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Sample records for linkage disequilibrium information

  1. Decomposing multilocus linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Root; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2004-01-01

    We present a mathematically precise formulation of total linkage disequilibrium between multiple loci as the deviation from probabilistic independence and provide explicit formulas for all higher-order terms of linkage disequilibrium, thereby combining J. Dausset et al.'s 1978 definition of linkage disequilibrium with H. Geiringer's 1944 approach. We recursively decompose higher-order linkage disequilibrium terms into lower-order ones. Our greatest simplification comes from defining linkage disequilibrium at a single locus as allele frequency at that locus. At each level, decomposition of linkage disequilibrium is mathematically equivalent to number theoretic compositions of positive integers; i.e., we have converted a genetic decomposition into a mathematical decomposition. PMID:15082571

  2. Assortative Mating and Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Assortative mating has been suggested to result in an increase in heritability and additive genetic variance through an increase in linkage disequilibrium. The impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium was explicitly examined for the two-locus model of Wright (1921) and two selective assortative mating models. For the Wright (1921) model, when the proportion of assortative mating was high, positive linkage disequilibrium was generated. However, when the proportion of assortative mating was similar to that found in some studies, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was quite low. In addition, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was independent of the level of recombination. For two selective assortative models, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was a function of the amount of recombination. For these models, the linkage disequilibrium generated was negative mainly because repulsion heterozygotes were favored over coupling heterozygotes. From these findings, the impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium, and consequently heritability and additive genetic variance, appears to be small and model-specific. PMID:27784755

  3. Assortative Mating and Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-01-05

    Assortative mating has been suggested to result in an increase in heritability and additive genetic variance through an increase in linkage disequilibrium. The impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium was explicitly examined for the two-locus model of Wright (1921) and two selective assortative mating models. For the Wright (1921) model, when the proportion of assortative mating was high, positive linkage disequilibrium was generated. However, when the proportion of assortative mating was similar to that found in some studies, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was quite low. In addition, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was independent of the level of recombination. For two selective assortative models, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was a function of the amount of recombination. For these models, the linkage disequilibrium generated was negative mainly because repulsion heterozygotes were favored over coupling heterozygotes. From these findings, the impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium, and consequently heritability and additive genetic variance, appears to be small and model-specific. Copyright © 2017 Hedrick.

  4. Genome Scan for Selection in Structured Layer Chicken Populations Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium Information

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mahmood; Reimer, Christian; Erbe, Malena; Preisinger, Rudolf; Weigend, Annett; Weigend, Steffen; Servin, Bertrand; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest is being placed in the detection of genes, or genomic regions, that have been targeted by selection because identifying signatures of selection can lead to a better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships. A common strategy for the detection of selection signatures is to compare samples from distinct populations and to search for genomic regions with outstanding genetic differentiation. The aim of this study was to detect selective signatures in layer chicken populations using a recently proposed approach, hapFLK, which exploits linkage disequilibrium information while accounting appropriately for the hierarchical structure of populations. We performed the analysis on 70 individuals from three commercial layer breeds (White Leghorn, White Rock and Rhode Island Red), genotyped for approximately 1 million SNPs. We found a total of 41 and 107 regions with outstanding differentiation or similarity using hapFLK and its single SNP counterpart FLK respectively. Annotation of selection signature regions revealed various genes and QTL corresponding to productions traits, for which layer breeds were selected. A number of the detected genes were associated with growth and carcass traits, including IGF-1R, AGRP and STAT5B. We also annotated an interesting gene associated with the dark brown feather color mutational phenotype in chickens (SOX10). We compared FST, FLK and hapFLK and demonstrated that exploiting linkage disequilibrium information and accounting for hierarchical population structure decreased the false detection rate. PMID:26151449

  5. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  6. A multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure based on mutual information theory and its applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jianfeng; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-12-01

    Evaluating the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is important for association mapping study as well as for studying the genomic architecture of human genome (e.g., haplotype block structures). Commonly used bi-allelic pairwise measures for assessing LD between two loci, such as r(2) and D', may not make full and efficient use of modern multilocus data. Though extended to multilocus scenarios, their performance is still questionable. Meanwhile, most existing measures for an entire multilocus region, such as normalized entropy difference, do not consider existence of LD heterogeneity across the region under investigation. Additionally, these existing multilocus measures cannot handle distant regions where long-range LD patterns may exist. In this study, we proposed a novel multilocus LD measure developed based on mutual information theory. Our proposed measure described LD pattern between two chromosome regions each of which may consist of multiple loci (including multi-allele loci). As such, the proposed measure can better characterize LD patterns between two arbitrary regions. As potential applications, we developed algorithms on the proposed measure for partitioning haplotype blocks and for selecting haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs), which were helpful for follow-up association tests. The results on both simulated and empirical data showed that our LD measure had distinct advantages over pairwise and other multilocus measures. First, our measure was more robust, and can capture comprehensively the LD information between neighboring as well as disjointed regions. Second, haplotype blocks were better described via our proposed measure. Furthermore, association tests with htSNPs from the proposed algorithm had improved power over tests on single markers and on haplotypes.

  7. Testing Linkage Disequilibrium in Sibships

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Langholz, Bryan; Kraft, Peter; Thomas, Duncan C.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the use of multivariate regression for testing allelic association in the presence of linkage, using marker genotype data from sibships. The test is valid, provided that the correct mean structure is modeled but does not require the correlation structure within families to be specified. The test can be implemented using standard statistical software such as the SAS programming language. In a simulation study, we evaluated this new test in comparison with one from a standard, matched–case-control analysis. First, we noted that the genetic effect needed to be quite extreme before residual familial correlation due to linkage led to false inference using the standard, matched-pair analysis. Second, we showed that under examples of extreme residual familial correlation, the new test had the correct test size. Third, we found that the test was more powerful than the sibship disequilibrium test of Horvath and Laird. Finally, we concluded that although the standard analysis may lead to correct inference for practical purposes, the new test is valid, even under extreme residual familial correlation and with no cost in power at the causal locus. PMID:10831398

  8. Positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E

    2004-05-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald's likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to efficient

  9. Tagging SNP-set selection with maximum information based on linkage disequilibrium structure in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shudong; He, Sicheng; Yuan, Fayou; Zhu, Xinjie

    2017-07-15

    Effective tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-set selection is crucial to SNP-set analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most of the existing tagging SNP-set selection methods cannot make full use of the information hidden in common or rare variants associated diseases. It is noticed that some SNPs have overlapping genetic information owing to linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure between SNPs. Therefore, when testing the association between SNPs and disease susceptibility, it is sufficient to elect the representative SNPs (called tag SNP-set or tagSNP-set) with maximum information. It is proposed a new tagSNP-set selection method based on LD information between SNPs, namely TagSNP-Set with Maximum Information. Compared with classical SNP-set analytical method, our method not only has higher power, but also can minimize the number of selected tagSNPs and maximize the information provided by selected tagSNPs with less genotyping cost and lower time complexity. hesicheng12@163.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium in Theobroma cacao L. populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although the potential of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) mapping to associate markers to agronomic and horticultural traits has been already recognized in cacao, its real efficiency depends on the nature and structure of the LD in the genome of the populations under study. LD is dependent on several fa...

  11. Adaptive Linkage Disequilibrium Between Two Esterase Loci of a Salamander

    PubMed Central

    Webster, T. Preston

    1973-01-01

    In some populations of the salamander Plethodon cinereus, two polymorphic esterase loci are in linkage disequilibrium. Short-term stability of the linkage disequilibrium is demonstrated by an age class analysis. Long, perhaps very long, term stability is suggested by its distribution. This stability and concordant geographic variation in allelic frequencies imply selective origin and maintenance. Data on the frequencies of two color morphs suggest that formation of the linkage disequilibrium is dependent on the genetic background. Images PMID:4515614

  12. Maximum-likelihood estimation of gene location by linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, W.G. ); Weir, B.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Linkage disequilibrium, D, between a polymorphic disease and mapped markers can, in principle, be used to help find the map position of the disease gene. Likelihoods are therefore derived for the value of D conditional on the observed number of haplotypes in the sample and on the population parameter Nc, where N is the effective population size and c the recombination fraction between the disease and marker loci. The likelihood is computed explicitly for the case of two loci with heterozygote superiority and, more generally, by computer simulations assuming a steady state of constant population size and selective pressures or neutrality. It is found that the likelihood is, in general, not very dependent on the degree of selection at the loci and is very flat. This suggests that precise information on map position will not be obtained from estimates of linkage disequilibrium. 15 refs., 5 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium in the North American Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Kim, E-S; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2009-06-01

    Linkage disequilibrium was estimated using 7119 single nucleotide polymorphism markers across the genome and 200 animals from the North American Holstein cattle population. The analysis of maternally inherited haplotypes revealed strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) > 0.8) in genomic regions of approximately 50 kb or less. While linkage disequilibrium decays as a function of genomic distance, genomic regions within genes showed greater linkage disequilibrium and greater variation in linkage disequilibrium compared with intergenic regions. Identification of haplotype blocks could characterize the most common haplotypes. Although maximum haplotype block size was over 1 Mb, mean block size was 26-113 kb by various definitions, which was larger than that observed in humans ( approximately 10 kb). Effective population size of the dairy cattle population was estimated from linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphism marker pairs in various haplotype ranges. Rapid reduction of effective population size of dairy cattle was inferred from linkage disequilibrium in recent generations. This result implies a loss of genetic diversity because of the high rate of inbreeding and high selection intensity in dairy cattle. The pattern observed in this study indicated linkage disequilibrium in the current dairy cattle population could be exploited to refine mapping resolution. Changes in effective population size during past generations imply a necessity of plans to maintain polymorphism in the Holstein population.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium patterns vary with chromosomal location: A case study from the von Willebrand factor region

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W.S.; Zenger, R.; O'Brien, E.; Jorde, L.B. ); Nyman, D. ); Eriksson, A.W. ); Renlund, M.

    1994-08-01

    Linkage disequilibrium analysis has been used as a tool for analyzing marker order and locating disease genes. Under appropriate circumstances, disequilibrium patterns reflect recombination events that have occurred throughput a population's history. As a result, disequilibrium mapping may be useful in genomic regions of <1 cM where the number of informative meioses needed to detect recombinant individuals within pedigrees is exceptionally high. Its utility for refining target areas for candidate disease genes before initiating chromosomal walks and cloning experiments will be enhanced as the relationship between linkage disequilibrium and physical distance is better understood. To address this issue, the authors have characterized linkage disequilibrium in a 144-kb region of the von Willebrand factor gene on chromosome 12. Sixty CEPH and 12 von Willebrand disease families were genotypes for five PCR-based markers, which include two microsatellite repeats and three single-base-pair substitutions. Linkage disequilibrium and physical distance between polymorphisms are highly correlated (r[sub m] = -.76; P<.05) within this region. None of the five markers showed significant disequilibrium with the von Willebrand disease phenotype. The linkage disequilibrium/physical distance relationship was also analyzed as a function of chromosomal location for this and eight previously characterized regions. This analysis revealed a general trend in which linkage disequilibrium dissipates more rapidly with physical distance in telomeric regions than in centromeric regions. This trend is consistent with higher recombination rates near telomeres. 52 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium at the SCA2 locus

    PubMed Central

    Didierjean, O.; Cancel, G.; Stevanin, G.; Durr, A.; Burk, K.; Benomar, A.; Lezin, A.; Belal, S.; Abada-Bendid, M.; Klockgether, T.; Brice, A.

    1999-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract. Repeats with 32 to 200 CAGs are associated with the disease, whereas normal chromosomes contain 13 to 33 repeats. We tested 220 families of different geographical origins for the SCA2 mutation. Thirty three were positive (15%). Twenty three families with at least two affected subjects were tested for linkage disequilibium (LD) between the SCA2 mutation and three microsatellite markers, two of which (D12S1332-D12S1333) closely flanked the mutation; the other (D12S1672) was intragenic. Many different haplotypes were observed, indicating the occurrence of several ancestral mutations. However, the same haplotype, not observed in controls, was detected in the German, the Serbian, and some of the French families, suggesting a founder effect or recurrent mutations on an at risk haplotype.


Keywords: linkage disequilibrium; SCA2; trinucleotide repeat expansion; founder effect PMID:10353790

  16. Mitonuclear linkage disequilibrium in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Daniel B.; Fields, Peter D.; Havird, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence from model systems that disrupting associations between co-adapted mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes can lead to deleterious and even lethal consequences. While it is tempting to extrapolate from these observations and make inferences about the human-health effects of altering mitonuclear associations, the importance of such associations may vary greatly among species, depending on population genetics, demographic history and other factors. Remarkably, despite the extensive study of human population genetics, the statistical associations between nuclear and mitochondrial alleles remain largely uninvestigated. We analysed published population genomic data to test for signatures of historical selection to maintain mitonuclear associations, particularly those involving nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial-localized proteins (N-mt genes). We found that significant mitonuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists throughout the human genome, but these associations were generally weak, which is consistent with the paucity of population genetic structure in humans. Although mitonuclear LD varied among genomic regions (with especially high levels on the X chromosome), N-mt genes were statistically indistinguishable from background levels, suggesting that selection on mitonuclear epistasis has not preferentially maintained associations involving this set of loci at a species-wide level. We discuss these findings in the context of the ongoing debate over mitochondrial replacement therapy. PMID:26378221

  17. Linkage disequilibrium of polymorphic RAET1 genes in Thais.

    PubMed

    Rareongjai, S; Romphruk, A; Romphruk, A V; Sakuntabhai, A; Leelayuwat, C

    2010-09-01

    Retinoic acid early transcripts-1 (RAET1) or unique long 16 (UL-16) binding proteins (ULBPs) is a gene cluster encoding for molecules acting as ligands to natural killer group 2 D (NKG2D), a receptor expressed on immune cells. Binding of these ligands to the receptor activates immune cells leading to killing of tumor cells and also viral-infected cells. The information on polymorphism of RAET1 is limited. In this report, we analyze the linkages between four polymorphic RAET1 genes: RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H and RAET1L, in 318 unrelated Thais. The strongest linkage disequilibrium was found between RAET1E and RAET1G, with P-value, D' and r(2) of <5.0 x 10(-5), 0.707 and 0.840, respectively. RAET1E(*)001 was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with RAET1G(*)002, and RAET1E(*)002 with RAET1G(*)001. Evidently, there were possible RAET1 haplotypes with haplotype frequencies of more than 10% consisting of RAET1E(*)001; RAET1G(*)002; RAET1H(*)001; RAET1L(*)001 and RAET1E(*)002; RAET1G(*)001; RAET1H(*)002; RAET1L(*)003. This study provides basic information on polymorphisms of RAET1 and possible RAET1 haplotypes in Thais.

  18. The score statistic of the LD-lod analysis: detecting linkage adaptive to linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Jiang, Y

    2001-01-01

    We study the properties of a modified lod score method for testing linkage that incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD-lod). By examination of its score statistic, we show that the LD-lod score method adaptively combines two sources of information: (a) the IBD sharing score which is informative for linkage regardless of the existence of LD and (b) the contrast between allele-specific IBD sharing scores which is informative for linkage only in the presence of LD. We also consider the connection between the LD-lod score method and the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) for triad data and the mean test for affected sib pair (ASP) data. We show that, for triad data, the recessive LD-lod test is asymptotically equivalent to the TDT; and for ASP data, it is an adaptive combination of the TDT and the ASP mean test. We demonstrate that the LD-lod score method has relatively good statistical efficiency in comparison with the ASP mean test and the TDT for a broad range of LD and the genetic models considered in this report. Therefore, the LD-lod score method is an interesting approach for detecting linkage when the extent of LD is unknown, such as in a genome-wide screen with a dense set of genetic markers. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Variance Formulae for Correlation Measures of Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Roop, Mary L; Cole, David E C; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the non-random association between alleles at different loci and remains important for disease mapping studies in humans. A common measure of LD is the sample correlation between indicator variables for alleles at the 2 loci. Knowledge of LD estimate precision may help inform biomedical decisions based on those estimates. Variance formulae are obtained for correlation measures of LD in 4 scenarios. These scenarios include data in the form of gametic and genotypic counts, with different assumptions used to simplify the analysis. The formulae are expressed as polynomials (or ratios of polynomials) in higher-order disequilibrium coefficients with constants which are functions of the allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium coefficients. With genotypic data, the variance is the same as with gametic data when the phase is known and there is random mating. When the phase is unknown, the correlation LD has variance which is twice as large. Symbolic computation proved to be effective in facilitating algebraic derivations which would otherwise have been intractable. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Likelihood ratio tests for linkage and linkage disequilibrium: Asymptotic distribution and power

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Terwilliger proposes an interesting likelihood ratio test for linkage disequilibrium that appears conservative under the null hypothesis and powerful when one of several alleles is positively associated with the disease. We discuss in detail the aspects of linkage disequilibrium with a simpler asymptotic distribution. 3 refs.

