Science.gov

Sample records for linkage disequilibrium genetic

  1. Genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Michael E; Thomason, Maureen Kiley; Chen, Peter E; Johnson, Henry R; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Mateczun, Alfred; Read, Timothy D

    2011-01-01

    We performed whole-genome amplification followed by hybridization of custom-designed resequencing arrays to resequence 303 kb of genomic sequence from a worldwide panel of 39 Bacillus anthracis strains. We used an efficient algorithm contained within a custom software program, UniqueMER, to identify and mask repetitive sequences on the resequencing array to reduce false-positive identification of genetic variation, which can arise from cross-hybridization. We discovered a total of 240 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and showed that B. anthracis strains have an average of 2.25 differences per 10,000 bases in the region we resequenced. Common SNVs in this region are found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium. These patterns of variation suggest there has been little if any historical recombination among B. anthracis strains since the origin of the pathogen. This pattern of common genetic variation suggests a framework for recognizing new or genetically engineered strains.

  2. Assortative Mating and Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-01-05

    Assortative mating has been suggested to result in an increase in heritability and additive genetic variance through an increase in linkage disequilibrium. The impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium was explicitly examined for the two-locus model of Wright (1921) and two selective assortative mating models. For the Wright (1921) model, when the proportion of assortative mating was high, positive linkage disequilibrium was generated. However, when the proportion of assortative mating was similar to that found in some studies, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was quite low. In addition, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was independent of the level of recombination. For two selective assortative models, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was a function of the amount of recombination. For these models, the linkage disequilibrium generated was negative mainly because repulsion heterozygotes were favored over coupling heterozygotes. From these findings, the impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium, and consequently heritability and additive genetic variance, appears to be small and model-specific.

  3. Assortative Mating and Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Assortative mating has been suggested to result in an increase in heritability and additive genetic variance through an increase in linkage disequilibrium. The impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium was explicitly examined for the two-locus model of Wright (1921) and two selective assortative mating models. For the Wright (1921) model, when the proportion of assortative mating was high, positive linkage disequilibrium was generated. However, when the proportion of assortative mating was similar to that found in some studies, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was quite low. In addition, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was independent of the level of recombination. For two selective assortative models, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was a function of the amount of recombination. For these models, the linkage disequilibrium generated was negative mainly because repulsion heterozygotes were favored over coupling heterozygotes. From these findings, the impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium, and consequently heritability and additive genetic variance, appears to be small and model-specific. PMID:27784755

  4. A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Egeland, Thore; Mostad, Petter

    2015-09-01

    Several applications necessitate an unbiased determination of relatedness, be it in linkage or association studies or in a forensic setting. An appropriate model to compute the joint probability of some genetic data for a set of persons given some hypothesis about the pedigree structure is then required. The increasing number of markers available through high-density SNP microarray typing and NGS technologies intensifies the demand, where using a large number of markers may lead to biased results due to strong dependencies between closely located loci, both within pedigrees (linkage) and in the population (allelic association or linkage disequilibrium (LD)). We present a new general model, based on a Markov chain for inheritance patterns and another Markov chain for founder allele patterns, the latter allowing us to account for LD. We also demonstrate a specific implementation for X chromosomal markers that allows for computation of likelihoods based on hypotheses of alleged relationships and genetic marker data. The algorithm can simultaneously account for linkage, LD, and mutations. We demonstrate its feasibility using simulated examples. The algorithm is implemented in the software FamLinkX, providing a user-friendly GUI for Windows systems (FamLinkX, as well as further usage instructions, is freely available at www.famlink.se ). Our software provides the necessary means to solve cases where no previous implementation exists. In addition, the software has the possibility to perform simulations in order to further study the impact of linkage and LD on computed likelihoods for an arbitrary set of markers.

  5. A linkage disequilibrium perspective on the genetic mosaic of speciation in two hybridizing Mediterranean white oaks

    PubMed Central

    Goicoechea, P G; Herrán, A; Durand, J; Bodénès, C; Plomion, C; Kremer, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic mosaic of speciation in two hybridizing Mediterranean white oaks from the Iberian Peninsula (Quercus faginea Lamb. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.). The two species show ecological divergence in flowering phenology, leaf morphology and composition, and in their basic or acidic soil preferences. Ninety expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and eight nuclear SSRs were genotyped in 96 trees from each species. Genotyping was designed in two steps. First, we used 69 markers evenly distributed over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak linkage map to confirm the species genetic identity of the sampled genotypes, and searched for differentiation outliers. Then, we genotyped 29 additional markers from the chromosome bins containing the outliers and repeated the multilocus scans. We found one or two additional outliers within four saturated bins, thus confirming that outliers are organized into clusters. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was extensive; even for loosely linked and for independent markers. Consequently, score tests for association between two-marker haplotypes and the ‘species trait' showed a broad genomic divergence, although substantial variation across the genome and within LGs was also observed. We discuss the influence of several confounding effects on neutrality tests and review the evolutionary processes leading to extensive LD. Finally, we examine how LD analyses within regions that contain outlier clusters and quantitative trait loci can help to identify regions of divergence and/or genomic hitchhiking in the light of predictions from ecological speciation theory. PMID:25515016

  6. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 14,739 SNPs. The SNPs were produced using a highly multiplexed g...

  7. Accommodating Linkage Disequilibrium in Genetic-Association Analyses via Ridge Regression

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Nathalie; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale genetic-association studies that take advantage of an extremely dense set of genetic markers have begun to produce very compelling statistical associations between multiple makers exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) in a single genomic region and a phenotype of interest. However, the ultimate biological or “functional” significance of these multiple associations has been difficult to discern. In fact, the LD relationships between not only the markers found to be associated with the phenotype but also potential functionally or causally relevant genetic variations that reside near those markers have been exploited in such studies. Unfortunately, LD, especially strong LD, between variations at neighboring loci can make it difficult to distinguish the functionally relevant variations from nonfunctional variations. Although there are (rare) situations in which it is impossible to determine the independent phenotypic effects of variations in LD, there are strategies for accommodating LD between variations at different loci, and they can be used to tease out their independent effects on a phenotype. These strategies make it possible to differentiate potentially causative from noncausative variations. We describe one such approach involving ridge regression. We showcase the method by using both simulated and real data. Our results suggest that ridge regression and related techniques have the potential to distinguish causative from noncausative variations in association studies. PMID:18252218

  8. The Impact of Genetic Relationship and Linkage Disequilibrium on Genomic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Jing; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Yongzhong; Liu, Sisi; Shen, Yaou; Lin, Haijian; Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Kaijian; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Pan, Guangtang

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection is a promising research area due to its practical application in breeding. In this study, impact of realized genetic relationship and linkage disequilibrium (LD) on marker density and training population size required was investigated and their impact on practical application was further discussed. This study is based on experimental data of two populations derived from the same two founder lines (B73, Mo17). Two populations were genotyped with different marker sets at different density: IBM Syn4 and IBM Syn10. A high-density marker set in Syn10 was imputed into the Syn4 population with low marker density. Seven different prediction scenarios were carried out with a random regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) model. The result showed that the closer the real genetic relationship between training and validation population, the fewer markers were required to reach a good prediction accuracy. Taken the short-term cost for consideration, relationship information is more valuable than LD information. Meanwhile, the result indicated that accuracies based on high LD between QTL and markers were more stable over generations, thus LD information would provide more robust prediction capacity in practical applications. PMID:26148055

  9. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P < 0.01) in the bulk of 337 lines, and decayed steeply with map distance between markers. The partitioning of multilocus associations into various components indicated that genetic drift and founder effects played a major role in determining the overall genetic makeup of the diversity in these landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled.

  10. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  11. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Drosophila melanogaster with different rates of development

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, D.; Tucic, N.; Moya, A.; Ayala, F.J.

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined eight enzyme polymorphisms in groups of Drosophila melanogaster flies with fast, intermediate and slow development. The allelic frequencies are similar in all three developmental classes, but the distribution of the genotypes among the class is significantly heterogeneous for the three loci on the second chromosome. When the total sample of 300 individuals is examined, significant gametic disequilibrium appears in 3 out of 13 pairs of genes located on the same chromosome and in 4 out of 15 pairs of genes located on different chromosomes. This 25% incidence of disequilibrium between pairs of genes is larger than previously observed in other natural populations (but similar to the incidence observed in laboratory populations). The greater frequency of significant gametic disequilibrium in our study is probably due to the large number of genomes sampled. Some models specifically predict that individuals with faster rates of development (i.e., greater fitness) should be more heterozygous (and exhibit more linkage disequilibrium) than individuals with slower development. This hypothesis is not supported by our results.

  12. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in a mass-selected population of maritime pine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The accessibility of high-throughput genotyping technologies has contributed greatly to the development of genomic resources in non-model organisms. High-density genotyping arrays have only recently been developed for some economically important species such as conifers. The potential for using genomic technologies in association mapping and breeding depends largely on the genome wide patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium in current breeding populations. This study aims to deepen our knowledge regarding these issues in maritime pine, the first species used for reforestation in south western Europe. Results Using a new map merging algorithm, we first established a 1,712 cM composite linkage map (comprising 1,838 SNP markers in 12 linkage groups) by bringing together three already available genetic maps. Using rigorous statistical testing based on kernel density estimation and resampling we identified cold and hot spots of recombination. In parallel, 186 unrelated trees of a mass-selected population were genotyped using a 12k-SNP array. A total of 2,600 informative SNPs allowed to describe historical recombination, genetic diversity and genetic structure of this recently domesticated breeding pool that forms the basis of much of the current and future breeding of this species. We observe very low levels of population genetic structure and find no evidence that artificial selection has caused a reduction in genetic diversity. By combining these two pieces of information, we provided the map position of 1,671 SNPs corresponding to 1,192 different loci. This made it possible to analyze the spatial pattern of genetic diversity (H e ) and long distance linkage disequilibrium (LD) along the chromosomes. We found no particular pattern in the empirical variogram of H e across the 12 linkage groups and, as expected for an outcrossing species with large effective population size, we observed an almost complete lack of long distance LD. Conclusions These

  13. Genetic Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium and Signature of Selection in Sorghum: Lessons from Physically Anchored DArT Markers

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Pot, David; Deu, Monique; Rami, Jean-François; Billot, Claire; Perrier, Xavier; Rivallan, Ronan; Gardes, Laëtitia; Xia, Ling; Wenzl, Peter; Kilian, Andrzej; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) as well as signatures of selection were investigated in sorghum using a core sample representative of worldwide diversity. A total of 177 accessions were genotyped with 1122 informative physically anchored DArT markers. The properties of DArTs to describe sorghum genetic structure were compared to those of SSRs and of previously published RFLP markers. Model-based (STRUCTURE software) and Neighbor-Joining diversity analyses led to the identification of 6 groups and confirmed previous evolutionary hypotheses. Results were globally consistent between the different marker systems. However, DArTs appeared more robust in terms of data resolution and bayesian group assignment. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium as measured by mean r2 decreased from 0.18 (between 0 to 10 kb) to 0.03 (between 100 kb to 1 Mb), stabilizing at 0.03 after 1 Mb. Effects on LD estimations of sample size and genetic structure were tested using i. random sampling, ii. the Maximum Length SubTree algorithm (MLST), and iii. structure groups. Optimizing population composition by the MLST reduced the biases in small samples and seemed to be an efficient way of selecting samples to make the best use of LD as a genome mapping approach in structured populations. These results also suggested that more than 100,000 markers may be required to perform genome-wide association studies in collections covering worldwide sorghum diversity. Analysis of DArT markers differentiation between the identified genetic groups pointed out outlier loci potentially linked to genes controlling traits of interest, including disease resistance genes for which evidence of selection had already been reported. In addition, evidence of selection near a homologous locus of FAR1 concurred with sorghum phenotypic diversity for sensitivity to photoperiod. PMID:22428056

  14. The Genetic Diversity and Structure of Linkage Disequilibrium of the MTHFR Gene in Populations of Northern Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Trifonova, E.A.; Eremina, E.R.; Urnov, F.D.; Stepanov, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) in 9 population groups from Northern Eurasia and populations of the international HapMap project was investigated in the present study. The data suggest that the architecture of LD in the human genome is largely determined by the evolutionary history of populations; however, the results of phylogenetic and haplotype analyses seems to suggest that in fact there may be a common “old” mechanism for the formation of certain patterns of LD. Variability in the structure of LD and the level of diversity of MTHFRhaplotypes cause a certain set of tagSNPs with an established prognostic significance for each population. In our opinion, the results obtained in the present study are of considerable interest for understanding multiple genetic phenomena: namely, the association of interpopulation differences in the patterns of LD with structures possessing a genetic susceptibility to complex diseases, and the functional significance of the pleiotropicMTHFR gene effect. Summarizing the results of this study, a conclusion can be made that the genetic variability analysis with emphasis on the structure of LD in human populations is a powerful tool that can make a significant contribution to such areas of biomedical science as human evolutionary biology, functional genomics, genetics of complex diseases, and pharmacogenomics. PMID:22708063

  15. Positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E

    2004-05-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald's likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to efficient

  16. Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and genome evolution in a soft winter wheat population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding genetic diversity within a crop is fundamental to its efficient exploitation. The advent of new high-throughput marker systems offers the opportunity to expand the scope and depth of our investigation of diversity. Our objectives were to analyze the genetic diversity of two populatio...

  17. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  18. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  19. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  20. Mitonuclear linkage disequilibrium in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Daniel B.; Fields, Peter D.; Havird, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence from model systems that disrupting associations between co-adapted mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes can lead to deleterious and even lethal consequences. While it is tempting to extrapolate from these observations and make inferences about the human-health effects of altering mitonuclear associations, the importance of such associations may vary greatly among species, depending on population genetics, demographic history and other factors. Remarkably, despite the extensive study of human population genetics, the statistical associations between nuclear and mitochondrial alleles remain largely uninvestigated. We analysed published population genomic data to test for signatures of historical selection to maintain mitonuclear associations, particularly those involving nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial-localized proteins (N-mt genes). We found that significant mitonuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists throughout the human genome, but these associations were generally weak, which is consistent with the paucity of population genetic structure in humans. Although mitonuclear LD varied among genomic regions (with especially high levels on the X chromosome), N-mt genes were statistically indistinguishable from background levels, suggesting that selection on mitonuclear epistasis has not preferentially maintained associations involving this set of loci at a species-wide level. We discuss these findings in the context of the ongoing debate over mitochondrial replacement therapy. PMID:26378221

  1. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (P<0.001) in this association panel. The LD level for linked markers is significantly higher than that for unlinked markers, suggesting that physical linkage strongly influences LD in this panel, and LD level was elevated when the panel was classified into groups and subgroups. The LD decay analysis for several chromosomes showed that different chromosomes showed a notable change in LD decay distances for the same gene pool. Based on the disease nursery and greenhouse environment, 42 marker loci associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified through association mapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt

  2. The genetic differences with whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping between responder and non-responder in interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-J; Hwang, Y; Lin, C G-J; Wu, Y-J; Wu, L S-H

    2008-04-01

    Interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy has been a mainstream treatment for hepatitis C infection. The efficacy of this combined treatment is around 30% to 60%, and the factors affecting the responsiveness are still poorly defined. Our study is intended to investigate the genetic differences between responder and non-responder patients. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium screening for loci associated with genetic difference between two patient groups was conducted by using 382 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers involving 92 patients. We have identified 19 STR markers displaying different allele frequencies between the two patient groups. In addition, based on their genomic location and biological function, we selected the CD81 and IL15 genes to perform single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. In conclusion, this study may provide a new approach for identifying the associated polymorphisms and the susceptible loci for interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium at the SCA2 locus

    PubMed Central

    Didierjean, O.; Cancel, G.; Stevanin, G.; Durr, A.; Burk, K.; Benomar, A.; Lezin, A.; Belal, S.; Abada-Bendid, M.; Klockgether, T.; Brice, A.

    1999-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract. Repeats with 32 to 200 CAGs are associated with the disease, whereas normal chromosomes contain 13 to 33 repeats. We tested 220 families of different geographical origins for the SCA2 mutation. Thirty three were positive (15%). Twenty three families with at least two affected subjects were tested for linkage disequilibium (LD) between the SCA2 mutation and three microsatellite markers, two of which (D12S1332-D12S1333) closely flanked the mutation; the other (D12S1672) was intragenic. Many different haplotypes were observed, indicating the occurrence of several ancestral mutations. However, the same haplotype, not observed in controls, was detected in the German, the Serbian, and some of the French families, suggesting a founder effect or recurrent mutations on an at risk haplotype.


Keywords: linkage disequilibrium; SCA2; trinucleotide repeat expansion; founder effect PMID:10353790

  4. Genetic association between intronic variants in AS3MT and arsenic methylation efficiency is focused on a large linkage disequilibrium cluster in chromosome 10.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Klimecki, Walter T

    2010-04-01

    Differences in arsenic metabolism are known to play a role in individual variability in arsenic-induced disease susceptibility. Genetic variants in genes relevant to arsenic metabolism are considered to be partially responsible for the variation in arsenic metabolism. Specifically, variants in arsenic (3+ oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), the key gene in the metabolism of arsenic, have been associated with increased arsenic methylation efficiency. Of particular interest is the fact that different studies have reported that several of the AS3MT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD), which also extends to a nearby gene, CYP17A1. In an effort to characterize the extent of the region in LD, we genotyped 46 SNPs in a 347,000 base region of chromosome 10 that included AS3MT in arsenic-exposed subjects from Mexico. Pairwise LD analysis showed strong LD for these polymorphisms, represented by a mean r(2) of 0.82, spanning a region that includes five genes. Genetic association analysis with arsenic metabolism confirmed the previously observed association between AS3MT variants, including this large cluster of linked polymorphisms, and arsenic methylation efficiency. The existence of a large genomic region sharing strong LD with polymorphisms associated with arsenic metabolism presents a predicament because the observed phenotype cannot be unequivocally assigned to a single SNP or even a single gene. The results reported here should be carefully considered for future genomic association studies involving AS3MT and arsenic metabolism.

  5. The impact of incomplete linkage disequilibrium and genetic model choice on the analysis and interpretation of genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Iles, Mark M

    2010-07-01

    When conducting a genetic association study, it has previously been observed that a multiplicative risk model tends to fit better at a disease-associated marker locus than at the ungenotyped causative locus. This suggests that, while overall risk decreases as linkage disequilibrium breaks down, non-multiplicative components are more affected. This effect is investigated here, in particular the practical consequences it has on testing for trait/marker associations and the estimation of mode of inheritance and risk once an associated locus has been found. The extreme significance levels required for genome-wide association studies define a restricted range of detectable allele frequencies and effect sizes. For such parameters there is little to be gained by using a test that models the correct mode of inheritance rather than the multiplicative; thus the Cochran-Armitage trend test, which assumes a multiplicative model, is preferable to a more general model as it uses fewer degrees of freedom. Equally when estimating risk, it is likely that a multiplicative risk model will provide a good fit to the data, regardless of the underlying mode of inheritance at the true susceptibility locus. This may lead to problems in interpreting risk estimates.

  6. Modeling Continuous Admixture Using Admixture-Induced Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Hongxiang; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-02-23

    Recent migrations and inter-ethnic mating of long isolated populations have resulted in genetically admixed populations. To understand the complex population admixture process, which is critical to both evolutionary and medical studies, here we used admixture induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer continuous admixture events, which is common for most existing admixed populations. Unlike previous studies, we expanded the typical continuous admixture model to a more general scenario with isolation after a certain duration of continuous gene flow. Based on the new models, we developed a method, CAMer, to infer the admixture history considering continuous and complex demographic process of gene flow between populations. We evaluated the performance of CAMer by computer simulation and further applied our method to real data analysis of a few well-known admixed populations.

  7. Modeling Continuous Admixture Using Admixture-Induced Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Hongxiang; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    Recent migrations and inter-ethnic mating of long isolated populations have resulted in genetically admixed populations. To understand the complex population admixture process, which is critical to both evolutionary and medical studies, here we used admixture induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer continuous admixture events, which is common for most existing admixed populations. Unlike previous studies, we expanded the typical continuous admixture model to a more general scenario with isolation after a certain duration of continuous gene flow. Based on the new models, we developed a method, CAMer, to infer the admixture history considering continuous and complex demographic process of gene flow between populations. We evaluated the performance of CAMer by computer simulation and further applied our method to real data analysis of a few well-known admixed populations. PMID:28230170

  8. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jihad M; Goffinet, Bruno; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL) has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1) measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2) investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance. PMID:12939203

  9. Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci isolated from Hymenaea courbaril (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, F S; Lacerda, A E B; Lemes, M R; Gribel, R; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M

    2012-07-19

    The Neotropical tree Hymenaea courbaril, locally known as Jatobá, is a valuable source of lumber and also produces comestible and medicinal fruit. We characterized Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium at nine microsatellite loci isolated from H. courbaril, in order to determine if they would provide accurate estimates of population genetic parameters of this important Amazon species. The study was made on 250 open-pollinated offspring originated from 14 seed trees. Only one of nine loci presented significant deviation from the expected Mendelian segregation (1:1). Genotypic disequilibrium between pairwise loci was investigated based on samples from 55 adult and 56 juvenile trees. No genetic linkage between any paired loci was observed. After Bonferroni's corrections for multiple tests, we found no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between pairs of loci. We conclude that this set of loci can be used for genetic diversity/ structure, mating system, gene flow, and parentage analyses in H. courbaril populations.

  10. Constructing a linkage-linkage disequilibrium map using dominant-segregating markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuli; Dong, Leiming; Jiang, Libo; Li, Huan; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Weiwu; Liu, Haokai; Dai, Wensheng; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination fraction can be used to infer the pattern of genetic variation and evolutionary process in humans and other systems. We described a computational framework to construct a linkage-LD map from commonly used biallelic, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for outcrossing plants by which the decline of LD is visualized with genetic distance. The framework was derived from an open-pollinated (OP) design composed of plants randomly sampled from a natural population and seeds from each sampled plant, enabling simultaneous estimation of the LD in the natural population and recombination fraction due to allelic co-segregation during meiosis. We modified the framework to infer evolutionary pasts of natural populations using those marker types that are segregating in a dominant manner, given their role in creating and maintaining population genetic diversity. A sophisticated two-level EM algorithm was implemented to estimate and retrieve the missing information of segregation characterized by dominant-segregating markers such as single methylation polymorphisms. The model was applied to study the relationship between linkage and LD for a non-model outcrossing species, a gymnosperm species, Torreya grandis, naturally distributed in mountains of the southeastern China. The linkage-LD map constructed from various types of molecular markers opens a powerful gateway for studying the history of plant evolution.

  11. Linkage disequilibrium and its expectation in human populations.

    PubMed

    Sved, John A

    2009-02-01

    Abstract Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the association in populations between genes at linked loci, has achieved a high degree of prominence in recent years, primarily because of its use in identifying and cloning genes of medical importance. The field has recently been reviewed by Slatkin (2008). The present article is largely devoted to a review of the theory of LD in populations, including historical aspects.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  13. A first insight into population structure and linkage disequilibrium in the US peanut minicore collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of genetic diversity, population structure, and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target association mapping populations is of great importance and is a prerequisite for LD-based mapping. In the present study, 96 genotypes comprising 92 accessions of the US peanut minicore collectio...

  14. Assessing signatures of selection through variation in linkage disequilibrium between taurine and indicine cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Signatures of selection are regions in the genome that have been preferentially maintained because of their functional importance in specific processes. These regions can be detected because of their lower genetic variability and specific regional linkage disequilibrium patterns. The varLD methodol...

  15. Map-based molecular diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of fruit traits in melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide phenotypic diversity, in melon fruits, is the result of consumer preferences combined with genotype fitness to the different agro-climatic zones. There is no sufficient information with respect to the extent of genetic divergence, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in mel...

  16. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-mapping using nonrandom associations of loci in haplotypes is a powerful high-r...

  17. Population-Specific Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium and SNP Variation in Spring and Winter Polyploid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and po...

  18. Linkage Disequilibrium in a Finite Population That Is Partially Selfing

    PubMed Central

    Golding, G. B.; Strobeck, C.

    1980-01-01

    The linkage disequilibrium expected in a finite, partially selfing population is analyzed, assuming the infinite allele model. Formulas for the expected sum of squares of the linkage disequilibria and the squared standard linkage disequilibrium are derived from the equilibrium values of sixteen inbreeding coefficients required to describe the behavior of the system. These formulas are identical to those obtained with random mating if the effective population size Ne = (1-½S)N and the effective recombination value re = (1-S)r/(1-½S), where S is the proportion of selfing, are substituted for the population size and the recombination value. Therefore, the effect of partial selfing at equilibrium is to reduce the population size by a factor 1-½S and the recombination value by a factor (1-S)/(1-½S). PMID:17249017

  19. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of autistic disorder, with 15q11-13 markers.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, E H; Courchesne, R Y; Cox, N J; Lord, C; Gonen, D; Guter, S J; Lincoln, A; Nix, K; Haas, R; Leventhal, B L; Courchesne, E

    1998-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a complex genetic disease. Because of previous reports of individuals with autistic disorder with duplications of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region, we screened several markers across the 15q11-13 region, for linkage disequilibrium. One hundred forty families, consisting predominantly of a child with autistic disorder and both parents, were studied. Genotyping was performed by use of multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Two children were identified who had interstitial chromosome 15 duplications and were excluded from further linkage-disequilibrium analysis. Use of the multiallelic transmission-disequilibrium test (MTDT), for nine loci on 15q11-13, revealed linkage disequilibrium between autistic disorder and a marker in the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor subunit gene, GABRB3 155CA-2 (MTDT 28.63, 10 df, P=.0014). No evidence was found for parent-of-origin effects on allelic transmission. The convergence of GABRB3 as a positional and functional candidate along with the linkage-disequilibrium data suggests the need for further investigation of the role of GABRB3 or adjacent genes in autistic disorder. PMID:9545402

  20. Inferring Admixture Histories of Human Populations Using Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Reich, David; Berger, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Long-range migrations and the resulting admixtures between populations have been important forces shaping human genetic diversity. Most existing methods for detecting and reconstructing historical admixture events are based on allele frequency divergences or patterns of ancestry segments in chromosomes of admixed individuals. An emerging new approach harnesses the exponential decay of admixture-induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) as a function of genetic distance. Here, we comprehensively develop LD-based inference into a versatile tool for investigating admixture. We present a new weighted LD statistic that can be used to infer mixture proportions as well as dates with fewer constraints on reference populations than previous methods. We define an LD-based three-population test for admixture and identify scenarios in which it can detect admixture events that previous formal tests cannot. We further show that we can uncover phylogenetic relationships among populations by comparing weighted LD curves obtained using a suite of references. Finally, we describe several improvements to the computation and fitting of weighted LD curves that greatly increase the robustness and speed of the calculations. We implement all of these advances in a software package, ALDER, which we validate in simulations and apply to test for admixture among all populations from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), highlighting insights into the admixture history of Central African Pygmies, Sardinians, and Japanese. PMID:23410830

  1. Accounting for haplotype phase uncertainty in linkage disequilibrium estimation.

    PubMed

    Kulle, B; Frigessi, A; Edvardsen, H; Kristensen, V; Wojnowski, L

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is applied in a variety of studies including the identification of molecular determinants of the local recombination rate, the migration and population history of populations, and the role of positive selection in adaptation. LD suffers from the phase uncertainty of the haplotypes used in its calculation, which reflects limitations of the algorithms used for haplotype estimation. We introduce a LD calculation method, which deals with phase uncertainty by weighting all possible haplotype pairs according to their estimated probabilities as evaluated by PHASE. In contrast to the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm as implemented in the HAPLOVIEW and GENETICS packages, our method considers haplotypes based on the entire genetic information available for the candidate region. We tested the method using simulated and real genotyping data. The results show that, for all practical purposes, the new method is advantageous in comparison with algorithms that calculate LD using only the most probable haplotype or bilocus haplotypes based on the EM algorithm. The new method deals especially well with low LD regions, which contribute strongly to phase uncertainty. Altogether, the method is an attractive alternative to standard LD calculation procedures, including those based on the EM algorithm. We implemented the method in the software suite R, together with an interface to the popular haplotype calculation package PHASE.

  2. Diversity and linkage disequilibrium in farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Kijas, J; Elliot, N; Kube, P; Evans, B; Botwright, N; King, H; Primmer, C R; Verbyla, K

    2017-04-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a globally important production species, including in Australia where breeding and selection has been in progress since the 1960s. The recent development of SNP genotyping platforms means genome-wide association and genomic prediction can now be implemented to speed genetic gain. As a precursor, this study collected genotypes at 218 132 SNPs in 777 fish from a Tasmanian breeding population to assess levels of genetic diversity, the strength of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and imputation accuracy. Genetic diversity in Tasmanian Atlantic salmon was lower than observed within European populations when compared using four diversity metrics. The distribution of allele frequencies also showed a clear difference, with the Tasmanian animals carrying an excess of low minor allele frequency variants. The strength of observed LD was high at short distances (<25 kb) and remained above background for marker pairs separated by large chromosomal distances (hundreds of kb), in sharp contrast to the European Atlantic salmon tested. Genotypes were used to evaluate the accuracy of imputation from low density (0.5 to 5 K) up to increased density SNP sets (78 K). This revealed high imputation accuracies (0.89-0.97), suggesting that the use of low density SNP sets will be a successful approach for genomic prediction in this population. The long-range LD, comparatively low genetic diversity and high imputation accuracy in Tasmanian salmon is consistent with known aspects of their population history, which involved a small founding population and an absence of subsequent introgression. The findings of this study represent an important first step towards the design of methods to apply genomics in this economically important population.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of Arabidopsis CRY2 flowering time alleles.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Schmitt, Johanna; Purugganan, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been proposed to be well suited for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping as a means of identifying genes underlying natural trait variation. Here we apply LD mapping to examine haplotype variation in the genomic region of the photoperiod receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 and associated flowering time variation. CRY2 DNA sequences reveal strong LD and the existence of two highly differentiated haplogroups (A and B) across the gene; in addition, a haplotype possessing a radical glutamine-to-serine replacement (AS) occurs within the more common haplogroup. Growth chamber and field experiments using an unstratified population of 95 ecotypes indicate that under short-day photoperiod, the AS and B haplogroups are both highly significantly associated with early flowering. Data from six genes flanking CRY2 indicate that these haplogroups are limited to an approximately 65-kb genomic region around CRY2. Whereas the B haplogroup cannot be delimited to <16 kb around CRY2, the AS haplogroup is characterized almost exclusively by the nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with the serine replacement in CRY2; this finding strongly suggests that the serine substitution is directly responsible for the AS early flowering phenotype. This study demonstrates the utility of LD mapping for elucidating the genetic basis of natural, ecologically relevant variation in Arabidopsis. PMID:15280248

  4. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of Arabidopsis CRY2 flowering time alleles.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Schmitt, Johanna; Purugganan, Michael D

    2004-07-01

    The selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been proposed to be well suited for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping as a means of identifying genes underlying natural trait variation. Here we apply LD mapping to examine haplotype variation in the genomic region of the photoperiod receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 and associated flowering time variation. CRY2 DNA sequences reveal strong LD and the existence of two highly differentiated haplogroups (A and B) across the gene; in addition, a haplotype possessing a radical glutamine-to-serine replacement (AS) occurs within the more common haplogroup. Growth chamber and field experiments using an unstratified population of 95 ecotypes indicate that under short-day photoperiod, the AS and B haplogroups are both highly significantly associated with early flowering. Data from six genes flanking CRY2 indicate that these haplogroups are limited to an approximately 65-kb genomic region around CRY2. Whereas the B haplogroup cannot be delimited to <16 kb around CRY2, the AS haplogroup is characterized almost exclusively by the nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with the serine replacement in CRY2; this finding strongly suggests that the serine substitution is directly responsible for the AS early flowering phenotype. This study demonstrates the utility of LD mapping for elucidating the genetic basis of natural, ecologically relevant variation in Arabidopsis.

  5. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in association analysis of diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Charles, Bashira A; Shriner, Daniel; Rotimi, Charles N

    2014-04-01

    The National Human Genome Research Institute's catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) lists over 10,000 genetic variants collectively associated with over 800 human diseases or traits. Most of these GWAS have been conducted in European-ancestry populations. Findings gleaned from these studies have led to identification of disease-associated loci and biologic pathways involved in disease etiology. In multiple instances, these genomic findings have led to the development of novel medical therapies or evidence for prescribing a given drug as the appropriate treatment for a given individual beyond phenotypic appearances or socially defined constructs of race or ethnicity. Such findings have implications for populations throughout the globe and GWAS are increasingly being conducted in more diverse populations. A major challenge for investigators seeking to follow up genomic findings between diverse populations is discordant patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). We provide an overview of common measures of LD and opportunities for their use in novel methods designed to address challenges associated with following up GWAS conducted in European-ancestry populations in African-ancestry populations or, more generally, between populations with discordant LD patterns. We detail the strengths and weaknesses associated with different approaches. We also describe application of these strategies in follow-up studies of populations with concordant LD patterns (replication) or discordant LD patterns (transferability) as well as fine-mapping studies. We review application of these methods to a variety of traits and diseases.

  6. Does probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improve the accuracy of QTL location in animal pedigree?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2001, the use of more and more dense maps has made researchers aware that combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium enhances the feasibility of fine-mapping genes of interest. So, various method types have been derived to include concepts of population genetics in the analyses. One major drawback of many of these methods is their computational cost, which is very significant when many markers are considered. Recent advances in technology, such as SNP genotyping, have made it possible to deal with huge amount of data. Thus the challenge that remains is to find accurate and efficient methods that are not too time consuming. The study reported here specifically focuses on the half-sib family animal design. Our objective was to determine whether modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improved the mapping accuracy of a quantitative trait locus of agricultural interest in these populations. We compared two methods of fine-mapping. The first one was an association analysis. In this method, we did not model linkage disequilibrium evolution. Therefore, the modelling of the evolution of linkage disequilibrium was a deterministic process; it was complete at time 0 and remained complete during the following generations. In the second method, the modelling of the evolution of population allele frequencies was derived from a Wright-Fisher model. We simulated a wide range of scenarios adapted to animal populations and compared these two methods for each scenario. Results Our results indicated that the improvement produced by probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution was not significant. Both methods led to similar results concerning the location accuracy of quantitative trait loci which appeared to be mainly improved by using four flanking markers instead of two. Conclusions Therefore, in animal half-sib designs, modelling linkage disequilibrium evolution using a Wright-Fisher model does not significantly improve the accuracy of the

  7. Linkage disequilibrium of polymorphic RAET1 genes in Thais.

    PubMed

    Rareongjai, S; Romphruk, A; Romphruk, A V; Sakuntabhai, A; Leelayuwat, C

    2010-09-01

    Retinoic acid early transcripts-1 (RAET1) or unique long 16 (UL-16) binding proteins (ULBPs) is a gene cluster encoding for molecules acting as ligands to natural killer group 2 D (NKG2D), a receptor expressed on immune cells. Binding of these ligands to the receptor activates immune cells leading to killing of tumor cells and also viral-infected cells. The information on polymorphism of RAET1 is limited. In this report, we analyze the linkages between four polymorphic RAET1 genes: RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H and RAET1L, in 318 unrelated Thais. The strongest linkage disequilibrium was found between RAET1E and RAET1G, with P-value, D' and r(2) of <5.0 x 10(-5), 0.707 and 0.840, respectively. RAET1E(*)001 was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with RAET1G(*)002, and RAET1E(*)002 with RAET1G(*)001. Evidently, there were possible RAET1 haplotypes with haplotype frequencies of more than 10% consisting of RAET1E(*)001; RAET1G(*)002; RAET1H(*)001; RAET1L(*)001 and RAET1E(*)002; RAET1G(*)001; RAET1H(*)002; RAET1L(*)003. This study provides basic information on polymorphisms of RAET1 and possible RAET1 haplotypes in Thais.

  8. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Olson, Matthew S; Robertson, Amanda L; Takebayashi, Naoki; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William R; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-04-01

    *Current perceptions that poplars have high levels of nucleotide variation, large effective population sizes, and rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium are based primarily on studies from one poplar species, Populus tremula. *We analysed 590 gene fragments (average length 565 bp) from each of 15 individuals from different populations from throughout the range of Populus balsamifera. *Nucleotide diversity (theta(total) = 0.0028, pi = 0.0027) was low compared with other trees and model agricultural systems. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and site frequency spectra were consistent with purifying selection on replacement and intron sites. When averaged across all loci we found no evidence for decay of linkage disequilibrium across 750 bp, consistent with the low estimates of the scaled recombination parameter, rho = 0.0092. *Compared with P. tremula, a well studied congener with a similar distribution, P. balsamifera has low diversity and low effective recombination, both of which indicate a lower effective population size in P. balsamifera. Patterns of diversity and linkage indicate that there is considerable variation in population genomic patterns among poplar species and unlike P. tremula, association mapping techniques in balsam poplar should consider sampling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at well-spaced intervals.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium, haplotype analysis and Werner`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wijsman, E.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-09-01

    Werner`s syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal, recessive disorder of premature aging. Although the underlying defect is unknown, the gene for the disorder, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region. We have assembled a sample of 30 Japanese and 24 non-Japanese (primary Caucasian) WS patients, as well as a control sample from each population. 25 of the Japanese patients and 10 of the Caucasian patients are from consanguineous marriages. We recently presented evidence from these families which places WRN in the 10.2 cM interval between D8S87 and D8S137. However, because WS is so rare and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. The existence of linkage disequilibrium is now recognized as a key piece of evidence in defining a small region (typically under 1-2 cM) containing a gene of interest. Thus an alternative approach for refining the location of WRN may be to identify linked markers which are in linkage disequilibrium with the disease. We recently suggested that WRN may be close to D8S339 and GSR in the above interval because of the presence of statistically significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in the Japanese sample. In addition, there was evidence in both populations that a limited number of haplotypes was associated with the disease. Here we report an extension of this study to include a number of additional markers. We present additional evidence that there is linkage disequilibrium between many of these markers and WRN in both the Japanese and Caucasian samples. In addition, the additional markers do not markedly subdivide the disease haplotypes defined by D8S339 and GSR, while at the same time they introduce substantial numbers of new haplotypes into the control populations. These results suggest that the haplotypes associated with WS may be used to further define the limits of WRN.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium mapping in isolated populations: The example of Finland revisited

    PubMed Central

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Wright, Fred A.

    1998-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium analysis can provide high resolution in the mapping of disease genes because it incorporates information on recombinations that have occurred during the entire period from the mutational event to the present. A circumstance particularly favorable for high-resolution mapping is when a single founding mutation segregates in an isolated population. We review here the population structure of Finland in which a small founder population some 100 generations ago has expanded into 5.1 million people today. Among the 30-odd autosomal recessive disorders that are more prevalent in Finland than elsewhere, several appear to have segregated for this entire period in the “panmictic” southern Finnish population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis has allowed precise mapping and determination of genetic distances at the 0.1-cM level in several of these disorders. Estimates of genetic distance have proven accurate, but previous calculations of the confidence intervals were too small because sampling variation was ignored. In the north and east of Finland the population can be viewed as having been “founded” only after 1500. Disease mutations that have undergone such a founding bottleneck only 20 or so generations ago exhibit linkage disequilibrium and haplotype sharing over long genetic distances (5–15 cM). These features have been successfully exploited in the mapping and cloning of many genes. We review the statistical issues of fine mapping by linkage disequilibrium and suggest that improved methodologies may be necessary to map diseases of complex etiology that may have arisen from multiple founding mutations. PMID:9770501

  11. High-resolution linkage-disequilibrium mapping of the cartilage-hair hypoplasia gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sulisalo, T.; Klockars, J.; Chapelle, A. de la; Kaitila, I. |; Maekitie, O.; Sistonen, P.; Francomano, C.A.

    1994-11-01

    We recently assigned the gene for an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH), to 9p21-p13 in Finnish and Amish families. An association was observed between CHH and alleles at D9S163 in both family series, suggesting that these loci are in linkage disequilibrium and close to each other. Here we extended these studies by exploiting the linkage-disequilibrium information that can be obtained from families with a single affected child, and we studied 66 Finnish CHH families with seven microsatellite markers. The analysis based on the Luria and Delbrueck (1943) method and adapted to the study of human founder populations suggests that the distance between CHH and D9S163 is {approximately}0.3 cM. An eight-point linkage analysis modified to take advantage of all possible information in 15 Finnish and 17 Amish families was capable of narrowing the likely location of CHH to within an interval of 1.7 cM on a male map. The peak lod score of 54.92 was attained 0.03 and 0.1 cM proximal to D9S163 on the male and female maps, respectively. These results confirm the power of genetic resolution, that lies in the study of linkage disequilibrium in well-defined founder populations with one major ancestral disease mutation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Assessing microsatellite linkage disequilibrium in wild, cultivated, and mapping populations of Theobroma cacao L and its impact on association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles and loci within sets of genetic data and when measured over the genomes of a species can provide important indications for how future association analyses should proceed. This information can be advantageous especially for slow-gro...

  13. Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in human populations: Limits and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.C.; Briscoe, D.; O`Brien, S.J.

    1994-10-01

    Certain human hereditary conditions, notably those with low penetrance and those which require an environmental event such as infectious disease exposure, are difficult to localize in pedigree analysis, because of uncertainty in the phenotype of an affected patient`s relatives. An approach to locating these genes in human cohort studies would be to use association analysis, which depends on linkage disequilibrium of flanking polymorphic DNA markers. In theory, a high degree of linkage disequilibrium between genes separated by 10-20 cM will be generated and persist in populations that have a history of recent (3-20 generations ago) admixture between genetically differentiated racial groups, such as has occurred in African Americans and Hispanic populations. We have conducted analytic and computer simulations to quantify the effect of genetic, genomic, and population parameters that affect the amount and ascertainment of linkage disequilibrium in populations with a history of genetic admixture. Our goal is to thoroughly explore the ranges of all relevant parameters or factors (e.g., sample size and degree of genetic differentiation between populations) that may be involved in gene localization studies, in hopes of prescribing guidelines for an efficient mapping strategy. The results provide reasonable limits on sample size (200-300 patients), marker number (200-300 in 20-cM intervals), and allele differentiation (loci with allele frequency difference of {ge}.3 between admixed parent populations) to produce an efficient approach (>95% ascertainment) for locating genes not easily tracked in human pedigrees. 321 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium interval mapping of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Abdallah, Jihad; de Rochambeau, Hubert; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Mangin, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Background For many years gene mapping studies have been performed through linkage analyses based on pedigree data. Recently, linkage disequilibrium methods based on unrelated individuals have been advocated as powerful tools to refine estimates of gene location. Many strategies have been proposed to deal with simply inherited disease traits. However, locating quantitative trait loci is statistically more challenging and considerable research is needed to provide robust and computationally efficient methods. Results Under a three-locus Wright-Fisher model, we derived approximate expressions for the expected haplotype frequencies in a population. We considered haplotypes comprising one trait locus and two flanking markers. Using these theoretical expressions, we built a likelihood-maximization method, called HAPim, for estimating the location of a quantitative trait locus. For each postulated position, the method only requires information from the two flanking markers. Over a wide range of simulation scenarios it was found to be more accurate than a two-marker composite likelihood method. It also performed as well as identity by descent methods, whilst being valuable in a wider range of populations. Conclusion Our method makes efficient use of marker information, and can be valuable for fine mapping purposes. Its performance is increased if multiallelic markers are available. Several improvements can be developed to account for more complex evolution scenarios or provide robust confidence intervals for the location estimates. PMID:16542433

  15. The Decay of Disease Association with Declining Linkage Disequilibrium: A Fine Mapping Theorem

    PubMed Central

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Bansal, Naveen K.; Upadhya, Jiblal; Farazi, Manzur R.; Li, Xiang; He, Max M.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Ye, Zhan; Schrodi, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Several important and fundamental aspects of disease genetics models have yet to be described. One such property is the relationship of disease association statistics at a marker site closely linked to a disease causing site. A complete description of this two-locus system is of particular importance to experimental efforts to fine map association signals for complex diseases. Here, we present a simple relationship between disease association statistics and the decline of linkage disequilibrium from a causal site. Specifically, the ratio of Chi-square disease association statistics at a marker site and causal site is equivalent to the standard measure of pairwise linkage disequilibrium, r2. A complete derivation of this relationship from a general disease model is shown. Quite interestingly, this relationship holds across all modes of inheritance. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations using a disease genetics model applied to chromosomes subjected to a standard model of recombination are employed to better understand the variation around this fine mapping theorem due to sampling effects. We also use this relationship to provide a framework for estimating properties of a non-interrogated causal site using data at closely linked markers. Lastly, we apply this way of examining association data from high-density genotyping in a large, publicly-available data set investigating extreme BMI. We anticipate that understanding the patterns of disease association decay with declining linkage disequilibrium from a causal site will enable more powerful fine mapping methods and provide new avenues for identifying causal sites/genes from fine-mapping studies. PMID:28018425

  16. Linkage Disequilibrium and Demographic History of Wild and Domestic Canids

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Melissa M.; Granka, Julie M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Boyko, Adam R.; Zhu, Lan; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations of a nonmodel species has been difficult due to the lack of available genomic markers. However, with advances in genotyping and genome sequencing, genomic characterization of natural populations has become feasible. Using sequence data and SNP genotypes, we measured LD and modeled the demographic history of wild canid populations and domestic dog breeds. In 11 gray wolf populations and one coyote population, we find that the extent of LD as measured by the distance at which r2 = 0.2 extends <10 kb in outbred populations to >1.7 Mb in populations that have experienced significant founder events and bottlenecks. This large range in the extent of LD parallels that observed in 18 dog breeds where the r2 value varies from ∼20 kb to >5 Mb. Furthermore, in modeling demographic history under a composite-likelihood framework, we find that two of five wild canid populations exhibit evidence of a historical population contraction. Five domestic dog breeds display evidence for a minor population contraction during domestication and a more severe contraction during breed formation. Only a 5% reduction in nucleotide diversity was observed as a result of domestication, whereas the loss of nucleotide diversity with breed formation averaged 35%. PMID:19189949

  17. Extensive linkage disequilibrium in small human populations in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Kaessmann, Henrik; Zöllner, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Anna C; Wiebe, Victor; Laan, Maris; Lundeberg, Joakim; Uhlén, Mathias; Pääbo, Svante

    2002-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) was studied in two small food-gathering populations-Evenki and Saami-and two larger food-producing populations-Finns and Swedes-in northern Eurasia. In total, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five genes were genotyped using real-time pyrophosphate DNA sequencing, whereas 14 microsatellites were genotyped in two X-chromosomal regions. In addition, hypervariable region I of the mtDNA was sequenced to shed light on the demographic history of the populations. The SNP data, as well as the microsatellite data, reveal extensive levels of LD in Evenki and Saami when compared to Finns and Swedes. mtDNA-sequence variation is compatible with constant population size over time in Evenki and Saami but indicates population expansion in Finns and Swedes. Furthermore, the similarity between Finns and Swedes in SNP allele- and haplotype-frequency distributions indicate that these two populations may share a recent common origin. These findings suggest that populations such as the Evenki and the Saami, rather than the Finns, may be particularly suited for the initial coarse mapping of common complex diseases.

  18. Detecting Recombination Hotspots from Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Stevison, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    With recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, it has become increasingly easy to use whole-genome sequencing of unrelated individuals to assay patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. One type of analysis that is commonly performed is to estimate local recombination rates and identify recombination hotspots from patterns of LD. One method for detecting recombination hotspots, LDhot, has been used in a handful of species to further our understanding of the basic biology of recombination. For the most part, the effectiveness of this method (e.g., power and false positive rate) is unknown. In this study, we run extensive simulations to compare the effectiveness of three different implementations of LDhot. We find large differences in the power and false positive rates of these different approaches, as well as a strong sensitivity to the window size used (with smaller window sizes leading to more accurate estimation of hotspot locations). We also compared our LDhot simulation results with comparable simulation results obtained from a Bayesian maximum-likelihood approach for identifying hotspots. Surprisingly, we found that the latter computationally intensive approach had substantially lower power over the parameter values considered in our simulations. PMID:27226166

  19. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E; Schierup, Mikkel H; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2015-10-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R(2) increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase.

  20. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K.; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H.M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St. Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Adank, Muriel; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Berndt, Sonja; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Dahmen, Norbert; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Easton, Douglas; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gibson, Lorna; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Henderson, Brian E.; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sánchez, María José; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Rose; Zheng, Wei; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M.; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R2 increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. PMID:26430803

  1. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of the cornea plana congenita gene CNA2

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvanainen, E.; Karila, E.; Kolehmainen, J.

    1995-12-10

    We recently assigned a gene for autosomal recessive cornea plana congenita (CNA2; MIM No. 217300) by linkage analysis to the approximately 3-cM interval between markers D12S82 and D12S327. Here, we extended these studies by exploiting the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium information that can be derived from the genetically isolated Finnish population and its subpopulations. By testing 32 independent families with 10 polymorphic markers in the CNA2 interval, strong allelic association between CNA2 and a set of markers with a peak at marker D12S351 was detected. Based on linkage disequilibrium analysis, the critical region for CNA2 could be narrowed to only 0.04-0.3 cM from marker D12S351, thus defining a critical interval 0.08-0.60 cM in length. These results provide a basis for highly focused positional cloning of CNA2. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Linkage disequilibrium predicts physical distance in the adenomatous polyposis coli region.

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, L. B.; Watkins, W. S.; Carlson, M.; Groden, J.; Albertsen, H.; Thliveris, A.; Leppert, M.

    1994-01-01

    To test the reliability of linkage-disequilibrium analysis for gene mapping, we compared physical distance and linkage disequilibrium among seven polymorphisms in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) region on chromosome 5. Three of them lie within the APC gene, and two lie within the nearby MCC (mutated in colon cancer) gene. One polymorphism lies between the two genes, and one is likely to be 5' of MCC. Five of these polymorphisms are newly reported. All polymorphisms were typed in the CEPH kindreds, yielding 179-205 unrelated two-locus haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium between each pair of polymorphisms is highly correlated with physical distance in this 550-kb region (correlation coefficient -.80, P < .006). This result is replicated in both the Utah and non-Utah CEPH kindreds. There is a tendency for greater disequilibrium among pairs of polymorphisms located within the same gene than among other pairs of polymorphisms. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated, but these measures revealed much less disequilibrium than did the two-locus disequilibrium measures. A review of 19 published disequilibrium studies, including this one, shows that linkage disequilibrium nearly always correlates significantly with physical distance in genomic regions > 50-60 kb but that it does not do so in smaller genomic regions. We show that this agrees with theoretical predictions. This finding helps to resolve controversies regarding the use of disequilibrium for inferring gene order. Disequilibrium mapping is unlikely to predict gene order correctly in regions < 50-60 kb in size but can often be applied successfully in regions of 50-500 kb or so in size. It is convenient that this is the range in which other mapping techniques, including chromosome walking and linkage mapping, become difficult. PMID:8178829

  3. Nonlinear Analysis of Time Series in Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Estrada-Gil, Jesús K.; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernández-López, J. Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jiménez-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The statistical study of large scale genomic data has turned out to be a very important tool in population genetics. Quantitative methods are essential to understand and implement association studies in the biomedical and health sciences. Nevertheless, the characterization of recently admixed populations has been an elusive problem due to the presence of a number of complex phenomena. For example, linkage disequilibrium structures are thought to be more complex than their non-recently admixed population counterparts, presenting the so-called ancestry blocks, admixed regions that are not yet smoothed by the effect of genetic recombination. In order to distinguish characteristic features for various populations we have implemented several methods, some of them borrowed or adapted from the analysis of nonlinear time series in statistical physics and quantitative physiology. We calculate the main fractal dimensions (Kolmogorov's capacity, information dimension and correlation dimension, usually named, D0, D1 and D2). We also have made detrended fluctuation analysis and information based similarity index calculations for the probability distribution of correlations of linkage disequilibrium coefficient of six recently admixed (mestizo) populations within the Mexican Genome Diversity Project [1] and for the non-recently admixed populations in the International HapMap Project [2]. Nonlinear correlations showed up as a consequence of internal structure within the haplotype distributions. The analysis of these correlations as well as the scope and limitations of these procedures within the biomedical sciences are discussed.

  4. Inferring outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using linkage disequilibrium decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence and frequency of outcrossing in homothallic fungal species in nature is an unresolved question. Here we report detection of frequent outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In using multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer recombination among microsatell...

