; (3) to synthesise the secretory component

  1. Distribution of azithromycin in plasma and tonsil tissue after repeated oral administration of 10 or 20 milligrams per kilogram in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Malizia, Tecla; Batoni, Giovanna; Ghelardi, Emilia; Baschiera, Fabio; Bruschini, Paolo; Senesi, Sonia; Campa, Mario; Del Tacca, Mario

    2002-05-01

    Azithromycin concentrations in the tonsils of 56 pediatric patients, treated with 10 or 20 mg of the drug per kg of body weight for 3 days, were compared. Azithromycin levels in plasma and tonsil samples were determined up to 8.5 days after the last dose. The 20-mg/kg regimen resulted in an improved tonsillar distribution of azithromycin, suggesting the achievement of enhanced therapeutic concentrations at infective sites of the upper respiratory tract.

  2. Bcl11b/Ctip2 is required for development of lingual papillae in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Makoto; Koki, Jun; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kominami, Ryo; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hirota, Junji

    2016-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development and morphogenesis of oral epithelia, comprising the gustatory and nongustatory epithelium, remain unclear. Here, we show that Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, plays an important role in the development of lingual papillae, especially filiform papillae. In both gustatory and nongustatory epithelium, Bcl11b was expressed in keratin 14-positive epithelial basal cells, which differentiate into keratinocytes and/or taste cells. Loss of Bcl11b function resulted in abnormal morphology of the gustatory papillae: flattened fungiform papillae, shorter trench wall in the foliate and circumvallate papillae, and ectopic invagination in more than half of circumvallate papillae. However, Bcl11b loss caused no effect on differentiation of taste receptor cells. In nongustatory epithelium, the impact of Bcl11b deficiency was much more striking, resulting in a smooth surface on the tongue tip and hypoplastic filiform papillae in the dorsal lingual epithelium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that a keratinocyte differentiation marker, Tchh expression was severely decreased in the Bcl11b(-/-) filiform papillae. In addition, expression of Pax9, required for morphogenesis of filiform papillae and its downstream target genes, hard keratins, almost disappeared in the tongue tip and was decreased in the dorsal tongue of Bcl11b(-/-) mice. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a delayed onset of expression of epithelial differentiation complex genes, which disturbed barrier formation in the mutant tongue. These results indicate that Bcl11b regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes in the tongue and identify Bcl11b as an essential factor for the lingual papilla morphogenesis. PMID:27287879

  3. SEM study on the dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys.

    PubMed

    Emura, S; Tamada, A; Hayakawa, D; Chen, H; Jamali, M; Taguchi, H; Shoumura, S

    1999-09-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform (FI), fungiform (FU), foliate (FO) and vallate papillae (VA) were observed. The FI were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. In the region of the VA, the FI appeared as giant cones. The FU were present as rounded bodies scattered over the dorsal surface of the tongue. They were relatively scarce and appear to be concentrated around the edges of the tongue. The FO were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. The flying squirrel showed the triangular arrangement of the three VA, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly. PMID:10560016

  4. Evidence regarding lingual fixed orthodontic appliances' therapeutic and adverse effects is insufficient.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Virtual Health Library and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015 without limitations. Scopus, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, the ISRCTN registry as well as reference lists of the trials included and relevant reviews were manually searched.Study selectionRandomised (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised clinical trials (non-RCTs) on human patients that compared therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial appliances were considered. One reviewer initially screened titles and subsequently two reviewers independently screened the selected abstracts and full texts.Data extraction and synthesisThe data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Missing or unclear information, ongoing trials and raw data from split-mouth trials were requested from the authors of the trials. The quality of the included trials and potential bias across studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. For parallel trials, mean difference (MD) and the relative risk (RR) were used for continuous (objective speech performance, subjective speech performance, intercanine width, intermolar width and sagittal anchorage loss) and binary outcomes (eating difficulty), respectively. The standardised mean difference (SMD) was chosen to pool, after conversion, the outcome (oral discomfort) that assessed both binary and continuous. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ResultsThirteen papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials (three parallel RCTs, one split-mouth RCT and seven parallel prospective non-RCTs) were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. All trials had at least one bias domain at high risk of bias. Compared with labial appliances

  5. Accessory mental foramina, incisive nerve plexus and lingual canals with unusual emergence paths: Report of two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Haghanifar, Sina; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Being knowledgeable of neurovascularization of anterior mandible is crucial for successful local anesthesia and for safe minor and major oral surgeries of this part. The first case was 62 years old and was found to have two accessory mental foramina with buccal emergence on the left side and two accessory mental foramina with buccal and lingual emergence paths on the right side (overall five mental foramina). Incisive nerve plexus with multiple cephalic branching was obvious on both sides. The second case was 60 years of age and had two lingual foramina on the lingual side with two accessory foramina on the buccal side of the symphysis. Considering our findings, a pre-operation limited cone beam computed tomography is suggested to avoid inadvertent damage, especially when planning a surgery in the mandibular inter-mental region. PMID:25767360

  6. Development of lingual brachet technique. (Esthetic and hygienic approach to orthodontic treatment) (Part 1) Background and design.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K

    1978-04-01

    The present study relates to a development of the new technique and the new appliances, for the treatment of malocclusion and minor tooth movement. The primary purpose of the present study consists in to reduce mental burden of the patients receiving orthodontic treatment and to improve effect of the treatment further by making the appliance invisible when mouth is opened. The second purpose of the study is in orthodontic treatment carried out from lingual side, to control all teeth movement in oral cavity in three dimensions so that the normal occlusion may be operated. The third purpose of the present study is to make the exchange of wire readily when the wire with bigger elasticity is exchanged by turns during the process of the treatment. The background and the design of appliances for the lingual-bracker technique(lingual-bracket mushroom arch wire technique) is found out in this report.

  7. Lingual nerve injury subsequent to wisdom teeth removal--a 5-year retrospective audit from a high street dental practice.

    PubMed

    Malden, N J; Maidment, Y G

    2002-08-24

    Lingual nerve damage subsequent to lower wisdom tooth removal affects a small number of patients, sometimes producing permanent sensory loss or impairment. A number of surgical techniques have been described which are associated with low incidences of this distressing post-operative complication. When a technique is adopted by an individual clinician then a personal audit may be prudent to establish how effective it is in relation to established nerve injury rates. This audit looks at a technique involving the minimal interference of lingual soft tissues during lower wisdom tooth removal in a high street practice situation for patients having mild to moderate impacted wisdom teeth removed under local anaesthetic. It was concluded that the technique employed was associated with a low incidence of lingual nerve trauma, comparable with that reported elsewhere. PMID:12222906

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil managed by conventional surgery and postoperative radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Rahmatullah; Dogan, Snjezana; Pyke, Owen; Palmer, Frank; Awad, Mahmoud; Lee, Nancy; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report the long-term outcome of patients with squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the tonsil managed by surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). Methods Eighty-eight patients treated between 1985 and 2005 were analyzed. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Forty-eight percent of patients had T3 to T4 disease and 75% had a positive neck. Five-year OS, DSS, and RFS were 66%, 82%, and 80%, respectively. The status of the neck was not predictive of outcome (DSS 80% for N0 vs 82% for N+; p = .97). Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of OS, DSS, and RFS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Lymphovascular invasion but not pathological stage of the neck is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with tonsillar SCC. PMID:24616252

  9. Microsphere-Incorporated Hybrid Thermogel for Neuronal Differentiation of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhumita; Moon, Hyo Jung; Jung, Bo Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2015-07-15

    Neuronal differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) is investigated in a 3D hybrid system. The hybrid system is prepared by increasing the temperature of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-alanine) aqueous solution to 37 °C through the heat-induced sol-to-gel transition, in which TMSCs and growth factor releasing microspheres are suspended. The in situ formed gel exhibits a modulus of 800 Pa at 37 °C, similar to that of brain tissue, and it is robust enough to hold the microspheres and cells during the 3D culture of TMSCs. The neuronal growth factors are released over 12-18 d, and the TMSCs in a spherical shape initially undergo multipolar elongation during the 3D culture. Significantly higher expressions of the neuronal biomarkers such as nuclear receptor related protein (Nurr-1), neuron specific enolase, microtubule associated protein-2, neurofilament-M, and glial fibrillary acidic protein are observed in both mRNA level and protein level in the hybrid systems than in the control experiments. This study proves the significance of a controlled drug delivery concept in tissue engineering or regenerative medicine, and a 3D hybrid system with controlled release of growth factors from microspheres in a thermogel can be a very promising tool. PMID:26033880

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children with recurrent tonsillitis living in Milan.

    PubMed

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Iofrida, E; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the etiopathogenesis of tonsillar disease in children is still debated; this study assesses possible differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between 309 Caucasian children (58.1% males; mean age 55.7 ± 31.0 months) living in Milan with a history of recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and healthy controls. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly reduced in the children with a history of RT (22.0 ± 8.7 ng/mL vs 24.6 ± 7.8 ng/mL; p=0.03), and the proportion of children with insufficient or deficient serum 25(OH)D levels was higher in the RT group (81.5% and 6.5% respectively) than in the control group (75.1% and 3.5%) (not significant). The multivariable model created to test the independent association between serum 25(OH)D levels and a history of RT after adjusting for age and season showed that the association was not significant. Our study failed to find any significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels after adjustment for age and season in a case series of children with RT in comparison with healthy controls, which suggests that vitamin D does not play a relevant role in the etiology of pediatric tonsillar infections. PMID:26753657

  11. Microsphere-Incorporated Hybrid Thermogel for Neuronal Differentiation of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhumita; Moon, Hyo Jung; Jung, Bo Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2015-07-15

    Neuronal differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) is investigated in a 3D hybrid system. The hybrid system is prepared by increasing the temperature of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-alanine) aqueous solution to 37 °C through the heat-induced sol-to-gel transition, in which TMSCs and growth factor releasing microspheres are suspended. The in situ formed gel exhibits a modulus of 800 Pa at 37 °C, similar to that of brain tissue, and it is robust enough to hold the microspheres and cells during the 3D culture of TMSCs. The neuronal growth factors are released over 12-18 d, and the TMSCs in a spherical shape initially undergo multipolar elongation during the 3D culture. Significantly higher expressions of the neuronal biomarkers such as nuclear receptor related protein (Nurr-1), neuron specific enolase, microtubule associated protein-2, neurofilament-M, and glial fibrillary acidic protein are observed in both mRNA level and protein level in the hybrid systems than in the control experiments. This study proves the significance of a controlled drug delivery concept in tissue engineering or regenerative medicine, and a 3D hybrid system with controlled release of growth factors from microspheres in a thermogel can be a very promising tool.

  12. Comparative characteristics of mu chain and alpha chain transcripts expressed by individual tonsil plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, S; Grammer, A C; Yavuz, A S; Nanki, T; Lipsky, P E

    2001-01-01

    Plasma cells (PCs) are one of the two major cell types generated during germinal center reactions. To test the hypothesis that PCs express a unique repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes resulting from intensive antigenic stimulation and selection, the mutational pattern and distribution of V(H) gene segments within 178 transcripts amplified from individual IgM and IgA secreting tonsil PCs were analyzed. The results demonstrated that both mu and alpha transcripts expressed repertoires with limited diversity. Moreover, both mu and alpha transcripts were heavily mutated, with a significantly increased mutational frequency noted for alpha compared to mu transcripts (5.0 x 10(-2) vs 1.8 x 10(-2), P<0.001). In addition, both mu and alpha transcripts showed significantly greater targeting of mutations to RGYW motifs (purine/guanine/pyrimidine/A or T) compared to memory B cells. Finally, clonally expanded cells were detected in alpha but not mu PC compartments. These results indicate that antigen driven stimulation and selection shape the entire expressed PC repertoire, but the impact is greater in alpha expressing PCs.

  13. Surgical treatment of type I Chiari malformation: the role of Magendie's foramen opening e tonsils manipulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Claudio Henrique Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    The treatment for type 1 Chiari malformation (CM 1) is one of the most controversial topics in the neurosurgical field. The present study evaluated two of the most applied surgical techniques to treat CM 1. Method 32 patients were evaluated and divided in two groups: group 1 had 16 patients that were submitted to decompression of occipital bone and dura mater of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ); group 2 also had 16 patients and in addition to the previous procedure, they were submitted to Magendie's foramen opening e tonsils manipulation. The comparison between the groups included neurological exam and cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging during pre and postoperative periods. Results Both techniques were equivalents in terms of neurological improvement of the patients (p > 0.05), but the group 2 had more surgical complications, with relative risk of 2.45 (CI 1.55-3.86) for adverse events. Whatever the cerebrospinal fluid flow at CVJ, the patients of the group 1 achieved greater amount of flow than the group 2 (p < 0.05) during the postoperative period. Conclusion The cranial and dural decompression of the CVJ without arachnoidal violation was the best surgical intervention for treatment of CM 1, between these two compared techniques.

  14. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  15. Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of giant pandas, there are few descriptions of their morphology and even fewer of their microscopic anatomy and the ultrastructure of their organs. In this study of the complete tongue of an adult male giant panda, we describe the morphology of its lingual surface, the different types of papillae, their characteristics and topographic distribution. It was seen that there are four main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate. There was no sign of foliate papillae, tuberculum intermolare or sublingua. Papilla distribution was not limited to the dorsum of the tongue, but was also seen on the anterior and ventral surfaces of the tongue. In the anterior third of the midline there is a smooth area with no papillae at all. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores is similar to that observed in other mammals. The papillae share characteristics encountered in Carnivora and herbivorous species of mammals. A narrow bamboo-based diet and specialized manner of eating have together resulted in modification of the tongue of a carnivoran, giving it some characteristics typical of an herbivore. PMID:18254792

  16. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:23973562

  17. Morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae in the lesser mouse deer, Tragulus javanicus.

    PubMed Central

    Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J; Kitamura, N; Nisa, C; Sigit, K; Yamamoto, Y

    1995-01-01

    The dorsal lingual papillae of the lesser mouse deer were studied morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy. Four types of papillae, filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate, were observed. Filiform papillae consisted of larger main papillae with smaller secondary papillae on their anterolateral aspects. Secondary papillae were well distributed over the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, but were very rare or absent in the posterior third. Fungiform papillae were distributed among the filiform papillae, being larger and more abundant on the tip of the tongue. Vallate papillae were round-flat or long-flat, surrounded by a prominent circular groove and a thin annular pad. An important finding was the presence of distinct and prominent foliate papillae on the posterolateral sides of the tongue. Keratinisation of the covering stratified squamous epithelium was relatively weak. Taste buds were observed in the epithelium of the fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae. The lingual papillae of the lesser mouse deer showed some characteristics that differed from those reported for domestic ruminants. These may be related to the feeding habits and the type of food eaten by this species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8586562

  18. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  19. A concept to transfer a therapeutic splint position into permanent occlusion with a customized lingual appliance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The role of occlusion concerning temporomandibular disorder is still unclear but seems to be the only component of the stomathognathic system dentists are able to change morphologically. The aim of the paper is to describe the orthodontist’s approach for transferring and maintaining a therapeutic splint position into permanent occlusion using a fully customized lingual appliance. Methods Fixed acrylic bite planes on lower molars were used to maintain a symptom-free condyle position prior to orthodontic treatment. Silicone impressions of the arches including the fixed bite planes were used for the Incognito laboratory procedure. Two digital setups were made. One setup represents the target occlusion. A second setup including the bite planes was used to fabricate an additional set of lower molar brackets. In the leveling stage all teeth except the lower molars were settled to maintain the therapeutic condyle position. Finally, the fixed bite planes were stepwise removed and molar brackets were replaced to establish the permanent occlusion planned with the first setup. Results and discussion The advantage of an individual lingual appliance consists in the high level of congruence between the fabricated setups and the final clinical result. Both the individual scope for design and the precision of the appliance were vitally important in the treatment of a patient with a functional disorder of the masticatory system. PMID:22613064

  20. A Feature-Reinforcement-Based Approach for Supporting Poly-Lingual Category Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chao-Chi; Cheng, Tsang-Hsiang; Yang, Christopher C.

    Document-category integration (or category integration for short) is fundamental to many e-commerce applications, including information integration along supply chains and information aggregation by intermediaries. Because of the trend of globalization, the requirement for category integration has been extended from monolingual to poly-lingual settings. Poly-lingual category integration (PLCI) aims to integrate two document catalogs, each of which consists of documents written in a mix of languages. Several category integration techniques have been proposed in the literature, but these techniques focus only on monolingual category integration rather than PLCI. In this study, we propose a feature-reinforcement-based PLCI (namely, FR-PLCI) technique that takes into account the master documents of all languages when integrating source documents (in the source catalog) written in a specific language into the master catalog. Using the monolingual category integration (MnCI) technique as a performance benchmark, our empirical evaluation results show that our proposed FR-PLCI technique achieves better integration accuracy than MnCI does in both English and Chinese category integration tasks.

  1. [Lingual abscess].

    PubMed

    Benito, J I; Martín, G; Morais, D; del Monte, J M

    2000-01-01

    The unilateral abscess of the anterior portion of the tongue is an extremely rare occurrence. We report a case in which we have used the ultrasonography in the diagnosis, and discuss, as etiologic hypothesis the participation of Blandin-Nühn glands in the genesis of these abscess.

  2. [Lingual hamartoma].

    PubMed

    Cánovas, E; Encina, L; Pedra, J; Sicilia, E; Torrent, J; Abdalla, I; Castro, E; Soler, T; Sancho, J

    1990-01-01

    The hamartoma is a benign tumor resulting of a mixture of normal and mature tissues and cells, sitting on an organ or tissue showing identical cell components. From the perusal done of the bibliography they appear as rare malformations basically compound of fibrous tissue, fat, acini of salivary glands and smooth muscle.

  3. Sialomucin CD34 is the major L-selectin ligand in human tonsil high endothelial venules

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral node addressin (PNAd) is a complex mixture of glycoproteins with L-selectin ligand activity that functions in lymphocyte homing. We have investigated the contribution of the sialomucin CD34 relative to other components of PNAd in lymphocyte tethering and rolling in in vitro laminar flow assays. PNAd was isolated with MECA-79 mAb-Sepharose from tonsillar stroma, and the CD34 component (PNAd,CD34+) and CD34- negative component (PNAd,CD34-) separated on CD34 mAb-Sepharose. Lymphocytes on the PNAd,CD34- fraction tether less efficiently, roll faster and are less resistant to shear detachment than on PNAd. The PNAd,CD34+ fraction constitutes about half the total functional activity. These studies show that CD34 is a major functional component of PNAd. Ligand activity in both the PNAd,CD34+ and PNAd,CD34- fractions is expressed on mucin-like domains, as shown with O- sialoglycoprotease. The CD34 component of PNAd has about four times higher tethering efficiency than total tonsillar CD34. CD34 from spleen shows no lymphocyte tethering. Although less efficient than the PNAd,CD34+ fraction from tonsil, CD34 from the KG1a hematopoietic cell line is functionally active as an L-selectin ligand despite lack of reactivity with MECA-79 mAb, which binds to a sulfation-dependent epitope. All four forms of CD34 are active in binding to E-selectin. KG1a CD34 but not spleen CD34 are active as L-selectin ligands, yet both lack MECA-79 reactivity and possess E-selectin ligand activity. This suggests that L-selectin ligands and E-selectin ligands differ in more respects than presence of the MECA-79 epitope. PMID:7559783

  4. Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Woo, So-Youn; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Jo, Inho; Park, Joo-Won

    2014-08-01

    Acute liver failure, the fatal deterioration of liver function, is the most common indication for emergency liver transplantation, and drug-induced liver injury and viral hepatitis are frequent in young adults. Stem cell therapy has come into the limelight as a potential therapeutic approach for various diseases, including liver failure and cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) in concanavalin A (ConA)- and acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury. ConA-induced hepatitis resembles viral and immune-mediated hepatic injury, and acetaminophen overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the United States and Europe. Intravenous administration of T-MSCs significantly reduced ConA-induced hepatic toxicity, but not acetaminophen-induced liver injury, affirming the immunoregulatory capacity of T-MSCs. T-MSCs were successfully recruited to damaged liver and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion. T-MSCs expressed high levels of galectin-1 and -3, and galectin-1 knockdown which partially diminished interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor α secretion from cultured T-cells. Galectin-1 knockdown in T-MSCs also reversed the protective effect of T-MSCs on ConA-induced hepatitis. These results suggest that galectin-1 plays an important role in immunoregulation of T-MSCs, which contributes to their protective effect in immune-mediated hepatitis. Further, suppression of T-cell activation by frozen and thawed T-MSCs implies great potential of T-MSC banking for clinical utilization in immune-mediated disease. PMID:24954408

  5. Characterisation of insulin-producing cells differentiated from tonsil derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Park, Woo-Jae; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Woo, So-Youn; Jo, Inho; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Park, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    Tonsil-derived (T-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display mutilineage differentiation potential and self-renewal capacity and have potential as a banking source. Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease in modern society, and the transplantation of pancreatic progenitor cells or various stem cell-derived insulin-secreting cells has been suggested as a novel therapy for diabetes. The potential of T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells or insulin-secreting cells has not yet been investigated. We examined the potential of human T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic islet cells using two different methods based on β-mercaptoethanol and insulin-transferin-selenium, respectively. First, we compared the efficacy of the two methods for inducing differentiation into insulin-producing cells. We demonstrated that the insulin-transferin-selenium method is more efficient for inducing differentiation into insulin-secreting cells regardless of the source of the MSCs. Second, we compared the differentiation potential of two different MSC types: T-MSCs and adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). T-MSCs had a differentiation capacity similar to that of A-MSCs and were capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose concentration. Islet-like clusters differentiated from T-MSCs had lower synaptotagmin-3, -5, -7, and -8 levels, and consequently lower secreted insulin levels than cells differentiated from A-MSCs. These results imply that T-MSCs can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells and could provide a novel, alternative cell therapy for diabetes mellitus.

  6. Herniation of cerebellar tonsils in acromegaly: prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Bommarito, Giulia; Rizzati, Silvia; Briani, Chiara; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Citton, Valentina; Zanchetta, Eva; Zerbo, Fabio; Ermani, Mario; Martini, Chiara; Mantero, Franco; Sicolo, Nicola; Maffei, Pietro; Scaroni, Carla

    2013-03-01

    Herniation of cerebellar tonsils (CTH) might occur in acromegaly patients and improve after acromegaly treatment. Our study investigated CTH prevalence in acromegaly, its relationship with clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings and its possible pathogenesis and clinical impact. 150 acromegaly patients (median-age 56 years, age-range 21-88, 83 females) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical data, laboratory and pituitary adenoma imaging findings were recorded. CTH, posterior cranial fossa area, tentorial angle, clivus, supraocciput and Twining's line length were measured in acromegaly patients and controls, who included MRI of 115 consecutive subjects with headache or transient neurological deficits (control group-1) and 24 symptomatic classic Chiari 1 malformation patients (control group-2). Acromegaly patients were interviewed for symptoms known to be related with CTH. 22/150 acromegaly patients (15 %) and 8/115 control group-1 subjects presented with CTH (p = 0.04). In acromegaly patients, CTH correlated positively with younger age and inversely with GH-receptor antagonist treatment. Control group-2 had a shorter clivus than CTH acromegaly patients (40.4 ± 3.2 mm vs 42.5 ± 3.3 mm, p < 0.05), while posterior fossa measures did not differ among acromegaly subgroups (with and without CTH) and control group-1. Headache and vision problems were more frequent in CTH acromegaly patients (p < 0.05); two acromegaly patients presented with imaging and neurological signs of syringomyelia. Despite no signs of posterior fossa underdevelopment or cranial constriction, CTH is more frequent in acromegaly patients and seems to contribute to some disabling neurological symptoms.

  7. Attenuation of pressor response following intubation: Efficacy of nitro-glycerine lingual spray

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Indira; Naithani, Udita; Dadheech, Vinod Kumar; Pradeep, D. S.; Meena, Khemraj; Verma, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The role of nitro-glycerine (NTG) lingual spray for attenuation of the hemodynamic response associated with intubation is not much investigated. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of NTG lingual pump or pen spray in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic responses and to elucidate the optimum dose. Material and Methods: In a prospective randomized controlled trial, 90 adult patients of ASA I, II, 18-60 year posted for elective general surgery under general anesthesia with intubation were randomly allocated to three groups as Group C (control) - receiving no NTG spray, Group N1 – receiving 1 NTG spray and Group N2 – receiving 2 NTG spray one minute before intubation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate were recorded at baseline, just before intubation (i.e., 60 s just after induction and NTG spray), immediately after intubation, at 1, 2, 5 and 10 min after intubation. Results: Incidence of hypertension was significantly higher in Group C (60%, n = 18) as compared to Group N1 and N2 (10%, n = 3 each), P < 0.01. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP showed a significant rise as compared to baseline, following intubation in control group (15.31% in SBP, 12.12% in DBP, 17.77% in MAP) that persisted till 5 min, while no significant rise was observed in Group N1 and N2. There was a trend toward fall in blood pressure in Group N2 (4.95% fall in SBP, 4.72% fall in MAP) 1-min following spray, which was clinically insignificant. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP was significantly higher in Group C than in Group N1, which was in turn greater than Group N2 (Group C > N1> N2), P < 0.05. However, incidence of tachycardia was comparable in three groups (70% in group C, 63.33% in Group N1 and 67.77% in Group N2, P > 0.05). Conclusions: We concluded that the NTG lingual spray in dose of 0.4 mg (1 spray) or 0.8 mg (2 sprays) was effective in attenuation of intubation induced

  8. A Cross-Lingual Similarity Measure for Detecting Biomedical Term Translations

    PubMed Central

    Bollegala, Danushka; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries for technical terms such as biomedical terms are an important resource for machine translation systems as well as for humans who would like to understand a concept described in a foreign language. Often a biomedical term is first proposed in English and later it is manually translated to other languages. Despite the fact that there are large monolingual lexicons of biomedical terms, only a fraction of those term lexicons are translated to other languages. Manually compiling large-scale bilingual dictionaries for technical domains is a challenging task because it is difficult to find a sufficiently large number of bilingual experts. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure for detecting most similar translation candidates for a biomedical term specified in one language (source) from another language (target). Specifically, a biomedical term in a language is represented using two types of features: (a) intrinsic features that consist of character n-grams extracted from the term under consideration, and (b) extrinsic features that consist of unigrams and bigrams extracted from the contextual windows surrounding the term under consideration. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure using each of those feature types. First, to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space in each language, we propose prototype vector projection (PVP)—a non-negative lower-dimensional vector projection method. Second, we propose a method to learn a mapping between the feature spaces in the source and target language using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The proposed method requires only a small number of training instances to learn a cross-lingual similarity measure. The proposed PVP method outperforms popular dimensionality reduction methods such as the singular value decomposition (SVD) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) in a nearest neighbor prediction task. Moreover, our experimental results covering several language pairs such as

  9. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  10. Analysis of Speech Disorders in Acute Pseudobulbar Palsy: a Longitudinal Study of a Patient with Lingual Paralysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy-Malherbe, V.; Chevrie-Muller, C.; Rigoard, M. T.; Arabia, C.