  1. A Test for Linkage and Association in General Pedigrees: The Pedigree Disequilibrium Test

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Eden R.; Monks, Stephanie A.; Warren, Liling L.; Kaplan, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    Family-based tests of linkage disequilibrium typically are based on nuclear-family data including affected individuals and their parents or their unaffected siblings. A limitation of such tests is that they generally are not valid tests of association when data from related nuclear families from larger pedigrees are used. Standard methods require selection of a single nuclear family from any extended pedigrees when testing for linkage disequilibrium. Often data are available for larger pedigrees, and it would be desirable to have a valid test of linkage disequilibrium that can use all potentially informative data. In this study, we present the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) for analysis of linkage disequilibrium in general pedigrees. The PDT can use data from related nuclear families from extended pedigrees and is valid even when there is population substructure. Using computer simulations, we demonstrated validity of the test when the asymptotic distribution is used to assess the significance, and examined statistical power. Power simulations demonstrate that, when extended pedigree data are available, substantial gains in power can be attained by use of the PDT rather than existing methods that use only a subset of the data. Furthermore, the PDT remains more powerful even when there is misclassification of unaffected individuals. Our simulations suggest that there may be advantages to using the PDT even if the data consist of independent families without extended family information. Thus, the PDT provides a general test of linkage disequilibrium that can be widely applied to different data structures PMID:10825280

  2. Linkage Disequilibrium in Natural Populations of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Seasonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Charles H.; Ito, Kazuko; Voelker, Robert A.

    1977-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium among ten polymorphic allozyme loci and polymorphic inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3 in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster was examined early and late in the annual season. Similar to previous studies, little linkage disequilibrium was observed among allozymes. The two significant cases that were observed in the first sample behaved in a contradictory way. One declined much more rapidly than expected due simply to recombination; the other declined slowly as expected. There was little change in allozyme or inversion frequencies during the season. PMID:407131

  3. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jihad M; Goffinet, Bruno; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL) has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1) measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2) investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance. PMID:12939203

  4. Design and sample-size considerations in the detection of linkage disequilibrium with a disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.M.; Wijsman, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    The presence of linkage disequilibrium between closely linked loci can aid in the fine mapping of disease loci. The authors investigate the power of several designs for sampling individuals with different disease genotypes. As expected, haplotype data provide the greatest power for detecting disequilibrium, but, in the absence of parental information to resolve the phase of double heterozygotes, the most powerful design samples only individuals homozygous at the trait locus. For rare diseases, such a scheme is generally not feasible, and the authors also provide power and sample-size calculations for designs that sample heterozygotes. The results provide information useful in planning disequilibrium studies. 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium and its expectation in human populations.

    PubMed

    Sved, John A

    2009-02-01

    Abstract Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the association in populations between genes at linked loci, has achieved a high degree of prominence in recent years, primarily because of its use in identifying and cloning genes of medical importance. The field has recently been reviewed by Slatkin (2008). The present article is largely devoted to a review of the theory of LD in populations, including historical aspects.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium interval mapping of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Abdallah, Jihad; de Rochambeau, Hubert; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Mangin, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Background For many years gene mapping studies have been performed through linkage analyses based on pedigree data. Recently, linkage disequilibrium methods based on unrelated individuals have been advocated as powerful tools to refine estimates of gene location. Many strategies have been proposed to deal with simply inherited disease traits. However, locating quantitative trait loci is statistically more challenging and considerable research is needed to provide robust and computationally efficient methods. Results Under a three-locus Wright-Fisher model, we derived approximate expressions for the expected haplotype frequencies in a population. We considered haplotypes comprising one trait locus and two flanking markers. Using these theoretical expressions, we built a likelihood-maximization method, called HAPim, for estimating the location of a quantitative trait locus. For each postulated position, the method only requires information from the two flanking markers. Over a wide range of simulation scenarios it was found to be more accurate than a two-marker composite likelihood method. It also performed as well as identity by descent methods, whilst being valuable in a wider range of populations. Conclusion Our method makes efficient use of marker information, and can be valuable for fine mapping purposes. Its performance is increased if multiallelic markers are available. Several improvements can be developed to account for more complex evolution scenarios or provide robust confidence intervals for the location estimates. PMID:16542433

  7. New multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure for tag SNP selection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhu, Wen; Li, Xiong; Cai, Lijun; Chen, Haowen

    2017-02-01

    Numerous approaches have been proposed for selecting an optimal tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set. Most of these approaches are based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). Classical LD measures, such as D' and r(2), are frequently used to quantify the relationship between two marker (pairwise) linkage disequilibria. Despite of their successful use in many applications, these measures cannot be used to measure the LD between multiple-marker. These LD measures need information about the frequencies of alleles collected from haplotype dataset. In this study, a cluster algorithm is proposed to cluster SNPs according to multilocus LD measure which is based on information theory. After that, tag SNPs are selected in each cluster optimized by the number of tag SNPs, prediction accuracy and so on. The experimental results show that this new LD measure can be directly applied to genotype dataset collected from the HapMap project, so that it saves the cost of haplotyping. More importantly, the proposed method significantly improves the efficiency and prediction accuracy of tag SNP selection.

  8. Genome-wide estimation of linkage disequilibrium from population-level high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Maruki, Takahiro; Lynch, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Rapidly improving sequencing technologies provide unprecedented opportunities for analyzing genome-wide patterns of polymorphisms. In particular, they have great potential for linkage-disequilibrium analyses on both global and local genetic scales, which will substantially improve our ability to derive evolutionary inferences. However, there are some difficulties with analyzing high-throughput sequencing data, including high error rates associated with base reads and complications from the random sampling of sequenced chromosomes in diploid organisms. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a maximum-likelihood estimator of linkage disequilibrium for use with error-prone sampling data. Computer simulations indicate that the estimator is nearly unbiased with a sampling variance at high coverage asymptotically approaching the value expected when all relevant information is accurately estimated. The estimator does not require phasing of haplotypes and enables the estimation of linkage disequilibrium even when all individual reads cover just single polymorphic sites. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Extent and structure of linkage disequilibrium in canola quality winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ecke, Wolfgang; Clemens, Rosemarie; Honsdorf, Nora; Becker, Heiko C

    2010-03-01

    Linkage disequilibrium was investigated in canola quality winter rapeseed to analyze (1) the prospects for whole-genome association analyses and (2) the impact of the recent breeding history of rapeseed on linkage disequilibrium. A total of 845 mapped AFLP markers with allele frequencies >or=0.1 were used for the analysis of linkage disequilibrium in a population of 85 canola quality winter rapeseed genotypes. A low overall level of linkage disequilibrium was found with a mean r (2) of only 0.027 over all 356,590 possible marker pairs. At a significance threshold of P = 2.8 x 10(-7), which was derived by a Bonferroni correction from a global alpha-level of 0.1, only 0.78% of the marker pairs were in significant linkage disequilibrium. Among physically linked marker pairs, the level of linkage disequilibrium was about five times higher with more than 10% of marker pairs in significant linkage disequilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium decayed rapidly with distance between linked markers with high levels of linkage disequilibrium extending only for about 2 cM. Owing to the rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium with distance association analyses in canola quality rapeseed will have a significantly higher resolution than QTL analyses in segregating populations by interval mapping, but much larger number of markers will be necessary to cover the whole genome. A major impact of the recent breeding history of rapeseed on linkage disequilibrium could not be observed.

  10. Map-based molecular diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of fruit traits in melon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide phenotypic diversity, in melon fruits, is the result of consumer preferences combined with genotype fitness to the different agro-climatic zones. There is no sufficient information with respect to the extent of genetic divergence, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in mel...

  11. Effect of Linkage Disequilibrium on the Identification of Functional Variants

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alun; Abel, Haley J; Di, Yanming; Faye, Laura L; Jin, Jing; Liu, Jin; Wu, Zheyan; Paterson, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the contributions of Group 9 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 17. This group addressed the problems of linkage disequilibrium and other longer range forms of allelic association when evaluating the effects of genotypes on phenotypes. Issues raised by long-range associations, whether a result of selection, stratification, possible technical errors, or chance, were less expected but proved to be important. Most contributors focused on regression methods of various types to illustrate problematic issues or to develop adaptations for dealing with high-density genotype assays. Study design was also considered, as was graphical modeling. Although no method emerged as uniformly successful, most succeeded in reducing false-positive results either by considering clusters of loci within genes or by applying smoothing metrics that required results from adjacent loci to be similar. Two unexpected results that questioned our assumptions of what is required to model linkage disequilibrium were observed. The first was that correlations between loci separated by large genetic distances can greatly inflate single-locus test statistics, and, whether the result of selection, stratification, possible technical errors, or chance, these correlations seem overabundant. The second unexpected result was that applying principal components analysis to genome-wide genotype data can apparently control not only for population structure but also for linkage disequilibrium. PMID:22128051

  12. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E; Schierup, Mikkel H; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2015-10-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R(2) increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K.; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H.M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St. Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Adank, Muriel; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Berndt, Sonja; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Dahmen, Norbert; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Easton, Douglas; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gibson, Lorna; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Henderson, Brian E.; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sánchez, María José; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Rose; Zheng, Wei; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M.; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R2 increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. PMID:26430803

  14. Constructing a linkage-linkage disequilibrium map using dominant-segregating markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuli; Dong, Leiming; Jiang, Libo; Li, Huan; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Weiwu; Liu, Haokai; Dai, Wensheng; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination fraction can be used to infer the pattern of genetic variation and evolutionary process in humans and other systems. We described a computational framework to construct a linkage-LD map from commonly used biallelic, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for outcrossing plants by which the decline of LD is visualized with genetic distance. The framework was derived from an open-pollinated (OP) design composed of plants randomly sampled from a natural population and seeds from each sampled plant, enabling simultaneous estimation of the LD in the natural population and recombination fraction due to allelic co-segregation during meiosis. We modified the framework to infer evolutionary pasts of natural populations using those marker types that are segregating in a dominant manner, given their role in creating and maintaining population genetic diversity. A sophisticated two-level EM algorithm was implemented to estimate and retrieve the missing information of segregation characterized by dominant-segregating markers such as single methylation polymorphisms. The model was applied to study the relationship between linkage and LD for a non-model outcrossing species, a gymnosperm species, Torreya grandis, naturally distributed in mountains of the southeastern China. The linkage-LD map constructed from various types of molecular markers opens a powerful gateway for studying the history of plant evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  15. Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most important model fruits in the Rosaceae family. Native to the west of China, where peach has been domesticated for more than 4,000 years, its cultivation spread from China to Persia, Mediterranean countries and to America. Chinese peach has had a major impact on international peach breeding programs due to its high genetic diversity. In this research, we used 48 highly polymorphic SSRs, distributed over the peach genome, to investigate the difference in genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among Chinese cultivars, and North American and European cultivars, and the evolution of current peach cultivars. Results In total, 588 alleles were obtained with 48 SSRs on 653 peach accessions, giving an average of 12.25 alleles per locus. In general, the average value of observed heterozygosity (0.47) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.60). The separate analysis of groups of accessions according to their origin or reproductive strategies showed greater variability in Oriental cultivars, mainly due to the high level of heterozygosity in Chinese landraces. Genetic distance analysis clustered the cultivars into two main groups: one included four wild related Prunus, and the other included most of the Oriental and Occidental landraces and breeding cultivars. STRUCTURE analysis assigned 469 accessions to three subpopulations: Oriental (234), Occidental (174), and Landraces (61). Nested STRUCTURE analysis divided the Oriental subpopulation into two different subpopulations: ‘Yu Lu’ and ‘Hakuho’. The Occidental breeding subpopulation was also subdivided into nectarine and peach subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in each of these subpopulations showed that the percentage of linked (r2 > 0.1) intra-chromosome comparisons ranged between 14% and 47%. LD decayed faster in Oriental (1,196 Kbp) than in Occidental (2,687 Kbp) samples. In the ‘Yu Lu’ subpopulation there

  16. Accounting for haplotype phase uncertainty in linkage disequilibrium estimation.

    PubMed

    Kulle, B; Frigessi, A; Edvardsen, H; Kristensen, V; Wojnowski, L

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is applied in a variety of studies including the identification of molecular determinants of the local recombination rate, the migration and population history of populations, and the role of positive selection in adaptation. LD suffers from the phase uncertainty of the haplotypes used in its calculation, which reflects limitations of the algorithms used for haplotype estimation. We introduce a LD calculation method, which deals with phase uncertainty by weighting all possible haplotype pairs according to their estimated probabilities as evaluated by PHASE. In contrast to the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm as implemented in the HAPLOVIEW and GENETICS packages, our method considers haplotypes based on the entire genetic information available for the candidate region. We tested the method using simulated and real genotyping data. The results show that, for all practical purposes, the new method is advantageous in comparison with algorithms that calculate LD using only the most probable haplotype or bilocus haplotypes based on the EM algorithm. The new method deals especially well with low LD regions, which contribute strongly to phase uncertainty. Altogether, the method is an attractive alternative to standard LD calculation procedures, including those based on the EM algorithm. We implemented the method in the software suite R, together with an interface to the popular haplotype calculation package PHASE.

  17. Haplotype phasing after joint estimation of recombination and linkage disequilibrium in breeding populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for haplotype phasing in families after joint estimation of recombination fraction and linkage disequilibrium is developed. Results from Monte Carlo computer simulations show that the newly developed E.M. algorithm is accurate if true recombination fraction is 0 even for single families of relatively small sizes. Estimates of recombination fraction and linkage disequilibrium were 0.00 (SD 0.00) and 0.19 (SD 0.03) for simulated recombination fraction and linkage disequilibrium of 0.00 and 0.20, respectively. A genome fragmentation phasing strategy was developed and used for phasing haplotypes in a sire and 36 progeny using the 50 k Illumina BeadChip by: a) estimation of the recombination fraction and LD in consecutive SNPs using family information, b) linkage analyses between fragments, c) phasing of haplotypes in parents and progeny and in following generations. Homozygous SNPs in progeny allowed determination of paternal fragment inheritance, and deduction of SNP sequence information of haplotypes from dams. The strategy also allowed detection of genotyping errors. A total of 613 recombination events were detected after linkage analysis was carried out between fragments. Hot and cold spots were identified at the individual (sire level). SNPs for which the sire and calf were heterozygotes became informative (over 90%) after the phasing of haplotypes. Average of regions of identity between half-sibs when comparing its maternal inherited haplotypes (with at least 20 SNP) in common was 0.11 with a maximum of 0.29 and a minimum of 0.05. A Monte-Carlo simulation of BTA1 with the same linkage disequilibrium structure and genetic linkage as the cattle family yielded a 99.98 and 99.94% of correct phases for informative SNPs in sire and calves, respectively. PMID:23916349

  18. [Analysis of linkage disequilibrium and linkage for 12 short tandem repeat loci on chromosome X].

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiansu; Tang, Jianpin; Chen, Zucong; Li, Fagui; Yu, Xin; Wang, Ping; Lin, Hanguang; Shi, Meisen

    2014-12-01

    To analyze linkage disequilibrium of 12 short tandem repeat loci on chromosome X (X-STR) among an ethnic Han population from Guilin, Guangxi, and to study the genetic linkage and haplotype distributions of such loci in 2 linkage groups. 12 X-STR loci including DXS8378, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS981, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA165B12, GATA31E08 and DXS7423 were genotyped using an AGCU X12 STR PCR Amplification kit. A total of 119 pedigrees were analyzed for linkage and linkage disequilibrium. Two mutations were found at DXS7424, and 1 mutation was found at DXS10164. A total of 93 haplotypes of DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164 were constructed for 261 unrelated males and females, in addition with 167 haplotypes of DXS6789-DXS7424-DXS101-DXS7133. The values of recombination fraction between DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS10162 and DXS10164, DXS6789 and DXS7424, and DXS7424 and DXS101 were 0.0269, 0.0236, 0.0505 and 0.0438, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium of X-STR does not only depend on physical and genetic distances. There was incomplete linkage relationship between loci on DXS10159-DXS1016-DXS10164 and DXS6789-DXS7424-DXS101 linkage groups.