  5. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium in chromosome band 1p36 in American Chaldeans with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Nicolae, D L; Ramos, R; Fields, C T; Rabenau, K; Corradino, S; Brant, S R; Espinosa, R; LeBeau, M; Hanauer, S B; Bodzin, J; Bonen, D K

    2000-05-22

    The idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are complex genetic disorders involving chronic inflammation of the intestines. Multiple genetic loci have been implicated through genome-wide searches, but refinement of localization sufficient to undertake positional cloning efforts has been problematic. This difficulty can be obviated through identification of ancestrally shared regions in genetic isolates, such as the Chaldean population, a Roman Catholic group from Iraq. We analyzed four multiply affected American Chaldean families with inflammatory bowel disease not known to be related. We observed evidence for linkage and linkage disequilibrium in precisely the same region of chromosome band 1p36 reported previously in an outbred population. Maximal evidence for linkage was observed near D1S1597 by multipoint analysis (MLOD = 3.01, P = 6.1 x 10(-5)). A shared haplotype (D1S507 to D1S1628) was observed over 27 cM between two families. There was homozygous sharing of a 5 cM portion of that haplotype in one family and over a <1 cM region in the second family. Homozygous sharing of this haplotype near D1S2697 and D1S3669 was observed in one individual in a third multiply affected family, with heterozygous sharing in a fourth family. Linkage in outbred families as well as in this genetic isolate indicates that a pathophysiologically crucial IBD susceptibility gene is located in 1p36. These findings provide a unique opportunity to refine the localization and identify a major susceptibility gene for a complex genetic disorder.

  6. Demographic history and linkage disequilibrium in human populations.

    PubMed

    Laan, M; Pääbo, S

    1997-12-01

    In the human genome, linkage disequilibrium (LD)--the non-random association of alleles at chromosomal loci--has been studied mainly in regions surrounding disease genes on affected chromosomes. Consequently, little information is available on the distribution of LD across anonymous genomic regions in the general population. However, demographic history is expected to influence the extent of overall LD across the genome, so a population that has been of constant size will display higher levels of LD than a population that has expanded. In support of this, the extent of LD between anonymous loci on chromosome 4 in chimpanzees (as a model of a population of constant size) has been compared to that in Finns (as a model of an expanded population; refs 8,9) and found to exhibit more LD than in the latter population. In Europe, studies of mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences have suggested that most populations have experienced expansion, whereas the Saami in northern Fenno-Scandinavia have been of constant size (Table 1). Thus, in northern Europe, populations with radically different demographic histories live in close geographic proximity to each other. We studied the allelic associations between anonymous microsatellite loci on the X chromosome in the Saami and neighbouring populations and found dramatically higher levels of LD in the Saami than in other populations in the region. This indicates that whereas recently expanded populations, such as the Finns, are well suited to map single disease genes affected by recent mutations, populations that have been of constant size, such as the Saami, may be much better suited to map genes for complex traits that are caused by older mutations.

  7. Haplotype Analysis and Linkage Disequilibrium at Five Loci in Eragrostis tef.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shavannor M; Yuan, Yinan; Doust, Andrew N; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2012-03-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), a member of the Chloridoideae subfamily of grasses, is one of the most important food crops in Ethiopia. Lodging is the most important production problem in tef. The rht1 and sd1 dwarfing genes have been useful for improving lodging resistance in wheat and rice, respectively, in what has been known as the "Green Revolution." All homologs of rht1 and sd1 were cloned and sequenced from 31 tef accessions collected from across Ethiopia. The allotetraploid tef genome was found to carry two rht1 homologs. From sequence variation between these two putative homologs, an approximate ancestral divergence date of 6.4 million years ago was calculated for the two genomes within tef. Three sd1 homologs were identified in tef, with unknown orthologous/paralogous relationships. The genetic diversity in the 31 studied accessions was organized into a relatively small number of haplotypes (2-4) for four of these genes, whereas one rht1 homeologue exhibited 10 haplotypes. A low level of nucleotide diversity was observed at all loci. Linkage disequilibrium analysis demonstrated strong linkage disequilibrium, extending the length of the five genes investigated (2-4 kb), with no significant decline. There was no significant correlation between haplotypes of any of these genes and their recorded site of origin.

  8. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate, selection sweep and linkage disequilibrium on nucleotide diversity in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technology was used to identify a set of 9,933 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1,087 cM for watermelon. The genome-wide variation of recombination rate (GWRR) across the map was evaluated and a positive co...

  9. Linkage disequilibrium in the neurofibromatosis I (NF1) region: Implications for gene mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Watkins, W.S.; Viskochil, D.; Ward, K. ); O'Connell, P. )

    1993-11-01

    To test the usefulness of linkage disequilibrium for gene mapping, the authors compared physical distances and linkage disequilibrium among eight RFLPs in the neutrofibromatosis 1 (NF1) region. Seven of the polymorphisms span most of the NF1 gene, while the remaining polymorphism lies approximately 70 kb 3[prime] to a stop codon in exon 49. By using Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) kindreds, 91-110 unrelated parents were genotyped. A high degree of disequilibrium is maintained among the seven intragenic polymorphisms (r > .82, P < 10[sup [minus]7]), even though they are separated by as much as 340 kb. The 3[prime] polymorphism is only 68 kb distal to the next polymorphism, but disequilibrium between the 3[prime] polymorphism and all others is comparatively low ([vert bar]r[vert bar] < .33, P values .27-.001). This result was replicated in three sets of unrelated kindreds: the Utah CEPH families, the non-Utah CEPH families, and an independent set of NF1 families. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated. There was little evidence of higher-order linkage disequilibrium. As expected for a disease with multiple mutations, no disequilibrium was observed between the disease gene and any of the RFLPs. The observed pattern of high disequilibrium within the gene and a loss of disequilibrium 3[prime] to the stop codon could have implications for gene mapping studies. These are discussed, and guidelines for linkage disequilibrium studies are suggested. 80 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency: refinement of genetic localization and analysis of linkage disequilibrium by using new markers in 14 families

    SciTech Connect

    Doerflinger, N.; Linder, C.; Ouahchi, K.; Mandel, J.L.; Koenig, M.; Gyapay, G.; Weissenbach, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Rigault, P.; Landrieu, P.

    1995-05-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by neurological symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. This disorder has been reported previously as familial isolated vitamin E deficiency. We have mapped recently the AVED locus to a 5-cM confidence interval on chromosome 8q by homozygosity mapping in six Mediterranean families. We have now analyzed six new and two previously described families and demonstrate genetic homgeneity despite important clinical variability and wide geographic origins. Analysis of nine new tightly linked microsatellite markers, including four characterized in this study, revealed a predominant but not unique mutation in northern African populations, where this condition is more frequent. Haplotype analysis but also classical recombinations allowed us to refine the AVED position to a 1-cM interval. A YAC contig over this interval was constructed from marker STSs and YAC fingerprint data, in order to facilitate the search of the AVED gene. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency: Refinement of Genetic Localization and Analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium by Using New Markers in 14 Families

    PubMed Central

    Doerflinger, Nathalie; Linder, Catherine; Ouahchi, Karim; Gyapay, Gabor; Weissenbach, Jean; Le Paslier, Denis; Rigault, Philippe; Belal, Samir; Hamida, Christiane Ben; Hentati, Faycal; Hamida, Mongi Ben; Pandolfo, Massimo; DiDonato, Stephano; Sokol, Ronald; Kayden, Herbert; Landrieu, Pierre; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Goutières, Françoise; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Sabouraud, Pascal; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Koenig, Michel

    1995-01-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by neurological symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. This disorder has been reported previously as familial isolated vitamin E deficiency. We have mapped recently the AVED locus to a 5-cM confidence interval on chromosome 8q by homozygosity mapping in six Mediterranean families. We have now analyzed six new and two previously described families and demonstrate genetic homogeneity despite important clinical variability and wide geographic origins. Analysis of nine new tightly linked microsatellite markers, including four characterized in this study, revealed a predominant but not unique mutation in northern African populations, where this condition is more frequent. Haplotype analysis but also classical recombinations allowed us to refine the AVED position to a 1-cM interval. A YAC contig over this interval was constructed from marker STSs and YAC fingerprint data, in order to facilitate the search of the AVED gene. PMID:7726167

  12. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  13. Theory of the effects of population structure and sampling on patterns of linkage disequilibrium applied to genomic data from humans.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeley, John; Lessard, Sabin

    2003-01-01

    We develop predictions for the correlation of heterozygosity and for linkage disequilibrium between two loci using a simple model of population structure that includes migration among local populations, or demes. We compare the results for a sample of size two from the same deme (a single-deme sample) to those for a sample of size two from two different demes (a scattered sample). The correlation in heterozygosity for a scattered sample is surprisingly insensitive to both the migration rate and the number of demes. In contrast, the correlation in heterozygosity for a single-deme sample is sensitive to both, and the effect of an increase in the number of demes is qualitatively similar to that of a decrease in the migration rate: both increase the correlation in heterozygosity. These same conclusions hold for a commonly used measure of linkage disequilibrium (r(2)). We compare the predictions of the theory to genomic data from humans and show that subdivision might account for a substantial portion of the genetic associations observed within the human genome, even though migration rates among local populations of humans are relatively large. Because correlations due to subdivision rather than to physical linkage can be large even in a single-deme sample, then if long-term migration has been important in shaping patterns of human polymorphism, the common practice of disease mapping using linkage disequilibrium in "isolated" local populations may be subject to error. PMID:12871914

  14. Extreme Population-Dependent Linkage Disequilibrium Detected in an Inbreeding Plant Species, Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Katherine S.; Russell, Joanne; Langridge, Peter; Powell, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    In human genetics a detailed knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is considered a prerequisite for effective population-based, high-resolution gene mapping and cloning. Similar opportunities exist for plants; however, differences in breeding system and population history need to be considered. Here we report a detailed study of localized LD in different populations of an inbreeding crop species. We measured LD between and within four gene loci within the region surrounding the hardness locus in three different gene pools of barley (Hordeum vulgare). We demonstrate that LD extends to at least 212 kb in elite barley cultivars but is rapidly eroded in related inbreeding ancestral populations. Our results indicate that haplotype-based sequence analysis in multiple populations will provide new opportunities to adjust the resolution of association studies in inbreeding crop species. PMID:16219791

  15. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  16. Nucleotide Polymorphism and Linkage Disequilibrium Within and Among Natural Populations of European Aspen (Populus tremula L., Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2005-01-01

    Populus is an important model organism in forest biology, but levels of nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium have never been investigated in natural populations. Here I present a study on levels of nucleotide polymorphism, haplotype structure, and population subdivision in five nuclear genes in the European aspen Populus tremula. Results show substantial levels of genetic variation. Levels of silent site polymorphisms, πs, averaged 0.016 across the five genes. Linkage disequilibrium was generally low, extending only a few hundred base pairs, suggesting that rates of recombination are high in this obligate outcrossing species. Significant genetic differentiation was found at all five genes, with an average estimate of FST = 0.116. Levels of polymorphism in P. tremula are 2- to 10-fold higher than those in other woody, long-lived perennial plants, such as Pinus and Cryptomeria. The high levels of nucleotide polymorphism and low linkage disequilibrium suggest that it may be possible to map functional variation to very fine scales in P. tremula using association-mapping approaches. PMID:15489521

  17. The Effects of Migration and Assortative Mating on Admixture Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zaitlen, Noah; Huntsman, Scott; Hu, Donglei; Spear, Melissa; Eng, Celeste; Oh, Sam S; White, Marquitta J; Mak, Angel; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelly; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Burchard, Esteban G; Halperin, Eran

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models in medical and population genetics typically assume that individuals assort randomly in a population. While this simplifies model complexity, it contradicts an increasing body of evidence of nonrandom mating in human populations. Specifically, it has been shown that assortative mating is significantly affected by genomic ancestry. In this work, we examine the effects of ancestry-assortative mating on the linkage disequilibrium between local ancestry tracks of individuals in an admixed population. To accomplish this, we develop an extension to the Wright-Fisher model that allows for ancestry-based assortative mating. We show that ancestry-assortment perturbs the distribution of local ancestry linkage disequilibrium (LAD) and the variance of ancestry in a population as a function of the number of generations since admixture. This assortment effect can induce errors in demographic inference of admixed populations when methods assume random mating. We derive closed form formulae for LAD under an assortative-mating model with and without migration. We observe that LAD depends on the correlation of global ancestry of couples in each generation, the migration rate of each of the ancestral populations, the initial proportions of ancestral populations, and the number of generations since admixture. We also present the first direct evidence of ancestry-assortment in African Americans and examine LAD in simulated and real admixed population data of African Americans. We find that demographic inference under the assumption of random mating significantly underestimates the number of generations since admixture, and that accounting for assortative mating using the patterns of LAD results in estimates that more closely agrees with the historical narrative.

  18. Effects of identity disequilibrium and linkage on quantitative variation in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Tachida, H; Cockerham, C C

    1989-02-01

    Identity disequilibrium, ID, is the difference between joint identity by descent and the product of the separate probabilities of identity by descent for two loci. The effects of ID on the additive by additive (a*a) epistatic variance and joint dominance component between populations and in the additive, dominance and a*a variance within populations, including the effects on covariances of relatives within populations, were studied for finite monoecious populations. The effects are formulated in terms of three additive partitions, eta b, eta a and eta d, of the total ID, each of which increases from zero to a maximum at some generation dependent upon linkage and population size and decreases thereafter. eta d is about four times the magnitude of the other two but none is of any consequence except for tight linkage and very small populations. For single-generation bottleneck populations only eta d is not zero. With random mating of expanded populations eta b remains constant and eta a and eta d go to zero at a rate dependent upon linkage, very fast with free recombination. The contributions of joint dominance to the genetic components of variance within and between populations are entirely a function of the eta's while those of a*a variance to the components are functions mainly of the coancestry coefficient and only modified by the eta's. The contributions of both to the covariances of half-sibs, full-sibs and parent-offspring follow the pattern expected from their contributions to the genetic components of variance within populations except for minor terms which most likely are of little importance.

  19. Heritability and Familiality of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Korean Families with Schizophrenic Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee Jeong; Chung, Young In; Yi, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD). Methods We recruited 179 probands (with schizophrenia) as well as, whenever possible, their parents and siblings. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure personality and symptomatic dimensions. The heritability of personality dimensions in a total of 472 family members was estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). To measure familiality, we compared the personality dimensions of family members with those of 336 healthy unrelated controls using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results Three of the seven TCI variables were significantly heritable and were included in subsequent analyses. The three groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to significantly differ from one another, with the expected order of average group scores, for all heritable dimensions. Conclusion Despite several study limitations with respect to family recruitment and phenotyping, our results show that aberrations in several personality dimensions related to genetic-environment coactions or interactions may underlie the complexity of the schizophrenic syndrome. PMID:27121432

  20. Revealing misassembled segments in the bovine reference genome by high resolution linkage disequilibrium scan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Misassembly signatures, created by shuffling the order of sequences while assembling a genome, can be easily seen by analyzing the unexpected behaviour of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. A heuristic process was proposed to identify those misassembly signatures and presented the ones found in ...

  1. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  2. Polymorphic L1 retrotransposons are frequently in strong linkage disequilibrium with neighboring SNPs.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Saneyuki; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Ishiguro, Koichi; Aizawa, Yasunori

    2014-05-10

    L1 retrotransposons have been the major driver of structural variation of the human genome. L1 insertion polymorphism (LIP)-mediated genomic variation can alter the transcriptome and contribute to the divergence of human phenotypes. To assess this possibility, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including LIPs is required. Toward this ultimate goal, the present study examined linkage disequilibrium between six LIPs and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic PCR and sequencing of L1-plus and -minus alleles from different donors revealed that all six LIPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. In addition, comparison of syntenic regions containing the identified SNP nucleotides was performed among modern humans (L1-plus and -minus alleles), archaic humans and non-human primates, revealing two different evolutionary schemes that might have resulted in the observed strong SNP-LIP linkage disequilibria. This study provides an experimental framework and guidance for a future SNP-LIP integrative GWAS.

  3. Structure of linkage disequilibrium and phenotypic associations in the maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Remington, David L.; Thornsberry, Jeffry M.; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Wilson, Larissa M.; Whitt, Sherry R.; Doebley, John; Kresovich, Stephen; Goodman, Major M.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2001-01-01

    Association studies based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide high resolution for identifying genes that may contribute to phenotypic variation. We report patterns of local and genome-wide LD in 102 maize inbred lines representing much of the worldwide genetic diversity used in maize breeding, and address its implications for association studies in maize. In a survey of six genes, we found that intragenic LD generally declined rapidly with distance (r2 < 0.1 within 1500 bp), but rates of decline were highly variable among genes. This rapid decline probably reflects large effective population sizes in maize during its evolution and high levels of recombination within genes. A set of 47 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci showed stronger evidence of genome-wide LD than did single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. LD was greatly reduced but not eliminated by grouping lines into three empirically determined subpopulations. SSR data also supplied evidence that divergent artificial selection on flowering time may have played a role in generating population structure. Provided the effects of population structure are effectively controlled, this research suggests that association studies show great promise for identifying the genetic basis of important traits in maize with very high resolution. PMID:11562485

  4. An empiric comparison of linkage disequilibrium parameters in disease gene localizations; the myotonic dystrophy experience

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, L.; Baird, S.; Korneluk, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Analyses of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers of known location and disease phenotypes often provide valuable information in efforts to clone the causative genes. However, there exist a number of factors which may attenuate a consistent inverse relationship between physical distance and LD for a given pairing of a genetic marker and a human disease gene. Chief among these is the effect of the general population frequency of an allele which demonstrates LD with a disease gene. Possibly as a result of this, a number of methods of calculating LD has been proposed. We have calculated seven such LD parameters for twelve physically mapped RFLP`s from a 1.3 Mb DM gene containing region of 19q13.3 using 107 DM and 213 non-DM chromosomes. Correlation of the DM-marker physical distance with LD for the 12 loci reveals the Yule coefficient and Dij{prime} parameter to give the most consistent relationship. The D{prime} parameter shown to have a relative allele frequency independence gave only a weak correlation. A similar analysis is being carried out on published cystic fibrosis genetic and physical mapping data. The parameters identified in this study may be the most appropriate for future LD based localizations of disease genes.

  5. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in wild avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Haofeng; Morrell, Peter L; de la Cruz, Marlene; Clegg, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    Resequencing studies provide the ultimate resolution of genetic diversity because they identify all mutations in a gene that are present within the sampled individuals. We report a resequencing study of Persea americana, a subtropical tree species native to Meso- and Central America and the progenitor of cultivated avocado. The sample includes 21 wild accessions from Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic. Estimated levels of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are obtained from fully resolved haplotype data from 4 nuclear loci that span 5960 nucleotide sites. Results show that, although avocado is a subtropical tree crop and a predominantly outcrossing plant, the overall level of genetic variation is not exceptionally high (nucleotide diversity at silent sites, pi(sil) = 0.0102) compared with available estimates from temperate plant species. Intralocus LD decays rapidly to half the initial value within about 1 kb. Estimates of recombination rate (based on the sequence data) show that the rate is not exceptionally high when compared with annual plants such as wild barley or maize. Interlocus LD is significant owing to substantial population structure induced by mixing of the 3 botanical races of avocado.

  6. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Improved by Accounting for Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Buell, C. Robin; Casler, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height, and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs. PMID:26869619

  7. A metric linkage disequilibrium map of a human chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tapper, W J; Maniatis, N; Morton, N E; Collins, A

    2003-11-01

    We used LDMAP (Maniatis et al. 2002) to analyse SNP data spanning chromosome 22 (Dawson et al. 2002), to obtain a whole-chromosome metric LD map. The LD map, with map distances analogous to the centiMorgan scale of linkage maps, identifies regions of high LD as plateaus ('blocks') and characterises steps which define the relationship between these regions. From this map we estimate that block regions comprise between 32% and 55% of the euchromatic portion of chromosome 22 and that increasing marker density within steps may increase block coverage. Steps are regions of low LD which correspond to areas of variable recombination intensity. The intensity of recombination is related to the height of the step and thus intense recombination hot-spots can be distinguished from more randomly distributed historical events. The LD maps are more closely related to the high-resolution linkage map (Kong et al. 2002) than average measures of rho with recombination accounting for between 34% and 52% of the variance in patterns of LD (r=0.58 - 0.71, p=0.0001). Step regions are closely correlated with a range of sequence motifs including GT/CA repeats. The LD map identifies holes in which greater marker density is required and defines the optimal SNP spacing for positional cloning, which suggests that some multiple of around 50,000 SNPs will be required to efficiently screen Caucasian genomes. Further analyses which investigate selection of informative SNPs and the effect of SNP allele frequency and marker density will refine this estimate.

  8. A haplotype-based algorithm for multilocus linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci with epistasis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiang-Yang; Casella, George; Littell, Ramon C; Yang, Mark C K; Johnson, Julie A; Wu, Rongling

    2003-04-01

    For tightly linked loci, cosegregation may lead to nonrandom associations between alleles in a population. Because of its evolutionary relationship with linkage, this phenomenon is called linkage disequilibrium. Today, linkage disequilibrium-based mapping has become a major focus of recent genome research into mapping complex traits. In this article, we present a new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) of additive, dominant, and epistatic effects in equilibrium natural populations. Our method is based on haplotype analysis of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and exhibits two significant advantages over current disequilibrium mapping methods. First, we have derived closed-form solutions for estimating the marker-QTL haplotype frequencies within the maximum-likelihood framework implemented by the EM algorithm. The allele frequencies of putative QTL and their linkage disequilibria with the markers are estimated by solving a system of regular equations. This procedure has significantly improved the computational efficiency and the precision of parameter estimation. Second, our method can detect marker-QTL disequilibria of different orders and QTL epistatic interactions of various kinds on the basis of a multilocus analysis. This can not only enhance the precision of parameter estimation, but also make it possible to perform whole-genome association studies. We carried out extensive simulation studies to examine the robustness and statistical performance of our method. The application of the new method was validated using a case study from humans, in which we successfully detected significant QTL affecting human body heights. Finally, we discuss the implications of our method for genome projects and its extension to a broader circumstance. The computer program for the method proposed in this article is available at the webpage http://www.ifasstat.ufl.edu/genome/~LD.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium and genome-wide association mapping in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    PubMed

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Mastrangelo, Anna M; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker-trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker-trait associations.

  10. Linkage Disequilibrium and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A.; Colecchia, Salvatore A.; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker–trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker–trait associations. PMID:24759998

  11. Recovering Power in Association Mapping Panels with Variable Levels of Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Rincent, Renaud; Moreau, Laurence; Monod, Hervé; Kuhn, Estelle; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Malvar, Rosa A.; Moreno-Gonzalez, Jesus; Nicolas, Stéphane; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Dumas, Fabrice; Altmann, Thomas; Brunel, Dominique; Ouzunova, Milena; Flament, Pascal; Dubreuil, Pierre; Charcosset, Alain; Mary-Huard, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping has permitted the discovery of major QTL in many species. It can be applied to existing populations and, as a consequence, it is generally necessary to take into account structure and relatedness among individuals in the statistical model to control false positives. We analytically studied power in association studies by computing noncentrality parameter of the tests and its relationship with parameters characterizing diversity (genetic differentiation between groups and allele frequencies) and kinship between individuals. Investigation of three different maize diversity panels genotyped with the 50k SNPs array highlighted contrasted average power among panels and revealed gaps of power of classical mixed models in regions with high linkage disequilibrium (LD). These gaps could be related to the fact that markers are used for both testing association and estimating relatedness. We thus considered two alternative approaches to estimating the kinship matrix to recover power in regions of high LD. In the first one, we estimated the kinship with all the markers that are not located on the same chromosome than the tested SNP. In the second one, correlation between markers was taken into account to weight the contribution of each marker to the kinship. Simulations revealed that these two approaches were efficient to control false positives and were more powerful than classical models. PMID:24532779

  12. Admixture and linkage disequilibrium analysis of meat goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the population structure and variation within the genome will assist with efforts to make genetic gains for meat goat production. A recently developed Illumina Goat 50K SNP panel containing 52,295 SNP loci was created primarily from SNPs identified in European dairy goat breeds and Asi...

  13. Effects of Overlapping Generations on Linkage Disequilibrium Estimates of Effective Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S.; Antao, Tiago; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Use of single-sample genetic methods to estimate effective population size has skyrocketed in recent years. Although the underlying models assume discrete generations, they are widely applied to age-structured species. We simulated genetic data for 21 iteroparous animal and plant species to evaluate two untested hypotheses regarding performance of the single-sample method based on linkage disequilibrium (LD): (1) estimates based on single-cohort samples reflect the effective number of breeders in one reproductive cycle (Nb), and (2) mixed-age samples reflect the effective size per generation (Ne). We calculated true Ne and Nb, using the model species’ vital rates, and verified these with individual-based simulations. We show that single-cohort samples should be equally influenced by Nb and Ne and confirm this with simulated results: N^b was a linear (r2 = 0.98) function of the harmonic mean of Ne and Nb. We provide a quantitative bias correction for raw N^b based on the ratio Nb/Ne, which can be estimated from two or three simple life history traits. Bias-adjusted estimates were within 5% of true Nb for all 21 study species and proved robust when challenged with new data. Mixed-age adult samples produced downwardly biased estimates in all species, which we attribute to a two-locus Wahlund effect (mixture LD) caused by combining parents from different cohorts in a single sample. Results from this study will facilitate interpretation of rapidly accumulating genetic estimates in terms of both Ne (which influences long-term evolutionary processes) and Nb (which is more important for understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics and mating systems). PMID:24717176

  14. Novel measures of linkage disequilibrium that correct the bias due to population structure and relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B; Siberchicot, A; Nicolas, S; Doligez, A; This, P; Cierco-Ayrolles, C

    2012-01-01

    Among the several linkage disequilibrium measures known to capture different features of the non-independence between alleles at different loci, the most commonly used for diallelic loci is the r2 measure. In the present study, we tackled the problem of the bias of r2 estimate, which results from the sample structure and/or the relatedness between genotyped individuals. We derived two novel linkage disequilibrium measures for diallelic loci that are both extensions of the usual r2 measure. The first one, rS2, uses the population structure matrix, which consists of information about the origins of each individual and the admixture proportions of each individual genome. The second one, rV2, includes the kinship matrix into the calculation. These two corrections can be applied together in order to correct for both biases and are defined either on phased or unphased genotypes. We proved that these novel measures are linked to the power of association tests under the mixed linear model including structure and kinship corrections. We validated them on simulated data and applied them to real data sets collected on Vitis vinifera plants. Our results clearly showed the usefulness of the two corrected r2 measures, which actually captured ‘true' linkage disequilibrium unlike the usual r2 measure. PMID:21878986

  15. Novel measures of linkage disequilibrium that correct the bias due to population structure and relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mangin, B; Siberchicot, A; Nicolas, S; Doligez, A; This, P; Cierco-Ayrolles, C

    2012-03-01

    Among the several linkage disequilibrium measures known to capture different features of the non-independence between alleles at different loci, the most commonly used for diallelic loci is the r(2) measure. In the present study, we tackled the problem of the bias of r(2) estimate, which results from the sample structure and/or the relatedness between genotyped individuals. We derived two novel linkage disequilibrium measures for diallelic loci that are both extensions of the usual r(2) measure. The first one, r(S)(2), uses the population structure matrix, which consists of information about the origins of each individual and the admixture proportions of each individual genome. The second one, r(V)(2), includes the kinship matrix into the calculation. These two corrections can be applied together in order to correct for both biases and are defined either on phased or unphased genotypes.We proved that these novel measures are linked to the power of association tests under the mixed linear model including structure and kinship corrections. We validated them on simulated data and applied them to real data sets collected on Vitis vinifera plants. Our results clearly showed the usefulness of the two corrected r(2) measures, which actually captured 'true' linkage disequilibrium unlike the usual r(2) measure.

  16. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson).

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2013-04-09

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. However, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large because estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes of approximately 5000. This number was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest SD of Ne estimates occurred when low-frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or nonbreeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were greater than 24,000.

  17. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and past effective population size in three Korean cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sudrajad, P; Seo, D W; Choi, T J; Park, B H; Roh, S H; Jung, W Y; Lee, S S; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Lee, S H

    2017-02-01

    The routine collection and use of genomic data are useful for effectively managing breeding programs for endangered populations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) using high-density DNA markers has been widely used to determine population structures and predict the genomic regions that are associated with economic traits in beef cattle. The extent of LD also provides information about historical events, including past effective population size (Ne ), and it allows inferences on the genetic diversity of breeds. The objective of this study was to estimate the LD and Ne in three Korean cattle breeds that are genetically similar but have different coat colors (Brown, Brindle and Jeju Black Hanwoo). Brindle and Jeju Black are endangered breeds with small populations, whereas Brown Hanwoo is the main breeding population in Korea. DNA samples from these cattle breeds were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip. We examined 13 cattle breeds, including European taurines, African taurines and indicines, and hybrids to compare their LD values. Brown Hanwoo consistently had the lowest mean LD compared to Jeju Black, Brindle and the other 13 cattle breeds (0.13, 0.19, 0.21 and 0.15-0.22 respectively). The high LD values of Brindle and Jeju Black contributed to small Ne values (53 and 60 respectively), which were distinct from that of Brown Hanwoo (531) for 11 generations ago. The differences in LD and Ne for each breed reflect the breeding strategy applied. The Ne for these endangered cattle breeds remain low; thus, effort is needed to bring them back to a sustainable tract.

  18. Accuracy of genomic prediction in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) improved by accounting for linkage disequilibrium

    DOE PAGES

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; ...

    2016-02-11

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height,more » and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Furthermore, some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs.« less

  19. A method for detecting recent changes in contemporary effective population size from linkage disequilibrium at linked and unlinked loci.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, C M; Portnoy, D S; Gold, J R

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of contemporary effective population size (Ne) from linkage disequilibrium (LD) between unlinked pairs of genetic markers has become an important tool in the field of population and conservation genetics. If data pertaining to physical linkage or genomic position are available for genetic markers, estimates of recombination rate between loci can be combined with LD data to estimate contemporary Ne at various times in the past. We extend the well-known, LD-based method of estimating contemporary Ne to include linkage information and show via simulation that even relatively small, recent changes in Ne can be detected reliably with a modest number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. We explore several issues important to interpretation of the results and quantify the bias in estimates of contemporary Ne associated with the assumption that all loci in a large SNP data set are unlinked. The approach is applied to an empirical data set of SNP genotypes from a population of a marine fish where a recent, temporary decline in Ne is known to have occurred.

  20. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  1. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  2. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD

  4. Multiple linear combination (MLC) regression tests for common variants adapted to linkage disequilibrium structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Poirier, Julia G.; Paterson, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By jointly analyzing multiple variants within a gene, instead of one at a time, gene‐based multiple regression can improve power, robustness, and interpretation in genetic association analysis. We investigate multiple linear combination (MLC) test statistics for analysis of common variants under realistic trait models with linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on HapMap Asian haplotypes. MLC is a directional test that exploits LD structure in a gene to construct clusters of closely correlated variants recoded such that the majority of pairwise correlations are positive. It combines variant effects within the same cluster linearly, and aggregates cluster‐specific effects in a quadratic sum of squares and cross‐products, producing a test statistic with reduced degrees of freedom (df) equal to the number of clusters. By simulation studies of 1000 genes from across the genome, we demonstrate that MLC is a well‐powered and robust choice among existing methods across a broad range of gene structures. Compared to minimum P‐value, variance‐component, and principal‐component methods, the mean power of MLC is never much lower than that of other methods, and can be higher, particularly with multiple causal variants. Moreover, the variation in gene‐specific MLC test size and power across 1000 genes is less than that of other methods, suggesting it is a complementary approach for discovery in genome‐wide analysis. The cluster construction of the MLC test statistics helps reveal within‐gene LD structure, allowing interpretation of clustered variants as haplotypic effects, while multiple regression helps to distinguish direct and indirect associations. PMID:27885705

  5. Linkage disequilibrium in wild and cultured populations of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) can be applied for mapping the actual genes responsible for variation of economically important traits through association mapping. The feasibility and efficacy of association studies are strongly dependent on the extent of LD which determines the number and density of markers in the studied population, as well as the experimental design for an association analysis. In this study, we first characterized the extent of LD in a wild population and a cultured mass-selected line of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas). A total of 88 wild and 96 cultured individuals were selected to assess the level of genome-wide LD with 53 microsatellites, respectively. For syntenic marker pairs, no significant association was observed in the wild population; however, three significant associations occurred in the cultured population, and the significant LD extended up to 12.7 cM, indicating that strong artificial selection is a key force for substantial increase of genome-wide LD in cultured population. The difference of LD between wild and cultured populations showed that association studies in Pacific oyster can be achieved with reasonable marker densities at a relatively low cost by choosing an association mapping population. Furthermore, the frequent occurrence of LD between non-syntenic loci and rare alleles encourages the joint application of linkage analysis and LD mapping when mapping genes in oyster. The information on the linkage disequilibrium in the cultured population is useful for future association mapping in oyster.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of G-olf{sub {alpha}} (GNAL) in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiouris, S.J.; Breschel, T.S.; Xu, J.

    1996-09-20

    This study examines G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a possible candidate gene for susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) using the Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT). G-olf{sub {alpha}}, which encodes a subunit of a G-protein involved in intracellular signaling, maps within a region of chromosome 18 that has been implicated by two different linkage studies as a potential site of BPAD susceptibility loci. The expression pattern of G-olf{sub {alpha}} in the brain, its coupling to dopamine receptors, and the effects of lithium salts on G-proteins all support G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a candidate gene for BPAD. Our study population consisted of 106 probands and sibs with bipolar I disorder, with a median age-at-onset of 21.5 years ascertained from the United States. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between BPAD and any of the observed G-olf{sub {alpha}} alleles in our sample. Division of families based on sex of the transmitting parent did not significantly change the results. This sample had good power (78%) to detect linkage disequilibrium with alleles conferring a relative risk equal to that estimated for the putative 18p locus (2.58). Our results do not support a major role for G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a susceptibility locus for BPAD in a substantial portion of our sample. Other genes lying near G-olf{sub {alpha}} within the linked region on chromosome 18 cannot be excluded by our data. This study illustrates the use of the TDT in evaluating candidate genes within linked chromosome regions. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna) gives a global view of chromosomal inversions, local adaptation and geographic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Petri; Knight, Christopher G; Sarma, Devojit K; Hlaing, Thaung; Prakash, Anil; Maung Maung, Yan Naung; Somboon, Pradya; Mahanta, Jagadish; Walton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing allow population-genomic data to be generated for virtually any species. However, approaches to analyse such data lag behind the ability to generate it, particularly in nonmodel species. Linkage disequilibrium (LD, the nonrandom association of alleles from different loci) is a highly sensitive indicator of many evolutionary phenomena including chromosomal inversions, local adaptation and geographical structure. Here, we present linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna), which accesses information on LD shared between multiple loci genomewide. In LD networks, vertices represent loci, and connections between vertices represent the LD between them. We analysed such networks in two test cases: a new restriction-site-associated DNA sequence (RAD-seq) data set for Anopheles baimaii, a Southeast Asian malaria vector; and a well-characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data set from 21 three-spined stickleback individuals. In each case, we readily identified five distinct LD network clusters (single-outlier clusters, SOCs), each comprising many loci connected by high LD. In A. baimaii, further population-genetic analyses supported the inference that each SOC corresponds to a large inversion, consistent with previous cytological studies. For sticklebacks, we inferred that each SOC was associated with a distinct evolutionary phenomenon: two chromosomal inversions, local adaptation, population-demographic history and geographic structure. LDna is thus a useful exploratory tool, able to give a global overview of LD associated with diverse evolutionary phenomena and identify loci potentially involved. LDna does not require a linkage map or reference genome, so it is applicable to any population-genomic data set, making it especially valuable for nonmodel species. PMID:25573196

  8. Faster sequential genetic linkage computations.

    PubMed Central

    Cottingham, R W; Idury, R M; Schäffer, A A

    1993-01-01

    Linkage analysis using maximum-likelihood estimation is a powerful tool for locating genes. As available data sets have grown, the computation required for analysis has grown exponentially and become a significant impediment. Others have previously shown that parallel computation is applicable to linkage analysis and can yield order-of-magnitude improvements in speed. In this paper, we demonstrate that algorithmic modifications can also yield order-of-magnitude improvements, and sometimes much more. Using the software package LINKAGE, we describe a variety of algorithmic improvements that we have implemented, demonstrating both how these techniques are applied and their power. Experiments show that these improvements speed up the programs by an order of magnitude, on problems of moderate and large size. All improvements were made only in the combinatorial part of the code, without restoring to parallel computers. These improvements synthesize biological principles with computer science techniques, to effectively restructure the time-consuming computations in genetic linkage analysis. PMID:8317490

  9. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome "Darmor-bzh." The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS.

  10. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  11. Accounting for Linkage Disequilibrium in genome scans for selection without individual genotypes: the local score approach.

    PubMed

    Fariello, María Inés; Boitard, Simon; Mercier, Sabine; Robelin, David; Faraut, Thomas; Arnould, Cécile; Recoquillay, Julien; Bouchez, Olivier; Salin, Gérald; Dehais, Patrice; Gourichon, David; Leroux, Sophie; Pitel, Frédérique; Leterrier, Christine; SanCristobal, Magali

    2017-04-10

    Detecting genomic footprints of selection is an important step in the understanding of evolution. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome scans increases detection power, but haplotype-based methods require individual genotypes and are not applicable on pool-sequenced samples. We propose to take advantage of the local score approach to account for linkage disequilibrium in genome scans for selection, cumulating (possibly small) signals from single markers over a genomic segment, to clearly pinpoint a selection signal. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this approach detects selection with higher power than several state-of-the-art single marker, windowing or haplotype-based approaches. We illustrate this on two benchmark data sets including individual genotypes, for which we obtain similar results with the local score and one haplotype-based approach. Finally, we apply the local score approach to Pool-Seq data obtained from a divergent selection experiment on behavior in quail, and obtain precise and biologically coherent selection signals: while competing methods fail to highlight any clear selection signature, our method detects several regions involving genes known to act on social responsiveness or autistic traits. Although we focus here on the detection of positive selection from multiple population data, the local score approach is general and can be applied to other genome scans for selection or other genome-wide analyses such as GWAS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromosome 11-q24 region in Tourette syndrome: association and linkage disequilibrium study in the French Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Joober, Ridha; Saint-Onge, Judith; Dion, Yves; Lespérance, Paul; Richer, Francois; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy Armand

    2005-10-15

    Previous studies have found association and linkage between Tourette syndrome (TS) and markers at the 11q24 region, mainly with markers D11S1377 and D11S933. In order to determine if these positive findings could be replicated in our sample, we undertook a family-based association study in 199 French Canadian TS nuclear families. We genotyped 572 individuals from 174 complete and 25 incomplete TS trios. TDT analysis failed to detect an association between TS and six markers from 11q24. Furthermore, no haplotype combining alleles from D11S1377, D11S933, or any of the other four markers was associated with the disorder. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed evidence of historical recombination between every contiguous pair of markers, indicating that these genetic variants are probably in equilibrium in the French Canadian population. Further analysis in additional families, with different methodologies (linkage and association) will be required in order to determine if the 11q24 region harbors a susceptibility locus for TS. If it does, this defect may not be frequent in the French Canadian population due to locus heterogeneity.

  13. Modeling how reproductive ecology can drive protein diversification and result in linkage disequilibrium between sperm and egg proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Levitan, Don R

    2010-07-01

    Gamete-recognition proteins determine whether sperm and eggs are compatible at fertilization, and they often evolve rapidly. The source of selection driving the evolution of these proteins is still debated. It has been suggested that sexual conflict can result in proliferation of genetic variation and possibly linkage disequilibrium between sperm and egg proteins. Empirical evidence suggests that both male and female reproductive success can be predicted by their sperm ligand genotype, but why female success can be predicted by a protein expressed only in males is unknown. Here we use mathematical modeling to investigate the interaction between reproductive behavior and sperm availability on the evolution of sperm ligands and egg receptors. We consider haploid and diploid expression in gametes in two possible ecological scenarios, monogamous spawning and competitive spawning. Reproductive behavior plays an important role in determining possible outcomes resulting from sexual conflict. Sperm limitation selects for common genotypes regardless of mating behavior. Under conditions of sperm abundance, competitive spawning provides conditions for the persistence of allelic variation and gametic disequilibrium. With monogamous spawning, such conditions are more restrictive.

  14. Population genomic structure and linkage disequilibrium analysis of South African goat breeds using genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Huson, H J; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-08-01

    The sustainability of goat farming in marginal areas of southern Africa depends on local breeds that are adapted to specific agro-ecological conditions. Unimproved non-descript goats are the main genetic resources used for the development of commercial meat-type breeds of South Africa. Little is known about genetic diversity and the genetics of adaptation of these indigenous goat populations. This study investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and breed relations, linkage disequilibrium, effective population size and persistence of gametic phase in goat populations of South Africa. Three locally developed meat-type breeds of the Boer (n = 33), Savanna (n = 31), Kalahari Red (n = 40), a feral breed of Tankwa (n = 25) and unimproved non-descript village ecotypes (n = 110) from four goat-producing provinces of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West were assessed using the Illumina Goat 50K SNP Bead Chip assay. The proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies >0.05 ranged from 84.22% in the Tankwa to 97.58% in the Xhosa ecotype, with a mean of 0.32 ± 0.13 across populations. Principal components analysis, admixture and pairwise FST identified Tankwa as a genetically distinct population and supported clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. Genome-wide FST identified 101 markers potentially under positive selection in the Tankwa. Average linkage disequilibrium was highest in the Tankwa (r(2)  = 0.25 ± 0.26) and lowest in the village ecotypes (r(2) range = 0.09 ± 0.12 to 0.11 ± 0.14). We observed an effective population size of <150 for all populations 13 generations ago. The estimated correlations for all breed pairs were lower than 0.80 at marker distances >100 kb with the exception of those in Savanna and Tswana populations. This study highlights the high level of genetic diversity in South African indigenous goats as well as the utility of the genome-wide SNP marker panels in

  15. Linkage Disequilibrium and Inversion-Typing of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome Reference Panel.

    PubMed

    Houle, David; Márquez, Eladio J

    2015-06-10

    We calculated the linkage disequilibrium between all pairs of variants in the Drosophila Genome Reference Panel with minor allele count ≥5. We used r(2) ≥ 0.5 as the cutoff for a highly correlated SNP. We make available the list of all highly correlated SNPs for use in association studies. Seventy-six percent of variant SNPs are highly correlated with at least one other SNP, and the mean number of highly correlated SNPs per variant over the whole genome is 83.9. Disequilibrium between distant SNPs is also common when minor allele frequency (MAF) is low: 37% of SNPs with MAF < 0.1 are highly correlated with SNPs more than 100 kb distant. Although SNPs within regions with polymorphic inversions are highly correlated with somewhat larger numbers of SNPs, and these correlated SNPs are on average farther away, the probability that a SNP in such regions is highly correlated with at least one other SNP is very similar to SNPs outside inversions. Previous karyotyping of the DGRP lines has been inconsistent, and we used LD and genotype to investigate these discrepancies. When previous studies agreed on inversion karyotype, our analysis was almost perfectly concordant with those assignments. In discordant cases, and for inversion heterozygotes, our results suggest errors in two previous analyses or discordance between genotype and karyotype. Heterozygosities of chromosome arms are, in many cases, surprisingly highly correlated, suggesting strong epsistatic selection during the inbreeding and maintenance of the DGRP lines.

  16. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Bowcock, A. M.; Tomfohrde, J.; Weissenbach, J.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; St George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability of the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. We have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with > 70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of > 4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here we present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084xc5 alleles and WND alleles in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084xc5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [phi] = .61) suggests that the number of mutations accounting for WND is less than expected on the basis of the variety of clinical symptoms that are observed. PMID:8279473

  17. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites

    SciTech Connect

    Bowcock, A.M.; Tomfohrde, J. ); Weissenbach, J. ); Bonne-Tamir, B.; George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Farrer, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability to the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. The authors have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with >70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of >4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here, the authors present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084[times]c5 alleles and WND allels in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084[times]c5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [[theta

  18. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of disease genes by reconstruction of ancestral haplotypes in founder populations.

    PubMed Central

    Service, S K; Lang, D W; Freimer, N B; Sandkuijl, L A

    1999-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping may be a powerful means for genome screening to identify susceptibility loci for common diseases. A new statistical approach for detection of LD around a disease gene is presented here. This method compares the distribution of haplotypes in affected individuals versus that expected for individuals descended from a common ancestor who carried a mutation of the disease gene. Simulations demonstrate that this method, which we term "ancestral haplotype reconstruction" (AHR), should be powerful for genome screening of phenotypes characterized by a high degree of etiologic heterogeneity, even with currently available marker maps. AHR is best suited to application in isolated populations where affected individuals are relatively recently descended (< approximately 25 generations) from a common disease mutation-bearing founder. PMID:10330361

  19. An analysis of linkage disequilibrium in the interleukin-1 gene cluster, using a novel grouping method for multiallelic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, A; Camp, N J; Nicklin, M J; di Giovine, F S; Duff, G W

    1998-01-01

    In population- and family-based association studies, it is useful to have some knowledge of the patterns of linkage disequilibrium that exist between markers in candidate regions. When such studies are carried out with multiallelic markers, it is often convenient to group the alleles into a biallelic system, for analysis. In this study, we specifically examined the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster on chromosome 2, a region containing candidates for many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Data were collected on eight markers, four of which were multiallelic. Using these data, we investigated the effect of three allele-grouping strategies, including a novel method, on the detection of linkage disequilibrium. The novel approach, termed the "delta method," measures the deviation from the expected haplotype frequencies under linkage equilibrium, for each allelic combination. This information is then used to group the alleles, in an attempt to avoid the grouping together of alleles at one locus that are in opposite disequilibrium with the same allele at the second locus. The estimate haplotype frequencies (EH) program was used to estimate haplotype frequencies and the disequilibrium measure. In our data it was found that the delta method compared well with the other two strategies. Using this method, we found that there was a reasonable correlation between disequilibrium and physical distance in the region (r=-.540, P=.001, one-tailed). We also identified a common, eight-locus haplotype of the IL-1 gene cluster. PMID:9545388

  20. Linkage disequilibrium with linkage analysis of multiline crosses reveals different multiallelic QTL for hybrid performance in the flint and dent heterotic groups of maize.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Héloïse; Lehermeier, Christina; Bauer, Eva; Falque, Matthieu; Segura, Vincent; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Meyer, Nina; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Menz, Monica; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Moreau, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Multiparental designs combined with dense genotyping of parents have been proposed as a way to increase the diversity and resolution of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies, using methods combining linkage disequilibrium information with linkage analysis (LDLA). Two new nested association mapping designs adapted to European conditions were derived from the complementary dent and flint heterotic groups of maize (Zea mays L.). Ten biparental dent families (N = 841) and 11 biparental flint families (N = 811) were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and evaluated as test crosses with the central line of the reciprocal design for biomass yield, plant height, and precocity. Alleles at candidate QTL were defined as (i) parental alleles, (ii) haplotypic identity by descent, and (iii) single-marker groupings. Between five and 16 QTL were detected depending on the model, trait, and genetic group considered. In the flint design, a major QTL (R(2) = 27%) with pleiotropic effects was detected on chromosome 10, whereas other QTL displayed milder effects (R(2) < 10%). On average, the LDLA models detected more QTL but generally explained lower percentages of variance, consistent with the fact that most QTL display complex allelic series. Only 15% of the QTL were common to the two designs. A joint analysis of the two designs detected between 15 and 21 QTL for the five traits. Of these, between 27 for silking date and 41% for tasseling date were significant in both groups. Favorable allelic effects detected in both groups open perspectives for improving biomass production.

  1. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of...

  2. Nucleotide Variation, Linkage Disequilibrium and Founder-Facilitated Speciation in Wild Populations of the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Edwards, Scott V.

    2009-01-01

    The zebra finch has long been an important model system for the study of vocal learning, vocal production, and behavior. With the imminent sequencing of its genome, the zebra finch is now poised to become a model system for population genetics. Using a panel of 30 noncoding loci, we characterized patterns of polymorphism and divergence among wild zebra finch populations. Continental Australian populations displayed little population structure, exceptionally high levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.010), a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and a high population recombination rate (ρ ≈ 0.05), all of which suggest an open and fluid genomic background that could facilitate adaptive variation. By contrast, substantial divergence between the Australian and Lesser Sunda Island populations (KST = 0.193), reduced genetic diversity (π = 0.002), and higher levels of LD in the island population suggest a strong but relatively recent founder event, which may have contributed to speciation between these populations as envisioned under founder-effect speciation models. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that under a simple quantitative genetic model both drift and selection could have contributed to the observed divergence in six quantitative traits. In both Australian and Lesser Sundas populations, diversity in Z-linked loci was significantly lower than in autosomal loci. Our analysis provides a quantitative framework for studying the role of selection and drift in shaping patterns of molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. PMID:19047416

  3. Detection of linkage disequilibrium between the myotonic dystrophy locus and a new polymorphic DNA marker.

    PubMed Central

    Harley, H G; Brook, J D; Floyd, J; Rundle, S A; Crow, S; Walsh, K V; Thibault, M C; Harper, P S; Shaw, D J

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the linkage of two new polymorphic DNA markers (D19S62 and D19S63) and a previously unreported polymorphism with an existing DNA marker (ERCC1) to the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus. In addition, we have used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to obtain a fine-structure map of this region. The detection of linkage disequilibrium between DM and one of these markers (D19S63) is the first demonstration of this phenomenon in a heterogeneous DM population. The results suggest that at least 58% of DM patients in the British population, as well as those in a French-Canadian subpopulation, are descended from the same ancestral DM mutation. We discuss the implications of this finding in terms of strategies for cloning the DM gene, for a possible role in modification of risk for prenatal and presymptomatic testing, and we speculate on the origin and number of existing mutations which may result in a DM phenotype. PMID:2063878

  4. A first-generation metric linkage disequilibrium map of bovine chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Collins, Andrew; Cavanagh, Julie A L; Hawken, Rachel J; Hobbs, Matthew; Zenger, Kyall R; Barris, Wes; McClintock, Alexander E; Thomson, Peter C; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

    2006-09-01

    We constructed a metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) on the basis of data from 220 SNPs genotyped on 433 Australian dairy bulls. This metric LD map has distances in LD units (LDUs) that are analogous to centimorgans in linkage maps. The LD map of BTA6 has a total length of 8.9 LDUs. Within the LD map, regions of high LD (represented as blocks) and regions of low LD (steps) are observed, when plotted against the integrated map in kilobases. At the most stringent block definition, namely a set of loci with zero LDU increase over the span of these markers, BTA6 comprises 40 blocks, accounting for 41% of the chromosome. At a slightly lower stringency of block definition (a set of loci covering a maximum of 0.2 LDUs on the LD map), up to 81% of BTA6 is spanned by 46 blocks and with 13 steps that are likely to reflect recombination hot spots. The mean swept radius (the distance over which LD is likely to be useful for mapping) is 13.3 Mb, confirming extensive LD in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, which makes such populations ideal for whole-genome association studies.

  5. Molecular diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide collection of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study were to assess the phylogeny and the population structure of tobacco accessions representing a wide range of genetic diversity; identify a subset of accessions as a core collection capturing most of the existing genetic diversity; and estimate, in the tobacco core collection, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in seven genomic regions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To this end, a collection of accessions were genotyped with SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated and LD was analyzed across seven regions of the genome. Results A genotyping database for 312 tobacco accessions was profiled with 49 SSR markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian cluster analysis revealed structuring of the tobacco population with regard to commercial classes and six main clades were identified, which correspond to "Oriental", Flue-Cured", "Burley", "Dark", "Primitive", and "Other" classes. Pairwise kinship was calculated between accessions, and an overall low level of co-ancestry was observed. A set of 89 genotypes was identified that captured the whole genetic diversity detected at the 49 loci. LD was evaluated on these genotypes, using 422 SSR markers mapping on seven linkage groups. LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2). The pattern of intrachromosomal LD revealed that in tobacco LD extended up to distances as great as 75 cM with r2 > 0.05 or up to 1 cM with r2 > 0.2. The pattern of LD was clearly dependent on the population structure. Conclusions A global population of tobacco is highly structured. Clustering highlights the accessions with the same market class. LD in tobacco extends up to 75 cM and is strongly dependent on the population structure. PMID:22435796

  6. Distribution of long-range linkage disequilibrium and Tajima's D values in Scandinavian populations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hanna; Källman, Thomas; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-05-20

    The site frequency spectrum of mutations (SFS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are the two major sources of information in population genetics studies. In this study we focus on the levels of LD and the SFS and on the effect of sample size on summary statistics in 10 Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce. We found that previous estimates of a low level of LD were highly influenced by both sampling strategy and the fact that data from multiple loci were analyzed jointly. Estimates of LD were in fact heterogeneous across loci and increased within individual populations compared with the estimate from the total data. The variation in levels of LD among populations most likely reflects different demographic histories, although we were unable to detect population structure by using standard approaches. As in previous studies, we also found that the SFS-based test Tajima's D was highly sensitive to sample size, revealing that care should be taken to draw strong conclusions from this test when sample size is small. In conclusion, the results from this study are in line with recent studies in other conifers that have revealed a more complex and variable pattern of LD than earlier studies suggested and with studies in trees and humans that suggest that Tajima's D is sensitive to sample size. This has large consequences for the design of future association and population genetic studies in Norway spruce.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium analysis in young populations: Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets and the founder effect in French Canadians

    SciTech Connect

    Labuda, M.; Glorieux, F.H.; Labuda, D.; Korab-Laskowska, M.