    1998-01-01

    This case report describes the case of a 52-year-old man with bilateral central lingual paralysis following a myocardial infarction. Analysis of speech recordings 15 days and 18 months after the attack were acoustically analyzed. The case demonstrates the usefulness of acoustic analysis to detect slight acoustic differences. (DB)

  11. Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The term "ethno-lingual relativity" is a perspective that is not limited by one's own cultural and linguistic experiences, but rather is open to the contrasting cultural and linguistic patterns of other peoples. This article explores the hypothesis that having such a perspective might facilitate second language acquisition. (19 references)…

  12. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  13. Displacement pattern of the anterior segment using antero-posterior lingual retractor combined with a palatal plate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Kyung A; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effects of two appliances on the en masse retraction of the anterior teeth anchored by temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs). Methods The sample comprised 46 nongrowing hyperdivergent adult patients who planned to undergo upper first premolar extraction using lingual retractors. They were divided into three groups, based on the lingual appliance used: the C-lingual retractor (CLR) group (group 1, n = 16) and two antero-posterior lingual retractor (APLR) groups (n = 30, groups 2 and 3). The APLR group was divided by the posterior tube angulation; posterior tube parallel to the occlusal plane (group 2, n = 15) and distally tipped tube (group 3, n = 15). A retrospective clinical investigation of the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationships was performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained pretreatment and post en masse retraction of the anterior teeth. Results All groups achieved significant incisor and canine retraction. The upper posterior teeth did not drift significantly during the retraction period. The APLR group had less angulation change in the anterior dentition, compared to the CLR group. By changing the tube angulation in the APLR, the intrusive force significantly increased in the distally tipped tube of group 3 patients and remarkably reduced the occlusal plane angle. Conclusions Compared to the CLR, the APLR provides better anterior torque control and canine tipping while achieving bodily translation. Furthermore, changing the tube angulation will affect the amount of incisor intrusion, even in patients with similar palatal vault depth, without the need for additional TSADs. PMID:26629475

  14. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  15. The Role of Music in Speech Intelligibility of Learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment in Selected Units in Lusaka District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katongo, Emily Mwamba; Ndhlovu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to establish the role of music in speech intelligibility of learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment (PLHI) and strategies teachers used to enhance speech intelligibility in learners with PLHI in selected special units for the deaf in Lusaka district. The study used a descriptive research design. Qualitative and quantitative…

  16. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  17. SwiftLase: a new tool for laser-assisted uvula-palatoplasty and tonsil cryptolysis in the office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Zair, E.; Krespi, Y. P.; Coleman, John R., Jr.; Kamami, Yves-Victor

    1994-09-01

    The `SwiftLase' CO2 laser flash-scanner technology for char-free ablation of tissue combined with a dedicated oral pharyngeal handpiece and a 30 W power CO2 laser provide an ideal tool for the performance of staged laser assisted uvula palatoplasty (LAUP) and tonsil cryptolysis in the office. LAUP is virtually painless and enables the treatment of non apneic snoring problems in three to five 10 minute office sessions under local anesthesia. The addition of flexible CO2 laser fiber delivery systems extends the use of the office CO2 laser to nasal cavity procedures such as turbinate shrinking.

  18. Japanese/English Blog Distillation and Cross-Lingual Blog Analysis with Multilingual Wikipedia Entries as Fundamental Knowledge Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasaki, Hiroyuki; Kawaba, Mariko; Yokomoto, Daisuke; Utsuro, Takehito; Fukuhara, Tomohiro

    The overall goal of this paper is to cross-lingually analyze multilingual blogs collected with a topic keyword. The framework of collecting multilingual blogs with a topic keyword is designed as the blog feed retrieval procedure. In this paper, we take an approach of collecting blog feeds rather than blog posts, mainly because we regard the former as a larger information unit in the blogosphere and prefer it as the information source for cross-lingual blog analysis. In the blog feed retrieval procedure, we also regard Wikipedia as a large scale ontological knowledge base for conceptually indexing the blogosphere. The underlying motivation of employing Wikipedia is in linking a knowledge base of well known facts and relatively neutral opinions with rather raw, user generated media like blogs, which include less well known facts and much more radical opinions. In our framework, first, in order to collect candidates of blog feeds for a given query, we use existing Web search engine APIs, which return a ranked list of blog posts, given a topic keyword. Next, we re-rank the list of blog feeds according to the number of hits of the topic keyword as well as closely related terms extracted from the Wikipedia entry in each blog feed. We compare the proposed blog feed retrieval method to existing Web search engine APIs and achieve significant improvement. We then apply the proposed blog distillation framework to the task of cross-lingually analyzing multilingual blogs collected with a topic keyword. Here, we cross-lingually and cross-culturally compare less well known facts and opinions that are closely related to a given topic. Results of cross-lingual blog analysis support the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  19. Evaluating the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Bakhsh, Zainab A.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Al-Muhayawi, Saad M.; ElAssouli, Sufian M.; Elfiky, Iman A.; Mourad, Samiha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome in pediatric and adult patients suffering from acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis as an alternative to antibiotics use. Methods: This pilot cohort trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014, among 15 patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis who were administered nasal drops of aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome at a dose of 15-30 drops every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical improvement and remission rate within the first 5 days. Results: The administration of C. speciosus resulted in an improvement in acute symptoms in 60% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours, and remission rate of 93% by day 5, without any recorded adverse effects. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant efficacy of the aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis. PMID:26219454

  20. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  1. Short lingual osteotomy without fixation: a new strategy for mandibular osteotomy known as "physiological positioning".

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshida, Masashi; Kohara, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takako; Minamizato, Tokutarou; Koga, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Yuya; Wanatabe, Etsuko; Nakao, Noriko; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    We describe the strategy of physiological positioning, which we regard as a new alternative treatment to conventional orthognathic operations, and treated 18 patients with skeletal mandibular prognathism using it. The positions of SNB, FMA, and Me were measured postoperatively to assess skeletal stability, changes in the angle and perpendicular length of the upper and lower central incisors were measured to assess dental stability, and we confirmed that both skeletal and dental stability were excellent. The width to which the jaw could be opened recovered early, and we saw only one case of disorder of the temporomandibular joint. Short lingual osteotomy with physiological positioning is an effective new approach to the treatment of deformities of the mandible. PMID:24380666

  2. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images.

  3. Short lingual osteotomy without fixation: a new strategy for mandibular osteotomy known as "physiological positioning".

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshida, Masashi; Kohara, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takako; Minamizato, Tokutarou; Koga, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Yuya; Wanatabe, Etsuko; Nakao, Noriko; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    We describe the strategy of physiological positioning, which we regard as a new alternative treatment to conventional orthognathic operations, and treated 18 patients with skeletal mandibular prognathism using it. The positions of SNB, FMA, and Me were measured postoperatively to assess skeletal stability, changes in the angle and perpendicular length of the upper and lower central incisors were measured to assess dental stability, and we confirmed that both skeletal and dental stability were excellent. The width to which the jaw could be opened recovered early, and we saw only one case of disorder of the temporomandibular joint. Short lingual osteotomy with physiological positioning is an effective new approach to the treatment of deformities of the mandible.

  4. In vitro assessment of competency for different lingual brackets in sliding mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lalithapriya, S; Kumaran, N Kurunji; Rajasigamani, K

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the static frictional resistance of different lingual brackets at different second order angulations when coupled with stainless steel (SS) archwire in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Methods: Using a modified jig, frictional resistance was evaluated under different conditions for a total of 270 upper premolar lingual brackets (0.018″ × 0.025″ - conventional - 7th generation and STb, self-ligating – evolution) with no in-built tip or torque together with 0.016″ × 0.022″ straight length SS archwires. For conventional brackets, the archwire was secured with 0.008″ preformed SS short ligature ties. Statistical Analysis: One way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD as post-hoc test was applied for degree wise and bracket wise comparison within dry condition and wet condition. For pair wise comparison Student's t-test was used. Results: Under both conditions the static frictional resistance is significantly higher for self-ligating brackets at 0°, while at 5° and 10° it is higher for 7th generation brackets. Statistically, significant difference does not exist at 0° between conventional brackets and the same was found at 5° and 10° between STb and self-ligating brackets. With an increase in second order angulations, all the evaluated samples exhibited an increased frictional value. Wet condition samples obtained a higher value than their corresponding dry condition. Conclusion: The self-ligating bracket evaluated in this in vitro study is not beneficial in reducing friction during en-mass retraction due to its interactive clip type. PMID:25657988

  5. Comparative morphological study on the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kouji; Zheng, Jin Hua; Kobayashi, Kan

    2008-08-01

    The morphological structure of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTC) in a rabbit were studied using LM and SEM and were compared to that of other animal species. Externally, the filiform papillae distributed on the anterior surface of the dorsal tongue were short and conical with a round base and had a flat area on their anterior upper half. The CTC of the conical filiform papillae had a roughly triangular plate-like structure with a round top. Several small round protrusions were found on both inclined planes of the triangle. Spearhead-like filiform papillae were distributed on the anterior edge of the lingual prominence and branched filiform papillae were on the posteriorly wide area of the prominence. These papillae on the prominence had a slightly ramified CTC that differed from that of the CTC of the conical filiform papillae distributed on the anterior tongue. Dome-like fungiform papillae were distributed among the conical filiform papillae of the anterior tongue and had a CTC with a roundish structure that was almost but, not quite spherical in appearance with 1 to 10 small round concave indentations for taste buds on their upper surface. The foliate papillae had approximately 15 parallel ridges separated by grooves. These ridges contained a parallel thin plate-like CTC exhibited after removal of the epithelium. The vallate papilla was comprised of a spherical central papilla and had a circular wall with a flower-like CTC almost resembling a carnation. The stereostructure of the rabbit's filiform CTC are comparatively described as being morphologically in between those of rodents and those of the guinea pig and Japanese serow. Such evolution has probably occurred due to the species unique masticatory and gustatory needs and functions. PMID:18975613

  6. Quantitative immunohistochemical investigation of the intrinsic vasodilator innervation of the guinea pig lingual artery.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Michael; Haberberger, Rainer V; Hempelmann, Gunter; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2003-01-31

    The vasculature of the guinea pig tongue is supplied by parasympathetic vasodilator nerve fibres of intrinsic origin. Here, we investigated first to what extent neuropeptides and the synthesizing enzymes of NO, CO and acetylcholine are contained and colocalized within periarterial lingual vasodilator axons of intrinsic origin. Then it was determined whether perivascular innervation by these fibre types changes with vascular diameter, in particular in comparison with the sensory substance P (SP)-positive and sympathetic noradrenergic vascular innervation. To this end, single, double and triple labelling histochemical techniques were performed on control tongues and tongues kept in short-term organotypic culture to induce degeneration of extrinsically originating nerve fibres. Cell bodies of intrinsic microganglia and their periarterial axons contained, simultaneously, NO synthase, vasoactive intestinal peptide and the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Additionally, neuropeptide Y (NPY) was observed in a small percentage (12%) of neurons that increased to 39% after 36 h of organotypic culture. The CO synthesizing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 was detected only in perikarya but not in periarterial axons. Intrinsic vasodilator fibres were invariably present at arteries down to a luminal diameter of 150 microm, and reached 65% of section profiles of smallest arterioles, while noradrenergic and substance P-positive axons reached 80% of arteriolar profiles. These findings show that the intrinsic lingual vasodilator innervation of the guinea pig is far extending although slightly less developed than that by sensory and sympathetic axons, and differs both in this aspect and in patterns of colocalization from that reported for other organs, e.g. lung and pelvic organs. PMID:12531400

  7. Human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stromal cells enhanced myelopoiesis in a mouse model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jung-Hwa; Park, Minhwa; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Yu-Hee; Woo, So-Youn; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have therapeutic potential for repairing tissue damage and are involved in immune regulation. MSCs are predominantly isolated from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue or placental tissue. Further to these well-known sources, the isolation of MSCs from human tonsils was previously reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role for tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) in BM reconstitution and application towards supplementing hematopoiesis in a mouse model of BM transplantation (BMT). Eight-week-old BALB/c female mice received 80 mg/kg busulfan (Bu)/200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (Cy) conditioning chemotherapy for BM ablation. Subsequently, human T-MSCs were injected into the Bu/Cy-treated mice with or without BM cells (BMCs) obtained from allogeneic C57BL/6 male mice. After 3 weeks, peripheral blood and BM was collected for analysis. The red blood cell count in the group that received BMCs had almost returned to normal, whereas mononuclear cell counts and BM cellularity were most improved in the T-MSCs + BMCs group. These results indicate that the T-MSCs enhanced myelopoiesis in the allogeneic BMT mouse model, as evidenced by the restoration of BM with hematopoietic cells, as well as increased myeloid colony formation in vitro. Therefore, T-MSCs may provide a source of MSCs to facilitate myelopoiesis and megakaryocytosis following BMT. PMID:27511380

  8. The lingual lymph node identified as a sentinel node on CT lymphography in a patient with cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Saito, M; Nishiyama, H; Oda, Y; Shingaki, S; Hayashi, T

    2012-01-01

    We performed CT lymphography on an 81-year-old female patient with a histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with no clinical or radiological evidence of cervical lymph node involvement. The lateral lingual lymph node was identified as a sentinel node, which is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a primary tumour. CT lymphography also showed draining lymphatics passing through the sublingual space, the medial side of the submandibular gland and near the hyoid bone and connected with the middle internal jugular node. Although metastasis to the lateral lingual lymph node is known as one of the crucial events in determining survival outcome in cancer of the tongue and floor of the mouth, very few reports are available on the imaging of the lateral lingual lymph node metastasis. This is the first report regarding the lateral lingual lymph node identified as a sentinel node demonstrated on CT lymphography. PMID:22074865

  9. [The rationale for the conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of the older age groups by the «soft» therapy methods].

    PubMed

    Lavrenova, G V; Nesterova, K I; Yaremenko, K V; Nesterova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient system for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of advanced and middle age based on the application of polyvalent bacteriophages in the combination with the physical factors and herbal medicines. The study involved 65 patients (39 women and 276 men) at the age from 65 to 73 years presenting with chronic tonsillitis. The treatment included washing the tonsillar lacunae with herbal infusion consisting of a tetterwort (Choledoniummajus) extract. This procedure was followed by phonophoresiswith the use of the combined polyvalent bacteriophage preparation in the non-liquid formulation during 7-10 days. The effectiveness of such treatment was evaluated based on the results of clinical examination and the analysis of the subjective feelings reported by the patients. In addition, the rosette-forming function of lymphocytes was estimated and palatine tonsil microbiotas in different patients were compared. The effectiveness of therapy was estimated at 89.2%. The positive outcome of the proposed treatment was documented in 78.6% of the cases within 6 months after the onset of therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of chronic tonsillitis with bacteriophagal preparations and herbal infusions in combination with thetraditionallow-frequency ultrasound treatment is highly efficacious (favourable outcome in 78.6% of the patients of middle and advanced age) without the use of antibiotic medications. PMID:27500573

  10. [The rationale for the conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of the older age groups by the «soft» therapy methods].

    PubMed

    Lavrenova, G V; Nesterova, K I; Yaremenko, K V; Nesterova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient system for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of advanced and middle age based on the application of polyvalent bacteriophages in the combination with the physical factors and herbal medicines. The study involved 65 patients (39 women and 276 men) at the age from 65 to 73 years presenting with chronic tonsillitis. The treatment included washing the tonsillar lacunae with herbal infusion consisting of a tetterwort (Choledoniummajus) extract. This procedure was followed by phonophoresiswith the use of the combined polyvalent bacteriophage preparation in the non-liquid formulation during 7-10 days. The effectiveness of such treatment was evaluated based on the results of clinical examination and the analysis of the subjective feelings reported by the patients. In addition, the rosette-forming function of lymphocytes was estimated and palatine tonsil microbiotas in different patients were compared. The effectiveness of therapy was estimated at 89.2%. The positive outcome of the proposed treatment was documented in 78.6% of the cases within 6 months after the onset of therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of chronic tonsillitis with bacteriophagal preparations and herbal infusions in combination with thetraditionallow-frequency ultrasound treatment is highly efficacious (favourable outcome in 78.6% of the patients of middle and advanced age) without the use of antibiotic medications.

  11. Exploratory studies on the therapeutic effects of Kumarabharana Rasa in the management of chronic tonsillitis among children at a tertiary care hospital of Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Arun Raj, G.R.; Shailaja, U.; Debnath, Parikshit; Banerjee, Subhadip; Rao, Prasanna N.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an Ayurvedic poly-herbo-mineral formulation Kumarabharana Rasa (KR) in the management of chronic tonsillitis (Tundikeri) in children has been assessed in this study. This clinical study was a double-arm study with a pre- and post-test design at the outpatient level in a tertiary Ayurveda hospital attached to a teaching institute located in district headquarters in Southern India. Patients (n = 40) with chronic tonsillitis satisfying diagnostic criteria and aged between 5 and 10 years were selected from the outpatient Department of Kaumarbhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan. Among them, 20 patients were treated with Kumarabharana rasa (tablet form) at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days (Group A). The other 20 patients were treated with Godhuma Vati (placebo) at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days (Group B). In both groups, Madhu was the Anupana advised. After completion of 30 days of treatment, the patients were assessed on the following day and another investigation took place 15 days later. Statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) in the reduction of all signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis after KR treatment were observed. These results indicate that Kumarabharana Rasa has an ameliorative effect in reducing the signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26870676

  12. Exploratory studies on the therapeutic effects of Kumarabharana Rasa in the management of chronic tonsillitis among children at a tertiary care hospital of Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Arun Raj, G R; Shailaja, U; Debnath, Parikshit; Banerjee, Subhadip; Rao, Prasanna N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of an Ayurvedic poly-herbo-mineral formulation Kumarabharana Rasa (KR) in the management of chronic tonsillitis (Tundikeri) in children has been assessed in this study. This clinical study was a double-arm study with a pre- and post-test design at the outpatient level in a tertiary Ayurveda hospital attached to a teaching institute located in district headquarters in Southern India. Patients (n = 40) with chronic tonsillitis satisfying diagnostic criteria and aged between 5 and 10 years were selected from the outpatient Department of Kaumarbhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan. Among them, 20 patients were treated with Kumarabharana rasa (tablet form) at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days (Group A). The other 20 patients were treated with Godhuma Vati (placebo) at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days (Group B). In both groups, Madhu was the Anupana advised. After completion of 30 days of treatment, the patients were assessed on the following day and another investigation took place 15 days later. Statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) in the reduction of all signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis after KR treatment were observed. These results indicate that Kumarabharana Rasa has an ameliorative effect in reducing the signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26870676

  13. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  14. Goodness, gracious, great balls of fire: A case of transient lingual papillitis following consumption of an Atomic Fireball.

    PubMed

    Raji, Kehinde; Ranario, Jennifer; Ogunmakin, Kehinde

    2016-05-15

    Transient lingual papillitis is a benign condition characterized by the inflammation of one or more fungiform papillae on the dorsolateral tongue. Although it is a common condition that affects more than half of the population, few cases have been reported in the dermatological literature. Therefore, it is a condition uncommonly recognized by dermatologists though it has a distinct clinical presentation that may be easily diagnosed by clinicians familiar with the entity. We report an interesting case of transient lingual papillitis in a 27 year-old healthy woman following the consumption of the hard candy, Atomic Fireball. We describe treatment and resolution of the condition, and its recurrence following re-exposure to the identified culprit. This report further reviews the literature to illustrate the clinical manifestations, etiology, differential diagnosis, course, and treatment of this condition.

  15. Goodness, gracious, great balls of fire: A case of transient lingual papillitis following consumption of an Atomic Fireball.

    PubMed

    Raji, Kehinde; Ranario, Jennifer; Ogunmakin, Kehinde

    2016-01-01

    Transient lingual papillitis is a benign condition characterized by the inflammation of one or more fungiform papillae on the dorsolateral tongue. Although it is a common condition that affects more than half of the population, few cases have been reported in the dermatological literature. Therefore, it is a condition uncommonly recognized by dermatologists though it has a distinct clinical presentation that may be easily diagnosed by clinicians familiar with the entity. We report an interesting case of transient lingual papillitis in a 27 year-old healthy woman following the consumption of the hard candy, Atomic Fireball. We describe treatment and resolution of the condition, and its recurrence following re-exposure to the identified culprit. This report further reviews the literature to illustrate the clinical manifestations, etiology, differential diagnosis, course, and treatment of this condition. PMID:27617517

  16. Analysis of the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In lingual orthodontic therapy, effective torque control of the incisors is crucial due to the biomechanical particularities associated with the point of force application and the tight link between third order deviations and vertical tooth position. Aim The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to analyze the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation (WIN) in combination with different finishing archwire dimensions. Methods Using a typodont of the upper arch carrying the WIN appliance, slot filling and undersized individualized β-titanium archwires were engaged. Horizontal forces ranging from 0 to 100 cN were applied at the central incisor by means of spring gauges. The resulting angular deviations were recorded and the corresponding torque moments were calculated. Results For fullsize archwires (0.018”×0.018” β-titanium and 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium), an initial torque play of 0-2° had to be overcome prior to the development of an effective torque moment. Thereafter, a linear correlation between torque angle and torque moment developed for both archwire dimensions with steeper slopes calculated for the specimens with the larger dimension. A torque moment of 2 Nmm required for effective torque correction was noted after a minimum of 2-3° of twist for the 0.018”×0.018” β-titanium wires as compared to 2-4° for the 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium study sample. When undersized archwires were analyzed (0.0175”×0.0175” β-titanium), the measured torque play ranged from 5-7°. After 8-12° of torque angle, the threshold of 2 Nmm was reached. A linear relationship between twist angle and torque moment in which the steepness of the slopes was generally flatter than the ones calculated for the slot filling archwires was noted. Conclusions Given the high precision of the bracket slot-archwire-combination provided with the WIN appliance, an effective torque control can be clinically

  17. The active ion transport properties of canine lingual epithelia in vitro. Implications for gustatory transduction.

    PubMed

    Desimone, J A; Heck, G L; Mierson, S; Desimone, S K

    1984-05-01

    The electrophysiological properties of the dorsal and ventral canine lingual epithelium are studied in vitro. The dorsal epithelium contains a special ion transport system activated by mucosal solutions hyperosmotic in NaCl or LiCl. Hyperosmotic KCl is significantly less effective as an activator of this system. The lingual frenulum does not contain the transport system. In the dorsal surface it is characterized by a rapid increase in inward current and can be quantitated as a second component in the time course of either the open-circuit potential or short-circuit current when the mucosal solution is hyperosmotic in NaCl or LiCl. The increased inward current (hyperosmotic response) can be eliminated by amiloride (10(-4) M). The specific location of this transport system in the dorsal surface and the fact that it operates over the concentration range characteristic of mammalian salt taste suggests a possible link to gustatory transduction. This possibility is tested by recording neural responses in the rat to NaCl and KCl over a concentration range including the hyperosmotic. We demonstrate that amiloride specifically blocks the response to NaCl over the hyperosmotic range while affecting the KCl response significantly less. The results suggest that gustatory transduction for NaCl is mediated by Na entry into the taste cells via the same amiloride-sensitive pathway responsible for the hyperosmotic response in vitro. Further studies of the in vitro system give evidence for paracellular as well as transcellular current paths. The transmural current-voltage relations are linear under both symmetrical and asymmetrical conditions. After ouabain treatment under symmetrical conditions, the short-circuit current decays to zero. The increase in resistance, though significant, is small, which suggests a sizeable shunt pathway for current. Flux measurements show that sodium is absorbed under symmetrical conditions. Mucosal solutions hyperosmotic in various sugars also induce

  18. Microvasculature of the lingual papillae in primates and insectivores--fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, N; Okada, S

    1994-10-01

    The microvascular architecture of the fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae was investigated under scanning electron microscope in man, common squirrel monkeys, common marmosets, common tree shrews (primates), large Japanese moles and dwarf shrews (insectivores) utilizing microvascular corrosion casts. The fungiform papilla of the lingual apex in man was supplied by an intrapapillary capillary network with a globular pattern. It was composed of 10-15 capillary loops in a circular arrangement and 5-7 thick capillaries in the center. The fungiform papilla of the lingual body was supplied by a dense capillary network on the top and lateral surfaces. That in other primates was supplied by a cylindrical capillary network and loop formation was seen on the top surface. That in insectivores was supplied by a thin cylindrical network with coarse meshes, at the tips of which were observed 2 or 3 capillary rings in the mole and only one in the dwarf shrew. The vallate papilla in primates was supplied by an intrapapillary capillary network with a globular pattern, and showed irregularly tortuous capillary loops on its top surface. The vallum was supplied by a capillary network in man and usually one or two rows of loops arranged in a circle in other primates. The vallate papilla in insectivores was supplied by a doughnut-like capillary network with a recess on the top surface, and an indistinctly low vallum by a low undulating network. The foliate papillae were most developed in man, and each lobule was supplied by capillaries passing longitudinal to it and capillary loops in 5-10 regular rows on the top, but 3-5 rudimentary lobules in the squirrel monkey and marmoset. In the two species, each lobule was supplied by one arteriole, one venule and a coarse capillary network continuing from the interpapillary network. No foliate papilla was observed, but large conical papillae were noted in the tree shrew and insectivores. In conclusion, the intrapapillary vasculature appeared

  19. Derivation of a finite-element model of lingual deformation during swallowing from the mechanics of mesoscale myofiber tracts obtained by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovic, Boban; Kojic, Milos; Liang, Alvin; Wedeen, Van J.; Gilbert, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between lingual myoarchitecture and mechanics during swallowing, we performed a finite-element (FE) simulation of lingual deformation employing mesh aligned with the vector coordinates of myofiber tracts obtained by diffusion tensor imaging with tractography in humans. Material properties of individual elements were depicted in terms of Hill's three-component phenomenological model, assuming that the FE mesh was composed of anisotropic muscle and isotropic connective tissue. Moreover, the mechanical model accounted for elastic constraints by passive and active elements from the superior and inferior directions and the effect of out-of-plane muscles and connective tissue. Passive bolus effects were negligible. Myofiber tract activation was simulated over 500 ms in 1-ms steps following lingual tip association with the hard palate and incorporated specifically the accommodative and propulsive phases of the swallow. Examining the displacement field, active and passive muscle stress, elemental stretch, and strain rate relative to changes of global shape, we demonstrate that lingual reconfiguration during these swallow phases is characterized by (in sequence) the following: 1) lingual tip elevation and shortening in the anterior-posterior direction; 2) inferior displacement related to hyoglossus contraction at its inferior-most position; and 3) dominant clockwise rotation related to regional contraction of the genioglossus and contraction of the hyoglossus following anterior displacement. These simulations demonstrate that lingual deformation during the indicated phases of swallowing requires temporally patterned activation of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and delineate a method to ascertain the mechanics of normal and pathological swallowing. PMID:20689096

  20. Stafne’s bone cavity: An unusual case with involvement of the buccal and lingual mandibular plates

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2014-01-01

    Lingual mandibular bone defects, also known as Stafne bone cavity (SC), are unilateral asymptomatic radiolucencies, generally seen in the mandibular angle, below the inferior alveolar canal. Although panoramic radiographies normally offer enough information to make a correct diagnosis, additional studies are often required, especially in atypical cases. The present report describes an atypical presentation of a Stafne’s bone cavity in a 78 years-old male patient. In this particular case, an asymptomatic and radiolucid lesion was observed during a routine dental examination. The computed tomography (CT) showed an involvement of both lingual and buccal mandibular plates producing a tunnel-like lesion. No history of mandibular trauma or surgery was refered. An additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was made to discard submandibular gland pathology and to confirm the diagnosis. Since SC is asymptomatic and nonprogressive, a conservative approach based in clinical and radiological follow-ups was considered to be the most suitable treatment option. Key words:Stafne bone cavity, lingual mandibular bone defect, case report. PMID:24596643

  1. A comparison of morbidity following the removal of lower third molars by the lingual split and surgical bur methods.

    PubMed

    Absi, E G; Shepherd, J P

    1993-06-01

    Fifty-two consecutive healthy patients with bilateral, similarly impacted mandibular third molars were studied. For each patient, both third molars were removed at the same operation by the same experienced operator. On one side, the lingual split method by chisel was used; on the other, the buccal approach with surgical bur. Standard preoperative and postoperative drug regimens were used. Pain, facial swelling (visual analogue scales), and lingual and labial sensory disturbance were recorded for each side by the patients at home 6, 24, and 48 h and 7 days after surgery. Wound healing was assessed at 4 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between methods in relation to pain, facial swelling, sensory loss, infection, or periodontal pocket depth distal to the second molar, although 2% of third molars removed by chisel had lingual sensory disturbance at 7 days, as compared with 8% where burs had been used. There were no statistically significant differences between duration of procedures; mean operating time with burs was 8.28 min (range 4-15 min) and with chisels 7.57 min (range 4-15 min). This study provided no evidence of difference in either efficiency or outcome between two standard methods of removing lower third molars. PMID:8340625

  2. [The tonsils and adenoids as a site of infection and the cause of obstruction].