  19. Maximum likelihood estimation of linkage disequilibrium in half-sib families.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Raya, L

    2012-05-01

    Maximum likelihood methods for the estimation of linkage disequilibrium between biallelic DNA-markers in half-sib families (half-sib method) are developed for single and multifamily situations. Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out for a variety of scenarios regarding sire genotypes, linkage disequilibrium, recombination fraction, family size, and number of families. A double heterozygote sire was simulated with recombination fraction of 0.00, linkage disequilibrium among dams of δ=0.10, and alleles at both markers segregating at intermediate frequencies for a family size of 500. The average estimates of δ were 0.17, 0.25, and 0.10 for Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), maternal informative haplotypes, and the half-sib method, respectively. A multifamily EM algorithm was tested at intermediate frequencies by computer simulation. The range of the absolute difference between estimated and simulated δ was between 0.000 and 0.008. A cattle half-sib family was genotyped with the Illumina 50K BeadChip. There were 314,730 SNP pairs for which the sire was a homo-heterozygote with average estimates of r2 of 0.115, 0.067, and 0.111 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. There were 208,872 SNP pairs for which the sire was double heterozygote with average estimates of r2 across the genome of 0.100, 0.267, and 0.925 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. Genome analyses for all possible sire genotypes with 829,042 tests showed that ignoring half-sib family structure leads to upward biased estimates of linkage disequilibrium. Published inferences on population structure and evolution of cattle should be revisited after accommodating existing half-sib family structure in the estimation of linkage disequilibrium.

  20. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Linkage Disequilibrium in Half-Sib Families

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Raya, L.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood methods for the estimation of linkage disequilibrium between biallelic DNA-markers in half-sib families (half-sib method) are developed for single and multifamily situations. Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out for a variety of scenarios regarding sire genotypes, linkage disequilibrium, recombination fraction, family size, and number of families. A double heterozygote sire was simulated with recombination fraction of 0.00, linkage disequilibrium among dams of δ = 0.10, and alleles at both markers segregating at intermediate frequencies for a family size of 500. The average estimates of δ were 0.17, 0.25, and 0.10 for Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), maternal informative haplotypes, and the half-sib method, respectively. A multifamily EM algorithm was tested at intermediate frequencies by computer simulation. The range of the absolute difference between estimated and simulated δ was between 0.000 and 0.008. A cattle half-sib family was genotyped with the Illumina 50K BeadChip. There were 314,730 SNP pairs for which the sire was a homo-heterozygote with average estimates of r2 of 0.115, 0.067, and 0.111 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. There were 208,872 SNP pairs for which the sire was double heterozygote with average estimates of r2 across the genome of 0.100, 0.267, and 0.925 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. Genome analyses for all possible sire genotypes with 829,042 tests showed that ignoring half-sib family structure leads to upward biased estimates of linkage disequilibrium. Published inferences on population structure and evolution of cattle should be revisited after accommodating existing half-sib family structure in the estimation of linkage disequilibrium. PMID:22377635

  1. Genome resequencing reveals multiscale geographic structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium in the forest tree Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Gancho T; DiFazio, Stephen P; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Muchero, Wellington; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Lipphardt, Mindie F; Pennacchio, Christa P; Hellsten, Uffe; Pennacchio, Len A; Gunter, Lee E; Ranjan, Priya; Vining, Kelly; Pomraning, Kyle R; Wilhelm, Larry J; Pellegrini, Matteo; Mockler, Todd C; Freitag, Michael; Geraldes, Armando; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D; Cronk, Quentin C B; Douglas, Carl J; Strauss, Steven H; Rokhsar, Dan; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2012-11-01

    • Plant population genomics informs evolutionary biology, breeding, conservation and bioenergy feedstock development. For example, the detection of reliable phenotype-genotype associations and molecular signatures of selection requires a detailed knowledge about genome-wide patterns of allele frequency variation, linkage disequilibrium and recombination. • We resequenced 16 genomes of the model tree Populus trichocarpa and genotyped 120 trees from 10 subpopulations using 29,213 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. • Significant geographic differentiation was present at multiple spatial scales, and range-wide latitudinal allele frequency gradients were strikingly common across the genome. The decay of linkage disequilibrium with physical distance was slower than expected from previous studies in Populus, with r(2) dropping below 0.2 within 3-6 kb. Consistent with this, estimates of recent effective population size from linkage disequilibrium (N(e) ≈ 4000-6000) were remarkably low relative to the large census sizes of P. trichocarpa stands. Fine-scale rates of recombination varied widely across the genome, but were largely predictable on the basis of DNA sequence and methylation features. • Our results suggest that genetic drift has played a significant role in the recent evolutionary history of P. trichocarpa. Most importantly, the extensive linkage disequilibrium detected suggests that genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in undomesticated populations may be more feasible in Populus than previously assumed. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Conditional asymmetric linkage disequilibrium (ALD): extending the biallelic r2 measure.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Glenys; Single, Richard M

    2014-09-01

    For multiallelic loci, standard measures of linkage disequilibrium provide an incomplete description of the correlation of variation at two loci, especially when there are different numbers of alleles at the two loci. We have developed a complementary pair of conditional asymmetric linkage disequilibrium (ALD) measures. Since these measures do not assume symmetry, they more accurately describe the correlation between two loci and can identify heterogeneity in genetic variation not captured by other symmetric measures. For biallelic loci the ALD are symmetric and equivalent to the correlation coefficient r. The ALD measures are particularly relevant for disease-association studies to identify cases in which an analysis can be stratified by one of more loci. A stratified analysis can aid in detecting primary disease-predisposing genes and additional disease genes in a genetic region. The ALD measures are also informative for detecting selection acting independently on loci in high linkage disequilibrium or on specific amino acids within genes. For SNP data, the ALD statistics provide a measure of linkage disequilibrium on the same scale for comparisons among SNPs, among SNPs and more polymorphic loci, among haplotype blocks of SNPs, and for fine mapping of disease genes. The ALD measures, combined with haplotype-specific homozygosity, will be increasingly useful as next-generation sequencing methods identify additional allelic variation throughout the genome. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Olson, Matthew S; Robertson, Amanda L; Takebayashi, Naoki; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William R; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-04-01

    *Current perceptions that poplars have high levels of nucleotide variation, large effective population sizes, and rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium are based primarily on studies from one poplar species, Populus tremula. *We analysed 590 gene fragments (average length 565 bp) from each of 15 individuals from different populations from throughout the range of Populus balsamifera. *Nucleotide diversity (theta(total) = 0.0028, pi = 0.0027) was low compared with other trees and model agricultural systems. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and site frequency spectra were consistent with purifying selection on replacement and intron sites. When averaged across all loci we found no evidence for decay of linkage disequilibrium across 750 bp, consistent with the low estimates of the scaled recombination parameter, rho = 0.0092. *Compared with P. tremula, a well studied congener with a similar distribution, P. balsamifera has low diversity and low effective recombination, both of which indicate a lower effective population size in P. balsamifera. Patterns of diversity and linkage indicate that there is considerable variation in population genomic patterns among poplar species and unlike P. tremula, association mapping techniques in balsam poplar should consider sampling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at well-spaced intervals.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium, haplotype analysis and Werner`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wijsman, E.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-09-01

    Werner`s syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal, recessive disorder of premature aging. Although the underlying defect is unknown, the gene for the disorder, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region. We have assembled a sample of 30 Japanese and 24 non-Japanese (primary Caucasian) WS patients, as well as a control sample from each population. 25 of the Japanese patients and 10 of the Caucasian patients are from consanguineous marriages. We recently presented evidence from these families which places WRN in the 10.2 cM interval between D8S87 and D8S137. However, because WS is so rare and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. The existence of linkage disequilibrium is now recognized as a key piece of evidence in defining a small region (typically under 1-2 cM) containing a gene of interest. Thus an alternative approach for refining the location of WRN may be to identify linked markers which are in linkage disequilibrium with the disease. We recently suggested that WRN may be close to D8S339 and GSR in the above interval because of the presence of statistically significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in the Japanese sample. In addition, there was evidence in both populations that a limited number of haplotypes was associated with the disease. Here we report an extension of this study to include a number of additional markers. We present additional evidence that there is linkage disequilibrium between many of these markers and WRN in both the Japanese and Caucasian samples. In addition, the additional markers do not markedly subdivide the disease haplotypes defined by D8S339 and GSR, while at the same time they introduce substantial numbers of new haplotypes into the control populations. These results suggest that the haplotypes associated with WS may be used to further define the limits of WRN.

  5. Demographic history and linkage disequilibrium in human populations.

    PubMed

    Laan, M; Pääbo, S

    1997-12-01

    In the human genome, linkage disequilibrium (LD)--the non-random association of alleles at chromosomal loci--has been studied mainly in regions surrounding disease genes on affected chromosomes. Consequently, little information is available on the distribution of LD across anonymous genomic regions in the general population. However, demographic history is expected to influence the extent of overall LD across the genome, so a population that has been of constant size will display higher levels of LD than a population that has expanded. In support of this, the extent of LD between anonymous loci on chromosome 4 in chimpanzees (as a model of a population of constant size) has been compared to that in Finns (as a model of an expanded population; refs 8,9) and found to exhibit more LD than in the latter population. In Europe, studies of mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences have suggested that most populations have experienced expansion, whereas the Saami in northern Fenno-Scandinavia have been of constant size (Table 1). Thus, in northern Europe, populations with radically different demographic histories live in close geographic proximity to each other. We studied the allelic associations between anonymous microsatellite loci on the X chromosome in the Saami and neighbouring populations and found dramatically higher levels of LD in the Saami than in other populations in the region. This indicates that whereas recently expanded populations, such as the Finns, are well suited to map single disease genes affected by recent mutations, populations that have been of constant size, such as the Saami, may be much better suited to map genes for complex traits that are caused by older mutations.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Jennifer R S; Chan, Eva K F; Kijas, James W

    2008-09-30

    The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two LD metrics, D' and x2'. Four economically important Australian sheep flocks, three pure breeds (White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset, Merino) and a crossbred population (Merino x Border Leicester), along with an inbred Australian Merino museum flock were analysed. Short range LD (0 - 5 cM) was observed in all five populations, however the persistence with increasing distance and magnitude of LD varied considerably between populations. Average LD (x2') for markers spaced up to 20 cM exceeded the non-syntenic average within the White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset and Macarthur Merino. LD decayed faster within the Merino and Merino x Border Leicester, with LD below or consistent with observed background levels. Using marker-marker LD as a guide to the behaviour of marker-QTL LD, estimates of minimum marker spacing were made. For a 95% probability of detecting QTL, a microsatellite marker would be required every 0.1 - 2.5 centimorgans, depending on the population used. Sheep populations were selected which were inbred (Macarthur Merino), highly heterogeneous (Merino) or intermediate between these two extremes. This facilitated analysis and comparison of LD (x2') between populations. The strength and magnitude of LD was found to differ markedly between breeds and aligned closely with both observed levels of genetic diversity and expectations based on breed history. This confirmed that breed specific information is likely to be important for genome wide selection and during the design of successful genome scans where tens of thousands of markers will be required.

  7. Genome-wide linkage-disequilibrium profiles from single individuals.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Xu, Sen; Maruki, Takahiro; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Haubold, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Although the analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays a central role in many areas of population genetics, the sampling variance of LD is known to be very large with high sensitivity to numbers of nucleotide sites and individuals sampled. Here we show that a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of heterozygous sites within a single diploid genome can yield highly informative patterns of LD as a function of physical distance. The proposed statistic, the correlation of zygosity, is closely related to the conventional population-level measure of LD, but is agnostic with respect to allele frequencies and hence likely less prone to outlier artifacts. Application of the method to several vertebrate species leads to the conclusion that >80% of recombination events are typically resolved by gene-conversion-like processes unaccompanied by crossovers, with the average lengths of conversion patches being on the order of one to several kilobases in length. Thus, contrary to common assumptions, the recombination rate between sites does not scale linearly with distance, often even up to distances of 100 kb. In addition, the amount of LD between sites separated by <200 bp is uniformly much greater than can be explained by the conventional neutral model, possibly because of the nonindependent origin of mutations within this spatial scale. These results raise questions about the application of conventional population-genetic interpretations to LD on short spatial scales and also about the use of spatial patterns of LD to infer demographic histories. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Inferring linkage disequilibrium from non-random samples†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays a fundamental role in population genetics and in the current surge of studies to screen for subtle genetic variants affecting complex traits. Methods widely implemented in LD analyses require samples to be randomly collected, which, however, are usually ignored and thus raise the general question to the LD community of how the non-random sampling affects statistical inference of genetic association. Here we propose a new approach for inferring LD using a sample un-randomly collected from the population of interest. Results Simulation study was conducted to mimic generation of samples with various degrees of non-randomness from the simulated populations of interest. The method developed in the paper outperformed its rivals in adequately estimating the disequilibrium parameters in such sampling schemes. In analyzing a 'case and control' sample with β-thalassemia, the current method presented robustness to non-random sampling in contrast to two commonly used methods. Conclusions Through an intensive simulation study and analysis of a real dataset, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method to non-randomness in sampling schemes and the significant improvement of the method to provide accurate estimates of the disequilibrium parameter. This method provides a route to improve statistical reliability in association studies. PMID:20504300

  9. Exome-based linkage disequilibrium maps of individual genes: functional clustering and relationship to disease.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jane; Tapper, William; Ennis, Sarah; Collins, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Exome sequencing identifies thousands of DNA variants and a proportion of these are involved in disease. Genotypes derived from exome sequences provide particularly high-resolution coverage enabling study of the linkage disequilibrium structure of individual genes. The extent and strength of linkage disequilibrium reflects the combined influences of mutation, recombination, selection and population history. By constructing linkage disequilibrium maps of individual genes, we show that genes containing OMIM-listed disease variants are significantly under-represented amongst genes with complete or very strong linkage disequilibrium (P = 0.0004). In contrast, genes with disease variants are significantly over-represented amongst genes with levels of linkage disequilibrium close to the average for genes not known to contain disease variants (P = 0.0038). Functional clustering reveals, amongst genes with particularly strong linkage disequilibrium, significant enrichment of essential biological functions (e.g. phosphorylation, cell division, cellular transport and metabolic processes). Strong linkage disequilibrium, corresponding to reduced haplotype diversity, may reflect selection in utero against deleterious mutations which have profound impact on the function of essential genes. Genes with very weak linkage disequilibrium show enrichment of functions requiring greater allelic diversity (e.g. sensory perception and immune response). This category is not enriched for genes containing disease variation. In contrast, there is significant enrichment of genes containing disease variants amongst genes with more average levels of linkage disequilibrium. Mutations in these genes may less likely lead to in utero lethality and be subject to less intense selection.

  10. High-resolution linkage-disequilibrium mapping of the cartilage-hair hypoplasia gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sulisalo, T.; Klockars, J.; Chapelle, A. de la; Kaitila, I. |; Maekitie, O.; Sistonen, P.; Francomano, C.A.

    1994-11-01

    We recently assigned the gene for an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH), to 9p21-p13 in Finnish and Amish families. An association was observed between CHH and alleles at D9S163 in both family series, suggesting that these loci are in linkage disequilibrium and close to each other. Here we extended these studies by exploiting the linkage-disequilibrium information that can be obtained from families with a single affected child, and we studied 66 Finnish CHH families with seven microsatellite markers. The analysis based on the Luria and Delbrueck (1943) method and adapted to the study of human founder populations suggests that the distance between CHH and D9S163 is {approximately}0.3 cM. An eight-point linkage analysis modified to take advantage of all possible information in 15 Finnish and 17 Amish families was capable of narrowing the likely location of CHH to within an interval of 1.7 cM on a male map. The peak lod score of 54.92 was attained 0.03 and 0.1 cM proximal to D9S163 on the male and female maps, respectively. These results confirm the power of genetic resolution, that lies in the study of linkage disequilibrium in well-defined founder populations with one major ancestral disease mutation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Genome scan for linkage to asthma using a linkage disequilibrium-lod score test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Slager, S L; Huang, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a genome-wide linkage study of asthma on the German and Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) data. Using a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium test and the nonparametric linkage score, we identified 13 markers from the German data, 1 marker from the African American (CSGA) data, and 7 markers from the Caucasian (CSGA) data in which the p-values ranged between 0.0001 and 0.0100. From our analysis and taking into account previous published linkage studies of asthma, we suggest that three regions in chromosome 5 (around D5S418, D5S644, and D5S422), one region in chromosome 6 (around three neighboring markers D6S1281, D6S291, and D6S1019), one region in chromosome 11 (around D11S2362), and two regions in chromosome 12 (around D12S351 and D12S324) especially merit further investigation.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium and inbreeding estimation in Spanish Churra sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. Results A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200–500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15–25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. Conclusions The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes

  13. Genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Michael E; Thomason, Maureen Kiley; Chen, Peter E; Johnson, Henry R; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Mateczun, Alfred; Read, Timothy D

    2011-01-01

    We performed whole-genome amplification followed by hybridization of custom-designed resequencing arrays to resequence 303 kb of genomic sequence from a worldwide panel of 39 Bacillus anthracis strains. We used an efficient algorithm contained within a custom software program, UniqueMER, to identify and mask repetitive sequences on the resequencing array to reduce false-positive identification of genetic variation, which can arise from cross-hybridization. We discovered a total of 240 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and showed that B. anthracis strains have an average of 2.25 differences per 10,000 bases in the region we resequenced. Common SNVs in this region are found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium. These patterns of variation suggest there has been little if any historical recombination among B. anthracis strains since the origin of the pathogen. This pattern of common genetic variation suggests a framework for recognizing new or genetically engineered strains.