    1996-09-01

    Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) was mapped close to D12S90 and between proximal D12S312 and distal (D12S305, D12S104) microsatellites that were subsequently found on a single YAC clone. Analysis of a complex haplotype in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the disease discriminated among distinct founder effects in French Canadian populations in Acadia and in Charlevoix-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Ch-SLSJ), as well as an earlier one in precolonial Europe. A simple demographic model suggested the historical age of the founder effect in Ch-SLSJ to be {approximately}12 generations. The corresponding LD data are consistent with this figure when they are analyzed within the framework of Luria-Delbruck model, which takes into account the population growth. Population sampling due to a limited number of first settlers and the rapid demographic expansion appear to have played a major role in the founding of PDDR in Ch-SLSJ and, presumably, other genetic disorders endemic to French Canada. Similarly, the founder effect in Ashkenazim, coinciding with their early settlement in medieval Poland and subsequent expansion eastward, could explain the origin of frequent genetic diseases in this population. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Linkage disequilibrium analysis in young populations: pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets and the founder effect in French Canadians.

    PubMed Central

    Labuda, M.; Labuda, D.; Korab-Laskowska, M.; Cole, D. E.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Weissenbach, J.; Popowska, E.; Pronicka, E.; Root, A. W.; Glorieux, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) was mapped close to D12S90 and between proximal D12S312 and distal (D12S305, D12S104) microsatellites that were subsequently found on a single YAC clone. Analysis of a complex haplotype in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the disease discriminated among distinct founder effects in French Canadian populations in Acadia and in Charlevoix-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Ch-SLSJ), as well as an earlier one in precolonial Europe. A simple demographic model suggested the historical age of the founder effect in Ch-SLSJ to be approximately 12 generations. The corresponding LD data are consistent with this figure when they are analyzed within the framework of Luria-Delbrück model, which takes into account the population growth. Population sampling due to a limited number of first settlers and the rapid demographic expansion appear to have played a major role in the founding of PDDR in Ch-SLSJ and, presumably, other genetic disorders endemic to French Canada. Similarly, the founder effect in Ashkenazim, coinciding with their early settlement in medieval Poland and subsequent expansion eastward, could explain the origin of frequent genetic diseases in this population. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8751865

  9. Accuracy of genomic prediction in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) improved by accounting for linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Buell, C. Robin; Casler, Michael D.

    2016-02-11

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height, and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Furthermore, some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium analysis by searching for shared segments: Mapping a locus for benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Freimer, N.; Baharloo, S.; Blankenship, K.

    1994-09-01

    The lod score method of linkage analysis has two important drawbacks: parameters must be specified for the transmission of the disease (e.g. penetrance), and large numbers of genetically informative individuals must be studied. Although several robust non-parametric methods are available, these also require large sample sizes. The availability of dense genetic maps permits genome screening to be conducted by linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping methods, which are statistically powerful and non-parametric. Lander & Botstein proposed that LD mapping could be employed to screen the human genome for disease loci; we have now applied this strategy to map a gene for an autosomal recessive disorder, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestatis (BRIC). Our approach to LD mapping was based on identifying chromosome segments shared between distantly related patients; we used 256 microsatellite markers to genotype three affected individuals, and their parents, from an isolated town in The Netherlands. Because endogamy occurred in this population for several generations, all of the BRIC patients are known to be distantly related to each other, but the pedigree structure and connections could not be certainly established more than three generations before the present, so lod score analysis was impossible. A 20 cM region on chromosome 18 is shared by 5/6 patient chromosomes; subsequently, we noted that 6/6 chromosomes shared an interval of about 3 cM in this region. Calculations indicate that it is extremely unlikely that such a region could be inherited by chance rather than by descent from a common ancestor. Thus, LD mapping by searching for shared chromosomal segments is an extremely powerful approach for genome screening to identify disease loci.

  11. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  12. Effective Population Size, Extended Linkage Disequilibrium and Signatures of Selection in the Rare Dog Breed Lundehund

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    The Lundehund is an old dog breed with remarkable anatomical features including polydactyly in all four limbs and extraordinary flexibility of the spine. We genotyped 28 Lundehund using the canine Illumina high density beadchip to estimate the effective population size (Ne) and inbreeding coefficients as well as to identify potential regions of positive selection. The decay of linkage disequilibrium was slow with r2 = 0.95 in 50 kb distance. The last 7-200 generations ago, Ne was at 10-13. An increase of Ne was noted in the very recent generations with a peak value of 19 for Ne at generation 4. The FROH estimated for 50-, 65- and 358-SNP windows were 0.87, 087 and 0.81, respectively. The most likely estimates for FROH after removing identical-by-state segments due to linkage disequilibria were at 0.80-0.81. The extreme loss of heterozygosity has been accumulated through continued inbreeding over 200 generations within a probably closed population with a small effective population size. The mean inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree data for the last 11 generations (FPed = 0.10) was strongly biased downwards due to the unknown coancestry of the founders in this pedigree data. The long-range haplotype test identified regions with genes involved in processes of immunity, olfaction, woundhealing and neuronal development as potential targets of selection. The genes QSOX2, BMPR1B and PRRX2 as well as MYOM1 are candidates for selection on the Lundehund characteristics small body size, increased number of digits per paw and extraordinary mobility, respectively. PMID:25860808

  13. Modeling linkage disequilibrium and identifying recombination hotspots using single-nucleotide polymorphism data.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Stephens, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new statistical model for patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) among multiple SNPs in a population sample. The model overcomes limitations of existing approaches to understanding, summarizing, and interpreting LD by (i) relating patterns of LD directly to the underlying recombination process; (ii) considering all loci simultaneously, rather than pairwise; (iii) avoiding the assumption that LD necessarily has a "block-like" structure; and (iv) being computationally tractable for huge genomic regions (up to complete chromosomes). We examine in detail one natural application of the model: estimation of underlying recombination rates from population data. Using simulation, we show that in the case where recombination is assumed constant across the region of interest, recombination rate estimates based on our model are competitive with the very best of current available methods. More importantly, we demonstrate, on real and simulated data, the potential of the model to help identify and quantify fine-scale variation in recombination rate from population data. We also outline how the model could be useful in other contexts, such as in the development of more efficient haplotype-based methods for LD mapping. PMID:14704198

  14. Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CRMP1 and EVC genes.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Theru A; Lesperance, Marci M

    2004-11-01

    In this report, we present the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in the Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 1 (CRMP1) and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) gene region. We genotyped eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRMP1 and EVC genes in 90 control individuals of diverse ethnicity. The minor allele frequencies ranged from 3.3-49.4%, with most having a frequency >25%. A total of 37 haplotypes were derived from these eight polymorphisms, with only one haplotype having a frequency >10%. Pairwise LD analysis showed a weak but significant LD between markers located about 243 kb apart in this region. The LD was significant between markers spaced about 208 kb apart in EVC, whereas no LD was found between a pair of markers located about 5 kb apart in CRMP1. However, in general, LD correlated with the distance between loci. The CRMP1 and EVC genes are located near WFS1, the Wolfram syndrome type 1 gene, in which mutations also cause low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). The haplotypes obtained from these polymorphisms will be useful to track the segregation of phenotypes in families with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Weyers acrodental dysostosis, LFSNHL and Wolfram syndrome type 1.

  15. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analysis in bread wheat and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Somers, Daryl J; Banks, Travis; Depauw, Ron; Fox, Stephen; Clarke, John; Pozniak, Curtis; McCartney, Curt

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat and durum wheat were examined for linkage disequilibrium (LD) using microsatellite markers distributed across the genome. The allele database consisted of 189 bread wheat accessions genotyped at 370 loci and 93 durum wheat accessions genotyped at 245 loci. A significance level of p < 0.001 was set for all comparisons. The bread and durum wheat collections showed that 47.9% and 14.0% of all locus pairs were in LD, respectively. LD was more prevalent between loci on the same chromosome compared with loci on independent chromosomes and was highest between adjacent loci. Only a small fraction (bread wheat, 0.9%; durum wheat, 3.2%) of the locus pairs in LD showed R2 values > 0.2. The LD between adjacent locus pairs extended (R2 > 0.2) approximately 2-3 cM, on average, but some regions of the bread and durum wheat genomes showed high levels of LD (R2 = 0.7 and 1.0, respectively) extending 41.2 and 25.5 cM, respectively. The wheat collections were clustered by similarity into subpopulations using unlinked microsatellite data and the software Structure. Analysis within subpopulations showed 14- to 16-fold fewer locus pairs in LD, higher R2 values for those pairs in LD, and LD extending further along the chromosome. The data suggest that LD mapping of wheat can be performed with simple sequence repeats to a resolution of <5 cM.

  16. Recombination hotspots rather than population history dominate linkage disequilibrium in the MHC class II region.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Liisa; Sajantila, Antti; Jeffreys, Alec J

    2003-01-01

    Recombination, demographic history, drift and selection influence the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome, but their relative contributions remain unclear. To investigate the effect of meiotic recombination versus population history on LD, three populations with different demographic histories (UK north Europeans, Saami and Zimbabweans) were genotyped for high-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a 75 kb DNA segment of the MHC class II region. This region spans three well-characterized recombination hotspots and a 60 kb long LD block. Despite a high level of underlying haplotype diversity and considerable divergence in haplotype composition between populations, all three populations showed very similar patterns of LD. Surprisingly, the entire 60 kb LD block was present even in Africans, although it was relatively difficult to detect owing to a systematic deficiency of high frequency SNPs. In contrast, DNA within recombination hotspots did not show this low nucleotide diversity in Africans. Thus, while population history has some influence on LD, our findings suggest that recombination hotspots play a major global role in shaping LD patterns as well as helping to maintain localized SNP diversity in this region of the MHC.

  17. Distinguishing Functional Amino Acid Covariation from Background Linkage Disequilibrium in HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Lee, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Correlated amino acid mutation analysis has been widely used to infer functional interactions between different sites in a protein. However, this analysis can be confounded by important phylogenetic effects broadly classifiable as background linkage disequilibrium (BLD). We have systematically separated the covariation induced by selective interactions between amino acids from background LD, using synonymous (S) vs. amino acid (A) mutations. Covariation between two amino acid mutations, (A,A), can be affected by selective interactions between amino acids, whereas covariation within (A,S) pairs or (S,S) pairs cannot. Our analysis of the pol gene — including the protease and the reverse transcriptase genes — in HIV reveals that (A,A) covariation levels are enormously higher than for either (A,S) or (S,S), and thus cannot be attributed to phylogenetic effects. The magnitude of these effects suggests that a large portion of (A,A) covariation in the HIV pol gene results from selective interactions. Inspection of the most prominent (A,A) interactions in the HIV pol gene showed that they are known sites of independently identified drug resistance mutations, and physically cluster around the drug binding site. Moreover, the specific set of (A,A) interaction pairs was reproducible in different drug treatment studies, and vanished in untreated HIV samples. The (S,S) covariation curves measured a low but detectable level of background LD in HIV. PMID:17726544

  18. Linkage Disequilibrium Patterns and tagSNP Transferability among European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jakob C.; Lõhmussaar, Elin; Mägi, Reedik; Remm, Maido; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Biskup, Saskia; Illig, Thomas; Pfeufer, Arne; Luedemann, Jan; Schreiber, Stefan; Pramstaller, Peter; Pichler, Irene; Romeo, Giovanni; Gaddi, Anthony; Testa, Alessandra; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Metspalu, Andres; Meitinger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is critical for association studies, in which disease-causing variants are identified by allelic association with adjacent markers. The aim of this study is to compare the LD patterns in several distinct European populations. We analyzed four genomic regions (in total, 749 kb) containing candidate genes for complex traits. Individuals were genotyped for markers that are evenly distributed at an average spacing of ∼2–4 kb in eight population-based samples from ongoing epidemiological studies across Europe. The Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) trios of the HapMap project were included and were used as a reference population. In general, we observed a conservation of the LD patterns across European samples. Nevertheless, shifts in the positions of the boundaries of high-LD regions can be demonstrated between populations, when assessed by a novel procedure based on bootstrapping. Transferability of LD information among populations was also tested. In two of the analyzed gene regions, sets of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) selected from the HapMap CEPH trios performed surprisingly well in all local European samples. However, significant variation in the other two gene regions predicts a restricted applicability of CEPH-derived tagging markers. Simulations based on our data set show the extent to which further gain in tagSNP efficiency and transferability can be achieved by increased SNP density. PMID:15637659

  19. Mapping the Rust Resistant Loci MXC3 and MER in P. trichocarpa and Assessing the Intermarker Linkage Disequilibrium in MXC3 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Tongming; Difazio, Stephen P.; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of Melampsora rust resistance in Populus trichocarpa, we have mapped two resistance loci, MXC3 and MER, and intensively characterized the flanking genomic sequence for the MXC3 locus and the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations. We used an interspecific backcross pedigree and a genetic map that was highly saturated with AFLP and SSR markers, and assembled shotgun-sequence data in the region containing markers linked to MXC3. The two loci were mapped to different linkage groups. Linkage disequilibrium for MXC3 was confined to two closely linked regions spanning 34 and 16 kb, respectively. The MXC3 region also contained six disease-resistance candidate genes. The MER and MXC3 loci are clearly distinct, and may have different mechanisms of resistance, as different classes of putative resistance genes were present near each locus. The suppressed recombination previously observed in the MXC3 region was possibly caused by extensive hemizygous rearrangements confined to the original parent tree. The relatively low observed LD may facilitate association studies using candidate genes for rust resistance, but will probably inhibit marker-aided selection.

  20. Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium caused by an inversion polymorphism in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Huynh, L Y; Maney, D L; Thomas, J W

    2011-04-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been of long-standing interest to geneticists because they are capable of suppressing recombination and facilitating the formation of adaptive gene complexes. An exceptional inversion polymorphism (ZAL2(m)) in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is linked to variation in plumage, social behavior and mate choice, and is maintained in the population by negative assortative mating. The ZAL2(m) polymorphism is a complex inversion spanning > 100 Mb and has been proposed to be a strong suppressor of recombination, as well as a potential model for studying neo-sex chromosome evolution. To quantify and evaluate these features of the ZAL2(m) polymorphism, we generated sequence from 8 ZAL2(m) and 16 ZAL2 chromosomes at 58 loci inside and 4 loci outside the inversion. Inside the inversion we found that recombination was completely suppressed between ZAL2 and ZAL2(m), resulting in uniformly high levels of genetic differentiation (F(ST)=0.94), the formation of two distinct haplotype groups representing the alternate chromosome arrangements and extensive linkage disequilibrium spanning ~104 Mb within the inversion, whereas gene flow was not suppressed outside the inversion. Finally, although ZAL2(m) homozygotes are exceedingly rare in the population, occurring at a frequency of < 1%, we detected evidence of historical recombination between ZAL2(m) chromosomes inside the inversion, refuting its potential status as a non-recombining autosome.

  1. Development of an Alfalfa SNP Array and Its Use to Evaluate Patterns of Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuehui; Han, Yuanhong; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Farmer, Andrew D.; Ho, Julie; Monteros, Maria J.; Brummer, E. Charles

    2014-01-01

    A large set of genome-wide markers and a high-throughput genotyping platform can facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits and accelerate molecular breeding applications. Previously, we identified about 0.9 million SNP markers by sequencing transcriptomes of 27 diverse alfalfa genotypes. From this SNP set, we developed an Illumina Infinium array containing 9,277 SNPs. Using this array, we genotyped 280 diverse alfalfa genotypes and several genotypes from related species. About 81% (7,476) of the SNPs met the criteria for quality control and showed polymorphisms. The alfalfa SNP array also showed a high level of transferability for several closely related Medicago species. Principal component analysis and model-based clustering showed clear population structure corresponding to subspecies and ploidy levels. Within cultivated tetraploid alfalfa, genotypes from dormant and nondormant cultivars were largely assigned to different clusters; genotypes from semidormant cultivars were split between the groups. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across all genotypes rapidly decayed to 26 Kbp at r2 = 0.2, but the rate varied across ploidy levels and subspecies. A high level of consistency in LD was found between and within the two subpopulations of cultivated dormant and nondormant alfalfa suggesting that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS) could be conducted using alfalfa genotypes from throughout the fall dormancy spectrum. However, the relatively low LD levels would require a large number of markers to fully saturate the genome. PMID:24416217

  2. Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, D O; Oura, C A L; Spooner, P R; Kiara, H; Mburu, D; Hanotte, O H; Bishop, R P

    2006-07-01

    Theileria parva schizont-infected lymphocyte culture isolates from western, central and coastal Kenya were analysed for size polymorphism at 30 T. parva-specific variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci using a panel of mini- and micro-satellite markers. The mean number of alleles ranged from 3 to 11 at individual loci and 183 distinct alleles were observed in total, indicating high genetic diversity within the T. parva gene pool in Kenyan cattle. The frequency distribution of the length variation of specific alleles among isolates ranged from normal to markedly discontinuous. Genetic relationships between isolates were analysed using standard indices of genetic distance. Genetic distances and dendrograms derived from these using neighbour-joining algorithms did not indicate significant clustering on a geographical basis. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that the genetic variation between individual isolates was 72%, but only 2.3% when isolates from different regions were pooled. Both these observations suggest minimal genetic sub-structuring relative to geographical origin. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci within populations, as in certain Ugandan T. parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis.

  3. Linkage: from particulate to interactive genetics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Genetics was established on a strict particulate conception of heredity. Genetic linkage, the deviation from independent segregation of Mendelian factors, was conceived as a function of the material allocation of the factors to the chromosomes, rather than to the multiple effects (pleiotropy) of discrete factors. Although linkage maps were abstractions they provided strong support for the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Direct Cytogenetic evidence was scarce until X-ray induced major chromosomal rearrangements allowed direct correlation of genetic and cytological rearrangements. Only with the discovery of the polytenic giant chromosomes in Drosophila larvae in the 1930s were the virtual maps backed up by physical maps of the genetic loci. Genetic linkage became a pivotal experimental tool for the examination of the integration of genetic functions in development and in evolution. Genetic mapping has remained a hallmark of genetic analysis. The location of genes in DNA is a modern extension of the notion of genetic linkage.

  4. Potential linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and locus D22S278 on the long arm of chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Moises, H.W.; Yang, L.; Havsteen, B.

    1995-10-09

    Locus D22S278 at 22q12 has been implicated in schizophrenia by sib-pair analysis. In order to replicate these results, we performed the transmission test for linkage disequilibrium (TDT) in 113 unrelated schizophrenic patients and their 226 parents. Evidence for potential linkage disequilibrium was obtained between schizophrenia and allele 243 of the marker AFM 182xd12 at the locus D22S278 (P = 0.02). The results of our study suggest a detectable oligogenic gene in a multigene system for schizophrenia closely linked to D22S278 on the long arm of chromosome 22. If confirmed by others, this finding could lead to the identification of a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  5. [Frequency and linkage disequilibrium of specific HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Xia; Hu, Zhi-Fei; Zu, Qiang; Lu, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Jun

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution feature of HLA-DR/DQ gene linkage disequilibrium in Chinese Han population and to improve the accuracy of HLA matching results. Genotyping of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ gene locus was performed using PCR-SSP typing in Chinese Han population receiving kidney transplantation. The results showed that there were 29 new linkage combinations in 1799 patients, in which DR13-DQ5, DR11-DQ8 and DR8-DQ8 were discovered for 11, 8 and 7 times respectively while DR9-DQ8, DR12-DQ6 and DR14-DQ4 were both discovered for 6 times. The linkage disequilibrium parameters of these haplotypes were negative, showing that these linkages were uncommon. It is concluded that this study not only enriches the classical HLA-DR/DQ linkage combinations, but also indicates the national relevance of combination distribution, and it has great importance in improving the accuracy of HLA matching experiments and reducing unnecessary repeated work.

  6. Refined assignment of the infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, CLN1) locus at 1p32: Incorporation of linkage disequilibrium in multipoint analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, E.; Vesa, J.; Peltonen, L.; Jaervela, I. ); Speer, M.C.; Ott, J. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York ); Maekelae, T.P.; Alitalo, K. )

    1993-06-01

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, INCL, CLN1, is an autosomally inherited progressive neuro-generative disorder. The disease results in the massive death of cortical neurons, suggesting an essential role for the CLN1 gene product in the normal neuronal maturation during the first years of life. Identification of new multiallelic markers has now made possible the construction of a refined genetic map encompassing the CLN1 locus at 1p32. Strong allelic association was detected with a new, highly polymorphic HY-TM1 marker. The authors incorporated this observed linkage disequilibrium into multipoint linkage analysis, which significantly increased the informativeness of the limited family material and facilitated refined assignment of the CLN1 locus. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. A powerful likelihood method for the analysis of linkage disequilibrium between trait loci and one or more polymorphic marker loci

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    Historically, most methods for detecting linkage disequilibrium were designed for use with diallelic marker loci, for which the analysis is straightforward. With the advent of polymorphic markers with many alleles, the normal approach to their analysis has been either to extend the methodology for two-allele systems (leading to an increase in df and to a corresponding loss of power) or to select the allele believed to be associated and then collapse the other alleles, reducing, in a biased way, the locus to a diallelic system. I propose a likelihood-based approach to testing for linkage disequilibrium, an approach that becomes more conservative as the number of alleles increases, and as the number of markers considered jointly increases in a multipoint test for linkage disequilibrium, while maintaining high power. Properties of this method for detecting associations and fine mapping the location of disease traits are investigated. It is found to be, in general, more powerful than conventional methods, and it provides a tractable framework for the fine mapping of new disease loci. Application to the cystic fibrosis data of Kerem et al. is included to illustrate the method. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure based on mutual information theory and its applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jianfeng; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-12-01

    Evaluating the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is important for association mapping study as well as for studying the genomic architecture of human genome (e.g., haplotype block structures). Commonly used bi-allelic pairwise measures for assessing LD between two loci, such as r(2) and D', may not make full and efficient use of modern multilocus data. Though extended to multilocus scenarios, their performance is still questionable. Meanwhile, most existing measures for an entire multilocus region, such as normalized entropy difference, do not consider existence of LD heterogeneity across the region under investigation. Additionally, these existing multilocus measures cannot handle distant regions where long-range LD patterns may exist. In this study, we proposed a novel multilocus LD measure developed based on mutual information theory. Our proposed measure described LD pattern between two chromosome regions each of which may consist of multiple loci (including multi-allele loci). As such, the proposed measure can better characterize LD patterns between two arbitrary regions. As potential applications, we developed algorithms on the proposed measure for partitioning haplotype blocks and for selecting haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs), which were helpful for follow-up association tests. The results on both simulated and empirical data showed that our LD measure had distinct advantages over pairwise and other multilocus measures. First, our measure was more robust, and can capture comprehensively the LD information between neighboring as well as disjointed regions. Second, haplotype blocks were better described via our proposed measure. Furthermore, association tests with htSNPs from the proposed algorithm had improved power over tests on single markers and on haplotypes.

  9. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Four South African Sanga Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Makina, Sithembile O; Taylor, Jeremy F; van Marle-Köster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Makgahlela, Mahlako L; MacNeil, Michael D; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne) for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), and Bonsmara breeds (n = 46), using Angus (n = 31) and Holstein (n = 29) as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21) and Holstein (0.21) and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20). This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r (2)≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000-50,000 SNPs. However, r (2)≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for GWAS in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne = 95 (Nguni), Ne = 87 (Drakensberger), Ne = 77 (Bonsmara), and Ne = 41 (Afrikaner). Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of zygotic linkage disequilibrium and its components in crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes at linked or independent loci can occur at gametic and zygotic levels known asgametic LD and zygotic LD, respectively. Gametic LD is well known for its roles in fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, genomic selection and evolutionary inference. The less-well studied is the zygotic LD and its components that can be also estimated directly from the unphased SNPs. Results This study was set up to investigate the genome-wide extent and patterns of zygotic LD and its components in a crossbred cattle population using the genomic data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 beadchip. The animal population arose from repeated crossbreeding of multiple breeds and selection for growth and cow reproduction. The study showed that similar genomic structures in gametic and zygotic LD were observed, with zygotic LD decaying faster than gametic LD over marker distance. The trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria were generally two- to three-fold smaller than the usual digenic disequilibria (gametic or composite LD). There was less power of testing for these high-order genic disequilibria than for the digenic disequilibria. The power estimates decreased with the marker distance between markers though the decay trend is more obvious for the digenic disequilibria than for high-order disequilibria. Conclusions This study is the first major genome-wide survey of all non-allelic associations between pairs of SNPs in a cattle population. Such analysis allows us to assess the relative importance of gametic LD vs. all other non-allelic genic LDs regardless of whether or not the population is in HWE. The observed predominance of digenic LD (gametic or composite LD) coupled with insignificant high-order trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria supports the current intensive focus on the use of high-density SNP markers for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection activities in the cattle population. PMID:22827586

  11. The extent of linkage disequilibrium in beef cattle breeds using high-density SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between molecular markers impacts genome-wide association studies and implementation of genomic selection. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms makes it possible to investigate LD at an unprecedented resolution. In this work, we characterised LD decay in breeds of beef cattle of taurine, indicine and composite origins and explored its variation across autosomes and the X chromosome. Findings In each breed, LD decayed rapidly and r2 was less than 0.2 for marker pairs separated by 50 kb. The LD decay curves clustered into three groups of similar LD decay that distinguished the three main cattle types. At short distances between markers (< 10 kb), taurine breeds showed higher LD (r2 = 0.45) than their indicine (r2 = 0.25) and composite (r2 = 0.32) counterparts. This higher LD in taurine breeds was attributed to a smaller effective population size and a stronger bottleneck during breed formation. Using all SNPs on only the X chromosome, the three cattle types could still be distinguished. However for taurine breeds, the LD decay on the X chromosome was much faster and the background level much lower than for indicine breeds and composite populations. When using only SNPs that were polymorphic in all breeds, the analysis of the X chromosome mimicked that of the autosomes. Conclusions The pattern of LD mirrored some aspects of the history of breed populations and showed a sharp decay with increasing physical distance between markers. We conclude that the availability of the HD chip can be used to detect association signals that remained hidden when using lower density genotyping platforms, since LD dropped below 0.2 at distances of 50 kb. PMID:24661366

  12. Dissecting linkage disequilibrium in African-American genomes: roles of markers and individuals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Haifeng; He, Yungang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi; Qian, Ji; Xiong, Momiao; Jin, Li

    2007-09-01

    Substantial increases of linkage disequilibrium (LD) both in magnitude and in range have been observed in recently admixed populations such as African-American (AfA). On the other hand, it has also been shown that LD in AfAs was very similar to that of African. In this study, we attempted to resolve these contradicting observations by conducting a systematic examination of the LD structure in AfAs by genotyping a sample of AfA individuals at 24,341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning almost the entire chromosome 21, with an average density of 1.5 kb/SNP. The overall LD in AfAs is similar to that in African populations and much less than that in European populations. Even when the ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were used, extended LD in AfA was found to be limited to certain magnitude range (0.2 < or = r(2) < or = 0.8) and certain distance range, that is, between-marker distance more than 200 kb. Furthermore, the inclusion of AfA individuals with predominant African ancestry was found to reduce the overall magnitude of LD. Elevation of LD in the AfA population, compared with its parental populations, can only be observed at the markers with large allele frequency differences between 2 parental populations at limited scenario. AfA individuals of wholly African ancestry contribute little to the extended LD in the AfA population, and further genotyping or association analysis conducted using only admixed individuals may lead to higher statistical power and possibly reduced cost.

  13. Using multilocus sequence data to assess population structure, natural selection, and linkage disequilibrium in wild tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Stephan, Wolfgang; Städler, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    We employed a multilocus approach to examine the effects of population subdivision and natural selection on DNA polymorphism in 2 closely related wild tomato species (Solanum peruvianum and Solanum chilense), using sequence data for 8 nuclear loci from populations across much of the species' range. Both species exhibit substantial levels of nucleotide variation. The species-wide level of silent nucleotide diversity is 18% higher in S. peruvianum (pi(sil) approximately 2.50%) than in S. chilense (pi(sil) approximately 2.12%). One of the loci deviates from neutral expectations, showing a clinal pattern of nucleotide diversity and haplotype structure in S. chilense. This geographic pattern of variation is suggestive of an incomplete (ongoing) selective sweep, but neutral explanations cannot be entirely dismissed. Both wild tomato species exhibit moderate levels of population differentiation (average F(ST) approximately 0.20). Interestingly, the pooled samples (across different demes) exhibit more negative Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D values; this marked excess of low-frequency polymorphism can only be explained by population (or range) expansion and is unlikely to be due to population structure per se. We thus propose that population structure and population/range expansion are among the most important evolutionary forces shaping patterns of nucleotide diversity within and among demes in these wild tomatoes. Patterns of population differentiation may also be impacted by soil seed banks and historical associations mediated by climatic cycles. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly with physical distance, suggesting high recombination rates and effective population sizes in both species. The rapid decline of LD seems very promising for future association studies with the purpose of mapping functional variation in wild tomatoes.

  14. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

    PubMed

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Khan, Razib; Grahn, Robert A; Gandolfi, Barbara; Mullikin, James C; Cole, Shelley A; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Häggström, Jens; Lohi, Hannes; Longeri, Maria; Lyons, Leslie A

    2013-01-01

    Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD) are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2)) was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2) was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2) ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2) ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  15. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in 11 expressed resistance candidate genes in Lolium perenne

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yongzhong; Frei, Uschi; Schejbel, Britt; Asp, Torben; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background Association analysis is an alternative way for QTL mapping in ryegrass. So far, knowledge on nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in ryegrass is lacking, which is essential for the efficiency of association analyses. Results 11 expressed disease resistance candidate (R) genes including 6 nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) like genes and 5 non-NBS-LRR genes were analyzed for nucleotide diversity. For each of the genes about 1 kb genomic fragments were isolated from 20 heterozygous genotypes in ryegrass. The number of haplotypes per gene ranged from 9 to 27. On average, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was present per 33 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the 11 genes. NBS-LRR like gene fragments showed a high degree of nucleotide diversity, with one SNP every 22 bp between two randomly sampled sequences. NBS-LRR like gene fragments showed very high non-synonymous mutation rates, leading to altered amino acid sequences. Particularly LRR regions showed very high diversity with on average one SNP every 10 bp between two sequences. In contrast, non-NBS LRR resistance candidate genes showed a lower degree of nucleotide diversity, with one SNP every 112 bp. 78% of haplotypes occurred at low frequency (<5%) within the collection of 20 genotypes. Low intragenic LD was detected for most R genes, and rapid LD decay within 500 bp was detected. Conclusion Substantial LD decay was found within a distance of 500 bp for most resistance candidate genes in this study. Hence, LD based association analysis is feasible and promising for QTL fine mapping of resistance traits in ryegrass. PMID:17683574

  16. The heterogeneous levels of linkage disequilibrium in white spruce genes and comparative analysis with other conifers

    PubMed Central

    Pavy, N; Namroud, M-C; Gagnon, F; Isabel, N; Bousquet, J

    2012-01-01

    In plants, knowledge about linkage disequilibrium (LD) is relevant for the design of efficient single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in relation to their use in population and association genomics studies. Previous studies of conifer genes have shown LD to decay rapidly within gene limits, but exceptions have been reported. To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity of LD among conifer genes and its potential causes, we examined LD in 105 genes of white spruce (Picea glauca) by sequencing a panel of 48 haploid megagametophytes from natural populations and further compared it with LD in other conifer species. The average pairwise r2 value was 0.19 (s.d.=0.19), and LD dropped quickly with a half-decay being reached at a distance of 65 nucleotides between sites. However, LD was significantly heterogeneous among genes. A first group of 29 genes had stronger LD (mean r2=0.28), and a second group of 38 genes had weaker LD (mean r2=0.12). While a strong relationship was found with the recombination rate, there was no obvious relationship between LD and functional classification. The level of nucleotide diversity, which was highly heterogeneous across genes, was also not significantly correlated with LD. A search for selection signatures highlighted significant deviations from the standard neutral model, which could be mostly attributed to recent demographic changes. Little evidence was seen for hitchhiking and clear relationships with LD. When compared among conifer species, on average, levels of LD were similar in genes from white spruce, Norway spruce and Scots pine, whereas loblolly pine and Douglas fir genes exhibited a significantly higher LD. PMID:21897435

  17. The heterogeneous levels of linkage disequilibrium in white spruce genes and comparative analysis with other conifers.

    PubMed

    Pavy, N; Namroud, M-C; Gagnon, F; Isabel, N; Bousquet, J

    2012-03-01

    In plants, knowledge about linkage disequilibrium (LD) is relevant for the design of efficient single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in relation to their use in population and association genomics studies. Previous studies of conifer genes have shown LD to decay rapidly within gene limits, but exceptions have been reported. To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity of LD among conifer genes and its potential causes, we examined LD in 105 genes of white spruce (Picea glauca) by sequencing a panel of 48 haploid megagametophytes from natural populations and further compared it with LD in other conifer species. The average pairwise r(2) value was 0.19 (s.d.=0.19), and LD dropped quickly with a half-decay being reached at a distance of 65 nucleotides between sites. However, LD was significantly heterogeneous among genes. A first group of 29 genes had stronger LD (mean r(2)=0.28), and a second group of 38 genes had weaker LD (mean r(2)=0.12). While a strong relationship was found with the recombination rate, there was no obvious relationship between LD and functional classification. The level of nucleotide diversity, which was highly heterogeneous across genes, was also not significantly correlated with LD. A search for selection signatures highlighted significant deviations from the standard neutral model, which could be mostly attributed to recent demographic changes. Little evidence was seen for hitchhiking and clear relationships with LD. When compared among conifer species, on average, levels of LD were similar in genes from white spruce, Norway spruce and Scots pine, whereas loblolly pine and Douglas fir genes exhibited a significantly higher LD.

  18. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM). Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The

  19. Anonymous marker loci within 400 kb of HLA-A generate haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with the hemochromatosis gene (HFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Yaouanq, J.; Perichon, M.; Treut, A.L.; Kahloun, A.E.; Mauvieux, V.; Blayau, M.; Jouanolle, A.M.; Chauvel, B.; Le Gall, J.Y.; David, V. )

    1994-02-01

    The hemochromatosis gene (HFE) maps to 6p21.3 and is less than 1 cM from the HLA class I gene; however, the precise physical location of the gene has remained elusive and controversial. The unambiguous identification of a crossover event within hemochromatosis families is very difficult; it is particularly hampered by the variability of the phenotypic expression as well as by the sex- and age-related penetrance of the disease. For these considerations, traditional linkage analysis could prove of limited value in further refining the extrapolated physical position of HFE. The authors therefore embarked upon a linkage-disequilibrium analysis of HFE and normal chromosomes for the Brittany population. In this report, 66 hemochromatosis families yielding 151 hemochromatosis chromosomes and 182 normal chromosomes were RFLP-typed with a battery of probes, including two newly derived polymorphic markers from the 6.7 and HLA-F loci located 150 and 250 kb telomeric to HLA-A, respectively. The results suggest a strong peak of existing linkage disequilibrium focused within the i82-to-6.7 interval (approximately 250 kb). The zone of linkage disequilibrium is flanked by the i97 locus, positioned 30 kb proximal to i82, and the HLA-F gene, found 250 kb distal to HLA-A, markers of which display no significant association with HFE. These data support the possibility that HFE resides within the 400-kb expanse of DNA between i97 and HLA-F. Alternatively, the very tight association of HLA-A3 and allele 1 of the 6.7 locus, both of which are comprised by the major ancestral or founder HFE haplotype in Brittany, supports the possibility that the disease gene may reside immediately telomeric to the 6.7 locus within the linkage-disequilibrium zone. Additionally, hemochromatosis haplotypes possessing HLA-A11 and the low-frequency HLA-F polymorphism (allele 2) are supportive of a separate founder chromosome containing a second, independently arising mutant allele. 69 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Almeida, Aldo; Davenport, Brittany; Davidson, Joshua; Reddy, C V Chandra Mohan; Hankins, Gerald; Ebert, Andreas; Choi, Doil; Stommel, John; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST ) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9-2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers.

  1. Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L.; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Almeida, Aldo; Davenport, Brittany; Davidson, Joshua; Reddy, C. V. Chandra Mohan; Hankins, Gerald; Ebert, Andreas; Choi, Doil; Stommel, John; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9–2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers. PMID:27857720

  2. Microsatellites haplotyping of CF chromosomes shows linkage disequilibrium and several founder effects in Brittany (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Raguenes, O.; Ferec, C.; Mercier, B.

    1994-09-01

    A large study on cystic fibrosis (CF) is underway in Brittany (France). It is based on 902 CF patients distributed in 795 families who were or are still followed at the {open_quotes}Centre Helio-Marin{close_quotes} in Roscoff and/or were subjected to a molecular analysis at the {open_quotes}Centre de Biogenetique{close_quotes} in Brest. At present, the CF mutations have been identified in 309 patients born in Brittany, most of them of Celtic origin. A microsatellite (MS) study using IVS 17b TA, IVS 17b CA and IVS 8 CA was also completed in 63 CF patients and their parents (carriers of the {Delta}F508 mutation or the G551D mutation or the 1078delT mutation or the W846X mutation). All the 21 chromosomes carrying the 1078delT mutation had the same MS haplotype (16-21-13), which was also found on 9 of the 83 non-CF chromosomes analyzed. All the 16 chromosomes with the G551D mutation carried another MS haplotype (16-7-17), which was also found on 13.3% of the non-CF chromosomes. All the 6 chromosomes with the W846X mutation carried the 16-32-13 haplotype, also found on 6.0% of the non-CF chromosomes. Sixteen different MS haplotypes were found among the 74 chromosomes carrying the{Delta}F508 mutation, three of them representing 74.3% (55/74) of the chromosomes. These were the 23-31-13 haplotype (31/74 - 41.9%), the 17-31-13 haplotype (11/74 - 14.9%), and the 17-32-13 haplotype (13/74 - 17.6%). These results show that the CF mutations observed in Brittany are in linkage disequilibrium with the MS haplotypes. They also suggest that their presence in Brittany is the consequence of several founder effects.

  3. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    PubMed Central

    Fusari, Corina M; Lia, Verónica V; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A; Paniego, Norma B

    2008-01-01

    Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD) and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and short insertion and/or deletions (indels) to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056), as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88). Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2), with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1). Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data) than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance). Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop improvement

  4. FastTagger: an efficient algorithm for genome-wide tag SNP selection using multi-marker linkage disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human genome contains millions of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and these SNPs play an important role in understanding the association between genetic variations and human diseases. Many SNPs show correlated genotypes, or linkage disequilibrium (LD), thus it is not necessary to genotype all SNPs for association study. Many algorithms have been developed to find a small subset of SNPs called tag SNPs that are sufficient to infer all the other SNPs. Algorithms based on the r2 LD statistic have gained popularity because r2 is directly related to statistical power to detect disease associations. Most of existing r2 based algorithms use pairwise LD. Recent studies show that multi-marker LD can help further reduce the number of tag SNPs. However, existing tag SNP selection algorithms based on multi-marker LD are both time-consuming and memory-consuming. They cannot work on chromosomes containing more than 100 k SNPs using length-3 tagging rules. Results We propose an efficient algorithm called FastTagger to calculate multi-marker tagging rules and select tag SNPs based on multi-marker LD. FastTagger uses several techniques to reduce running time and memory consumption. Our experiment results show that FastTagger is several times faster than existing multi-marker based tag SNP selection algorithms, and it consumes much less memory at the same time. As a result, FastTagger can work on chromosomes containing more than 100 k SNPs using length-3 tagging rules. FastTagger also produces smaller sets of tag SNPs than existing multi-marker based algorithms, and the reduction ratio ranges from 3%-9% when length-3 tagging rules are used. The generated tagging rules can also be used for genotype imputation. We studied the prediction accuracy of individual rules, and the average accuracy is above 96% when r2 ≥ 0.9. Conclusions Generating multi-marker tagging rules is a computation intensive task, and it is the bottleneck of existing multi-marker based tag

  5. Conservative Extensions of Linkage Disequilibrium Measures from Pairwise to Multi-loci and Algorithms for Optimal Tagging SNP Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpine, Ryan; Lam, Fumei; Istrail, Sorin

    We present results on two classes of problems. The first result addresses the long standing open problem of finding unifying principles for Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) measures in population genetics (Lewontin 1964 [10], Hedrick 1987 [8], Devlin and Risch 1995 [5]). Two desirable properties have been proposed in the extensive literature on this topic and the mutual consistency between these properties has remained at the heart of statistical and algorithmic difficulties with haplotype and genome-wide association study analysis. The first axiom is (1) The ability to extend LD measures to multiple loci as a conservative extension of pairwise LD. All widely used LD measures are pairwise measures. Despite significant attempts, it is not clear how to naturally extend these measures to multiple loci, leading to a "curse of the pairwise". The second axiom is (2) The Interpretability of Intermediate Values. In this paper, we resolve this mutual consistency problem by introducing a new LD measure, directed informativeness overrightarrow{I} (the directed graph theoretic counterpart of the informativeness measure introduced by Halldorsson et al. [6]) and show that it satisfies both of the above axioms. We also show the maximum informative subset of tagging SNPs based on overrightarrow{I} can be computed exactly in polynomial time for realistic genome-wide data. Furthermore, we present polynomial time algorithms for optimal genome-wide tagging SNPs selection for a number of commonly used LD measures, under the bounded neighborhood assumption for linked pairs of SNPs. One problem in the area is the search for a quality measure for tagging SNPs selection that unifies the LD-based methods such as LD-select (implemented in Tagger, de Bakker et al. 2005 [4], Carlson et al. 2004 [3]) and the information-theoretic ones such as informativeness. We show that the objective function of the LD-select algorithm is the Minimal Dominating Set (MDS) on r 2-SNP graphs and show that we can

  6. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and interspecific gene flow in Ficedula flycatchers by a newly developed 50k single-nucleotide polymorphism array

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Backström, Niclas; Burri, Reto; Husby, Arild; Olason, Pall; Rice, Amber M; Ålund, Murielle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2014-01-01

    With the access to draft genome sequence assemblies and whole-genome resequencing data from population samples, molecular ecology studies will be able to take truly genome-wide approaches. This now applies to an avian model system in ecological and evolutionary research: Old World flycatchers of the genus Ficedula, for which we recently obtained a 1.1 Gb collared flycatcher genome assembly and identified 13 million single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s in population resequencing of this species and its sister species, pied flycatcher. Here, we developed a custom 50K Illumina iSelect flycatcher SNP array with markers covering 30 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Using a number of selection criteria for inclusion in the array, both genotyping success rate and polymorphism information content (mean marker heterozygosity = 0.41) were high. We used the array to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and hybridization in flycatchers. Linkage disequilibrium declined quickly to the background level at an average distance of 17 kb, but the extent of LD varied markedly within the genome and was more than 10-fold higher in ‘genomic islands’ of differentiation than in the rest of the genome. Genetic ancestry analysis identified 33 F1 hybrids but no later-generation hybrids from sympatric populations of collared flycatchers and pied flycatchers, contradicting earlier reports of backcrosses identified from much fewer number of markers. With an estimated divergence time as recently as <1 Ma, this suggests strong selection against F1 hybrids and unusually rapid evolution of reproductive incompatibility in an avian system. PMID:24784959

  7. Linkage analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers in familial psoriasis: strong disequilibrium effects provide evidence for a major determinant in the HLA-B/-C region.

    PubMed Central

    Jenisch, S; Henseler, T; Nair, R P; Guo, S W; Westphal, E; Stuart, P; Krönke, M; Voorhees, J J; Christophers, E; Elder, J T

    1998-01-01

    Although psoriasis is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), evidence for linkage to HLA markers has been limited. The objectives of this study were (1) to provide more definitive evidence for linkage of psoriasis to HLA markers in multiplex families; (2) to compare the major HLA risk alleles in these families with those determined by previous case-control studies; and (3) to localize the gene more precisely. By applying the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and parametric linkage analysis, we found evidence for linkage of psoriasis to HLA-C, -B, -DR, and -DQ, with HLA-B and -C yielding the most-significant results. Linkage was detectable by parametric methods only when marker-trait disequilibrium was considered. Case-control association tests and the TDT identified alleles belonging to the EH57.1 ancestral haplotype as the major risk alleles in our sample. Among individuals carrying recombinant ancestral haplotypes involving EH57. 1, the class I markers were retained selectively among affecteds four times more often than among unaffecteds; among the few affected individuals carrying only the class II alleles from the ancestral haplotype, all but one also carried Cw6. These data show that familial and "sporadic" psoriasis share the same risk alleles. They also illustrate that substantial parametric linkage information can be extracted by accounting for linkage disequilibrium. Finally, they strongly suggest that a major susceptibility gene resides near HLA-C. PMID:9634500

  8. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of the Chromosome 6q21–22.31 Bipolar I Disorder Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jinbo; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; McQueen, Matthew B.; Devlin, Bernie; Purcell, Shaun; Faraone, Stephen V.; Allen, Michael H.; Bowden, Charles L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Fossey, Mark D.; Friedman, Edward S.; Gyulai, Laszlo; Hauser, Peter; Ketter, Terence B.; Marangell, Lauren B.; Miklowitz, David J.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Patel, Jayendra K.; Sachs, Gary S.; Thase, Michael E.; Molay, Francine B.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Sklar, Pamela; Laird, Nan M.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported genome-wide significant evidence for linkage between chromosome 6q and bipolar I disorder (BPI) by performing a meta-analysis of original genotype data from 11 genome scan linkage studies. We now present follow-up linkage disequilibrium mapping of the linked region utilizing 3,047 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in a case–control sample (N = 530 cases, 534 controls) and family-based sample (N = 256 nuclear families, 1,301 individuals). The strongest single SNP result (rs6938431, P=6.72× 10−5) was observed in the case–control sample, near the solute carrier family 22, member 16 gene (SLC22A16). In a replication study, we genotyped 151 SNPs in an independent sample (N = 622 cases, 1,181 controls) and observed further evidence of association between variants at SLC22A16 and BPI. Although consistent evidence of association with any single variant was not seen across samples, SNP-wise and gene-based test results in the three samples provided convergent evidence for association with SLC22A16, a carnitine transporter, implicating this gene as a novel candidate for BPI risk. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to clarify which, if any, genes in the 6q region confer risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:19308960

  9. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  10. Systematic linkage disequilibrium analysis of SLC12A8 at PSORS5 confirms a role in susceptibility to psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hüffmeier, Ulrike; Lascorz, Jesús; Traupe, Heiko; Böhm, Beate; Schürmeier-Horst, Funda; Ständer, Markward; Kelsch, Reinhard; Baumann, Claudia; Küster, Wolfgang; Burkhardt, Harald; Reis, André

    2005-11-01

    The gene for solute carrier family 12 member A8 has recently been proposed as a candidate gene for psoriasis susceptibility (PSORS5) on chromosome 3q based on association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Swedish patients. To investigate whether this locus is relevant for German psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) patients, we analyzed a group of 210 trios and a case-control group including 375 patients. Based on our investigation of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure of SLC12A8, we assayed 35 haplotype tag SNP and grouped them into nine LD-blocks. In the case-control study, we detected an association for six SNP and three LD-based haplotypes. Association was strongest for ss35527511 (chi2 = 11.224, p = 0.0008) and haplotype E-2 (chi2 = 11.788, p = 0.00059) and independent of the presence of an HLA-associated PSORS1 risk allele. Through extended haplotype analysis, we could show that two independent association signals exist in SLC12A8, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. None of the SNP showed association in trios, apart from a weak association of rs2228674 (transmission disequilibrium test statistics p = 0.048), probably due to insufficient power. We conclude that SLC12A8 is a susceptibility locus for PsV. In order to establish the exact nature of this association, efforts to identify the disease-causing variants are ongoing.

  11. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype studies of chromosome 8p 11. 1-21. 1 markers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Schellenberg, G.D.; Oshima, Junko; Martin, G.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M. ); Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio ); Poot, M.; Hoehn, H. )

    1994-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.2-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here the authors present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. They present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering [approximately] 16.5 cM in total. They show that three of the markers examined - D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus - show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, they show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Studies of Chromosome 8p 11.1-21.1 Markers and Werner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang-En; Oshima, Junko; Goddard, Katrina A. B.; Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio; Poot, Martin; Hoehn, Holger; Fraccaro, Marco; Piussan, Charles; Martin, George M.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Wijsman, Ellen M.

    1994-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.1-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here we present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. We present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering ∼16.5 cM in total. We show that three of the markers examined—D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus—show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, we show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. PMID:8037212

  13. Detecting introgressive hybridization between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) by admixture linkage disequilibrium analysis.

    PubMed

    Verardi, A; Lucchini, V; Randi, E

    2006-09-01

    Occasional crossbreeding between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) has been detected in some European countries by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and genotyping unlinked microsatellite loci. Maternal and unlinked genomic markers, however, might underestimate the extent of introgressive hybridization, and their impacts on the preservation of wild wolf gene pools. In this study, we genotyped 220 presumed Italian wolves, 85 dogs and 7 known hybrids at 16 microsatellites belonging to four different linkage groups (plus four unlinked microsatellites). Population clustering and individual assignments were performed using a Bayesian procedure implemented in structure 2.1, which models the gametic disequilibrium arising between linked loci during admixtures, aiming to trace hybridization events further back in time and infer the population of origin of chromosomal blocks. Results indicate that (i) linkage disequilibrium was higher in wolves than in dogs; (ii) 11 out of 220 wolves (5.0%) were likely admixed, a proportion that is significantly higher than one admixed genotype in 107 wolves found previously in a study using unlinked markers; (iii) posterior maximum-likelihood estimates of the recombination parameter r revealed that introgression in Italian wolves is not recent, but could have continued for the last 70 (+/- 20) generations, corresponding to approximately 140-210 years. Bayesian clustering showed that, despite some admixture, wolf and dog gene pools remain sharply distinct (the average proportions of membership to wolf and dog clusters were Q(w) = 0.95 and Q(d) = 0.98, respectively), suggesting that hybridization was not frequent, and that introgression in nature is counteracted by behavioural or selective constraints.

  14. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, E A; Erlich, H A; Rickards, O; DeStefano, G F; Klitz, W

    1995-01-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative evenness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. PMID:7668268

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms generated by genotyping by sequencing to characterize genome-wide diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and selective sweeps in cultivated watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large datasets containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to analyze genome-wide diversity in a robust collection of cultivars from representative accessions, across the world. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a population determines the number of markers required fo...

  16. Coordinated Action of Biological Processes during Embryogenesis Can Cause Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium in the Human Genome and Influence Age-Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Culminskaya, Irina; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Yashin, Anatoli I.

    2017-01-01

    A role of non-Mendelian inheritance in genetics of complex, age-related traits is becoming increasingly recognized. Recently, we reported on two inheritable clusters of SNPs in extensive genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), which were associated with the phenotype of premature death. Here we address biologically-related properties of these two clusters. These clusters have been unlikely selected randomly because they are functionally and structurally different from matched sets of randomly selected SNPs. For example, SNPs in LD from each cluster are highly significantly enriched in genes (p=7.1×10−22 and p=5.8×10−18), in general, and in short genes (p=1.4×10−47 and p=4.6×10−7), in particular. Mapping of SNPs in LD to genes resulted in two, partly overlapping, networks of 1764 and 4806 genes. Both these networks were gene enriched in developmental processes and in biological processes tightly linked with development including biological adhesion, cellular component organization, locomotion, localization, signaling, (p<10−4, q<10−4 for each category). Thorough analysis suggests connections of these genetic networks with different stages of embryogenesis and highlights biological interlink of specific processes enriched for genes from these networks. The results suggest that coordinated action of biological processes during embryogenesis may generate genome-wide networks of genetic variants, which may influence complex age-related phenotypes characterizing health span and lifespan. PMID:28357417

  17. Assortative mating drives linkage disequilibrium between sperm and egg recognition protein loci in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Stapper, Andres Plata; Beerli, Peter; Levitan, Don R

    2015-04-01

    Sperm and eggs have interacting proteins on their surfaces that influence their compatibility during fertilization. These proteins are often polymorphic within species, producing variation in gamete affinities. We first demonstrate the fitness consequences of various sperm bindin protein (Bindin) variants in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and assortative mating between males and females based on their sperm Bindin genotype. This empirical finding of assortative mating based on sperm Bindin genotype could arise by linkage disequilibrium (LD) between interacting sperm and egg recognition loci. We then examine sequence variation in eight exons of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm Bindin (EBR1). We find little evidence of LD among the eight exons of EBR1, yet strong evidence for LD between sperm Bindin and EBR1 overall, and varying degrees of LD between sperm Bindin among the eight exons. We reject the alternate hypotheses of LD driven by shared evolutionary histories, population structure, or close physical linkage between these interacting loci on the genome. The most parsimonious explanation for this pattern of LD is that it represents selection driven by assortative mating based on interactions among these sperm and egg loci. These findings indicate the importance of ongoing sexual selection in the maintenance of protein polymorphisms and LD, and more generally highlight how LD can be used as an indication of current mate choice, as opposed to historic selection.