    PubMed

    Battistini, A; Siepe, F; Marvasi, R

    1998-01-01

    The failure to eradicate group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from the pharynx is partly due to a low compliance, but above all, an alteration of the oropharyngeal microbiological flora: reduction of alpha-haemolytic streptococci which inhibit group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and increase of microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis. These latter act indirectly destroying the beta-lactamic ring of penicillins. However, this obstacle is overcome by the use of antibiotics which do not contain beta-lactamic rings such as macrolides or associating amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or with new cephalosporins which are more resistant to beta lactamases. To restrict the diffusion of resistance to antibiotics, it is essential to limit their use diagnosing streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis more precisely, thanks to an improved use of micro-biological diagnostic tests and by a more extended use of tonsillectomy in recurrent tonsillitis (more than 6-7 in 1-2 years). Adenoiditis is closely related to the post nasal drip syndrome, to recurrent otitis media and to otitis media with effusion. All these situations could, therefore, represent an indication, although not well defined, for adenoidectomy. Nasopharyngeal obstruction due to adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy becomes critical during sleep when the hypotony of the upper airway muscles becomes additional to the anatomical obstruction. At this point the inspiratory effort required and the consequent decrease of intra airway pressure increase the pharyngeal obstruction suctioning the pharyngeal walls toward the median line. The resulting clinical picture is defined as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (idiopathic), to be distinguished from SDB due to cranio-facial abnormalities or neuromuscular diseases. SDB includes both the more serious sleep apnea syndrome and the less severe upper airway respiratory resistance syndrome. A combination of

  3. CD1c-Related DCs that Express CD207/Langerin, but Are Distinguishable from Langerhans Cells, Are Consistently Present in Human Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Anne; Olivieri, Charles-Vivien; Vitale, Sébastien; Bailleux, Sonanda; Castillo, Laurent; Giordanengo, Valérie; Maryanski, Janet L.; Segura, Elodie; Doglio, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). In the present study, we analyzed the content of several child and adult tonsils in order to characterize in more detail the phenotype of these tonsillar CD207-expressing DCs (tCD207 DCs) and to compare it with that of other human DC subsets. We showed that all the human tonsils studied (n = 12) contained significant proportions of tCD207 DCs among tonsillar cells expressing HLA-DR. Moreover, the presence of tCD207 DCs in tonsils from young children free of EBV infection indicated that these cells could be established early in the tonsil independently of EBV infection. We also showed that tCD207 DCs, that were found mainly located within the tonsillar lymphoid stroma, were distinguishable from LCs by the level of expression of CD1a and EpCAM, and also from human inflammatory DCs by the lack of CD1a, CD206, and CD14 expression. Detailed analysis of cell surface DC markers showed that tCD207 DCs were unrelated to CD141+ DCs or macrophages, but defined a subtype of tonsillar DCs closely related to myeloid resident CD1c DCs. Since it was established that blood CD1c myeloid DCs exhibit plasticity and are capable of expressing CD207 notably in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, it is tempting to speculate that CD207+ CD1c+ DCs may play a specific immune role. PMID:27252701

  4. Immune Defense in Upper Airways: A Single-Cell Study of Pathogen-Specific Plasmablasts and Their Migratory Potentials in Acute Sinusitis and Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Palkola, Nina V.; Blomgren, Karin; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Puohiniemi, Ritvaleena; Kantele, Jussi M.; Kantele, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high frequency of upper respiratory tract (URT) infections and use of the nasal mucosa as route for vaccination, the local immune mechanism and dissemination of effector lymphocytes from the URT have been insufficiently characterized. To devise a single-cell approach for studying the mucosal immune response in the URT, we explored URT-originating B effector lymphocytes in the circulation of patients with one of two common respiratory infections, acute sinusitis or tonsillitis. Methods Patients with acute sinusitis (n = 13) or tonsillitis (n = 11) were investigated by ELISPOT for circulating pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) of IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes approximately one week after the onset of symptoms. These cells’ potential to home into tissues was explored by assessing their expression of tissue-specific homing receptors α4β7, L-selectin, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA). Results Pathogen-specific ASCs were detected in the circulation of all patients, with a geometric mean of 115 (95% CI 46–282) /106 PBMC in sinusitis, and 48 (27–88) in tonsillitis. These responses were mainly dominated by IgG. In sinusitis α4β7 integrin was expressed by 24% of the ASCs, L-selectin by 82%, and CLA by 21%. The proportions for tonsillitis were 15%, 80%, and 23%, respectively. Healthy individuals had no ASCs. Conclusions URT infections–acute sinusitis and tonsillitis–both elicited a response of circulating pathogen-specific plasmablasts. The magnitude of the response was greater in sinusitis than tonsillitis, but the homing receptor profiles were similar. Human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid structures were found to disseminate immune effector cells with a distinct homing profile. PMID:27128095

  5. Gross and microscopic observations on the lingual structure of the Florida Manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Levin, M J; Pfeiffer, C J

    2002-10-01

    The tongue of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was studied macroscopically, light and electron microscopically. The tongue was slender, muscular and firmly fixed in the oral cavity; only the cranial tip was free and mobile. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed over the dorsal surface of the rostral tongue. Multiple raised, round fungiform-like papillae were distributed over most of the dorsum. Typical fungiform papillae were restricted to the lateral margins of the tongue. Foliate papillae, presenting as multi-fossulate openings, were noted on the caudolateral margins. Open pits were located on the dorsocaudal surface and lateral walls. Microscopic examination showed that most of the lingual dorsum was covered with a thick stratified squamous epithelium. Open pits led to well-developed mucous salivary glands. Glands within the foliate papillae were mostly mucous, although some seromucous glands were present. Taste buds were restricted to the epithelium of the foliate papillae. Throughout the tongue, striated muscle was abundant below the epithelium. Blood vessels, lymph channels and nerve fibres were freely distributed throughout the intermuscular stroma. Nerve fibres reacted positively with neurone specific enolase (NSE) antibody throughout the tongue, including nerve bundles, glands and taste buds. Clear to translucent vacuoles were found juxtaposed to nuclei in the stratum spinosum in the foliate papillae epithelium.

  6. Evidence-based outcomes following inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury and repair: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kushnerev, E; Yates, J M

    2015-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual (LN) are susceptible to iatrogenic surgical damage. Systematically review recent clinical evidence regarding IAN/LN repair methods and to develop updated guidelines for managing injury. Recent publications on IAN/LN microsurgical repair from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were screened by title/abstract. Main texts were appraised for exclusion criteria: no treatment performed or results provided, poor/lacking procedural description, cohort <3 patients. Of 366 retrieved papers, 27 were suitable for final analysis. Treatment type for injured IANs/LNs depended on injury type, injury timing, neurosensory disturbances and intra-operative findings. Best functional nerve recovery occurred after direct apposition and suturing if nerve ending gaps were <10 mm; larger gaps required nerve grafting (sural/greater auricular nerve). Timing of microneurosurgical repair after injury remains debated. Most authors recommend surgery when neurosensory deficit shows no improvement 90 days post-diagnosis. Nerve transection diagnosed intra-operatively should be repaired in situ; minor nerve injury repair can be delayed. No consensus exists regarding optimal methods and timing for IAN/LN repair. We suggest a schematic guideline for treating IAN/LN injury, based on the most current evidence. We acknowledge that additional RCTs are required to provide definitive confirmation of optimal treatment approaches. PMID:26059454

  7. Snapshots of the Universe: A Multi-Lingual Astronomy Art Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Rachael; Jackson, L.; Carlberg, J.; Johnson, K.; Marchand, R.; Sivakoff, G.; Czekala, I.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Martinez, O.; Wong, A.; Zasowski, G.; Skies, Dark; Kids, Bright

    2012-05-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a dynamic education and public outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in rural and underserved communities. DSBK thrives on the efforts of undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral volunteers. Early in the program, our volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with “English as a second language” students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate concepts across the language barrier. Building on this initial success, our simple art project has evolved into a full educational children’s book targeted at 2nd - 5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. Here we present our 'Snapshots of the Universe' for broad distribution to classrooms, school libraries and homes, with emphasis on those serving multi-lingual populations, as a unique tool for introducing astronomy concepts at the elementary school level.

  8. Phonological processing in post-lingual deafness and cochlear implant outcome.

    PubMed

    Lazard, D S; Lee, H J; Gaebler, M; Kell, C A; Truy, E; Giraud, A L

    2010-02-15

    Cochlear implants work well, yet the outcome is not fully accounted by the data routinely available to the clinician, and remains unpredictable. A more in-depth understanding of the neural mechanisms that determine the clinical recovery after cochlear implantation is warranted, as they may provide the background for an accurate individual prognosis. In this study in post-lingually deaf adults, we show that while clinical data offer only prognosis trends, fMRI data can prospectively distinguish good from poor implant performers. We show that those deaf cochlear implant (CI) candidates who will become good performers rely on a dorsal phonological route when performing a rhyming task on written regular words. In contrast, those who will become poor performers involve a ventral temporo-frontal route to perform the same task, and abnormally recruit the right supramarginal gyrus, a region that is contralateral to classical phonological regions. These functional patterns reveal that deafness either enhances "normal" phonological processing, or prompts a substitution of phonological processing by lexico-semantic processing. These findings thus suggest that a simple behavioral pre-operative exploration of phonological strategies during reading, to determine which route is predominantly used by CI candidates, might fruitfully inform the outcome. PMID:19931402

  9. Intracellular characteristics and responses of taste bud and lingual cells of the mudpuppy

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Intracellular recordings of membrane potentials of mudpuppy lingual cells were made with micropipette electrodes. Three types of cells were distinguished by their responses to chemical stimulation. Surface epithelial (SE) cells outside of taste buds responded with large membrane potential and resistance changes to a variety of stimuli representing the four taste qualities. Salts and acids evoked particularly large potential changes, and MgCl2, acids, and quinine greatly increased the membrane resistance. One type of taste bud cell (TB-1) was characterized by large depolarizations to K salts, and the other type of taste bud cell (TB-2) characteristically hyperpolarized to MgCl2, acid, and sugar solutions. Membrane resistance changes accompanying TB-1 and TB-2 cell responses were relatively small compared to those of SE cells. Electrotonic coupling was observed between pairs of SE and TB-2 cells but not for pairs of TB-1 cells nor cells of different types. After recording cell responses, dye-marking allowed verification of results in situ and histologically. From the identification of cells in section, it is hypothesized the TB-1 and TB- 2 cells correspond to light and dark cells, respectively. Responses of TB-1 cells imply a taste receptive function; wheras TB 2-cell responses suggest secretory, supportive, and (or) receptive functions. Factors affecting cellular characteristics, non-taste bud cell responsiveness, response mechanisms, and function of electrotonic coupling are discussed in relation to taste reception. PMID:702111

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor with atypical histological features occurring in the palatine tonsil: an uncommon neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    PubMed

    Macarenco, Ricardo Silvestre; Bacchi, Carlos E; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio

    2006-11-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura. Although this tumor has been described in other sites, including the head and neck area, in the oropharynx it is extremely rare. We report the first case of a SFT arising from the palatine tonsil of a 62-year-old man. The tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells distributed in a haphazard pattern and presented atypical histological features such as hypercellular areas and high mitotic count. Immunohistochemical studies showed strong positivity for CD34 and bcl-2, and weak positivity for desmin. Smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and cytokeratines were negative. The patient was well without disease 1 year after surgery.

  11. Detection, enumeration and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in pig tonsils at slaughter in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco

    2014-05-01

    Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of

  12. Vimentin, cytokeratin 8 and cytokeratin 18 are not specific markers for M-cells in human palatine tonsils

    PubMed Central

    KOSHI, RACHEL; MUSTAFA, YARDULAK; PERRY, MARTA E.

    2001-01-01

    Standard immunohistochemical methods were used to detect the presence of vimentin, cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18, macrophages and Langerhans cells in the human tonsillar epithelium in formalin-fixed and frozen tissue specimens. Vimentin detection was restricted to infiltrating cells of the lymphoid series, dendritic and vascular endothelial cells. All epithelial cells were negative. Cytokeratin 8 and 18 were readily detected in a large proportion of epithelial cells lining the crypt, but these cells bore no resemblance to the intestinal M-cells. Langerhans cells and macrophages were seen in both the oropharyngeal and crypt epithelium and were more common in the latter. This study confirms the presence of antigen-presenting cells, macrophages and Langerhans cells in the tonsillar epithelium and shows that intermediate filament proteins, vimentin, cytokeratin 8 and 18 are unreliable markers for human tonsillar M-cells, if indeed such cells exist in human tonsils. PMID:11787820

  13. A rare occurrence of lymphoepithelial cyst in the palatine tonsil: a case report and discussion of the etiopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castro, João Gabriel L; Ferreira, Geovane M; Mendonça, Elismauro F; Castro, Luciano A

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts are uncommon benign lesions that present as painless yellowish nodules arising from various sites in the oral cavity and other parts of the body. Their etiopathogenesis is controversial, but most authors have assumed that they develop from obstruction of crypts in oral lymphoid aggregates, thus they are not true cysts but pseudocysts of retention. This paper describes a case of a large lymphoepithelial cyst located in the tonsil of a 21-year-old man complaining of a lump in the throat for four months. The patient underwent excisional biopsy, and the histopathological features showed squamous epithelium surrounded by lymphoid tissue, which were characteristically consistent with a lymphoepithelial cyst. We discuss the etiopathogenesis of these lesions and treatment modalities, which can consist of conservative surgery or only follow-up examination.

  14. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4–45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4–13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10–58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age. PMID:26228042

  15. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4-45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4-13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10-58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age.

  16. Effects of varying fixed lingual apex positions on tongue pressure during straw drinking.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Ishida, R; Ohkubo, M; Sugiyama, T; Abe, S

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the impact of tongue-thrusting on lingual pressure during fluid intake with a straw. In this study, 12 healthy young dentate individuals (two women and 10 men; 19-33 years) were instructed to drink 15 mL of water with a regular drinking straw at 37 °C, when indicated by the investigator. Participants drank after adjusting tongue position to one of the following patterns: (i) Holding the tip of the straw between the lips (Normal Position: NP), (ii) Sticking out the tongue to the vermilion zone of the lower lip and inserting the straw 1 cm past the front teeth (Tongue-thrusting Position: TP). Five recordings were conducted for each participant in a randomised order. To measure tongue pressure during swallowing, a specially designed 0.1-mm thick sensor sheet (Nitta, Osaka, Japan) with a tactile system for measurement of pressure distribution (I-SCAN; Nitta) was used. Duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure were analysed based on the wave of tongue pressure recorded while water was swallowed. Magnitude, duration and integrated value of tongue pressure were significantly lower in TP than in NP at the median line (Ch1-3). Magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure at the lateral part of the tongue (Ch5) were significantly lower in TP than in NP. When duration, maximal magnitude and integrated values were compared by channel, no significant differences were observed in NP, but a significant difference was found between Ch3 and the lateral areas Ch4/Ch 5 in TP. When the tongue was thrust forward, movement dynamics of the entire tongue changed and influenced contact between the tongue and palate during liquid intake with a straw. The impact was noticeably weaker on the median line than in lateral areas.

  17. Single stage circumferential lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty in near obliterative bulbar urethra stricture: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Umesh; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Garg, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This is a prospective study of the use and efficacy of a novel technique of circumferential tubularised lingual mucosal graft (LMG) in obliterative and near obliterative bulbar urethral stricture of >2 cm where excisional and augmented anastomotic urethroplasty are not feasible. Materials and Methods: The stenotic urethral segment was opened dorsally in midline and fibrosed urethra was excised taking care to preserve the healthy spongiosum tissue. LMG (av. Length 3 cm) was placed from one end of corporal body towards spongy tissue in a circumferential manner. Another LMG was placed in similar manner to deal with longer stricture. The urethra was tubularised over 14 Fr silicone catheter. Results: A total of 12 men, of mean age 47 years underwent this procedure. The mean follow up period was 11 months starting from July 2014 till manuscript submission. Follow up included voiding cystourethrogram at 3 weeks, cystoscopy at 3 months (one patient didn’t turned up) and subsequent follow up. Mean stricture length was 4.66 cm (range, 3–8.5 cm) and mean operative time was 195 min. (range, 160 to 200 min.). The technique was successful (normal voiding with no need for any post-operative procedure) in 11(91.6%) patients. One patient developed early recurrence at 4 month of surgery and had anastomotic stricture which was successfully managed by direct visual internal urethrotomy. Conclusion: Single stage circumferential tubularised graft urethroplasty is an excellent technique for strictures that include segments of obliterative and near obliterative diseased urethra. It provide a wider neourethra than patch graft urethroplasty. PMID:27141182

  18. The effect of cochlear implantation and post-operative rehabilitation on acoustic voice analysis in post-lingual hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sabah M; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Farahat, Mohamad; Bukhari, Manal; Murry, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Post-lingual deaf adults can develop some vocal abnormalities similar to those developed in pre-lingual deaf individuals. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cochlear implantation followed by post-operative rehabilitation on voice acoustics in post-lingual hearing impaired adults with different durations of hearing loss. The study included 35 post-lingual hearing impaired adults who underwent cochlear implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of their hearing loss. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to whether they received auditory rehabilitation or not. Using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) parameters, comparisons were made between each subgroup of patients and the normal MDVP Saudi database, and between subgroups of patients. Most of the patients in the two groups reported significant improvement in their MDVP results post-implantation. Further, significantly deviant MDVP parameters were reported in the group of patients with longer duration of hearing loss. Patients who received rehabilitation significantly improved more than those who did not. In conclusion, it appears that cochlear implantation improves the auditory control of voice production in post-lingual deaf adults. Also, it is obvious that cochlear implantation at an early stage of hearing loss gives better results on voice control, especially if augmented with auditory rehabilitation. PMID:21331786

  19. Influence of ligation method on friction resistance of lingual brackets with different second-order angulations: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Graziane Olímpio; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Prieto, Lucas; Prieto, Marcos Gabriel do Lago; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate stainless steel archwire static friction in active and passive self-ligating lingual and conventional brackets with second-order angulations. Methods: Two conventional lingual brackets for canines (STb light/Ormco; PSWb/Tecnident), and two self-ligating brackets, one active (In-Ovation L/GAC) and the other passive (3D/ Forestadent), were evaluated. A stainless steel archwire was used at 0°, 3° and 5° angulations. Metal ligatures, conventional elastic ligatures, and low friction elastic ligatures were also tested. A universal testing machine applied friction between brackets and wires, simulating sliding mechanics, to produce 2-mm sliding at 3 mm/minute speed. Results: Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between brackets and angulations (p < 0.001). Tukey test indicated that the highest frictional resistance values were observed at 5° angulation for In-Ovation L, PSWb bracket with non conventional ligature, and STb bracket with metal ligature. As for 3D, PSWb with conventional or metal ligatures, and STb brackets with non conventional ligature, showed significantly lower static frictional resistance with 0° angulation. At 0° angulation, STb brackets with metal ties, In-Ovation L brackets and 3D brackets had the lowest frictional resistance. Conclusions: As the angulation increased from 0° to 3°, static friction resistance increased. When angulation increased from 3° to 5°, static friction resistance increased or remained the same. Self-ligating 3D and In-Ovation L brackets, as well as conventional STb brackets, seem to be the best option when sliding mechanics is used to perform lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:27653262

  20. Interaction of gustatory and lingual somatosensory perceptions at the cortical level in the human: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cerf-Ducastel, B; Van de Moortele, P F; MacLeod, P; Le Bihan, D; Faurion, A

    2001-05-01

    The present study has investigated interaction at the cortical level in the human between two major components of flavor perception, pure chemical gustatory and lingual somatosensory perception. Twelve subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study and tasted six stimuli, applied on the whole tongue, among which four were pure gustatory stimuli (NaCl, aspartame, quinine and HCl, pH 2.4 or 2.2) and two were both taste and lingual somatosensory stimuli, i.e. somato-gustatory stimuli (HCl, pH 1.6 or 1.5, and aluminum potassium sulfate). Functional images were acquired with an echo planar sequence on a 3 T system and were individually processed by correlation with the temporal perception profile. Both sets of stimuli showed activation in the same cortical areas, namely the insula, the rolandic operculum (base of the pre- and post-central gyri), the frontal operculum and the temporal operculum, confirming a wide overlap of taste and lingual somatosensory representations. However, the relative activation across areas and the analysis of co-activated areas across all runs for each set of stimuli allowed discrimination of taste and somatosensory modalities. Factor analysis of correspondences indicated different patterns of activation across the sub-insular and opercular regions, depending on the gustatory or somato-gustatory nature of the stimuli. For gustatory stimuli different activation patterns for the superior and inferior parts of the insula suggested a difference in function between these two insular sub-regions. Furthermore, the left inferior insula was co-activated with the left angular gyrus, a structure involved in semantic processing. In contrast, only somato-gustatory stimuli specifically produced a simultaneous and symmetrical activation of both the left and right rolandic opercula, which include a part of the sensory homunculus dedicated to the tactile representation of oral structures.

  1. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction. PMID:26358641

  2. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-11

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction.

  3. Tonsils of the Soft Palate Do Not Mediate the Response of Pigs to Oral Vaccination with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Boadella, Mariana; Casal, Carmen; Bezos, Javier; Mazariegos, María; Martín, MariPaz; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Villar, Margarita; Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Asensio, Fernando; Sicilia, Javier; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón A.; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis causes animal tuberculosis (TB) in cattle, humans, and other mammalian species, including pigs. The goal of this study was to experimentally assess the responses of pigs with and without a history of tonsillectomy to oral vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis and challenge with a virulent M. bovis field strain, to compare pig and wild boar responses using the same vaccination model as previously used in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), to evaluate the use of several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and lateral flow tests for in vivo TB diagnosis in pigs, and to verify if these tests are influenced by oral vaccination with inactivated M. bovis. At necropsy, the lesion and culture scores were 20% to 43% higher in the controls than those in the vaccinated pigs. Massive M. bovis growth from thoracic tissue samples was observed in 4 out of 9 controls but in none of the 10 vaccinated pigs. No effect of the presence or absence of tonsils was observed on these scores, suggesting that tonsils are not involved in the protective response to this vaccine in pigs. The serum antibody levels increased significantly only after challenge. At necropsy, the estimated sensitivities of the ELISAs and dual path platform (DPP) assays ranged from 89% to 94%. In the oral mucosa, no differences in gene expression were observed in the control group between the pigs with and without tonsils. In the vaccinated group, the mRNA levels for chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7), interferon beta (IFN-β), and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) were higher in pigs with tonsils. Complement component 3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increased with vaccination and decreased after M. bovis challenge. This information is relevant for pig production in regions that are endemic for M. bovis and for TB vaccine research. PMID:24920604

  4. [The role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in the development of hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring and atopic march in the children].