  14. Modeling Continuous Admixture Using Admixture-Induced Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Hongxiang; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-02-23

    Recent migrations and inter-ethnic mating of long isolated populations have resulted in genetically admixed populations. To understand the complex population admixture process, which is critical to both evolutionary and medical studies, here we used admixture induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer continuous admixture events, which is common for most existing admixed populations. Unlike previous studies, we expanded the typical continuous admixture model to a more general scenario with isolation after a certain duration of continuous gene flow. Based on the new models, we developed a method, CAMer, to infer the admixture history considering continuous and complex demographic process of gene flow between populations. We evaluated the performance of CAMer by computer simulation and further applied our method to real data analysis of a few well-known admixed populations.

  15. Modeling Continuous Admixture Using Admixture-Induced Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Hongxiang; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    Recent migrations and inter-ethnic mating of long isolated populations have resulted in genetically admixed populations. To understand the complex population admixture process, which is critical to both evolutionary and medical studies, here we used admixture induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer continuous admixture events, which is common for most existing admixed populations. Unlike previous studies, we expanded the typical continuous admixture model to a more general scenario with isolation after a certain duration of continuous gene flow. Based on the new models, we developed a method, CAMer, to infer the admixture history considering continuous and complex demographic process of gene flow between populations. We evaluated the performance of CAMer by computer simulation and further applied our method to real data analysis of a few well-known admixed populations. PMID:28230170

  16. Genotype transposer: automated genotype manipulation for linkage disequilibrium analysis.

    PubMed

    Cox, D G; Canzian, F

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide the modern molecular geneticist with tools to perform more efficient and more accurate analysis of the genotype data they produce. By using Microsoft Excel macros written in Visual Basic, we can translate genotype data into a form readable by the versatile software 'Arlequin', read the Arlequin output, calculate statistics of linkage disequilibrium, and put the results in a format for viewing with the software 'GOLD'. The software is available by FTP at: ftp://xcsg.iarc.fr/cox/Genotype_Transposer/. Detailed instruction and examples are available at: ftp://xcsg.iarc.fr/cox/Genotype&_Transposer/. Arlequin is available at: http://lgb.unige.ch/arlequin/. GOLD is available at: http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/asthma/GOLD/.

  17. Characteristics of linkage disequilibrium in North American Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of genomic selection and fine mapping is determined by the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. Knowledge of the range of genome-wide LD, defined as a non-random association of alleles at different loci, can provide an insight into the optimal density and location of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genome-wide association studies and can be a keystone for interpretation of results from QTL mapping. Results Linkage disequilibrium was measured by |D'| and r2 between 38,590 SNPs (spaced across 29 bovine autosomes and the X chromosome) using genotypes of 887 Holstein bulls. The average level of |D'| and r2 for markers 40-60 kb apart was 0.72 and 0.20, respectively in Holstein cattle. However, a high degree of heterogeneity of LD was observed across the genome. The sample size and minor allele frequency had an effect on |D'| estimates, however, r2 was not noticeably affected by these two factors. Syntenic LD was shown to be useful for verifying the physical location of SNPs. No differences in the extent of LD and decline of LD with distance were found between the intragenic and intergenic regions. Conclusions A minimal sample size of 444 and 55 animals is required for an accurate estimation of LD by |D'| and r2, respectively. The use of only maternally inherited haplotypes is recommended for analyses of LD in populations consisting of large paternal half-sib families. Large heterogeneity in the pattern and the extent of LD in Holstein cattle was observed on both autosomes and the X chromosome. The extent of LD was higher on the X chromosome compared to the autosomes. PMID:20609259

  18. Multi-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoun; Yang, Jie; Huang, Jiayu; Chen, Hao; Hou, Wei; Wu, Song

    2017-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common genetic markers in genome-wide association studies, are usually in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other within a small genomic region. Both single- and two-marker-based LD mapping methods have been developed by taking advantage of the LD structures. In this study, a more general LD mapping framework with an arbitrary number of markers has been developed to further improve LD mapping and its detection power. This method is referred as multi-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping (mmLD). For the parameter estimation, we implemented a two-phase estimation procedure: first, haplotype frequencies were estimated for known markers; then, haplotype frequencies were updated to include the unknown quantitative trait loci based on estimates from the first step. For the hypothesis testing, we proposed a novel sequential likelihood ratio test procedure, which iteratively removed haplotypes with zero frequency and subsequently determined the proper degree of freedom. To compare the proposed mmLD method with other existing mapping methods, e.g. the adjusted single-marker LD mapping and the SKAT_C, we performed extensive simulations under various scenarios. The simulation results demonstrated that the mmLD has the same or higher power than the existing methods, while maintaining the correct type I errors. We further applied the mmLD to a public data set, 'GAW17', to investigate its applicability. The result showed the good performance of mmLD. We concluded that this improved mmLD method will be useful for future genome-wide association studies and genetic association analyses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium mapping in isolated populations: The example of Finland revisited

    PubMed Central

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Wright, Fred A.

    1998-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium analysis can provide high resolution in the mapping of disease genes because it incorporates information on recombinations that have occurred during the entire period from the mutational event to the present. A circumstance particularly favorable for high-resolution mapping is when a single founding mutation segregates in an isolated population. We review here the population structure of Finland in which a small founder population some 100 generations ago has expanded into 5.1 million people today. Among the 30-odd autosomal recessive disorders that are more prevalent in Finland than elsewhere, several appear to have segregated for this entire period in the “panmictic” southern Finnish population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis has allowed precise mapping and determination of genetic distances at the 0.1-cM level in several of these disorders. Estimates of genetic distance have proven accurate, but previous calculations of the confidence intervals were too small because sampling variation was ignored. In the north and east of Finland the population can be viewed as having been “founded” only after 1500. Disease mutations that have undergone such a founding bottleneck only 20 or so generations ago exhibit linkage disequilibrium and haplotype sharing over long genetic distances (5–15 cM). These features have been successfully exploited in the mapping and cloning of many genes. We review the statistical issues of fine mapping by linkage disequilibrium and suggest that improved methodologies may be necessary to map diseases of complex etiology that may have arisen from multiple founding mutations. PMID:9770501

  20. Refining the Use of Linkage Disequilibrium as a Robust Signature of Selective Sweeps.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Guy S; Sluckin, Tim J; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-08-01

    During a selective sweep, characteristic patterns of linkage disequilibrium can arise in the genomic region surrounding a selected locus. These have been used to infer past selective sweeps. However, the recombination rate is known to vary substantially along the genome for many species. We here investigate the effectiveness of current (Kelly's [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) and novel statistics at inferring hard selective sweeps based on linkage disequilibrium distortions under different conditions, including a human-realistic demographic model and recombination rate variation. When the recombination rate is constant, Kelly's [Formula: see text] offers high power, but is outperformed by a novel statistic that we test, which we call [Formula: see text] We also find this statistic to be effective at detecting sweeps from standing variation. When recombination rate fluctuations are included, there is a considerable reduction in power for all linkage disequilibrium-based statistics. However, this can largely be reversed by appropriately controlling for expected linkage disequilibrium using a genetic map. To further test these different methods, we perform selection scans on well-characterized HapMap data, finding that all three statistics-[Formula: see text] Kelly's [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-are able to replicate signals at regions previously identified as selection candidates based on population differentiation or the site frequency spectrum. While [Formula: see text] replicates most candidates when recombination map data are not available, the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] statistics are more successful when recombination rate variation is controlled for. Given both this and their higher power in simulations of selective sweeps, these statistics are preferred when information on local recombination rate variation is available. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Novel measures of linkage disequilibrium that correct the bias due to population structure and relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mangin, B; Siberchicot, A; Nicolas, S; Doligez, A; This, P; Cierco-Ayrolles, C

    2012-03-01

    Among the several linkage disequilibrium measures known to capture different features of the non-independence between alleles at different loci, the most commonly used for diallelic loci is the r(2) measure. In the present study, we tackled the problem of the bias of r(2) estimate, which results from the sample structure and/or the relatedness between genotyped individuals. We derived two novel linkage disequilibrium measures for diallelic loci that are both extensions of the usual r(2) measure. The first one, r(S)(2), uses the population structure matrix, which consists of information about the origins of each individual and the admixture proportions of each individual genome. The second one, r(V)(2), includes the kinship matrix into the calculation. These two corrections can be applied together in order to correct for both biases and are defined either on phased or unphased genotypes.We proved that these novel measures are linked to the power of association tests under the mixed linear model including structure and kinship corrections. We validated them on simulated data and applied them to real data sets collected on Vitis vinifera plants. Our results clearly showed the usefulness of the two corrected r(2) measures, which actually captured 'true' linkage disequilibrium unlike the usual r(2) measure.

  2. Novel measures of linkage disequilibrium that correct the bias due to population structure and relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B; Siberchicot, A; Nicolas, S; Doligez, A; This, P; Cierco-Ayrolles, C

    2012-01-01

    Among the several linkage disequilibrium measures known to capture different features of the non-independence between alleles at different loci, the most commonly used for diallelic loci is the r2 measure. In the present study, we tackled the problem of the bias of r2 estimate, which results from the sample structure and/or the relatedness between genotyped individuals. We derived two novel linkage disequilibrium measures for diallelic loci that are both extensions of the usual r2 measure. The first one, rS2, uses the population structure matrix, which consists of information about the origins of each individual and the admixture proportions of each individual genome. The second one, rV2, includes the kinship matrix into the calculation. These two corrections can be applied together in order to correct for both biases and are defined either on phased or unphased genotypes. We proved that these novel measures are linked to the power of association tests under the mixed linear model including structure and kinship corrections. We validated them on simulated data and applied them to real data sets collected on Vitis vinifera plants. Our results clearly showed the usefulness of the two corrected r2 measures, which actually captured ‘true' linkage disequilibrium unlike the usual r2 measure. PMID:21878986

  3. The Hitchhiking Effect on Linkage Disequilibrium Between Linked Neutral Loci

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Wolfgang; Song, Yun S.; Langley, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed a three-locus model of genetic hitchhiking with one locus experiencing positive directional selection and two partially linked neutral loci. Following the original hitchhiking approach by Maynard Smith and Haigh, our analysis is purely deterministic. In the first half of the selected phase after a favored mutation has entered the population, hitchhiking may lead to a strong increase of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the two neutral sites if both are <0.1s away from the selected site (where s is the selection coefficient). In the second half of the selected phase, the main effect of hitchhiking is to destroy LD. This occurs very quickly (before the end of the selected phase) when the selected site is between both neutral loci. This pattern cannot be attributed to the well-known variation-reducing effect of hitchhiking but is a consequence of secondary hitchhiking effects on the recombinants created in the selected phase. When the selected site is outside the neutral loci (which are, say, <0.1s apart), however, a fast decay of LD is observed only if the selected site is in the immediate neighborhood of one of the neutral sites (i.e., if the recombination rate r between the selected site and one of the neutral sites satisfies \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\pagestyle{empty} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}r{\\ll}0.1s\\end{equation*}\\end{document}). If the selected site is far away from the neutral sites (say, r > 0.3s), the decay rate of LD approaches that of neutrality. Averaging over a uniform distribution of initial gamete frequencies shows that the expected LD at the end of the hitchhiking phase is driven toward zero, while the variance is increased when the selected site is well outside the two neutral sites. When the direction of LD is polarized with respect to the more

  4. Fine mapping of the congenital chloride diarrhea gene by linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J.

    1995-07-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea is a recessively inherited intestinal disorder affecting electrolyte transportation. The clinical presentation is a life-threatening watery diarrhea with a high chloride content. Recently, the congenital chloride diarrhea gene (CLD) was assigned to chromosome 7 by linkage in eight Finnish families. In the present study, refined mapping of CLD was performed by studying linkage and linkage disequilibrium in 24 Finnish and 4 Swedish families. Recombination mapping assigned CLD to an {approximately}10-cM region flanked by D7S515 and D7S799. Linkage disequilibrium was detected over this large genetic region, with the strongest allelic association at D7S496. Application of the Luria and Delbrueck-derived analysis allowed for a further narrowing of the CLD region to {approximately}.37 cM from the marker D7S496. Haplotype analysis placed CLD unequivocally between D7S501 and D7S692, very close to D7S496 and most likely on the distal side of D7S496. This combined analytical approach allowed highly accurate mapping of CLD, each component adding complementary and consistent mapping information. 32 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of Arabidopsis CRY2 flowering time alleles.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Schmitt, Johanna; Purugganan, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been proposed to be well suited for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping as a means of identifying genes underlying natural trait variation. Here we apply LD mapping to examine haplotype variation in the genomic region of the photoperiod receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 and associated flowering time variation. CRY2 DNA sequences reveal strong LD and the existence of two highly differentiated haplogroups (A and B) across the gene; in addition, a haplotype possessing a radical glutamine-to-serine replacement (AS) occurs within the more common haplogroup. Growth chamber and field experiments using an unstratified population of 95 ecotypes indicate that under short-day photoperiod, the AS and B haplogroups are both highly significantly associated with early flowering. Data from six genes flanking CRY2 indicate that these haplogroups are limited to an approximately 65-kb genomic region around CRY2. Whereas the B haplogroup cannot be delimited to <16 kb around CRY2, the AS haplogroup is characterized almost exclusively by the nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with the serine replacement in CRY2; this finding strongly suggests that the serine substitution is directly responsible for the AS early flowering phenotype. This study demonstrates the utility of LD mapping for elucidating the genetic basis of natural, ecologically relevant variation in Arabidopsis. PMID:15280248

  6. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of Arabidopsis CRY2 flowering time alleles.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Schmitt, Johanna; Purugganan, Michael D

    2004-07-01

    The selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been proposed to be well suited for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping as a means of identifying genes underlying natural trait variation. Here we apply LD mapping to examine haplotype variation in the genomic region of the photoperiod receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 and associated flowering time variation. CRY2 DNA sequences reveal strong LD and the existence of two highly differentiated haplogroups (A and B) across the gene; in addition, a haplotype possessing a radical glutamine-to-serine replacement (AS) occurs within the more common haplogroup. Growth chamber and field experiments using an unstratified population of 95 ecotypes indicate that under short-day photoperiod, the AS and B haplogroups are both highly significantly associated with early flowering. Data from six genes flanking CRY2 indicate that these haplogroups are limited to an approximately 65-kb genomic region around CRY2. Whereas the B haplogroup cannot be delimited to <16 kb around CRY2, the AS haplogroup is characterized almost exclusively by the nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with the serine replacement in CRY2; this finding strongly suggests that the serine substitution is directly responsible for the AS early flowering phenotype. This study demonstrates the utility of LD mapping for elucidating the genetic basis of natural, ecologically relevant variation in Arabidopsis.