  18. Estimating contemporary effective population size in non-model species using linkage disequilibrium across thousands of loci.

    PubMed

    Waples, R K; Larson, W A; Waples, R S

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary effective population size (Ne) can be estimated using linkage disequilibrium (LD) observed across pairs of loci presumed to be selectively neutral and unlinked. This method has been commonly applied to data sets containing 10-100 loci to inform conservation and study population demography. Performance of these Ne estimates could be improved by incorporating data from thousands of loci. However, these thousands of loci exist on a limited number of chromosomes, ensuring that some fraction will be physically linked. Linked loci have elevated LD due to limited recombination, which if not accounted for can cause Ne estimates to be downwardly biased. Here, we present results from coalescent and forward simulations designed to evaluate the bias of LD-based Ne estimates ([Ncirc ]e). Contrary to common perceptions, increasing the number of loci does not increase the magnitude of linkage. Although we show it is possible to identify some pairs of loci that produce unusually large r(2) values, simply removing large r(2) values is not a reliable way to eliminate bias. Fortunately, the magnitude of bias in [Ncirc ]e is strongly and negatively correlated with the process of recombination, including the number of chromosomes and their length, and this relationship provides a general way to adjust for bias. Additionally, we show that with thousands of loci, precision of [Ncirc ]e is much lower than expected based on the assumption that each pair of loci provides completely independent information.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium between the M470V variant and the IVS8 polyT alleles of the CFTR gene in CBAVD.

    PubMed Central

    de Meeus, A; Guittard, C; Desgeorges, M; Carles, S; Demaille, J; Claustres, M

    1998-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is a cause of male sterility mostly resulting from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. The most common defect is the 5T variant at the branch/acceptor site of intron 8, which induces high levels of exon 9 skipping leading to non-functional protein. However, this 5T variant has incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, suggesting that some other regulatory factors may modulate the splicing of exon 9. To identify such factors, we report here the genetic analysis of a polymorphic locus, M470V, located in exon 10 of the CFTR gene in 60 patients with CBAVD, compared to a normal control population. The statistical analysis showed strong linkage disequilibrium between the 5T allele and the V allele of the M470V polymorphism in the CBAVD population, but not in the normal population. The V allele in a gene carrying 5T could, however, contribute to lowering the level of normal transcripts, as already suggested by in vitro transcriptional studies. These genetic findings, together with previous studies, suggest involvement of the M470V variant in the modulation of the splicing of exon 9 of the CFTR gene. PMID:9678705

  20. Toward localization of the Werner syndrome gene by linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotyping: Lessons learned from analysis of 35 chromosome 8p11.1-21.1 markers

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M.; Martin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature onset of a number of age-related diseases. The gene for WS, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region with further localization through linkage disequilibrium mapping. Here we present the results of linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotype analyses of 35 markers to further refine the location of WRN. We identified an interval in this region in which 14 of 18 markers tested show significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in at least one of the two populations tested. Analysis of extended and partial haplotypes covering 21 of the markers studied supports the existence of both obligate and probable ancestral recombinant events which localize WRN almost certainly to the interval between DSS2196 and D8S2186, and most likely to the narrower interval between D8S2168 and D8S2186. These haplotype analyses also suggest that there are multiple WRN mutations in each of the two populations under study. We also present a comparison of approaches to performing disequilibrium tests with multiallelic markers, and show that some commonly used approximations for such tests perform poorly in comparison to exact probability tests. Finally, we discuss some of the difficulties introduced by the high mutation rate at microsatellite markers which influence our ability to use ancestral haplotype analysis to localize disease genes. 51 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium in chromosome 13-linked Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Othmane, K.B.; Speer, M.C.; Stauffer, J.

    1995-09-01

    Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (DLMD) is an autosomal recessive Limb Girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) characterized by late age of onset, proximal muscle weakness leading to disability, high creatine kinase values, normal intelligence and normal dystrophin in muscle biopsy. We have shown previously that three DLMD families from Tunisia are linked to chromosome 13q12. To further localize the LGMD2C gene, we have investigated seven additional families (119 individuals). Both genotyping and two-point linkage analysis were performed as described elsewhere. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  3. Accuracy of genomic prediction in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) improved by accounting for linkage disequilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass and ...

  4. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of molecular genetic technologies for broodstock management and selective breeding of aquaculture species is becoming increasingly more common with the continued development of genome tools and reagents. Several laboratories have produced genetic maps for rainbow trout to aid in the identif...

  5. Complete genetic linkage can subvert natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Gerrish, Philip J.; Colato, Alexandre; Perelson, Alan S.; Sniegowski, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The intricate adjustment of organisms to their environment demonstrates the effectiveness of natural selection. But Darwin himself recognized that certain biological features could limit this effectiveness, features that generally reduce the efficiency of natural selection or yield suboptimal adaptation. Genetic linkage is known to be one such feature, and here we show theoretically that it can introduce a more sinister flaw: when there is complete linkage between loci affecting fitness and loci affecting mutation rate, positive natural selection and recurrent mutation can drive mutation rates in an adapting population to intolerable levels. We discuss potential implications of this finding for the early establishment of recombination, the evolutionary fate of asexual populations, and immunological clearance of clonal pathogens. PMID:17405865

  6. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca e; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis. PMID:27007903

  7. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits.

    PubMed

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca E; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.

  8. Sequence diversity, natural selection and linkage disequilibrium in the human T cell receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Livingston, Robert J; Eberle, Michael A; Carlson, Christopher S; Yi, Qian; Akey, Joshua M; Nickerson, Deborah A

    2006-04-01

    T cell receptors (TR), through their interaction with the major histocompatibility complex, play a central role in immune responsiveness and potentially immune-related disorders. We resequenced all 57 variable (V) genes in the human T cell receptor alpha and delta (TRA/TRD) locus in 40 individuals of Northern European, Mexican, African-American and Chinese descent. Two hundred and eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The distribution of SNPs between V genes was heterogeneous, with an average of five SNPs per gene and a range of zero to 15. We describe the patterns of linkage disequilibrium for these newly discovered SNPs and compare these patterns with other emerging large-scale datasets (e.g. Perlegen and HapMap projects) to place our findings into a framework for future analysis of genotype-phenotype associations across this locus. Furthermore, we explore signatures of natural selection across V genes. We find evidence of strong directional selection at this locus as evidenced by unusually high values of Fst.

  9. A genome-wide set of SNPs detects population substructure and long range linkage disequilibrium in wild sheep.

    PubMed

    Miller, J M; Poissant, J; Kijas, J W; Coltman, D W

    2011-03-01

    The development of genomic resources for wild species is still in its infancy. However, cross-species utilization of technologies developed for their domestic counterparts has the potential to unlock the genomes of organisms that currently lack genomic resources. Here, we apply the OvineSNP50 BeadChip, developed for domestic sheep, to two related wild ungulate species: the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and the thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli). Over 95% of the domestic sheep markers were successfully genotyped in a sample of fifty-two bighorn sheep while over 90% were genotyped in two thinhorn sheep. Pooling the results from both species identified 868 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 570 were detected in bighorn sheep, while 330 SNPs were identified in thinhorn sheep. The total panel of SNPs was able to discriminate between the two species, assign population of origin for bighorn sheep and detect known relationship classes within one population of bighorn sheep. Using an informative subset of these SNPs (n=308), we examined the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) within one population of bighorn sheep and found that high levels of LD persist over 4 Mb.

  10. Refined mapping of a gene responsible for Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy: Evidence for strong linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Toda, Tatsushi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Okui, Keiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Kondo, Eri; Saito, Kayoko; Fukuyama, Yukio; Yoshioka, Mieko; Kumagai, Toshiyuki

    1994-11-01

    Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy in Japan, is an autosomal recessive severe muscular dystrophy associated with an anomaly of the brain. After our initial mapping of the FCMD locus to chromosome 9q31-33, we further defined the locus within a region of {approximately}5 cM between loci D9S127 and CA246, by homozygosity mapping in patients born to consanguineous marriages and by recombination analyses in other families. We also found evidence for strong linkage disequilibrium between FCMD and a polymorphic microsatellite marker, mfd220, which showed no recombination and a lod score of (Z) 17.49. A {open_quotes}111-bp{close_quotes} allele for the mfd220 was observed in 22 (34%) of 64 FCMD chromosomes, but it was present in only 1 of 120 normal chromosomes. This allelic association with FCMD was highly significant ({chi}{sup 2} = 50.7; P < .0001). Hence, we suspect that the FCMD gene could lie within a few hundred kilobases of the mfd220 locus. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Extensive Linkage Disequilibrium in the Achaete-Scute Complex of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. N.; Weir, B. S.; Leigh-Brown, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the level of gametic association between restriction map variants in a sample of 44 X chromosomes from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. Of 21 pairwise tests involving 7 restriction map polymorphisms in the yellow-achaete-scute complex, 17 were found to be significant, including some between restriction sites over 80 kb apart. Three-way linkage disequilibria and their variances were also estimated for all 35 three-way comparisons between these loci. Twelve such tests were found to be significant, again spanning distances of up to 80 kb on the restriction map. Only 9 of a possible 128 haplotypes were represented in the sample and 8 of these could be linked together by changes at a single site. The strength of these associations at y-ac-sc is unusual by comparison with studies on other regions of the genome of D. melanogaster, and is consistent with the very low level of recombination which has been reported for the complex. However, our estimate of nucleotide diversity in the region is not significantly different from those made for some other loci in this species. PMID:2121592

  12. Beta s gene in Central Iran is in linkage disequilibrium with the Indian-Arab haplotype.

    PubMed

    Rahgozar, S; Poorfathollah, A A; Moafi, A R; Old, J M

    2000-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is not considered to be a significant disease in Iran, although the sickle cell trait is estimated to have a high incidence in the Southern provinces. Since 1977, when the presence of a mild sickle cell anemia was reported in this country, there have been no further investigations published giving precise data on the incidence and origins of the sickle cell mutation in Iran. We report here the finding of patients with the sickle cell trait, sickle cell anemia, and sickle-beta thalassemia in Central Iran. A survey of 300 individuals from a village in Southeast Esfahan revealed an incidence of the sickle cell trait of 8.33%. "Cascade screening" enabled 96 relatives in four surrounding villages to be tested, and the at-risk couples were offered counseling as a "sickle cell control program." The hematological indices and HbF levels of the affected patients were determined. The HbF levels were unusually high, ranging from 18% to 41.4%, and SS patients with the highest levels were asymptomatic. Linkage analysis revealed the betaS gene haplotype in this population to be the Indian-Arab haplotype.

  13. Deep Haplotype Divergence and Long-Range Linkage Disequilibrium at Xp21.1 Provide Evidence That Humans Descend From a Structured Ancestral Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrigan, Daniel; Mobasher, Zahra; Kingan, Sarah B.; Wilder, Jason A.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil evidence links human ancestry with populations that evolved from modern gracile morphology in Africa 130,000–160,000 years ago. Yet fossils alone do not provide clear answers to the question of whether the ancestors of all modern Homo sapiens comprised a single African population or an amalgamation of distinct archaic populations. DNA sequence data have consistently supported a single-origin model in which anatomically modern Africans expanded and completely replaced all other archaic hominin populations. Aided by a novel experimental design, we present the first genetic evidence that statistically rejects the null hypothesis that our species descends from a single, historically panmictic population. In a global sample of 42 X chromosomes, two African individuals carry a lineage of noncoding 17.5-kb sequence that has survived for >1 million years without any clear traces of ongoing recombination with other lineages at this locus. These patterns of deep haplotype divergence and long-range linkage disequilibrium are best explained by a prolonged period of ancestral population subdivision followed by relatively recent interbreeding. This inference supports human evolution models that incorporate admixture between divergent African branches of the genus Homo. PMID:15937130

  14. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping in Domestic Dog Breeds Narrows the Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration (prcd) Interval and Identifies Ancestral Disease Transmitting Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J.; Kijas, James W.; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the ∼6.4 Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5 Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed which reduced the LD interval to 106 Kb, and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds, and demonstrate the power of LD approach in the canine model. PMID:16859891

  15. Linkage disequilibrium mapping in domestic dog breeds narrows the progressive rod-cone degeneration interval and identifies ancestral disease-transmitting chromosome.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J; Kijas, James W; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2006-11-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the approximately 6.4-Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5-Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed, which reduced the LD interval to 106 kb and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds and demonstrate the power of the LD approach in the canine model.

  16. Linkage Disequilibrium Among Two Lolium Perenne CBF Genes and Association With Freezing Susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne) is one of the most abundantly utilized forage and turfgrass species; however, its lack of tolerance to freezing temperatures relative to other forage/turf grasses limits its use. A pseudo-testcross genetic mapping population was previously developed for perennial ...

  17. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-12-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question.

  18. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-01-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson–Kreitman–Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question. PMID:23881172

  19. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  20. A Microsatellite Genetic Linkage Map for Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R. B.; Rains, J. D.; Russell, J. E.; Guerra, T. M.; Daniels, C.; Johnston, Dennis A.; Kumar, Jay; Wheeler, A.; Kelnar, K.; Khanolkar, V. A.; Williams, E. L.; Hornecker, J. L.; Hollek, L.; Mamerow, M. M.; Pedroza, A.; Kazianis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecies hybrids between distinct species of the genus Xiphophorus are often used in varied research investigations to identify genomic regions associated with the inheritance of complex traits. There are 24 described Xiphophorus species and a greater number of pedigreed strains; thus, the number of potential interspecies hybrid cross combinations is quite large. Previously, select Xiphophorus experimental crosses have been shown to exhibit differing characteristics between parental species and among the hybrid fishes derived from crossing them, such as widely differing susceptibilities to chemical or physical agents. For instance, genomic regions harboring tumor suppressor and oncogenes have been identified via linkage association of these loci with a small set of established genetic markers. The power of this experimental strategy is related to the number of genetic markers available in the Xiphophorus interspecies cross of interest. Thus, we have undertaken the task of expanding the suite of easily scored markers by characterization of Xiphophorus microsatellite sequences. Using a cross between Xiphophorus maculatus and X. andersi, we report a linkage map predominantly composed of microsatellite markers. All 24 acrocentric chromosome sets of Xiphophorus are represented in the assembled linkage map with an average intergenomic distance of 7.5 cM. Since both male and female F1 hybrids were used to produce backcross progeny, these recombination rates were compared between “male” and “female” maps. Although several genomic regions exhibit differences in map length, male- and female-derived maps are similar. Thus Xiphophorus, in contrast to zebrafish, Danio rerio, and several other vertebrate species, does not show sex-specific differences in recombination. The microsatellite markers we report can be easily adapted to any Xiphophorus interspecies and some intraspecies crosses, and thus provide a means to directly compare results derived from independent

  1. Extensive intragenic recombination and patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CSN3 locus in European rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Miguel; Ferrand, Nuno

    2007-01-01

    Kappa-casein (CSN3) plays an important role in stabilising the Ca-sensitive caseins in the micelle. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) CSN3 has previously been shown to possess two alleles (A and B), which differ deeply in their intronic regions (indels of 100 and 1550 nucleotides in introns 1 and 4, respectively). Furthermore, a correlation between several reproductive performance traits and the different alleles was described. However, all these data were exclusively collected in rabbit domestic breeds, preventing a deeper understanding of the extensive polymorphism observed in the CSN3 gene. Additionally, the techniques available for the typing of both indel polymorphisms were until now not suitable for large-scale studies. In this report, we describe a simple, PCR-based typing method to distinguish rabbit CSN3 alleles. We analyse both ancient wild rabbit populations from the Iberian Peninsula and France, and the more recently derived English wild rabbits and domestic stocks. A new allele (C) showing another major indel (250 bp) in intron 1 was found, but exclusively detected in Iberian wild rabbits. In addition, our survey revealed the occurrence of new haplotypes in wild populations, suggesting that intragenic recombination is important in creating genetic diversity at this locus. This easy and low cost single-step PCR-based method results in an improvement over previous described techniques, can be easily set up in a routine molecular laboratory and would probably be a valuable tool in the management of rabbit domestic breeds. PMID:17433245

  2. Global similarity with local differences in linkage disequilibrium between the Dutch and HapMap–CEU populations

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Luba; Bochdanovits, Zoltán; de Geus, Eco; Hottenga, Jouke J; Sullivan, Patrick; Posthuma, Danielle; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret; Heutink, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The HapMap project has facilitated the selection of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) under the assumption that linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the HapMap populations is similar to the populations under investigation. Earlier reports support this assumption, although in most of these studies only a few loci were evaluated. We compared pair-wise LD and LD block structure across autosomes between the Dutch population and the CEU–HapMap reference panel. The impact of sampling distribution on the estimation of LD blocks was studied by bootstrapping. A high Pearson correlation (genome-wide; 0.93) between pair-wise r2 for the Dutch and the CEU populations was found, indicating that tagSNPs from the CEU–HapMap panel capture common variation in the Dutch population. However, some genomic regions exhibited, significantly lower correlation than the genome-wide estimate. This might decrease the validity of HapMap tagSNPs in these regions and the power of GWAS. The LD block structure differed considerably between the Dutch and CEU–HapMap populations. This was not explained by demographic differences between the CEU and Dutch samples, as testing for population stratification was not significant. We also found that sampling variation had a large effect on the estimation of LD blocks, as shown by the bootstrapping analysis. Thus, in small samples, most of the observed differences in LD blocks between populations are most likely the result of sampling variation. This poor concordance in LD block structure suggests that large samples are required for robust estimations of local LD block structure in populations. PMID:19127282

  3. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, E.; Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L.

    1994-09-01

    Certain genetic disorders (e.g. congenital cataracts, duodenal atresia) are rare in the general population, but more common in people with Down`s syndrome. We present a method for using individuals with trisomy 21 to map genes for such traits. Our methods are analogous to methods for mapping autosomal dominant traits using affected relative pairs by looking for markers with greater than expected identity-by-descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected reduction to homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited form the non-disjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. The methods are described in the context of gene-dosage model for the etiology of the disorder, but can be extended to other models. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers, how to test candidate genes, and how to handle the effect of reduced recombination associated with maternal meiosis I non-disjunction.

  4. Construction of multilocus genetic linkage maps in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Lander, E S; Green, P

    1987-01-01

    Human genetic linkage maps are most accurately constructed by using information from many loci simultaneously. Traditional methods for such multilocus linkage analysis are computationally prohibitive in general, even with supercomputers. The problem has acquired practical importance because of the current international collaboration aimed at constructing a complete human linkage map of DNA markers through the study of three-generation pedigrees. We describe here several alternative algorithms for constructing human linkage maps given a specified gene order. One method allows maximum-likelihood multilocus linkage maps for dozens of DNA markers in such three-generation pedigrees to be constructed in minutes. PMID:3470801

  5. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  6. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Guannan; Jiang, Liming; He, Yan; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Jiang, Haibin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Ovoviviparous black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) is an important marine fish species for aquaculture and fisheries in China. Genetic information of this species is scarce because of the lack of microsatellite markers. In this study, a large number of microsatellite markers of black rockfish were isolated by constructing microsatellite-enriched libraries. Female- and male-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed using 435 microsatellite markers genotyped in a full-sib family of the fish species. The female linkage map contained 140 microsatellite markers, in which 23 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1334.1 cM and average inter-marker space of 13.3 cM. The male linkage map contained 156 microsatellite markers, in which 25 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1359.6 cM and average inter-marker distance of 12.4 cM. The genome coverage of the female and male linkage maps was 68.6% and 69.3%, respectively. The female-to-male ratio of the recombination rate was approximately 1.07:1 in adjacent microsatellite markers. This paper presents the first genetic linkage map of microsatellites in black rockfish. The collection of polymorphic markers and sex-specific linkage maps of black rockfish could be useful for further investigations on parental assignment, population genetics, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in related breeding programs.

  7. Linkage Disequilibrium for Two X-Linked Genes in Sardinia and Its Bearing on the Statistical Mapping of the Human X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, G.; Rinaldi, A.; Palmarino, R.; Seravalli, E.; Siniscalco, M.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of four X-linked mutants (G6PD, Deutan, Protan and Xg) among lowland and once highly malarial populations of Sardinia discloses a clear-cut example of linkage disequilibrium between two of them (G6PD and Protan). In the same populations the distribution of G6PD-deficiency versus colorblindness of the Deutan type and the Xg blood-group is not significantly different from that expected at equilibrium. These data suggest indirectly that the loci for G6PD and Protan may be nearer to one another than those for G6PD and Deutan. PMID:301840

  8. Linkage disequilibrium between two distinct loci in chromosomes 5 and 7 of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Happi, C T; Gbotosho, G O; Folarin, O A; Sowunmi, A; Bolaji, O M; Fateye, B A; Kyle, D E; Milhous, W; Wirth, D F; Oduola, A M J

    2006-12-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with polymorphisms in loci on pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes. In this study, we determined the association and linkage disequilibrium between in vivo CQ resistance and P. falciparum polymorphisms in pfcrt gene at codon 76 and pfmdr1 gene at codon 86 in isolates obtained from 111 children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nigeria. Patients were treated with standard dosage of CQ and followed up for 28 days. Filter paper samples were collected at enrollment and during follow-up for parasites genotypes and identification of pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations. Association and linkage disequilibrium between mutant pfcrtT76 and pfmdr1Y86 alleles in pretreatment isolates of P. falciparum was determined. Fifty-five out of the 111 patients (49.5%) failed treatment. Single mutant pfcrtT76 or pfmdr1Y86 alleles were found in 55 out of 111 P. falciparum isolates screened at enrollment. Of these 55 isolates, the mutant pfcrtT76 and pfmdr1Y86 alleles were found in 84%. Both mutant pfcrtT76 (p=0.0196) and pfmdr1Y86 (p=0.000042) alleles were associated with in vivo CQ resistance. In addition, the mutant pfcrtT76 (p=0.047) and pfmdr1Y86 (p=0.006) alleles were significantly selected by CQ in patients who failed treatment. Association analysis between paired single alleles at pfcrt and pfmdr1 loci showed a significant association (p=0.0349 and chi(2)=4.45) between the pfcrt T76 allele on chromosome 7 and the pfmdr1Y86 allele on chromosome 5 and that these two mutant alleles were in linkage disequilibrium (p=0.000, D'=0.64, and r(2)=0.28). Considering the high level of CQ resistance and drug use in the study area, the observed linkage disequilibrium between the mutant pfcrtT76 and pfmdr1Y86 alleles is maintained epistatically through directional CQ selective pressure.

  9. An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

    2012-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics.

  10. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and the SCA1 CAG repeat on chromosome 6p23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Sun, Cui-E; Diehl, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    Schizophrenia and the closely related phenotype schizoaffective disorder are severe mental illnesses that affect >1.0% of the population. The major role that genetic factors contribute to disease susceptibility is very well established. Schizophrenia appears to be a highly complex and heterogeneous disorder, however, and gene-mapping efforts also face challenges in assigning diagnoses and in delineating the disease`s phenotypic boundary. Several recently reported studies indicate that a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene may reside on the distal short arm of chromosome 6. Wang et al. reported a strong suggestion of linkage to chromosome 6pter-p22, using a resource based on 186 Irish families that was developed by K. S, Kendler, D. Walsh and colleagues, and one of us (S.R.D.), as described elsewhere. In that study, locus D6S260 gave the highest pairwise LOD score, 3.5, allowing for locus heterogeneity. Analysis with D6S260 and the distal locus F13A1 yielded a multipoint LOD score of 3.9, which maximized by allowing for locus heterogeneity and assuming that 50% of families are linked to this region. Nonparametric affected-pedigree-member analyses also supported this finding. Several other groups have recently reported additional evidence suggesting linkage to this region, both in an expanded collection of Irish families and in families from a variety of other geographic locations. However, none of these studies succeed in narrowing the location of the putative disease gene beyond the {approximately}30-cM region first identified by Wang et al. 44 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Linkage disequilibrium between BLM, FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom`s syndrome (BS)

    SciTech Connect

    German, J.; Lennon, D.; Proytcheva, M.

    1994-09-01

    BS is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. About 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries bbm, a BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome sub-band 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. We have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of bbm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking linkage disequilibrium has been observed between BLM and FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 -- three loci unseparated by conventional pedigree analysis. The linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis. We have also analyzed blm and BLM haplotypes when genotype information from the parents was available. The haplotype analysis indicates that the chromosome in the hypothetical founder carried the C3 allele at FES, either the 145 bp or the 147 bp allele at D15S127, and the 83 bp allele at IP15M9. Besides providing strong support for the founder-effect hypothesis, haplotype analysis in a fetus at risk for BS also provided evidence against either homozygosity or heterozygosity for mutation at BLM -- evidence shown valuable by the subsequent birth of a normal boy to a couple, the father being Ashkenazi Jewish and the mother being Sephardi-Egyptian Jewish.

  12. The use of family relationships and linkage disequilibrium to impute phase and missing genotypes in up to whole-genome sequence density genotypic data.

    PubMed

    Meuwissen, Theo; Goddard, Mike

    2010-08-01

    A novel method, called linkage disequilibrium multilocus iterative peeling (LDMIP), for the imputation of phase and missing genotypes is developed. LDMIP performs an iterative peeling step for every locus, which accounts for the family data, and uses a forward-backward algorithm to accumulate information across loci. Marker similarity between haplotype pairs is used to impute possible missing genotypes and phases, which relies on the linkage disequilibrium between closely linked markers. After this imputation step, the combined iterative peeling/forward-backward algorithm is applied again, until convergence. The calculations per iteration scale linearly with number of markers and number of individuals in the pedigree, which makes LDMIP well suited to large numbers of markers and/or large numbers of individuals. Per iteration calculations scale quadratically with the number of alleles, which implies biallelic markers are preferred. In a situation with up to 15% randomly missing genotypes, the error rate of the imputed genotypes was <1% and approximately 99% of the missing genotypes were imputed. In another example, LDMIP was used to impute whole-genome sequence data consisting of 17,321 SNPs on a chromosome. Imputation of the sequence was based on the information of 20 (re)sequenced founder individuals and genotyping their descendants for a panel of 3000 SNPs. The error rate of the imputed SNP genotypes was 10%. However, if the parents of these 20 founders are also sequenced, >99% of missing genotypes are imputed correctly.

  13. Combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium QTL mapping in multiple families of maize (Zea mays L.) line crosses highlights complementarities between models based on parental haplotype and single locus polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bardol, N; Ventelon, M; Mangin, B; Jasson, S; Loywick, V; Couton, F; Derue, C; Blanchard, P; Charcosset, A; Moreau, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing marker density. This opens new possibilities for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), in particular by combining linkage disequilibrium information and linkage analysis (LDLA). In this study, we compared different approaches to detect QTL for four traits of agronomical importance in two large multi-parental datasets of maize (Zea mays L.) of 895 and 928 testcross progenies composed of 7 and 21 biparental families, respectively, and genotyped with 491 markers. We compared to traditional linkage-based methods two LDLA models relying on the dense genotyping of parental lines with 17,728 SNP: one based on a clustering approach of parental line segments into ancestral alleles and one based on single marker information. The two LDLA models generally identified more QTL (60 and 52 QTL in total) than classical linkage models (49 and 44 QTL in total). However, they performed inconsistently over datasets and traits suggesting that a compromise must be found between the reduction of allele number for increasing statistical power and the adequacy of the model to potentially complex allelic variation. For some QTL, the model exclusively based on linkage analysis, which assumed that each parental line carried a different QTL allele, was able to capture remaining variation not explained by LDLA models. These complementarities between models clearly suggest that the different QTL mapping approaches must be considered to capture the different levels of allelic variation at QTL involved in complex traits.

  14. Short communication: The combined use of linkage disequilibrium-based haploblocks and allele frequency-based haplotype selection methods enhances genomic evaluation accuracy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Dávid; Ducrocq, Vincent; Croiseau, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The construction and use of haploblocks [adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in strong linkage disequilibrium] for genomic evaluation is advantageous, because the number of effects to be estimated can be reduced without discarding relevant genomic information. Furthermore, haplotypes (the combination of 2 or more SNP) can increase the probability of capturing the quantitative trait loci effect compared with individual SNP markers. With regards to haplotypes, the allele frequency parameter is also of interest, because as a selection criterion, it allows the number of rare alleles to be reduced, and the effects of those alleles are usually difficult to estimate. We have proposed a simple pipeline that simultaneously incorporates linkage disequilibrium and allele frequency information in genomic evaluation, and here we present the first results obtained with this procedure. We used a population of 2,235 progeny-tested bulls from the Montbéliarde breed for the tests. Phenotype data were available in the form of daughter yield deviations on 5 production traits, and genotype data were available from the 50K SNP chip. We conducted a classical validation study by splitting the population into training (80% oldest animals) and validation (20% youngest animals) sets to emulate a real-life scenario in which the selection candidates had no available phenotype data. We measured all reported parameters for the validation set. Our results proved that the proposed method was indeed advantageous, and that the accuracy of genomic evaluation could be improved. Compared with results from a genomic BLUP analysis, correlations between daughter yield deviations (a proxy for true) and genomic estimated breeding values increased by an average of 2.7 percentage points for the 5 traits. Inflation of the genomic evaluation of the selection candidates was also significantly reduced. The proposed method outperformed the other SNP and haplotype-based tests we had evaluated in a

  15. Trans-ethnic follow-up of breast cancer GWAS hits using the preferential linkage disequilibrium approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qianqian; Shepherd, Lori; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Yao, Song; Liu, Qian; Hu, Qiang; Haddad, Stephen A.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Liu, Song; Haiman, Christopher A.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2016-01-01

    Leveraging population-distinct linkage equilibrium (LD) patterns, trans-ethnic follow-up of variants discovered from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has proved to be useful in facilitating the identification of bona fide causal variants. We previously developed the preferential LD approach, a novel method that successfully identified causal variants driving the GWAS signals within European-descent populations even when the causal variants were only weakly linked with the GWAS-discovered variants. To evaluate the performance of our approach in a trans-ethnic setting, we applied it to follow up breast cancer GWAS hits identified mostly from populations of European ancestry in African Americans (AA). We evaluated 74 breast cancer GWAS variants in 8,315 AA women from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. Only 27% of them were associated with breast cancer risk at significance level α=0.05, suggesting race-specificity of the identified breast cancer risk loci. We followed up on those replicated GWAS hits in the AMBER consortium utilizing the preferential LD approach, to search for causal variants or better breast cancer markers from the 1000 Genomes variant catalog. Our approach identified stronger breast cancer markers for 80% of the GWAS hits with at least nominal breast cancer association, and in 81% of these cases, the marker identified was among the top 10 of all 1000 Genomes variants in the corresponding locus. The results support trans-ethnic application of the preferential LD approach in search for candidate causal variants, and may have implications for future genetic research of breast cancer in AA women. PMID:27825120

  16. Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, D B

    1997-01-01

    The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 alpha level with <300 observations. PMID:9042929

  17. High levels of linkage disequilibrium and associations with forage quality at a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase locus in European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Krützfeldt, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignin in the cell wall. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in lignin biosynthesis in plants; the deamination of L-phenylalanine to cinnamic acid. Successive enzymatic steps lead to the formation of three monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignin. We have cloned and sequenced a PAL genomic sequence from 32 maize inbred lines currently employed in forage maize breeding programs in Europe. Low nucleotide diversity and excessive linkage disequilibrium (LD) was identified at this PAL locus, possibly reflecting selective constrains resulting from PAL being the first enzyme in the monolignol, and other, pathways. While the association analysis was affected by extended LD and population structure, several individual polymorphisms were associated with neutral detergent fiber (not considering population structure) and a single polymorphism was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (considering population structure).

  18. HLA-A-B-C-DRB1-DQB1 phased haplotypes in 124 Nigerian families indicate extreme HLA diversity and low linkage disequilibrium in Central-West Africa.

    PubMed

    Testi, M; Battarra, M; Lucarelli, G; Isgro, A; Morrone, A; Akinyanju, O; Wakama, T; Nunes, J M; Andreani, M; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2015-10-01

    The simultaneous typing of five-HLA loci at high resolution and the availability of pedigree data allowed us to characterize extended five-locus phased haplotypes in 124 Nigerian families and to compare the observed frequencies with those expected by an expectation-maximization algorithm for unphased data. Despite the occurrence of some frequent alleles at each locus (e.g. B*53:01, which is assumed to protect against Plasmodium falciparum), as many as 82% of the sampled individuals carry two unique five-locus haplotypes and only three extended haplotypes with frequency above 1% exhibit significant linkage disequilibrium. Although preliminary, these results reveal an extreme level of HLA diversity in the Nigerian population, which reflects both its multi-ethnic composition and the very ancient demographic history of African populations.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium between polymorphisms at the 5{prime} untranslated region and intron 5 (Dde I) of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene in the Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.S.H.; Liu, Y.; Low, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    A length polymorphism at the 5{prime} untranslated region of exon 1 and an RFLP (Dde I) in intron 5 (nt 160) of the ATIII gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with primers of published sequences. DNA fragments were size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis (3% NuSieve and 1% Seakem GTG) and photographed over a UV transilluminator. A strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between these two polymorphisms of the ATIII gene in the Chinese ({chi}{sup 2} = 63.7; {triangle} 0.42, P < 0.001). The estimated frequencies of the three haplotypes were found to be 0.37 for SD+, 0.40 for LD+ and 0.23 for LD-.

  20. Patterns of Naturally Occurring Restriction Map Variation, Dopa Decarboxylase Activity Variation and Linkage Disequilibrium in the Ddc Gene Region of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Jennings-Jr, R. M.; Bland, M. M.; Laurie, C. C.; Langley, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-six second-chromosome lines of Drosophila melanogaster isolated from five natural populations were surveyed for restriction map variation in a 65-kb region surrounding the gene (Ddc) encoding dopa decarboxylase (DDC). Sixty-nine restriction sites were scored, 13 of which were polymorphic. Average heterozygosity per nucleotide was estimated to be 0.005. Eight large (0.7-5.0 kb) inserts, two small inserts (100 and 200 bp) and three small deletions (100-300 bp) were also observed across the 65-kb region. We see no evidence for a reduction in either nucleotide heterozygosity or insertion/deletion variation in the central 26-kb segment containing Ddc and a dense cluster of lethal complementation groups and transcripts (>/=9 genes) compared to that seen in the adjacent regions (totaling 39 kb) in which only a single gene and transcript has been detected, or to that observed for other gene regions in D. melanogaster. The distribution of restriction site variation shows no significant departure from that expected under an equilibrium neutral model. However insertions and deletions show a significant departure from neutrality in that they are too rare in frequency, consistent with them being deleterious on average. Significant linkage disequilibrium among variants exists across much of the 65-kb region. Lower regional rates of recombination combined with the influence of polymorphic chromosomal inversions, rather than epistatic selection among genes in the dense cluster, probably are sufficient explanations for the creation and/or maintenance of the linkage disequilibrium observed in the Ddc region. We have also assayed adult DDC enzyme activity in these same lines. Twofold variation in activity among lines is observed within our sample. Significant associations are observed between level of DDC enzyme activity and restriction map variants. Surprisingly, one line with a 5.0-kb insert within an intron and one line with a 1.5-kb insert near the 5' end of Ddc each show

  1. Homozygosity and linkage-disequilibrium mapping of the syndrome of congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth and mental retardation, and dysmorphism to a 1-cM interval on chromosome 1q42-43.

    PubMed Central

    Parvari, R; Hershkovitz, E; Kanis, A; Gorodischer, R; Shalitin, S; Sheffield, V C; Carmi, R

    1998-01-01

    The syndrome of hypoparathyroidism associated with growth retardation, developmental delay, and dysmorphism (HRD) is a newly described, autosomal recessive, congenital disorder with severe, often fatal consequences. Since the syndrome is very rare, with all parents of affected individuals being consanguineous, it is presumed to be caused by homozygous inheritance of a single recessive mutation from a common ancestor. To localize the HRD gene, we performed a genomewide screen using DNA pooling and homozygosity mapping for apparently unlinked kindreds. Analysis of a panel of 359 highly polymorphic markers revealed linkage to D1S235. The maximum LOD score obtained was 4.11 at a recombination fraction of 0. Analysis of three additional markers-GGAA6F06, D1S2678, and D1S179-in a 2-cM interval around D1S235 resulted in LOD scores >3. Analysis of additional chromosome 1 markers revealed evidence of genetic linkage disequilibrium and place the HRD locus within an approximately 1-cM interval defined by D1S1540 and D1S2678 on chromosome 1q42-43. PMID:9634513

  2. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. An Autosomal Genetic Linkage Map of the Sheep Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, A. M.; Dodds, K. G.; Ede, A. J.; Pierson, C. A.; Montgomery, G. W.; Garmonsway, H. G.; Beattie, A. E.; Davies, K.; Maddox, J. F.; Kappes, S. W.; Stone, R. T.; Nguyen, T. C.; Penty, J. M.; Lord, E. A.; Broom, J. E.; Buitkamp, J.; Schwaiger, W.; Epplen, J. T.; Matthew, P.; Matthews, M. E.; Hulme, D. J.; Beh, K. J.; McGraw, R. A.; Beattie, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation fullsib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 222. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. PMID:7498748

  4. Genetic Linkage Map of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jai

    2008-01-01

    Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, is an important fish species in Asia, both for fisheries and aquaculture. As the first step for better understanding the genomic structure and functional analysis, we constructed a genetic linkage map for olive flounder based on 180 microsatellites and 31 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived markers. Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes of this species. The total map distance was 1,001.3 cM based on Kosambi sex-average mapping, and the average inter-locus distance was 4.7 cM. Linkage between the loci was identified by an LOD score of ≥3. This linkage map may be used to map quantitative trait loci associated with important traits of the species and may assist in breeding programs. PMID:18497873

  5. Linkage disequilibrium at the Machado-Joseph disease spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 locus: Evidence for a common founder effect in French and Portuguese-Brazilian families as well as a second ancestral Portuguese-Azorean mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanin, G.; Cancel, G.; Didierjean, O.

    1995-11-01

    Spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is a genetic subtype of the type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA type I), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. SCA3 was mapped in French families to chromosome 14q24.3-qter in the same region as the gene for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), which was classified as a form of ADCA type I on the basis of similarities in the clinical presentation of individual patients. The MJD gene was recently identified in Japanese kindreds, and the mutation was characterized as an unstable CAG repeat that is expanded in affected individuals. The same mutation is observed in families of Portuguese-Azorean ancestry, as well as in French SCA3 kindreds. In other disorders caused by unstable and expanded triplet repeats, such as fragile X syndrome (FRA-X), myotonic dystrophy (MD), Huntington disease (HD), and SCA1, linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the mutation and closely linked polymorphic markers was detected, suggesting that there were only one or a few founders or predisposing haplotypes. In the present study, 29 families of different geographical origins were tested for LD between the MJD/SCA3 mutation and four flanking microsatellite markers. 27 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Szatmari, Peter; Paterson, Andrew; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Vincent, John; Skaug, Jennifer; Thompson, Ann; Senman, Lili; Feuk, Lars; Qian, Cheng; Bryson, Susan; Jones, Marshall; Marshall, Christian; Scherer, Stephen; Vieland, Veronica; Bartlett, Christopher; Mangin, La Vonne; Goedken, Rhinda; Segre, Alberto; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Cuccaro, Michael; Gilbert, John; Wright, Harry; Abramson, Ruth; Betancur, Catalina; Bourgeron, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher; Leboyer, Marion; Buxbaum, Joseph; Davis, Kenneth; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy; Hallmayer, Joachim; Lotspeich, Linda; Sutcliffe, James; Haines, Jonathan; Folstein, Susan; Piven, Joseph; Wassink, Thomas; Sheffield, Val; Geschwind, Daniel; Bucan, Maja; Brown, Ted; Cantor, Rita; Constantino, John; Gilliam, Conrad; Herbert, Martha; Lajonchere, Clara; Ledbetter, David; Lese-Martin, Christa; Miller, Janet; Nelson, Stan; Samango-Sprouse, Carol; Spence, Sarah; State, Matthew; Tanzi, Rudolph; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Devlin, Bernie; Estes, Annette; Flodman, Pamela; Klei, Lambertus; Mcmahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Korvatska, Elena; Rodier, Patricia; Schellenberg, Gerard; Smith, Moyra; Spence, Anne; Stodgell, Chris; Tepper, Ping Guo; Wijsman, Ellen; Yu, Chang-En; Rogé, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Poustka, Annemarie; Felder, Bärbel; Klauck, Sabine; Schuster, Claudia; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Schmötzer, Gabi; Tsiantis, John; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Maestrini, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Blasi, Francesca; Carone, Simona; Toma, Claudio; Van Engeland, Herman; De Jonge, Maretha; Kemner, Chantal; Koop, Frederieke; Langemeijer, Marjolein; Hijmans, Channa; Staal, Wouter; Baird, Gillian; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Aldred, Catherine; Wilkinson, Julie-Anne; Pickles, Andrew; Le Couteur, Ann; Berney, Tom; Mcconachie, Helen; Bailey, Anthony; Francis, Kostas; Honeyman, Gemma; Hutchinson, Aislinn; Parr, Jeremy; Wallace, Simon; Monaco, Anthony; Barnby, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Lamb, Janine; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Cook, Edwin; Guter, Stephen; Leventhal, Bennett; Salt, Jeff; Lord, Catherine; Corsello, Christina; Hus, Vanessa; Weeks, Daniel; Volkmar, Fred; Tauber, Maïté; Fombonne, Eric; Shih, Andy; Meyer, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASD is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASD by using Affymetrix 10K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and 1168 families with ≥ 2 affected individuals to perform the largest linkage scan to date, while also analyzing copy number variation (CNV) in these families. Linkage and CNV analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, amongst other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously-implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for ASD. PMID:17322880

  7. Estimation of recombination frequency in genetic linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Nordheim, E V; O'Malley, D M; Guries, R P

    1983-09-01

    A binomial-like model is developed that may be used in genetic linkage studies when data are generated by a testcross with parental phase unknown. Four methods of estimation for the recombination frequency are compared for data from a single group and also from several groups; these methods are maximum likelihood, two Bayesian procedures, and an ad hoc technique. The Bayes estimator using a noninformative prior usually has a lower mean squared error than the other estimators and because of this it is the recommended estimator. This estimator appears particularly useful for estimation of recombination frequencies indicative of weak linkage from samples of moderate size. Interval estimates corresponding to this estimator can be obtained numerically by discretizing the posterior distribution, thereby providing researchers with a range of plausible recombination values. Data from a linkage study on pitch pine are used as an example.

  8. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  9. The first genetic linkage map of Eucommia ulmoides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Li, Yu; Li, Long; Wei, Yongcheng; Li, Zhouqi

    2014-04-01

    In accordance with pseudo-testcross strategy, the first genetic linkage map of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was constructed by an F1 population of 122 plants using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 22 AFLP primer combinations generated 363 polymorphic markers. We selected 289 markers segregating as 1:1 and used them for constructing the parent-specific linkage maps. Among the candidate markers, 127 markers were placed on the maternal map LF and 108 markers on the paternal map Q1. The maternal map LF spanned 1116.1 cM in 14 linkage groups with a mean map distance of 8.78 cM; the paternal map Q1 spanned 929.6 cM in 12 linkage groups with an average spacing of 8.61 cM. The estimated coverage of the genome through two methods was 78.5 and 73.9% for LF, and 76.8 and 71.2% for Q1, respectively. This map is the first linkage map of E. ulmoides and provides a basis for mapping quantitative-trait loci and breeding applications.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium analysis reveals an albuminuria risk haplotype containing three missense mutations in the cubilin gene with striking differences among European and African ancestry populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis described a variant (p.Ile2984Val) in the cubilin gene (CUBN) that is associated with levels of albuminuria in the general population and in diabetics. Methods We implemented a Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) search with data from the 1000 Genomes Project, on African and European population genomic sequences. Results We found that the p.Ile2984Val variation is part of a larger haplotype in European populations and it is almost absent in west Africans. This haplotype contains 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in very high LD, three of which are missense mutations (p.Leu2153Phe, p.Ile2984Val, p.Glu3002Gly), and two have not been previously reported. Notably, this European haplotype is absent in west African populations, and the frequency of each individual polymorphism differs significantly in Africans. Conclusions Genotyping of these variants in existing African origin sample sets coupled to measurements of urine albumin excretion levels should reveal which is the most likely functional candidate for albuminuria risk. The unique haplotypic structure of CUBN in different populations may leverage the effort to identify the functional variant and to shed light on evolution of the CUBN gene locus. PMID:23114252

  11. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Mimetic Butterfly Heliconius melpomene

    PubMed Central

    Jiggins, Chris D.; Mavarez, Jesus; Beltrán, Margarita; McMillan, W. Owen; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2005-01-01

    Heliconius melpomene is a mimetic butterfly that exhibits great geographic variation in color pattern. We present here a genetic linkage map based on analysis of genetic markers in 73 individuals from a single F2 family, offspring of a cross between H. m. cythera from western Ecuador and H. m. melpomene from French Guiana. A novel “three-step method” is described for the analysis of dominant markers in an F2 cross, using outbred parental strains and taking advantage of the lack of crossing over in female Lepidoptera. This method is likely to prove useful for future mapping studies in outbred species with crossing over restricted to one sex, such as the Lepidoptera and Drosophila. The resulting linkage map has 21 linkage groups corresponding to the 21 chromosomes of H. melpomene and includes 219 AFLP markers, 23 microsatellites, 19 single-copy nuclear genes, and the color pattern switch genes Yb and Sb. The marker density is high, averaging >1/7 cM. The total map length is 1616 cM and the average chromosome length is 77 cM. The genome size of H. melpomene was estimated to be 292 Mb, giving a relationship of physical-to-map distance of 180 kb/cM. This map forms the basis for future comparative linkage analysis of color pattern evolution in Heliconius. PMID:15489522

  12. Genetic Linkage Map of the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Ritter, Enrique; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2000-01-01

    We have constructed a genetic linkage map of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (var. Florida). The map is based on the segregation of 178 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 23 restriction fragment length polymorphism markers; four hydrophobin, two laccase, and two manganese peroxidase genes; both mating type loci; one isozyme locus (est1); the rRNA gene sequence; and a repetitive DNA sequence in a population of 80 sibling monokaryons. The map identifies 11 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of P. ostreatus, and it has a total length of 1,000.7 centimorgans (cM) with an average of 35.1 kbp/cM. The map shows a high correlation (0.76) between physical and genetic chromosome sizes. The number of crossovers observed per chromosome per individual cell is 0.89. This map covers nearly the whole genome of P. ostreatus. PMID:11097904

  13. DQA1 and DQB1 promoter diversity and linkage disequilibrium with class II haplotypes in Mexican Mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Alaez, C; Vázquez-García, M N; Gorodezky, C

    2001-06-01

    The upstream sequences in the 5' flanking region of HLA class II genes, regulate their expression and contribute to the development of immunological diseases. We analyzed 105 healthy unrelated Mexican Mestizos for QAP and QBP polymorphism. DNA typing for DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, QAP1 and QBP1 was done using a standardized PCR-SSOP. Although all QAP alleles previously described were found in Mexicans, the distribution differed as compared to other populations. QAP-3.1, 4.1 and 4.2 were the most frequent alleles and were associated with DQA1*03, *0501 and *0402 respectively. The prevalent QBP alleles were 3.21, 3.1 and 4.1 found mainly associated with DQB1*0302, *0301 and *0501. Linkage disequilibria between the promoter and the corresponding DQA1 and DQB1 allele, are in general the same as described by others. A total of 61 different haplotypes were defined, only six of them with a frequency above 4%. The haplotypes DRB1*0407-QAP-3.1-DQA1*03-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302 (HF = 14.37%) and DRB1*0802-QAP-4.2-DQA1*0401-QBP-4.1-DQB1*0402 (HF = 14.22%), which have an Amerindian ancestry, are the most frequent in Mexicans. Some rare combinations were detected such as DRB1*0405-QAP-1.3-DQA1*0101/4-QBP-5.11/5.12-DQB1*0501 and DRB1*0403-QAP-3.2-DQA1*03-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302, probably due to ancient recombination events. This knowledge is relevant as a basis to evaluate functional implications and to explore the role of promoter diversity in disease expression.

  14. SNP genotyping in melons: genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Esteras, Cristina; Formisano, Gelsomina; Roig, Cristina; Díaz, Aurora; Blanca, José; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gómez-Guillamón, María Luisa; López-Sesé, Ana Isabel; Lázaro, Almudena; Monforte, Antonio J; Picó, Belén

    2013-05-01

    Novel sequencing technologies were recently used to generate sequences from multiple melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes, enabling the in silico identification of large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) collections. In order to optimize the use of these markers, SNP validation and large-scale genotyping are necessary. In this paper, we present the first validated design for a genotyping array with 768 SNPs that are evenly distributed throughout the melon genome. This customized Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype a collection of 74 accessions, representing most of the botanical groups of the species. Of the assayed loci, 91 % were successfully genotyped. The array provided a large number of polymorphic SNPs within and across accessions. This set of SNPs detected high levels of variation in accessions from this crop's center of origin as well as from several other areas of melon diversification. Allele distribution throughout the genome revealed regions that distinguished between the two main groups of cultivated accessions (inodorus and cantalupensis). Population structure analysis showed a subdivision into five subpopulations, reflecting the history of the crop. A considerably low level of LD was detected, which decayed rapidly within a few kilobases. Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in melon. Since many of the genotyped accessions are currently being used as the parents of breeding populations in various programs, this set of mapped markers could be used for future mapping and breeding efforts.

  15. A Genetic Linkage Map of Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Darrin P.; Smith, Cheryl-Anne; Rommens, Melissa; Blanchard, Brian; Martin-Robichaud, Debbie; Reith, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A genetic linkage map has been constructed for Atlantic halibut on the basis of 258 microsatellites and 346 AFLPs. Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen in chromosome spreads. The total map distance is 1562.2 cM in the female and 1459.6 cM in the male with an average resolution of 4.3 and 3.5 cM, respectively. Using diploid gynogens, we estimated centromere locations in 19 of 24 linkage groups. Overall recombination in the female was approximately twice that of the male; however, this trend was not consistent along the linkage groups. In the centromeric regions, females had 11–17.5 times the recombination of the males, whereas this trend reversed toward the distal end with males having three times the recombination of the females. Correspondingly, in the male, markers clustered toward the centromeric region with 50% of markers within 20 cM of the putative centromere, whereas 35% of markers in the female were found between 60 and 80 cM from the putative centromere. Limited interspecies comparisons within Japanese flounder and Tetraodon nigroviridis revealed blocks of conservation in sequence and marker order, although regions of chromosomal rearrangement were also apparent. PMID:17720928

  16. Genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and the serotonin transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Morison, M.; Mroczkowski-Parker, Z.; Bergesch, P.; Rapaport, M.H.; Mirow, A.L.