    PubMed

    Shabaldina, E V; Shabaldin, A V; Riazantsev, S V; Simbirtsev, S V

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1b), its endogenous receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra), and interleukin IL-4 have been shown to play a role in immunopathological processes, such as the development of hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring and atopic march. However, the influence of Il-1 and IL-4 gene polymorphisms as etiological factors of this pathology remains obscure. The objective of the present work was to study characteristics of gene polymorphisms of proinflammatory and proallergic cytokines depending on the degree of hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring (LPR) and atopic march to selected species of the opportunistic pathogenic biota. Polymorphisms of the following genes were investigated in the children, residents of the Kemerovo region, presenting with hypertrophic tonsils of LPR: IL-1b+3953 (C->T), IL4 (70 bp VNTR), and IL-1Ra (86 bp VNTR). IL-1b, IL-1Ra, and IL-4 genotypes were determined by PCR of autosomal DNAs obtained from 129 children presenting with hypertrophic tonsils and 41 healthy children with the use of conventional genetic-statistical methods. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by the logistic regression models for each locus and after adjusting polymorphisms for the neighbouring loci. The 2R, 2R, Il-1Ra and T, T IL-1b genotypes occurred more frequently in the patients with isolated adenoid vegetations (20.93% and 25.58% respectively) than in the healthy children (4.95%) (OR=3.78, p=0.049; OR=3.25, p=0.047). The results of this study indicate that IL-1b and IL-1Ra gene polymorphisms play a role in the development of clinically significant features in the lymphoid pharyngeal ring.

  5. A multicentric, open label, randomised, postmarketing efficacy study comparing multidose of lincomycin hydrochloride capsule 500 mg with multidose cefpodoxime proxetil tablet 200 mg in patients with tonsillitis, sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kothadiya, Ajay

    2012-08-01

    Tonsillitis causes considerable short and medium term morbidity, and can be recurrent. Sinusitis can be acute (less than 4 weeks), subacute (4-8 weeks) or chronic (8 weeks or more). To study the comparative efficacy and safety of multidose treatments of lincomycin hydrochloride 500 mg capsules against cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg tablets on its outcome in the Indian scenario are the aims and objective of the study. A total of 41 tonsillitis, sinusitis cases of either gender aged above 18 years were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of sonsillitis, sinusitis was made based on examination of symptoms and throat swab. A randomised treatment of either lincomycin hydrochloride 500 mg capsules or cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg tablets twice daily for five days alongwith other concomitant medications depending on related symptoms was given to 40 patients. At the end of study, all patients were re-evaluated and the response rate was assessed. The most common clinical symptoms were body temperature, headache, throat pain, postnasal discharge, mucopus, odynophagia, sinus tenderness, nasal congestion, pharyngeal congestion and tonsillar congestion. The overall response rate of lincomycin hydrochloride in all the symptoms except headache was more effective than cefpodoxime proxetil. Out of 100% (n = 20) patients in each group, 67.89% in lincomycin and 52.27% in cefpodoxime patients achieved complete relief, in all the clinical symptoms. The study suggests that lincomycin hydrochloride capsules, a conventional antibiotic indicates effective treatment for relief from tonsillitis and sinusitis, as compared to new third generation antibiotic.

  6. IgA nephropathy and tonsils--an approach from the structure of IgA1 produced by tonsillar lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Horie, Akeyo; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Iwase, Hitoo; Sugiyama, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    Human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which is the predominant subtype to be deposited in glomeruli in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), has a unique mucine-like structure in its hinge region. Namely, it contains O-glycans and proline-rich peptides We previously observed underglycosylation of the hinge region in serum and deposited IgA1 in IgAN. On the other hand, clinical development and exacerbation of IgAN are frequently preceded by episodes of upper respiratory tract infection, and palatine tonsils represent the predominant immunocompetent tissue of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, we hypothesized that tonsils were one of the origins of glomerular IgA1 in IgAN, and investigated the O-glycan structure of IgA1 produced by tonsillar lymphocytes (tonsillar IgA1). A significant increase in asialo-agalacto type O-glycans was found in the tonsillar IgA1 hinge in IgAN. These results suggest that the tonsils produce underglycosylated IgA1 molecules, which enter the bloodstream and are then deposited in the glomeruli.

  7. Oral inoculation of young dairy calves with Mycoplasma bovis results in colonization of tonsils, development of otitis media and local immunity.

    PubMed

    Maunsell, Fiona; Brown, Mary B; Powe, Joshua; Ivey, James; Woolard, Matthew; Love, Wees; Simecka, Jerry W

    2012-01-01

    Because M. bovis otitis media is an economically important problem, there is a need to understand the pathogenesis of disease, not only to improve our understanding of the factors contributing to the development of this disease but also to inform the development of improved diagnostic tests and therapy. Oral ingestion of M. bovis-contaminated milk is linked, but not definitively proven, to development of otitis media. In the current study, we demonstrate that oral ingestion of M. bovis infected colostrum can result in an ascending infection and development of otitis media. Importantly, M. bovis was found to have a previously unrecognized tendency for colonization of the tonsils of calves, which most likely contributed to the subsequent development of otitis media. In contrast, transtracheal inoculation failed to produce clinically significant upper respiratory tract disease, although did induce lower respiratory tract disease. The upper respiratory tract was the major site of M. bovis-specific B cell and mucosal IgA responses in calves inoculated by the oral route. The oral inoculation route of infection presented here is particularly suited to the study of host-pathogen interactions during initial colonization of the tonsils, expansion of infection and dissemination to the lower respiratory tract and middle ear. In addition, it could be used to investigate potential new preventative or control strategies, especially those aimed at limiting colonization of the tonsils and/or spread to the middle ear.

  8. Validation of monoclonal antibody F99/97.6.1 for immunohistochemical staining of brain and tonsil in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, T R; O'Rourke, K I; Balachandran, A; Zink, R R; Cummings, B A; Miller, M W; Powers, B E

    2002-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody (MAb), F99/97.6.1, that has been used to demonstrate scrapie-associated prion protein PrP(Sc) in brain and lymphoid tissues of domestic sheep with scrapie was used in an immunohistochemistry assay for diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). The MAb F99/97.6.1 immunohistochemistry assay was evaluated in brain and tonsil tissue from 100 mule deer that had spongiform encephalopathy compatible with CWD and from 1,050 mule deer outside the CWD-endemic area. This MAb demonstrated abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in brains of all of the 100 mule deer and in 99 of the 100 tonsil samples. No immunostaining was seen in samples collected from deer outside the endemic area. MAb F99/97.6.1 demonstrated excellent properties for detection of PrP(res) in fresh, frozen, or mildly to moderately autolytic samples of brain and tonsil. This immunohistochemistry assay is a sensitive, specific, readily standardized diagnostic test for CWD in deer.

  9. Neural responses of thermal-sensitive lingual fibers to brief menthol stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lundy, R F; Contreras, R J

    1994-04-01

    The addition of the coolant menthol to several oral and facial products is to increase their attractiveness and commercial value. Little is, however, known about the physiological basis of menthol's sensory effects. We studied the electrophysiological responses of 45 thermal-sensitive lingual fibers to anterior tongue stimulation (10 s) with menthol in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Menthol responses were unlike the responses to cold water. Cold water (6 degrees C, 15 degrees C) elicited an immediate sustained increase in impulse frequencies of thermal-sensitive fibers adapted to room temperature water (22-24 degrees C). Inhibitory off-responses followed cold water stimulation. Depending on the concentration and time of measurement, menthol stimulation either excited, inhibited, or had no effect on impulse frequencies of thermal-sensitive fibers. Strong menthol (0.64 mM, 1.28 mM) unequivocally excited thermal-sensitive fibers with a response latency of 4-6 s. In most cases after menthol stimulation, the impulse frequencies returned to baseline; there were no off-responses. Weak menthol (0.0128 mM, 0.064 mM, 0.128 mM) inhibited impulse frequencies of 14 thermal-sensitive fibers and excited impulse frequencies of 6 fibers primarily during the first 2 s of stimulation. Menthol responses were also unlike responses to stimulation with taste solutions. Most taste solutions (30 and 100 mM NaCl, 0.3 and 1 mM quinine-HCl, 0.3 mM citric acid) significantly inhibited impulse frequencies but only during the first 2-5 s of stimulation. The effect of NaCl was biphasic with the initial inhibitory phase followed by an excitatory phase during the second 5 s of stimulation. An excitatory off-response followed quinine stimulation. While considered principally a coolant, menthol elicits a unique pattern of responses from trigeminal and taste nerve endings quite unlike those of conventional thermal and taste stimuli. PMID:8012823

  10. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  11. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  12. A comparative study of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in urethral stricture disease: An institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, Depak Kumar; Ghosh, Bastab; Bera, Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: A prospective study to compare the outcomes of lingual versus buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long segment anterior urethral strictures disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 patients for buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (group I) and 30 patients for lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty (group II) for treatment of long segment (>3 cm) incomplete anterior urethral stricture disease using single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between February 2013 to September 2014. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Results: The results of urethroplasty in between two group were not significant (P > 0.05) in terms of Qmax (P = 0.63), mean postoperative AUA symptom score (P = 0.83), operative time (P = 0.302) intra operative blood loss (P = 0.708), duration of postoperative hospitalization (P = 0.83), but slurring of speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. Long-term complications of salivary disturbance, tightness of the mouth, persistent pain at graft site, perioral numbness, seen only in group I (BMGU). Conclusion: LMG urethroplasty is an excellent alternative to BMG urethroplasty with comparable results of urethroplasty and minimal donor site complications. PMID:27141184

  13. Characterization of Epithelial Progenitors in Normal Human Palatine Tonsils and Their HPV16 E6/E7-Induced Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Yoon Catherine; Kannan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Lewei; Martinez, Victor; Rosin, Miriam P.; Eaves, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human palatine tonsils are oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues containing multiple invaginations (crypts) in which the continuity of the outer surface epithelium is disrupted and the isolated epithelial cells intermingle with other cell types. We now show that primitive epithelial cells detectable in vitro in 2D colony assays and in a 3D culture system are CD44+NGFR+ and present in both surface and crypt regions. Transcriptome analysis indicated a high similarity between CD44+NGFR+ cells in both regions, although those isolated from the crypt contained a higher proportion of the most primitive (holo)clonogenic cells. Lentiviral transduction of CD44+NGFR+ cells from both regions with human papillomavirus 16-encoded E6/E7 prolonged their growth in 2D cultures and caused aberrant differentiation in 3D cultures. Our findings therefore reveal a shared, site-independent, hierarchical organization, differentiation potential, and transcriptional profile of normal human tonsillar epithelial progenitor cells. They also introduce a new model for investigating the mechanisms of their transformation. PMID:26527383

  14. Effect of lingual plates on generating intra-oral pressure during swallowing: an experimental study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although palatal augmentation prostheses (PAPs) can improve dysphagia, their application is compromised in the absence of maxillary abutment teeth. Experimental lingual plates (ELPs) used for raising the tongue may be employed as alternative to PAPs. Methods Influence of different ELP designs, plateau (P–type) and drop-shaped (D–type), on the intra–oral pressure during swallowing were tested. Eleven healthy dentate volunteers, with a mean age of 35.5±10.5 years, participated in this study. Tongue pressure on the hard palate was measured using an ultra-thin sensor sheet with five measuring points, whilst performing dry, 5–ml and 15–ml water swallows, with and without the ELPs in situ. Additional pressure sensors were installed in the lingual aspects of the ELPs, and on the vestibular aspect of the lower molars for measuring sublingual and oral vestibule pressures, respectively. Each measurement was recorded thrice. A repeated measures ANOVA was employed to verify differences in duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value for the different experimental situations. Tukey’s post hoc test was performed for comparison testing. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results The sequence of tongue–palate contact on the median line of the hard palate without ELPs was maintained, except for the 15 ml P–type swallow. Tongue pressure started earlier with the D–type but reached its peak nearly at the same time as without ELPs. The peak magnitude and cumulative tongue pressure against the hard palate decreased by wearing ELPs (p<0.05), but was inconsistent between the two types of ELPs and for the different swallowing volumes. Both, maximum and cumulative vestibular pressures were mostly similar or larger with P–type than that with D–type. Conclusion D-type and P-type ELPs seem to have the inverse effect of PAPs on the palatal tongue pressure during swallowing. These first counterintuitive findings do not yet justify rejecting the

  15. Tyfu i Fyny/Growing up Interactive Bi-Lingual Resources to Support the Delivery of Sex and Relationships Education for Students Aged 5 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of new interactive, bi-lingual Sex and Relationships Education (SRE) resources called Tyfu i Fyny/Growing Up, suitable for students aged between five and 12 years. It also discusses the evidence used to support the development of the resources, the support provided for teachers and…

  16. Inter-Lingual Homograph Letter Detection in Mixed Language Text: Persistent Missing-Letter Effects and the Effect of Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Seth N.; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Heretofore, we learned that bilinguals better detected letters in inter-lingual homographs when the context language ascribed a content role to the homograph as compared to a function role. In previous work the target homographs appeared in passages that were of a single language. The present work investigated whether this letter detection pattern…

  17. Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body's greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Genera with pathogenic members were well-represented among this disease-free cohort. Tooth-associated communities were distinct, but not entirely dissimilar, from other oral surfaces. The Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were common to all sites, but the distributions of their genera varied significantly. Most metabolic processes were distributed widely throughout the digestive tract microbiota, with variations in metagenomic abundance between body habitats. These included shifts in sugar transporter types between the supragingival plaque, other oral surfaces, and stool; hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide production were also differentially distributed. Conclusions The microbiomes of ten digestive tract sites separated into four types based on composition. A core set of metabolic pathways was present across these diverse digestive tract habitats. These data provide a critical baseline for future studies investigating local and systemic diseases affecting human health. PMID:22698087

  18. Identification of intracellular bacteria in adenoid and tonsil tissue specimens: the efficiency of culture versus fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Stępińska, M; Olszewska-Sosińska, O; Lau-Dworak, M; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, B; Trafny, E A

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage cells from human nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue can be a source of bacteria responsible for human chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infection. Detection and characterization of pathogens surviving intracellularly could be a key element in bacteriological diagnosis of the infections as well as in the study on interactions between bacteria and their host. The present study was undertaken to assess the possibility of isolation of viable bacteria from the cells expressing monocyte/macrophage marker CD14 in nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue. Overall, 74 adenotonsillectomy specimens (adenoids and tonsils) from 37 children with adenoid hypertrophy and recurrent infections as well as 15 specimens from nine children with adenoid hypertrophy, which do not suffer from upper respiratory tract infections (the control group), were studied. The suitability of immunomagnetic separation for extraction of CD14(+) cells from lymphoid tissue and for further isolation of the intracellular pathogens has been shown. The coexistence of living pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with the bacteria representing normal nasopharyngeal microbiota inside CD14(+) cells was demonstrated. Twenty-four strains of these pathogens from 32.4 % of the lysates of CD14(+) cells were isolated. Concurrently, the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a universal EUB388, and the species-specific probes demonstrated twice more often the persistence of these bacterial species in the lysates of CD14(+) cells than conventional culture. Although the FISH technique appears to be more sensitive than traditional culture in the intracellular bacteria identification, the doubts on whether the bacteria are alive, and therefore, pathogenic would still exist without the strain cultivation.

  19. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  20. Survival of post-treatment canine-to-canine lingual retainers with fiber-reinforced composite resin: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farronato, Davide; Briguglio, Roberto; Mangano, Francesco; Azzi, Lorenzo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Briguglio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of the study is to evaluate the long term results of ribbond retainer after orthodontic treatment. One hundred and thirty patients who were orthodontically treated satisfied the inclusion criteria of having received a semipermanent retention were treated with FRC lingual retainers (Ribbond ®). It was performed a follow up evaluation after 2 years average from the retainer application and any complication or failure was recorded. Data from 119 remaining patients that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and no instances of loosening were observed. It may be concluded that orthodontic canine-to-canine FRC retainers provide aneffective means of retaining realigned anterior teeth for at least two years. PMID:25506411

  1. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI.

  2. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  3. Misarticulation caused by abnormal lingual-palatal contact in patients with cleft palate with adequate velopharyngeal function.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Michi, K

    1991-10-01

    Misarticulations produced by three patients with cleft palate (2 isolated cleft palate; 1 unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate) who attained adequate velopharyngeal function and normal palatal vault by early surgical repairs were examined using electropalatography (EPG) and sound spectrography (SG). Common characteristics of lingual-palatal contact in which the contact area was broader and/or was more posterior than normal were observed. These misarticulations can be divided into three types based on the direction of the breath emission: palatalized misarticulation (in which air passes along the midline of the palate), lateral misarticulation (in which air flows laterally through the occluded dental arch), and nasopharyngeal misarticulation (in which air flows out the nose). These three are considered to be similar to intractable posterior pattern of articulation in cleft palate patients previously reported. However, these types of misarticulations can be produced by cleft patients who have achieved adequate velopharyngeal function and normal palatal vault.

  4. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  5. Occurrence and severity of enamel decalcification adjacent to bracket bases and sub-bracket lesions during orthodontic treatment with two different lingual appliances

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Elisabeth; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Using lingual enamel surfaces for bracket placement not only has esthetic advantages, but may also be suitable in terms of reducing frequencies of enamel decalcifications. Objective: To test the null-hypothesis that there is no significant difference in enamel decalcification or cavitation incidence adjacent to and beneath bracket bases between two lingual multi-bracket (MB) appliances that are different in terms of design, material composition, and manufacturing technology (group A: WIN, DW-LingualSystems; group B: Incognito, 3M-Unitek), taking into account patient- and treatment-related variables on white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Methods: Standardized, digital, top-view photographs of 630 consecutive subjects (16214 teeth; n Incognito = 237/6076 teeth; n WIN = 393/10138 teeth; mean age: 17.47±7.8; m/f 43.2/56.8%) with completed lingual MB treatment of the upper and lower permanent teeth 1–7 were screened for decalcification or cavitation adjacent to and beneath the bracket bases before and after treatment, scored from 0 to 7. Non-parametric ANOVA was used for main effects ‘appliance type’, ‘gender’, ‘treatment complexity’, ‘grouped age’ (≤16/>16 years), and ‘treatment duration’ as covariable, at an α-level of 5%. Results: About 2.57% [5.94%] of all teeth in group A [B] developed decalcifications. Subject-related incidence was 9.59% [16.17%] for upper incisors in group A [B], and 12.98% [25.74%] for all teeth 16–46. There were significant effects by gender, age, and treatment duration. Conclusion: The null-hypothesis was rejected: sub-bracket lesions were significantly less frequent in group A, while frequencies of WSL adjacent to brackets were not significantly affected by appliance type. In view of the overall low incidences of lingual post-orthodontic white-spot lesions, the use of lingual appliances is advocated as a valid strategy for a reduction of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. PMID

  6. [The use of the enzymes for the enhancement of the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment of the patients presenting with chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Logunova, E V; Egorov, V I; Nasedkin, A N; Rusanova, E V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment of the patients presenting with various forms of chronic tonsillitis (CT) by means of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). The study included 48 patients at the age from 18 to 55 years divided into three groups; all of them suffered from various forms of CT. Group 1 was comprised of 12 patients given a course of traditional conservative therapy. Group 2 consisted of 17 patients treated by APDT while group 3 included 19 patients in whom a course of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy was preceded by the treatment of the mucous membrane of the palatine amygdalae with a lidase solution. The microbiological testing was performed on days 5, 12, and 24 after APDT and also within the next 6-9 months. The results of the microbiological and clinical studies give evidence of the possibility to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of chronic tonsillitis by means of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with the use of the preventive treatment of palatine tonsillar mucosa with a lidase solution. Such treatment was found to facilitate degradation of theintercellular matrix of the biofilm and reduced its resistance to the photodynamic impact.

  7. [The use of the enzymes for the enhancement of the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment of the patients presenting with chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Logunova, E V; Egorov, V I; Nasedkin, A N; Rusanova, E V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment of the patients presenting with various forms of chronic tonsillitis (CT) by means of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). The study included 48 patients at the age from 18 to 55 years divided into three groups; all of them suffered from various forms of CT. Group 1 was comprised of 12 patients given a course of traditional conservative therapy. Group 2 consisted of 17 patients treated by APDT while group 3 included 19 patients in whom a course of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy was preceded by the treatment of the mucous membrane of the palatine amygdalae with a lidase solution. The microbiological testing was performed on days 5, 12, and 24 after APDT and also within the next 6-9 months. The results of the microbiological and clinical studies give evidence of the possibility to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of chronic tonsillitis by means of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with the use of the preventive treatment of palatine tonsillar mucosa with a lidase solution. Such treatment was found to facilitate degradation of theintercellular matrix of the biofilm and reduced its resistance to the photodynamic impact. PMID:27213655

  8. A Selective Chromogenic Plate, YECA, for the Detection of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica: Specificity, Sensitivity, and Capacity to Detect Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from Pig Tonsils.

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Houard, E; Labbé, A; Fondrevez, M; Salvat, G

    2011-01-01

    A new selective chromogenic plate, YECA, was tested for its specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. We tested a panel of 26 bacterial strains on YECA and compared it to PCA, CIN, and YeCM media. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was carried out on 50 pig tonsils collected in one slaughter house. Enrichment was done in PSB and ITC broths. Streaking on YECA and CIN was done in direct, after 24H incubation of ITC, after 48H incubation of PSB and ITC. All the plates were incubated at 30°C during 24 hours. Presence of typical colonies on CIN and YECA was checked, and isolates were biotyped. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains showed an important growth on YECA with small and red fuchsia colonies while biotype 1A exhibited very few violet colonies. Enrichment in ITC during 48H gave the best performance for detecting positive samples in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and YECA could detect directly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains (2, 3, and 4). Use of YECA in combination with ITC generates a time-saver by giving a positive test in 72H.

  9. A Selective Chromogenic Plate, YECA, for the Detection of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica: Specificity, Sensitivity, and Capacity to Detect Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from Pig Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Denis, M.; Houard, E.; Labbé, A.; Fondrevez, M.; Salvat, G.

    2011-01-01

    A new selective chromogenic plate, YECA, was tested for its specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. We tested a panel of 26 bacterial strains on YECA and compared it to PCA, CIN, and YeCM media. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was carried out on 50 pig tonsils collected in one slaughter house. Enrichment was done in PSB and ITC broths. Streaking on YECA and CIN was done in direct, after 24H incubation of ITC, after 48H incubation of PSB and ITC. All the plates were incubated at 30°C during 24 hours. Presence of typical colonies on CIN and YECA was checked, and isolates were biotyped. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains showed an important growth on YECA with small and red fuchsia colonies while biotype 1A exhibited very few violet colonies. Enrichment in ITC during 48H gave the best performance for detecting positive samples in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and YECA could detect directly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains (2, 3, and 4). Use of YECA in combination with ITC generates a time-saver by giving a positive test in 72H. PMID:22567328

  10. Laser-capture microdissection of oropharyngeal epithelium indicates restriction of Epstein-Barr virus receptor/CD21 mRNA to tonsil epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ru; Gu, Xin; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epstein-Barr virus colonizes the oropharynx of a majority of individuals. It infects B lymphocytes and epithelial cells and can contribute to the development of both lymphoid and epithelial tumors. The virus uses CD21 for attachment to B cells which constitutively express the protein. Infection of epithelial cells in vitro is also more efficient if CD21 is available. However, its potential contribution to infection in vivo has been difficult to evaluate as discrepant results with antibodies have made it difficult to determine which, if any, epithelial cells in the oropharynx express CD21. Methods: To reevaluate CD21 expression by an alternative method, epithelial cells were isolated by laser-capture microdissection from formalin-fixed sections of tissues from various parts of the oropharynx and mRNA was amplified with primers specific for the exons of CD21 which code for the Epstein-Barr virus binding site. Results: CD21 mRNA was expressed in tonsil epithelium, but not in epithelium from buccal mucosa, uvula, soft palate or tongue. Conclusions: CD21 does not contribute to infection of most normal epithelial tissues in the oropharynx, but may contribute to infection of epithelial cells in the tonsil, where virus has been demonstrated in healthy carriers. PMID:18710421

  11. Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Amir Rad, Fatemeh A.; Succaria, Faysal G.; Morgano, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Materials and methods Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n = 8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n = 8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n = 8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111 N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). Results There was a significant difference between MO vs. MC (P = .0001), MO vs. VZ (P = .0001), and VZ vs. MC (P = .012). Conclusions There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength. PMID:26082571

  12. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  13. Investigation of the influence of mallet and chisel techniques on the lingual fracture line and comparison with the use of splitter and separators during sagittal split osteotomy in cadaveric pig mandibles.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Jop P; Mensink, Gertjan; Houppermans, Pascal N W J; Frank, Michael D; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2015-04-01

    In bilateral sagittal split osteotomy the proximal and distal segments of the mandible are traditionally separated using chisels. Modern modifications include prying and spreading the segments with splitters. This study investigates the lingual fracture patterns and status of the nerve after sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) using the traditional chisel technique and compares these results with earlier studies using the splitter technique. Lingual fractures after SSO in cadaveric pig mandibles were analysed using a lingual split scale and split scoring system. Iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was assessed. Fractures started through the caudal cortex more frequently in the chisel group. This group showed more posterior lingual fractures, although this difference was not statistically significant. Nerve damage was present in three cases in the chisel group, but was not observed in the splitter group. A trend was apparent, that SSO using the chisel technique instead of the splitter technique resulted in more posterior lingual fracture lines, although this difference was not statistically significant. Both techniques resulted in reliable lingual fracture patterns. Splitting without chisels could prevent nerve damage, therefore we propose a spreading and prying technique with splitter and separators. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to the clinic. PMID:25697050

  14. Comparison between the collagen intensity and mast cell density in the lingual muscles and myocardium of autopsied chronic chagasic and nonchagasic patients.