  7. Detecting Recombination Hotspots from Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Stevison, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    With recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, it has become increasingly easy to use whole-genome sequencing of unrelated individuals to assay patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. One type of analysis that is commonly performed is to estimate local recombination rates and identify recombination hotspots from patterns of LD. One method for detecting recombination hotspots, LDhot, has been used in a handful of species to further our understanding of the basic biology of recombination. For the most part, the effectiveness of this method (e.g., power and false positive rate) is unknown. In this study, we run extensive simulations to compare the effectiveness of three different implementations of LDhot. We find large differences in the power and false positive rates of these different approaches, as well as a strong sensitivity to the window size used (with smaller window sizes leading to more accurate estimation of hotspot locations). We also compared our LDhot simulation results with comparable simulation results obtained from a Bayesian maximum-likelihood approach for identifying hotspots. Surprisingly, we found that the latter computationally intensive approach had substantially lower power over the parameter values considered in our simulations. PMID:27226166

  8. Inferring Admixture Histories of Human Populations Using Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Reich, David; Berger, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Long-range migrations and the resulting admixtures between populations have been important forces shaping human genetic diversity. Most existing methods for detecting and reconstructing historical admixture events are based on allele frequency divergences or patterns of ancestry segments in chromosomes of admixed individuals. An emerging new approach harnesses the exponential decay of admixture-induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) as a function of genetic distance. Here, we comprehensively develop LD-based inference into a versatile tool for investigating admixture. We present a new weighted LD statistic that can be used to infer mixture proportions as well as dates with fewer constraints on reference populations than previous methods. We define an LD-based three-population test for admixture and identify scenarios in which it can detect admixture events that previous formal tests cannot. We further show that we can uncover phylogenetic relationships among populations by comparing weighted LD curves obtained using a suite of references. Finally, we describe several improvements to the computation and fitting of weighted LD curves that greatly increase the robustness and speed of the calculations. We implement all of these advances in a software package, ALDER, which we validate in simulations and apply to test for admixture among all populations from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), highlighting insights into the admixture history of Central African Pygmies, Sardinians, and Japanese. PMID:23410830

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  10. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in association analysis of diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Charles, Bashira A; Shriner, Daniel; Rotimi, Charles N

    2014-04-01

    The National Human Genome Research Institute's catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) lists over 10,000 genetic variants collectively associated with over 800 human diseases or traits. Most of these GWAS have been conducted in European-ancestry populations. Findings gleaned from these studies have led to identification of disease-associated loci and biologic pathways involved in disease etiology. In multiple instances, these genomic findings have led to the development of novel medical therapies or evidence for prescribing a given drug as the appropriate treatment for a given individual beyond phenotypic appearances or socially defined constructs of race or ethnicity. Such findings have implications for populations throughout the globe and GWAS are increasingly being conducted in more diverse populations. A major challenge for investigators seeking to follow up genomic findings between diverse populations is discordant patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). We provide an overview of common measures of LD and opportunities for their use in novel methods designed to address challenges associated with following up GWAS conducted in European-ancestry populations in African-ancestry populations or, more generally, between populations with discordant LD patterns. We detail the strengths and weaknesses associated with different approaches. We also describe application of these strategies in follow-up studies of populations with concordant LD patterns (replication) or discordant LD patterns (transferability) as well as fine-mapping studies. We review application of these methods to a variety of traits and diseases.

  11. An evaluation of a novel estimator of linkage disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, D; Qanbari, S; Simianer, H

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of systems involving many loci is important in population and quantitative genetics. An important problem is the study of linkage disequilibrium (LD), a concept relevant in genome-enabled prediction of quantitative traits and in exploration of marker–phenotype associations. This article introduces a new estimator of a LD parameter (ρ2) that is much easier to compute than a maximum likelihood (or Bayesian) estimate of a tetra-choric correlation. We examined the conjecture that the sampling distribution of the estimator of ρ2 could be less frequency dependent than that of the estimator of r2, a widely used metric for assessing LD. This was done via an empirical evaluation of LD in 806 Holstein–Friesian cattle using 771 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and of HapMap III data on 21 991 SNPs (chromosome 3) observed in 88 unrelated individuals from Tuscany. Also, 1600 haplotypes over a region of 1 Mb simulated under the coalescent were used to estimate LD using the two measures. Subsequently, a simulation study compared the new estimator with that of r2 using several scenarios of LD and allelic frequencies. From these studies, it is concluded that ρ2 provides a useful metric for the study of LD as the distribution of its estimator is less frequency dependent than that of the standard estimator of r2. PMID:23921642

  12. Extensive linkage disequilibrium in small human populations in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Kaessmann, Henrik; Zöllner, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Anna C; Wiebe, Victor; Laan, Maris; Lundeberg, Joakim; Uhlén, Mathias; Pääbo, Svante

    2002-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) was studied in two small food-gathering populations-Evenki and Saami-and two larger food-producing populations-Finns and Swedes-in northern Eurasia. In total, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five genes were genotyped using real-time pyrophosphate DNA sequencing, whereas 14 microsatellites were genotyped in two X-chromosomal regions. In addition, hypervariable region I of the mtDNA was sequenced to shed light on the demographic history of the populations. The SNP data, as well as the microsatellite data, reveal extensive levels of LD in Evenki and Saami when compared to Finns and Swedes. mtDNA-sequence variation is compatible with constant population size over time in Evenki and Saami but indicates population expansion in Finns and Swedes. Furthermore, the similarity between Finns and Swedes in SNP allele- and haplotype-frequency distributions indicate that these two populations may share a recent common origin. These findings suggest that populations such as the Evenki and the Saami, rather than the Finns, may be particularly suited for the initial coarse mapping of common complex diseases.

  13. Linkage Disequilibrium and Demographic History of Wild and Domestic Canids

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Melissa M.; Granka, Julie M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Boyko, Adam R.; Zhu, Lan; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations of a nonmodel species has been difficult due to the lack of available genomic markers. However, with advances in genotyping and genome sequencing, genomic characterization of natural populations has become feasible. Using sequence data and SNP genotypes, we measured LD and modeled the demographic history of wild canid populations and domestic dog breeds. In 11 gray wolf populations and one coyote population, we find that the extent of LD as measured by the distance at which r2 = 0.2 extends <10 kb in outbred populations to >1.7 Mb in populations that have experienced significant founder events and bottlenecks. This large range in the extent of LD parallels that observed in 18 dog breeds where the r2 value varies from ∼20 kb to >5 Mb. Furthermore, in modeling demographic history under a composite-likelihood framework, we find that two of five wild canid populations exhibit evidence of a historical population contraction. Five domestic dog breeds display evidence for a minor population contraction during domestication and a more severe contraction during breed formation. Only a 5% reduction in nucleotide diversity was observed as a result of domestication, whereas the loss of nucleotide diversity with breed formation averaged 35%. PMID:19189949

  14. Sporadic, Global Linkage Disequilibrium Between Unlinked Segregating Sites.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Stone, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Demographic, genetic, or stochastic factors can lead to perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) between alleles at two loci without respect to the extent of their physical distance, a phenomenon that Lawrence et al. (2005a) refer to as "genetic indistinguishability." This phenomenon can complicate genotype-phenotype association testing by hindering the ability to localize causal alleles, but has not been thoroughly explored from a theoretical perspective or using large, dense whole-genome polymorphism data sets. We derive a simple theoretical model of the prevalence of genetic indistinguishability between unlinked loci and verify its accuracy via simulation. We show that sample size and minor allele frequency are the major determinants of the prevalence of perfect LD between unlinked loci but that demographic factors, such as deviations from random mating, can produce significant effects as well. Finally, we quantify this phenomenon in three model organisms and find thousands of pairs of moderate-frequency ([Formula: see text]) genetically indistinguishable variants in relatively large data sets. These results clarify a previously underexplored population genetic phenomenon with important implications for association studies and define conditions under which it is likely to manifest. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Asymmetric linkage disequilibrium: Tools for assessing multiallelic LD.

    PubMed

    Single, Richard M; Strayer, Nick; Thomson, Glenys; Paunic, Vanja; Albrecht, Mark; Maiers, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Standard measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) provide an incomplete description of the correlation between two loci. Recently, Thomson and Single (2014) described a new asymmetric pair of LD measures (ALD) that give a more complete description of LD. The ALD measures are symmetric and equivalent to the correlation coefficient r when both loci are bi-allelic. When the numbers of alleles at the two loci differ, the ALD measures capture this asymmetry and provide additional detail about the LD structure. In disease association studies the ALD measures are useful for identifying additional disease genes in a genetic region, by conditioning on known effects. In evolutionary genetic studies ALD measures provide insight into selection acting on individual amino acids of specific genes, or other loci in high LD (see Thomson and Single (2014) for these examples). Here we describe new software for computing and visualizing ALD. We demonstrate the utility of this software using haplotype frequency data from the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). This enhances our understanding of LD patterns in the NMDP data by quantifying the degree to which LD is asymmetric and also quantifies this effect for individual alleles. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  17. Linkage disequilibrium predicts physical distance in the adenomatous polyposis coli region.

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, L. B.; Watkins, W. S.; Carlson, M.; Groden, J.; Albertsen, H.; Thliveris, A.; Leppert, M.

    1994-01-01

    To test the reliability of linkage-disequilibrium analysis for gene mapping, we compared physical distance and linkage disequilibrium among seven polymorphisms in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) region on chromosome 5. Three of them lie within the APC gene, and two lie within the nearby MCC (mutated in colon cancer) gene. One polymorphism lies between the two genes, and one is likely to be 5' of MCC. Five of these polymorphisms are newly reported. All polymorphisms were typed in the CEPH kindreds, yielding 179-205 unrelated two-locus haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium between each pair of polymorphisms is highly correlated with physical distance in this 550-kb region (correlation coefficient -.80, P < .006). This result is replicated in both the Utah and non-Utah CEPH kindreds. There is a tendency for greater disequilibrium among pairs of polymorphisms located within the same gene than among other pairs of polymorphisms. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated, but these measures revealed much less disequilibrium than did the two-locus disequilibrium measures. A review of 19 published disequilibrium studies, including this one, shows that linkage disequilibrium nearly always correlates significantly with physical distance in genomic regions > 50-60 kb but that it does not do so in smaller genomic regions. We show that this agrees with theoretical predictions. This finding helps to resolve controversies regarding the use of disequilibrium for inferring gene order. Disequilibrium mapping is unlikely to predict gene order correctly in regions < 50-60 kb in size but can often be applied successfully in regions of 50-500 kb or so in size. It is convenient that this is the range in which other mapping techniques, including chromosome walking and linkage mapping, become difficult. PMID:8178829

  18. Linkage disequilibrium predicts physical distance in the adenomatous polyposis coli region

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Watkins, W.S.; Carlson, M.; Albertsen, H.; Thliveris, A.; Leppert, M. )

    1994-05-01

    To test the reliability of linkage-disequilibrium analysis for gene mapping, the authors compared physical distance and linkage disequilibrium among seven polymorphisms in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) region on chromosome 5. Three of them lie within the APC gene, and two lie within the nearby MCC (mutated in colon cancer) gene. One polymorphism lies between the two genes, and one is likely to be 5' of MCC. Five of these polymorphisms are newly reported. All polymorphisms were typed in the CEPH kindreds, yielding 179-205 unrelated two-locus haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium between each pair of polymorphisms is highly correlated with physical distance in this 550-kb region (correlation coefficient [minus].80, P < .006). This result is replicated in both the Utah and non-Utah CEPH kindreds. There is a tendency for greater disequilibrium among pairs of polymorphisms located within the same gene than among other pairs of polymorphisms. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated, but these measures revealed much less disequilibrium than did the two-locus disequilibrium measures. A review of 19 published disequilibrium studies, including this one, shows that linkage disequilibrium nearly always correlates significantly with physical distance in genomic regions >50-60 kb but that it does not do so in smaller genomic regions. The authors show that this agrees with theoretical predictions. This finding helps to resolve controversies regarding the use of disequilibrium for inferring gene order. Disequilibrium mapping is unlikely to predict gene order correctly in regions <50-60 kb in size but can often be applied successfully in regions of 50-500 kb or so in size. It is convenient that this is the range in which other mapping techniques, including chromosome walking and linkage mapping, become difficult. 81 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Assessing microsatellite linkage disequilibrium in wild, cultivated, and mapping populations of Theobroma cacao L and its impact on association mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles and loci within sets of genetic data and when measured over the genomes of a species can provide important indications for how future association analyses should proceed. This information can be advantageous especially for slow-gro...

  20. Inferring outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using linkage disequilibrium decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence and frequency of outcrossing in homothallic fungal species in nature is an unresolved question. Here we report detection of frequent outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In using multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer recombination among microsatell...

  1. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tascioglu, Tulin; Metin, Ozge Karakas; Aydin, Yildiz; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Akan, Kadir; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-08-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene pool was analyzed with 117 microsatellite markers scattered throughout A, B, and D genomes. Ninety microsatellite markers were giving 1620 polymorphic alleles in 55 different bread wheat genotypes. These genotypes were found to be divided into three subgroups based on Bayesian model and Principal component analysis. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers resides on A genome was estimated for wmc262 marker located on 4A chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.960. The highest polymorphism information content value (0.954) among the markers known to be located on B genome was realized for wmc44 marker located on 1B chromosome. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers specific to D genome was found in gwm174 marker located on 5D chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.948. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between 81 pairwise SSR markers reside on the same chromosome was tested and very limited linkage disequilibrium was observed. The results confirmed that the most distant genotype pairs were as follows Ceyhan-99-Behoth 6, Gerek 79-Douma 40989, and Karahan-99-Douma 48114.

  2. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of the cornea plana congenita gene CNA2

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvanainen, E.; Karila, E.; Kolehmainen, J.

    1995-12-10

    We recently assigned a gene for autosomal recessive cornea plana congenita (CNA2; MIM No. 217300) by linkage analysis to the approximately 3-cM interval between markers D12S82 and D12S327. Here, we extended these studies by exploiting the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium information that can be derived from the genetically isolated Finnish population and its subpopulations. By testing 32 independent families with 10 polymorphic markers in the CNA2 interval, strong allelic association between CNA2 and a set of markers with a peak at marker D12S351 was detected. Based on linkage disequilibrium analysis, the critical region for CNA2 could be narrowed to only 0.04-0.3 cM from marker D12S351, thus defining a critical interval 0.08-0.60 cM in length. These results provide a basis for highly focused positional cloning of CNA2. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium in wild and cultured populations of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) can be applied for mapping the actual genes responsible for variation of economically important traits through association mapping. The feasibility and efficacy of association studies are strongly dependent on the extent of LD which determines the number and density of markers in the studied population, as well as the experimental design for an association analysis. In this study, we first characterized the extent of LD in a wild population and a cultured mass-selected line of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas). A total of 88 wild and 96 cultured individuals were selected to assess the level of genome-wide LD with 53 microsatellites, respectively. For syntenic marker pairs, no significant association was observed in the wild population; however, three significant associations occurred in the cultured population, and the significant LD extended up to 12.7 cM, indicating that strong artificial selection is a key force for substantial increase of genome-wide LD in cultured population. The difference of LD between wild and cultured populations showed that association studies in Pacific oyster can be achieved with reasonable marker densities at a relatively low cost by choosing an association mapping population. Furthermore, the frequent occurrence of LD between non-syntenic loci and rare alleles encourages the joint application of linkage analysis and LD mapping when mapping genes in oyster. The information on the linkage disequilibrium in the cultured population is useful for future association mapping in oyster.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium of evolutionarily conserved regions in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Mamoru; Sekine, Akihiro; Ohnishi, Yozo; Johnson, Todd A; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Background The strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) recently found in genic or exonic regions of the human genome demonstrated that LD can be increased by evolutionary mechanisms that select for functionally important loci. This suggests that LD might be stronger in regions conserved among species than in non-conserved regions, since regions exposed to natural selection tend to be conserved. To assess this hypothesis, we used genome-wide polymorphism data from the HapMap project and investigated LD within DNA sequences conserved between the human and mouse genomes. Results Unexpectedly, we observed that LD was significantly weaker in conserved regions than in non-conserved regions. To investigate why, we examined sequence features that may distort the relationship between LD and conserved regions. We found that interspersed repeats, and not other sequence features, were associated with the weak LD tendency in conserved regions. To appropriately understand the relationship between LD and conserved regions, we removed the effect of repetitive elements and found that the high degree of sequence conservation was strongly associated with strong LD in coding regions but not with that in non-coding regions. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the degree of sequence conservation does not simply increase LD as predicted by the hypothesis. Rather, it implies that purifying selection changes the polymorphic patterns of coding sequences but has little influence on the patterns of functional units such as regulatory elements present in non-coding regions, since the former are generally restricted by the constraint of maintaining a functional protein product across multiple exons while the latter may exist more as individually isolated units. PMID:17192199

  5. Diversity and linkage disequilibrium in farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Kijas, J; Elliot, N; Kube, P; Evans, B; Botwright, N; King, H; Primmer, C R; Verbyla, K

    2017-04-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a globally important production species, including in Australia where breeding and selection has been in progress since the 1960s. The recent development of SNP genotyping platforms means genome-wide association and genomic prediction can now be implemented to speed genetic gain. As a precursor, this study collected genotypes at 218 132 SNPs in 777 fish from a Tasmanian breeding population to assess levels of genetic diversity, the strength of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and imputation accuracy. Genetic diversity in Tasmanian Atlantic salmon was lower than observed within European populations when compared using four diversity metrics. The distribution of allele frequencies also showed a clear difference, with the Tasmanian animals carrying an excess of low minor allele frequency variants. The strength of observed LD was high at short distances (<25 kb) and remained above background for marker pairs separated by large chromosomal distances (hundreds of kb), in sharp contrast to the European Atlantic salmon tested. Genotypes were used to evaluate the accuracy of imputation from low density (0.5 to 5 K) up to increased density SNP sets (78 K). This revealed high imputation accuracies (0.89-0.97), suggesting that the use of low density SNP sets will be a successful approach for genomic prediction in this population. The long-range LD, comparatively low genetic diversity and high imputation accuracy in Tasmanian salmon is consistent with known aspects of their population history, which involved a small founding population and an absence of subsequent introgression. The findings of this study represent an important first step towards the design of methods to apply genomics in this economically important population.