    1996-04-09

    The serotonin transporter (HTT) is an important candidate gene for the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder. It is the site of action of many antidepressants, and plays a key role in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. Many studies of affectively ill patients have found abnormalities in serotonin metabolism, and dysregulation of the transporter itself. The human serotonin transporter has been recently cloned and mapped to chromosome 17. We have identified a PstI RFLP at the HTT locus, and here report our examination of this polymorphism for possible linkage to bipolar disorder. Eighteen families were examined from three populations: the Old Order Amish, Iceland, and the general North American population. In addition to HTT, three other microsatellite markers were examined, which span an interval known to contain HTT. Linkage analyses were conducted under both dominant and recessive models, as well as both narrow (bipolar only) and broad (bipolar + recurrent unipolar) diagnostic models. Linkage could be excluded to HTT under all models examined. Linkage to the interval spanned by the microsatellites was similarly excluded under the dominant models. In two individual families, maximum lod scores of 1.02 and 0.84 were obtained at D17S798 and HTT, respectively. However, these data overall do not support the presence of a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder near the serotonin transporter. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Genetic linkage studies in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.C.; Teague, P.W.; Barber, A.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) is a severe retinal dystrophy characterized by night blindness, progressive constriction of the visual fields and loss of central vision in the fourth or fifth decades. The frequency of this form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) varies in different populations. Mutations within the rhodopsin, cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase-{beta} subunit and cGMP-gated channel genes have been reported in some arRP families. The genetic loci responsible for the majority of cases have yet to be identified. Genetic heterogeneity is likely to be extensive. In order to minimize the amount of genetic heterogenity, a set of arRP families was ascertained within the South-Central Sardinian population, in which 81% of families with a known mode of inheritance show an autosomal recessive form of RP. The Sardinian population is an ethnic {open_quotes}outlier{close_quotes}, having remained relatively isolated from mainland and other cultures. Genetic linkage data has been obtained in a set of 11 Sardinian arRP kindreds containing 26 affected members. Under the assumption of genetic homogeneity, no evidence of linkage was found in the arRP kindreds using 195 markers, which excluded 62% of the genome (Z<-2). Positive lod scores were obtained with D14S80 which showed no recombination in a subset of 5 families. Heterogeneity testing using D14S80 and arRP showed no significant evidence of heterogeneity (p=0.18) but evidence of linkage ({chi}{sup 2}=3.64, p=0.028). We are currently screening the neural retina-specific leucine zipper gene (NRL) in 14q11 for mutations as a candidate locus.

  18. Using SNP markers to dissect linkage disequilibrium at a major quantitative trait locus for resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida on potato chromosome V.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Ute; Paulo, Joao; Ilarionova, Evgenyia; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The damage caused by the parasitic root cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major yield-limiting factor in potato cultivation . Breeding for resistance is facilitated by the PCR-based marker 'HC', which is diagnostic for an allele conferring high resistance against G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3 that has been introgressed from the wild potato species Solanum vernei into the Solanum tuberosum tetraploid breeding pool. The major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling this nematode resistance maps on potato chromosome V in a hot spot for resistance to various pathogens including nematodes and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. An unstructured sample of 79 tetraploid, highly heterozygous varieties and breeding clones was selected based on presence (41 genotypes) or absence (38 genotypes) of the HC marker. Testing the clones for resistance to G. pallida confirmed the diagnostic power of the HC marker. The 79 individuals were genotyped for 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10 loci distributed over 38 cM on chromosome V. Forty-five SNPs at six loci spanning 2 cM in the interval between markers GP21-GP179 were associated with resistance to G. pallida. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP markers, six LD groups comprising between 2 and 18 SNPs were identified. The LD groups indicated the existence of multiple alleles at a single resistance locus or at several, physically linked resistance loci. LD group C comprising 18 SNPs corresponded to the 'HC' marker. LD group E included 16 SNPs and showed an association peak, which positioned one nematode resistance locus physically close to the R1 gene family.

  19. Primary genetic linkage maps of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Kano, Shungo; Satoh, Nori; Sordino, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    For whole-genome analysis in a basal chordate (protochordate), we used F1 pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to construct primary linkage maps of the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Two genetic maps consisted of 14 linkage groups, in agreement with the haploid chromosome number, and contained 276 and 125 AFLP loci derived from crosses between British and Neapolitan individuals. The two maps covered 4218.9 and 2086.9 cM, respectively, with an average marker interval of 16.1 and 18.9 cM. We observed a high recombinant ratio, ranging from 25 to 49 kb/cM, which can explain the high degree of polymorphism in this species. Some AFLP markers were converted to sequence tagged sites (STSs) by sequence determination, in order to create anchor markers for the fragmental physical map. Our recombination tools provide basic knowledge of genetic status and whole genome organization, and genetic markers to assist positional cloning in C. intestinalis.

  20. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  1. Prioritizing Tiger Conservation through Landscape Genetics and Habitat Linkages

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E.; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status to

  2. A genetic linkage map of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Renshaw, M A; Hollenbeck, C M; Gold, J R

    2010-12-01

    Second-generation, sex-specific genetic linkage maps were generated for the economically important estuarine-dependent marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum). The maps were based on F(1) progeny from each of two single-pair mating families. A total of 237 nuclear-encoded microsatellite markers were mapped to 25 linkage groups. The female map contained 226 markers, with a total length of 1270.9 centiMorgans (cM) and an average inter-marker interval of 6.53 cM; the male map contained 201 markers, with a total length of 1122.9 cM and an average inter-marker interval of 6.03 cM. The overall recombination rate was approximately equal in the two sexes (♀:♂=1.03:1). Recombination rates in a number of linkage intervals, however, differed significantly between the same sex in both families and between sexes within families. The former occurred in 2.4% of mapped intervals, while the latter occurred in 51.2% of mapped intervals. Sex-specific recombination rates varied within chromosomes, with regions of both female-biased and male-biased recombination. Original clones from which the microsatellite markers were generated were compared with genome sequence data for the spotted green puffer, Tetraodon nigroviridis; a total of 43 matches were located in 17 of 21 chromosomes of T. nigroviridis, while seven matches were in unknown portions of the T. nigroviridis genome. The map for red drum provides a new, useful tool for aquaculture, population genetics, and comparative genomics of this economically important marine species.

  3. Genetic linkage analysis of manic depression in Iceland.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, D; Sherrington, R; Brett, P; Holmes, D S; Kalsi, G; Brynjolfsson, J; Petursson, H; Rifkin, L; Murphy, P; Moloney, E

    1993-01-01

    Genetic linkage analysis has been used to study five Icelandic pedigrees multiply affected with manic depression. Genetic markers were chosen from regions which had been implicated by other studies or to which candidate genes had been localized. The transmission model used was of a dominant gene with incomplete penetrance and allowing for a large number of phenocopies, especially for unipolar rather than bipolar cases. Multipoint analysis with linked markers enabled information to be gained from regions spanning large distances. Using this approach we have excluded regions of chromosome 11p, 11q, 8q, 5q, 9q and Xq. Candidate genes excluded include those for tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine type 2 receptor, proenkephalin, the 5HT1A receptor and dopamine beta hydroxylase. Nevertheless, we remain optimistic that this approach will eventually identify at least some of the genes predisposing to manic depression. PMID:8105081

  4. Disequilibrium mapping: Composite likelihood for pairwise disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, B.; Roeder, K.; Risch, N.

    1996-08-15

    The pattern of linkage disequilibrium between a disease locus and a set of marker loci has been shown to be a useful tool for geneticists searching for disease genes. Several methods have been advanced to utilize the pairwise disequilibrium between the disease locus and each of a set of marker loci. However, none of the methods take into account the information from all pairs simultaneously while also modeling the variability in the disequilibrium values due to the evolutionary dynamics of the population. We propose a Composite Likelihood CL model that has these features when the physical distances between the marker loci are known or can be approximated. In this instance, and assuming that there is a single disease mutation, the CL model depends on only three parameters, the recombination fraction between the disease locus and an arbitrary marker locus, {theta}, the age of the mutation, and a variance parameter. When the CL is maximized over a grid of {theta}, it provides a graph that can direct the search for the disease locus. We also show how the CL model can be generalized to account for multiple disease mutations. Evolutionary simulations demonstrate the power of the analyses, as well as their potential weaknesses. Finally, we analyze the data from two mapped diseases, cystic fibrosis and diastrophic dysplasia, finding that the CL method performs well in both cases. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A genetic linkage map for tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-Kyung; Kantety, Ramesh V; Graznak, Elizabeth; Benscher, David; Tefera, Hailu; Sorrells, Mark E

    2006-10-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the major cereal crop in Ethiopia. Tef is an allotetraploid with a base chromosome number of 10 (2n = 4x = 40) and a genome size of 730 Mbp. Ninety-four F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the interspecific cross, Eragrostis tef cv. Kaye Murri x Eragrostis pilosa (accession 30-5), were mapped using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), simple sequence repeats derived from expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR), single nucleotide polymorphism/insertion and deletion (SNP/INDEL), intron fragment length polymorphism (IFLP) and inter-simple sequence repeat amplification (ISSR). A total of 156 loci from 121 markers was grouped into 21 linkage groups at LOD 4, and the map covered 2,081.5 cM with a mean density of 12.3 cM per locus. Three putative homoeologous groups were identified based on multi-locus markers. Sixteen percent of the loci deviated from normal segregation with a predominance of E. tef alleles, and a majority of the distorted loci were clustered on three linkage groups. This map will be useful for further genetic studies in tef including mapping of loci controlling quantitative traits (QTL), and comparative analysis with other cereal crops.

  6. A Genetic Linkage Map of Saccharum Spontaneum L. `ses 208'

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janabi, S. M.; Honeycutt, R. J.; McClelland, M.; Sobral, BWS.

    1993-01-01

    The arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction was used to detect single-dose polymorphisms that, in turn, were used to generate a linkage map of a polyploid relative of cultivated sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum `SES 208' (2n = 64). The mapping population was composed of 88 progeny from a cross between SES 208 and a diploidized haploid derived from SES 208 by anther culture, ADP 85-0068. This cross allowed direct analysis of meiosis in SES 208 and gametic segregation ratios to be observed. One hundred twenty-seven 10-mer oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence were selected from a pool of 420 primers used to screen the mapping parents. Three hundred thirty-six of the 420 primers amplified 4,540 loci or 13.5 loci per primer. The selected 127 primers revealed 2,160 loci of which 279 were present in SES 208 and absent in ADP 85-0068 and easily scored. Two hundred and eight (74.6%) of these 279 polymorphisms were single-dose polymorphisms (i.e., they displayed 1:1 segregation, χ(2) at 98% confidence level). Linkage analysis (θ = 0.25, LOD = 9.0 for two-point analysis, then θ = 0.25, LOD = 6.0 for multipoint analysis) of single-dose polymorphisms placed them into 42 linkage groups containing at least 2 markers. These single-dose markers span 1,500 contiguous centimorgans (cM) with 32 markers remaining unlinked (15.4%). From this 208-marker map we estimated the genome size of SES 208 to be 2,550 cM. The map has a predicted coverage of 85.1% at 30 cM, meaning that any new marker placed has an 85.1% chance of being within 30 cM of an existing marker. Furthermore, we show that SES 208 behaves like an autopolyploid because (i) the ratio of single-dose markers to higher dose markers fit the assumption of autooctaploidy and (ii) the absence of repulsion phase linkages. This is the first genetic map constructed directly on a polyploid species for which no diploid relatives are known. PMID:8375659

  7. Genetic basis of agronomically important traits in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) investigated with joint linkage association mapping.

    PubMed

    Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Maurer, Hans Peter; Möhring, Jens; Fischer, Sandra; Schechert, Axel; Würschum, Tobias

    2010-11-01

    Epistatic interactions may contribute substantially to the hybrid performance of sugar beet. The main goal of our study was to dissect the genetic basis of eight important physiological and agronomic traits using two different biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping. A total of 197 genotypes of an elite breeding population were evaluated in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 194 SNP markers. Two different statistical models were used for the genome-wide scan for marker-trait associations: Model A, which corrects for the genetic background with markers as cofactors and Model B, which additionally models a population effect. Based on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the parental population, we estimated that for a genome-wide scan at least 100 equally spaced markers are necessary. We mapped across the eight traits 39 QTL for Model A and 22 for Model B. Only 11% of the total number of QTL were identified based on Models A and B, which indicates that both models are complementary. Epistasis was detected only for two out of the eight traits, and contributed only to a minor extent to the genotypic variance. This low relevance of epistasis implies that in sugar beet breeding the prediction of performance of three-way hybrids is feasible with high accuracy based on the means of their single crosses.

  8. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Zebrafish Genes and ESTs

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Peter D.; Chu, Felicia; Woods, Ian G.; Ngo-Hazelett, Phuong; Cardozo, Timothy; Huang, Hui; Kimm, Frankie; Liao, Lingya; Yan, Yi-Lin; Zhou, Yingyao; Johnson, Steven L.; Abagyan, Ruben; Schier, Alexander F.; Postlethwait, John H.; Talbot, William S.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic screens in zebrafish (Danio rerio) have isolated mutations in hundreds of genes essential for vertebrate development, physiology, and behavior. We have constructed a genetic linkage map that will facilitate the identification of candidate genes for these mutations and allow comparisons among the genomes of zebrafish and other vertebrates. On this map, we have localized 771 zebrafish genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by scoring single-stranded conformational polymorphisms (SSCPs) in a meiotic mapping panel. Of these sequences, 642 represent previously unmapped genes and ESTs. The mapping panel was comprised of 42 homozygous diploid individuals produced by heat shock treatment of haploid embryos at the one-cell stage (HS diploids). This “doubled haploid” strategy combines the advantages of mapping in haploid and standard diploid systems, because heat shock diploid individuals have only one allele at each locus and can survive to adulthood, enabling a relatively large quantity of genomic DNA to be prepared from each individual in the mapping panel. To integrate this map with others, we also scored 593 previously mapped simple-sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) in the mapping panel. This map will accelerate the molecular analysis of zebrafish mutations and facilitate comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes. [A table of the mapped genes and ESTs is provided online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:10779498

  9. Genetic linkage analysis in the age of whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jurg; Wang, Jing; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    For many years, linkage analysis was the primary tool used for the genetic mapping of Mendelian and complex traits with familial aggregation. Linkage analysis was largely supplanted by the wide adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, with the recent increased use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS), linkage analysis is again emerging as an important and powerful analysis method for the identification of genes involved in disease aetiology, often in conjunction with WGS filtering approaches. Here, we review the principles of linkage analysis and provide practical guidelines for carrying out linkage studies using WGS data. PMID:25824869

  10. A genetic linkage map of the chromosome 4 short arm

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, P.A.; MacDonald, M.E.; Srinidhi, J.; Tanzi, R.E.; Haines, J.L. ); Gilliam, T.C. ); Conneally, P.M. ); Wexler, N.S. Hereditary Disease Foundation, Santa Monica, CA ); Gusella, J.F. Harvard Univ., Boston, MA )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have generated an 18-interval contiguous genetic linkage map of human chromosome 4 spanning the entire short arm and proximal long arm. Fifty-seven polymorphisms, representing 42 loci, were analyzed in the Venezuelan reference pedigree. The markers included seven genes (ADRA2C, ALB, GABRB1, GC, HOX7, IDUA, QDPR), one pseudogene (RAF1P1), and 34 anonymous DNA loci. Four loci were represented by microsatellite polymorphisms and one (GC) was expressed as a protein polymorphism. The remainder were genotyped based on restriction fragment length polymorphism. The sex-averaged map covered 123 cM. Significant differences in sex-specific rates of recombination were observed only in the pericentromeric and proximal long arm regions, but these contributed to different overall map lengths of 115 cM in males and 138 cM in females. This map provides 19 reference points along chromosome 4 that will be particularly useful in anchoring and seeding physical mapping studies and in aiding in disease studies. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. A genetic map of Peromyscus with chromosomal assignment of linkage groups (a Peromyscus genetic map).

    PubMed

    Kenney-Hunt, Jane; Lewandowski, Adrienne; Glenn, Travis C; Glenn, Julie L; Tsyusko, Olga V; O'Neill, Rachel J; Brown, Judy; Ramsdell, Clifton M; Nguyen, Quang; Phan, Tony; Shorter, Kimberly R; Dewey, Michael J; Szalai, Gabor; Vrana, Paul B; Felder, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    The rodent genus Peromyscus is the most numerous and species-rich mammalian group in North America. The naturally occurring diversity within this genus allows opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation, monogamy, behavioral and physiological phenotypes, growth control, genomic imprinting, and disease processes. Increased genomic resources including a high quality genetic map are needed to capitalize on these opportunities. We produced interspecific hybrids between the prairie deer mouse (P. maniculatus bairdii) and the oldfield mouse (P. polionotus) and scored meiotic recombination events in backcross progeny. A genetic map was constructed by genotyping of backcross progeny at 185 gene-based and 155 microsatellite markers representing all autosomes and the X-chromosome. Comparison of the constructed genetic map with the molecular maps of Mus and Rattus and consideration of previous results from interspecific reciprocal whole chromosome painting allowed most linkage groups to be unambiguously assigned to specific Peromyscus chromosomes. Based on genomic comparisons, this Peromyscus genetic map covers ~83% of the Rattus genome and 79% of the Mus genome. This map supports previous results that the Peromyscus genome is more similar to Rattus than Mus. For example, coverage of the 20 Rattus autosomes and the X-chromosome is accomplished with only 28 segments of the Peromyscus map, but coverage of the 19 Mus autosomes and the X-chromosome requires 40 chromosomal segments of the Peromyscus map. Furthermore, a single Peromyscus linkage group corresponds to about 91% of the rat and only 76% of the mouse X-chromosomes.

  12. Genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis for the estuarine Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools in evolutionary biology; however, their availability for wild populations is extremely limited. Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) is a non-migratory estuarine fish that exhibits high allelic and phenotypic diversity partitioned among subpopulations that reside in disparate environmental conditions. An ideal candidate model organism for studying gene-environment interactions, the molecular toolbox for F. heteroclitus is limited. We identified hundreds of novel microsatellites which, when combined with existing microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were used to construct the first genetic linkage map for this species. By integrating independent linkage maps from three genetic crosses, we developed a consensus map containing 24 linkage groups, consistent with the number of chromosomes reported for this species. These linkage groups span 2300 centimorgans (cM) of recombinant genomic space, intermediate in size relative to the current linkage maps for the teleosts, medaka and zebrafish. Comparisons between fish genomes support a high degree of synteny between the consensus F. heteroclitus linkage map and the medaka and (to a lesser extent) zebrafish physical genome assemblies.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Waits , E., J. Martinson , B. Rinner, S. Morris, D. Proestou, D. Champlin , and D. Nacci. Genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis for the estuarine Atlanti

  13. Genetic Coadaptation in the Chromosomal Polymorphism of DROSOPHILA SUBOBSCURA. I. Seasonal Changes of Gametic Disequilibrium in a Natural Population

    PubMed Central

    Fontdevila, A.; Zapata, C.; Alvarez, G.; Sanchez, L.; Méndez, J.; Enriquez, I.

    1983-01-01

    Seasonal changes in gene arrangement and allozyme frequencies have been investigated in Drosophila subobscura for several years. Some arrangements (Ost and O3+4+7) show seasonal variation, which suggests that chromosomal polymorphism is flexible in this species. Seasonal changes in allozyme frequencies for Lap and Pept-1 loci, both located within the same inversions of chromosome O, are significant only inside the Ost arrangement, but not inside O3+4 arrangement. This arrangement-dependent response of allozyme generates variation in arrangement-allozyme disequilibrium. The historical hypothesis on the maintenance of disequilibria cannot explain these seasonal changes, and some kind of natural selection must be invoked. Association between Lap and Pept-1 is also seasonal inside Ost but not inside O3+4. We propose that Ost probably consists of a finite array of supergenes that are differentially favored in each season by natural selection. The present evidence on this supergene selection and other genetic, biogeographic and phylogenetic data points to O3+4 as the most primitive gene order among the present arrangements. PMID:17246183

  14. Genetic Linkage Map of Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, D. C.; Slaugenhaupt, S. A.; Kallman, K. D.; Chakravarti, A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of genotypes of 76 polymorphic loci in more than 2600 backcross hybrid individuals derived from intra- and interspecific genetic crosses of fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) resulted in the identification of 17 multipoint linkage groups containing 55 protein-coding loci and one sex chromosome-linked pigment pattern gene. Multipoint linkage analyses identified highly probable gene orders for 10 linkage groups. The total genome length was estimated to be ~18 Morgans. Comparisons of the Xiphophorus linkage map with those of other fishes, amphibians and mammals suggested that fish gene maps are remarkably similar and probably retain many syntenic groups present in the ancestor of all vertebrates. PMID:2004711

  15. Genetic hetergoeneity in X-linked hydrocephalus: Linkage to markers within Xq27. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, L.; Brock, D.J.H.; Bonthron, D.T. ); Gosden, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    X-linked hydrocephalus is a well-defined disorder which accounts for [ge]70% of hydrocephalus in males. Pathologically, the conditions is characterized by stenosis or obliteration of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Previous genetic linkage studies have suggested likelihood of genetic homogeneity for this condition, with close linkage to the DXS52 and F8C markers in Xq28. The authors have investigated a family with typical X-linked aqueductal stenosis, in which no linkage to these markers was present. In this family, close linkage was established to the DXS548 and FRAXA loci in Xq27.3. The findings demonstrate that X-linked aqueductal stenosis may result from mutations at two different loci on the X chromosome. Caution is indicated in using linkage for the prenatal diagnosis of X-linked hydrocephalus. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. SSR and EST-SSR-based genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Sraphet, Supajit; Boonchanawiwat, Athipong; Thanyasiriwat, Thanwanit; Boonseng, Opas; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Lightfoot, David A; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn

    2011-04-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers provide a powerful tool for genetic linkage map construction that can be applied for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, a total of 640 new SSR markers were developed from an enriched genomic DNA library of the cassava variety 'Huay Bong 60' and 1,500 novel expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) loci were developed from the Genbank database. To construct a genetic linkage map of cassava, a 100 F(1) line mapping population was developed from the cross Huay Bong 60 by 'Hanatee'. Polymorphism screening between the parental lines revealed that 199 SSRs and 168 EST-SSRs were identified as novel polymorphic markers. Combining with previously developed SSRs, we report a linkage map consisted of 510 markers encompassing 1,420.3 cM, distributed on 23 linkage groups with a mean distance between markers of 4.54 cM. Comparison analysis of the SSR order on the cassava linkage map and the cassava genome sequences allowed us to locate 284 scaffolds on the genetic map. Although the number of linkage groups reported here revealed that this F(1) genetic linkage map is not yet a saturated map, it encompassed around 88% of the cassava genome indicating that the map was almost complete. Therefore, sufficient markers now exist to encompass most of the genomes and efficiently map traits in cassava.

  17. Genetic Linkage Map will aid the Whole genome Sequence Assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allotetraploid peanut genome assembly will be a valuable resource to researchers studying polyploidy species, in addition to peanut genome evolution and domestication other than facilitating QTL analysis and the tools for marker-assisted breeding. Therefore, a peanut linkage map will aid genome ...

  18. A second-generation genetic linkage map for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C; Tong, J; Yu, X; Guo, W; Wang, X; Liu, H; Feng, X; Sun, Y; Liu, L; Fu, B

    2014-10-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. Genetic linkage maps for the species were previously reported, but map resolution remained to be improved. In this study, a second-generation genetic linkage map was constructed for bighead carp through a pseudo-testcross strategy using interspecific hybrids between bighead carp and silver carp. Of the 754 microsatellites genotyped in two interspecific mapping families (with 77 progenies for each family), 659 markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups, which were equal to the chromosome numbers of the haploid genome. The consensus map spanned 1917.3 cM covering 92.8% of the estimated bighead carp genome with an average marker interval of 2.9 cM. The length of linkage groups ranged from 52.2 to 133.5 cM with an average of 79.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group varied from 11 to 55 with an average of 27.5 per linkage group. Normality tests on interval distances of the map showed a non-normal marker distribution; however, significant correlation was found between the length of linkage group and the number of markers below the 0.01 significance level (two-tailed). The length of the female map was 1.12 times that of the male map, and the average recombination ratio of female to male was 1.10:1. Visual inspection showed that distorted markers gathered in some linkage groups and in certain regions of the male and female maps. This well-defined genetic linkage map will provide a basic framework for further genome mapping of quantitative traits, comparative mapping and marker-assisted breeding in bighead carp.

  19. Genetic linkage mapping in fungi: current state, applications, and future trends.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie

    2012-08-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool for eukaryotic genomic research. Linkage maps provide insights into genome organization and can be used for genetic studies of traits of interest. A genetic linkage map is a suitable support for the anchoring of whole genome sequences. It allows the localization of genes of interest or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based cloning. While genetic mapping has been extensively used in plant or animal models, this discipline is more recent in fungi. The present article reviews the current status of genetic linkage map research in fungal species. The process of linkage mapping is detailed, from the development of mapping populations to the construction of the final linkage map, and illustrated based on practical examples. The range of specific applications in fungi is browsed, such as the mapping of virulence genes in pathogenic species or the mapping of agronomically relevant QTL in cultivated edible mushrooms. Future prospects are finally discussed in the context of the most recent advances in molecular techniques and the release of numerous fungal genome sequences.

  20. Genetic mapping of the gene for Usher syndrome: Linkage analysis in a large Samaritan kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne-Tamir, B.; Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E.; Beker, R.; Weiss, S. ); Godel, V. )

    1994-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. Sixteen members of the small inbred Samaritan isolate with autosomal recessive deafness from 59 individuals including parents and affected and nonaffected sibs were typed for markers on chromosomes 1q and 11q for which linkage has recently been established for Usher syndrome types II and I. Statistically significant linkage was observed with four markers on 11q (D11S533, D11S527, OMP, and INT2) with a maximum six-point location score of 11.61 at the D11S533 locus. Analysis of haplotypes supports the notion that the mutation arose only once in an ancestral chromosome carrying a specific haplotype. The availability of markers closely linked to the disease locus allows indirect genotype analysis and identifies all carriers of the gene within the community. Furthermore, the detection of complete linkage disequilibrium between the D11S533 marker and the Usher gene suggests that these loci are either identical or adjacent and narrows the critical region to which physical mapping efforts are currently directed. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene (CYP1A2) in colorectal cancer patients and controls: allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and influence on caffeine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Christoph; Bhambra, Upinder; Smith, Gillian; Lightfoot, Tracy J; Barrett, Jennifer H; Scollay, Jenna; Garner, R Colin; Boobis, Alan R; Wolf, C Roland; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2003-01-01

    Aim Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 gene (CYP1A2) have been reported. Here, frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and phenotypic consequences of six SNPs are described. Methods From genomic DNA, 114 British Caucasians (49 colorectal cancer cases and 65 controls) were genotyped for the CYP1A2 polymorphisms −3858G→A (allele CYP1A2*1C), −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D), −740T→G (CYP1A2*1E and *1G), −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F), 63C→G (CYP1A2*2), and 1545T→C (alleles CYP1A2*1B, *1G, *1H and *3), using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. All patients and controls were phenotyped for CYP1A2 by h.p.l.c. analysis of urinary caffeine metabolites. Results In 114 samples, the most frequent CYP1A2 SNPs were 1545T→C (38.2% of tested chromosomes), −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F, 33.3%) and −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D, 4.82%). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium: the most frequent constellations were found to be −3858G/−2464T/−740T/−164A/63C/1545T (61.8%), −3858G/−2464T/−740T/−164C/63C/1545C (33.3%), and −3858G/−2464delT/−740T/−164A/63C/1545C (3.51%), with no significant frequency differences between cases and controls. In the phenotype analysis, lower caffeine metabolic ratios were detected in cases than in controls. This was significant in smokers (n = 14, P = 0.020), and in a subgroup of 15 matched case-control pairs (P = 0.007), but it was not significant in nonsmokers (n = 100, P = 0.39). There was no detectable association between CYP1A2 genotype and caffeine phenotype. Conclusions (i) CYP1A2 polymorphisms are in linkage disequilibrium. Therefore, only −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F) and −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D) need to be analysed in the routine assessment of CYP1A2 genotype; (ii) in vivo CYP1A2 activity is lower in colorectal cancer patients than in controls, and (iii) CYP1A2 genotype had no effect on phenotype (based on the caffeine metabolite ratio). However, this

  2. A rare form of persistent right aorta arch in linkage disequilibrium with the DiGeorge critical region on CFA26 in German Pinschers.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Ute; Menzel, Julia; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) is a congenital vascular ring anomaly common in several dog breeds. In German Pinscher, the disorder is characterized by a left retroesophageal subclavian artery in combination with a ligamentum arteriosum originating at the aberrant left subclavian artery (PRAA-SA-LA). In this study, we genotyped 38 microsatellite markers on canine chromosome 26 (CFA26) in German Pinschers and tested them for linkage and association. We found a chromosome-wide significantly linked genomic region on CFA26, which corresponds to the human DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR). Therefore, we analyzed sequences from 13 genes of DGCR and the canine t-box gene TBX1. We identified a total of 26 polymorphisms in German Pinschers. Three of these SNPs located within TBX1 and one in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40 gene (MRPL40) were associated with the PRAA-SA-LA phenotype in German Pinscher. Despite linkage and association between PRAA-SA-LA and the canine DGCR, none of these mutations appeared responsible for PRAA-SA-LA. As the orthologue human region on HSA22q11.2 is known for high susceptibility to genomic rearrangements, we suspect that in German Pinschers, chromosomal aberrations might cause PRAA-SA-LA.

  3. A consensus framework map of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) suitable for linkage disequilibrium analysis and genome-wide association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics applications in durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat have the potential to boost exploitation of genetic resources and to advance understanding of the genetics of important complex traits (e.g. resilience to environmental and biotic stresses). A dense and accurate consensus map specific for ...

  4. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Tomlin, James F; Eizirik, Eduardo; Phillip, Cornel; Wells, David; Pontius, Joan U; Hannah, Steven S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    We report on the completion of an autosomal genetic linkage (GL) map of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Unlike two previous linkage maps of the cat constructed with a hybrid pedigree between the domestic cat and the Asian leopard cat, this map was generated entirely with domestic cats, using a large multi-generational pedigree (n=256) maintained by the Nestlé Purina PetCare Company. Four hundred eighty-three simple tandem repeat (STR) loci have been assigned to linkage groups on the cat's 18 autosomes. A single linkage group spans each autosome. The length of the cat map, estimated at 4370 cM, is long relative to most reported mammalian maps. A high degree of concordance in marker order was observed between the third-generation map and the 1.5 Mb-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of the cat. Using the cat 1.9x whole-genome sequence, we identified map coordinates for 85% of the loci in the cat assembly, with high concordance observed in marker order between the linkage map and the cat sequence assembly. The present version represents a marked improvement over previous cat linkage maps as it (i) nearly doubles the number of markers that were present in the second-generation linkage map in the cat, (ii) provides a linkage map generated in a domestic cat pedigree which will more accurately reflect recombination distances than previous maps generated in a hybrid pedigree, and (iii) provides single linkage groups spanning each autosome. Marker order was largely consistent between this and the previous maps, though the use of a hybrid pedigree in the earlier versions appears to have contributed to some suppression of recombination. The improved linkage map will provide an added resource for the mapping of phenotypic variation in the domestic cat and the use of this species as a model system for biological research.

  6. Molecular characterization of Blau syndrome: Genetic linkage to chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Tromp, G.; Duivaniemi, H.; Christiano, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Blau syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly-inherited disease characterized by multi-organ, tissue-specific inflammation. Its clinical phenotype includes granulomatous uveitis, arthritis and skin rash. The syndrome is unique in that it is the sole human model for a variety of multi-system inflammatory diseases that afflict a significant percentage of the population. Karyotypic analysis of the large, three generation kindred whose disease originally characterized the syndrome was unremarkable. Following exclusion of a number of extracellular matrix candidates genes, a genome-wide search was undertaken of the Blau susceptibility locus. Fifty-seven members of the family were genotyped for about 200 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers. Linkage analysis was performed using the LINKAGE package of programs under a model of dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance. Five liability classes were used to specify penetrances and phenocopy rates for those affected the arthritis, uveitis, skin rash and combinations thererof. In addition, five age-dependent penetrance classes were used for unaffected individuals. The marker D16S298 gave a maximum lod score of 3.6 at {theta} = 0.05 with two-point analysis. Lod scores for flanking markers were consistent. These data provide convincing evidence that the Blau susceptibility locus is situated within the 16p12-q21 interval. Fine mapping of the candidate interval with additional families exhibiting the Blau phenotype, as well as with more polymorphic markers, is underway.

  7. Identifying Plausible Genetic Models Based on Association and Linkage Results: Application to Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Weihua; Boehnke, Michael; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J.; Scott, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    When planning re-sequencing studies for complex diseases, previous association and linkage studies can constrain the range of plausible genetic models for a given locus. Here, we explore the combinations of causal risk allele frequency RAFC and genotype relative risk GRRC consistent with no or limited evidence for affected sibling pair (ASP) linkage and strong evidence for case-control association. We find that significant evidence for case-control association combined with no or moderate evidence for ASP linkage can define a lower bound for the plausible RAFC. Using data from large type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage and genome-wide association study meta-analyses, we find that under reasonable model assumptions, 23 of 36 autosomal T2D risk loci are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < .005, and four of the 23 are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < .05. PMID:22865662

  8. Identifying plausible genetic models based on association and linkage results: application to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weihua; Boehnke, Michael; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J; Scott, Laura J

    2012-12-01

    When planning resequencing studies for complex diseases, previous association and linkage studies can constrain the range of plausible genetic models for a given locus. Here, we explore the combinations of causal risk allele frequency (RAFC ) and genotype relative risk (GRRC ) consistent with no or limited evidence for affected sibling pair (ASP) linkage and strong evidence for case-control association. We find that significant evidence for case-control association combined with no or moderate evidence for ASP linkage can define a lower bound for the plausible RAFC . Using data from large type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage and genome-wide association study meta-analyses, we find that under reasonable model assumptions, 23 of 36 autosomal T2D risk loci are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < 0.005, and four of the 23 are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < 0.05.

  9. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Preliminary genetic linkage maps of Chinese herb Dendrobium nobile and D. moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangguo; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Jiangjie; Liu, Junjun; Shen, Bo; Wang, Huizhong

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium is an endangered genus in the orchid family with medicinal and horticultural value. Two preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed using 90 F1 progeny individuals derived from an interspecific cross between D. nobile and D. moniliforme (both, 2n = 38), using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR). A total of 286 RAPD loci and 68 ISSR loci were identified and used for genetic linkage analysis. Maps were constructed by double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy using the software Mapmaker/EXP ver. 3.0, and Kosambi map distances were constructed using a LOD score greater than or equal to 4 and a recombination threshold of 0.4. The resulting frame map of D. nobile was 1474 cM in total length with 116 loci distributed in 15 linkage groups; and the D. moniliforme linkage map had 117 loci placed in 16 linkage groups spanning 1326.5 cM. Both maps showed 76.91% and 73.59% genome coverage for D. nobile and D. moniliforme, respectively. These primary maps provide an important basis for genetic studies and further medicinal and horticultural traits mapping and marker-assisted selection in Dendrobium breeding programmes.

  11. The use of marker-data transformations to account for linkage disequilibrium in genomic selection: a case study in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains, particularly in perennial grass species like switchgrass, where phenotyping generally requires at least two years of field trial. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for GS in two different p...

  12. A Genetic Linkage Map of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, using SSR and DArT Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak or Black Sigatoka disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export Cavendish cultivars are highly susceptible. Previously a genetic linkage map was generated predominantly using anonymous AFLP ma...

  13. Multipoint likelihoods for genetic linkage: The untyped founder problem

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, J.R.; Chiarulli, D.M.; Weeks, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    Too many untyped founders in a pedigree cause the Elston-Stewart algorithm to grind to a halt. Our solution to this problem involves recoding alleles based on symmetry and identity-by-descent to greatly reduce the number of multi-locus genotypes. We also use modified genotype elimination to better organize the calculation, substantially reducing the amount of memory needed. We never have to consider multi-locus genotypes that are not valid. Thus for typed pedigrees, the calculation is independent of the number of alleles at a locus. In addition, our locus-by-locus method allows us to group similar calculations to avoid recomputation, costly bookkeeping for valid genotypes, and large memory allocation. We were able to do a 4-locus likelihood for a 41-member simple pedigree with the first two generations untyped and an allele product of over 1500 in under an hour. This likelihood cannot be computed at all with LINKAGE, since some of its arrays would require over a gigabyte of memory. Our locus-by-locus method is also well-suited for parallelization since we can factor the computation into smaller independent pieces. This will enable us to tackle problems of even greater complexity.

  14. Heavy ion mutagenesis: linear energy transfer effects and genetic linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Criddle, K.; Vannais, D.; Ueno, A.; Kraemer, S.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a series of 69 independent mutants at the endogenous hprt locus of human TK6 lymphoblasts and over 200 independent S1-deficient mutants of the human x hamster hybrid cell line AL arising spontaneously or following low-fluence exposures to densely ionizing Fe ions (600 MeV/amu, linear energy transfer = 190 keV/microns). We find that large deletions are common. The entire hprt gene (> 44 kb) was missing in 19/39 Fe-induced mutants, while only 2/30 spontaneous mutants lost the entire hprt coding sequence. When the gene of interest (S1 locus = M1C1 gene) is located on a nonessential human chromosome 11, multilocus deletions of several million base pairs are observed frequently. The S1 mutation frequency is more than 50-fold greater than the frequency of hprt mutants in the same cells. Taken together, these results suggest that low-fluence exposures to Fe ions are often cytotoxic due to their ability to create multilocus deletions that may often include the loss of essential genes. In addition, the tumorigenic potential of these HZE heavy ions may be due to the high potential for loss of tumor suppressor genes. The relative insensitivity of the hprt locus to mutation is likely due to tight linkage to a gene that is required for viability.

  15. Recent advances in molecular genetic linkage maps of cultivated peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. Narrow genetic diversity and deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers had severely hi...

  16. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth. PMID:25079139

  17. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed Central

    Waldbieser, G C; Bosworth, B G; Nonneman, D J; Wolters, W R

    2001-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified in channel catfish gene sequences or random clones from a small insert genomic DNA library. Outbred populations of channel catfish contained an average of eight alleles per locus and an average heterozygosity of 0.70. A genetic linkage map of the channel catfish genome (N = 29) was constructed from two reference families. A total of 293 microsatellite loci were polymorphic in one or both families, with an average of 171 informative meioses per locus. Nineteen type I loci, 243 type II loci, and one EST were placed in 32 multipoint linkage groups covering 1958 cM. Nine more type II loci were contained in three two-point linkage groups covering 24.5 cM. Twenty-two type II loci remained unlinked. Multipoint linkage groups ranged in size from 11.9 to 110.5 cM with an average intermarker distance of 8.7 cM. Seven microsatellite loci were closely linked with the sex-determining locus. The microsatellite loci and genetic linkage map will increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for channel catfish. PMID:11404336

  18. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity: Genetics of Healthy Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus; Hervonen, Anti; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Sikora, Ewa; Flachsbart, Frederieke; Christiansen, Lene; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Kirkwood, Tom B.L.; Rea, I. Meave; Poulain, Michel; Robine, Jean-Marie; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Passarino, Giuseppe; Deiana, Luca; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Valensin, Silvana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Tan, Qihua; Helmer, Quinta; Van den Akker, Erik B.; Deelen, Joris; Martella, Francesca; Cordell, Heather J.; Ayers, Kristin L.; Vaupel, James W.; Törnwall, Outi; Johnson, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Stefan; Lathrop, Mark; Skytthe, Axel; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Christensen, Kaare; Gampe, Jutta; Nebel, Almut; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian sibling pairs that have been enrolled in fifteen study centers of eleven European countries as part of the Genetics of Healthy Ageing (GEHA) project. In the joint linkage analyses we observed four regions that show linkage with longevity; chromosome 14q11.2 (LOD=3.47), chromosome 17q12-q22 (LOD=2.95), chromosome 19p13.3-p13.11 (LOD=3.76) and chromosome 19q13.11-q13.32 (LOD=3.57). To fine map these regions linked to longevity, we performed association analysis using GWAS data in a subgroup of 1,228 unrelated nonagenarian and 1,907 geographically matched controls. Using a fixed effect meta-analysis approach, rs4420638 at the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 gene locus showed significant association with longevity (p-value=9.6 × 10−8). By combined modeling of linkage and association we showed that association of longevity with APOEε4 and APOEε2 alleles explain the linkage at 19q13.11-q13.32 with p-value=0.02 and p-value=1.0 × 10−5, respectively. In the largest linkage scan thus far performed for human familial longevity, we confirm that the APOE locus is a longevity gene and that additional longevity loci may be identified at 14q11.2, 17q12-q22 and 19p13.3-p13.11. Since the latter linkage results are not explained by common variants, we suggest that rare variants play an important role in human familial longevity. PMID:23286790

  19. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of human chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, R.E.; Speer, M.C.; Luo, Ying; Ott, J.; Gilliam, T.C. ); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. )

    1993-01-01

    We isolated nine new microsatellite markers from chromosome 18 and further characterized and mapped eight microsatellites developed in other laboratories. We have constructed a framework linkage map of chromosome 18 that includes 14 microsatellite markers (12 dinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide) and 2 RFLP markers. Cytogenetic localization for the microsatellites was performed by PCR amplification of IS somatic cell hybrids containing different deletions of chromosome 18. Twelve of the microsatellites and one of the RFLPs have heterozygosities greater than 70%. The average heterozygosity of the markers included in the map is 72%. In addition, we have made provisional placements of 3 more microsatellite markers and 2 more RFLP markers. The map lengths (in Kosambi centimorgans) are as follows: sex-averaged, 109.3 cM; male, 72.4 cM; female, 161.2 cM. The average distance between markers in the sex-averaged map is 7.3 cM, and the largest gap between markers is 16.7 cM. Analysis of the data for differences in the female:male map distance ratio revealed significant evidence for a constant difference in the ratio (X[sup 2]=32.25; df = 1; P < 0.001; ratio = 2.5:1). Furthermore, there was significant evidence in favor of a variable female:male map distance ratio across the chromosome compared to a constant distance ratio (X[sup 2] = 27.78; df = 14; P = 0.015). To facilitate their use in genomic screening for disease genes, all of the microsatellite markers used here can be amplified under standard PCR conditions, and most can be used in duplex PCR reactions. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of human chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Speer, M.C.; Vayanis, E.; Fatima Bonaldo, M. de; Soares, M.B.; Fischer, S.G.; Warburton, D. ); Gilliam, C.; Ott, J. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY ); Tantravahi, U. )

    1993-01-01

    We have characterized 21 polymorphic (CA), microsatellites for the development of a genetic map of chromosome 13. Fifteen markers were isolated from a flow- sorted chromosome 13 library, four CA repeats were derived from NotI-containing cosmid clones, and two polymorphic markers were described previously (J. L. Weber, A. E. Kwitek, and P. E. May, 1990, Nucleic Acids Res. IS: 4638; L. Warnich, 1. Groenwald, L. Laubscher, and A. E. Retief, 1991, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 49(Suppl.): 372 (Abstract)). Regional localization for all of the markers was performed by amplification of DNA from five somatic cell hybrids containing different deletions of chromosome 13. Genetic markers were shown to be distributed throughout 6 of the 11 resolvable chromosomal subregions. Using data from nine families provided by the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH), a framework map of 12 of these 21 markers was developed. Six of the 12 markers form three pairs, with each two members of a pair being tightly linked, such that nine systems of markers can be distinguished. The average heterozygosity of these 12 markers is 0.75. The total length of the sex-averaged map is 65.4 cM (Kosambi), with an average distance of 8.2 cM between systems of markers (eight intervals). Seven remaining markers were placed provisionally into the framework map. 41 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Genetic epidemiology. Approaches to the genetic analysis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    John, S; Worthington, J

    2001-01-01

    The basis of susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is complex, comprising genetic and environmental susceptibility factors. We have reviewed the available approaches to the investigation of the genetic basis of complex diseases and how these are being applied to RA. Affected-sibling-pair methods for nonparametric linkage analysis, linkage-disequilibrium-based approaches, transmission disequilibrium testing, and disease-association studies are discussed. The pros, cons, and limitations of the approaches are considered and are illustrated by examples from the literature about rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Segregation and genetic linkage analyses of river catfish, Mystus nemurus, based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Hoh, B P; Siraj, S S; Tan, S G; Yusoff, K

    2013-02-28

    The river catfish Mystus nemurus is an important fresh water species for aquaculture in Malaysia. We report the first genetic linkage map of M. nemurus based on segregation analysis and a linkage map using newly developed microsatellite markers of M. nemurus. A total of 70 of the newly developed polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers were analyzed on pedigrees generated using a pseudo-testcross strategy from 2 mapping families. In the first mapping family, 100 offspring were produced from randomly selected dams of the same populations; dams of the second family were selected from 2 different populations, and this family had 50 offspring. Thirty-one of the 70 markers segregated according to the Mendelian segregation ratio. Linkage analysis revealed that 17 microsatellite markers belonging to 7 linkage groups were obtained at a logarithm of the odds score of 1.2 spanning 584 cM by the Kosambi mapping function, whereas the other 14 remained unlinked. The results from this study will act as primer to a more extensive genetic mapping study aimed towards identifying genetic loci involved in determining economically important traits.

  3. Genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal hypertension phenotypes using three summary measures

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shaoqi; Li, Lin; Li, Xia; Moser, Kathy L; Guo, Zheng; Shen, Gongqing; Cannata, Ruth; Zirzow, Erich; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing

    2003-01-01

    Background Longitudinal data often have multiple (repeated) measures recorded along a time trajectory. For example, the two cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (GAW13 Problem 1) contain 21 and 5 repeated measures for hypertension phenotypes as well as epidemiological risk factors, respectively. Direct modelling of a large number of serially and biologically correlated traits in the context of linkage analysis can be prohibitively complex. Alternatively, we may consider using univariate transformation for linkage analysis of longitudinal repeated measures. Results We evaluated the utility of three conventional summary measures (mean, slope, and principal components) for genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes by analyzing the chromosome 10 data of the Framingham Heart Study. Except for the temporal slope, all of the summary methods and the multivariate analysis identified the previously reported region, marker GATA64A09, for systolic blood pressure or high blood pressure. Further analysis revealed that this region may harbor gene(s) affecting human blood pressure at multiple stages of life. Conclusion We conclude that mean and principal components are feasible alternatives for genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes, but the slope might have a separate genetic basis from that of the original longitudinal phenotypes. PMID:14975092

  4. Genetic linkage analysis of schizophrenia using chromosome 11q13-24 markers in Israeli pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcrone, J.; Marchblanks, R.; Whatley, S.A.

    1995-04-24

    It is generally agreed that there is a genetic component in the etiology of schizophrenia which may be tested by the application of linkage analysis to multiply-affected families. One genetic region of interest is the long arm of chromosome 11 because of previously reported associations of genetic variation in this region with schizophrenia, and because of the fact that it contains the locus for the dopamine D2 receptor gene. In this study we have examined the segregation of schizophrenia with microsatellite dinucleotide repeat DNA markers along chromosome 11q in 5 Israeli families multiply-affected for schizophrenia. The hypothesis of linkage under genetic homogeneity of causation was tested under a number of genetic models. Linkage analysis provided no evidence for significant causal mutations within the region bounded by INT and D11S420 on chromosome 11q. It is still possible, however, that a gene of major effect exists in this region, either with low penetrance or with heterogeneity. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Genetic heterogeneity in psoriasis vulgaris based on linkage analyses of a large family material

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstroem, J.; Swanbeck, G.; Inerot, A.

    1994-09-01

    Information on psoriasis among parents and siblings in 14,008 families has been collected. On the basis of this material, evidence for monogenetic autosomal recessive inheritance of psoriasis has recently been presented. Indications from more than one type of non-pustular psoriasis has been obtained from the population genetic data. Molecular genetic linkage analysis of psoriasis to a number of polymorphic genetic markers for a large number of families has been made. It is apparent that there is genetic heterogeneity in a psoriasis population with regard to psoriasis genes. Using the computer program Linkage 5.0 and a formula for heterogeneity, a lodscore over 3.0 for one locus has been obtained. This locus has further been confirmed by several other markers in the vicinity. The locus found is linked to slightly over half of the families, indicating that there are more genetically independent types of psoriasis. The age at onset of those families that are apparently linked to this locus have a slightly higher age at onset than those not linked to that locus but with a considerable overlap. In spite of close coverage of the whole chromosomes number 6 and 17, no linkage has been found in this regions. This indicates that neither the HLA region nor the region earlier found to be involved in one family with psoriasis are primarily involved in our families.

  6. An integrated genetic linkage map for white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with alignment to Medicago

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a temperate forage legume with an allotetraploid genome (2n=4×=32) estimated at 1093 Mb. Several linkage maps of various sizes, marker sources and completeness are available, however, no integrated map and marker set has explored consistency of linkage analysis among unrelated mapping populations. Such integrative analysis requires tools for homoeologue matching among populations. Development of these tools provides for a consistent framework map of the white clover genome, and facilitates in silico alignment with the model forage legume, Medicago truncatula. Results This is the first report of integration of independent linkage maps in white clover, and adds to the literature on methyl filtered GeneThresher®-derived microsatellite (simple sequence repeat; SSR) markers for linkage mapping. Gene-targeted SSR markers were discovered in a GeneThresher® (TrGT) methyl-filtered database of 364,539 sequences, which yielded 15,647 SSR arrays. Primers were designed for 4,038 arrays and of these, 465 TrGT-SSR markers were used for parental consensus genetic linkage analysis in an F1 mapping population (MP2). This was merged with an EST-SSR consensus genetic map of an independent population (MP1), using markers to match homoeologues and develop a multi-population integrated map of the white clover genome. This integrated map (IM) includes 1109 loci based on 804 SSRs over 1274 cM, covering 97% of the genome at a moderate density of one locus per 1.2 cM. Eighteen candidate genes and one morphological marker were also placed on the IM. Despite being derived from disparate populations and marker sources, the component maps and the derived IM had consistent representations of the white clover genome for marker order and genetic length. In silico analysis at an E-value threshold of 1e-20 revealed substantial co-linearity with the Medicago truncatula genome, and indicates a translocation between T. repens groups 2 and 6 relative to

  7. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines.

  8. Linkage of Pfeiffer syndrome to chromosome 8 centromere and evidence for genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Robin, N H; Feldman, G J; Mitchell, H F; Lorenz, P; Wilroy, R S; Zackai, E H; Allanson, J E; Reich, E W; Pfeiffer, R A; Clarke, L A

    1994-12-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia, and broad thumbs and great toes. We examined 129 individuals from 11 families with PS and performed linkage studies using microsatellite markers spanning the entire genome. Strongest support for linkage was with DNA markers (D8S255, GATA8G08) from chromosome 8. Obligate crossovers exclude close linkage to this region in six families, and there was significant evidence for genetic heterogeneity. A multipoint lod score of 7.15 was obtained in five families. The 11 cM interval between D8S278 and D8S285 contains one gene for PS and also spans the centromere of chromosome 8.

  9. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has and continues to be an important research goal to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection in breeding. Even though a few maps have been developed, they were constructed using diploid or interspecific tetraploid populations. The most recently published intra-specific map was constructed from the cross of cultivated peanuts, in which only 135 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were sparsely populated in 22 linkage groups. The more detailed linkage map with sufficient markers is necessary to be feasible for QTL identification and marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Results Three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations were constructed from three crosses with one common female parental line Yueyou 13, a high yielding Spanish market type. The four parents were screened with 1044 primer pairs designed to amplify SSRs and 901 primer pairs produced clear PCR products. Of the 901 primer pairs, 146, 124 and 64 primer pairs (markers) were polymorphic in these populations, respectively, and used in genotyping these RIL populations. Individual linkage maps were constructed from each of the three populations and a composite map based on 93 common loci were created using JoinMap. The composite linkage maps consist of 22 composite linkage groups (LG) with 175 SSR markers (including 47 SSRs on the published AA genome maps), representing the 20 chromosomes of A. hypogaea. The total composite map length is 885.4 cM, with an average marker density of 5.8 cM. Segregation distortion in the 3 populations was 23.0%, 13.5% and 7.8% of the markers, respectively. These

  10. On the Consequences of Purging and Linkage on Fitness and Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bersabé, Diego; Caballero, Armando; Pérez-Figueroa, Andrés; García-Dorado, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Using computer simulation we explore the consequences of linkage on the inbreeding load of an equilibrium population, and on the efficiency of purging and the loss of genetic diversity after a reduction in population size. We find that linkage tends to cause increased inbreeding load due to the build up of coupling groups of (partially) recessive deleterious alleles. It also induces associative overdominance at neutral sites but rarely causes increased neutral genetic diversity in equilibrium populations. After a reduction in population size, linkage can cause some delay both for the expression of the inbreeding load and the corresponding purging. However, reasonable predictions can be obtained for the evolution of fitness under inbreeding and purging by using empirical estimates of the inbreeding depression rate. Purging selection against homozygotes for deleterious alleles affects the population’s pedigree. Furthermore, it can slow the loss of genetic diversity compared to that expected from the variance of gametic contributions to the breeding group and even from pedigree inbreeding. Under some conditions, this can lead to a smaller loss of genetic diversity, even below that expected from population size in the absence of selection. PMID:26564947

  11. Molecular genetic linkage maps of mouse chromosomes 4 and 6.

    PubMed

    Bahary, N; Zorich, G; Pachter, J E; Leibel, R L; Friedman, J M

    1991-09-01

    We have generated a moderate resolution genetic map of mouse chromosomes 4 and 6 utilizing a (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus) F1 x Mus spretus backcross with RFLPs for 31 probes. The map for chromosome 4 covers 77 cM and details a large region of homology to human chromosome 1p. The map establishes the breakpoints in the mouse 4-human 1p region of homology to a 2-cM interval between Ifa and Jun in mouse and to the interval between JUN and ACADM in human. The map for mouse chromosome 6 spans a 65-cM region and contains a large region of homology to human 7q. These maps also provide chromosomal assignment and order for a number of previously unmapped probes. The maps should allow the rapid regional assignment of new markers to mouse chromosomes 4 and 6. In addition, knowledge of the gene order in mouse may prove useful in determining the gene order of the homologous regions in human.