    PubMed

    Roldão, José A; Beghini, Marcela; Ramalho, Luciana S; Porto, Carla Souza; Rodrigues, Denise B R; Teixeira, Vicente P A; de Lima Pereira, Sanívia A

    2012-08-01

    In chronic Chagas' disease (CD), an increase in collagen intensity and mast cell density has been described individually in the myocardium and tongue muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of collagen, mast cell tryptase (MCT) density, and mast cell chymase (MCH) density in the lingual muscles and myocardium from autopsied chagasic (CP) and nonchagasic patients (NCP). The selected cases were divided into two groups: (1) CP (n = 10) and (2) NCP (n = 10). Fragments were removed from the tongue and heart. After histological processing, the slices were stained with picrosirius, and immunohistochemistry was performed for MCH and MCT. The CP group showed the highest MCH and MCT densities and the highest percentage of collagen in the lingual muscles and myocardium when compared with the NCP group (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was observed between the collagen intensity and MCH density in the myocardium of the CP group. Although there are no reports in the literature of MCT and MCH in CD, its higher densities as well as higher percentage of collagen were found in the lingual muscles and myocardium in the CP group, suggesting that tryptase and chymase are associated with the pathogenesis of CD in these organs. Furthermore, the positive and significant correlation between the percentage of collagen and MCH density in the myocardium of the CP group suggests that the chymase is associated with fibrosis in CD, as demonstrated in other diseases.

  15. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

  16. Subcellular Size

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Wallace F.

    2016-01-01

    All of the same conceptual questions about size in organisms apply equally at the level of single cells. What determines the size, not only of the whole cell, but of all its parts? What ensures that subcellular components are properly proportioned relative to the whole cell? How does alteration in organelle size affect biochemical function? Answering such fundamental questions requires us to understand how the size of individual organelles and other cellular structures is determined. Knowledge of organelle biogenesis and dynamics has advanced rapidly in recent years. Does this knowledge give us enough information to formulate reasonable models for organelle size control, or are we still missing something? PMID:25957302

  17. Dementia with Lewy bodies presenting marked tongue protrusion and bite due to lingual dystonia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yuji; Kanaya, Yuhei; Kono, Ryuhei; Takeshima, Shinichi; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2016-06-22

    We report the patient of a 53-year-old woman who developed subacute-onset marked tonge protrusion and bite. She was diagnosed as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from the clinical features including progressive cognitive decline, visual hallucinations, parkinsonism, and severe insomnia and depression, and the radiological finding of low dopamine transported uptake in basal ganglia by Dat SCAN and low blood circulation in occipital lobe of cerebrum. The patient received 600 mg doses of levodopa for over a year, followed by rotigotine and ropinirole with a rapid increase of dosage. It is believed that these treatments stimulated and sensitized dopamine D1 receptors, thereby inducing lingual dystonia. Furthermore, the patient demonstrated dyspnea and attacks of apnea caused by the closure of bilateral vocal cords due to laryngeal dyskinesia. After initiation of the neuroleptic, olanzapine, for a short duration, the high dose of levodopa overlapped with neuroleptic sensitivity, suggesting DOPA-induced dystonia and dyskinesia. This interaction can sometimes lead to lethal adverse events, and must be considered very important when treating patients with DLB. PMID:27212676

  18. The effect of masking noise on acoustic-phonetic contrasts in post-lingually deafened cochlear implant users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, Jennell C.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Zandipour, Majid; Lane, Harlan; Tiede, Mark

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the effect on the vowel contrast distance (average inter-vowel distance in the F1-F2 plane) of gradually decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the auditory feedback of a post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) user at 1-month and 1-year following CI processor activation. Masking noise, mixed with normal levels of speech feedback, was presented through the headpiece of a research sound processor to the CI user. As a control, an analogous procedure was used for a normal-hearing speaker where the masking noise and speech feedback were delivered over headphones. The SNR was gradually decreased over seven steps as the speakers produced ten repetitions of two vowel contrasts (æ\\/[g\\/] and i\\/u). Speech SPL and vowel contrast distance were measured at all seven masking noise levels. Data from both subjects showed that SPL gradually increased with decreased SNR, while contrast distance decreased. The effect was greater after 1 year of experience with a CI than at 1 month. The effect in the NH speaker was similar to that noted in the CI user after 1 year of experience. Data from additional subjects will be analyzed and reported. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. R01 DC03007.

  19. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

  20. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase.

  1. Dynamics of lingual antimicrobial peptide, lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in the milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Korematsu, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Okita, Miki; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in innate immune factors in the milk of mastitic dairy cows treated with antibiotics. Cows in the antibiotics group (n = 13) were infused into the mammary gland with cefazolin on the sixth day after mastitis was diagnosed (the day of the mastitis diagnosis = day -6). The control group (n = 12) was not treated. Milk samples were collected once every 2 days from days -6 to 12 and somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity were measured. SCC and LF concentrations in the antibiotics group markedly decreased after the antibiotic treatment. When cows in the antibiotics group were divided according to SCC on day 0, LAP concentrations and LPO activity in cows with a lower SCC on day 0 (<5 × 10(6) cell/mL) were significantly higher and lower than those in cows with a higher SCC, respectively. These results suggest that LF concentration decreased with decrease in SCC after treatment and that LAP concentration and LPO activity differed depending on the severity of mastitis. This is the first report to reveal the dynamics of innate immune factor in milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.

  2. Structural and cytochemical modifications in the lingual glands of the newborn chicken irradiated with He-Ne laser.

    PubMed

    Avila, R E; Samar, M E; de Fabro, S P; Plivelic, T S

    1997-01-01

    Despite the increasing and successful use of laser in Medicine and Odontology, the possible iatrogenic and otherwise deleterious side effects of this radiation remain mostly unknown. In previous studies, it was shown that both the embryonic and the post-hatched chicken constitute reliable experimental models for this type of studies. Hence, the purpose of the present work was to analyze the structural and cytochemical alterations of the lingual glands of the newborn chicken irradiated with low energy He-Ne laser. This laser produced regressive structural changes of the glands towards the embryonic stage as well as hyperplasia of the reserve glandular basal cells. Furthermore, a decrease in the glycoprotein content and a rise in the sulphated glycosaminoglycans were also found. These results corroborate the pathogenic effects of the He-Ne- laser on the experimental model employed and, at the same time, emphasize the importance of considering, regarding clinical applications, possible previous neoplastic alterations as well as adverse reactions which might appear once laser therapy has been installed.

  3. Assessing the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia in novel designs as mandibular anterior fixed lingual retention following orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Matthew

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) in fixed lingual retention as an alternative to stainless steel. Exploratory Y-TZP specimens were milled to establish design parameters. Next, specimens were milled according to ASTM standard C1161-13 and subjected to four-point flexural test to determine materials properties. Finite Element (FE) Analysis was employed to evaluate nine novel cross-sectional designs and compared to stainless steel wire. Each design was analyzed under the loading conditions to determine von Mises and bond stress. The most promising design was fabricated to assess accuracy and precision of current CAD/CAM milling technology. The superior design had a 1.0 x 0.5 mm semi-elliptical cross section and was shown to be fabricated reliably. Overall, the milling indicated a maximum percent standard deviation of 9.3 and maximum percent error of 13.5 with a cost of $30 per specimen. Y-TZP can be reliably milled to dimensions comparable to currently available metallic retainer wires. Further research is necessary to determine the success of bonding protocol and clinical longevity of Y-TZP fixed retainers. Advanced technology is necessary to connect the intraoral scan to an aesthetic and patient-specific Y-TZP fixed retainer.

  4. Prevalence of tooth wear on buccal and lingual surfaces and possible risk factors in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D W; Lussi, A; West, N X; Bouchard, P; Sanz, M; Bourgeois, D

    2013-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of tooth wear on buccal/facial and lingual/palatal tooth surfaces and identify related risk factors in a sample of young European adults, aged 18-35 years. Calibrated and trained examiners measured tooth wear, using the basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) on in 3187 patients in seven European countries and assessed the impact of risk factors with a previously validated questionnaire. Each individual was characterized by the highest BEWE score recorded for any scoreable surface. Bivariate analyses examined the proportion of participants who scored 2 or 3 in relation to a range of demographic, dietary and oral care variables. The highest tooth wear BEWE score was 0 for 1368 patients (42.9%), 1 for 883 (27.7%), 2 for 831 (26.1%) and 3 for 105 (3.3%). There were large differences between different countries with the highest levels of tooth wear observed in the UK. Important risk factors for tooth wear included heartburn or acid reflux, repeated vomiting, residence in rural areas, electric tooth brushing and snoring. We found no evidence that waiting after breakfast before tooth brushing has any effect on the degree of tooth wear (p=0.088). Fresh fruit and juice intake was positively associated with tooth wear. In this adult sample 29% had signs of tooth wear making it a common presenting feature in European adults.

  5. [Muscle afferent block in the treatment of oromandibular dystonia. Difference in effect between masticatory and lingual muscles].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K

    2003-06-01

    Oromandibular dystonia is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by tonic or clonic involuntary spasms of the masticatory and lingual muscles. We treated 50 patients with this movement disorder by injection of lidocaine and alcohol into the masticatory or tongue muscles to block muscle afferents from muscle spindle. The patients were divided according to clinical features into four groups: jaw-closing, jaw-opening, jaw-deviation, and tongue dystonias. Objective evaluation of the symptoms before and after therapy was based on a clinical scaling protocol in terms of four parameters (mastication, speech, pain, and discomfort scales). Symptoms improved in all patients without major side effects. The overall objective improvement (60.2+/-29.5%) was significantly (P<0.005, ANOVA) lower in tongue dystonia (14.1%) than in jaw-closing dystonia (67.6%) and jaw-opening dystonia (68.3%). Although the response of the muscle afferent block to tongue dystonia was hardly satisfactory, this treatment is suggested to be effective for oromandibular dystonia.

  6. Species differences in the reflex effects of lingual afferent nerve stimulation on lip blood flow and arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Koeda, S; Yasuda, M; Izumi, H

    2003-11-01

    We evoked changes in lower lip blood flow and systemic arterial blood pressure by electrically stimulating the central cut end of the lingual nerve in artificially ventilated, urethane-anesthetized, cervically vago-sympathectomized cats, rats, rabbits, and guinea pig. The systemic arterial blood pressure changes were species-dependent: increases in rat, consistent decreases in rabbit and guinea pig, and variable among individuals in cat. In cat and rabbit, lip blood flow increases, which occurred only ipsilaterally to the stimulated nerve and showed no statistically significant correlation with the systemic arterial blood pressure changes. In rat, the ipsilateral lip blood flow increase was markedly greater than the contralateral one, and although there was a significant correlation between each of them and the systemic arterial blood pressure changes, the ipsilateral increase presumably included an active vasodilatation. In guinea pig, lip blood flow decreased on both sides in proportion to the systemic arterial blood pressure reductions. Thus, species variability exists in the sympathetic-mediated systemic arterial blood pressure changes and parasympathetic-mediated lip blood flow responses themselves, and in the relationship between them. PMID:12920546

  7. Effects of Adenotonsillectomy on Serum Levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and Growth Indices in Children with Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy or Recurrent Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Farmarzi, Mohammad; Shishegar, Mahmood; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Haghighi, Arash; Sharouny, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) may present with growth retardation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediates the anabolic effects of growth hormone (GH) on tissues. Most of the circulating IGF-1 molecules are bound to insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels reflect the levels of daily mean serum GH and are used as indices for evaluating the serum level of GH. This study aimed to determine the effect of adenotonsillectomy on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in patients with ATH or recurrent tonsillitis. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on growth indices such as weight and height. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 randomly selected children with a diagnosis of ATH or recurrent tonsillitis with a mean age of 10.2 ± 1.4 years (range, 3-17 years) were enrolled in the intervention group. Of those, 53 were boys and 47 were girls. The control group included 100 healthy children (62 boys and 38 girls) with a mean age of 8.5 ± 1.5 years (range, 4-15 years). Growth indices such as weight and height were measured and documented at the time of surgery and 6 months after the operation. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and repeated 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. The coated-tube immunoradiometric (IRMA) method was used to measure IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. Results: Postoperative IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels as well as weight and height showed were significantly greater in comparison with preoperative measurements in both the intervention and control groups (P<0.001). At the end of study, the intervention group showed significantly greater changes from baseline in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels, weight, and height in comparison with the control group (P< 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that adenotonsillectomy in children with ATH or recurrent tonsillitis increases IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in comparison with preoperative levels by affecting the GH

  8. Lingual BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression patterns and their relation to innervation in the human tongue: similarities and differences compared with rodents.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, I V; Lindskog, S; Seiger, A; Nosrat, C A

    2000-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) mRNAs are expressed in developing and adult rodent tongue and are important for the proper development of lingual gustatory and somatosensory innervation in rodents. Here, we wished to determine whether the findings in rodents apply to humans. By using in situ hybridization histochemistry, distinct, specific, and in some instances overlapping patterns of BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression were found in the developing and adult human tongue, gustatory papillae, and taste buds. BDNF mRNA was expressed in the superior surface epithelium of the developing fungiform papillae (i.e., developing taste buds), in the epithelium covering the circumvallate papillae, and in the subepithelial mesenchyme. Interestingly, BDNF mRNA was expressed in the lingual epithelium before nerve fibers reached the epithelium, indicating a prespecialization of the gustatory epithelium before the arrival of nerves. In the adult fungiform papillae, BDNF mRNA labeling was found in taste buds and in restricted areas in the non-gustatory lingual epithelium. NT-3 mRNA was found in the developing lingual epithelium and gustatory papillae. NT-3 mRNA labeling was observed in the adult fungiform taste buds, overlapping with BDNF mRNA labeling, in contrast to what was seen in rodents. NT-3 mRNA was additionally found in restricted areas in filiform papillae. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) antibodies were used to investigate a possible correlation between lingual innervation and sites of neurotrophin gene activity. Adult human tongue innervation differed from that of rodents, possibly in part due to a different neurotrophin expression pattern in the human tongue. Based on these findings, we suggest that BDNF and NT-3 are important for the initiation and maintenance of the gustatory and somatosensory innervation also in humans. The broader and somewhat overlapping expression patterns of BDNF and NT-3 mRNAs, compared with rodents, suggest

  9. Chronic lingual ulceration caused by lipoma of the oral cavity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; Cebrián Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez García, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Although lipomas are among the most frequent tumors in the human body, their presentation in the oral cavity is not common. Oral cavity lipomas usually show a slow painless and assymptomatic growing. When these tumors reach big sizes, they can cause compressive symptons and deformities. In this paper we present the case of a patient in whom oral lipoma was the final finding in the differential diagnosis of a chronic mucosal ulcer. CT scan and MRI images and microscopical examination after fine-needle aspiration were the clue for the final diagnosis. The surgical excision of the tumor was the basis for the healing of the ulcer. We also review the most relevant and recent literature about clinic, diagnosis and treatment for these tumors.

  10. [Monitoring of microflora localized at the pharyngeal tonsil surface in the children residing in the city of Chelyabinsk and presenting with chronic adenoiditis].

    PubMed

    Gizinger, O A; Shchetinin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study based on the analysis of 791 medical cards was to investigate microflora localized at the pharyngeal tonsil surface in the children living in the city of Chelyabinsk and presenting with exacerbation of chronic adenoiditis. 66% of the patients with this condition were 4-6 year old children. The most commonly documented were the associations composed of resident species S. alpha-haemoliticus and S. epidermidis together with pathobiontic S. aureus. S. beta-haemoliticus and S. pneumoniae occurred most frequently whereas H. influenza and some representatives of the genus Enterobacteriaceae were less numerous. Fungi of the genus Candida were identified in 25.4% of the samples at a titer above 10^4. In 23.7% of the cases, these fungi were found in the associations with S. aureus which resulted in mutual potentiation of the pathogenicity factor. PMID:26977565

  11. Freedom From Local and Regional Failure of Contralateral Neck With Ipsilateral Neck Radiotherapy for Node-Positive Tonsil Cancer: Results of a Prospective Management Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E. Raben, David; Schneider, Charles; Witt, Robert; Sammons, Sarah; Raben, Adam

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal and in-field progression was determined. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The nodal disease was Stage N1 in 4 patients, N2a in 3 patients, and N2b in 13 patients. At a median follow-up 19 months (range, 12-40), no in-field or contralateral nodal recurrences had been observed. The 2-year freedom from distant metastasis rate was 87.4%. The actuarial 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 79.5%. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%). No late Grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. No patient was feeding tube dependent at their last follow-up visit. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls. Although the outcomes with ipsilateral radiotherapy in the present series were promising, these findings require longer follow-up and validation in a larger patient cohort.

  12. Size Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the immense size of Unity Junior High School in Cicero, Illinois and the opinions of various people regarding its size. The school has more than 2,700 students, seventeen acres, eighty-eight faculty lounges, and ninety-six security cameras. Administrators hope the school--"Cicero's crown jewel," as the school district's Web…

  13. The effect of bonded resin surface area on the detachment force of lingual bonded fixed retainers: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Il-Hong; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Park, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the detachment force and bonding resin surface are and to determine the resin bonding surface area that would provide adequate bonding strength with minimum resin volume. Methods One hundred and sixty human premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups of 40 teeth each. The diameter of the resin surface area in each group was as follows: group 1, 1.5 mm; group 2, 2.5 mm; group 3, 3.5 mm; and group 4, 4.5 mm. Respond Dead Soft straight (length 0.0175 inch) was used to fabricate the retainers, and Transbond™ XT was used to fix the retainers to the tooth surfaces. A pair of teeth was embedded in acrylic blocks for each specimen. Thus, each group comprised 20 samples. Fixed retainers were bonded to the teeth, and vertical force was applied at the middle of wire. The force was measured using a universal testing machine. Results The mean value of detachment force was the highest for group 4 (102.38 ± 2.92 N), followed by group 3 (63.54 ± 2.21 N), group 2 (51.95 ± 1.61 N), and group 1 (24.14 ± 1.38 N). Conclusions The detachment force of lingual fixed retainers was significantly affected as the area of the resin bonding surface increased. Considering the minimum bonding strength of brackets, a resin bonding surface area with a diameter of 3.5 mm would provide adequate bonding strength. PMID:24511512

  14. Correlation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channel expression with neuropathic pain in human subjects with lingual nerve neuromas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are expressed preferentially in small diameter sensory neurons, and are thought to play a role in the generation of ectopic activity in neuronal cell bodies and/or their axons following peripheral nerve injury. The expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 has been quantified in human lingual nerves that have been previously injured inadvertently during lower third molar removal, and any correlation between the expression of these ion channels and the presence or absence of dysaesthesia investigated. Results Immunohistochemical processing and quantitative image analysis revealed that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were expressed in human lingual nerve neuromas from patients with or without symptoms of dysaesthesia. The level of Nav1.8 expression was significantly higher in patients reporting pain compared with no pain, and a significant positive correlation was observed between levels of Nav1.8 expression and VAS scores for the symptom of tingling. No significant differences were recorded in the level of expression of Nav1.9 between patients with or without pain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are present in human lingual nerve neuromas, with significant correlations between the level of expression of Nav1.8 and symptoms of pain. These data provide further evidence that changes in expression of Nav1.8 are important in the development and/or maintenance of nerve injury-induced pain, and suggest that Nav1.8 may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24144460

  15. Characterization of long-term in vitro culture-related alterations of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells: role for CCN1 in replicative senescence-associated increase in osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yeonsil; Park, Yoon Shin; Kim, Han Su; Kim, Ha Yeong; Jin, Yoon Mi; Jung, Sung-Chul; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Jo, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissues are known to be subjected to in vitro culture-related alterations in their stem cell properties, such data have not been reported in human tonsil-derived MSC (T-MSC). Here, we investigated the culture-related changes of phenotypes, the senescence, and the differentiation potential of T-MSC. T-MSC were serially passaged by a standard protocol, and their characteristics were assessed, including MSC-specific surface antigen profiles, the senescence, and the differentiation potentials into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. Up to at least passage 15, we found no alterations in either MSC-specific surface marker, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD73 and CD90, or the mRNA expression of embryonic stem cell gene markers, Nanog, Oct4-A and Sox-2. However, the expression of CD146, recently identified another MSC marker, dramatically decreased with increasing passages from ∼ 23% at passage 3 to ∼ 1% at passage 15. The average doubling time increased significantly from ∼ 38 h at passage 10 to ∼ 46 h at passage 15. From passage 10, the cell size increased slightly and SA-β-gal staining was evident. Both Alizarin Red S staining and osteocalcin expression showed that the osteogenic differentiation potential increased up to passage 10 and decreased thereafter. However, the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential decreased passage-dependently from the start, as evidenced by staining of Oil Red O and Alcian Blue, respectively. Consistent with a passage-dependent osteogenic differentiation, the expression of CCN1, an angiogenic protein known to be related to both senescence and osteogenesis, also increased up to passage 10. Furthermore, ectopic expression of small interfering RNA against CCN1 at passage 10 significantly reversed Alizarin Red S staining and osteocalcin expression. Altogether, our study demonstrates the characterization of long-term in vitro cultured T-MSC and that CCN1

  16. Decreased IgA+ B cells population and IgA, IgG, IgM contents of the cecal tonsil induced by dietary high fluorine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Hesong; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

    2013-05-02

    Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800-1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  17. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  18. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  19. Three-Dimensional Aspects of the Lingual Papillae and Their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of Rats: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Gabriela de Souza; Watanabe, Ii-sei; Ciena, Adriano Polican

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the tridimensional morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Sprague Dawley rats. Four types of papillae were reported on the dorsal surface. Filiform papillae were distributed on the tongue surface and after epithelial maceration a conic and multifilamentary shape of the CTCs was revealed. Fungiform papillae were reported on the rostral and middle regions covered by a squamous epithelium. After the removal of the epithelium, the shape of a volcano with the taste orifice at its top was noted. Foliate papillae were composed of five pairs of epithelial folds situated on the lateral-caudal margin of the tongue. After the removal of the epithelium, they were shown to be limited by thin laminar projections. The vallate papilla with an oval shape was present in the caudal region and delimited by an incomplete groove. The morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae of Sprague Dowley rats, three-dimensional SEM images, and the types of papillae on the dorsal surface were similar to those reported previously in other rodent mammals. The maceration technique revealed the details of extracellular matrix with varied shapes form of connective tissue cores. PMID:25436229

  20. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  1. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

  2. Morphological changes in the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA) stimulated rat experimental model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinhua; Xie, Liping; Teng, He; Liu, Shilong; Yoshimura, Ken; Kageyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Kan

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze morphological changes of the epithelial surface and underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the lingual mucosa in the rat using a DMBA induced pre-cancerous experimental model. Lightmicroscopically, initially DMBA treated sections exhibited infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. At 16 weeks, aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) positive elastic fibers decreased and were scanty in the juxtaepithelium. On the other hand, rather densely packed thick bundles of AF positive fibers were observable in the deep layers of lamina propria. Carcinomas were not found at any stage, however, epithelial dysplasia was observed at 24 weeks post-treatment with DMBA. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an irregular arrangement of filiform papillae 4-12 weeks following DMBA stimulation. Patchy degenerated areas were observed especially at 16-24 weeks post-treatment and filiform papillae were totally attenuated on the central part of the degenerated areas. After removal of the epithelium, attenuated CTCs were observed from 4-8 weeks. Morphology of CTCs seemed to be gradually remodeled and severely altered in the later stage. The CTCs were however attenuated and exhibited a patchy distribution. The animal experimental model in this study revealed degenerative morphological changes of CTCs of the lingual papillae in the precancerous stage induced by DMBA.

  3. The moon illusion and size-distance scaling--evidence for shared neural patterns.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Ralph; Plewan, Thorsten; Chen, Qi; Buchner, Axel; Weiss, Peter H; Fink, Gereon R

    2014-08-01

    A moon near to the horizon is perceived larger than a moon at the zenith, although--obviously--the moon does not change its size. In this study, the neural mechanisms underlying the "moon illusion" were investigated using a virtual 3-D environment and fMRI. Illusory perception of an increased moon size was associated with increased neural activity in ventral visual pathway areas including the lingual and fusiform gyri. The functional role of these areas was further explored in a second experiment. Left V3v was found to be involved in integrating retinal size and distance information, thus indicating that the brain regions that dynamically integrate retinal size and distance play a key role in generating the moon illusion.

  4. Factors influencing morbidity after paediatric tonsillectomy: a study of 18,712 patients in the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elinder, Karolina; Söderman, Anne-Charlotte Hessén; Stalfors, Joacim; Knutsson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors affecting morbidity after tonsillectomy in children. Data from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden on 18,712 patients who underwent tonsillectomy with or without simultaneous adenoidectomy between 1 and 18 years of age were analysed. This register includes data on sex, gender, surgical indication, and the surgical and haemostasis techniques used for each patient, as well as patient-reported outcomes for haemorrhage, analgesic use and antibiotic use. Comparison of patients who underwent surgery for infection versus upper airway obstruction revealed a significant increase in haemorrhage complications in the infection group. However, no significant difference remained after the adjustments for confounders in multivariable regression analysis. Instead, the increased risk among patients who underwent surgery for infection was mainly attributable to the use of bipolar diathermy and increased patient age. Patients who received surgery for infection reported more days of analgesic use, as well as more unplanned contacts with a health care service provider due to pain, compared with those who underwent surgery for upper airway obstruction. These results remained significant in multivariate analysis. The use of bipolar diathermy for haemostasis resulted in an increased risk, while the use of cold steel surgical instruments, a younger patient age and female sex led to a decreased risk. The surgical and haemostasis techniques used are the most important factors that affect morbidity after tonsillectomy in the paediatric age group. The choice of surgical techniques is of utmost importance for decreasing morbidity in these patients.