  6. Visualization of pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium structure using latent forests.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Raphaël; Sinoquet, Christine; Dina, Christian; Leray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium study represents a major issue in statistical genetics as it plays a fundamental role in gene mapping and helps us to learn more about human history. The linkage disequilibrium complex structure makes its exploratory data analysis essential yet challenging. Visualization methods, such as the triangular heat map implemented in Haploview, provide simple and useful tools to help understand complex genetic patterns, but remain insufficient to fully describe them. Probabilistic graphical models have been widely recognized as a powerful formalism allowing a concise and accurate modeling of dependences between variables. In this paper, we propose a method for short-range, long-range and chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium visualization using forests of hierarchical latent class models. Thanks to its hierarchical nature, our method is shown to provide a compact view of both pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium spatial structures for the geneticist. Besides, a multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure has been designed to evaluate linkage disequilibrium in hierarchy clusters. To learn the proposed model, a new scalable algorithm is presented. It constrains the dependence scope, relying on physical positions, and is able to deal with more than one hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. The proposed algorithm is fast and does not require phase genotypic data.

  7. Visualization of Pairwise and Multilocus Linkage Disequilibrium Structure Using Latent Forests

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, Raphaël; Sinoquet, Christine; Dina, Christian; Leray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium study represents a major issue in statistical genetics as it plays a fundamental role in gene mapping and helps us to learn more about human history. The linkage disequilibrium complex structure makes its exploratory data analysis essential yet challenging. Visualization methods, such as the triangular heat map implemented in Haploview, provide simple and useful tools to help understand complex genetic patterns, but remain insufficient to fully describe them. Probabilistic graphical models have been widely recognized as a powerful formalism allowing a concise and accurate modeling of dependences between variables. In this paper, we propose a method for short-range, long-range and chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium visualization using forests of hierarchical latent class models. Thanks to its hierarchical nature, our method is shown to provide a compact view of both pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium spatial structures for the geneticist. Besides, a multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure has been designed to evaluate linkage disequilibrium in hierarchy clusters. To learn the proposed model, a new scalable algorithm is presented. It constrains the dependence scope, relying on physical positions, and is able to deal with more than one hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. The proposed algorithm is fast and does not require phase genotypic data. PMID:22174739

  8. An analysis of linkage disequilibrium in the interleukin-1 gene cluster, using a novel grouping method for multiallelic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, A; Camp, N J; Nicklin, M J; di Giovine, F S; Duff, G W

    1998-01-01

    In population- and family-based association studies, it is useful to have some knowledge of the patterns of linkage disequilibrium that exist between markers in candidate regions. When such studies are carried out with multiallelic markers, it is often convenient to group the alleles into a biallelic system, for analysis. In this study, we specifically examined the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster on chromosome 2, a region containing candidates for many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Data were collected on eight markers, four of which were multiallelic. Using these data, we investigated the effect of three allele-grouping strategies, including a novel method, on the detection of linkage disequilibrium. The novel approach, termed the "delta method," measures the deviation from the expected haplotype frequencies under linkage equilibrium, for each allelic combination. This information is then used to group the alleles, in an attempt to avoid the grouping together of alleles at one locus that are in opposite disequilibrium with the same allele at the second locus. The estimate haplotype frequencies (EH) program was used to estimate haplotype frequencies and the disequilibrium measure. In our data it was found that the delta method compared well with the other two strategies. Using this method, we found that there was a reasonable correlation between disequilibrium and physical distance in the region (r=-.540, P=.001, one-tailed). We also identified a common, eight-locus haplotype of the IL-1 gene cluster. PMID:9545388

  9. Linkage disequilibrium in the neurofibromatosis I (NF1) region: Implications for gene mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Watkins, W.S.; Viskochil, D.; Ward, K. ); O'Connell, P. )

    1993-11-01

    To test the usefulness of linkage disequilibrium for gene mapping, the authors compared physical distances and linkage disequilibrium among eight RFLPs in the neutrofibromatosis 1 (NF1) region. Seven of the polymorphisms span most of the NF1 gene, while the remaining polymorphism lies approximately 70 kb 3[prime] to a stop codon in exon 49. By using Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) kindreds, 91-110 unrelated parents were genotyped. A high degree of disequilibrium is maintained among the seven intragenic polymorphisms (r > .82, P < 10[sup [minus]7]), even though they are separated by as much as 340 kb. The 3[prime] polymorphism is only 68 kb distal to the next polymorphism, but disequilibrium between the 3[prime] polymorphism and all others is comparatively low ([vert bar]r[vert bar] < .33, P values .27-.001). This result was replicated in three sets of unrelated kindreds: the Utah CEPH families, the non-Utah CEPH families, and an independent set of NF1 families. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated. There was little evidence of higher-order linkage disequilibrium. As expected for a disease with multiple mutations, no disequilibrium was observed between the disease gene and any of the RFLPs. The observed pattern of high disequilibrium within the gene and a loss of disequilibrium 3[prime] to the stop codon could have implications for gene mapping studies. These are discussed, and guidelines for linkage disequilibrium studies are suggested. 80 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Nonlinear Analysis of Time Series in Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Estrada-Gil, Jesús K.; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernández-López, J. Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jiménez-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The statistical study of large scale genomic data has turned out to be a very important tool in population genetics. Quantitative methods are essential to understand and implement association studies in the biomedical and health sciences. Nevertheless, the characterization of recently admixed populations has been an elusive problem due to the presence of a number of complex phenomena. For example, linkage disequilibrium structures are thought to be more complex than their non-recently admixed population counterparts, presenting the so-called ancestry blocks, admixed regions that are not yet smoothed by the effect of genetic recombination. In order to distinguish characteristic features for various populations we have implemented several methods, some of them borrowed or adapted from the analysis of nonlinear time series in statistical physics and quantitative physiology. We calculate the main fractal dimensions (Kolmogorov's capacity, information dimension and correlation dimension, usually named, D0, D1 and D2). We also have made detrended fluctuation analysis and information based similarity index calculations for the probability distribution of correlations of linkage disequilibrium coefficient of six recently admixed (mestizo) populations within the Mexican Genome Diversity Project [1] and for the non-recently admixed populations in the International HapMap Project [2]. Nonlinear correlations showed up as a consequence of internal structure within the haplotype distributions. The analysis of these correlations as well as the scope and limitations of these procedures within the biomedical sciences are discussed.

  11. A linkage disequilibrium-based approach to selecting disease-associated rare variants.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Rajesh; Shete, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Rare variants have increasingly been cited as major contributors in the disease etiology of several complex disorders. Recently, several approaches have been proposed for analyzing the association of rare variants with disease. These approaches include collapsing rare variants, summing rare variant test statistics within a particular locus to improve power, and selecting a subset of rare variants for association testing, e.g., the step-up approach. We found that (a) if the variants being pooled are in linkage disequilibrium, the standard step-up method of selecting the best subset of variants results in loss of power compared to a model that pools all rare variants and (b) if the variants are in linkage equilibrium, performing a subset selection using step-based selection methods results in a gain of power of association compared to a model that pools all rare variants. Therefore, we propose an approach to selecting the best subset of variants to include in the model that is based on the linkage disequilibrium pattern among the rare variants. The proposed linkage disequilibrium-based variant selection model is flexible and borrows strength from the model that pools all rare variants when the rare variants are in linkage disequilibrium and from step-based selection methods when the variants are in linkage equilibrium. We performed simulations under three different realistic scenarios based on: (1) the HapMap3 dataset of the DRD2 gene, and CHRNA3/A5/B4 gene cluster (2) the block structure of linkage disequilibrium, and (3) linkage equilibrium. We proposed a permutation-based approach to control the type 1 error rate. The power comparisons after controlling the type 1 error show that the proposed linkage disequilibrium-based subset selection approach is an attractive alternative method for subset selection of rare variants.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium reveals different demographic history in egg laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Qanbari, Saber; Hansen, Maria; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Simianer, Henner

    2010-11-15

    The availability of larger-scale SNP data sets in the chicken genome allows to achieve a higher resolution of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD). In this study, 36 k and 57 k genotypes from two independent genotyping chips were used to systematically characterize genome-wide extent and structure of LD in the genome of four chicken populations. In total, we analyzed genotypes of 454 animals from two commercial and two experimental populations of white and brown layers which allows to some extent a generalization of the results. The number of usable SNPs in this study was 19 k to 37 k in brown layers and 8 k to 19 k in white layers. Our analyzes showed a large difference of LD between the lines of white and brown layers. A mean value of r2 = 0.73 ± 0.36 was observed in pair-wise distances of < 25 Kb for commercial white layers, and it dropped to 0.60 ± 0.38 with distances of 75 to 120 Kb, the interval which includes the average inter-marker space in this line. In contrast, an overall mean value of r2= 0.32 ± 0.33 was observed for SNPs less than 25 Kb apart from each other and dropped to 0.21 ± 0.26 at a distance of 100 kb in commercial brown layers. There was a remarkable similarity of the LD patterns among the two populations of white layers. The same was true for the two populations of brown layers, while the LD pattern between white and brown layers was clearly different. Inferring the population demographic history from LD data resulted in a larger effective population size in brown than white populations, reflecting less inbreeding among brown compared to white egg layers. We report comprehensive LD map statistics for the genome of egg laying chickens with an up to 3 times higher resolution compared to the maps available so far. The results were found to be consistent between analyzes based on the parallel SNP chips and across different populations (commercial vs. experimental) within the brown and the white layers. It is concluded that the current

  13. Testing for linkage disequilibrium in the New Zealand radiata pine breeding population

    Treesearch

    S. Kumar; Craig Echt; P.L. Wilcox; T.E. Richardson

    2004-01-01

    Linkage analysis is commonly uscd to find marker-trait associations within the full-sib families of forest tree and other species. Study of marker-trait associations at the population level is termed linkage-disequilibrium (LD) mapping. A female-tester design comprising 200 full-sib families generated by crossing 40 pollen parents with five female parents was used to...

  14. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome-wide association studies: A penalized regression method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Kai; Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Penalized regression methods are becoming increasingly popular in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying genetic markers associated with disease. However, standard penalized methods such as LASSO do not take into account the possible linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers. We propose a novel penalized approach for GWAS using a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The proposed method uses the minimax concave penalty (MCP) for marker selection and incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD) information by penalizing the difference of the genetic effects at adjacent SNPs with high correlation. A coordinate descent algorithm is derived to implement the proposed method. This algorithm is efficient in dealing with a large number of SNPs. A multi-split method is used to calculate the p-values of the selected SNPs for assessing their significance. We refer to the proposed penalty function as the smoothed MCP and the proposed approach as the SMCP method. Performance of the proposed SMCP method and its comparison with LASSO and MCP approaches are evaluated through simulation studies, which demonstrate that the proposed method is more accurate in selecting associated SNPs. Its applicability to real data is illustrated using heterogeneous stock mice data and a rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Using Object Oriented Bayesian Networks to Model Linkage, Linkage Disequilibrium and Mutations between STR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Daniel; Egeland, Thore; Mostad, Petter

    2012-01-01

    In a number of applications there is a need to determine the most likely pedigree for a group of persons based on genetic markers. Adequate models are needed to reach this goal. The markers used to perform the statistical calculations can be linked and there may also be linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population. The purpose of this paper is to present a graphical Bayesian Network framework to deal with such data. Potential LD is normally ignored and it is important to verify that the resulting calculations are not biased. Even if linkage does not influence results for regular paternity cases, it may have substantial impact on likelihood ratios involving other, more extended pedigrees. Models for LD influence likelihoods for all pedigrees to some degree and an initial estimate of the impact of ignoring LD and/or linkage is desirable, going beyond mere rules of thumb based on marker distance. Furthermore, we show how one can readily include a mutation model in the Bayesian Network; extending other programs or formulas to include such models may require considerable amounts of work and will in many case not be practical. As an example, we consider the two STR markers vWa and D12S391. We estimate probabilities for population haplotypes to account for LD using a method based on data from trios, while an estimate for the degree of linkage is taken from the literature. The results show that accounting for haplotype frequencies is unnecessary in most cases for this specific pair of markers. When doing calculations on regular paternity cases, the markers can be considered statistically independent. In more complex cases of disputed relatedness, for instance cases involving siblings or so-called deficient cases, or when small differences in the LR matter, independence should not be assumed. (The networks are freely available at http://arken.umb.no/~dakl/BayesianNetworks.) PMID:22984448

  16. Diversity, differentiation, and linkage disequilibrium: prospects for association mapping in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare Diana; Lee, Yoosook; Kreppel, Katharina; Weakley, Allison; Cornel, Anthony; Ferguson, Heather M; Eskin, Eleazar; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2014-01-10

    Association mapping is a widely applied method for elucidating the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. However, factors such as linkage disequilibrium and levels of genetic diversity influence the power and resolution of this approach. Moreover, the presence of population subdivision among samples can result in spurious associations if not accounted for. As such, it is useful to have a detailed understanding of these factors before conducting association mapping experiments. Here we conducted whole-genome sequencing on 24 specimens of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to further understanding of patterns of genetic diversity, population subdivision and linkage disequilibrium in this species. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the An. arabiensis genome, with ~800,000 high-confidence, single- nucleotide polymorphisms detected. However, levels of nucleotide diversity varied significantly both within and between chromosomes. We observed lower diversity on the X chromosome, within some inversions, and near centromeres. Population structure was absent at the local scale (Kilombero Valley, Tanzania) but detected between distant populations (Cameroon vs. Tanzania) where differentiation was largely restricted to certain autosomal chromosomal inversions such as 2Rb. Overall, linkage disequilibrium within An. arabiensis decayed very rapidly (within 200 bp) across all chromosomes. However, elevated linkage disequilibrium was observed within some inversions, suggesting that recombination is reduced in those regions. The overall low levels of linkage disequilibrium suggests that association studies in this taxon will be very challenging for all but variants of large effect, and will require large sample sizes.

  17. Dosage Transmission Disequilibrium Test (dTDT) for Linkage and Association Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhehao; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Howells, William; Lin, Peng; Agrawal, Arpana; Edenberg, Howard J.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Bierut, Laura J.; Goate, Alison; Rice, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Both linkage and association studies have been successfully applied to identify disease susceptibility genes with genetic markers such as microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). As one of the traditional family-based studies, the Transmission/Disequilibrium Test (TDT) measures the over-transmission of an allele in a trio from its heterozygous parents to the affected offspring and can be potentially useful to identify genetic determinants for complex disorders. However, there is reduced information when complete trio information is unavailable. In this study, we developed a novel approach to “infer” the transmission of SNPs by combining both the linkage and association data, which uses microsatellite markers from families informative for linkage together with SNP markers from the offspring who are genotyped for both linkage and a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). We generalized the traditional TDT to process these inferred dosage probabilities, which we name as the dosage-TDT (dTDT). For evaluation purpose, we developed a simulation procedure to assess its operating characteristics. We applied the dTDT to the simulated data and documented the power of the dTDT under a number of different realistic scenarios. Finally, we applied our methods to a family study of alcohol dependence (COGA) and performed individual genotyping on complete families for the top signals. One SNP (rs4903712 on chromosome 14) remained significant after correcting for multiple testing Methods developed in this study can be adapted to other platforms and will have widespread applicability in genomic research when case-control GWAS data are collected in families with existing linkage data. PMID:23691058

  18. A metric linkage disequilibrium map of a human chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tapper, W J; Maniatis, N; Morton, N E; Collins, A

    2003-11-01

    We used LDMAP (Maniatis et al. 2002) to analyse SNP data spanning chromosome 22 (Dawson et al. 2002), to obtain a whole-chromosome metric LD map. The LD map, with map distances analogous to the centiMorgan scale of linkage maps, identifies regions of high LD as plateaus ('blocks') and characterises steps which define the relationship between these regions. From this map we estimate that block regions comprise between 32% and 55% of the euchromatic portion of chromosome 22 and that increasing marker density within steps may increase block coverage. Steps are regions of low LD which correspond to areas of variable recombination intensity. The intensity of recombination is related to the height of the step and thus intense recombination hot-spots can be distinguished from more randomly distributed historical events. The LD maps are more closely related to the high-resolution linkage map (Kong et al. 2002) than average measures of rho with recombination accounting for between 34% and 52% of the variance in patterns of LD (r=0.58 - 0.71, p=0.0001). Step regions are closely correlated with a range of sequence motifs including GT/CA repeats. The LD map identifies holes in which greater marker density is required and defines the optimal SNP spacing for positional cloning, which suggests that some multiple of around 50,000 SNPs will be required to efficiently screen Caucasian genomes. Further analyses which investigate selection of informative SNPs and the effect of SNP allele frequency and marker density will refine this estimate.