  12. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

  13. Genetic linkage of hereditary gingival fibromatosis to chromosome 2p21.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, T C; Pallos, D; Bowden, D W; Bolyard, J; Pettenati, M J; Cortelli, J R

    1998-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a slowly progressive benign enlargement of the oral gingival tissues. The condition results in the teeth being partially or totally engulfed by keratinized gingiva, causing aesthetic and functional problems. Both genetic and pharmacologically induced forms of gingival fibromatosis are known. The most common genetic form, hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), is usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, although sporadic cases are common and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. The genetic basis of gingival fibromatosis is unknown. We identified an extended family (n=32) segregating an autosomal dominant form of isolated gingival fibromatosis. Using a genomewide search strategy, we identified genetic linkage (Zmax=5.05, straight theta=.00) for the HGF phenotype to polymorphic markers in the genetic region of chromosome 2p21 bounded by the loci D2S1788 and D2S441. This is the first report of linkage for isolated HGF, and the findings have implications for identification of the underlying genetic basis of gingival fibromatosis. PMID:9529355

  14. Linkage and Association Analyses of Schizophrenia with Genetic Variations on Chromosome 22q11 in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se Chang; Jang, Yong Lee; Kim, Jong-Won; Cho, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Yeon; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chromosome 22q11 has been implicated as a susceptibility locus of schizophrenia. It also contains various candidate genes for which evidence of association with schizophrenia has been reported. To determine whether genetic variations in chromosome 22q11 are associated with schizophrenia in Koreans, we performed a linkage analysis and case-control association study. Methods Three microsatellite markers within a region of 4.35 Mb on 22q11 were genotyped for 47 multiplex schizophrenia families, and a non-parametric linkage analysis was applied. The association analysis was done with 227 unrelated patients and 292 normal controls. For 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1.4 Mb region (33 kb interval) containing four candidate schizophrenia genes (DGCR, COMT, PRODH and ZDHHC8), allele frequencies were estimated in pooled DNA samples. Results No significant linkage was found at any of the three microsatellite markers in single and multi-point analyses. Five SNPs showed suggestive evidence of association (p<0.05) and two more SNPs showed a trend for association (p<0.1) in pooled DNA association analysis. Individual genotyping was performed for those seven SNPs and four more intragenic SNPs. In this second analysis, all of the 11 SNPs individually genotyped did not show significant association. Conclusion The present study suggests that genetic variations on chromosome 22q11 may not play a major role in Korean schizophrenia patients. Inadequate sample size, densities of genetic markers and differences between location of genetic markers of linkage and association can contribute to an explanation of the negative results of this study. PMID:27909454

  15. An ultra-dense SNP linkage map for the octoploid, cultivated strawberry and its application in genetic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We will present an ultra-dense genetic linkage map for the octoploid, cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) consisting of over 13K Axiom® based SNP markers and 150 previously mapped reference SSR loci. The high quality of the map is demonstrated by the short sizes of each of the 28 linkage gro...

  16. Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: Results from 214 families

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, D.F.; Ford, D. ); Bishop, D.T.; Crockford, G.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a collaborative linkage study involving 214 breast cancer families, including 57 breast-ovarian cancer families; this represents almost all the known families with 17q linkage data. Six markers on 17q, spanning approximately 30 cM, were typed in the families. The aims of the study were to define more precisely the localization of the disease gene, the extent of genetic heterogeneity and the characteristics of linked families and to estimate the penetrance of the 17q gene. Under the assumption of no genetic heterogeneity, the strongest linkage evidence was obtained with D17S588. Multipoint linkage analysis allowing for genetic heterogeneity provided evidence that the predisposing gene lies between the markers D17S588 and D17S250, an interval whose genetic length is estimated to be 8.3 cM in males and 18.0 cM in females. This position was supported over other intervals by odds of 66:1. The location of the gene with respect to D17S579 could not be determined unequivocally. Under the genetic model used in the analysis, the best estimate of the proportion of linked breast-ovarian cancer families was 1.0 (lower LOD -- 1 limit 0.79). In contrast, there was significant evidence of genetic heterogeneity among the families without ovarian cancer, with an estimated 45% being linked. These results suggest that a gene(s) on chromosome 17q accounts for the majority of families in which both early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer occur but that other genes predisposing to breast cancer exist. By examining the fit of the linkage data to different penetrance functions, the cumulative risk associated with the 17q gene was estimated to be 59% by age 50 years and 82% by age 70 years. The corresponding estimates for the breast-ovary families were 67% and 76%, and those for the families without ovarian cancer were 49% and 90%; these penetrance functions did not differ significantly from one another. 42 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The genetics of colored sequence synesthesia: Suggestive evidence of linkage to 16q and genetic heterogeneity for the condition

    PubMed Central

    Tomson, Steffie N.; Avidan, Nili; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Sarma, Anand K.; Tushe, Rejnal; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Bray, Molly; Leal, Suzanne M.; Eagleman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a perceptual condition in which sensory stimulation triggers anomalous sensory experiences. In colored sequence synesthesia (CSS), color experiences are triggered by sequences such as letters or numbers. We performed a family based linkage analysis to identify genetic loci responsible for the increased neural crosstalk underlying CSS. Our results implicate a 23 MB region at 16q12.2-23.1, providing the first step in understanding the molecular basis of CSS. PMID:21504763

  18. Human Xq28 inversion polymorphism: From sex linkage to Genomics--A genetic mother lode.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Cait S; Kolber, Natalie; Salih Almohaidi, Asmaa M; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Saunders, Lori; Williams, Steven; Merritt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An inversion polymorphism of the filamin and emerin genes at the tip of the long arm of the human X-chromosome serves as the basis of an investigative laboratory in which students learn something new about their own genomes. Long, nearly identical inverted repeats flanking the filamin and emerin genes illustrate how repetitive elements can lead to alterations in genome structure (inversions) through nonallelic homologous recombination. The near identity of the inverted repeats is an example of concerted evolution through gene conversion. While the laboratory in its entirety is designed for college level genetics courses, portions of the laboratory are appropriate for courses at other levels. Because the polymorphism is on the X-chromosome, the laboratory can be used in introductory biology courses to enhance understanding of sex-linkage and to test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in females. More advanced topics, such as chromosome interference, the molecular model for recombination, and inversion heterozygosity suppression of recombination can be explored in upper-level genetics and evolution courses. DNA isolation, restriction digests, ligation, long PCR, and iPCR provide experience with techniques in molecular biology. This investigative laboratory weaves together topics stretching from molecular genetics to cytogenetics and sex-linkage, population genetics and evolutionary genetics.

  19. Genetic linkage mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Oehlmann, R.; Summerville, G.P.; Yeh, G.; Weaver, E.J.; Jimenez, S.A.; Knowlton, R.G. )

    1994-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is an inherited chondrodystrophy that results in deformity of articular surfaces and in subsequent degenerative joint disease. The disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. An MED mutation has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis of DNA polymorphisms in a single large pedigree. Close linkage of MED to 130 tested chromosomal markers was ruled out by discordant inheritance patterns. However, strong evidence for linkage of MED to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19 was obtained. The most closely linked marker was D19S215, with a maximum LOD score of 6.37 at [theta] = .05. Multipoint linkage analysis indicated that MED is located between D19S212 and D19S215, a map interval of 1.7 cM. Discovery of the map location of MED in this family will facilitate identification of the mutant gene. The closely linked DNA polymorphisms will also provide the means to determine whether other inherited chondrodystrophies have underlying defects in the same gene. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Genetic mapping of X-linked ocular albinism: Linkage analysis in a large Newfoundland kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, S.J.; Moore, A.T.; Barton, D.E.; Yates, J.R.W. ); Green, J.S. )

    1993-04-01

    Genetic linkage studies in a large Newfoundland family affected by X-linked ocular albinism (OA1) showed linkage to markers from Xp22.3. One recombinant mapped the disease proximal to DXS143 (dic56) and two recombinants mapped the disease distal to DXS85 (782). Combining the data with that from 16 British families previously published confirmed close linkage between OA1 and DXS143 (dic56; Z[sub max] = 21.96 at [theta] = 0.01, confidence interval (CI) 0.0005--0.05) and linkage to DXS85 (782; Z[sub max] = 17.60 at [theta] = 0.07, CI = 0.03--0.13) and DXS237 (GMGX9; Z[sub max] = 15.20 at [theta] = 0.08, CI = 0.03--0.15). Multipoint analysis (LINKMAP) gave the most likely order as Xpter-XG-DXS237-DXS143-OA1-DXS85, with odds of 48:1 over the order Xpter-XG-DXS237-OA1-DXS143-DXS85, and odds exceeding 10[sup 10]:1 over other locations for the disease locus. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Second-generation integrated genetic linkage/radiation hybrid maps of the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, M; David, V A; Roelke, M E; Chen, Z Q; Menotti, K A; Sun, S; Schäffer, A A; Tomlin, J F; Agarwala, R; O'Brien, S J; Murphy, W J

    2003-01-01

    We report construction of second-generation integrated genetic linkage and radiation hybrid (RH) maps in the domestic cat (Felis catus) that exhibit a high level of marker concordance and provide near-full genome coverage. A total of 864 markers, including 585 coding loci (type I markers) and 279 polymorphic microsatellite loci (type II markers), are now mapped in the cat genome. We generated the genetic linkage map utilizing a multigeneration interspecies backcross pedigree between the domestic cat and the Asian leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). Eighty-one type I markers were integrated with 247 type II markers from a first-generation map to generate a map of 328 loci (320 autosomal and 8 X-linked) distributed in 47 linkage groups, with an average intermarker spacing of 8 cM. Genome coverage spans approximately 2,650 cM, allowing an estimate for the genetic length of the sex-averaged map as 3,300 cM. The 834-locus second-generation domestic cat RH map was generated from the incorporation of 579 type I and 255 type II loci. Type I markers were added using targeted selection to cover either genomic regions underrepresented in the first-generation map or to refine breakpoints in human/feline synteny. The integrated linkage and RH maps reveal approximately 110 conserved segments ordered between the human and feline genomes, and provide extensive anchored reference marker homologues that connect to the more gene dense human and mouse sequence maps, suitable for positional cloning applications.

  2. Genetic linkage analysis of hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy (Stickler syndrome) and the type II procollagen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, R G; Weaver, E J; Struyk, A F; Knobloch, W H; King, R A; Norris, K; Shamban, A; Uitto, J; Jimenez, S A; Prockop, D J

    1989-01-01

    Hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy (AO), or Stickler syndrome, is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by vitreo-retinal degeneration and frequently accompanied by epiphyseal dysplasia and premature degenerative joint disease. Three large families with AO were analyzed for clinical manifestations of the disease and for coinheritance of the genetic defect with RFLPs in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1). Genetic linkage between AO and COL2A1 was demonstrated in the largest family, with a maximum LOD score of 3.52 at a recombination distance of zero. Data from a second family also supported linkage of AO and COL2A1, with a LOD score of 1.20 at a recombination distance of zero. These results are consistent with the conclusion that mutations in the COL2A1 gene are responsible for AO in these two families. In a third AO family, however, recombination between AO and COL2A1 occurred in at least one meiosis, and the data were inconclusive with respect to linkage. Images Figure 2 PMID:2573273

  3. A genetic linkage map of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa) based on AFLP, RAPD, and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Maughan, P J; Bonifacio, A; Jellen, E N; Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Ricks, M; Mason, S L; Jarvis, D E; Gardunia, B W; Fairbanks, D J

    2004-10-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an important seed crop for human consumption in the Andean region of South America. It is the primary staple in areas too arid or saline for the major cereal crops. The objective of this project was to build the first genetic linkage map of quinoa. Selection of the mapping population was based on a preliminary genetic similarity analysis of four potential mapping parents. Breeding lines 'Ku-2' and '0654', a Chilean lowland type and a Peruvian Altiplano type, respectively, showed a low similarity coefficient of 0.31 and were selected to form an F(2) mapping population. The genetic map is based on 80 F(2) individuals from this population and consists of 230 amplified length polymorphism (AFLP), 19 simple-sequence repeat (SSR), and six randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The map spans 1,020 cM and contains 35 linkage groups with an average marker density of 4.0 cM per marker. Clustering of AFLP markers was not observed. Additionally, we report the primer sequences and map locations for 19 SSR markers that will be valuable tools for future quinoa genome analysis. This map provides a key starting point for genetic dissection of agronomically important characteristics of quinoa, including seed saponin content, grain yield, maturity, and resistance to disease, frost, and drought. Current efforts are geared towards the generation of more than 200 mapped SSR markers and the development of several recombinant-inbred mapping populations.

  4. Optimal sampling strategies for detecting linkage of a complex trait with known genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, D.F.; Goldgar, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    As genes underlying susceptibility to human disease are identified through linkage analysis, it is becoming increasingly clear that genetic heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. The focus of the present work is to examine the power and optimal sampling design for localizing a second disease gene when one disease gene has previously been identified. In particular, we examined the case when the unknown locus had lower penetrance, but higher frequency, than the known locus. Three scenarios regarding knowledge about locus 1 were examined: no linkage information (i.e. standard heterogeneity analysis), tight linkage with a known highly polymorphic marker locus, and mutation testing. Exact expected LOD scores (ELODs) were calculated for a number of two-locus genetic models under the 3 scenarios of heterogeneity for nuclear families containing 2, 3 or 4 affected children, with 0 or 1 affected parents. A cost function based upon the cost of ascertaining and genotyping sufficient samples to achieve an ELOD of 3.0 was used to evaluate the designs. As expected, the power and the optimal pedigree sampling strategy was dependent on the underlying model and the heterogeneity testing status. When the known locus had higher penetrance than the unknown locus, three affected siblings with unaffected parents proved to be optimal for all levels of heterogeneity. In general, mutation testing at the first locus provided substantially more power for detecting the second locus than linkage evidence alone. However, when both loci had relatively low penetrance, mutation testing provided little improvement in power since most families could be expected to be segregating the high risk allele at both loci.

  5. Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr.

    1994-05-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Bianca B Z; Santos, Jean C S; Jungmann, Leticia; do Valle, Cacilda B; Mollinari, Marcelo; Pastina, Maria M; Pagliarini, Maria Suely; Garcia, Antonio A F; Souza, Anete P

    2016-01-01

    The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick.) is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs) and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs) were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus) was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for a co

  7. Tumor LOH analysis provides reliable linkage information for prenatal genetic testing of sporadic NF1 patients.

    PubMed

    Serra, Eduard; Pros, Eva; García, Carles; López, Eva; Gili, M Lluïsa; Gómez, Carolina; Ravella, Anna; Capellá, Gabriel; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi

    2007-09-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 gene has one of the highest mutation rates in humans: about 50% of NF1 patients are de novo cases. Although direct mutation characterization has greatly improved over the past decade, in the context of clinical genetics services worldwide, there is still a significant number of patients for which, while fulfilling NF1 clinical criteria, no constitutive mutation is found at a desired time. This is particularly critical for prenatal genetic testing of sporadic cases. Here we describe the use of loss of heterozygosity information in neurofibromas to obtain linkage information on the affected NF1 haplotype, which may be applied for prenatal testing in sporadic patients. However, proper genetic counseling should be provided regarding the possibility of somatic mosaicism.

  8. Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  9. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

  10. Maternal transmission disequilibrium of the glutamate receptor GRIK2 in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bah, J; Quach, H; Ebstein, R P; Segman, R H; Melke, J; Jamain, S; Rietschel, M; Modai, I; Kanas, K; Karni, O; Lerer, B; Gourion, D; Krebs, M O; Etain, B; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Bourgeron, T

    2004-08-26

    Schizophrenia is characterized by thought disorders, hallucinations and delusions. Genetic studies have shown a high linkage at chromosome 6q16-21. Among the genes located in this region is the glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 2 gene (GRIK2 or GLUR6), a functional candidate for susceptibility to schizophrenia. In this study, transmission of GRIK2 was evaluated in 356 schizophrenic patients from three different clinical centers. Whereas paternal transmission shows equilibrium, we observed maternal transmission disequilibrium of GRIK2 in the largest population (p=0.03), which was still significant when all populations were added (p=0.05). These results are similar to the maternal GRIK2 transmission disequilibrium previously reported for autism, and support the presence of a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia at 6q16.

  11. Genetic linkage map of Chinese native variety faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker is a powerful tool for construction of genetic linkage map which can be applied for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, a genetic map of faba bean was constructed with SSR markers using a population of 129 F2 ...

  12. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  13. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  14. A New Genetic Linkage Map of the Zygomycete Fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Viplendra P. S.; Idnurm, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Phycomyces blakesleeanus is a member of the subphylum Mucoromycotina. A genetic map was constructed from 121 progeny of a cross between two wild type isolates of P. blakesleeanus with 134 markers. The markers were mostly PCR-RFLPs. Markers were located on 46 scaffolds of the genome sequence, covering more than 97% of the genome. Analysis of the alleles in the progeny revealed nine or 12 linkage groups, depending on the log of the odds (LOD) score, across 1583.4 cM at LOD 5. The linkage groups were overlaid on previous mapping data from crosses between mutants, aided by new identification of the mutations in primary metabolism mutant strains. The molecular marker map, the phenotype map and the genome sequence are overall congruent, with some exceptions. The new genetic map provides a genome-wide estimate for recombination, with the average of 33.2 kb per cM. This frequency is one piece of evidence for meiosis during zygospore development in Mucoromycotina species. At the same time as meiosis, transmission of non-recombinant chromosomes is also evident in the mating process in Phycomyces. The new map provides scaffold ordering for the genome sequence and a platform upon which to identify the genes in mutants that are affected in traits of interest, such as carotene biosynthesis, phototropism or gravitropism, using positional cloning. PMID:23516579

  15. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map and putative sex-determining genomic regions in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yu; Nikaido, Masato; Kondo, Azusa; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Yoshida, Kohta; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-04-15

    Cichlid fishes in East Africa have undergone extensive adaptive radiation, which has led to spectacular diversity in their morphology and ecology. To date, genetic linkage maps have been constructed for several tilapias (riverine), Astatotilapia burtoni (Lake Tanganyika), and hybrid lines of Lake Malawi cichlids to facilitate genome-wide comparative analyses. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map of the hybrid line of Lake Victoria cichlids, so that maps of cichlids from all the major areas of East Africa will be available. The genetic linkage map shown here is derived from the F2 progeny of an interspecific cross between Haplochromis chilotes and Haplochromis sauvagei and is based on 184 microsatellite and two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Most of the microsatellite markers used in the present study were originally designed for other genetic linkage maps, allowing us to directly compare each linkage group (LG) among different cichlid groups. We found 25 LGs, the total length of which was 1133.2cM with an average marker spacing of about 6.09cM. Our subsequent linkage mapping analysis identified two putative sex-determining loci in cichlids. Interestingly, one of these two loci is located on cichlid LG5, on which the female heterogametic ZW locus and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to adaptive evolution have been reported in Lake Malawi cichlids. We also found that V1R1 and V1R2, candidate genes for the fish pheromone receptor, are located very close to the recently detected sex-determining locus on cichlid LG5. The genetic linkage map study presented here may provide a valuable foundation for studying the chromosomal evolution of East African cichlids and the possible role of sex chromosomes in generating their genomic diversity.

  16. Genetic linkage maps of two apricot cultivars ( Prunus armeniaca L.), and mapping of PPV (sharka) resistance.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, A.; Romero, C.; Vilanova, S.; Abbott, G.; Llácer, G.; Badenes, L.

    2002-08-01

    Genetic linkage maps for two apricot cultivars have been constructed using AFLP, RAPD, RFLP and SSR markers in 81 F1 individuals from the cross 'Goldrich' x 'Valenciano'. This family segregated for resistance to 'plum pox virus' (PPV), the most-important virus affecting Prunus species. Of the 160 RAPD arbitrary primers screened a total of 44 were selected. Sixty one polymorphic RAPD markers were scored on the mapping population: 30 heterozygous in 'Goldrich', 19 heterozygous in 'Valenciano', segregating 1:1, and 12 markers heterozygous in both parents, segregating 3:1. A total of 33 and 19 RAPD markers were mapped on the 'Goldrich' and 'Valenciano' maps respectively. Forteen primer combinations were used for AFLPs and all of them detected polymorphism. Ninety five markers segregating 1:1 were identified, of which 62 were heterozygous in the female parent 'Goldrich' and 33 in the male parent 'Valenciano'. Forty five markers were present in both parents and segregated 3:1. A total of 82 and 48 AFLP markers were mapped on the 'Goldrich' and 'Valenciano' maps. Twelve RFLPs probes were screened in the population, resulting in five loci segregating in the family, one locus heterozygous for 'Valenciano' and four heterozygous for both, segregating 1:2:1. Of the 45 SSRs screened 17 segregated in the mapping family, resulting in seven loci heterozygous for the maternal parent and ten heterozygous for both, segregating 1:2:1 or 1:1:1:1. A total of 16 and 13 co-dominant markers were mapped in the female and male parent maps respectively. A total of 132 markers were placed into eight linkage groups on the 'Goldrich' map, defining 511 cM of the total map-length. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.9 cM. A total of 80 markers were placed into seven linkage groups on the 'Valenciano' map, defining 467.2 cM of the total map-distance, with an average interval of 5.8 cM between adjacent markers. Thirty six marker loci heterozygous in both parents revealed

  17. A multipedigree linkage study of X-linked deafness: linkage to Xq13-q21 and evidence for genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Reardon, W; Middleton-Price, H R; Sandkuijl, L; Phelps, P; Bellman, S; Luxon, L; Pembrey, M E; Malcolm, S

    1991-12-01

    A locus for X-linked nonsyndromic deafness has previously been allocated to the Xq13-q21 region based on linkage studies in two separate pedigrees. This has been substantiated by the observation of deafness as a clinical feature of male patients with cytogenetically detectable deletions across this region. The question of a second locus for deafness in this chromosomal region has been raised by the audiologically distinct nature of the deafness in some of the deleted patients compared to that observed in those patients upon whom the linkage data are based. We have performed detailed clinical evaluation and linkage studies on seven pedigrees with nonsyndromic X-linked deafness and conclude that there is evidence for at least two loci for this form of deafness, including one in the Xq13-q21 region. We have observed different radiological features among the pedigrees which map to Xq13-q21, suggesting that even among these pedigrees the deafness is due to different pathological processes. Given these findings, we suggest that the classification of nonsyndromic X-linked deafness based solely on audiological criteria may need to be reviewed.

  18. Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Vigna, Bianca B. Z.; Santos, Jean C. S.; Jungmann, Leticia; do Valle, Cacilda B.; Mollinari, Marcelo; Pastina, Maria M.; Garcia, Antonio A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick.) is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs) and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs) were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus) was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for a co

  19. Linkage and association analysis of ADHD endophenotypes in extended and multigenerational pedigrees from a genetic isolate.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, C A; Pillai, E; Pineda, D A; Martinez, A F; Lopera, F; Velez, J I; Palacio, J D; Patel, H; Easteal, S; Acosta, M T; Castellanos, F X; Muenke, M; Arcos-Burgos, M

    2016-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurodevelopmental disorder with serious long-term repercussions. Despite being one of the most common cognitive disorders, the clinical diagnosis of ADHD is based on subjective assessments of perceived behaviors. Endophenotypes (neurobiological markers that cosegregate and are associated with an illness) are thought to provide a more powerful and objective framework for revealing the underlying neurobiology than syndromic psychiatric classification. Here, we present the results of applying genetic linkage and association analyses to neuropsychological endophenotypes using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found several new genetic regions linked and/or associated with these endophenotypes, and others previously associated to ADHD, for example, loci harbored in the LPHN3, FGF1, POLR2A, CHRNA4 and ANKFY1 genes. These findings, when compared with those linked and/or associated to ADHD, suggest that these endophenotypes lie on shared pathways. The genetic information provided by this study offers a novel and complementary method of assessing the genetic causes underpinning the susceptibility to behavioral conditions and may offer new insights on the neurobiology of the disorder.

  20. Linkage and association analysis of ADHD endophenotypes in extended and multigenerational pedigrees from a genetic isolate

    PubMed Central

    Mastronardi, C A; Pillai, E; Pineda, D A; Martinez, A F; Lopera, F; Velez, J I; Palacio, J D; Patel, H; Easteal, S; Acosta, M T; Castellanos, F X; Muenke, M; Arcos-Burgos, M

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurodevelopmental disorder with serious long-term repercussions. Despite being one of the most common cognitive disorders, the clinical diagnosis of ADHD is based on subjective assessments of perceived behaviors. Endophenotypes (neurobiological markers that cosegregate and are associated with an illness) are thought to provide a more powerful and objective framework for revealing the underlying neurobiology than syndromic psychiatric classification. Here, we present the results of applying genetic linkage and association analyses to neuropsychological endophenotypes using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found several new genetic regions linked and/or associated with these endophenotypes, and others previously associated to ADHD, for example, loci harbored in the LPHN3, FGF1, POLR2A, CHRNA4 and ANKFY1 genes. These findings, when compared with those linked and/or associated to ADHD, suggest that these endophenotypes lie on shared pathways. The genetic information provided by this study offers a novel and complementary method of assessing the genetic causes underpinning the susceptibility to behavioral conditions and may offer new insights on the neurobiology of the disorder. PMID:26598068

  1. A genome-wide scan in affected sibling pairs with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage suggests genetic linkage.

    PubMed

    Kolte, A M; Nielsen, H S; Moltke, I; Degn, B; Pedersen, B; Sunde, L; Nielsen, F C; Christiansen, O B

    2011-06-01

    Previously, siblings of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM) have been shown to have a higher risk of miscarriage. This study comprises two parts: (i) an epidemiological part, in which we introduce data on the frequency of miscarriage among 268 siblings of 244 patients with IRM and (ii) a genetic part presenting data from a genome-wide linkage study of 38 affected sibling pairs with IRM. All IRM patients (probands) had experienced three or more miscarriages and affected siblings two or more miscarriages. The sibling pairs were genotyped by the Affymetrix GeneChip 50K XbaI platform and non-parametric linkage analysis was performed via the software package Merlin. We find that siblings of IRM patients exhibit a higher frequency of miscarriage than population controls regardless of age at the time of pregnancy. We identify chromosomal regions with LOD scores between 2.5 and 3.0 in subgroups of affected sibling pairs. Maximum LOD scores were identified in four occurrences: for rs10514716 (3p14.2) when analyzing sister-pairs only; for rs10511668 (9p22.1) and rs341048 (11q13.4) when only analyzing families where the probands have had four or more miscarriages; and for rs10485275 (6q16.3) when analyzing one sibling pair from each family only. We identify no founder mutations. Concluding, our results imply that IRM patients and their siblings share factors which increase the risk of miscarriage. In this first genome-wide linkage study of affected sibling pairs with IRM, we identify regions on chromosomes 3, 6, 9 and 11 which warrant further investigation in order to elucidate their putative roles in the genesis of IRM.

  2. Genetic linkage of the familial cavernous malformation (CM) gene to chromosome 7q

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, J.H.; Zabramski, J.M.; Dubovsky, J.

    1994-09-01

    Cavernous malformations (also known as cavernous angiomas) are abnormalities of the central nervous system vasculature that affect approximately 0.5% of the population often leading to clinical sequelae such as headaches, seizures, hemorrhage and/or progressive neurological deficits. Non-familial and familial (autosomal dominant) forms of CM exist. Diagnosis is definitively made by surgery, autopsy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Increased availability of MRI has recently made pre-symptomatic diagnosis possible, and reveals that familial CM may represent up to 70% of patients. This is a larger percentage than previously appreciated. A large Hispanic family from Arizona with CM was studied by MRI, and blood samples collected for DNA isolation and linkage analysis. Twenty-seven family members underwent brain MRI to determine disease status, regardless of clinical symptoms: 18 were positive for CM and 9 were unaffected. DNA samples were obtained from 19 of the imaged individuals (12 affected, 7 unaffected). Using a panel of highly informative polymorphic markers, the CM gene was localized to a 27 cM region of chromosome 7q. A maximum pairwise lod score of 4.2 was attained from this family alone. One individual within this pedigree may be a recombinant, which if proven by further analysis, will significantly narrow the region of localization. We are also studying another unrelated Hispanic pedigree with familial CM. Fourteen members have been imaged by brain MRI. DNA samples have been obtained from 10 of these (7 affected, 3 unaffected). Linkage analysis within this additional pedigree will help refine the map position and could provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity for this disease. Additional members from both pedigrees are being added to the analysis to further refine the linkage map. This work provides the first step in identifying the gene and etiology of this medically important disease.

  3. Development of an integrated genetic map of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) commercial cross, based on a maximum-likelihood approach for estimation of linkage and linkage phases.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A A F; Kido, E A; Meza, A N; Souza, H M B; Pinto, L R; Pastina, M M; Leite, C S; Silva, J A G da; Ulian, E C; Figueira, A; Souza, A P

    2006-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a clonally propagated outcrossing polyploid crop of great importance in tropical agriculture. Up to now, all sugarcane genetic maps had been developed using either full-sib progenies derived from interspecific crosses or from selfing, both approaches not directly adopted in conventional breeding. We have developed a single integrated genetic map using a population derived from a cross between two pre-commercial cultivars ('SP80-180' x 'SP80-4966') using a novel approach based on the simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimation of linkage and linkage phases method specially designed for outcrossing species. From a total of 1,118 single-dose markers (RFLP, SSR and AFLP) identified, 39% derived from a testcross configuration between the parents segregating in a 1:1 fashion, while 61% segregated 3:1, representing heterozygous markers in both parents with the same genotypes. The markers segregating 3:1 were used to establish linkage between the testcross markers. The final map comprised of 357 linked markers, including 57 RFLPs, 64 SSRs and 236 AFLPs that were assigned to 131 co-segregation groups, considering a LOD score of 5, and a recombination fraction of 37.5 cM with map distances estimated by Kosambi function. The co-segregation groups represented a total map length of 2,602.4 cM, with a marker density of 7.3 cM. When the same data were analyzed using JoinMap software, only 217 linked markers were assigned to 98 co-segregation groups, spanning 1,340 cM, with a marker density of 6.2 cM. The maximum-likelihood approach reduced the number of unlinked markers to 761 (68.0%), compared to 901 (80.5%) using JoinMap. All the co-segregation groups obtained using JoinMap were present in the map constructed based on the maximum-likelihood method. Differences on the marker order within the co-segregation groups were observed between the two maps. Based on RFLP and SSR markers, 42 of the 131 co-segregation groups were assembled into 12 putative

  4. Integration of Brassica A genome genetic linkage map between Brassica napus and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Keita; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian

    2008-03-01

    An integrated linkage map between B. napus and B. rapa was constructed based on a total of 44 common markers comprising 41 SSR (33 BRMS, 6 Saskatoon, and 2 BBSRC) and 3 SNP/indel markers. Between 3 and 7 common markers were mapped onto each of the linkage groups A1 to A10. The position and order of most common markers revealed a high level of colinearity between species, although two small regions on A4, A5, and A10 revealed apparent local inversions between them. These results indicate that the A genome of Brassica has retained a high degree of colinearity between species, despite each species having evolved independently after the integration of the A and C genomes in the amphidiploid state. Our results provide a genetic integration of the Brassica A genome between B. napus and B. rapa. As the analysis employed sequence-based molecular markers, the information will accelerate the exploitation of the B. rapa genome sequence for the improvement of oilseed rape.

  5. Genetic and linkage analysis of purple-blue flower in soybean.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Oyoo, Maurice E; Khan, Nisar A

    2008-01-01

    Flower color of soybean is primarily controlled by genes W1, W3, W4, Wm, and Wp. In addition, the soybean gene symbol W2, w2 produces purple-blue flower in combination with W1. This study was conducted to determine the genetic control of purple-blue flower of cultivar (cv). Nezumisaya. F(1) plants derived from a cross between Nezumisaya and purple flower cv. Harosoy had purple flowers. Segregation of the F(2) plants fitted a ratio of 3 purple:1 purple-blue. F(3) lines derived from F(2) plants with purple-blue flowers were fixed for purple-blue flowers, whereas those from F(2) plants with purple flowers fitted a ratio of 1 fixed for purple flower:2 segregating for flower color. These results indicated that the flower color of Nezumisaya is controlled by a single gene whose recessive allele is responsible for purple-blue flower. Complementation analysis revealed that flower color of Nezumisaya is controlled by W2. Linkage mapping revealed that W2 is located in molecular linkage group B2. Sap obtained from banner petals of cvs. with purple flower had a pH value of 5.73-5.77, whereas that of cvs. with purple-blue flower had a value of 6.07-6.10. Our results suggested that W2 is responsible for vacuolar acidification of flower petals.

  6. Genetic linkage map of 46 DNA markers on human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.P.; Green, P.; Brown, V.A.; Phipps, P.; Bricker, A.; Falls, K.; Rediker, K.S.; Powers, J.A.; Hogan, C.; Nelson, C.; Knowlton, R.; Donis-Keller, H. ); Reeders, S.T. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors have constructed a genetic linkage map of human chromosome 16 based on 46 DNA markers that detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Segregation data were collected on a set of multigenerational families provided by the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, and maps were constructed using recently developed multipoint analysis techniques. The map spans 115 centimorgans (cM) in males and 193 cM in females. Over much of the chromosome there is a significantly higher frequency of recombination in females than males. Near the {alpha}-globin locus on the distal part of the short arm, however, there is a significant excess of male recombination. Twenty-seven (59%) of the markers on the map have heterozygosities greater than or equal to 0.50. The largest interval between loci on the sex-average map is 14 cM and the average marker spacing is 3 cM. Using loci on this map, one could detect linkage to a dominant disease on chromosome 16 with as few as 10-15 phase-known meioses.

  7. Genetic linkage of mild pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.D.; Rasmussen, M.; Garber, P.; Rimoin, D.L.; Cohn, D.H. ); Weber, J.L. ); Yuen, J.; Reinker, K. )

    1993-12-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a dominantly inherited form of short-limb dwarfism characterized by dysplastic changes in the spine, epiphyses, and metaphyses and early onset osteoarthropathy. Chondrocytes from affected individuals accumulate an unusual appearing material in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which has led to the hypothesis that a structural abnormality in a cartilage-specific protein produces the phenotype. The authors recently identified a large family with a mild form of pseudoachondroplasia. By genetic linkage to a dinucleotide repeat polymorphic marker (D19S199), they have localized the disease gene to chromosome 19 (maximum lod score of 7.09 at a recombination fraction of 0.03). Analysis of additional markers and recombinations between the linked markers and the phenotype suggests that the disease gene resides within a 6.3-cM interval in the immediate pericentromeric region of the chromosome. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Genetic linkage of distinct adaptive traits in sympatrically speciating crater lake cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Kovacova, Viera; Elmer, Kathryn R.; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how biological diversity arises is limited, especially in the case of speciation in the face of gene flow. Here we investigate the genomic basis of adaptive traits, focusing on a sympatrically diverging species pair of crater lake cichlid fishes. We identify the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two eco-morphological traits: body shape and pharyngeal jaw morphology. These traits diverge in parallel between benthic and limnetic species in the repeated adaptive radiations of this and other fish lineages. Remarkably, a single chromosomal region contains the highest effect size QTL for both traits. Transcriptomic data show that the QTL regions contain genes putatively under selection. Independent population genomic data corroborate QTL regions as areas of high differentiation between the sympatric sister species. Our results provide empirical support for current theoretical models that emphasize the importance of genetic linkage and pleiotropy in facilitating rapid divergence in sympatry. PMID:27597183

  9. Evaluation of the impact of genetic linkage in forensic identity and relationship testing for expanded DNA marker sets.

    PubMed

    Tillmar, Andreas O; Phillips, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Advances in massively parallel sequencing technology have enabled the combination of a much-expanded number of DNA markers (notably STRs and SNPs in one or combined multiplexes), with the aim of increasing the weight of evidence in forensic casework. However, when data from multiple loci on the same chromosome are used, genetic linkage can affect the final likelihood calculation. In order to study the effect of linkage for different sets of markers we developed the biostatistical tool ILIR, (Impact of Linkage on forensic markers for Identity and Relationship tests). The ILIR tool can be used to study the overall impact of genetic linkage for an arbitrary set of markers used in forensic testing. Application of ILIR can be useful during marker selection and design of new marker panels, as well as being highly relevant for existing marker sets as a way to properly evaluate the effects of linkage on a case-by-case basis. ILIR, implemented via the open source platform R, includes variation and genomic position reference data for over 40 STRs and 140 SNPs, combined with the ability to include additional forensic markers of interest. The use of the software is demonstrated with examples from several different established marker sets (such as the expanded CODIS core loci) including a review of the interpretation of linked genetic data.

  10. A system for exact and approximate genetic linkage analysis of SNP data in large pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Mark; Weissbrod, Omer; Otten, Lars; Tzemach, Anna; Anisenia, Andrei; Shtark, Oren; Tuberg, Dvir; Galfrin, Eddie; Gannon, Irena; Shalata, Adel; Borochowitz, Zvi U.; Dechter, Rina; Thompson, Elizabeth; Geiger, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The use of dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data in genetic linkage analysis of large pedigrees is impeded by significant technical, methodological and computational challenges. Here we describe Superlink-Online SNP, a new powerful online system that streamlines the linkage analysis of SNP data. It features a fully integrated flexible processing workflow comprising both well-known and novel data analysis tools, including SNP clustering, erroneous data filtering, exact and approximate LOD calculations and maximum-likelihood haplotyping. The system draws its power from thousands of CPUs, performing data analysis tasks orders of magnitude faster than a single computer. By providing an intuitive interface to sophisticated state-of-the-art analysis tools coupled with high computing capacity, Superlink-Online SNP helps geneticists unleash the potential of SNP data for detecting disease genes. Results: Computations performed by Superlink-Online SNP are automatically parallelized using novel paradigms, and executed on unlimited number of private or public CPUs. One novel service is large-scale approximate Markov Chain–Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis. The accuracy of the results is reliably estimated by running the same computation on multiple CPUs and evaluating the Gelman–Rubin Score to set aside unreliable results. Another service within the workflow is a novel parallelized exact algorithm for inferring maximum-likelihood haplotyping. The reported system enables genetic analyses that were previously infeasible. We demonstrate the system capabilities through a study of a large complex pedigree affected with metabolic syndrome. Availability: Superlink-Online SNP is freely available for researchers at http://cbl-hap.cs.technion.ac.il/superlink-snp. The system source code can also be downloaded from the system website. Contact: omerw@cs.technion.ac.il Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23162081

  11. Extensive recombination rate variation in the house mouse species complex inferred from genetic linkage maps.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Beth L; White, Michael A; Steffy, Brian; Wiltshire, Tim; Payseur, Bret A

    2011-01-01

    The rate of recombination is a key genomic parameter that displays considerable variation among taxa. Species comparisons have demonstrated that the rate of evolution in recombination rate is strongly dependent on the physical scale of measurement. Individual recombination hotspots are poorly conserved among closely related taxa, whereas genomic-scale recombination rate variation bears a strong signature of phylogenetic history. In contrast, the mode and tempo of evolution in recombination rates measured on intermediate physical scales is poorly understood. Here, we conduct a detailed statistical comparison between two whole-genome F₂ genetic linkage maps constructed from experimental intercrosses between closely related house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus). Our two maps profile a common wild-derived inbred strain of M. m. domesticus crossed to distinct wild-derived inbred strains representative of two other house mouse subspecies, M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus. We identify numerous orthologous genomic regions with significant map length differences between these two crosses. Because the genomes of these recently diverged house mice are highly collinear, observed differences in map length (centimorgans) are suggestive of variation in broadscale recombination rate (centimorgans per megabase) within M. musculus. Collectively, these divergent intervals span 19% of the house mouse genome, disproportionately aggregating on the X chromosome. In addition, we uncover strong statistical evidence for a large effect, sex-linked, site-specific modifier of recombination rate segregating within M. musculus. Our findings reveal considerable variation in the megabase-scale recombination landscape among recently diverged taxa and underscore the continued importance of genetic linkage maps in the post-genome era.

  12. A molecular genetic linkage map identifying the St and H sub-genomes of Elymus wheatgrass (Poaceae: Triticeae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elymus L. is the largest and most complex genus in the Triticeae with approximately 150 polyploid perennial grass species occurring worldwide. We report here the first genetic linkage map for Elymus. Backcross mapping populations were created by crossing caespitose Elymus wawawaiensis (EW) (Snake ...

  13. Successful application of new cost-effective procedures for genotyping pearl millets for genetic diversity and linkage mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of technology advancement, procedures of DNA extraction and genotyping of large plant populations are cumbersome and expensive. Therefore, in order to genotype large mapping populations for studying genetic diversity, and linkage/QTL mapping for disease and pest resistance in pearl millet (...

  14. Effects of Updating Linkage Evidence across Subsets of Data: Reanalysis of the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Christopher W.; Goedken, Rhinda; Vieland, Veronica J.

    2005-01-01

    Results of autism linkage studies have been difficult to interpret across research groups, prompting the use of ever-increasing sample sizes to increase power. However, increasing sample size by pooling disparate collections for a single analysis may, in fact, not increase power in the face of genetic heterogeneity. Here, we applied the posterior probability of linkage (PPL), a method designed specifically to analyze multiple heterogeneous data sets, to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange collection of families by analyzing six clinically defined subsets of the data and updating the PPL sequentially over the subsets. Our results indicate a substantial probability of linkage to chromosome 1, which had been previously overlooked; our findings also provide a further characterization of the possible parent-of-origin effects at the 17q11 locus that were previously described in this sample. This analysis illustrates that the way in which heterogeneity is addressed in linkage analysis can dramatically affect the overall conclusions of a linkage study. PMID:15729670

  15. A Primary Linkage Map of the Porcine Genome Reveals a Low Rate of Genetic Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ellegren, H.; Chowdhary, B. P.; Johansson, M.; Marklund, L.; Fredholm, M.; Gustavsson, I.; Andersson, L.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive genetic linkage map of the porcine genome has been developed by typing 128 genetic markers in a cross between the European Wild Boar and a domestic breed (Large White). The marker set includes 68 polymerase chain reaction-formatted microsatellites, 60 anchored reference markers informative for comparative mapping and 47 markers which have been physically assigned by in situ hybridization. Novel multipoint assignments are provided for 54 of the markers. The map covers about 1800 cM, and the average spacing between markers is 11 cM. We used the map data to estimate the genome size in pigs, thereby addressing the total recombination distance in a third mammalian species. A sex-average genome length of 1873 +/- 139 cM was obtained by comparing the recombinational and physical distances in defined regions of the genome. This is strikingly different from the length of the human genome (3800-4000 cM) and is more similar to the mouse estimate (1600 cM). The recombination rate in females was significantly higher than in males. PMID:7982563

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-03-10

    Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C) and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax) at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716). Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA) between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Deed, Rebecca C.; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C) and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax) at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716). Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA) between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation. PMID:28143947

  18. Multi-marker-LD based genetic algorithm for tag SNP selection.

    PubMed

    Mouawad, Amer E; Mansour, Nashat

    2014-12-01

    Despite the advances in genotyping technologies which have led to large reduction in genotyping cost, the Tag SNP Selection problem remains an important problem for computational biologists and geneticists. Selecting the smallest subset of tag SNPs that can predict the other SNPs would considerably minimize the complexity of genome-wide or block-based SNP-disease association studies. These studies would lead to better diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this work, we propose three variations of a genetic algorithm based on two-marker linkage disequilibrium, multi-marker linkage disequilibrium, and a third measure that we denote by prediction power. The performance of the three algorithms are compared with those of a recognized tag SNP selection algorithm using three different real data sets from the HapMap project. The results indicate that the multi-marker linkage disequilibrium based genetic algorithm yields better prediction accuracy.

  19. Genetic linkage maps of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using a pseudo-testcross: mapping strategy and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Sederoff, R

    1994-08-01

    We have used a "two-way pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F1 progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, theta = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support > or = 1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organisms. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  20. Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

    1996-04-01

    The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

  1. Genetic epidemiology, genetic maps and positional cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Newton E

    2003-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology developed in the middle of the last century, focused on inherited causes of disease but with methods and results applicable to other traits and even forensics. Early success with linkage led to the localization of genes contributing to disease, and ultimately to the Human Genome Project. The discovery of millions of DNA markers has encouraged more efficient positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium (LD), using LD maps and haplotypes in ways that are rapidly evolving. This has led to large international programmes, some promising and others alarming, with laws about DNA patenting and ethical guidelines for responsible research still struggling to be born. PMID:14561327

  2. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea)

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Jingqun; Li, Jia; You, Xinxin; Mu, Yinnan; Ding, Yang; Mao, Kaiqiong; Bian, Chao; Mu, Pengfei; Shi, Qiong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04%) of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker. PMID:26540048

  3. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications.

  4. A high-density genetic linkage map of a black spruce (Picea mariana) × red spruce (Picea rubens) interspecific hybrid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bum-Yong; Major, John E; Rajora, Om P

    2011-02-01

    Genetic maps provide an important genomic resource of basic and applied significance. Spruce (Picea) has a very large genome size (between 0.85 × 1010 and 2.4 × 1010 bp; 8.5-24.0 pg/1C, a mean of 17.7 pg/1C ). We have constructed a near-saturated genetic linkage map for an interspecific backcross (BC1) hybrid of black spruce (BS; Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and red spruce (RS; Picea rubens Sarg.), using selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) markers. A total of 2284 SAMPL markers were resolved using 31 SAMPL-MseI selective nucleotide primer combinations. Of these, 1216 SAMPL markers showing Mendelian segregation were mapped, whereas 1068 (46.8%) SAMPL fragments showed segregation distortion at α = 0.05. Maternal, paternal, and consensus maps consistently coalesced into 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number (1n = 1x = 12) of 12 in the genus Picea. The maternal BS map consisted of 814 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups, covering 1670 cM, with a mean map distance of 2.1 cM between adjacent markers. The paternal BS × RS map consisted of 773 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups, covering 1563 cM, with a mean map distance of 2.0 cM between adjacent markers. The consensus interspecific hybrid BC1 map consisted of 1216 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups, covering 1865 cM (98% genome coverage), with a mean map distance of 1.5 cM between adjacent markers. The genetic map reported here provides an important genomic resource in Picea, Pinaceae, and conifers.

  5. First genetic linkage map of Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin based on AFLP, SSR, COS and EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Arias, Marina; Hernandez, Monica; Remondegui, Naroa; Huvenaars, Koen; van Dijk, Peter; Ritter, Enrique

    2016-08-04

    Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin (TKS) has been studied in many occasions as a possible alternative source for natural rubber production of good quality and for inulin production. Some tire companies are already testing TKS tire prototypes. There are also many investigations on the production of bio-fuels from inulin and inulin applications for health improvement and in the food industry. A limited amount of genomic resources exist for TKS and particularly no genetic linkage map is available in this species. We have constructed the first TKS genetic linkage map based on AFLP, COS, SSR and EST-SSR markers. The integrated linkage map with eight linkage groups (LG), representing the eight chromosomes of Russian dandelion, has 185 individual AFLP markers from parent 1, 188 individual AFLP markers from parent 2, 75 common AFLP markers and 6 COS, 1 SSR and 63 EST-SSR loci. Blasting the EST-SSR sequences against known sequences from lettuce allowed a partial alignment of our TKS map with a lettuce map. Blast searches against plant gene databases revealed some homologies with useful genes for downstream applications in the future.

  6. First genetic linkage map of Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin based on AFLP, SSR, COS and EST-SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Marina; Hernandez, Monica; Remondegui, Naroa; Huvenaars, Koen; van Dijk, Peter; Ritter, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin (TKS) has been studied in many occasions as a possible alternative source for natural rubber production of good quality and for inulin production. Some tire companies are already testing TKS tire prototypes. There are also many investigations on the production of bio-fuels from inulin and inulin applications for health improvement and in the food industry. A limited amount of genomic resources exist for TKS and particularly no genetic linkage map is available in this species. We have constructed the first TKS genetic linkage map based on AFLP, COS, SSR and EST-SSR markers. The integrated linkage map with eight linkage groups (LG), representing the eight chromosomes of Russian dandelion, has 185 individual AFLP markers from parent 1, 188 individual AFLP markers from parent 2, 75 common AFLP markers and 6 COS, 1 SSR and 63 EST-SSR loci. Blasting the EST-SSR sequences against known sequences from lettuce allowed a partial alignment of our TKS map with a lettuce map. Blast searches against plant gene databases revealed some homologies with useful genes for downstream applications in the future. PMID:27488242

  7. Population genetics related to adaptation in elite oat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six hundred thirty five oat lines and 2,635 SNP loci were used to evaluate population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genotype-phenotype association with heading date. The first five principal components (PC) accounted for 25.3% of genetic variation. Neither the eigenvalues of the first 2...

  8. An SSR- and AFLP-based genetic linkage map of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Saha, Malay C; Mian, Rouf; Zwonitzer, John C; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Hopkins, Andrew A

    2005-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is commonly grown as forage and turf grass in the temperate regions of the world. Here, we report the first genetic map of tall fescue constructed with PCR-based markers. A combination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) of both tall fescue and those conserved in grass species was used for map construction. Genomic SSRs developed from Festuca x Lolium hybrids were also mapped. Two parental maps were initially constructed using a two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. The female (HD28-56) map included 558 loci placed in 22 linkage groups (LGs) and covered 2,013 cM of the genome. In the male (R43-64) map, 579 loci were grouped in 22 LGs with a total map length of 1,722 cM. The marker density in the two maps varied from 3.61 cM (female parent) to 2.97 (male parent) cM per marker. These differences in map length indicated a reduced level of recombination in the male parent. Markers that revealed polymorphism within both parents and showed 3:1 segregation ratios were used as bridging loci to integrate the two parental maps as a bi-parental consensus. The integrated map covers 1,841 cM on 17 LGs, with an average of 54 loci per LG, and has an average marker density of 2.0 cM per marker. Homoeologous relationships among linkage groups of six of the seven predicted homeologous groups were identified. Three small groups from the HD28-56 map and four from the R43-64 map are yet to be integrated. Homoeologues of four of those groups were detected. Except for a few gaps, markers are well distributed throughout the genome. Clustering of those markers showing significant segregation distortion (23% of total) was observed in four of the LGs of the integrated map.

  9. Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps for orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides using multiplexed shotgun genotyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is one of the most valuable fish species in China. Commercial production of orange-spotted grouper could be increased by developing higher growth rates and improving commercially important traits. Information on genetic markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be used in breeding programs to identify and select individuals carrying desired traits. A high-density genetic linkage map is the basis for QTL study, and multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) facilitates the development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyping. In this study, the first high-density genetic linkage maps for groupers were generated on the basis of the MSG method. Results The sex-averaged map contained a total of 4,608 SNPs, which spanned 1581.7 cM, with a mean distance between SNPs of 0.34 cM. The 4,608 SNPs were located in 2,849 unique locations on the linkage map, with an average inter-location space at 0.56 cM. There were 2,516 SNPs on the female map, and the number of unique locus was 1,902. However, the male map contained more numbers of SNP (2,939) and unique locations (2,005). The total length of the female and male maps was 1,370.9 and 1,335.5 cM, respectively. Conclusions The high-resolution genetic linkage maps will be very useful for QTL analyses and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for economically important traits in molecular breeding of the orange-spotted grouper. PMID:24289265

  10. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  11. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186) was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99) was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps. PMID:23033896

  12. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-03

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  13. Development of a genetic linkage map for Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis) and mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Olivera, P D; Kilian, A; Wenzl, P; Steffenson, B J

    2013-07-01

    Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass), a diploid wheat relative, is known to be a rich source of disease resistance genes for wheat improvement. To facilitate the transfer of these genes into wheat, information on their chromosomal location is important. A genetic linkage map of Ae. sharonensis was constructed based on 179 F2 plants derived from a cross between accessions resistant (1644) and susceptible (1193) to wheat leaf rust. The linkage map was based on 389 markers (377 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci) and was comprised of 10 linkage groups, ranging from 2.3 to 124.6 cM. The total genetic length of the map was 818.0 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 3.63 cM. Based on the chromosomal location of 115 markers previously mapped in wheat, the four linkage groups of A, B, C, and E were assigned to Ae. sharonensis (S(sh)) and homoeologous wheat chromosomes 6, 1, 3, and 2. The single dominant gene (designated LrAeSh1644) conferring resistance to leaf rust race THBJ in accession 1644 was positioned on linkage group A (chromosome 6S(sh)) and was flanked by DArT markers wpt-9881 (at 1.9 cM distal from the gene) and wpt-6925 (4.5 cM proximal). This study clearly demonstrates the utility of DArT for genotyping uncharacterized species and tagging resistance genes where pertinent genomic information is lacking.