  5. Bioreducible-Cationic Poly(amido amine)s for Enhanced Gene Delivery and Osteogenic Differentiation of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hansaem; Lee, Eun-Seo; Jung, Giyoung; Park, Jungha; Jeong, Byeongmoon; Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-05-01

    The development of efficient and safe gene delivery carriers has been a major challenge in the clinical application of non-viral gene therapy. Herein, we report novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for the efficient delivery of genetic material such as plasmid DNA. A library of 34 different bioreducible polymer compounds was synthesized and screened to find lead materials for in vitro gene transfection. Our lead material (CBA-106) allows effortless polyplex formation with genetic materials by electrostatic interactions at the weight ratio of 1:5 (DNA/polymer). Polyplexes were further characterized by DLS and AFM analysis. Enhanced serum stability and bioreducibility under physiological conditions were confirmed, in addition to low cellular cytotoxicity. When compared with a commercially available gene delivery carrier (Lipofectamine 2000), CBA-1 06 shows comparable or even surpassing gene transfection efficiency. Furthermore, BMP-2 plasmids were efficiently delivered to tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) for osteogenic commitment in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate the potential of novel bioreducible polymeric systems for gene delivery applications. We suggest that our system can provide a valuable platform for the broad application of gene regulation in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:27305823

  6. Lingual leiomyomatous hamartoma with bifid tip and ankyloglossia in a patient without oral-facial-digital syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsing-Liang; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Tai, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Wang, Ling-Feng

    2013-09-16

    Here is a rare case of lingual leiomyomatous hamartoma (LLH) with bifid tongue tip and tongue-tie in a patient with non-oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS). A 29-year-old male consulted for a painless tumor over the midline of the tongue dorsum measuring 2 × 1.5 cm. The tumor was excised and the tongue-tie was corrected. Diagnosis of LLH was based on histo-pathologic and immuno-histochemical studies. The epidemiologic data and differential diagnosis of LLH, as well as related literature, are discussed. To date, only 14 cases of LLH have been reported in English literature. This may be the first reported case of LLH with bifid tip and ankyloglossia in a non-OFDS patient.

  7. Frictional property comparisons of conventional and self-ligating lingual brackets according to tooth displacement during initial leveling and alignment: an in vitro mechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of tooth displacement on frictional force when conventional ligating lingual brackets (CL-LBs), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width, and self-ligating lingual brackets (SL-LBs) were used with initial leveling and alignment wires. Methods CL-LBs (7th Generation), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width (STb), and SL-LBs (In-Ovation L) were tested under three tooth displacement conditions: no displacement (control); a 2-mm palatal displacement (PD) of the maxillary right lateral incisor (MXLI); and a 2-mm gingival displacement (GD) of the maxillary right canine (MXC) (nine groups, n = 7 per group). A stereolithographic typodont system and artificial saliva were used. Static and kinetic frictional forces (SFF and KFF, respectively) were measured while drawing a 0.013-inch copper-nickel-titanium archwire through brackets at 0.5 mm/min for 5 minutes at 36.5℃. Results The In-Ovation L exhibited lower SFF under control conditions and lower KFF under all displacement conditions than the 7th Generation and STb (all p < 0.001). No significant difference in SFF existed between the In-Ovation L and STb for a 2-mm GD of the MXC and 2-mm PD of the MXLI. A 2-mm GD of the MXC produced higher SFF and KFF than a 2-mm PD of the MXLI in all brackets (all p < 0.001). Conclusions CL-LBs with narrow bracket widths exhibited higher KFF than SL-LBs under tooth displacement conditions. CL-LBs and ligation methods should be developed to produce SFF and KFF as low as those in SL-LBs during the initial and leveling stage. PMID:27019823

  8. Lingual Artery-Retromandibular Vein Fistula Four Years after an Uncomplicated Carotid Endarterectomy: Case Report and Review of Possible Etiologies and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Manjila, Sunil; Kumar, Kunal; Kulhari, Ashish; Singh, Gagandeep; Jung, Richard S.; Tarr, Robert W.; Bambakidis, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    The external carotid artery’s lingual branch to retromandibular venous fistula following a carotid endarterectomy has not been reported earlier in literature. We report a unique case of an 87-year-old man who had a right-sided carotid endarterectomy in 2009 and presented four years later with complaints of fullness and discomfort in the area of right parotid gland with associated pulsatile tinnitus. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck revealed a deep portion of the right parotid gland having abnormal aneurysmal dilatation of a vascular structure, which appeared to be an arteriovenous fistula between branches of right external carotid artery and the retromandibular vein. Conventional catheter angiogram showed a complex arteriovenous fistula seen with the right retromandibular vein receiving multiple small arterial feeders from the right external carotid artery via its lingual artery branch. Slight reflux was noted into the right pterygoid plexus, right maxillary, and right submental veins as well. Surgical treatment was deferred due to high risk of inadvertent facial nerve injury from extensive parotid dissection involved in the procedure. Transarterial embolization of five discrete arterial branches from the right external carotid artery supplying the fistula was performed using particles with resultant remarkable slowing of the venous drainage into the retromandibular vein. After the procedure, his tinnitus and ear fullness resolved completely. The presence of arteriovenous fistula after carotid endarterectomy is a rare yet serious complication and therefore should be diagnosed early and treated promptly. The article highlights the relevant literature on arteriovenous fistula formation in the setting of arterial patch, intraoperative shunting, and surgical-site infections. PMID:27403218

  9. A comparison between two lingual orthodontic brackets in terms of speech performance and patients' acceptance in correcting Class II, Division 1 malocclusion: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Haj-Younis, Samiha; Khattab, Tarek Z.; Hajeer, Mohammad Y.; Farah, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare speech performance and levels of oral impairment between two types of lingual brackets. Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial was carried out on patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion treated at the University of Hama School of Dentistry in Hama, Syria. A total of 46 participants (mean age: 22.3 ± 2.3 years) with maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion were randomly distributed into two groups with 23 patients each (1:1 allocation ratio). Either STb (Ormco) or 7th Generation (Ormco) lingual brackets were applied. Fricative sound/s/ spectrograms were analyzed directly before intervention (T0), one week following premolar extraction prior to bracket placement (T1), within 24 hours of bracket bonding (T2), one month after (T3), and three months after (T4) bracket placement. Patients′ acceptance was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires. Results: After bracket placement, significant deterioration in articulation was recorded at all assessment times in the 7th Generation group, and up to T3 in the STb group. Significant intergroup differences were detected at T2 and T3. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in reported tongue irritation levels, whereas chewing difficulty was significantly higher in the 7th Generation group one month after bracket placement. Conclusions: 7th Generation brackets have more interaction with sound production than STb ones. Although patients in both groups complained of some degree of oral impairment, STb appliances appeared to be more comfortable than the 7th Generation ones, particularly within the first month of treatment. PMID:27653268

  10. Myogenic differentiation potential of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their potential for use to promote skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    PARK, SAEYOUNG; CHOI, YOONYOUNG; JUNG, NAMHEE; YU, YEONSIL; RYU, KYUNG-HA; KIM, HAN SU; JO, INHO; CHOI, BYUNG-OK; JUNG, SUNG-CHUL

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are regarded as an important source of cells which may be used to promote the regeneration of skeletal muscle (SKM) which has been damaged due to defects in the organization of muscle tissue caused by congenital diseases, trauma or tumor removal. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which require less invasive harvesting techniques, represent a valuable source of cells for stem cell therapy. In the present study, we demonstrated that human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) may differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and that the transplantation of myoblasts and myocytes generated from human T-MSCs mediates the recovery of muscle function in vivo. In order to induce myogenic differentiation, the T-MSC-derived spheres were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F-12 (DMEM/F-12) supplemented with 1 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β, non-essential amino acids and insulin-transferrin-selenium for 4 days followed by culture in myogenic induction medium [low-glucose DMEM containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)] for 14 days. The T-MSCs sequentially differentiated into myoblasts and skeletal myocytes, as evidenced by the increased expression of skeletal myogenesis-related markers [including α-actinin, troponin I type 1 (TNNI1) and myogenin] and the formation of myotubes in vitro. The in situ transplantation of T-MSCs into mice with a partial myectomy of the right gastrocnemius muscle enhanced muscle function, as demonstrated by gait assessment (footprint analysis), and restored the shape of SKM without forming teratomas. Thus, T-MSCs may differentiate into myogenic cells and effectively regenerate SKM following injury. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of T-MSCs to promote SKM regeneration following injury. PMID:27035161

  11. Assessment of the Speech Intelligibility Performance of Post Lingual Cochlear Implant Users at Different Signal-to-Noise Ratios Using the Turkish Matrix Test

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Zahra; Bulut, Erdoğan; Ataş, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spoken word recognition and speech perception tests in quiet are being used as a routine in assessment of the benefit which children and adult cochlear implant users receive from their devices. Cochlear implant users generally demonstrate high level performances in these test materials as they are able to achieve high level speech perception ability in quiet situations. Although these test materials provide valuable information regarding Cochlear Implant (CI) users’ performances in optimal listening conditions, they do not give realistic information regarding performances in adverse listening conditions, which is the case in the everyday environment. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the speech intelligibility performance of post lingual CI users in the presence of noise at different signal-to-noise ratio with the Matrix Test developed for Turkish language. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The thirty post lingual implant user adult subjects, who had been using implants for a minimum of one year, were evaluated with Turkish Matrix test. Subjects’ speech intelligibility was measured using the adaptive and non-adaptive Matrix Test in quiet and noisy environments. Results: The results of the study show a correlation between Pure Tone Average (PTA) values of the subjects and Matrix test Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) values in the quiet. Hence, it is possible to asses PTA values of CI users using the Matrix Test also. However, no correlations were found between Matrix SRT values in the quiet and Matrix SRT values in noise. Similarly, the correlation between PTA values and intelligibility scores in noise was also not significant. Therefore, it may not be possible to assess the intelligibility performance of CI users using test batteries performed in quiet conditions. Conclusion: The Matrix Test can be used to assess the benefit of CI users from their systems in everyday life, since it is possible to perform intelligibility test with

  12. An In-Vivo Correlation Analysis of the Distance Between Lingual Frenal Attachment and Mandibular Incisal Edge Position as an Aid in Establishing Mandibular Occlusal Plane in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R; Raj, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem: The aim of the study is to find the reliability in measuring the distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and the incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor on casts to be used as a pre-extraction record. Purpose: The objective of this study is to give a range of numerical values from anterior attachment of lingual frenum to mandibular central incisors in a class I ridge relation in south Indian population, which may be used in establishing the vertical dimension of the edentulous patient and also to locate the mandibular incisors in teeth arrangement of complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects (50 males and 50 females) under the age group of 21-28y, with class I dental relationship and who have never undergone orthodontic treatment were selected. Two models were made for each subject using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material and type III gypsum product to obtain an average value for each subject. The distance between the incisal edges of the lower central incisor and the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum is measured using a divider and digital vernier caliper. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard deviation using descriptive statistics tool using SPSS software version 18. Result: The distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors among the 100 subjects was 14.50mm ± 2.2245 mm. Conclusion: The value obtained aided in establishing the vertical dimension easier by making a pre-determined height of mandibular occlusal rim. PMID:25859527

  13. Anion size modulates salt taste in rats.

    PubMed

    Breza, Joseph M; Contreras, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of anion size and the contribution of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel on sodium-taste responses in rat chorda tympani (CT) neurons. We recorded multiunit responses from the severed CT nerve and single-cell responses from intact, narrowly tuned and broadly tuned, salt-sensitive neurons in the geniculate ganglion simultaneously with stimulus-evoked summated potentials to signal when the stimulus contacted the lingual epithelium. Artificial saliva served as the rinse and solvent for all stimuli (0.3 M NH(4)Cl, 0.5 M sucrose, 0.03-0.5 M NaCl, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.02 M quinine hydrochloride, 0.1 M KCl, and 0.03-0.5 M Na-gluconate). We used the pharmacological antagonist benzamil to assess NaCl responses mediated by ENaC, and SB-366791 and cetylpyridinium chloride to assess responses mediated by TRPV1. CT nerve responses were greater to NaCl than Na-gluconate at each concentration; this was attributed mostly to broadly tuned, acid-generalist neurons that responded with higher frequency and shorter latency to NaCl than Na-gluconate. In contrast, narrowly tuned NaCl-specialist neurons responded more similarly to the two salts, but with subtle differences in temporal pattern. Benzamil reduced CT nerve and single-cell responses only of narrowly tuned neurons to NaCl. Surprisingly, SB-366791 and cetylpyridinium chloride were without effect on CT nerve or single-cell NaCl responses. Collectively, our data demonstrate the critical role that apical ENaCs in fungiform papillae play in processing information about sodium by peripheral gustatory neurons; the role of TRPV1 channels is an enigma. PMID:22205652

  14. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  15. Passive restriction of blood flow and counter-current heat exchange via lingual retia in the tongue of a neonatal gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    PubMed

    Ekdale, Eric G; Kienle, Sarah S

    2015-04-01

    Retia mirabilia play broad roles in cetacean physiology, including thermoregulation during feeding and pressure regulations during diving. Vascular bundles of lingual retia are described within the base of the tongue of a neonatal female gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Each rete consists of a central artery surrounded by four to six smaller veins. The retia and constituent vessels decrease in diameter as they extend anteriorly within the hyoglossus muscle from a position anterior to the basihyal cartilage toward the apex of the tongue. The position of the retia embedded in the hyoglossus and the anterior constriction of the vessels differs from reports of similar vascular bundles that were previously identified in gray whales. The retia likely serve as a counter-current heat exchange system to control body temperature during feeding. Cold blood flowing toward the body center within the periarterial veins would accept heat from warm blood in the central artery flowing toward the anterior end of the tongue. Although thermoregulatory systems have been identified within the mouths of a few mysticete species, the distribution of such vascular structures likely is more widespread among baleen whales than has previously been described.

  16. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators.

    PubMed

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  17. Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... the throat and mouth, have your child spit out the blood instead of swallowing it. Try soft foods and cool drinks to ease throat pain, such as: Jell-O and pudding Pasta, mashed potatoes, and cream of wheat Applesauce Low- ...

  18. Class Size & School Size. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Class size is one of the most researched and heavily debated topics in American public education. Currently, at least 25 states have initiated class size reduction (CSR) programs. In the past twenty years, several major studies have been conducted which indicate that smaller class sizes produce an increase in student achievement as well as greater…

  19. Obesity alters the gustatory perception of lipids in the mouse: plausible involvement of lingual CD36[S

    PubMed Central

    Chevrot, Michael; Bernard, Arnaud; Ancel, Déborah; Buttet, Marjorie; Martin, Céline; Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Merlin, Jean-François; Poirier, Hélène; Niot, Isabelle; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Besnard, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between orosensory detection of dietary lipids, regulation of fat intake, and body mass index was recently suggested. However, involved mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, whether obesity can directly modulate preference for fatty foods remains unknown. To address this question, exploration of the oral lipid sensing system was undertaken in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. By using a combination of biochemical, physiological, and behavioral approaches, we found that i) the attraction for lipids is decreased in obese mice, ii) this behavioral change has an orosensory origin, iii) it is reversed in calorie-restricted DIO mice, revealing an inverse correlation between fat preference and adipose tissue size, iv) obesity suppresses the lipid-mediated downregulation of the lipid-sensor CD36 in circumvallate papillae, usually found during the refeeding of lean mice, and v) the CD36-dependent signaling cascade controlling the intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in taste bud cells is decreased in obese mice. Therefore, obesity alters the lipid-sensing system responsible for the oral perception of dietary lipids. This phenomenon seems to take place through a CD36-mediated mechanism, leading to changes in eating behavior. PMID:23840049

  20. Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Donato, Guido; Fomia, Federico; Adami, Teresa; Careddu, Domenico; Cassandro, Claudia; Albera, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media. Methods We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product. Results The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90%) and/or acute otitis media (about 40%), calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported. Conclusion Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as

  1. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators.

    PubMed

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation). PMID:26185113

  2. On Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  3. Sizing up microbes

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    The size range of life forms is dictated by basic principles of physics. Large microorganisms, with sizes approaching a millimeter, have compensating features that address the immutable laws of physics. For pathogens, size may impact a range of functions, such as adherence and immune evasion. We review several recent studies on factors impacting, and impacted by, the size of microorganisms. PMID:23117415

  4. On effect size.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2012-06-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension, measure/index, and value), outline 10 corollaries that follow from our definition, and review ideal qualities of effect sizes. Our definition of effect size is general and subsumes many existing definitions of effect size. We define effect size as a quantitative reflection of the magnitude of some phenomenon that is used for the purpose of addressing a question of interest. Our definition of effect size is purposely more inclusive than the way many have defined and conceptualized effect size, and it is unique with regard to linking effect size to a question of interest. Additionally, we review some important developments in the effect size literature and discuss the importance of accompanying an effect size with an interval estimate that acknowledges the uncertainty with which the population value of the effect size has been estimated. We hope that this article will facilitate discussion and improve the practice of reporting and interpreting effect sizes. PMID:22545595

  5. Shortening of the bovine tongue according to regulation (EC) 999/2001 is not complying with the current legal definition of specified risk material - a macroscopical and histological preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kühne, M; Klein, G; Gasse, H

    2005-03-01

    The full elimination of all specified risk material (SRM) in food of animal origin is crucial for consumer protection and is of high priority in inner EU trade. Among other tissues, the tonsils of cattle are considered as SRM. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the 'cut at the back of the tongue just before the tongue bones' required by EC regulation is sufficient to remove tonsils and lymphatic tissue completely. Eight skulls from cattle were collected for the simulation of a vertical cut according to the EC regulation and the detection of the target at the back of the tongue. Further, specimens of the lingual mucosa were cut out from two tongues and examined microscopically. The most caudal of these specimens was from the macroscopically visible part of the lingual tonsil. The most rostral specimen contained the most caudal Papilla vallata. Simulation of the obligatory ventro-dorsal cut yielded hits at varying locations on the dorsal surface of the tongue, sometimes including tissue of the lingual tonsil. Histological examination of the lingual mucosa gave clear evidence that lymphatic tissue resembling the tissue of a tonsil in terms of its histological organization and infiltration of the mucosal epithelium could even be found in areas with no macroscopically visible lingual tonsils.

  6. [Two cases of difficult airway in patients after adenotonsilectomy].

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Masato; Yaguchi, Yuichi; Inomata, Shinichi

    2009-11-01

    We experienced two cases of unexpected difficult airway due to lingual tonsil hyperplasia. The first patient, a 13-year-old girl, was scheduled for plastic surgery. After induction of general anesthesia, direct laryngoscopy was performed but it was not possible to expose the epiglottis because of hypertrophic lingual tonsils. The second patieut, a 17-year-old man arrived at the emergency room with cardiopulmonary arrest. The first attempt at orotracheal intubation failed, as the pharinx could not be visualized due to lingual tonsil hyperplasia and edema. During preparations for tracheostomy, the trachea was sucssefully intubated via the oral route. Both patients had undergone adenotonsillectomy under school age, causing compensatory hypertrophy of the tonsils. PMID:19928522

  7. Does Class Size Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  8. P2X purinoceptor-mediated excitation of trigeminal lingual nerve terminals in an in vitro intra-arterially perfused rat tongue preparation.

    PubMed

    Rong, W; Burnstock, G; Spyer, K M

    2000-05-01

    A novel in vitro intra-arterially perfused adult rat tongue-nerve preparation was used to explore the possible actions of P2X purinoceptor agonists (ATP and alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-meATP)) on sensory nerve terminals innervating the rat tongue. We made whole-nerve recordings of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve (LN), which conducts general sensory information (pain, temperature, touch, etc.), and the chorda tympani (CT), which conducts taste information. Changes in LN and CT activity following intra-arterial application of P2X agonists were compared. In seven preparations, bolus close-arterial injection of ATP (30-3000 microM, 0.1 ml) or alpha,beta-meATP (10-300 microM, 0.1 ml) induced a rapid (< 1 s after injection), dose-related increase in LN activity that decayed within a few seconds. The minimal concentration of ATP (100 microM) required to elicit a response was about 10-fold higher than that of alpha,beta-meATP (10 microM). Bolus injection of ATP or alpha,beta-meATP induced a moderate decrease in firing frequency in three of seven CT preparations. LN responses to P2X agonists showed signs of rapid desensitisation with the peak frequency of discharge being smaller when the agonists were applied at short intervals. Suramin (200 microM) or PPADS (200 microM) applied by intra-arterial perfusion each antagonised the rapid increase in LN activity following application of alpha,beta-meATP (100 microM). Capsaicin (10 microM, 0.1 ml, n = 5 preparations) was injected intra-arterially to desensitise nociceptive fibres. This was found to block (n = 2) or greatly reduce (n = 3) the excitatory effects of alpha,beta-meATP (100 microM, 0.1 ml) on LN activity, implying that only capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive fibres in LN were responsive to P2X agonists. In contrast to the consistent excitatory responses in LN activity following fast application of P2X agonists as bolus, a variable and moderate change in discharge rate of LN and no change in CT activity

  9. Scaling body size fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Carrara, Francesco; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The size of an organism matters for its metabolic, growth, mortality, and other vital rates. Scale-free community size spectra (i.e., size distributions regardless of species) are routinely observed in natural ecosystems and are the product of intra- and interspecies regulation of the relative abundance of organisms of different sizes. Intra- and interspecies distributions of body sizes are thus major determinants of ecosystems’ structure and function. We show experimentally that single-species mass distributions of unicellular eukaryotes covering different phyla exhibit both characteristic sizes and universal features over more than four orders of magnitude in mass. Remarkably, we find that the mean size of a species is sufficient to characterize its size distribution fully and that the latter has a universal form across all species. We show that an analytical physiological model accounts for the observed universality, which can be synthesized in a log-normal form for the intraspecies size distributions. We also propose how ecological and physiological processes should interact to produce scale-invariant community size spectra and discuss the implications of our results on allometric scaling laws involving body mass. PMID:23487793

  10. Phylogenetic effective sample size.

    PubMed

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-10-21

    In this paper I address the question-how large is a phylogenetic sample? I propose a definition of a phylogenetic effective sample size for Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes-the regression effective sample size. I discuss how mutual information can be used to define an effective sample size in the non-normal process case and compare these two definitions to an already present concept of effective sample size (the mean effective sample size). Through a simulation study I find that the AICc is robust if one corrects for the number of species or effective number of species. Lastly I discuss how the concept of the phylogenetic effective sample size can be useful for biodiversity quantification, identification of interesting clades and deciding on the importance of phylogenetic correlations. PMID:27343033

  11. Import and nuclear size

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2012-01-01

    The size of a cell’s nucleus is usually proportional to the size of the cell itself. How are the two linked? The answer lies, at least in part, in the import of one or more cytoplasmic cargoes into the nucleus. PMID:21107417

  12. Particle-Size Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Or, Dani; J.H. Dane and G.C. Topp

    2002-11-01

    Book Chapter describing methods of particle-size analysis for soils. Includes a variety of classification schemes. Standard methods for size distributions using pipet and hydrometer techniques are described. New laser-light scattering and related techniques are discussed. Complete with updated references.

  13. Modeling Raindrop Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.; Kliche, Donna V.; Smith, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Being able to characterize the size of raindrops is useful in a number of fields including meteorology, hydrology, agriculture and telecommunications. Associated with this article are data sets containing surface (i.e. ground-level) measurements of raindrop size from two different instruments and two different geographical locations. Students may…

  14. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  15. Cell-Size Control

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of a given type maintain a characteristic cell size to function efficiently in their ecological or organismal context. They achieve this through the regulation of growth rates or by actively sensing size and coupling this signal to cell division. We focus this review on potential size-sensing mechanisms, including geometric, external cue, and titration mechanisms. Mechanisms that titrate proteins against DNA are of particular interest because they are consistent with the robust correlation of DNA content and cell size. We review the literature, which suggests that titration mechanisms may underlie cell-size sensing in Xenopus embryos, budding yeast, and Escherichia coli, whereas alternative mechanisms may function in fission yeast. PMID:26254313

  16. Does size matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, Ian

    2014-06-15

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  17. The size of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.

    1980-01-01

    How we should measure the size of an earthquake has been historically a very important, as well as a very difficult, seismological problem. For example, figure 1 shows the loss of life caused by earthquakes in recent times and clearly demonstrates that 1976 was the worst year for earthquake casualties in the 20th century. However, the damage caused by an earthquake is due not only to its physical size but also to other factors such as where and when it occurs; thus, figure 1 is not necessarily an accurate measure of the "size" of earthquakes in 1976. the point is that the physical process underlying an earthquake is highly complex; we therefore cannot express every detail of an earthquake by a simple straightforward parameter. Indeed, it would be very convenient if we could find a single number that represents the overall physical size of an earthquake. This was in fact the concept behind the Richter magnitude scale introduced in 1935. 

  18. Particle Size Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Howard G.; Sun, Shao-Tang

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of research focusing on scattering, elution techniques, electrozone sensing, filtration, centrifugation, comparison of techniques, data analysis, and particle size standards. The review covers the period 1986-1988. (MVL)

  19. Exploring Planet Sizes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to compare models of the size of Earth to other planets and the distances to other planets. Activities highlight space missions to other planets in our s...

  20. Paper Sizes and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2007-01-01

    Reams of paper come in a standardised system of related sheet sizes. Most people are familiar with the international paper sizes A4, A3 and B4, but there are others. The ratio of the sides of any sheet in the series is such that if the paper is cut or folded in half on itself then the ratio of the sides remains unchanged. Due to this property of…

  1. Inequality and City Size*

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Between 1979 and 2007 a strong positive monotonic relationship between wage inequality and city size has developed. This paper investigates the links between this emergent city size inequality premium and the contemporaneous nationwide increase in wage inequality. After controlling for the skill composition of the workforce across cities of different sizes, we show that at least 23 percent of the overall increase in the variance of log hourly wages in the United States from 1979 to 2007 is explained by the more rapid growth in the variance of log wages in larger locations relative to smaller locations. This influence occurred throughout the wage distribution and was most prevalent during the 1990s. More rapid growth in within skill group inequality in larger cities has been by far the most important force driving these city size specific patterns in the data. Differences in the industrial composition of cities of different sizes explain up to one-third of this city size effect. These results suggest an important role for agglomeration economies in generating changes in the wage structure during the study period. PMID:24954958

  2. Platelet size in man.

    PubMed

    Paulus, J M

    1975-09-01

    The shape and parameters of platelet size distributions were studied in 50 normal persons and 97 patients in order to test the proposed thesis that platelet size heterogeneity results mainly from aging in the circulation. This thesis was contradicted (1) by size distributions of age-homogeneous, newly-born cell populations which were lognormal with increased (instead of decreased) dispersion of volumes and (2) by the macrothrombocytosis found in some populations with normal age distribution. For these reasons, thrombocytopoiesis appeared to play the major role in determining platelet size. A model was built in which the volume variation of platelet territories due to megakaryocyte growth and membrane demarcation at each step of maturation was a random proportion of the previous value of the volume. This model explains the lognormal shape of both newborn and circulating platelet size distributions. It also implies that (1) the mean and standard deviation of platelet logvolumes depend on the rates of volume change of the individual platelet territories (growth rate minus demarcation rate) as well as on megakaryocyte maturation time; (2) platelet hyperdestruction causes an increase in the mean and dispersion of the rates of territory volume change; (3) Mediterranean macrothrombocytosis and some hereditary macrothrombocytotic thrombocytopenias or dysthrombocytopoieses reflect a diminished rate of territory demarcation, and (4) platelet size heterogeneity is caused mainly by the variations in territory growth and demarcation and not by aging in the circulation.