  19. LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM AND A CONTACT ZONE IN PLETHODON CINEREUS ON THE DEL-MAR-VA PENINSULA.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Addison H

    1986-01-01

    A contact zone between two electrophoretically differentiated forms of Plethodon cinereus extends across the Del-Mar-Va Peninsula. Based on the presumed nature of regional climates during the late Pleistocene, it is suggested that the climate was inhospitable for P. cinereus on the Del-Mar-Va Peninsula at the Wisconsin maximum. It is postulated that, after the Laurentide ice sheet receded about 14,000 years BP, the peninsula was invaded by populations of P. cinereus from the north and south. When the two forms of P. cinereus met, a secondary zone of contact was produced. This contact zone is now apparent in an area in which six electrophoretic loci have concordant clinal changes in allele frequency. The lack of evidence for heterozygote deficiencies, the broad width of the contact zone, and the overall symmetry of introgression suggest that fusion of the populations is occurring freely. Two esterase loci are in linkage disequilibrium in four of eight populations to the north of the contact zone. As all populations of P. cinereus studied to date have disequilibrium coefficients of similar sign, selection is likely important in the maintenance of this linkage disequilibrium. Within the contact zone, the incidence of the linkage disequilibrium increases, but exchange of genes between the two introgressing populations may account for the higher incidence of linkage disequilibrium. © 1986 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of autistic disorder, with 15q11-13 markers.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, E H; Courchesne, R Y; Cox, N J; Lord, C; Gonen, D; Guter, S J; Lincoln, A; Nix, K; Haas, R; Leventhal, B L; Courchesne, E

    1998-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a complex genetic disease. Because of previous reports of individuals with autistic disorder with duplications of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region, we screened several markers across the 15q11-13 region, for linkage disequilibrium. One hundred forty families, consisting predominantly of a child with autistic disorder and both parents, were studied. Genotyping was performed by use of multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Two children were identified who had interstitial chromosome 15 duplications and were excluded from further linkage-disequilibrium analysis. Use of the multiallelic transmission-disequilibrium test (MTDT), for nine loci on 15q11-13, revealed linkage disequilibrium between autistic disorder and a marker in the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor subunit gene, GABRB3 155CA-2 (MTDT 28.63, 10 df, P=.0014). No evidence was found for parent-of-origin effects on allelic transmission. The convergence of GABRB3 as a positional and functional candidate along with the linkage-disequilibrium data suggests the need for further investigation of the role of GABRB3 or adjacent genes in autistic disorder. PMID:9545402

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying milk traits in Spanish dairy sheep using linkage plus combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gámez, E; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Suarez-Vega, A; de la Fuente, L F; Arranz, J J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, 2 procedures were used to analyze a data set from a whole-genome scan, one based on linkage analysis information and the other combing linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (LDLA), to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing milk production traits in sheep. A total of 1,696 animals from 16 half-sib families were genotyped using the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and analysis was performed using a daughter design. Moreover, the same data set has been previously investigated through a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis and a comparison of results from the 3 methods has been possible. The linkage analysis and LDLA methodologies yielded different results, although some significantly associated regions were common to both procedures. The linkage analysis detected 3 overlapping genome-wise significant QTL on sheep chromosome (OAR) 2 influencing milk yield, protein yield, and fat yield, whereas 34 genome-wise significant QTL regions were detected using the LDLA approach. The most significant QTL for protein and fat percentages was detected on OAR3, which was reported in a previous GWA analysis. Both the linkage analysis and LDLA identified many other chromosome-wise significant associations across different sheep autosomes. Additional analyses were performed on OAR2 and OAR3 to determine the possible causality of the most significant polymorphisms identified for these genetic effects by the previously reported GWA analysis. For OAR3, the analyses demonstrated additional genetic proof of the causality previously suggested by our group for a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the α-lactalbumin gene (LALBA). In summary, although the results shown here suggest that in commercial dairy populations, the LDLA method exhibits a higher efficiency to map QTL than the simple linkage analysis or linkage disequilibrium methods, we believe that comparing the 3 analysis methods is the best approach to obtain a global

  2. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  3. Genome resequencing reveals multiscale geographic structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium in the forest tree Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Slavov, Gancho; DiFazio, Stephen P; Martin, Joel R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Muchero, Wellington; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Lipphardt, Mindie; Pennacchio, Christa; Hellsten, Uffe; Pennacchio, Len; Gunter, Lee; Ranjan, Priya; Strauss, Steven; Rokhsar, Daniel; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Population genomics of forest trees provides crucial information for breeding, conservation, and bioenergy feedstock development. As part of a large-scale association study, we resequenced 16 genomes of the model tree Populus trichocarpa to an average depth of 39 . Analyses of the resulting data revealed surprisingly extensive population genetic structure and decay of linkage disequilibrium over much larger physical distances than the expected based on previous, smaller-scale studies. Rates of recombination varied widely across the genome but were largely predictable based on DNA sequence and methylation patterns. Our results suggest that genomewide association studies and accurate prediction of phenotypes from DNA data are more feasible in Populus than previously assumed, thereby laying the foundation for a step change in our understanding of tree biology.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype block structure in a composite beef cattle breed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps and the characterization of haplotype block structure at the population level are useful parameters for guiding genome wide association (GWA) studies, and for understanding the nature of non-linear association between phenotypes and genes. The elucidation of haplotype block structure can reduce the information of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) into the information of a haplotype block, reducing the number of SNPs in a coherent way for consideration in GWA and genomic selection studies. Results The maximum average LD, measured by r2 varied between 0.33 to 0.40 at a distance of < 2.5 kb, and the minimum average values of r2 varied between 0.05 to 0.07 at distances ranging from 400 to 500 kb, clearly showing that the average r2 reduced with the increase in SNP pair distances. The persistence of LD phase showed higher values at shorter genomic distances, decreasing with the increase in physical distance, varying from 0.96 at a distance of < 2.5 kb to 0.66 at a distance from 400 to 500 kb. A total of 78% of all SNPs were clustered into haplotype blocks, covering 1,57 Mb of the total autosomal genome size. Conclusions This study presented the first high density linkage disequilibrium map and haplotype block structure for a composite beef cattle population, and indicates that the high density SNP panel over 700 k can be used for genomic selection implementation and GWA studies for Canchim beef cattle. PMID:25573652

  5. Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci isolated from Hymenaea courbaril (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, F S; Lacerda, A E B; Lemes, M R; Gribel, R; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M

    2012-07-19

    The Neotropical tree Hymenaea courbaril, locally known as Jatobá, is a valuable source of lumber and also produces comestible and medicinal fruit. We characterized Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium at nine microsatellite loci isolated from H. courbaril, in order to determine if they would provide accurate estimates of population genetic parameters of this important Amazon species. The study was made on 250 open-pollinated offspring originated from 14 seed trees. Only one of nine loci presented significant deviation from the expected Mendelian segregation (1:1). Genotypic disequilibrium between pairwise loci was investigated based on samples from 55 adult and 56 juvenile trees. No genetic linkage between any paired loci was observed. After Bonferroni's corrections for multiple tests, we found no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between pairs of loci. We conclude that this set of loci can be used for genetic diversity/ structure, mating system, gene flow, and parentage analyses in H. courbaril populations.

  6. Revealing misassembled segments in the bovine reference genome by high resolution linkage disequilibrium scan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Misassembly signatures, created by shuffling the order of sequences while assembling a genome, can be easily seen by analyzing the unexpected behaviour of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. A heuristic process was proposed to identify those misassembly signatures and presented the ones found in ...

  7. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  8. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-mapping using nonrandom associations of loci in haplotypes is a powerful high-r...

  9. Extensive genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium within the COMT locus in maize exotic populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Caffeic acid 3-O-methytransferase (COMT) gene is a prime candidate for cell wall digestibility improvement based on the characterization of brown midrib-3 mutants. We compared the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium at COMT locus between populations sampled within the Germplasm Enhance...

  10. Population-Specific Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium and SNP Variation in Spring and Winter Polyploid Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and po...

  11. A first insight into population structure and linkage disequilibrium in the US peanut minicore collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of genetic diversity, population structure, and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target association mapping populations is of great importance and is a prerequisite for LD-based mapping. In the present study, 96 genotypes comprising 92 accessions of the US peanut minicore collectio...

  12. Assessing signatures of selection through variation in linkage disequilibrium between taurine and indicine cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Signatures of selection are regions in the genome that have been preferentially maintained because of their functional importance in specific processes. These regions can be detected because of their lower genetic variability and specific regional linkage disequilibrium patterns. The varLD methodol...

  13. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i) explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii) investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii) assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of genome-wide association

  14. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium at PARK16 may explain variances in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tan, Eng-King

    2015-09-01

    Reproducing genomewide association studies findings in different populations is challenging, because the reproducibility fundamentally relies on the similar patterns of linkage disequilibrium between the unknown causal variants and the genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The PARK16 locus was reported to alter the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in genomewide association studies in Japanese and Caucasians. We evaluated the regional linkage disequilibrium pattern at PARK16 locus in Caucasians, Japanese, and Chinese from HapMap and Chinese, Malays, and Indians from the Singapore Genome Variation Project, using the traditional heatmaps and targeted analysis of PARK16 gene via Monte Carlo simulation through varLD scores of these ethnic groups. One hundred SNPs in Caucasians, 95 SNPs in Chinese, 78 SNPs in Japanese from HapMap, 86 SNPs in Chinese, 99 SNPs in Indians, and 97 SNPs in Malays from the Singapore Genome Variation Project were included. Our targeted analysis showed that the linkage disequilibrium pattern of SNPs close to rs947211 was similar in Caucasians and Asians, including Chinese, Japanese, and Malay (all P > 0.0001), whereas different linkage disequilibrium patterns around rs823128, rs823156, and rs708730 were found between Caucasians and these Asian groups (all P < 0.0001). Our study suggests a higher chance to detect the association between rs947211 and PD in Chinese, Malay, and other Caucasian groups because of the similar linkage disequilibrium pattern around rs947211. The associations between rs823128/rs823156/rs708730 and PD are more likely to be replicated in Chinese and Malay populations. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Does probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improve the accuracy of QTL location in animal pedigree?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2001, the use of more and more dense maps has made researchers aware that combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium enhances the feasibility of fine-mapping genes of interest. So, various method types have been derived to include concepts of population genetics in the analyses. One major drawback of many of these methods is their computational cost, which is very significant when many markers are considered. Recent advances in technology, such as SNP genotyping, have made it possible to deal with huge amount of data. Thus the challenge that remains is to find accurate and efficient methods that are not too time consuming. The study reported here specifically focuses on the half-sib family animal design. Our objective was to determine whether modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improved the mapping accuracy of a quantitative trait locus of agricultural interest in these populations. We compared two methods of fine-mapping. The first one was an association analysis. In this method, we did not model linkage disequilibrium evolution. Therefore, the modelling of the evolution of linkage disequilibrium was a deterministic process; it was complete at time 0 and remained complete during the following generations. In the second method, the modelling of the evolution of population allele frequencies was derived from a Wright-Fisher model. We simulated a wide range of scenarios adapted to animal populations and compared these two methods for each scenario. Results Our results indicated that the improvement produced by probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution was not significant. Both methods led to similar results concerning the location accuracy of quantitative trait loci which appeared to be mainly improved by using four flanking markers instead of two. Conclusions Therefore, in animal half-sib designs, modelling linkage disequilibrium evolution using a Wright-Fisher model does not significantly improve the accuracy of the

  16. Does probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improve the accuracy of QTL location in animal pedigree?

    PubMed

    Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Dejean, Sébastien; Legarra, Andrés; Gilbert, Hélène; Druet, Tom; Ytournel, Florence; Estivals, Delphine; Oumouhou, Naïma; Mangin, Brigitte

    2010-10-22

    Since 2001, the use of more and more dense maps has made researchers aware that combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium enhances the feasibility of fine-mapping genes of interest. So, various method types have been derived to include concepts of population genetics in the analyses. One major drawback of many of these methods is their computational cost, which is very significant when many markers are considered. Recent advances in technology, such as SNP genotyping, have made it possible to deal with huge amount of data. Thus the challenge that remains is to find accurate and efficient methods that are not too time consuming. The study reported here specifically focuses on the half-sib family animal design. Our objective was to determine whether modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improved the mapping accuracy of a quantitative trait locus of agricultural interest in these populations. We compared two methods of fine-mapping. The first one was an association analysis. In this method, we did not model linkage disequilibrium evolution. Therefore, the modelling of the evolution of linkage disequilibrium was a deterministic process; it was complete at time 0 and remained complete during the following generations. In the second method, the modelling of the evolution of population allele frequencies was derived from a Wright-Fisher model. We simulated a wide range of scenarios adapted to animal populations and compared these two methods for each scenario. Our results indicated that the improvement produced by probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution was not significant. Both methods led to similar results concerning the location accuracy of quantitative trait loci which appeared to be mainly improved by using four flanking markers instead of two. Therefore, in animal half-sib designs, modelling linkage disequilibrium evolution using a Wright-Fisher model does not significantly improve the accuracy of the QTL location when compared to a

  17. Polymorphic L1 retrotransposons are frequently in strong linkage disequilibrium with neighboring SNPs.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Saneyuki; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Ishiguro, Koichi; Aizawa, Yasunori

    2014-05-10

    L1 retrotransposons have been the major driver of structural variation of the human genome. L1 insertion polymorphism (LIP)-mediated genomic variation can alter the transcriptome and contribute to the divergence of human phenotypes. To assess this possibility, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including LIPs is required. Toward this ultimate goal, the present study examined linkage disequilibrium between six LIPs and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic PCR and sequencing of L1-plus and -minus alleles from different donors revealed that all six LIPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. In addition, comparison of syntenic regions containing the identified SNP nucleotides was performed among modern humans (L1-plus and -minus alleles), archaic humans and non-human primates, revealing two different evolutionary schemes that might have resulted in the observed strong SNP-LIP linkage disequilibria. This study provides an experimental framework and guidance for a future SNP-LIP integrative GWAS.

  18. Genotyping of PCR-based polymorphisms and linkage-disequilibrium analysis at the NF1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, S.M.; Viskochil, D.H.; Cawthon, R.