  14. An integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) constructed from two RIL populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Feng, Suping; Chen, Charles; Guo, Yufang; Knapp, Steven; Culbreath, Albert; He, Guohao; Wang, Ming Li; Zhang, Xinyou; Holbrook, C Corley; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-03-01

    Construction and improvement of a genetic map for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) continues to be an important task in order to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative integrated map from two cultivated × cultivated recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping populations and to apply in mapping Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance trait in peanut. A total of 4,576 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from three sources: published SSR markers, newly developed SSR markers from expressed sequence tags (EST) and from bacterial artificial chromosome end-sequences were used for screening polymorphisms. Two cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were also included to differentiate ahFAD2A alleles and ahFAD2B alleles. A total of 324 markers were anchored on this integrated map covering 1,352.1 cM with 21 linkage groups (LGs). Combining information from duplicated loci between LGs and comparing with published diploid maps, seven homoeologous groups were defined and 17 LGs (A1-A10, B1-B4, B7, B8, and B9) were aligned to corresponding A-subgenome or B-subgenome of diploid progenitors. One reciprocal translocation was confirmed in the tetraploid-cultivated peanut genome. Several chromosomal rearrangements were observed by comparing with published cultivated peanut maps. High consistency with cultivated peanut maps derived from different populations may support this integrated map as a reliable reference map for peanut whole genome sequencing assembling. Further two major QTLs for TSWV resistance were identified for each RILs, which illustrated the application of this map.

  15. Genetic and biochemical dissection of protein linkages in the cadherin-catenin complex.

    PubMed Central

    Jou, T S; Stewart, D B; Stappert, J; Nelson, W J; Marrs, J A

    1995-01-01

    The cadherin-catenin complex is important for mediating homotypic, calcium-dependent cell-cell interactions in diverse tissue types. Although proteins of this complex have been identified, little is known about their interactions. Using a genetic assay in yeast and an in vitro protein-binding assay, we demonstrate that beta-catenin is the linker protein between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin and that E-cadherin does not bind directly to alpha-catenin. We show that a 25-amino acid sequence in the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin and the amino-terminal domain of alpha-catenin are independent binding sites for beta-catenin. In addition to beta-catenin and plakoglobin, another member of the armadillo family, p120 binds to E-cadherin. However, unlike beta-catenin, p120 does not bind alpha-catenin in vitro, although a complex of p120 and endogenous alpha-catenin could be immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. In vitro protein-binding assays using recombinant E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain and alpha-catenin revealed two catenin pools in cell lysates: an approximately 1000- to approximately 2000-kDa complex bound to E-cadherin and an approximately 220-kDa pool that did not contain E-cadherin. Only beta-catenin in the approximately 220-kDa pool bound exogenous E-cadherin. Delineation of these molecular linkages and the demonstration of separate pools of catenins in different cell lines provide a foundation for examining regulatory mechanisms involved in the assembly and function of the cadherin-catenin complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7761449

  16. THREaD Mapper Studio: a novel, visual web server for the estimation of genetic linkage maps.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Jitender; Ellis, T H Noel; Dicks, Jo

    2010-07-01

    The estimation of genetic linkage maps is a key component in plant and animal research, providing both an indication of the genetic structure of an organism and a mechanism for identifying candidate genes associated with traits of interest. Because of this importance, several computational solutions to genetic map estimation exist, mostly implemented as stand-alone software packages. However, the estimation process is often largely hidden from the user. Consequently, problems such as a program crashing may occur that leave a user baffled. THREaD Mapper Studio (http://cbr.jic.ac.uk/threadmapper) is a new web site that implements a novel, visual and interactive method for the estimation of genetic linkage maps from DNA markers. The rationale behind the web site is to make the estimation process as transparent and robust as possible, while also allowing users to use their expert knowledge during analysis. Indeed, the 3D visual nature of the tool allows users to spot features in a data set, such as outlying markers and potential structural rearrangements that could cause problems with the estimation procedure and to account for them in their analysis. Furthermore, THREaD Mapper Studio facilitates the visual comparison of genetic map solutions from third party software, aiding users in developing robust solutions for their data sets.

  17. Construction of the first high-density genetic linkage map of Salvia miltiorrhiza using specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Pan, Yuling; Zhao, Qi; Wang , Jianhua; Song, Zhenqiao

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal crop in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Knowledge of its genetic foundation is limited because sufficient molecular markers have not been developed, and therefore a high-density genetic linkage map is incomplete. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recently developed high-throughput strategy for large-scale SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) discovery and genotyping based on next generation sequencing (NGS). In this study, genomic DNA extracted from two parents and their 96 F1 individuals was subjected to high-throughput sequencing and SLAF library construction. A total of 155.96 Mb of data containing 155,958,181 pair-end reads were obtained after preprocessing. The average coverage of each SLAF marker was 83.43-fold for the parents compared with 10.36-fold for the F1 offspring. The final linkage map consists of 5,164 SLAFs in 8 linkage groups (LGs) and spans 1,516.43 cM, with an average distance of 0.29 cM between adjacent markers. The results will not only provide a platform for mapping quantitative trait loci but also offer a critical new tool for S. miltiorrhiza biotechnology and comparative genomics as well as a valuable reference for TCM studies. PMID:27040179

  18. Construction of the first high-density genetic linkage map of Salvia miltiorrhiza using specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Pan, Yuling; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Zhenqiao

    2016-04-04

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal crop in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Knowledge of its genetic foundation is limited because sufficient molecular markers have not been developed, and therefore a high-density genetic linkage map is incomplete. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recently developed high-throughput strategy for large-scale SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) discovery and genotyping based on next generation sequencing (NGS). In this study, genomic DNA extracted from two parents and their 96 F1 individuals was subjected to high-throughput sequencing and SLAF library construction. A total of 155.96 Mb of data containing 155,958,181 pair-end reads were obtained after preprocessing. The average coverage of each SLAF marker was 83.43-fold for the parents compared with 10.36-fold for the F1 offspring. The final linkage map consists of 5,164 SLAFs in 8 linkage groups (LGs) and spans 1,516.43 cM, with an average distance of 0.29 cM between adjacent markers. The results will not only provide a platform for mapping quantitative trait loci but also offer a critical new tool for S. miltiorrhiza biotechnology and comparative genomics as well as a valuable reference for TCM studies.

  19. Linkage analysis: Inadequate for detecting susceptibility loci in complex disorders?

    SciTech Connect

    Field, L.L.; Nagatomi, J.

    1994-09-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may provide valuable clues about approaches to detecting susceptibility loci in other oligogenic disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated significant association between IDDM and a VNTR in the 5{prime} flanking region of the insulin (INS) gene. Paradoxically, all attempts to demonstrate linkage of IDDM to this VNTR have failed. Lack of linkage has been attributed to insufficient marker locus information, genetic heterogeneity, or high frequency of the IDDM-predisposing allele in the general population. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is located 2.7 kb from INS on the 5` side of the VNTR and shows linkage disequilibrium with INS region loci. We typed a highly polymorphic microsatellite within TH in 176 multiplex families, and performed parametric (lod score) linkage analysis using various intermediate reduced penetrance models for IDDM (including rare and common disease allele frequencies), as well as non-parametric (affected sib pair) linkage analysis. The scores significantly reject linkage for recombination values of .05 or less, excluding the entire 19 kb region containing TH, the 5{prime} VNTR, the INS gene, and IGF2 on the 3{prime} side of INS. Non-parametric linkage analysis also provided no significant evidence for linkage (mean TH allele sharing 52.5%, P=.12). These results have important implications for efforts to locate genes predisposing to complex disorders, strongly suggesting that regions which are significantly excluded by linkage methods may nevertheless contain predisposing genes readily detectable by association methods. We advocate that investigators routinely perform association analyses in addition to linkage analyses.

  20. Genetic linkage between Becker muscular dystrophy and a polymorphic DNA sequence on the short arm of the X chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, H M; Thomas, N S; Pearson, P L; Sarfarazi, M; Harper, P S

    1983-01-01

    A study of DNA restriction fragment polymorphisms and Becker muscular dystrophy has shown eight families informative for the cloned sequence L1.28, which is located on the short arm of the X chromosome between Xp110 and Xp113. Analysis of these families reveals linkage between the two loci, with the maximum likelihood estimate of the genetic distance being 16 centiMorgans (95% confidence limits between 7 and 32 centiMorgans). Since a study of DNA polymorphisms in Duchenne muscular dystrophy has shown a comparable linkage distance with L1.28, our results suggest that the locus for Becker muscular dystrophy, like that for Duchenne dystrophy, is on the short arm of the X chromosome, and further that these two loci may be closely linked or possibly allelic. Images PMID:6620324

  1. Genetic-linkage mapping of complex hereditary disorders to a whole-genome molecular-interaction network.

    PubMed

    Iossifov, Ivan; Zheng, Tian; Baron, Miron; Gilliam, T Conrad; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2008-07-01

    Common hereditary neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are most likely both genetically multifactorial and heterogeneous. Because of these characteristics traditional methods for genetic analysis fail when applied to such diseases. To address the problem we propose a novel probabilistic framework that combines the standard genetic linkage formalism with whole-genome molecular-interaction data to predict pathways or networks of interacting genes that contribute to common heritable disorders. We apply the model to three large genotype-phenotype data sets, identify a small number of significant candidate genes for autism (24), bipolar disorder (21), and schizophrenia (25), and predict a number of gene targets likely to be shared among the disorders.

  2. Insight Into Genomic Changes Accompanying Divergence: Genetic Linkage Maps and Synteny of Lucania goodei and L. parva Reveal a Robertsonian Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Emma L.; Kozak, Genevieve M.; Ming, Ray; Rayburn, A. Lane; Kiehart, Ryan; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary genetics and in studies of speciation. We performed a karyotyping study and constructed high-density linkage maps for two closely related killifish species, Lucania parva and L. goodei, that differ in salinity tolerance and still hybridize in their contact zone in Florida. Using SNPs from orthologous EST contigs, we compared synteny between the two species to determine how genomic architecture has shifted with divergence. Karyotyping revealed that L. goodei possesses 24 acrocentric chromosomes (1N) whereas L. parva possesses 23 chromosomes (1N), one of which is a large metacentric chromosome. Likewise, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism−based linkage maps indicated 24 linkage groups for L. goodei and 23 linkage groups for L. parva. Synteny mapping revealed two linkage groups in L. goodei that were highly syntenic with the largest linkage group in L. parva. Together, this evidence points to the largest linkage group in L. parva being the result of a chromosomal fusion. We further compared synteny between Lucania with the genome of a more distant teleost relative medaka (Oryzias latipes) and found good conservation of synteny at the chromosomal level. Each Lucania LG had a single best match with each medaka chromosome. These results provide the groundwork for future studies on the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and salinity tolerance in Lucania and other Fundulidae. PMID:24898707

  3. A new genome scan for primary nonsyndromic vesicoureteric reflux emphasizes high genetic heterogeneity and shows linkage and association with various genes already implicated in urinary tract development

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, J M; Dobson, M G; Darlay, R; Molony, C M; Hunziker, M; Green, A J; Cordell, H J; Puri, P; Barton, D E

    2014-01-01

    Primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder toward the kidneys, results from a developmental anomaly of the vesicoureteric valve mechanism, and is often associated with other urinary tract anomalies. It is the most common urological problem in children, with an estimated prevalence of 1–2%, and is a major cause of hypertension in childhood and of renal failure in childhood or adult life. We present the results of a genetic linkage and association scan using 900,000 markers. Our linkage results show a large number of suggestive linkage peaks, with different results in two groups of families, suggesting that VUR is even more genetically heterogeneous than previously imagined. The only marker achieving P < 0.02 for linkage in both groups of families is 270 kb from EMX2. In three sibships, we found recessive linkage to KHDRBS3, previously reported in a Somali family. In another family we discovered sex-reversal associated with VUR, implicating PRKX, for which there was weak support for dominant linkage in the overall data set. Several other candidate genes are suggested by our linkage or association results, and four of our linkage peaks are within copy-number variants recently found to be associated with renal hypodysplasia. Undoubtedly there are many genes related to VUR. Our study gives support to some loci suggested by earlier studies as well as suggesting new ones, and provides numerous indications for further investigations. PMID:24498626

  4. Genetic analyses of chromosome 12 loci in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, S; Zouali, H; Colombel, J; Belaiche, J; Cezard, J; Tysk, C; Almer, S; Gassull, M; Binder, V; Chamaillard, M; Le Gall, I; Thomas, G; Hugot, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are multifactorial diseases involving the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. A region on chromosome 12 centred around the marker locus D12S83 has previously been associated with IBD predisposition. The aim of the study was to investigate this genetic region in an independent panel of European families affected by Crohn's disease.
METHODS—A sample of 95 families with two or more affected relatives and 75 simplex nuclear families were genotyped for 19 microsatellite loci located on chromosome 12. A search for linkage and linkage disequilibrium was performed using non-parametric two point and multipoint analyses with the Analyze and Genehunter packages.
RESULTS—No evidence of linkage or linkage disequilibrium was observed for any of the marker loci, including D12S83 (p=0.35 for the two point linkage test). Multipoint linkage analysis also failed to reveal positive linkage on chromosome 12. Power calculations allowed us to reject the hypothesis that the genetic region of chromosome 12 centred on D12S83 contains a susceptibility locus with a relative risk (λs) equal to or greater than 2.0 in these families.
CONCLUSION—Failure to detect linkage or linkage disequilibrium in these families suggests that the chromosome 12 locus previously reported to be associated with genetic predisposition to IBD does not play a role in all European family samples. This observation is compatible with heterogeneity in the genetic basis of susceptibility to the disease and/or exposure to various environmental factors among Caucasian families.


Keywords: chromosome 12; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn's disease; linkage analyses; replication study PMID:11076876

  5. A high density genetic linkage map for rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) containing 47,839 SNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-density SNP arrays have become the tool of choice for QTL mapping, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection. More recently, high-density linkage maps generated by SNP array data have proven to be crucial for the accurate assembly of scaffolds and contigs in whole-genome sequencing ...

  6. Genetic linkage analysis in 26 families with Bardet-Biedl syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.F.; Bruford, E.A.; Mansfield, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polydactyly, obesity, hypogonadism, retinitis pigmentosa, renal anomalies and mental retardation. Clinical heterogeneity is quite marked both within and between families. Linkage has been reported between Bardet-Biedl syndrome and the D16408 marker in chromosomal region 16q21 in an extended Bedouin kindred and, more recently, in a subset of 17 out of 31 families using the PYGM/D11S913 markers in chromosomal region 11q13. We have analyzed linkage to the 16q21 and 11q13 regions and used markers covering chromosomes 2, 3, 17 and 18 in a set of 26 Bardet-Biedl families, each containing at least two affected individuals, with a total of 57 affected members. Evidence of linkage to the D11S527 locus has been identified assuming linkage homogeneity with a lod score of 2.72 at a recombination fraction of 0.11 (95% limits 0.03-0.25).

  7. A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

  8. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  9. Identification of QTLs Associated with Callogenesis and Embryogenesis in Oil Palm Using Genetic Linkage Maps Improved with SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Jansen, Johannes; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Tan, Soon-Guan; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Singh, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm. PMID:23382832

  10. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria.

  11. Confirmation of linkage of Best`s macular dystrophy to 11q13, and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Mansergh, F.C.; Kenna, P.F.; Farrar, G.J.

    1994-09-01

    Best`s macular dystrophy, also known as vitelliform macular degeneration, is an autosomal dominant, early onset form of macular degeneration. The disease is characterized by a roughly circular deposit of lipofuscin beneath the pigment epithelium of the retinal macula. Linkage studies were performed in two families, one Irish and one German, segregating typical Best`s macular dystrophy. In the Irish family (BTMD1), linkage analysis mapped the disease causing gene to chromosome 11q13, in a 10 cM region between the microsatellite markers PYGM and D11S871. Both markers showed different recombinants with the disease phenotype. This is a region that has previously shown linkage in families affected with Best`s macular dystrophy. Lod scores of 9.63, 9.12, 6.92, and 6.83 at zero recombination, were obtained with markers D11S1344, D11S1361, D11S1357 and D11S903, respectively. This data places the disease locus definitvely within the region between PYGM and D11S871. Linkage has been significantly excluded in this region in the German family (FamE), thereby providing evidence for genetic heterogeneity in this disease. The retinal specific gene, rod outer membrane protein 1 (ROM1), which maps to this region, has been screened for mutations in family BTMD1 by SSCPE analysis and by direct sequencing. Some of the promoter region, the three exons, and both introns have been sequenced; however, no mutations were found. It is likely that a gene other than ROM1 within this region may be responsible for causing the disease phenotype.

  12. Development of a high density integrated reference genetic linkage map for the multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Choi, Su Ryun; Van Nguyen, Dan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Yang, Hyeon Kook; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2010-11-01

    We constructed a high-density Brassica rapa integrated linkage map by combining a reference genetic map of 78 doubled haploid lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × Kenshin (CKDH) and a new map of 190 F2 lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × rapid cycling B. rapa (CRF2). The integrated map contains 1017 markers and covers 1262.0 cM of the B. rapa genome, with an average interlocus distance of 1.24 cM. High similarity of marker order and position was observed among the linkage groups of the maps with few short-distance inversions. In total, 155 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, anchored to 102 new bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and 146 intron polymorphic (IP) markers were mapped in the integrated map, which would be helpful to align the sequenced BACs in the ongoing multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP). Further, comparison of the B. rapa consensus map with the 10 B. juncea A-genome linkage groups by using 98 common IP markers showed high-degree colinearity between the A-genome linkage groups, except for few markers showing inversion or translocation. Suggesting that chromosomes are highly conserved between these Brassica species, although they evolved independently after divergence. The sequence information coming out of BrGSP would be useful for B. juncea breeding. and the identified Arabidopsis chromosomal blocks and known quantitative trait loci (QTL) information of B. juncea could be applied to improve other Brassica crops including B. rapa.

  13. Probabilistic graphical models for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Raphaël; Sinoquet, Christine; Leray, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models have been widely recognized as a powerful formalism in the bioinformatics field, especially in gene expression studies and linkage analysis. Although less well known in association genetics, many successful methods have recently emerged to dissect the genetic architecture of complex diseases. In this review article, we cover the applications of these models to the population association studies' context, such as linkage disequilibrium modeling, fine mapping and candidate gene studies, and genome-scale association studies. Significant breakthroughs of the corresponding methods are highlighted, but emphasis is also given to their current limitations, in particular, to the issue of scalability. Finally, we give promising directions for future research in this field.

  14. A Saturated Genetic Linkage Map of Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Developed Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing Is Highly Syntenous with the Medicago truncatula Genome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Jiang, Qingzhen; Kang, Junmei; Brummer, E. Charles

    2014-01-01

    A genetic linkage map is a valuable tool for quantitative trait locus mapping, map-based gene cloning, comparative mapping, and whole-genome assembly. Alfalfa, one of the most important forage crops in the world, is autotetraploid, allogamous, and highly heterozygous, characteristics that have impeded the construction of a high-density linkage map using traditional genetic marker systems. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we constructed low-cost, reasonably high-density linkage maps for both maternal and paternal parental genomes of an autotetraploid alfalfa F1 population. The resulting maps contain 3591 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers on 64 linkage groups across both parents, with an average density of one marker per 1.5 and 1.0 cM for the maternal and paternal haplotype maps, respectively. Chromosome assignments were made based on homology of markers to the M. truncatula genome. Four linkage groups representing the four haplotypes of each alfalfa chromosome were assigned to each of the eight Medicago chromosomes in both the maternal and paternal parents. The alfalfa linkage groups were highly syntenous with M. truncatula, and clearly identified the known translocation between Chromosomes 4 and 8. In addition, a small inversion on Chromosome 1 was identified between M. truncatula and M. sativa. GBS enabled us to develop a saturated linkage map for alfalfa that greatly improved genome coverage relative to previous maps and that will facilitate investigation of genome structure. GBS could be used in breeding populations to accelerate molecular breeding in alfalfa. PMID:25147192

  15. A saturated genetic linkage map of autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) developed using genotyping-by-sequencing is highly syntenous with the Medicago truncatula genome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Jiang, Qingzhen; Kang, Junmei; Brummer, E Charles

    2014-08-21

    A genetic linkage map is a valuable tool for quantitative trait locus mapping, map-based gene cloning, comparative mapping, and whole-genome assembly. Alfalfa, one of the most important forage crops in the world, is autotetraploid, allogamous, and highly heterozygous, characteristics that have impeded the construction of a high-density linkage map using traditional genetic marker systems. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we constructed low-cost, reasonably high-density linkage maps for both maternal and paternal parental genomes of an autotetraploid alfalfa F1 population. The resulting maps contain 3591 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers on 64 linkage groups across both parents, with an average density of one marker per 1.5 and 1.0 cM for the maternal and paternal haplotype maps, respectively. Chromosome assignments were made based on homology of markers to the M. truncatula genome. Four linkage groups representing the four haplotypes of each alfalfa chromosome were assigned to each of the eight Medicago chromosomes in both the maternal and paternal parents. The alfalfa linkage groups were highly syntenous with M. truncatula, and clearly identified the known translocation between Chromosomes 4 and 8. In addition, a small inversion on Chromosome 1 was identified between M. truncatula and M. sativa. GBS enabled us to develop a saturated linkage map for alfalfa that greatly improved genome coverage relative to previous maps and that will facilitate investigation of genome structure. GBS could be used in breeding populations to accelerate molecular breeding in alfalfa.

  16. High-density linkage maps fail to detect any genetic component to sex determination in a Rana temporaria family.

    PubMed

    Brelsford, A; Rodrigues, N; Perrin, N

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosome differentiation in Rana temporaria varies strikingly among populations or families: whereas some males display well-differentiated Y haplotypes at microsatellite markers on linkage group 2 (LG2), others are genetically undistinguishable from females. We analysed with RADseq markers one family from a Swiss lowland population with no differentiated sex chromosomes, and where sibship analyses had failed to detect any association between the phenotypic sex of progeny and parental haplotypes. Offspring were reared in a common tank in outdoor conditions and sexed at the froglet stage. We could map a total of 2177 SNPs (1123 in the mother, 1054 in the father), recovering in both adults 13 linkage groups (= chromosome pairs) that were strongly syntenic to Xenopus tropicalis despite > 200 My divergence. Sexes differed strikingly in the localization of crossovers, which were uniformly distributed in the female but limited to chromosome ends in the male. None of the 2177 markers showed significant association with offspring sex. Considering the very high power of our analysis, we conclude that sex determination was not genetic in this family; which factors determined sex remain to be investigated.

  17. A genetic linkage map of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Chen, L; Kong, L

    2009-10-01

    We present the first genetic maps of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), constructed with an F(1) pseudo-testcross strategy. The 37 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations chosen identified 484 polymorphic markers. Of the 21 microsatellite primer pairs tested, 16 identified heterozygous loci in one or other parent, and six were fully informative, as they segregated in both parents. The female map comprised 163 loci, spread over 20 linkage groups (which equals the haploid chromosome number), and spanned 1522.0 cM, with a mean marker density of 9.3 cM. The equivalent figures for the male map were 162 loci, 21 linkage groups, 1276.9 and 7.9 cM. About 2.5% of the AFLP markers displayed segregation distortion and were not used for map construction. The estimated coverage of the genome was 84.8% for the female map and 83.4% for the male map. The maps generated will serve as a basis for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map and mapping of the functional genes and quantitative trait loci, which will then open the way for the application of a marker-assisted selection breeding strategy in this species.

  18. Genetic linkage evaluation of twenty-four loci in an eastern Canadian family segregating Darier’s disease (keratosis follicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Sidenberg, Deborah Gayle; Berg, Daniel; Bassett, Anne Susan; King, Nicole; Petronis, Arturas; Kamble, Arvind Baburao; Kennedy, James Lowery

    2011-01-01

    Background Darier’s disease (keratosis follicularis) is known to have a genetic cause as evidenced by its autosomal dominant transmission in families. The gene causing this disease has not been discovered. Objective During an ongoing linkage study of schizophrenia, a family segregating Darier’s disease was found. This family is being studied in an attempt to locate prospective regions that may contain the Darier’s disease gene. Methods Two genetic strategies are being employed: (1) testing candidate genes for the disorder and (2) scanning the entire genome with polymerase chain reaction–based microsatellite markers. Results Thirty-nine marker systems located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 22, X, and Y have been genotyped. Slightly positive lod scores were achieved between six markers and Darier’s disease. The remaining 33 markers were nonsegregating or indeterminate, or revealed an obligate recombinant. Conclusion Linkage analysis can lead to localization of the gene causing Darier’s disease. In these preliminary studies low positive lod scores were obtained, potentially pointing to the chromosomal location of the Darier’s disease gene. PMID:8021367

  19. Improved Student Linkage of Mendelian and Molecular Genetic Concepts through a Yeast-Based Laboratory Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolyniak, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A study of modern genetics requires students to successfully unite the principles of Mendelian genetics with the functions of DNA. Traditional means of teaching genetics are often successful in teaching Mendelian and molecular ideas but not in allowing students to see how the two subjects relate. The laboratory module presented here attempts to…

  20. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  1. A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbacher, Shawn A; Brown, Rebecca N; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bassil, Nahla V; Kubisiak, Thomas L

    2006-02-01

    A linkage map for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the 2-way pseudotestcross approach. A full-sib population of 144 seedlings from the cross OSU 252.146 x OSU 414.062 was used. RAPD markers in testcross configuration, segregating 1:1, were used to construct separate maps for each parent. Fifty additional RAPD loci were assigned to linkage groups as accessory markers whose exact location could not be determined. Markers in intercross configuration, segregating 3:1, were used to pair groups in one parent with their homologues in the other. Eleven groups were identified for each parent, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of hazelnut (n = x = 11). Thirty of the 31 SSR loci were able to be assigned to a linkage group. The maternal map included 249 RAPD and 20 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 661 cM. The paternal map included 271 RAPD and 28 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 812 cM. The maps are quite dense, with an average of 2.6 cM between adjacent markers. The S-locus, which controls pollen-stigma incompatibility, was placed on chromosome 5S where 6 markers linked within a distance of 10 cM were identified. A locus for resistance to eastern filbert blight, caused by Anisogramma anomala, was placed on chromosome 6R for which two additional markers tightly linked to the dominant allele were identified and sequenced. These maps will serve as a starting point for future studies of the hazelnut genome, including map-based cloning of important genes. The inclusion of SSR loci on the map will make it useful in other populations.

  2. [Genetic linkage map of Betula pendula Roth and Betula platyphylla Suk based on random amplified polymorphisms DNA markers].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting-Bo; Li, Shao-Chen; Gao, Fu-Ling; Ding, Bao-Jian; Qu, Yue-Jun; Tang, Xin-Hua; Liu, Gui-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2007-07-01

    Based on the genetic inheritance and segregation of random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPDs) markers, the first mid-density linkage map for silver birch was constructed by using a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A segregating population including 80 progenies from the cross between Betula pendula Roth and B. platyphylla Suk was obtained. A set of 1,200 random oligonucleotide primers were screened, and 208 primers were selected to generate RAPD markers within a sample of 80 F1 progenies. A total of 364 segregating sites were identified. Among them, 307 belonged to 1 : 1 segregating site, and 36 belonged to 3 : 1 segregating site, others were found distorted from the normal 1 : 1 ratio. Altogether 307 sites segregating 1 : 1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 145 for B. pendula and 162 for B. platyphylla. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 145 marker sites in 14 groups (four or more sites per group), 6 triples and 6 pairs for B. pendula, which covered the map distance about 955.6 cM (Kosambi units). The average map distance between adjacent markers was 14.9 cM, and 162 linked marker site for B. platyphylla were mapped onto 15 groups (four or more sites per group), 4 triples and 6 pairs, which covered the map distance about 1,545.8 cM, and the average map distance between adjacent markers was 15.2 cM. Further study is warranted to integrate the two maps to one density map and to locate important genes on the maps.

  3. Clinical correlates and genetic linkage of social and communication difficulties in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Jack; Shugart, Yin Yao; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Pinto, Anthony; Rauch, Scott L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Fyer, Abby J; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Cullen, Bernadette; Rasmussen, Steven A; Stewart, S Evelyn; Geller, Dan A; Maher, Brion S; Goes, Fernando S; Murphy, Dennis L; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-06-01

    Some individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have autistic-like traits, including deficits in social and communication behaviors (pragmatics). The objective of this study was to determine if pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families and discriminates a clinically and genetically distinct subtype of OCD. We conducted clinical examinations on, and collected DNA samples from, 706 individuals with OCD in 221 multiply affected OCD families. Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS), we compared the prevalence of pragmatic impairment in OCD-affected relatives of probands with and without pragmatic impairment. We also compared clinical features of OCD-affected individuals in families having at least one, versus no, individual with pragmatic impairment, and assessed for linkage to OCD in the two groups of families. The odds of pragmatic impairment were substantially greater in OCD-affected relatives of probands with pragmatic impairment. Individuals in high-PRS families had greater odds of separation anxiety disorder and social phobia, and a greater number of schizotypal personality traits. In high-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to OCD on chromosome 12 at marker D12S1064 and on chromosome X at marker DXS7132 whereas, in low-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to chromosome 3 at marker D3S2398. Pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families. Separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and schizotypal personality traits are part of a clinical spectrum associated with pragmatic impairment in these families. Specific regions of chromosomes 12 and X are linked to OCD in high-PRS families. Thus, pragmatic impairment may distinguish a clinically and genetically homogeneous subtype of OCD.

  4. Construction of a genetic linkage map of the fungal pathogen of banana Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of black leaf streak disease.

    PubMed

    Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Luna-Martínez, Francisco; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Carlier, Jean; James-Kay, Andrew; Simpson, June

    2008-05-01

    A genetic linkage map of the fungal plant pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana was developed. A cross between the isolates CIRAD86 (from Cameroon) and CIRAD139A (from Colombia) was analyzed using molecular markers and the MAT locus. The genetic linkage map consists of 298 AFLP and 16 SSR markers with 23 linkage groups, containing five or more markers, covering 1,879 cM. Markers are separated on average by around 5.9 cM. The MAT locus was shown to segregate in a 1:1 ratio but could not be successfully mapped. An estimate of the relation between physical size and genetic distance was approximately 39.0 kb/cM. The estimated total haploid genome size was calculated using the genetic mapping data at 4,298.2 cM. This is the first genetic linkage map reported for this important foliar pathogen of banana. The great utility of the map will be for anchoring contigs in the genome sequence, evolutionary studies in comparison with other fungi, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with aggressiveness or oxidative stress resistance and with the recently available genome sequence, for positional cloning.

  5. Genetic linkage analysis excludes HLA and several other potential candidates as being responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, J.B.; Bachinski, L.L.; Beiling, L.

    1994-09-01

    Familial dilated cardiomyopthy (FDCM), manifested by ventricular dilation and decreased systolic function, is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. We identified a family segregating DCM with 11 affected living individuals in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiography (EF <50%, left ventricular volume >80 ml/m{sup 2}). DNA was extracted and analyzed with highly polymorphmic microsatellite markers (STRs). In view of the high frequency of antibodies to specific HLA proteins in FDCM, this region was selected as a possible candidate locus. Genes whose products are sarcomeric proteins were also selected as candidates. Genetic linkage of FDCM to these candidate genes was excluded on the basis of a LOD score of <= -2. Subsequent to the candidate gene approach we pursued random mapping and completed analysis of a total of 93 chromosomal markers excluding 1000 cM.

  6. Genetic linkage of autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma to 1q21-q31 in three affected pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Paglinauan, C.; Fine, A.; Sporn, C.; Lou, D. ); Haines, J.L. )

    1994-05-15

    Glaucoma is a common disorder that results in irreversible damage to the optic nerve, causing absolute blindness. In most cases, the optic nerve is damaged by an elevation of the intraocular pressure that is the result of an abnormality in the normal drainage function of the trabecular meshwork. A family history of glaucoma is an important risk factor for the disease, suggesting that genetic defects predisposing to this condition are likely. Three pedigrees segregating an autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma demonstrated significant linkage to a group of closely spaced markers on chromosome 1. These results confirm the initial mapping of this disease and suggest that this region on chromosome 1 contains an important locus for juvenile glaucoma. The authors describe recombination events that improve the localization of the responsible gene, reducing the size of the candidate region from 30 to 12 cM. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Ordered subsets linkage analysis of antisocial behavior in substance use disorder among participants in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kristen C; Beseler, Cheryl L; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Tsuang, Ming T

    2008-10-05

    Heterogeneity in complex diseases such as Substance Use Disorder (SUD) reduces the power to detect linkage and makes replication of findings in other populations unlikely. It is therefore critical to refine the phenotype and use methods that account for genetic heterogeneity between families. SUD was operationalized as diagnosis of abuse or dependence to alcohol and/or any one of five illicit substances. Whole-genome linkage analysis of 241 extended pedigree families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism was performed in Merlin using an affected sibship design. An Ordered Subsets Analysis (OSA) using FLOSS sought to increase the homogeneity of the sample by ranking families by their density of childhood and adult antisocial behaviors, producing new maximum Nonparametric Lod (NPL) scores on each chromosome for each subset of families. Prior to OSA, modest evidence for linkage was found on chromosomes 8 and 17. Although changes in NPL scores were not statistically significant, OSA revealed possible evidence of linkages on chromosome 7, near markers D7S1795 and D7S821. NPL scores >3.0 were also observed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 9, and 14. However, the number of families used in these latter subsets for linkage may be too small to be meaningful. Results provide some evidence for the ability of OSA to reduce genetic heterogeneity, and add further support to chromosome 7 as a possible location to search for genes related to various SUD related processes. Nonetheless, replication of these results in other samples is essential.

  8. Genetic linkage of hyper-IgE syndrome to chromosome 4.

    PubMed Central

    Grimbacher, B; Schäffer, A A; Holland, S M; Davis, J; Gallin, J I; Malech, H L; Atkinson, T P; Belohradsky, B H; Buckley, R H; Cossu, F; Español, T; Garty, B Z; Matamoros, N; Myers, L A; Nelson, R P; Ochs, H D; Renner, E D; Wellinghausen, N; Puck, J M

    1999-01-01

    The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent skin abscesses, pneumonia, and highly elevated levels of serum IgE. HIES is now recognized as a multisystem disorder, with nonimmunologic abnormalities of the dentition, bones, and connective tissue. HIES can be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity. Nineteen kindreds with multiple cases of HIES were scored for clinical and laboratory findings and were genotyped with polymorphic markers in a candidate region on human chromosome 4. Linkage analysis showed a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.61 at recombination fraction of 0 with marker D4S428. Multipoint analysis and simulation testing confirmed that the proximal 4q region contains a disease locus for HIES. PMID:10441580

  9. Partial depolymerization of genetically modified potato tuber periderm reveals intermolecular linkages in suberin polyester.

    PubMed

    Graça, José; Cabral, Vanessa; Santos, Sara; Lamosa, Pedro; Serra, Olga; Molinas, Marisa; Schreiber, Lukas; Kauder, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus

    2015-09-01

    Suberin is a biopolyester found in specialized plant tissues, both internal and external, with key frontier physiological functions. The information gathered so far from its monomer and oligomer composition, and in situ studies made by solid state techniques, haven't solved the enigma of how the suberin polyester is assembled as a macromolecule. To investigate how monomers are linked in suberin, we analyzed oligomer fragments solubilized by the partial depolymerization of suberin from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber periderms. The structure of the suberin oligomers, namely which monomers they included, and the type and frequency of the inter-monomer ester linkages, was assessed by ESI-MS/MS and high resolution NMR analysis. The analyzed potato periderms included the one from wild type (cv. Desirée) and from plants where suberin-biosynthesis genes were downregulated in chain elongation (StKCS6), ω-hydroxylation (CYP86A33) and feruloylation (FHT). Two building blocks were identified as possible key structures in the macromolecular development of the potato periderm suberin: glycerol - α,ω-diacid - glycerol, as the core of a continuous suberin aliphatic polyester; and glycerol - ω-hydroxyacid - ferulic acid, anchoring this polyaliphatic matrix at its periphery to the vicinal polyaromatics, through linking to ferulic acid. The silencing of the StKCS6 gene led to non-significant alterations in suberin structure, showing the relatively minor role of the very-long chain (>C28) fatty acids in potato suberin composition. The silencing of CYP86A33 gene impaired significantly suberin production and disrupted the biosynthesis of acylglycerol structures, proving the relevance of the latter and thus of the glycerol - α,ω-diacid - glycerol unit for the typical suberin lamellar organization. The silencing of the FHT gene led to a lower frequency of ferulate linkages in suberin polyester but to more polyphenolic guaiacyl units as seen by FTIR analyses in the intact polymer.

  10. Syntenic relationships among legumes revealed using a gene-based genetic linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    McConnell, Melody; Mamidi, Sujan; Lee, Rian; Chikara, Shireen; Rossi, Monica; Papa, Roberto; McClean, Phillip

    2010-10-01

    Molecular linkage maps are an important tool for gene discovery and cloning, crop improvement, further genetic studies, studies on diversity and evolutionary history, and cross-species comparisons. Linkage maps differ in both the type of marker and type of population used. In this study, gene-based markers were used for mapping in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of Phaseolus vulgaris L. P. vulgaris, common dry bean, is an important food source, economic product, and model organism for the legumes. Gene-based markers were developed that corresponded to genes controlling mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes undergoing selection during domestication in maize, and genes that function in a biochemical pathway in A. thaliana. Sequence information, including introns and 3' UTR, was generated for over 550 genes in the two genotypes of P. vulgaris. Over 1,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were found, 300 of which were screened in the RI population. The resulting LOD 2.0 map is 1,545 cM in length and consists of 275 gene-based and previously mapped core markers. An additional 153 markers that mapped at LOD <1.0 were placed in genetic bins. By screening the parents of other mapping populations, it was determined that the markers were useful for other common Mesoamerican × Andean mapping populations. The location of the mapped genes relative to their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana (At), Medicago truncatula (Mt), and Lotus japonicus (Lj) were determine by using a tblastx analysis with the current psedouchromosome builds for each of the species. While only short blocks of synteny were observed with At, large-scale macrosyntenic blocks were observed with Mt and Lj. By using Mt and Lj as bridging species, the syntenic relationship between the common bean and peanut was inferred.

  11. Linkage Maps in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, THN.; Turner, L.; Hellens, R. P.; Lee, D.; Harker, C. L.; Enard, C.; Domoney, C.; Davies, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed segregation patterns of markers among the late generation progeny of several crosses of pea. From the patterns of association of these markers we have deduced linkage orders. Salient features of these linkages are discussed, as is the relationship between the data presented here and previously published genetic and cytogenetic data. PMID:1551583

  12. Improved student linkage of Mendelian and molecular genetic concepts through a yeast-based laboratory module.

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A study of modern genetics requires students to successfully unite the principles of Mendelian genetics with the functions of DNA. Traditional means of teaching genetics are often successful in teaching Mendelian and molecular ideas but not in allowing students to see how the two subjects relate. The laboratory module presented here attempts to present classical and molecular genetic concepts together as an inquiry-based exploration appropriate for high school or introductory undergraduate students. Using the non-essential APQ12 gene in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, students perform PCR, selective growth, and sporulation experiments to establish the ploidy and APQ12 zygosity of a series of unknown strains. Each experiment contributes data to characterize the unknown strains, but complete characterization is not possible without assimilating the data from all of the experiments. The module allows students to consider concepts normally introduced and emphasized in Mendelian genetics and explore them using molecular and experimental tools. Comparison of pre-module and post-module assessment surveys show an increase in student ability to link Mendelian concepts to experimental procedures relying on DNA analysis. The development of modules such as these provides students of all backgrounds with the tools to engage the complexities and issues that constitute modern principles of inheritance.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium extends across putative selected sites in FOXP2.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Susan E; Enard, Wolfgang; Wiebe, Victor; Hellmann, Ines; Krause, Johannes; Lachmann, Michael; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-10-01

    Polymorphism data in humans suggest that the gene encoding the transcription factor FOXP2, which influences speech and language development, has been subject to a selective sweep within the last 260,000 years. It has been proposed that one or both of two substitutions that occurred on the human evolutionary lineage and changed amino acids were the targets for selection. In apparent contradiction to this is the observation that these substitutions are present in Neandertals who diverged from humans maybe 300,000-400,000 years ago. We have collected polymorphism data upstream and downstream of the substitutions. Contrary to what is expected, following a selective sweep, we find that the haplotypes extend across the two sites. We discuss possible explanations for these observations. One of them is that the selective sweep reflected in FOXP2 polymorphism data was not associated with the two amino acid substitutions.

  14. Draft genome sequence, and a sequence-defined genetic linkage map of the legume crop species Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species.

  15. Genetic linkage of capsid protein-encoding RNA segments in group A equine rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Miño, Samuel; Barrandeguy, María; Parreño, Viviana; Parra, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    Rotavirus virions are formed by three concentric protein layers that enclose the 11 dsRNA genome segments and the viral proteins VP1 and VP3. Interactions amongst the capsid proteins (VP2, VP6, VP7 and VP4) have been described to play a major role in viral fitness, whilst restricting the reassortment of the genomic segments during co-infection with different rotavirus strains. In this work we describe and characterize the linkage between VP6 and VP7 proteins based on structural and genomic analyses of group A rotavirus strains circulating in Argentinean horses. Strains with the VP7 genotype G3 showed a strong association with the VP6 genotype I6, whilst strains with G14 were associated with the I2 genotype. Most of the differences on the VP6 and VP7 proteins were observed in interactive regions between the two proteins, suggesting that VP6 : VP7 interactions may drive the co-evolution and co-segregation of their respective gene segments.

  16. Genetic linkage mapping for molecular dissection of chilling requirement and budbreak in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Olukolu, Bode A; Trainin, Taly; Fan, Shenghua; Kole, Chittaranjan; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Reighard, Gregory L; Abbott, Albert G; Holland, Doron

    2009-10-01

    Commercial production of apricot is severely affected by sensitivity to climatic conditions, an adaptive feature essential for cycling between vegetative or floral growth and dormancy. Yield losses are due to late winter or early spring frosts and inhibited vegetative or floral growth caused by unfulfilled chilling requirement (CR). Two apricot cultivars, Perfection and A.1740, were selected for high and low CR, respectively, to develop a mapping population of F1 individuals using a two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. High-density male and female maps were constructed using, respectively, 655 and 592 markers (SSR and AFLP) spanning 550.6 and 454.9 cM with average marker intervals of 0.84 and 0.77 cM. CR was evaluated in two seasons on potted trees forced to break buds after cold treatments ranging from 100 to 900 h. A total of 12 putative CR quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected on six linkage groups using composite interval mapping and a simultaneous multiple regression fit. QTL main effects of additive and additive x additive interactions accounted for 58.5% +/- 6.7% and 66.1% +/- 5.8% of the total phenotypic variance in the Perfection and A.1740 maps, respectively. We report two apricot high-density maps and QTLs corresponding to map positions of differentially expressed transcripts and suggested candidate genes controlling CR.

  17. Genetic linkage of familial granulomatous inflammatory arthritis, skin rash, and uveitis to chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Ala-Kokko, L.

    1996-11-01

    Blau syndrome (MIM 186580), first described in a large, three-generation kindred, is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disease characterized by multiorgan, tissue-specific inflammation. Its clinical phenotype includes granulomatous arthritis, skin rash, and uveitis and probably represents a subtype of a group of clinical entities referred to as {open_quotes}familial granulomatosis.{close_quotes} It is the sole human model with recognizably Mendelian inheritance for a variety of multisystem inflammatory diseases affecting a significant percentage of the population. A genomewide search for the Blau susceptibility locus was undertaken after karyotypic analysis revealed no abnormalities. Sixty-two of the 74-member pedigree were genotyped with dinucleotide-repeat markers. Linkage analysis was performed under dominant model of inheritance with reduced penetrance. The marker D16S298 gave a maximum LOD score of 3.75 at {theta} = .04, with two-point analysis. LOD scores for flanking markers were consistent and placed the Blau susceptibility locus within the 16p12-q21 interval. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Linkage analysis and map construction in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we considered four categories of molecular markers based on the number of distinguishable alleles at the marker locus and the number of distinguishable genotypes in clonal F1 progenies. For two marker loci, there are nine scenarios that allow the estimation of female, male, and/or combined recombination frequencies. In a double cross population derived from four inbred lines, five categories of markers are classified and another five scenarios are present for recombination frequency estimation. Theoretical frequencies of identifiable genotypes were given for each scenario, from which the maximum likelihood estimates of one or more of the three recombination frequencies could be estimated. If there was no analytic solution, then Newton-Raphson method was used to acquire a numerical solution. We then proposed to use an algorithm in Traveling Salesman Problem to determine the marker order. Finally, we proposed a procedure to build the two haploids of the female parent and the two haploids of the male parent in clonal F1. Once the four haploids were built, clonal F1 hybrids could be exactly regarded as a double cross population. Efficiency of the proposed methods was demonstrated in simulated clonal F1 populations and one actual maize double cross. Extensive comparisons with software JoinMap4.1, OneMap, and R/qtl show that the methodology proposed in this article can build more accurate linkage maps in less time.

  19. Methods of error detection in genetic linkage data for human pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Ehm, M.G.; Kimmel, M.; Cottingham, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    The occurrence of laboratory typing error in pedigree data collected for use in linkage analysis cannot be ignored. In maps where recombinations between nearby markers rarely occur, each erroneous recombination (result of typing error) is given substantial weight thereby increasing the estimate of theta, the recombination fraction. As the maps being developed become more dense, theta approaches the error rate and most of all observed crossovers will be erroneous. We present two methods for detecting errors in pedigree data. The first index is a variant of the likelihood ratio test statistic and is used to test the null hypothesis of no error for an individual at a locus versus the alternative hypothesis of error. The second index is the conditional likelihood of the data given the phenotype of an individual at a locus. High values of both indices correspond to unlikely genotypes, and p-values can be calculated using simulated distributions under the null hypothesis. Both methods have been shown to detect errors introduced into CEPH pedigrees and an error in a larger experimental pedigree (retinitis pigmentosa). While the methods were designed to detect typing error, they are sufficiently general to detect any relatively unlikely genotype and therefore can also be used to detect pedigree error.

  20. An integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) constructed from two RIL populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction and improvement of a genetic map for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) continues to be an important task in order to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative integrat...

  1. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Mouse Using Restriction Landmark Genomic Scanning (Rlgs)

    PubMed Central

    Hayashizaki, Y.; Hirotsune, S.; Okazaki, Y.; Shibata, H.; Akasako, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Kawai, J.; Hirasawa, T.; Watanabe, S.; Shiroishi, T.; Moriwaki, K.; Taylor, B. A.; Matsuda, Y.; Elliott, R. W.; Manly, K. F.; Chapman, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a multiplex method of genome analysis, restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) that has been used to construct genetic maps in mice. Restriction landmarks are end-labeled restriction fragments of genomic DNA that are separated by using high resolution, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identifying as many as two thousand landmark loci in a single gel. Variation for several hundred of these loci has been identified between laboratory strains and between these strains and Mus spretus. The segregation of more than 1100 RLGS loci has been analyxed in recombinant inbred (RI) strains and in two separate interspecific genetic crosses. Genetic maps have been derived that link 1045 RLGS loci to reference loci on all of the autosomes and the X chromosome of the mouse genome. The RLGS method can be applied to genome analysis in many different organisms to identify genomic loci because it used end-labeling of restriction landmarks rather than probe hybridization. Different combinations of restriction enzymes yield different sets of RLGS loci providing expanded power for genetic mapping. PMID:7896102

  2. Recent advances in molecular genetic linkage maps of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. Narrow genetic diversity and deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers have severely h...

  3. Genetic linkage between protein and DNA polymorphisms and antioxidant capacity of Cuminum cyminum L. accessions.

    PubMed

    Abdelhaliem, E; Al-Huqail, A A

    2016-10-06

    This study aimed to link the genetic variation observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis among 11 Cuminum cyminum L. accessions, collected from diverse ecogeographical areas in Saudi Arabia, with their antioxidant capacity to better identify potential genotypes for breeding programs for this medicinal spice. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed genetic variation among cumin germplasms and distinct polymorphisms (100%). Protein polymorphisms were identified based on the number of polypeptide bands (288) with molecular weights ranging from 13.85 to 350 kDa, band intensity, the appearance of new bands, and the absence of other bands. RAPD analysis revealed 363 amplified DNA products with a high polymorphism value (98.88%) based on DNA band type (unique, non-unique, and monomorphic), DNA 90 to 1085-bp long, and band intensity. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on SDS-PAGE or RAPD and Jaccard's similarity coefficient divided cumin accessions into similar but distinct clusters with respect to their location of collection. The antioxidant potential of cumin accessions based on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, the β-carotene-linoleate model system, and total phenolic and flavonoid contents revealed distinct variability. These data indicate that cumin is a valuable genetic resource with high antioxidant activity. Additionally, clustering based on antioxidant activity was not identical to that based on SDS-PAGE and RAPD. Data and clustering of SDS-PAGE and RAPD, combined with the high antioxidant capacity of cumin accessions, are important for the efficient use of genetic resources of cumin in breeding strategies and genetic improvement programs.

  4. Genetic linkage of IgG autoantibody production in relation to lupus nephritis in New Zealand hybrid mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vyse, T J; Drake, C G; Rozzo, S J; Roper, E; Izui, S; Kotzin, B L

    1996-01-01

    F1 hybrids of New Zealand black (NZB) and New Zealand white (NZW) mice are a model of human systemic lupus erythematosus. These mice develop a severe immune com-plex-mediated nephritis, in which antinuclear autoantibodies are believed to play the major role. We used a genetic analysis of (NZB x NZW)F1 x NZW backcross mice to provide insight into whether different autoantibodies are subject to separate genetic influences and to determine which autoantibodies are most important in the development of lupus-like nephritis. The results showed one set of loci that coordinately regulated serum levels of IgG antibodies to double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, total histones, and chromatin, which overlapped with loci that were linked to the production of autoantibodies to the viral glycoprotein, gp70. Loci linked with anti-gp70 compared with antinuclear antibodies demonstrated the strongest linkage with renal disease, suggesting that autoantibodies to gp70 are the major pathogenic antibodies in this model of lupus nephritis. Interestingly, a distal chromosome 4 locus, Nba1, was linked with nephritis but not with any of the autoantibodies measured, suggesting that it contributes to renal disease at a checkpoint distal to autoantibody production. PMID:8878426

  5. Genetic mutation, linkage and heterogeneity analysis in Spanish pedigrees and isolated cases of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)

    SciTech Connect

    Volpini, V.; Matilla, T.; Genis, D.

    1994-09-01

    We report a genetic study of 14 Spanish kindreds and 11 isolated cases with SCA. The diagnosis was ascertained in 60 members, but clinical data were only obtained for 35 of them. One defective gene responsible for the disease was localized to 6p22-p23 (SCA1) and the mutation consists of an expansion of an intragenic (CAG){sub n} repeat (REP). We studied all of our genealogical and isolated affected individuals in order to know their 6p mutational status. Thus we detected a large pedigree which has the pathological expansion with {open_quotes}n{close_quotes} in the range of 41 to 57 repeats. The expansion increases through generations and correlates with anticipation. In the Spanish population, the non-pathological range of {open_quotes}n{close_quotes} is from 6 to 39 repeats. These sequences are {open_quotes}protected{close_quotes} having an interrupted repeat configuration, studied by restriction and sequencing analysis. This mutation was not present in the genealogical or isolated affected individuals studied. We also tested our families with the recently reported CAG expansion in 12p-12ter (DRPLA) and obtained negative results. Linkage analysis in non-SCA1, DRPLA families using markers from others chromosomal regions, 12q23-24.1 (SCA2) and 14q24.3-q32 (SCA3), results in negative lod scores and shows genetic heterogeneity in our population.