  3. Structure Size Enhanced Histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Kirschner, Matthias

    Direct volume visualization requires the definition of transfer functions (TFs) for the assignment of opacity and color. Multi-dimensional TFs are based on at least two image properties, and are specified by means of 2D histograms. In this work we propose a new type of a 2D histogram which combines gray value with information about the size of the structures. This structure size enhanced (SSE) histogram is an intuitive approach for representing anatomical features. Clinicians — the users we are focusing on — are much more familiar with selecting features by their size than by their gradient magnitude value. As a proof of concept, we employ the SSE histogram for the definition of two-dimensional TFs for the visualization of 3D MRI and CT image data.

  4. The Size of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholen, David J.

    2014-11-01

    The presence of a thin atmosphere around Pluto prevents the stellar occultation method from probing all the way down to the surface of Pluto. As such, the most accurate method for measuring the size of Pluto is fitting the mutual event photometry from 1985 to 1990. Previous fits solved for not only the size of Pluto, but also the size and orbit of Charon. Since that era, the size and orbit of Charon have been determined independently and more accurately via other means. Stellar occultation measurements have established the diameter of Charon as 1212 km, while the orbit of Charon has been determined via direct images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope over a period of two decades. By imposing the known values for the size and orbit of Charon on the fits to the mutual event photometry, a new size for Pluto can be derived with considerably fewer free parameters. To perform this fit, the extensive set of mutual event photometry acquired at Mauna Kea Observatory was utilized. A fit to all the data yields a diameter for Pluto of 2317 km. To avoid the question of limb darkening on Pluto and the effect of albedo variation over the surface of Pluto, even fewer free parameters can be solved for by restricting attention to just the superior mutual events, during which Charon was behind Pluto. In this case the diameter of Pluto increases to 2379 km. Work is currently being done to determine how weighting of the data affects the result. The true value will become known in a few months when New Horizons flies past Pluto. These fits also show that there is still room for improvement in the orbit of Charon.

  5. Preference for newspaper size.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2014-05-01

    The past few years has seen a change in the size of newspapers, with publishers moving to a smaller size format. Five 'standard' newspaper sizes are used in different countries: Broadsheet, Rhensch, Tabloid, Tall Tabloid and Berliner. These papers vary in both width and height of pages and hence there are implications for human reading comfort, which may be dependent on reading location such as on a lounge chair or on a train. Experiments were carried out to determine preferences for the different sizes and to relate these preferences to the geometric characteristics of the newspapers. For both comfortable and cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, the rank order of preference for paper types was, from least to most-preferred, Broadsheet, Rhensch, Berliner, Tall Tabloid and Tabloid. Preferences were much stronger when determined in cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, where most comparisons were significantly different. There was good correlation between participant ratings on several scales and preference, where most factors were related to comfort of holding and controlling the paper. PMID:23987982

  6. Preference for newspaper size.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2014-05-01

    The past few years has seen a change in the size of newspapers, with publishers moving to a smaller size format. Five 'standard' newspaper sizes are used in different countries: Broadsheet, Rhensch, Tabloid, Tall Tabloid and Berliner. These papers vary in both width and height of pages and hence there are implications for human reading comfort, which may be dependent on reading location such as on a lounge chair or on a train. Experiments were carried out to determine preferences for the different sizes and to relate these preferences to the geometric characteristics of the newspapers. For both comfortable and cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, the rank order of preference for paper types was, from least to most-preferred, Broadsheet, Rhensch, Berliner, Tall Tabloid and Tabloid. Preferences were much stronger when determined in cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, where most comparisons were significantly different. There was good correlation between participant ratings on several scales and preference, where most factors were related to comfort of holding and controlling the paper.

  7. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  8. Sizing Up What Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Neal

    "Smaller is better" is often the mantra of school leaders with regard to class size, while the benefits of smaller schools are ignored. Benefits of small classes seem obvious--teachers with fewer students could devote more time to each student. Conducted in 1985-89, Tennessee's Project STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio) found that students…

  9. Space Station Energy Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  10. Lasers of All Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcou, Philippe; Forget, Sébastien Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    * Introduction * The Laser in All Its Forms * Gas lasers * Dye lasers * Solid-state lasers * Lasers for Every Taste * The rise of lasers * Lasers of all sizes * The colors of the rainbow... and beyond * Shorter and shorter lasers * Increasingly powerful lasers * Lasers: A Universal Tool? * Cutting, welding, and cleaning * Communicating * Treating illnesses * Measuring * Supplying energy? * Entertaining * Understanding * Conclusion

  11. Births and cohort size.

    PubMed

    de Beer, J

    1991-01-01

    Ahlburg (1983, 1986) tested a simple version of Easterlin's relative-cohort-size model of fertility on the basis of U.S. and Canadian post-war data. His conclusion was that the Easterlin model fits the data very well and can therefore be used for calculating forecasts. However, the model he estimated is oversimplified. In this paper an alternative specification is presented. The model is applied to Dutch fertility data. The Easterlin effect is found to affect the movement of births in the Netherlands during the period 1950-85, but a declining long-term trend in average family size proves far more important in explaining post-war births. The model forecasts a rise of births until 2000.

  12. Size and position matter.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine emphasizes the progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underpin the vesicular movement of cargo through the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Attention now focuses on those mechanisms that govern the relative size and position of the many different membrane-bound compartments. These homeostatic mechanisms are discussed in this issue of Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology and must be integrated so as to satisfy the needs of the cell and the organism.

  13. Coal-Sizing Auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aft end of auger, like forward, face-piercing end, equipped with hard cutting bits such as diamonds. As auger breaks face, pulls broken coal lumps into jaws and forces them into hardened throat section. There, cutting bits chew up lumps: Clearance between throat and auger shaft sets maximum size for coal particles that pass through. Auger motion pushes coal particles into mixing chamber, where paddles combine them with water.

  14. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  15. Cell size control in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jonathan J.; Ewald, Jennifer C.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Cell size is an important adaptive trait that influences nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. Despite extensive characterization of the cell cycle regulatory network, the molecular mechanismscoupling growth to division, and thereby controlling cell size, have remained elusive. Recent workin yeast has reinvigorated the size control field and suggested provocative mechanisms forthe distinct functions of setting and sensing cell size. Further examination of size sensing models based on spatial gradients and molecular titration, coupled with elucidation of the pathways responsible for nutrient-modulated target size, may reveal the fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell size control. PMID:22575477

  16. Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation associated with tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Shunmugam, Meenalochani; Poonnoose, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose and treat in order to avoid long-term sequelae. Here, we present a case of late presentation of a nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint or atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. A 17-year-old girl presented 3 months after the onset of nonspecific upper limb sensory symptoms which eventually settled spontaneously. Initial conservative management by the general practitioner had no effect. Computed tomography scanning revealed a Type 1 dislocation with rotatory fixation and with <3 mm anterior displacement of the atlas. The management of Type 1 subluxations is usually conservative with bed rest, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, reduction (if required) and immobilization with a soft collar. This patient, however, required more invasive management due to the late presentation and slightly greater fixed deformity. As the subluxation could not be reduced with active manipulation, Gardner-Wells tongs with traction were applied. She then progressed to a pinned HALO, cyber neck support and subsequently an aspen collar which was eventually weaned off over a few weeks. The outcome and radiologic alignment at follow-up was satisfactory. PMID:25972950

  17. A constant size extension drives bacterial cell size homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Manuel; Surovtsev, Ivan V.; Kato, Setsu; Paintdakhi, Ahmad; Beltran, Bruno; Ebmeier, Sarah E.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Cell size control is an intrinsic feature of the cell cycle. In bacteria, cell growth and division are thought to be coupled through a cell size threshold. Here, we provide direct experimental evidence disproving the critical size paradigm. Instead, we show through single-cell microscopy and modeling that the evolutionarily distant bacteria Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus achieve cell size homeostasis by growing on average the same amount between divisions, irrespective of cell length at birth. This simple mechanism provides a remarkably robust cell size control without the need of being precise, abating size deviations exponentially within a few generations. This size homeostasis mechanism is broadly applicable for symmetric and asymmetric divisions as well as for different growth rates. Furthermore, our data suggest that constant size extension is implemented at or close to division. Altogether, our findings provide fundamentally distinct governing principles for cell size and cell cycle control in bacteria. PMID:25480302

  18. Rover Wheel Sizes (Isometric)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars rovers keep getting bigger. This photo provides a comparison of the wheel sizes for three generations of them. The first rover on Mars was Sojourner, on the Mars Pathfinder mission launched in 1996. It was small and didn't go far. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, launched in 2003, are bigger and have driven many times farther than expected. The Mars Science Laboratory, in development for a 200 launch, represents another leap in capability. It will carry its onboard chemistry laboratory long distances.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built Sojourner, Spirit and Opportunity, and is building the Mars Science Laboratory. It has managed these missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  19. Hail Size Distribution Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A 3-D weather radar visualization software program was developed and implemented as part of an experimental Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor System. 3DRadPlot, a radar plotting program, is one of several software modules that form building blocks of the hail data processing and analysis system (the complete software processing system under development). The spatial and temporal mapping algorithms were originally developed through research at the University of Central Florida, funded by NASA s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), where the goal was to merge National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) volume reflectivity data with drop size distribution data acquired from a cluster of raindrop disdrometers. In this current work, we adapted these algorithms to process data from a cluster of hail disdrometers positioned around Launch Pads 39A or 39B, along with the corresponding NWS radar data. Radar data from all NWS NEXRAD sites is archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). That data can be readily accessed at . 3DRadPlot plots Level III reflectivity data at four scan elevations (this software is available at Open Channel Software, ). By using spatial and temporal interpolation/extrapolation based on hydrometeor fall dynamics, we can merge the hail disdrometer array data coupled with local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) radial velocity and reflectivity data into a 4-D (3-D space and time) picture of hail size distributions. Hail flux maps can then be generated and used for damage prediction and assessment over specific surfaces corresponding to structures within the disdrometer array volume. Immediately following a hail storm, specific damage areas and degree of damage can be identified for inspection crews.

  20. Prophylactic Administration of Vector-Encoded Porcine Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Reduces Salmonella Shedding, Tonsil Colonization, and Microbiota Alterations of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Salmonella-Challenged Swine

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, Shawn M. D.; Bearson, Bradley L.; Loving, Crystal L.; Allen, Heather K.; Lee, InSoo; Madson, Darin; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To develop an intervention strategy that is non-specific yet effective against diverse Salmonella serovars, we explored the prophylactic use of a cytokine to decrease Salmonella in swine by boosting the host’s innate immune system. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the major cytokine regulating the production, differentiation, function, and survival of neutrophils. Neutrophils play a critical role in the response to Salmonella; therefore, we evaluated the vectored-delivery of porcine G-CSF as a prophylactic to reduce Salmonella in pigs. Crossbred pigs, 5 weeks of age, were intramuscularly injected with a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) engineered to express porcine G-CSF (Ad5-G-CSF, n = 9). Control pigs received the same Ad5 vector lacking the gene encoding G-CSF (Ad5-empty, n = 7). Four days later, all pigs (n = 16) were intranasally inoculated with 1 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1. At 2 and 3 days post-challenge with Salmonella, Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs shed significantly less Salmonella (~103 CFU/g) in their feces than Ad5-empty-treated pigs (~104–105 CFU/g; P < 0.05). A significant 4-log reduction in tonsil colonization was also observed in the Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs at 7 days post-challenge (P < 0.05). In the gastrointestinal tract, the Peyer’s patch region of the ileum exhibited a significant 0.5-log reduction in colonization in the Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs (P < 0.05). The microbiota of all challenged pigs was assessed by sequencing and analyzing the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene from fecal DNA samples. The microbial community structure of

  1. Prophylactic Administration of Vector-Encoded Porcine Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Reduces Salmonella Shedding, Tonsil Colonization, and Microbiota Alterations of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Salmonella-Challenged Swine

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, Shawn M. D.; Bearson, Bradley L.; Loving, Crystal L.; Allen, Heather K.; Lee, InSoo; Madson, Darin; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To develop an intervention strategy that is non-specific yet effective against diverse Salmonella serovars, we explored the prophylactic use of a cytokine to decrease Salmonella in swine by boosting the host’s innate immune system. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the major cytokine regulating the production, differentiation, function, and survival of neutrophils. Neutrophils play a critical role in the response to Salmonella; therefore, we evaluated the vectored-delivery of porcine G-CSF as a prophylactic to reduce Salmonella in pigs. Crossbred pigs, 5 weeks of age, were intramuscularly injected with a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) engineered to express porcine G-CSF (Ad5-G-CSF, n = 9). Control pigs received the same Ad5 vector lacking the gene encoding G-CSF (Ad5-empty, n = 7). Four days later, all pigs (n = 16) were intranasally inoculated with 1 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1. At 2 and 3 days post-challenge with Salmonella, Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs shed significantly less Salmonella (~103 CFU/g) in their feces than Ad5-empty-treated pigs (~104–105 CFU/g; P < 0.05). A significant 4-log reduction in tonsil colonization was also observed in the Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs at 7 days post-challenge (P < 0.05). In the gastrointestinal tract, the Peyer’s patch region of the ileum exhibited a significant 0.5-log reduction in colonization in the Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs (P < 0.05). The microbiota of all challenged pigs was assessed by sequencing and analyzing the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene from fecal DNA samples. The microbial community structure of

  2. Prophylactic Administration of Vector-Encoded Porcine Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Reduces Salmonella Shedding, Tonsil Colonization, and Microbiota Alterations of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Salmonella-Challenged Swine.

    PubMed

    Bearson, Shawn M D; Bearson, Bradley L; Loving, Crystal L; Allen, Heather K; Lee, InSoo; Madson, Darin; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To develop an intervention strategy that is non-specific yet effective against diverse Salmonella serovars, we explored the prophylactic use of a cytokine to decrease Salmonella in swine by boosting the host's innate immune system. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the major cytokine regulating the production, differentiation, function, and survival of neutrophils. Neutrophils play a critical role in the response to Salmonella; therefore, we evaluated the vectored-delivery of porcine G-CSF as a prophylactic to reduce Salmonella in pigs. Crossbred pigs, 5 weeks of age, were intramuscularly injected with a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) engineered to express porcine G-CSF (Ad5-G-CSF, n = 9). Control pigs received the same Ad5 vector lacking the gene encoding G-CSF (Ad5-empty, n = 7). Four days later, all pigs (n = 16) were intranasally inoculated with 1 × 10(7) colony forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1. At 2 and 3 days post-challenge with Salmonella, Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs shed significantly less Salmonella (~10(3) CFU/g) in their feces than Ad5-empty-treated pigs (~10(4)-10(5) CFU/g; P < 0.05). A significant 4-log reduction in tonsil colonization was also observed in the Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs at 7 days post-challenge (P < 0.05). In the gastrointestinal tract, the Peyer's patch region of the ileum exhibited a significant 0.5-log reduction in colonization in the Ad5-G-CSF-treated pigs (P < 0.05). The microbiota of all challenged pigs was assessed by sequencing and analyzing the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene from fecal DNA samples. The microbial community structure of

  3. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  4. Sizing of Microdrops

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, I

    2003-10-22

    Several techniques for determining the size of small fluid microdrops with diameter ranging from 5 {micro}m to 30 {micro}m have been developed and evaluated using an automated variation on the Millikan oil drop experiment. The average diameter of a large sample of monodisperse fluid drops was determined by measuring their terminal velocity in air, or if charged, their motion under the influence of an electric field, as well as by measurement of the magnitude of their Brownian motion. The diameter of individual drops was determined optically, by direct observation using an imaging system based on a coupled device (CCD) camera. The technique used to analyze the image data is based on a best fit technique taking the point spread function (PSF) of the lens into account, and yield results accurate to 1% (based on a single image) without the need for any collaboration. By combining this technique with terminal velocity measurements, the density of the fluid can be determined to similar accuracy.

  5. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  6. Restoration of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gustatory cortex following reinnervation or cross-reinnervation of the lingual taste nerves in rats.

    PubMed

    King, Camille Tessitore; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2014-08-01

    Remarkably, when lingual gustatory nerves are surgically rerouted to inappropriate taste fields in the tongue, some taste functions recover. We previously demonstrated that quinine-stimulated oromotor rejection reflexes and neural activity (assessed by Fos immunoreactivity) in subregions of hindbrain gustatory nuclei were restored if the posterior tongue, which contains receptor cells that respond strongly to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the chorda tympani nerve. Such functional recovery was not seen if instead, the anterior tongue, where receptor cells are less responsive to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, even though this nerve typically responds robustly to bitter substances. Thus, recovery depended more on the taste field being reinnervated than on the nerve itself. Here, the distribution of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in two taste-associated forebrain areas was examined in these same rats. In the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a rostrocaudal gradient characterized the normal quinine-stimulated Fos response, with the greatest number of labeled cells situated rostrally. Quinine-stimulated neurons were found throughout the gustatory cortex, but a "hot spot" was observed in its anterior-posterior center in subregions approximating the dysgranular/agranular layers. Fos neurons here and in the rostral CeA were highly correlated with quinine-elicited gapes. Denervation of the posterior tongue eliminated, and its reinnervation by either nerve restored, numbers of quinine-stimulated labeled cells in the rostralmost CeA and in the subregion approximating the dysgranular gustatory cortex. These results underscore the remarkable plasticity of the gustatory system and also help clarify the functional anatomy of neural circuits activated by bitter taste stimulation.

  7. Sizing Up the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  8. Cell size versus body size in geophilomorph centipedes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Marco; Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Variation in animal body size is the result of a complex interplay between variation in cell number and cell size, but the latter has seldom been considered in wide-ranging comparative studies, although distinct patterns of variation have been described in the evolution of different lineages. We investigated the correlation between epidermal cell size and body size in a sample of 29 geophilomorph centipede species, representative of a wide range of body sizes, from 6 mm dwarf species to gigantic species more than 200 mm long, exploiting the marks of epidermal cells on the overlying cuticle in the form of micro-sculptures called scutes. We found conspicuous and significant variation in average scute area, both between suprageneric taxa and between genera, while the within-species range of variation is comparatively small. This supports the view that the average epidermal cell size is to some extent taxon specific. However, regression analyses show that neither body size nor the number of leg-bearing segments explain this variation, which suggests that cell size is not an usual target of change for body size evolution in this group of arthropods, although there is evidence of its correlation with other morphological variables, like cuticle thickness. Scute sizes of miniaturized geophilomorph species are well within the range of the lineage to which the species belong, suggesting recent evolutionary transitions to smaller body size.

  9. Cell size versus body size in geophilomorph centipedes.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Marco; Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Variation in animal body size is the result of a complex interplay between variation in cell number and cell size, but the latter has seldom been considered in wide-ranging comparative studies, although distinct patterns of variation have been described in the evolution of different lineages. We investigated the correlation between epidermal cell size and body size in a sample of 29 geophilomorph centipede species, representative of a wide range of body sizes, from 6 mm dwarf species to gigantic species more than 200 mm long, exploiting the marks of epidermal cells on the overlying cuticle in the form of micro-sculptures called scutes. We found conspicuous and significant variation in average scute area, both between suprageneric taxa and between genera, while the within-species range of variation is comparatively small. This supports the view that the average epidermal cell size is to some extent taxon specific. However, regression analyses show that neither body size nor the number of leg-bearing segments explain this variation, which suggests that cell size is not an usual target of change for body size evolution in this group of arthropods, although there is evidence of its correlation with other morphological variables, like cuticle thickness. Scute sizes of miniaturized geophilomorph species are well within the range of the lineage to which the species belong, suggesting recent evolutionary transitions to smaller body size. PMID:25809818

  10. Calculating body frame size (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  11. Coagulation algorithms with size binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statton, David M.; Gans, Jason; Williams, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation describes the time evolution of an aerosol particle size distribution due to aggregation or coagulation. Any algorithm for computerized solution of this equation requires a scheme for describing the continuum of aerosol particle sizes as a discrete set. One standard form of the Smoluchowski equation accomplishes this by restricting the particle sizes to integer multiples of a basic unit particle size (the monomer size). This can be inefficient when particle concentrations over a large range of particle sizes must be calculated. Two algorithms employing a geometric size binning convention are examined: the first assumes that the aerosol particle concentration as a function of size can be considered constant within each size bin; the second approximates the concentration as a linear function of particle size within each size bin. The output of each algorithm is compared to an analytical solution in a special case of the Smoluchowski equation for which an exact solution is known . The range of parameters more appropriate for each algorithm is examined.

  12. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    PubMed

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  13. Population size and genome size in fishes: a closer look.

    PubMed

    Gregory, T Ryan; Witt, Jonathan D S

    2008-04-01

    The several thousand-fold range in genome size among animals has remained a subject of active research and debate for more than half a century, but no satisfactory explanation has yet been provided. Many one-dimensional models have been postulated, but so far none has been successful in accounting for observed patterns in genome size diversity. The recent model based on differences in effective population size appeared to gain empirical support with a study of genome size and inferred effective population size in fishes, but there were several questionable aspects of the analysis. First, it was based on an assumption that microsatellite heterozygosity indicates long-term effective population size, whereas in actuality these markers evolve quickly and are sensitive to demographic events. Second, it included both ancient polyploids and non-polyploids, the former of which did not gain their current genome sizes through the accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations as required in the model. Third, the analysis neglected the tremendous influence that Pleistocene glaciation bottlenecks had on heterozygosities in freshwater (and far less so, marine) fishes. In sum, it is apparent that genomes reached their current sizes in most fishes long before contemporary microsatellite heterozygosities were shaped, and that ancient polyploidy rather than the accumulation of mildly deleterious transposon insertions in small populations is the dominant factor that has influenced the large end of the range of genome sizes among fishes.

  14. Grain Size and Morphological Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmahan, J.; Gallagher, E.; Reniers, A.; Thornton, E.

    2008-12-01

    Grain size on natural beaches has traditionally been assumed to be uniform and modeling efforts assume a single mean grain size for an entire beach environment. Many recent studies contradict this assumption and suggest that sediment grain size on a beach is not homogeneous and that variations in sediment size and supply are important in sediment transport and morphodynamics at all scales. Unfortunately, measuring grain size is difficult, tedious and time consuming. Therefore, in spite of the evidence pointing to the importance of grain size in sediment transport and morphodynamics, many previous studies have been based on only a few field samples. Rubin (2004) introduced a technique for measuring surface grain size in situ in rivers and deeper coastal waters, using a digital camera and auto-correlation of digital images. Using this technique, information about the surface grain size distribution can be obtained quickly and inexpensively. Following Rubin (2004), we have developed a mobile digital imaging system (DIS) for surveying grain size on beaches. The DIS was used during two experiments: RCEX, a rip current experiment in Monterey, CA in April 2007 and Truc Vert '08, a multi-institutional, international experiment, on the Atlantic coast of France in March 2008. Preliminary results suggest that grain size varies spatially with the morphology of beach features and temporally with changes in tide level, wave energy, and morphodynamics. These data are being used to examine the relationship between morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic variability.

  15. Effective sizes for subdivided populations

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, R.K. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA ); Rhodes, O.E. Jr.; Sugg, D.W.; Schnabel, A. )

    1993-12-01

    Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined by the number of breeding groups and the migration rates of males and females among such groups. This study derives analytical solutions for effective sizes that can be applied to subdivided populations. Parameters that encapsulate breeding structure and subdivision are utilized to derive the traditional inbreeding and variance effective sizes. Also, it is shown that effective sizes can be determined for any hierarchical level of population structure for which gene correlations can accrue. Derivations of effective sizes for the accumulation of gene correlations within breeding groups (coancestral effective size) and among breeding groups (intergroup effective size) are given. The results converge to traditional single population measures when similar assumptions are applied. In particular, inbreeding and intergroup effective sizes are shown to be special cases of the coancestral effective size, and intergroup and variance effective sizes will be equal if the population census remains constant. Instantaneous solutions for effective size, at any time after gene correlation begins to accrue, are given in terms of traditional F statistics or transition equations. All effective sizes are shown to converge upon a common asymptotic value when breeding tactics and migration rates are constant. The asymptotic effective size can be expressed in terms of the fixation indices and the number of breeding groups; however, the rate of approach to the asymptote is dependent upon dispersal rates.

  16. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size

    PubMed Central

    King, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631–820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835–1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. PMID

  17. Kinetic narrowing of size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2016-05-01

    We present a model that reveals an interesting possibility for narrowing the size distribution of nanostructures when the deterministic growth rate changes its sign from positive to negative at a certain stationary size. Such a behavior occurs in self-catalyzed one-dimensional III-V nanowires and more generally whenever a negative "adsorption-desorption" term in the growth rate is compensated by a positive "diffusion flux." By asymptotically solving the Fokker-Planck equation, we derive an explicit representation for the size distribution that describes either Poissonian broadening or self-regulated narrowing depending on the parameters. We show how the fluctuation-induced spreading of the size distribution can be completely suppressed in systems with size self-stabilization. These results can be used for obtaining size-uniform ensembles of different nanostructures.

  18. Size Effect in Continuum Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang; James W. Foulk; Huestis, Edwin M.; Connelly, Kevin; Song, Bo; Yang, Nancy Y. C.

    2008-09-01

    The mechanical properties of some materials (Cu, Ni, Ag, etc.) have been shown to develop strong dependence on the geometric dimensions, resulting in a size effect. Several theories have been proposed to model size effects, but have been based on very few experiments conducted at appropriate scales. Some experimental results implied that size effects are caused by increasing strain gradients and have been used to confirm many strain gradient theories. On the other hand, some recent experiments show that a size effect exists in the absence of strain gradients. This report describes a brief analytical and experimental study trying to clarify the material and experimental issues surrounding the most influential size-effect experiments by Fleck et al (1994). This effort is to understand size effects intended to further develop predictive models.

  19. Social network size in humans.

    PubMed

    Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M

    2003-03-01

    This paper examines social network size in contemporary Western society based on the exchange of Christmas cards. Maximum network size averaged 153.5 individuals, with a mean network size of 124.9 for those individuals explicitly contacted; these values are remarkably close to the group size of 150 predicted for humans on the basis of the size of their neocortex. Age, household type, and the relationship to the individual influence network structure, although the proportion of kin remained relatively constant at around 21%. Frequency of contact between network members was primarily determined by two classes of variable: passive factors (distance, work colleague, overseas) and active factors (emotional closeness, genetic relatedness). Controlling for the influence of passive factors on contact rates allowed the hierarchical structure of human social groups to be delimited. These findings suggest that there may be cognitive constraints on network size.

  20. Grain Size and Morphological Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, E. L.; Reniers, A. J.; Macmahan, J. H.; Thornton, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    Grain size on natural beaches has traditionally been assumed to be uniform and modeling efforts assume a single mean grain size for an entire beach environment. Many recent studies contradict this assumption and suggest that sediment grain size on a beach is not homogeneous and that variations in sediment size and supply are important in sediment transport and morphodynamics at all scales. Unfortunately, measuring grain size is tedious and time consuming. Therefore, in spite of the evidence pointing to the importance of grain size in sediment transport and morphodynamics, many previous studies have been based on only a few field samples. Rubin (2004) introduced a technique for measuring surface grain size in situ in rivers and deeper coastal waters, using a digital camera and auto-correlation of digital images. Using this technique, information about the surface grain size distribution can be obtained quickly and inexpensively. Following Rubin (2004), we have developed a mobile digital imaging system (DIS) for surveying grain size on beaches. The DIS was used during three experiments: RCEX and REX, both rip current experiments in Monterey, CA (April 2007 and April 2009) and Truc Vert ’08, a multi-institutional, international experiment, on the Atlantic coast of France in March 2008. In 2007 and 2008 spatial surveys of surface grain size were completed every few days over large (~500x500m) intertidal areas. The 2009 experiment focused on twice-daily sampling of two cross shore lines to examine temporal grain size variability of the intertidal beach. Preliminary results suggest that grain size varies spatially with the morphology of beach features (eg, rip channels and shoals) and temporally with changes in tide level, wave energy, and morphodynamics. These data are being used to examine the relationship between morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic variability.

  1. Size sensors in bacteria, cell cycle control, and size control

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria proliferate by repetitive cycles of cellular growth and division. The progression into the cell cycle is admitted to be under the control of cell size. However, the molecular basis of this regulation is still unclear. Here I will discuss which mechanisms could allow coupling growth and division by sensing size and transmitting this information to the division machinery. Size sensors could act at different stages of the cell cycle. During septum formation, mechanisms controlling the formation of the Z ring, such as MinCD inhibition or Nucleoid Occlusion (NO) could participate in the size-dependence of the division process. In addition or alternatively, the coupling of growth and division may occur indirectly through the control of DNA replication initiation. The relative importance of these different size-sensing mechanisms could depend on the environmental and genetic context. The recent demonstration of an incremental strategy of size control in bacteria, suggests that DnaA-dependent control of replication initiation could be the major size control mechanism limiting cell size variation. PMID:26074903

  2. Size sensors in bacteria, cell cycle control, and size control.

    PubMed

    Robert, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria proliferate by repetitive cycles of cellular growth and division. The progression into the cell cycle is admitted to be under the control of cell size. However, the molecular basis of this regulation is still unclear. Here I will discuss which mechanisms could allow coupling growth and division by sensing size and transmitting this information to the division machinery. Size sensors could act at different stages of the cell cycle. During septum formation, mechanisms controlling the formation of the Z ring, such as MinCD inhibition or Nucleoid Occlusion (NO) could participate in the size-dependence of the division process. In addition or alternatively, the coupling of growth and division may occur indirectly through the control of DNA replication initiation. The relative importance of these different size-sensing mechanisms could depend on the environmental and genetic context. The recent demonstration of an incremental strategy of size control in bacteria, suggests that DnaA-dependent control of replication initiation could be the major size control mechanism limiting cell size variation.

  3. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  4. Sample size calculation: Basic principles

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Mitra, Koel; Mandal, Mohanchandra

    2016-01-01

    Addressing a sample size is a practical issue that has to be solved during planning and designing stage of the study. The aim of any clinical research is to detect the actual difference between two groups (power) and to provide an estimate of the difference with a reasonable accuracy (precision). Hence, researchers should do a priori estimate of sample size well ahead, before conducting the study. Post hoc sample size computation is not encouraged conventionally. Adequate sample size minimizes the random error or in other words, lessens something happening by chance. Too small a sample may fail to answer the research question and can be of questionable validity or provide an imprecise answer while too large a sample may answer the question but is resource-intensive and also may be unethical. More transparency in the calculation of sample size is required so that it can be justified and replicated while reporting. PMID:27729692

  5. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. PMID:22306436

  6. Numerosity perception after size adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Fink, Gereon R.

    2016-01-01

    While some researchers propose the existence of a special numerosity sense, others challenge this view and argue that numerosity is derived from low-level features as density information. Here, we used size adaptation to manipulate the apparent area size of an object set without changing its physical density. After size adaptation, two probe patches were shown, each of which contained a specific numerosity of dots. Subjects were required to report, which probe patch contained more dots. Numerosity perception was compared between conditions where probe patches were adapted to appear smaller or larger. Size adaptation affected numerosity perception in a logarithmic fashion, increasing with the numerosity in the probe patch. No changes in density perception were found after size adaptation. Data suggest that size and density information play only a minor role in the estimation of low numerosities. In stark contrast, high numerosities strongly depend on size and density information. The data reinforce recent claims of separate mechanism for the perception of low and high numerosities. PMID:27650296

  7. Numerosity perception after size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    While some researchers propose the existence of a special numerosity sense, others challenge this view and argue that numerosity is derived from low-level features as density information. Here, we used size adaptation to manipulate the apparent area size of an object set without changing its physical density. After size adaptation, two probe patches were shown, each of which contained a specific numerosity of dots. Subjects were required to report, which probe patch contained more dots. Numerosity perception was compared between conditions where probe patches were adapted to appear smaller or larger. Size adaptation affected numerosity perception in a logarithmic fashion, increasing with the numerosity in the probe patch. No changes in density perception were found after size adaptation. Data suggest that size and density information play only a minor role in the estimation of low numerosities. In stark contrast, high numerosities strongly depend on size and density information. The data reinforce recent claims of separate mechanism for the perception of low and high numerosities. PMID:27650296

  8. Cell size control in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chien, An-Chun; Hill, Norbert S; Levin, Petra Anne

    2012-05-01

    Like eukaryotes, bacteria must coordinate division with growth to ensure cells are the appropriate size for a given environmental condition or developmental fate. As single-celled organisms, nutrient availability is one of the strongest influences on bacterial cell size. Classic physiological experiments conducted over four decades ago first demonstrated that cell size is directly correlated with nutrient source and growth rate in the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. This observation subsequently served as the basis for studies revealing a role for cell size in cell cycle progression in a closely related organism, Escherichia coli. More recently, the development of powerful genetic, molecular, and imaging tools has allowed us to identify and characterize the nutrient-dependent pathway responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size with growth rate in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. Here, we discuss the role of cell size in bacterial growth and development and propose a broadly applicable model for cell size control in this important and highly divergent domain of life.

  9. Portion Size and Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, M. Barbara E.; Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Portion size is a key environmental driver of energy intake, and larger-than-appropriate portion sizes could increase the risk of weight gain. Multiple acute, well-controlled laboratory studies, supported by data from free-living settings, demonstrated that portion size has a powerful and proportionate effect on the amount of food consumed. Of particular importance is that bouts of overeating associated with large portions are sustained and not followed by a compensatory reduction in energy intake. The positive effect of portion size on energy intake was demonstrated for different types of foods and beverages, and is particularly pronounced with energy-dense foods. The predisposition to overeat in response to large portions is pervasive and occurs regardless of demographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status, age, body mass index, and sex. Secular trends toward greater availability of large portions, coupled with value-size pricing, effectively distorted consumption norms and perceptions of what is an appropriate amount to eat. Nevertheless, although a direct causal link between portion size and obesity remains to be established, advice to moderate portion sizes, especially of energy-dense foods, is presently the cornerstone of most weight management advice. Although many strategies have been proposed to counteract the deleterious effects of portion size, there are few data indicating which are likely to be acceptable in the medium- to long term. Further research is urgently needed to establish what types of interventions targeted at portion size are likely to be effective, in what settings, and among which target groups. PMID:25398749

  10. Cavitation erosion size scale effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

  11. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  12. Size Scaling of Static Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-01

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as fm+Δf/Aγ for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of fm, controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  13. Retinal spot size with wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Amnotte, Rodney E.; Eilert, Brent; Druessel, Jeffrey J.; Payne, Dale J.; Phillips, Shana L.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Cain, Clarence P.

    1997-06-01

    We have made an indirect in-vivo determination of spot size focusing in the rhesus monkey model. Measurement of the laser induced breakdown threshold both in-vitro and in-vivo allow correlation and assignment of a spot size after focusing through the living eye. We discuss and analyze the results and show how trends in minimum visible lesion data should be assessed in light of chromatic aberration. National laser safety standards are based on minimal visual lesion (MVL) threshold studies in different animal models. The energy required for a retinal lesion depends upon may parameters including wavelength and retinal spot size. We attempt to explain trends in reported MVL threshold studies using a model of the eye which allows calculation of changes in retinal spot size due to chromatic aberration.

  14. Safety of cold ablation (coblation) in the treatment of tonsillar hypertrophy of the tongue base.

    PubMed

    Leitzbach, Sarah Ulrike; Bodlaj, Robert; Maurer, Joachim Theodor; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of diseases of the lingual tonsils is still under debate, and surgical interventions are often associated with significant morbidity and complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety of lingual tonsillectomy using cold ablation (coblation) as a new treatment of lingual tonsil diseases. In this retrospective, bicentric study, we included all patients between 2005 and 2012 who underwent cold ablation (Coblation(®)) of the lingual tonsils. We assessed the frequency of postoperative complications based on the patients' charts. A total of 108 patients (47 ± 13, 6 years) underwent lingual tonsillectomy using coblation. All patients were operated on under general anesthesia as inpatients. Intraoperative complications did not occur. Three patients (2.8%) needed revision surgery due to postoperative hemorrhage, and in one of those cases, three revisions were necessary. There was no postoperative airway compromise and no need for tracheostomy. There was no hypoglossal nerve paralysis, but in the case needing multiple revisions, a weakness of the hypoglossal nerve persisted. In all the cases, oral intake was possible with adequate analgesia. Coblation of the tongue base is a safe procedure with a relatively low rate of postoperative complications. Postoperative hemorrhage is the most relevant complication that occurred in our series of patients. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

  15. Safety of cold ablation (coblation) in the treatment of tonsillar hypertrophy of the tongue base.

    PubMed

    Leitzbach, Sarah Ulrike; Bodlaj, Robert; Maurer, Joachim Theodor; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of diseases of the lingual tonsils is still under debate, and surgical interventions are often associated with significant morbidity and complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety of lingual tonsillectomy using cold ablation (coblation) as a new treatment of lingual tonsil diseases. In this retrospective, bicentric study, we included all patients between 2005 and 2012 who underwent cold ablation (Coblation(®)) of the lingual tonsils. We assessed the frequency of postoperative complications based on the patients' charts. A total of 108 patients (47 ± 13, 6 years) underwent lingual tonsillectomy using coblation. All patients were operated on under general anesthesia as inpatients. Intraoperative complications did not occur. Three patients (2.8%) needed revision surgery due to postoperative hemorrhage, and in one of those cases, three revisions were necessary. There was no postoperative airway compromise and no need for tracheostomy. There was no hypoglossal nerve paralysis, but in the case needing multiple revisions, a weakness of the hypoglossal nerve persisted. In all the cases, oral intake was possible with adequate analgesia. Coblation of the tongue base is a safe procedure with a relatively low rate of postoperative complications. Postoperative hemorrhage is the most relevant complication that occurred in our series of patients. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:24398866

  16. Sexual size dimorphism in anurans.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Jean-Matthieu; Cherry, Michael I

    2002-11-22

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the direction and extent of sexual size dimorphism in anurans (in which males are usually smaller than females) as a result of sexual selection. Here, we present an analysis to test the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in anurans is largely a function of differences between the sexes in life-history strategies. Morphological and demographic data for anurans were collected from the literature, and the mean size and age in each sex were calculated for 51 populations, across 30 species and eight genera. Comparisons across 14 Rana species, eight Bufo species and across the genera showed a highly significant relationship between size dimorphism, measured using the female-male size ratio, and mean female-male age difference. A comparison of a subset of 17 of these species for which phylogenetic information was available, using the method of independent contrasts, yielded a similar result. These results indicate that most of the variation in size dimorphism in the anura can be explained in terms of differences in the age structure between the sexes in breeding populations. If sexual selection has an effect on size dimorphism in anurans, it is likely to be only a secondary one.

  17. Size mismatch in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Size mismatch is an unique and inevitable but critical issue in live donor liver transplantation. Unmatched metabolic demand of recipient as well as physiologic mismatch aggravates the damage to liver graft, inevitably leading to graft failure on recipient. Also, an excessive resection of liver graft for better recipient outcome in live donor liver transplant may jeopardize the healthy donor well-being and even put donor life in danger. There is a fine balance between resected graft volume required to meet the recipient's metabolic demand and residual graft volume required for donor safety. The obvious clinical necessity of finding that balance has prompted a clinical need and promoted the improvement of knowledge and development of management strategies for size-mismatched transplants. The development of the size-matching methodology has significantly improved graft outcome and recipient survival in live donor liver transplants. On the other hand, the effect of size mismatch in cadaveric transplants has never been observed as being so pronounced. The importance of matching of the donor recipient size has been unrecognized in cadaveric liver transplant. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current most updated knowledge on the subject, particularly addressing the definition and complications of size-mismatched cadaveric liver transplant, as well as management strategies. PMID:27474079

  18. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffo, A.; Alopaeus, V.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used.

  19. Genome size variation in Begonia.

    PubMed

    Dewitte, Angelo; Leus, Leen; Eeckhaut, Tom; Vanstechelman, Ives; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik

    2009-10-01

    The genome sizes of a Begonia collection comprising 37 species and 23 hybrids of African, Asiatic, Middle American, and South American origin were screened using flow cytometry. Within the collection, 1C values varied between 0.23 and 1.46 pg DNA. Genome sizes were, in most cases, not positively correlated with chromosome number, but with pollen size. A 12-fold difference in mean chromosome size was found between the genotypes with the largest and smallest chromosomes. In general, chromosomes from South American genotypes were smaller than chromosomes of African, Asian, or Middle American genotypes, except for B. boliviensis and B. pearcei. Cytological chromosome studies in different genotypes showed variable chromosome numbers, length, width, and total chromosome volume, which confirmed the diversity in genome size. Large secondary constrictions were present in several investigated genotypes. These data show that chromosome number and structure exhibit a great deal of variation within the genus Begonia, and likely help to explain the large number of taxa found within the genus.

  20. Body Size in Mammalian Paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damuth, John; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1990-11-01

    This valuable collection of essays presents and evaluates techniques of body-mass estimation and reviews current and potential applications of body-size estimates in paleobiology. Papers discuss explicitly the errors and biases of various regression techniques and predictor variables, and the identification of functionally similar groups of species for improving the accuracy of estimates. At the same time other chapters review and discuss the physiological, ecological, and behavioral correlates of body size in extant mammals; the significance of body-mass distributions in mammalian faunas; and the ecology and evolution of body size in particular paleofaunas. Coverage is particularly detailed for carnivores, primates, and ungulates, but information is also presented on marsupials, rodents, and proboscideans.

  1. GAIA measurements of asteroid sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Oro, A.; Cellino, A.

    Observations of Main Belt asteroids by GAIA will produce direct measurements of their angular sizes for a significant sample of the population. A comprehensive set of simulations are currently being performed. They are based on a numerical model specifically developed to simulate the signal that GAIA will receive from asteroids in a large variety of cases. An investigation of the predicted performances of the on-board instrumentation, as currently proposed, is in progress. The simulations take into account all the relevant physical quantities that will play a role in determining the resulting signal, including the apparent angular size of the objects, the possible range of motion in the CCD frames, and photon statistics noise. An analysis of the accuracy of size measurements as a function of apparent magnitude is presented. In spite of the fact that asteroid images will generally cover only small numbers of pixels in the CCD detector and the typical angular sizes of the objects will be generally comparable with the instrumental PSF width, the simulations indicate that relevant information can be extracted from the data in a rather large range of observing conditions. In particular, it turns out that Main Belt asteroids with diameters larger than 30 km will be measured with an accuracy equal or better than 10 %, at least once during the mission operational lifetime. The number of these objects is currently estimated to be of the order of 1000. Below 20 km, no accurate size measurement will be obtained. Simulations have been performed also to investigate the change in expected performances by varying the size of the read-out window of the CCD, in order to determine the best trade-off between the number of read-out pixels and the effect of increasing noise. The proposed 6-pixel width for the faint objects provides an excellent compromise for the purposes of asteroid observations.

  2. Cytoskeletal genes regulating brain size.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jacquelyn; Woods, C Geoffrey

    2006-02-01

    One of the most notable trends in human evolution is the dramatic increase in brain size that has occurred in the great ape clade, culminating in humans. Of particular interest is the vast expanse of the cerebral cortex, which is believed to have resulted in our ability to perform higher cognitive functions. Recent investigations of congenital microcephaly in humans have resulted in the identification of several genes that non-redundantly and specifically influence mammalian brain size. These genes appear to affect neural progenitor cell number through microtubular organisation at the centrosome. PMID:16337370

  3. Size Distribution of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stull, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    By using differential light-scattering measurements of single cells suspended in a laser beam, an effective cell radius has been determined for 141 individual bacteria from suspensions of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The accumulation of these measurements has provided the size distribution for the sampling. PMID:4551753

  4. Cohort Size Effects and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.

    1983-01-01

    Explores whether changes in the size of cohorts entering the labor force affected the propensity within the U.S. labor force to migrate and socioeconomic circumstances of migrants at destination within 1965-76. Suggests that a significant reduction in the volume of migration among members of the baby boom cohort was the primary adjustment…

  5. Mesh Size Control of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitenis, Angela; Uruena, Juan Manuel; Schulze, Kyle D.; Cooper, Andrew C.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Sawyer, W. Gregory

    Soft, permeable sliding interfaces in aqueous environments are ubiquitous in nature but their ability to maintain high lubricity in a poor lubricant (water) has not been well understood. Hydrogels are excellent materials for fundamental soft matter and biotribology studies due to their high water content. While mesh size controls the material and transport properties of a hydrogel, its effects on friction were only recently explored. Polyacrylamide hydrogels slid in a Gemini (self-mated) interface produced low friction under low speeds, low pressures, macroscopic contact areas, and room temperature aqueous environments. The friction coefficients at these interfaces are lowest at low speeds and are speed-independent. This behavior is due to thermal fluctuations at the interface separating the surfaces, with water shearing in this region being the main source of dissipation. We found that mesh size had an inverse correlation with friction. We further investigated a transition from this behavior at higher speeds, and found that the transition speed correlated with the mesh size and relaxation time of the polymer network. Very soft and correspondingly large mesh size Gemini hydrogels show superlubricity under specific conditions with friction being less than 0.005.

  6. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  7. Automated measurement of diatom size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Jewson, David H.; Bixby, Rebecca J.; Nelson, Harry; McKnight, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Size analysis of diatom populations has not been widely considered, but it is a potentially powerful tool for understanding diatom life histories, population dynamics, and phylogenetic relationships. However, measuring cell dimensions on a light microscope is a time-consuming process. An alternative technique has been developed using digital flow cytometry on a FlowCAM® (Fluid Imaging Technologies) to capture hundreds, or even thousands, of images of a chosen taxon from a single sample in a matter of minutes. Up to 30 morphological measures may be quantified through post-processing of the high resolution images. We evaluated FlowCAM size measurements, comparing them against measurements from a light microscope. We found good agreement between measurement of apical cell length in species with elongated, straight valves, including small Achnanthidium minutissimum (11-21 µm) and largeDidymosphenia geminata (87–137 µm) forms. However, a taxon with curved cells, Hannaea baicalensis (37–96 µm), showed differences of ~ 4 µm between the two methods. Discrepancies appear to be influenced by the choice of feret or geodesic measurement for asymmetric cells. We describe the operating conditions necessary for analysis of size distributions and present suggestions for optimal instrument conditions for size analysis of diatom samples using the FlowCAM. The increased speed of data acquisition through use of imaging flow cytometers like the FlowCAM is an essential step for advancing studies of diatom populations.

  8. Molecular Size and Raoult's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1985-01-01

    The concept of an ideal solution is ordinarily introduced in freshman chemistry by means of Raoult's Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a volatile component of a solution is proportional to its mole fraction. The relationship of this law to molecular size is discussed. (JN)

  9. The Classroom: Size versus Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Classroom density may be a more important planning consideration than size. The lower middle range for human social distance is 7 feet--not met in most classrooms containing 20 to 25 students. Students need ample space, since crowding causes behavior problems and increased maintenance costs. (Contains 10 references.) (MLH)

  10. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  11. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  12. Effect Size in Clinical Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

  13. Small Schools: Size or Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Small schools are not just about size. They are also about authentic instruction, portfolio evaluation, and a thematic curriculum. Their agendas overlap with that of charter schools. They have an uncomfortable and sometimes adversarial relationship with standards, accountability, and the No Child Left Behind Act. They have migrated from their…

  14. Quantum Size Effects in Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ching-Ming

    2006-03-01

    Quantum size effects in metal thin films and metallic clusters are studied using first-principles density functional theory. For metal thin films, Pb(111), Pb(100), Al(110), and Al(111) films up to 30 monolayers are calculated. Significant oscillatory quantum size effects are found on surface energy, work function, and surface relaxations. These oscillations are correlated with the thickness dependence of the energies of confined electrons, which can be properly modelled by an energy-dependent phase shift of the electronic wave function upon reflection at the interface. It is found that a quantitative description of these quantum size effects requires full consideration of the crystal band structure. For metallic clusters, the highly symmetric particles of sizes up 4 nm (Al923, Pb923, and Au309) in the icosahedral (ico), decahedral, and cubotohedral (fcc) structures are calculated. We propose a simple scheme to compare their relative stability and to identify the quantum size effect. In addition, the famous Mackay (fcc-to-ico) transition for metallic clusters is investigated by ab-initio elastic-band method. The transition path can in general be described by an angular variable s. The barriers of the Mackay transition for large Al, Pb, and Au clusters are found to be smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature. Finally CO oxidation on metallic clusters will be presented. A catalytic reaction path for CO oxidation on Au55, Ag55, and Au25Ag30 ico clusters is found with activation energies of less than 0.5 eV. The reaction consists of a peroxolike transition intermediate involving the OOCO configuration. A crucial factor to determine the reaction rate on these clusters is identified as the co-adsorption energy of CO and O2 on these clusters.

  15. Size from Specular Highlights for Analyzing Droplet Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Westenberg, Michel A.; Grooten, Mart H. M.

    In mechanical engineering, heat-transfer models by dropwise condensation are under development. The condensation process is captured by taking many pictures, which show the formation of droplets, of which the size distribution and area coverage are of interest for model improvement. The current analysis method relies on manual measurements, which is time consuming. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically extract the positions and radii of the droplets from an image. Our method relies on specular highlights that are visible on the surfaces of the droplets. We show that these highlights can be reliably extracted, and that they provide sufficient information to infer the droplet size. The results obtained by our method compare favorably with those obtained by laborious and careful manual measurements. The processing time per image is reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  16. Mangrove propagule size and oil contamination effects: Does size matter?

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Gonasageran

    2016-09-15

    Three mangroves species with differential propagule size, Avicennia marina (2.5±0.3cm), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (16±2cm) and Rhizophora mucronata (36±3cm), were subjected to oil contamination. In a series of glasshouse and field experiments, the sediment, propagules, leaves and stems were oiled and growth monitored. Oiling of the propagules, leaves, internodes or sediment reduced plant height, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll content index and induced growth abnormalities, leaf abscission and mortality, with effects being greatest in A. marina, intermediate in R. mucronata and least in B. gymnorrhiza. The results suggest that the greater susceptibility of A. marina to oil is due to early shedding of the protective pericarp and rapid root and shoot development after detachment from the parent tree and not to propagule size. After seedling emergence, micromorphological factors such as presence of trichomes, salt glands and thickness of protective barriers influence oil tolerance. PMID:27342901

  17. 7 CFR 51.2836 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Size classifications. 51.2836 Section 51.2836...) Size Classifications § 51.2836 Size classifications. The size of onions may be specified in accordance with one of the following classifications. Size designation Minimum diameter Inches Millimeters...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2836 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Size classifications. 51.2836 Section 51.2836...-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Size Classifications § 51.2836 Size classifications. The size of onions may be specified in accordance with one of the following classifications. Size designation...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1216 - Size requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Size § 51.1216 Size requirements. (a) The numerical count or a count-size based on equivalent tray pack size designations or the minimum diameter of the peaches packed in a... count, of peaches in any lot may be below the specified minimum size and not more than 15 percent may...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1216 - Size requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Size § 51.1216 Size requirements. (a) The numerical count or a count-size based on equivalent tray pack size designations or the minimum diameter of the peaches packed in a... count, of peaches in any lot may be below the specified minimum size and not more than 15 percent may...