  6. Genetic linkage studies in familial partial epilepsy: Exclusion of the human chromosome regions syntenic to the El-1 mouse locus

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cendes, I.; Mulley, J.C.; Andermann, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recently, six families with a familial form of partial epilepsy were described. All pedigrees showed autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Affected individuals present with predominantly nocturnal seizures with frontal lobe semiology. In 1959, a genetic mouse model for partial epilepsy, the El mouse, was reported. In the El mouse, a major seizure susceptibility gene, El-1, segregates in an autosomal dominant fashion and has been localized to a region distal to the centromere of mouse chromosome 9. Comparative genetic maps between man and mouse have been used for prediction of localization of several human disease genes. Because the region of mouse chromosome 9 that is the most likely to contain the El-1 locus is syntenic to regions on human chromosomes 3q21-p22, 3q21-q23.3, 6q12 and 15q24, we adopted the candidate gene approach as an initial linkage strategy. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite markers covering these regions were used for genotyping individuals in the three larger families ascertained, two of which are Australian and one French-Canadian. Negative two-point lod scores were obtained separately for each family. The analysis of all three families combined significantly excludes the candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 6 and 15.

  7. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    PubMed

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA.

  8. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  9. Physical mapping of 49 microsatellite markers on chromosome 19 and correlation with the genetic linkage map

    SciTech Connect

    Reguigne-Arnould, I.; Mollicone, R.; Candelier, J.J.

    1996-03-05

    We have regionally localized 49 microsatellite markers developed by Genethon using a panel of previously characterized somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments from chromosome 19. The tight correlation observed between the physical and the genetic orders of the microsatellites provide cytogenetic anchorages to the genetic map data. We propose a position for the centromere just above D19S415, from the study of two hybrids, each of which retains one of the two derivatives of a balanced translocation t(1;19)(q11;q11). Microsatellites, which can be identified by a standard PCR protocol, are useful tools for the localization of disease genes and for the establishment of YAC or cosmid contigs. These markers can also judiciously be used for the characterization of new hybrid cell line panels. We report such a characterization of 11 clones, 8 of which were obtained by irradiation-fusion. Using the whole hybrid panel, we were able to define the order of 12 pairs of genetically colocalized microsatellites. As examples of gene mapping by the combined use of microsatellites and hybrid cell lines, we regionally assigned the PVS locus between the 19q13.2 markers D19S417 and D19S423 and confirmed the locations of fucosyltransferase loci FUT1, FUT2, and FUT5. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Jomchai, Nukoon; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Yoocha, Thippawan; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Nirapathpongporn, Kanlaya; Romruensukharom, Phayao; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Construction of linkage maps is crucial for genetic studies and marker-assisted breeding programs. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps, especially in non-model species lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we constructed a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to simultaneously discover and genotype single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in two rubber tree populations. A total of 21,353 single nucleotide substitutions were identified, 55% of which represented transition events. GBS-based genetic maps of populations P and C comprised 1704 and 1719 markers and encompassed 2041 cM and 1874 cM, respectively. The average marker densities of these two maps were one SNP in 1.23-1.25 cM. A total of 1114 shared SNP markers were used to merge the two component maps. An integrated linkage map consisted of 2321 markers and spanned the cumulative length of 2052 cM. The composite map showed a substantial improvement in marker density, with one SNP marker in every 0.89 cM. To our knowledge, this is the most saturated genetic map in rubber tree to date. This integrated map allowed us to anchor 28,965 contigs, covering 135 Mb or 12% of the published rubber tree genome. We demonstrated that GBS is a robust and cost-effective approach for generating a common set of genome-wide SNP data suitable for constructing integrated linkage maps from multiple populations in a highly heterozygous agricultural species.

  11. Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    PubMed Central

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Jomchai, Nukoon; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Yoocha, Thippawan; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Nirapathpongporn, Kanlaya; Romruensukharom, Phayao; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Construction of linkage maps is crucial for genetic studies and marker-assisted breeding programs. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps, especially in non-model species lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we constructed a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to simultaneously discover and genotype single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in two rubber tree populations. A total of 21,353 single nucleotide substitutions were identified, 55% of which represented transition events. GBS-based genetic maps of populations P and C comprised 1704 and 1719 markers and encompassed 2041 cM and 1874 cM, respectively. The average marker densities of these two maps were one SNP in 1.23–1.25 cM. A total of 1114 shared SNP markers were used to merge the two component maps. An integrated linkage map consisted of 2321 markers and spanned the cumulative length of 2052 cM. The composite map showed a substantial improvement in marker density, with one SNP marker in every 0.89 cM. To our knowledge, this is the most saturated genetic map in rubber tree to date. This integrated map allowed us to anchor 28,965 contigs, covering 135 Mb or 12% of the published rubber tree genome. We demonstrated that GBS is a robust and cost-effective approach for generating a common set of genome-wide SNP data suitable for constructing integrated linkage maps from multiple populations in a highly heterozygous agricultural species. PMID:26074933

  12. Genetic heterogeneity of primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: linkage to GLC1A associated with an increased risk of severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Brézin, A P; Béchetoille, A; Hamard, P; Valtot, F; Berkani, M; Belmouden, A; Adam, M F; Dupont de Dinechin, S; Bach, J F; Garchon, H J

    1997-01-01

    The GLC1A locus for autosomal dominant juvenile and middle age onset primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. OAG, however, is a heterogeneous disease. We tested linkage of OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT), a major risk factor for OAG, to GLC1A in eight French families with multiple cases of juvenile and middle age onset OAG. There was strong evidence of genetic heterogeneity, four families being linked to GLC1A and two or three others being unlinked, depending on whether the complete OAG phenotype was analysed alone or jointly with OHT. Peak intraocular pressure (IOP) did not differ significantly between the two groups of families, while linkage to GLC1A conferred a highly increased risk of developing OAG and of having severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Testing linkage of familial OAG to GLC1A may therefore have prognostic value too. PMID:9222961

  13. High-density genetic linkage map construction and identification of fruit-related QTLs in pear using SNP and SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Lei-Ting; Li, Meng; Khan, M. Awais; Li, Xiu-Gen; Chen, Hui; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus spp) is an important fruit crop, grown in all temperate regions of the world, with global production ranked after grape and apples among deciduous tree crops. A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based gene cloning. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density linkage map of pear using SNPs integrated with SSRs, developed by the rapid and robust technology of restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). The linkage map consists of 3143 SNP markers and 98 SSRs, 3241 markers in total, spanning 2243.4 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.70 cM. Anchoring SSRs were able to anchor seventeen linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated pear linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, a total of 32 potential QTLs for 11 traits, including length of pedicel (LFP), single fruit weight (SFW), soluble solid content (SSC), transverse diameter (TD), vertical diameter (VD), calyx status (CS), flesh colour (FC), juice content (JC), number of seeds (NS), skin colour (SC), and skin smooth (SS), were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Among them, some important fruit-related traits have for the first time been identified, such as calyx status, length of pedicel, and flesh colour, and reliable localization of QTLs were verified repeatable. This high-density linkage map of pear is a worthy reference for mapping important fruit traits, QTL identification, and comparison and combination of different genetic maps. PMID:25129128

  14. Genetic Linkage Analysis of DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 Loci in GJB2 Negative Families with Autosomal Recessive Non-syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MASOUDI, Marjan; AHANGARI, Najmeh; POURSADEGH ZONOUZI, Ali Akbar; POURSADEGH ZONOUZI, Ahmad; NEJATIZADEH, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is the most common hereditary form of deafness, and exhibits a great deal of genetic heterogeneity. So far, more than seventy various DFNB loci have been mapped for ARNSHL by linkage analysis. The contribution of three common DFNB loci including DFNB3, DFNB9, DFNB21 and gap junction beta-2 (GJB2) gene mutations in ARNSHL was investigated in south of Iran for the first time. Methods: In this descriptive study, we investigated sixteen large families with at least two affected individuals. After DNA extraction, GJB2 gene mutations were analyzed using direct sequencing method. Negative samples for GJB2 gene mutations were analyzed for the linkage to DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci by genotyping the corresponding short tandem repeat (STR) markers using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Results: GJB2 mutations (283G>A and 29delT) were causes of hearing loss in 12.5% of families with ARNSHL and no evidence of linkage were found for any of DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci. Conclusion: GJB2 mutations are associated with ARNSHL. We failed to find linkage of the DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci among GJB2 negative families. Therefore, further studies on large-scale population and other loci will be needed to find conclusively linkage of DFNB loci and ARNSHL in the future. PMID:27398341

  15. River Capture in Disequilibrium Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.; Willett, S.; Goren, L.

    2013-12-01

    The process of river piracy or river capture has long drawn interest as a potential mechanism by which drainage basins large and small evolve towards an equilibrium state. River capture transfers both drainage area and drainage lines from one river basin to another, which can cause large, abrupt shifts in network topology, drainage divide positions, and river incision rates. Despite numerous case studies in which river capture has been proposed to have occurred, there is no general, mechanistic framework for understanding the controls on river capture, nor are there quantitative criteria for determining if capture has occurred. Here we use new metrics of landscape disequilibrium to first identify landscapes in which drainage reorganization is occurring. These metrics are based on a balance between an integral of the contributing drainage area and elevation. In an analysis of rivers in the Eastern United States we find that many rivers are in a state of disequilibrium and are experiencing recent or ongoing area exchange between basins. In these disequilibrium basins we find widespread evidence for network rearrangement via river capture at multiple scales. We then conduct numerical experiments with a 2-D landscape evolution model to explore the conditions in which area exchange among drainage basins is likely to occur as discrete capture events as opposed to continuous divide migration. These experiments indicate that: (1) capture activity increases with the degree of disequilibrium induced by persistent spatial gradients in tectonic forcing or by temporal changes in climate or tectonic forcing; (2) capture activity is strongly controlled by the initial planform drainage network geometry; and (3) capture activity scales with the fluvial incision rate constant in the river power erosion law.

  16. Assignment of the 5HT7 receptor gene (HTR7) to chromosome 10q and exclusion of genetic linkage with Tourette syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gelernter, J.; Rao, P.A.; Pauls, D.L.

    1995-03-20

    A novel serotonin receptor designated 5HT7 (genetic locus HTR7) was cloned in 1993. This receptor has interesting properties related to ligand affinity and CNS distribution that render HTR7 a very interesting candidate gene for neuropsychiatric disorders. We mapped this gene, first by physical methods and then by genetic linkage. First, we made a tentative assignment to chromosome 10, based on hybridization of an HTR7 probe to a Southern blot of DNA from somatic cell hybrids. We then identified a genetic polymorphism at the HTR7 locus. We identified one extended pedigree where the polymorphism segregated. Using the LEPED computer program for pairwise linkage analysis, we confirmed the assignment of the gene to chromosome 10, specifically 10q21-q24, based on a lod score of 5.37 at 0% recombination between HTR7 and D10S20 (a chromosome 10 reference marker). Finally, we excluded genetic linkage between this locus and Tourette syndrome under a reasonable set of assumptions. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sabaz Ali; Chibon, Pierre-Yves; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Schipper, Bert A.; Walraven, Evert; Beekwilder, Jules; van Dijk, Thijs; Finkers, Richard; Visser, Richard G.F.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Bovy, Arnaud; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F1 population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Untargeted metabolic profiling of peel and flesh tissues of ripe fruits was performed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in the detection of 418 metabolites in peel and 254 in flesh. In mQTL mapping using MetaNetwork, 669 significant mQTLs were detected: 488 in the peel and 181 in the flesh. Four linkage groups (LGs), LG1, LG8, LG13, and LG16, were found to contain mQTL hotspots, mainly regulating metabolites that belong to the phenylpropanoid pathway. The genetics of annotated metabolites was studied in more detail using MapQTL®. A number of quercetin conjugates had mQTLs on LG1 or LG13. The most important mQTL hotspot with the largest number of metabolites was detected on LG16: mQTLs for 33 peel-related and 17 flesh-related phenolic compounds. Structural genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were located, using the apple genome sequence. The structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) was in the mQTL hotspot on LG16, as were seven transcription factor genes. The authors believe that this is the first time that a QTL analysis was performed on such a high number of metabolites in an outbreeding plant species. PMID:22330898

  18. Increase in linkage information by stratification of pedigree data into gold-standard and standard diagnoses: application to the NIMH Alzheimer Disease Genetics Initiative Dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derek; Haynes, Chad; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Abraham M

    2006-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with a standard clinical method (subject to misclassification error) are often combined with patients diagnosed with a gold-standard method (with zero or very small misclassification error) in family-based studies of complex disease. For example, non-autopsied patients (NAP) are often included along with autopsy-proven (AP) patients in family-based studies of complex diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Theoretical and simulation studies suggest that certain misclassification errors can result in severe reduction of power in genetic linkage and association analyses and that phenotype (or diagnostic) error can produce misleading results. Morton's test for heterogeneity can identify genomic regions where error may have led to loss in power. We applied this test to pedigree data from the NIMH Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Initiative Database separated into AP and NAP pedigrees. Morton's test identified one highly significant region of heterogeneity on chromosome 2. The source of the heterogeneity was due to significant indication of linkage in the AP pedigrees at position 109 cM (p value = 6.68 x 10(-5)) with no indication in the NAP pedigrees. Furthermore, Morton's test showed no evidence for heterogeneity on chromosome 19 in early-onset pedigrees that showed highly significant evidence for linkage in other published reports. These results suggest that supplementing linkage analysis with Morton's test can be usefully applied to genetic data sets that have AP and NAP samples, or other sample mixtures that include a 'gold standard' subgroup with reduced error rate, to increase power to detect linkage in the presence of diagnostic misclassification.

  19. Genetic linkage mapping for a susceptibility locus to bipolar illness: Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and Xpter

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Hseih, W.T.; Goldin, L.R.

    1994-09-15

    We are conducting a genome search for a predisposing locus to bipolar (manic-depressive) illness by genotyping 21 moderate-sized pedigrees. We report linkage data derived from screening marker loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and the pseudoautosomal region at Xpter. To analyze for linkage, two-point marker to illness lod scores were calculated under a dominant model with either 85% or 50% maximum penetrance and a recessive model with 85% maximum penetrance, and two affection status models. Under the dominant high penetrance model the cumulative lod scores in the pedigree series were less than -2 at {theta} = 0.01 in 134 of 142 loci examined, indicating that if the disease is genetically homogeneous, linkage could be excluded in these marker regions. Similar results were obtained using the other genetic models. Heterogeneity analysis was conducted when indicated, but no evidence for linkage was found. In the course of mapping we found a positive total lod score greater than +3 at the D7S78 locus at {theta} = 0.01 under a dominant, 50% penetrance model. The lod scores for additional markers within the D7S78 region failed to support the initial finding, implying that this was a spurious positive. Analysis with affected pedigree member method for COL1A2 and D7S78 showed no significance for linkage, but for PLANH1, at the weighting functions f(p)=1 and f(p)=1/sqrt(p), borderline P values of 0.036 and 0.047 were obtained. We also detected new polymorphisms at the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MLR) and calmodulin II (CALMII) genes. These genes were genetically mapped and under affection status model 2 and a dominant, high penetrance mode of transmission the lod scores of {le}2 at {theta} = 0.01 were found. 39 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Construction of high-density genetic linkage map and identification of flowering-time QTLs in orchardgrass using SSRs and SLAF-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinxin; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Yan, Defei; Li, Ji; Tang, Lu; Li, Xiaolong; Shi, Tongwei

    2016-01-01

    Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is one of the most economically important perennial, cool-season forage species grown and pastured worldwide. High-density genetic linkage mapping is a valuable and effective method for exploring complex quantitative traits. In this study, we developed 447,177 markers based on SLAF-seq and used them to perform a comparative genomics analysis. Perennial ryegrass sequences were the most similar (5.02%) to orchardgrass sequences. A high-density linkage map of orchardgrass was constructed using 2,467 SLAF markers and 43 SSRs, which were distributed on seven linkage groups spanning 715.77 cM. The average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM. Based on phenotyping in four environments, 11 potentially significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for two target traits–heading date (HD) and flowering time (FT)–were identified and positioned on linkage groups LG1, LG3, and LG5. Significant QTLs explained 8.20–27.00% of the total phenotypic variation, with the LOD ranging from 3.85–12.21. Marker167780 and Marker139469 were associated with FT and HD at the same location (Ya’an) over two different years. The utility of SLAF markers for rapid generation of genetic maps and QTL analysis has been demonstrated for heading date and flowering time in a global forage grass. PMID:27389619

  1. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Vijverberg, K; Van Der Hulst, R G M; Lindhout, P; Van Dijk, P J

    2004-02-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic, and has autonomous endosperm formation. Previous studies have indicated that these three apomixis elements are controlled by more than one locus in Taraxacum and that diplospory inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait ( Ddd; DIP). A bulked segregant analysis provided 34 AFLP markers that were linked to DIP and were, together with two microsatellite markers, used for mapping the trait. The map length was 18.6 cM and markers were found on both sides of DIP, corresponding to 5.9 and 12.7 cM, respectively. None of the markers completely co-segregated with DIP. Eight markers were selected for PCR-based marker development, of which two were successfully converted. In contrast to all other mapping studies of apomeiosis to date, our results showed no evidence for suppression of recombination around the DIP locus in Taraxacum. No obvious evidence for sequence divergence between the DIP and non- DIP homologous loci was found, and no hemizygosity at the DIP locus was detected. These results may indicate that apomixis is relatively recent in Taraxacum.

  2. [Construction of genetic linkage map and localization of NBS-LRR like resistance gene analogues in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhao, Qian-Cheng; Sun, De-Ling; Song, Wen-Qin

    2007-06-01

    Nucleotide binding site (NBS) profiling, a new method was used to map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). This method allows amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. AFLP was also performed to construct the cauliflower intervarietal genetic map. The aim of constructing genetic map was to identify potential molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits that would be particularly useful for development and improving the species. Using 17 AFLP primer combinations and two degeneration primer/enzyme combinations, a total of 234 AFLP markers and 21 NBS markers were mapped in the F2 population derived from self-pollinating a single F1 plant of the cross AD White Flower x C-8. The markers were mapped in 9 of major linkage groups spanning 668.4 cM, with an average distance of 2.9 cM between adjacent mapped markers. The AFLP markers were well distributed throughout the linkage groups. The linkage groups contained from 12 to 47 loci each and the distance between two consecutive loci ranged from 0 to 14.9 cM. NBS markers were mapped on 8 of the 9 linkage groups of the genetic map. Most of these markers were organized in clusters. This result demonstrates the feasibility of the NBS-profiling method for generating NBS markers for resistance loci in cauliflower. The clustering of the markers mapped in this study adds to the evidence that most of them could be real RGAs.

  3. High-Density Genetic Linkage Mapping in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) Based on SNP Markers and Major Sex- and Growth-Related Regions Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiji; Hu, Yulong; Ma, Yu; Xu, Liyong; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high density consensus genetic linkage map of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) family composed of 149 mapping individuals using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) developed using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing technique with the restriction enzyme, PstI. A total of 6,647 SNPs were assigned to 22 linkage groups, which is equal to the number of chromosome pairs in turbot. For the first time, the average marker interval reached 0.3958 cM, which is equal to approximately 0.1203 Mb of the turbot genome. The observed 99.34% genome coverage indicates that the linkage map was genome-wide. A total of 220 Quantitative Traits Locus (QTLs) associated with two body length traits, two body weight traits in different growth periods and sex determination were detected with an LOD > 5.0 in 12 linkage groups (LGs), which explained the corresponding phenotypic variance (R2), ranging from 14.4–100%. Among them, 175 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining 45 were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. According to the QTLs related to growth trait distribution and the changing of LGs during different growth periods, the growth traits are likely controlled by multi-SNPs distributed on several LGs; the effect of these SNPs changed during different growth periods. Most sex-related QTLs were detected at LG 21 with a linkage span of 70.882 cM. Additionally, a small number of QTLs with high feasibility and a narrow R2 distribution were also observed on LG7 and LG14, suggesting that multi LGs or chromosomes might be involved in sex determination. High homology was recorded between LG21 in Cynoglossus semilaevis and turbot. This high-saturated turbot RAD-Seq linkage map is undoubtedly a promising platform for marker assisted selection (MAS) and flatfish genomics research. PMID:25775256

  4. Genetic Structure of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli Associated with Wild and Cultivated Bean Plants (Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus coccineus) in Morelos, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis; Avila, German; Cappello, Renato; Gallardo, Claudia; Montoya, Javier; Piñero, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The genetic structure of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli was determined for five populations in three different locations in the state of Morelos, Mexico, by using starch gel electrophoresis for five to nine polymorphic loci. Two populations were sampled during two different years from nodules of cultivated and wild common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris). The three other populations were associated with wild runner beans (P. coccineus) and sampled during 1988. The Rhizobium populations differ genetically both among sites and among populations within the same site in different years, as shown by differences in allelic frequencies, genetic differentiation analysis, and differences in electrotypes. The total genetic diversity for the five populations during 1988 was H = 0.487; there were also high levels of genetic variation within each population. We found the highest linkage disequilibrium in a global analysis for all the populations. At a local scale, we also found significant linkage disequilibrium in two populations, although the distribution of the D′ suggest some recombination at a local scale. The other three rhizobium populations exhibit low linkage disequilibrium. A cluster analysis (UPGMA) of pairwise genetic distances showed that bacteria isolated from most wild Phaseolus spp. are grouped by population, whereas those obtained from cultivated P. vulgaris are very heterogeneous. The analysis of the genetic structure of Rhizobium strains may allow the identification of strains that are naturally well adapted to a wide range of different environments, which may be useful for agricultural purposes or as a starting point for developing improved Rhizobium strains. PMID:16349234

  5. A genetic study of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in south-western Ontario. II. A PCR based approach to molecular and prenatal diagnosis using linkage.

    PubMed Central

    Rodenhiser, D I; Ainsworth, P J; Coulter-Mackie, M B; Singh, S M; Jung, J H

    1993-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, autosomal dominant genetic disorder with a variety of highly variable symptoms including cutaneous manifestations (such as café au lait spots), Lisch nodules, plexiform neurofibromas, skeletal abnormalities, an increased risk for malignancy, and the development of learning disabilities. The wide clinical variability of expression of the disease phenotype and high (spontaneous) mutation rate of the NF1 gene indicate that careful clinical examination of patients and family members is necessary to provide an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Since very few NF1 mutations have been identified, and with the apparent lack of a predominant mutation in this large, highly mutable gene, molecular diagnosis of NF1 will continue to be based on haplotypes using linkage analysis. Here we report our experiences while providing a molecular diagnostic service for NF1 in the ethnically diverse region of south-western Ontario. Molecular diagnoses with at least one informative probe/enzyme combination are reported for 19 families including two families requesting prenatal diagnosis for NF1. We have augmented the classical Southern based approach to linkage analysis with the use of PCR based assays for molecular linkage. Furthermore, criteria have been established in our laboratory for executing molecular linkage based on heterozygosity values, recombination fractions, and the use of intragenic probes/markers. Images PMID:8320697

  6. Genetic linkage maps of two apricot cultivars ( Prunus armeniaca L.) compared with the almond Texas x peach Earlygold reference map for Prunus.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P; Hagen, L S; Arus, P; Audergon, J M

    2004-04-01

    Several genetic linkage maps have been published in recent years on different Prunus species suggesting a high level of resemblance among the genomes of these species. One of these maps (Joobeur et al., Theor Appl Genet 97:1034-1041 [(1998); Aranzana et al., Theor Appl Genet 106:819-825 (2002b)] constructed from interspecific almond Texas x peach Earlygold F(2) progeny (TxE) was considered to be saturated. We selected 142 F(1) apricot hybrids obtained from a cross between P. armeniaca cvs. Polonais and Stark Early Orange for mapping. Eighty-eight RFLP probes and 20 peach SSR primer pairs used for the 'reference map' were selected to cover the eight linkage groups. One P. davidiana and an additional 14 apricot simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were mapped for the F(1) progeny. Eighty-three amplified fragment length polymorphisms were added in order to increase the density of the maps. Separate maps were made for each parent according to the 'double pseudo-testcross' model of analysis. A total of 141 markers were placed on the map of Stark Early Orange, defining a total length of 699 cM, and 110 markers were placed on the map of Polonais, defining a total length of 538 cM. Twenty-one SSRs and 18 restriction placed in the TxE map were heterozygous in both parents (anchor loci), thereby enabling the alignment of the eight homologous linkage groups of each map. Except for 15 markers, most markers present in each linkage group in apricot were aligned with those in TxE map, indicating a high degree of colinearity between the apricot genome and the peach and almond genomes. These results suggest a strong homology of the genomes between these species and probably between Prunophora and Amygdalus sub-genera.

  7. Genetic mapping of horizontal stripes in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: benefits and pitfalls of using RAD markers for dense linkage mapping.

    PubMed

    Henning, Frederico; Lee, Hyuk Je; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2014-11-01

    The genetic dissection of naturally occurring phenotypes sheds light on many fundamental and longstanding questions in speciation and adaptation and is a central research topic in evolutionary biology. Until recently, forward-genetic approaches were virtually impossible to apply to nonmodel organisms, but the development of next-generation sequencing techniques eases this difficulty. Here, we use the ddRAD-seq method to map a colour trait with a known adaptive function in cichlid fishes, well-known textbook examples for rapid rates of speciation and astonishing phenotypic diversification. A suite of phenotypic key innovations is related to speciation and adaptation in cichlids, among which body coloration features prominently. The focal trait of this study, horizontal stripes, evolved in parallel in several cichlid radiations and is associated with piscivorous foraging behaviour. We conducted interspecific crosses between Haplochromis sauvagei and H. nyererei and constructed a linkage map with 867 SNP markers distributed on 22 linkage groups and total size of 1130.63 cM. Lateral stripes are inherited as a Mendelian trait and map to a single genomic interval that harbours a paralog of a gene with known function in stripe patterning. Dorsolateral and mid-lateral stripes were always coinherited and are thus under the same genetic control. Additionally, we directly quantify the genotyping error rates in RAD markers and offer guidelines for identifying and dealing with errors. Uncritical marker selection was found to severely impact linkage map construction. Fortunately, by applying appropriate quality control steps, a genotyping accuracy of >99.9% can be reached, thus allowing for efficient linkage mapping of evolutionarily relevant traits.

  8. Genome-wide linkage scan identifies two novel genetic loci for coronary artery disease: in GeneQuest families.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hanxiang; Li, Lin; Rao, Shaoqi; Shen, Gongqing; Xi, Quansheng; Chen, Shenghan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Kai; Ellis, Stephen G; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing K

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified >50 common variants associated with CAD or its complication myocardial infarction (MI), but collectively they account for <20% of heritability, generating a phenomena of "missing heritability". Rare variants with large effects may account for a large portion of missing heritability. Genome-wide linkage studies of large families and follow-up fine mapping and deep sequencing are particularly effective in identifying rare variants with large effects. Here we show results from a genome-wide linkage scan for CAD in multiplex GeneQuest families with early onset CAD and MI. Whole genome genotyping was carried out with 408 markers that span the human genome by every 10 cM and linkage analyses were performed using the affected relative pair analysis implemented in GENEHUNTER. Affected only nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis identified two novel CAD loci with highly significant evidence of linkage on chromosome 3p25.1 (peak NPL  = 5.49) and 3q29 (NPL  = 6.84). We also identified four loci with suggestive linkage on 9q22.33, 9q34.11, 17p12, and 21q22.3 (NPL  = 3.18-4.07). These results identify novel loci for CAD and provide a framework for fine mapping and deep sequencing to identify new susceptibility genes and novel variants associated with risk of CAD.

  9. A physically anchored genetic map and linkage to avirulence reveals recombination suppression over the proximal region of Hessian fly chromosome A2.

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K; Valicente, Fernando H; Rider, S Dean; Shun-Chen, Ming; Jackson, Scott; Stuart, Jeffrey J

    2004-01-01

    Resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), a major insect pest of wheat, is based on a gene-for-gene interaction. Close linkage (3 +/- 2 cM) was discovered between Hessian fly avirulence genes vH3 and vH5. Bulked segregant analysis revealed two DNA markers (28-178 and 23-201) within 10 cM of these loci and only 3 +/- 2 cM apart. However, 28-178 was located in the middle of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome A2 whereas 23-201 was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome A2, suggesting the presence of severe recombination suppression over its proximal region. To further test that possibility, an AFLP-based genetic map of the Hessian fly genome was constructed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 20 markers on the genetic map to the polytene chromosomes of the Hessian fly indicated good correspondence between the linkage groups and the four Hessian fly chromosomes. The physically anchored genetic map is the first of any gall midge species. The proximal region of mitotic chromosome A2 makes up 30% of its length but corresponded to <3% of the chromosome A2 genetic map. PMID:15166159

  10. A genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides x C. lanatus var. lanatus) x Citrullus colocynthis.

    PubMed

    Levi, A.; Thomas, E.; Joobeur, T.; Zhang, X.; Davis, A.

    2002-09-01

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [Plant Accession Griffin 14113 ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x New Hampshire Midget (NHM; C. lanatus var. lanatus)] x U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 386015 ( Citrullus colocynthis). The map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker that was previously reported as linked (1.6 cM) to race-1 Fusarium wilt [incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F.Sm.) W.C. Synder & H.N. Hans] resistance in watermelon. The map consists of 25 linkage groups. Among them are a large linkage group that contains 22 markers covering a mapping distance of 225.6 cM and six large groups each with 10-20 markers covering a mapping distance of 68.8 to 110.8 cM. There are five additional linkage groups consisting of 3-7 markers per group, each covering a mapping distance of 36.5 to 57.2 cM. The 13 remaining linkage groups are small, each consisting of 2-11 markers covering a mapping distance of 3.5-29.9 cM. The entire map covers a total distance of 1,166.2 cM with an average distance of 8.1 cM between two markers. This map is useful for the further development of markers linked to disease resistance and watermelon fruit qualities.

  11. Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of erucic acid content and glucosinolate components in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is an important condiment crop for the spice trade in the world. It has lagged behind oilseed Brassica species in molecular marker development and application. Intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers are highly polymorphic, co-dominant and cost-effective. The cross-species applicability of ILP markers from Brassica species and Arabidopsis makes them possible to be used for genetic linkage mapping and further QTL analysis of agronomic traits in yellow mustard. Results A total of 250 ILP and 14 SSR markers were mapped on 12 linkage groups and designated as Sal01-12 in yellow mustard. The constructed map covered a total genetic length of 890.4 cM with an average marker interval of 3.3 cM. The QTL for erucic content co-localized with the fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene on Sal03. The self-(in)compatibility gene was assigned to Sal08. The 4-hydroxybenzyl, 3-indolylmethyl and 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate contents were each controlled by one major QTL, all of which were located on Sal02. Two QTLs, accounting for the respective 20.4% and 19.2% of the total variation of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate content, were identified and mapped to Sal02 and Sal11. Comparative synteny analysis revealed that yellow mustard was phylogenetically related to Arabidopsis thaliana and had undergone extensive chromosomal rearrangements during speciation. Conclusion The linkage map based on ILP and SSR markers was constructed and used for QTL analysis of seed quality traits in yellow mustard. The markers tightly linked with the genes for different glucosinolate components will be used for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. The ILP markers and linkage map provide useful molecular tools for yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24066707

  12. A Genetic Linkage Map of Sole (Solea solea): A Tool for Evolutionary and Comparative Analyses of Exploited (Flat)Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Diopere, Eveline; Maes, Gregory E.; Komen, Hans; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Groenen, Martien A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective forces at play during exploitation or selective breeding. Additionally, they allow the use of genomic information from other related species for which more detailed information is available. Sole (solea solea L.) is a commercially important flatfish species in the North Sea, subject to overexploitation and showing evidence of fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in growth- and maturation-related traits. Sole would definitely benefit from a linkage map to better understand how evolution has shaped its genome structure. This study presents a linkage map of sole based on 423 single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from expressed sequence tags and 8 neutral microsatellite markers. The total map length is 1233.8 cM and consists of 38 linkage groups with a size varying between 0 to 92.1 cM. Being derived from expressed sequence tags allowed us to align the map with the genome of four model fish species, namely medaka (Oryzias latipes), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis). This comparison revealed multiple conserved syntenic regions with all four species, and suggested that the linkage groups represent 21 putative sole chromosomes. The map was also compared to the linkage map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), another commercially important flatfish species and closely related to sole. For all putative sole chromosomes (except one) a turbot homolog was detected, confirming the even higher degree of synteny between these two flatfish species. PMID:25541971

  13. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan Identifies Two Novel Genetic Loci for Coronary Artery Disease: In GeneQuest Families

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gongqing; Xi, Quansheng; Chen, Shenghan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Kai; Ellis, Stephen G.; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J.; Wang, Qing K.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified >50 common variants associated with CAD or its complication myocardial infarction (MI), but collectively they account for <20% of heritability, generating a phenomena of “missing heritability”. Rare variants with large effects may account for a large portion of missing heritability. Genome-wide linkage studies of large families and follow-up fine mapping and deep sequencing are particularly effective in identifying rare variants with large effects. Here we show results from a genome-wide linkage scan for CAD in multiplex GeneQuest families with early onset CAD and MI. Whole genome genotyping was carried out with 408 markers that span the human genome by every 10 cM and linkage analyses were performed using the affected relative pair analysis implemented in GENEHUNTER. Affected only nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis identified two novel CAD loci with highly significant evidence of linkage on chromosome 3p25.1 (peak NPL  = 5.49) and 3q29 (NPL  = 6.84). We also identified four loci with suggestive linkage on 9q22.33, 9q34.11, 17p12, and 21q22.3 (NPL  = 3.18–4.07). These results identify novel loci for CAD and provide a framework for fine mapping and deep sequencing to identify new susceptibility genes and novel variants associated with risk of CAD. PMID:25485937

  14. High-resolution genetic linkage mapping, high-temperature tolerance and growth-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Hu, Long Yang; Mao, Yong; Tao, Ye; Zhong, Sheng Ping; Kong, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The Kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, is one of the most promising marine invertebrates in the industry in Asia, Europe and Australia. However, the increasing global temperatures result in considerable economic losses in M. japonicus farming. In the present study, to select genetically improved animals for the sustainable development of the Kuruma prawn industry, a high-resolution genetic linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification were performed using the RAD technology. The maternal map contained 5849 SNP markers and spanned 3127.23 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.535 cM. Instead, the paternal map contained 3927 SNP markers and spanned 3326.19 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.847 cM. The consensus map contained 9289 SNP markers and spanned 3610.90 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.388 cM and coverage of 99.06 % of the genome. The markers were grouped into 41 linkage groups in the maps. Significantly, negative correlation was detected between high-temperature tolerance (UTT) and body weight (BW). The QTL mapping revealed 129 significant QTL loci for UTT and four significant QTL loci for BW at the genome-wide significance threshold. Among these QTLs, 129 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining four were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. They explained the total phenotypic variance ranging from 8.9 to 12.4 %. Because of a significantly negative correlation between growth and high-temperature tolerance, we demonstrate that this high-resolution linkage map and QTLs would be useful for further marker-assisted selection in the genetic improvement of M. japonicus.

  15. Who are the Okinawans? Ancestry, genome diversity, and implications for the genetic study of human longevity from a geographically isolated population.

    PubMed

    Bendjilali, Nasrine; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; He, Qimei; Willcox, D Craig; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Donlon, Timothy A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Suzuki, Makoto; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    Isolated populations have advantages for genetic studies of longevity from decreased haplotype diversity and long-range linkage disequilibrium. This permits smaller sample sizes without loss of power, among other utilities. Little is known about the genome of the Okinawans, a potential population isolate, recognized for longevity. Therefore, we assessed genetic diversity, structure, and admixture in Okinawans, and compared this with Caucasians, Chinese, Japanese, and Africans from HapMap II, genotyped on the same Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500K array. Principal component analysis, haplotype coverage, and linkage disequilibrium decay revealed a distinct Okinawan genome-more homogeneity, less haplotype diversity, and longer range linkage disequilibrium. Population structure and admixture analyses utilizing 52 global reference populations from the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel demonstrated that Okinawans clustered almost exclusively with East Asians. Sibling relative risk (λs) analysis revealed that siblings of Okinawan centenarians have 3.11 times (females) and 3.77 times (males) more likelihood of centenarianism. These findings suggest that Okinawans are genetically distinct and share several characteristics of a population isolate, which are prone to develop extreme phenotypes (eg, longevity) from genetic drift, natural selection, and population bottlenecks. These data support further exploration of genetic influence on longevity in the Okinawans.

  16. Development of a high-density genetic linkage map and identification of flowering time QTLs in adzuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyou; Fan, Baojie; Cao, Zhimin; Su, Qiuzhu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhixiao; Tian, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is crucial for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), positional cloning, and physical map assembly. Here, we report the development of a high-density linkage map based on specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) for adzuki bean and the identification of flowering time-related QTLs. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, a total of 4425 SLAF markers were developed and assigned to 11 linkage groups (LGs). After binning the SLAF markers that represented the same genotype, the final linkage map of 1628.15 cM contained 2032 markers, with an average marker density of 0.80 cM. Comparative analysis showed high collinearity with two adzuki bean physical maps and a high degree of synteny with the reference genome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using this map, one major QTL on LG03 and two minor QTLs on LG05 associated with first flowering time (FLD) were consistently identified in tests over a two-year period. These results provide a foundation that will be useful for future genomic research, such as identifying QTLs for other important traits, positional cloning, and comparative mapping in legumes. PMID:28008173

  17. Construction of high resolution genetic linkage maps to improve the soybean genome sequence assembly Glyma1.01

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A landmark in soybean research, Glyma1.01, the first whole genome sequence of variety Williams 82 (Glycine max L. Merr.) was completed in 2010 and is widely used. However, because the assembly was primarily built based on the linkage maps constructed with a limited number of markers and recombinant...

  18. A family-specific linkage analysis of blood lipid response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drug and Diet Network (GOLDN)

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Aslibekyan, Stella; Wiener, Howard W.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Straka, Robert J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Arnett, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective identification of novel pharmacogenetic variants remains a pressing need in the field. Using data from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network, we identified genomic regions of relevance to fenofibrate response in a sample of 173 families. Our approach included a multipoint linkage scan, followed by selection of the families showing evidence of linkage. We identified a strong signal for changes in LDL-C on chromosome 7 (peak LOD score=4.76) in the full sample (n=821). The signal for LDL-C response remained even after adjusting for baseline LDL-C. Restricting analyses only to the families contributing to the linkage signal for LDL-C (N=19), we observed a peak LOD score of 5.17 for chromosome 7. Two genes under this peak (ABCB4 and CD36) were of biological interest. These results suggest that linked family analyses might be a useful approach to gene discovery in the presence of a complex (e.g. multigenic) phenotype. PMID:26203732

  19. Genetic studies of Unverricht-Luendborg disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, R.G.; Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Unverricht-Luendborg disease (ULD) is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with an age of onset between 6 and 13 years, myoclonic jerks that progressively worsen, and mental deterioration. ULD shows an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The ULD gene has been genetically linked to 21q22.3, and more recently estimated to lie within 0.3 cM of the markers PFKL, D21S25, and D21S154, based on linkage disequilibrium. We have previously identified eight families affected with ULD and shown linkage to 21q22.3. In our efforts to identify the metabolic basis of the disease, we have identified several other families with ULD and are testing them for linkage to 21q22.3 We are also constructing a cosmid and YAC contig of the candidate EPM1 region in 21q22.3 and are in the process of identifying candidate genes therefrom.

  20. Infrequent causes of disequilibrium in the adult.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, Marcello

    2011-04-01

    This content focuses on some of the less common causes of dizziness in the adult. The diseases have been divided into the 2 broad categories of those causing chronic symptoms and those causing episodic symptoms. Presented here are the unusual causes of chronic disequilibrium in the adult, including bilateral vestibular loss, progressive supranuclear palsy, spinocerebellar ataxias, and mal de debarquement. Also discussed are the unusual causes of episodic disequilibrium in the adult, including psychogenic disequilibrium, vestibular paroxysmia, episodic ataxia, vestibular seizures, and cervicogenic vertigo.

  1. Genetic analysis of the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar 'LCP 85-384'. I. Linkage mapping using AFLP, SSR, and TRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Andru, Suman; Pan, Yong-Bao; Thongthawee, Songkran; Burner, David M; Kimbeng, Collins A

    2011-06-01

    Sugarcane hybrids are complex aneu-polyploids (2n = 100-130) derived from inter-specific hybridization between ancestral polyploid species, namely S. officinarum L. and S. spontaneum L. Efforts to understand the sugarcane genome have recently been enhanced through the use of new molecular marker technologies. A framework genetic linkage map of Louisiana's popular cultivar LCP 85-384 was constructed using the selfed progeny and based on polymorphism derived from 64 AFLP, 19 SSR and 12 TRAP primer pairs. Of 1,111 polymorphic markers detected, 773 simplex (segregated in 3:1 ratio) and 182 duplex (segregate in 77:4 ratio) markers were used to construct the map using a LOD value of ≥ 4.0 and recombination threshold of 0.44. The genetic distances between pairs of markers linked in the coupling phase was computed using the Kosambi mapping function. Of the 955 markers, 718 simplex and 66 duplex markers were assigned to 108 co-segregation groups (CGs) with a cumulative map length of 5,617 cM and a density of 7.16 cM per marker. Fifty-five simplex and 116 duplex markers remained unlinked. With an estimated genome size of 12,313 cM for LCP 85-384, the map covered approximately 45.6% of the genome. Forty-four of the 108 CGs were assigned into 9 homo(eo)logous groups (HGs) based on information from locus-specific SSR and duplex markers, and repulsion phase linkages detected between CGs. Meiotic behavior of chromosomes in cytogenetic studies and repulsion phase linkage analysis between CGs in this study inferred the existence of strong preferential chromosome pairing behavior in LCP 85-384. This framework map marks an important beginning for future mapping of QTLs associated with important agronomic traits in the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs.

  2. A wheat intervarietal genetic linkage map based on microsatellite and target region amplified polymorphism markers and its utility for detecting quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Anderson, J A; Hu, J; Friesen, T L; Rasmussen, J B; Faris, J D

    2005-08-01

    Efficient user-friendly methods for mapping plant genomes are highly desirable for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genotypic profiling, genomic studies, and marker-assisted selection. SSR (microsatellite) markers are user-friendly and efficient in detecting polymorphism, but they detect few loci. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) is a relatively new PCR-based technique that detects a large number of loci from a single reaction without extensive pre-PCR processing of samples. In the investigation reported here, we used both SSRs and TRAPs to generate over 700 markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map in a hard red spring wheat intervarietal recombinant inbred population. A framework map consisting of 352 markers accounted for 3,045 cM with an average density of one marker per 8.7 cM. On average, SSRs detected 1.9 polymorphic loci per reaction, while TRAPs detected 24. Both marker systems were suitable for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes using wheat aneuploid stocks. We demonstrated the utility of the maps by identifying major QTLs for days to heading and reduced plant height on chromosomes 5A and 4B, respectively. Our results indicate that TRAPs are highly efficient for genetic mapping in wheat. The maps developed will be useful for the identification of quality and disease resistance QTLs that segregate in this population.

  3. Genetical control and linkage relationships of isozyme markers in sugar beet (B. vulgaris L.) : 1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose phosphate isomerase and cathodal peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Smed, E; Van Geyt, J P; Oleo, M

    1989-07-01

    Five isozyme systems were genetically investigated. The different separation techniques, the developmental expression and the use as marker system in sugar beet genetics and breeding is discussed. Isocitrate dehydrogenase was controlled by two genes. The gene products form inter- as well as intralocus dimers, even with the gene products of the Icd gene in B. procumbens and B. patellaris. Adenylate kinase was controlled by one gene. Three different allelic forms were detected, which were active as monomeric proteins. Glucose phosphate isomerase showed two zones of activity. One zone was polymorphic. Three allelic variants, active as dimers, were found. Phosphoglucomutase also showed two major zones of activity. One zone was polymorphic and coded for monomeric enzymes. Two allelic forms were found in the accessions studied. The cathodal peroxidase system was controlled by two independent genes, of which only one was polymorphic. The gene products are active as monomers. Linkage was found between red hypocotyl color (R) and Icd 2. Pgm 1, Gpi 2, Ak 1 and the Icd 2-R linkage group segregated independently.

  4. Linkage results in Schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.

    1996-04-09

    In setting a model for replication studies, the collective effort by the various investigators is praiseworthy. The linkage reported is intriguing, but given the aforementioned caveats it would be premature to dub it {open_quotes}significant -- and, probably, confirmed.{close_quotes} The extent to which a real genetic effect exists on chromosome 6p24-22 remains to be seen. Compelling confirmation, which further study might proffer, would be a welcome boost to a fledgling enterprise, where other findings of promise have faltered or failed to gain unequivocal support. The caution advised in this commentary may guide the design and interpretation of other linkage studies in psychiatric disorders.

  5. A high-density SNP genome-wide linkage scan in a large autism extended pedigree.

    PubMed

    Allen-Brady, K; Miller, J; Matsunami, N; Stevens, J; Block, H; Farley, M; Krasny, L; Pingree, C; Lainhart, J; Leppert, M; McMahon, W M; Coon, H

    2009-06-01

    We performed a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genome-wide scan on a six-generation pedigree from Utah with seven affected males, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Using a two-stage linkage design, we first performed a nonparametric analysis on the entire genome using a 10K SNP chip to identify potential regions of interest. To confirm potentially interesting regions, we eliminated SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) using a principal components analysis (PCA) method and repeated the linkage results. Three regions met genome-wide significance criteria after controlling for LD: 3q13.2-q13.31 (nonparametric linkage (NPL), 5.58), 3q26.31-q27.3 (NPL, 4.85) and 20q11.21-q13.12 (NPL, 5.56). Two regions met suggestive criteria for significance 7p14.1-p11.22 (NPL, 3.18) and 9p24.3 (NPL, 3.44). All five chromosomal regions are consistent with other published findings. Haplotype sharing results showed that five of the affected subjects shared more than a single chromosomal region of interest with other affected subjects. Although no common autism susceptibility genes were found for all seven autism cases, these results suggest that multiple genetic loci within these regions may contribute to the autism phenotype in this family, and further follow-up of these chromosomal regions is warranted.

  6. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C F; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2015-12-14

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5-2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates.

  7. Empirical Characteristics of Family-Based Linkage to a Complex Trait: the ADIPOQ Region and Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Brown, W. Mark; Ziegler, Julie T.; An, S. Sandy; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Taylor, Kent; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified a low frequency (1.1%) coding variant (G45R; rs200573126) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) which was the basis for a multipoint microsatellite linkage signal (LOD=8.2) for plasma adiponectin levels in Hispanic families. We have empirically evaluated the ability of data from targeted common variants, exome chip genotyping, and genome-wide association study (GWAS) data to detect linkage and association to adiponectin protein levels at this locus. Simple two-point linkage and association analyses were performed in 88 Hispanic families (1150 individuals) using 10,958 SNPs on chromosome 3. Approaches were compared for their ability to map the functional variant, G45R, which was strongly linked (two-point LOD=20.98) and powerfully associated (p-value=8.1×10−50). Over 450 SNPs within a broad 61 Mb interval around rs200573126 showed nominal evidence of linkage (LOD>3) but only four other SNPs in this region were associated with p-values<1.0×10−4. When G45R was accounted for, the maximum LOD score across the interval dropped to 4.39 and the best p-value was 1.1×10−5. Linked and/or associated variants ranged in frequency (0.0018 to 0.50) and type (coding, non-coding) and had little detectable linkage disequilibrium with rs200573126 (r2<0.20). In addition, the two-point linkage approach empirically outperformed multipoint microsatellite and multipoint SNP analysis. In the absence of data for rs200573126, family-based linkage analysis using a moderately dense SNP dataset, including both common and low frequency variants, resulted in stronger evidence for an adiponectin locus than association data alone. Thus, linkage analysis can be a useful tool to facilitate identification of high impact genetic variants. PMID:25447270

  8. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5–2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates. PMID:26668116

  9. Candidate disease resistance genes in sunflower cloned using conserved nucleotide-binding site motifs: genetic mapping and linkage to the downy mildew resistance gene Pl1.

    PubMed

    Gedil, M A; Slabaugh, M B; Berry, S; Johnson, R; Michelmore, R; Miller, J; Gulya, T; Knapp, S J

    2001-04-01

    Disease resistance gene candidates (RGCs) belonging to the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) superfamily have been cloned from numerous crop plants using highly conserved DNA sequence motifs. The aims of this research were to (i) isolate genomic DNA clones for RGCs in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and (ii) map RGC markers and Pl1, a gene for resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. & de Toni) race 1. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers targeted to conserved NBS DNA sequence motifs were used to amplify RGC fragments from sunflower genomic DNA. PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and assigned to 11 groups. RFLP analyses mapped six RGC loci to three linkage groups. One of the RGCs (Ha-4W2) was linked to Pl1, a downy mildew resistance gene. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed for Ha-4W2 using gene-specific oligonucleotide primers. Downy mildew susceptible lines (HA89 and HA372) lacked a 276-bp Tsp5091 restriction fragment that was present in downy mildew resistant lines (HA370, 335, 336, 337, 338, and 339). HA370 x HA372 F2 progeny were genotyped for the Ha-4W2 CAPS marker and phenotyped for resistance to downy mildew race 1. The CAPS marker was linked to but did not completely cosegregate with Pl1 on linkage group 8. Ha-4W2 was found to comprise a gene family with at least five members. Although genetic markers for Ha-4W2 have utility for marker-assisted selection, the RGC detected by the CAPS marker has been ruled out as a candidate gene for Pl1. Three of the RGC probes were monomorphic between HA370 and HA372 and still need to be mapped and screened for linkage to disease resistance loci.

  10. Special considerations in prognostic research in cancer involving genetic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of genetic polymorphisms may help identify putative prognostic markers and determine the biological basis of variable prognosis in patients. However, in contrast to other variables commonly used in the prognostic studies, there are special considerations when studying genetic polymorphisms. For example, variable inheritance patterns (recessive, dominant, codominant, and additive genetic models) need to be explored to identify the specific genotypes associated with the outcome. In addition, several characteristics of genetic polymorphisms, such as their minor allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium among multiple polymorphisms, and the population substructure of the cohort investigated need to be accounted for in the analyses. In addition, in cancer research due to the genomic differences between the tumor and non-tumor DNA, differences in the genetic information obtained using these tissues need to be carefully assessed in prognostic studies. In this article, we review these and other considerations specific to genetic polymorphism by focusing on genetic prognostic studies in cancer. PMID:23773794

  11. [Haplotype and linkage analysis of HLA-I classical genes in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Sun, Yu-Ying; Luo, Yuan; Liang, Fei; Liu, Nan; Jin, Li; Liu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Shu-Guang; Xi, Yong-Zhi

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of gene frequencies, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium of HLA-A, -B, -Cw in HLA classical I loci for Chinese Han population. HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-Cw loci were genotyped in 1014 unrelated China people using low resolution PCR-SSP typing method, and their genetic parameters were analyzed by statistic methods. The results indicated that among all the detected HLA-I genes, A*02 (0.33), A*11 (0.24), B*15 (0.14), B*13 (0.13), Cw*03 (0.25) and Cw*07 (0.18) were the popular gene groups distributing in Chinese Han population, and A*02-B*46 (0.071), A*11-B*15 (0.051), A*02-Cw*01 (0.084), A*11-Cw*03 (0.079), B*46-Cw*01 (0.095) and B*13-Cw*03 (0.071) were the predominant haplotypes in Han population. Additionally, A*02-B*46, A*30-B*13, A*30-Cw*06, A*02-Cw*01, B*46-Cw*01 and B*58-Cw*03 were statistically significant with strong linkage disequilibrium. While A*02-B*15, A*02-B*40, A*24-Cw*03, A*02-Cw*03 and A*31-Cw*03 were in low linkage disequilibrium, among them A*24-Cw*03 appeared frequently in HLA recombination events. In addition, A*02-B*46-Cw*01 (0.075), A*30-B*13-Cw*06 (0.046), A*11-B*13-Cw*03 (0.045), A*33-B*58-Cw*03 (0.044), A*11-B*15-Cw*08 (0.027), A*02-B*38-Cw*07 (0.023) and A*11-B*40-Cw*07 (0.022) were the main extended haplotypes in Han population. In conclusions, this study investigated systematically the genetic polymorphism features of Chinese Han population, which may provide useful genetic parameters for researches in colonial evolution, clinical transplantation and disease susceptibility.

  12. BIVARIATE LINKAGE CONFIRMS GENETIC CONTRIBUTION TO FETAL ORIGINS OF CHILDHOOD GROWTH AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN HISPANIC CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight has been shown to be associated with obesity and metabolic diseases in adulthood; however, the genetic contribution is still controversial. The objective of this analysis is to explore the genetic contribution to the relationship between birth weight and later risk for obesity and metab...

  13. Genetic linkage to the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) in 26 families with generalised recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and anchoring fibril abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Dunnill, M G; Richards, A J; Milana, G; Mollica, F; Atherton, D; Winship, I; Farrall, M; al-Imara, L; Eady, R A; Pope, F M

    1994-01-01

    To strengthen the evidence for genetic linkage to COL7A1, we have studied 26 generalised recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (EB) families of British, Italian, Irish, and