    1996-07-01

    Six polymorphism across the NF1 gene have been adapted for genotyping through application of PCR-based assays. Three exon-based polymorphisms - at positions 702, 2034, and 10647 in the NF1 cDNA - were genotyped by mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR). A fourth polymorphism, DV1.9, is an L1 insertion element in intron 30, and the other two polymorphisms, GXAlu and EVI-20, are short tandem repeats in intron 27b. All the polymorphisms were evaluated in a cohort of 110 CEPH individuals who previously had been analyzed by use of eight RFLPs at the NF1 locus. Pairwise linkage-disequilibrium analyses with the six PCR-based polymorphisms and their flanking markers demonstrated disequilibrium between all tested loci. Genotypes of the four diallelic polymorphisms (702, 2034, 10647, and DV1.9) were also evaluated in cohorts from the CEPH, African, and Japanese populations. The CEPH and Japanese cohorts showed similar heterozygosities and linkage-disequilibrium coefficients. The African cohort showed a higher degree of heterozygosity and lower linkage-disequilibrium values, compared with the CEPH and Japanese cohorts. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium among RFLPs at the insulin-receptor locus despite intervening alu repeat sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Elbein, S.C. )

    1992-11-01

    Multiple mutations of the insulin receptor (INSR) gene have been identified in individuals with extreme insulin resistance. These mutations have included recombination events between Alu repeat units in the tyrosine kinase-encoding [beta]-chain region of the gene. To evaluate the influence of Alu and dinucleotide repetitive sequences on recombination events within the insulin receptor gene, the author examined the degree of linkage disequilibrium between RFLP pairs spanning the gene. The author established 228 independent haplotypes for seven RFLPs (two each for PstI, RsaI, and SstI and one for MspI and 172 independent haplotypes which included an additional RFLP with BglII) from 19 pedigrees. These RFLPs span >130 kb of this gene, and it was previously demonstrated that multiple Alu sequences separate RFLP pairs. Observed haplotype frequencies deviated significantly from those predicted. Pairwise analysis of RFLP showed high levels of linkage disequilibrium among RFLP in the [beta]-chain region of the insulin receptor, but not between [alpha]-chain RFLPs and those of the [beta]-chain. Disequilibrium was present among [beta]-chain RFLPs, despite separation by one or more Alu repeat sequences. The very strong linkage disequilibrium which was present in sizable regions of the INSR gene despite the presence of both Alu and microsatellite repeats suggested that these regions do not have a major impact on recombinations at this locus. 25 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Scalable linkage-disequilibrium-based selective sweep detection: a performance guide.

    PubMed

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2016-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium is defined as the non-random associations of alleles at different loci, and it occurs when genotypes at the two loci depend on each other. The model of genetic hitchhiking predicts that strong positive selection affects the patterns of linkage disequilibrium around the site of a beneficial allele, resulting in specific motifs of correlation between neutral polymorphisms that surround the fixed beneficial allele. Increased levels of linkage disequilibrium are observed on the same side of a beneficial allele, and diminish between sites on different sides of a beneficial mutation. This specific pattern of linkage disequilibrium occurs more frequently when positive selection has acted on the population rather than under various neutral models. Thus, detecting such patterns could accurately reveal targets of positive selection along a recombining chromosome or a genome. Calculating linkage disequilibria in whole genomes is computationally expensive because allele correlations need to be evaluated for millions of pairs of sites. To analyze large datasets efficiently, algorithmic implementations used in modern population genetics need to exploit multiple cores of current workstations in a scalable way. However, population genomic datasets come in various types and shapes while typically showing SNP density heterogeneity, which makes the implementation of generally scalable parallel algorithms a challenging task. Here we present a series of four parallelization strategies targeting shared-memory systems for the computationally intensive problem of detecting genomic regions that have contributed to the past adaptation of the species, also referred to as regions that have undergone a selective sweep, based on linkage disequilibrium patterns. We provide a thorough performance evaluation of the proposed parallel algorithms for computing linkage disequilibrium, and outline the benefits of each approach. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy of our open

  1. A haplotype-based algorithm for multilocus linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci with epistasis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiang-Yang; Casella, George; Littell, Ramon C; Yang, Mark C K; Johnson, Julie A; Wu, Rongling

    2003-04-01

    For tightly linked loci, cosegregation may lead to nonrandom associations between alleles in a population. Because of its evolutionary relationship with linkage, this phenomenon is called linkage disequilibrium. Today, linkage disequilibrium-based mapping has become a major focus of recent genome research into mapping complex traits. In this article, we present a new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) of additive, dominant, and epistatic effects in equilibrium natural populations. Our method is based on haplotype analysis of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and exhibits two significant advantages over current disequilibrium mapping methods. First, we have derived closed-form solutions for estimating the marker-QTL haplotype frequencies within the maximum-likelihood framework implemented by the EM algorithm. The allele frequencies of putative QTL and their linkage disequilibria with the markers are estimated by solving a system of regular equations. This procedure has significantly improved the computational efficiency and the precision of parameter estimation. Second, our method can detect marker-QTL disequilibria of different orders and QTL epistatic interactions of various kinds on the basis of a multilocus analysis. This can not only enhance the precision of parameter estimation, but also make it possible to perform whole-genome association studies. We carried out extensive simulation studies to examine the robustness and statistical performance of our method. The application of the new method was validated using a case study from humans, in which we successfully detected significant QTL affecting human body heights. Finally, we discuss the implications of our method for genome projects and its extension to a broader circumstance. The computer program for the method proposed in this article is available at the webpage http://www.ifasstat.ufl.edu/genome/~LD.

  2. Selection of Genetic Markers for Association Analyses, Using Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaoling; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Xu, Chun-Fang; Wagner, Michael; Ehm, Margaret G.

    2003-01-01

    The genotyping of closely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers frequently yields highly correlated data, owing to extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers. The extent of LD varies widely across the genome and drives the number of frequent haplotypes observed in small regions. Several studies have illustrated the possibility that LD or haplotype data could be used to select a subset of SNPs that optimize the information retained in a genomic region while reducing the genotyping effort and simplifying the analysis. We propose a method based on the spectral decomposition of the matrices of pairwise LD between markers, and we select markers on the basis of their contributions to the total genetic variation. We also modify Clayton’s “haplotype tagging SNP” selection method, which utilizes haplotype information. For both methods, we propose sliding window–based algorithms that allow the methods to be applied to large chromosomal regions. Our procedures require genotype information about a small number of individuals for an initial set of SNPs and selection of an optimum subset of SNPs that could be efficiently genotyped on larger numbers of samples while retaining most of the genetic variation in samples. We identify suitable parameter combinations for the procedures, and we show that a sample size of 50–100 individuals achieves consistent results in studies of simulated data sets in linkage equilibrium and LD. When applied to experimental data sets, both procedures were similarly effective at reducing the genotyping requirement while maintaining the genetic information content throughout the regions. We also show that haplotype-association results that Hosking et al. obtained near CYP2D6 were almost identical before and after marker selection. PMID:12796855

  3. A comparison of linkage disequilibrium measures for fine-scale mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, B.; Risch, N.

    1995-09-20

    Linkage mapping generally localizes disease genes to 1-to 2-cM regions of chromosome. In theory, further refinement of location can be achieved by population-based studies of linkage diequilibrium between disease locus alleles at adjacent markers. One approach to localization, dubbed simple disequilibrium mapping, is to determine the relative location of the disease locus by plotting disequilibrium values against marker locations. We investigate the simple mapping properties of five disequilibrium measures, the correlation coefficient {Delta}, Lewontin`s D`, the robust formulation of the population attribute risk {delta}, Yule`s Q, and Kaplan and Weir`s proportional difference d under the assumption of initial complete disequilibrium between disease and marker loci. The studies indicate that {delta} is a superior measure for fine mapping because it is directly related to the recombination fraction between the disease and the marker sampled at a rate higher than their population frequencies, as in a case-control study. D` yields results of comparable to those of {delta} in many realistic settings. Of the remaining three measures, Q,{Delta}, and d, Q yields the best results. From simulations of short-term evolution, all measures show some sensitivity to marker allele frequencies; however, as predicted by analytic results, Q, {Delta}, and d exhibit the greatest sensitivity to variation in marker allele frequencies across loci. 56 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. The Impact of Genetic Relationship and Linkage Disequilibrium on Genomic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Jing; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Yongzhong; Liu, Sisi; Shen, Yaou; Lin, Haijian; Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Kaijian; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Pan, Guangtang

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection is a promising research area due to its practical application in breeding. In this study, impact of realized genetic relationship and linkage disequilibrium (LD) on marker density and training population size required was investigated and their impact on practical application was further discussed. This study is based on experimental data of two populations derived from the same two founder lines (B73, Mo17). Two populations were genotyped with different marker sets at different density: IBM Syn4 and IBM Syn10. A high-density marker set in Syn10 was imputed into the Syn4 population with low marker density. Seven different prediction scenarios were carried out with a random regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) model. The result showed that the closer the real genetic relationship between training and validation population, the fewer markers were required to reach a good prediction accuracy. Taken the short-term cost for consideration, relationship information is more valuable than LD information. Meanwhile, the result indicated that accuracies based on high LD between QTL and markers were more stable over generations, thus LD information would provide more robust prediction capacity in practical applications. PMID:26148055

  5. Haplotype analysis finds linkage disequilibrium in the IL-12 gene in patients with HCV.

    PubMed

    Houldsworth, Annwyne; Metzner, Magdalena; Hodgkinson, Andrea; Shaw, Steve; Kaminski, Edward; Demaine, Andy G; Cramp, Matthew E

    2015-07-01

    HCV is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. IL-12 plays an essential role in the balance of T helper 1 (Th1) differentiation versus a T helper 2 (Th2) driven response from its naïve precursor. Linkage disequilibrium measures the degree to which alleles at two loci are associated and the non-random associations between alleles at two loci. Haplotypes of the three IL-12B loci studied were determined in the patient cases and the normal healthy control subjects. The frequency of the 12 possible IL-12B haplotypes on the 3 loci was determined in subjects heterozygous at only one of the loci within the studied haplotype. Haplotype frequencies were compared between the patient groups and controls (n = 49) to determine if any preferential combination of markers occurred using chi-squared and applying the Bonferroni correction. 45 HCV RNA negative patients; 88 HCV RNA positive patients; and 15 uninfected cases at high risk of HCV infection (EU) were studied. The haplotype "C" SNP of the 3'UTR with the "E" 4 bp deletion of the intron 4 region was in linkage disequilibrium (χ(2)  = 45.15, P < 0.001, 95% CL). The haplotype analysis of the insertion allele of the promoter with the deletion allele of the intron 4("E") IL-12B polymorphism showed linkage disequilibrium (χ(2)  = 5.64, P = 0.02). Linkage disequilibrium of polymorphisms is reported in the IL-12 gene in patients with HCV infection and contributes to the understanding of patient genotype and expected production of IL-12, responding to infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium among commonly genotyped SNP variants detected from bull sequence().

    PubMed

    Snelling, W M; Kuehn, L A; Keel, B N; Thallman, R M; Bennett, G L

    2017-10-01

    Genomic prediction utilizing causal variants could increase selection accuracy above that achieved with SNPs genotyped by currently available arrays used for genomic selection. A number of variants detected from sequencing influential sires are likely to be causal, but noticeable improvements in prediction accuracy using imputed sequence variant genotypes have not been reported. Improvement in accuracy of predicted breeding values may be limited by the accuracy of imputed sequence variants. Using genotypes of SNPs on a high-density array and non-synonymous SNPs detected in sequence from influential sires of a multibreed population, results of this examination suggest that linkage disequilibrium between non-synonymous and array SNPs may be insufficient for accurate imputation from the array to sequence. In contrast to 75% of array SNPs being strongly correlated to another SNP on the array, less than 25% of the non-synonymous SNPs were strongly correlated to an array SNP. When correlations between non-synonymous and array SNPs were strong, distances between the SNPs were greater than separation that might be expected based on linkage disequilibrium decay. Consistently near-perfect whole-genome linkage disequilibrium between the full array and each non-synonymous SNP within the sequenced bulls suggests that whole-genome approaches to infer sequence variants might be more accurate than imputation based on local haplotypes. Opportunity for strong linkage disequilibrium between sequence and array SNPs may be limited by discrepancies in allele frequency distributions, so investigating alternate genotyping approaches and panels providing greater chances of frequency-matched SNPs strongly correlated to sequence variants is also warranted. Genotypes used for this study are available from https://www.animalgenome.org/repository/pub/;USDA2017.0519/. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. The Decay of Disease Association with Declining Linkage Disequilibrium: A Fine Mapping Theorem.

    PubMed

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Bansal, Naveen K; Upadhya, Jiblal; Farazi, Manzur R; Li, Xiang; He, Max M; Hebbring, Scott J; Ye, Zhan; Schrodi, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Several important and fundamental aspects of disease genetics models have yet to be described. One such property is the relationship of disease association statistics at a marker site closely linked to a disease causing site. A complete description of this two-locus system is of particular importance to experimental efforts to fine map association signals for complex diseases. Here, we present a simple relationship between disease association statistics and the decline of linkage disequilibrium from a causal site. Specifically, the ratio of Chi-square disease association statistics at a marker site and causal site is equivalent to the standard measure of pairwise linkage disequilibrium, r(2). A complete derivation of this relationship from a general disease model is shown. Quite interestingly, this relationship holds across all modes of inheritance. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations using a disease genetics model applied to chromosomes subjected to a standard model of recombination are employed to better understand the variation around this fine mapping theorem due to sampling effects. We also use this relationship to provide a framework for estimating properties of a non-interrogated causal site using data at closely linked markers. Lastly, we apply this way of examining association data from high-density genotyping in a large, publicly-available data set investigating extreme BMI. We anticipate that understanding the patterns of disease association decay with declining linkage disequilibrium from a causal site will enable more powerful fine mapping methods and provide new avenues for identifying causal sites/genes from fine-mapping studies.

  8. Extensive genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium within the COMT locus in maize exotic populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Blanco, Michael; Ji, Qing; Frei, Ursula Karoline; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The caffeic acid 3-O-methytransferase (COMT) gene is a prime candidate for cell wall digestibility improvement based on the characterization of brown midrib-3 mutants. We compared the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium at this locus between exotic populations sampled within the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project and 70 inbred lines. In total, we investigated 55 exotic COMT alleles and discovered more than 400 polymorphisms in a 2.2 kb region with pairwise nucleotide diversity (π) up to 0.017, much higher than reported π values of various genes in inbred lines. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous SNPs was 3:1 in exotic populations, and significantly higher than the 1:1 ratio for inbred lines. Selection tests detected selection signature in this gene in both pools, but with different evolution patterns. The linkage disequilibrium decay in exotic populations was at least four times more rapid than for inbred lines with r²>0.1 persisting only up to 100 bp. In conclusion, the alleles sampled in the GEM Project offer a valuable genetic resource to broaden genetic variation for the COMT gene, and likely other genes, in inbred background. Moreover, the low linkage disequilibrium makes this material suitable for high resolution association analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Improved by Accounting for Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Buell, C. Robin; Casler, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height, and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs. PMID:26869619

  10. Linkage analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers in familial psoriasis: strong disequilibrium effects provide evidence for a major determinant in the HLA-B/-C region.

    PubMed Central

    Jenisch, S; Henseler, T; Nair, R P; Guo, S W; Westphal, E; Stuart, P; Krönke, M; Voorhees, J J; Christophers, E; Elder, J T

    1998-01-01

    Although psoriasis is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), evidence for linkage to HLA markers has been limited. The objectives of this study were (1) to provide more definitive evidence for linkage of psoriasis to HLA markers in multiplex families; (2) to compare the major HLA risk alleles in these families with those determined by previous case-control studies; and (3) to localize the gene more precisely. By applying the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and parametric linkage analysis, we found evidence for linkage of psoriasis to HLA-C, -B, -DR, and -DQ, with HLA-B and -C yielding the most-significant results. Linkage was detectable by parametric methods only when marker-trait disequilibrium was considered. Case-control association tests and the TDT identified alleles belonging to the EH57.1 ancestral haplotype as the major risk alleles in our sample. Among individuals carrying recombinant ancestral haplotypes involving EH57. 1, the class I markers were retained selectively among affecteds four times more often than among unaffecteds; among the few affected individuals carrying only the class II alleles from the ancestral haplotype, all but one also carried Cw6. These data show that familial and "sporadic" psoriasis share the same risk alleles. They also illustrate that substantial parametric linkage information can be extracted by accounting for linkage disequilibrium. Finally, they strongly suggest that a major susceptibility gene resides near HLA-C. PMID:9634500

  11. MICA diversity and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Gelmini, Geórgia Fernanda; da Silva, José Samuel; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2017-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located centromerically to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B. The short distance between these loci in the MHC indicates the presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Similarly to the HLA, the MICA is highly polymorphic, and this polymorphism has not been well documented in different populations. In this study, we estimated the allelic frequencies of MICA and the linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in 346 renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil. MICA and HLA were typed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method (PCR-SSO), combined with the Luminex technology. A total of 19 MICA allele groups were identified. The most frequent allele groups were MICA*008 (21.6%), MICA*002 (17.0%) and MICA*004 (14.8%). The most common haplotypes were MICA*009-B*51 (7.8%), MICA*004-B*44 (6.06%) and MICA*002-B*35 (5.63%). As expected from the proximity of the MICA and HLA-B loci, most haplotypes showed strong LD. Renal patients and healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil showed statistically significant differences in their MICA polymorphisms. The MICA*027 allele group was more frequent in renal patients (Pc = 0.018, OR: 3.421, 95% CI: 1.516-7.722), while the MICA*019 allele group was more frequent in healthy subjects (Pc = 0.001, OR: 0.027, 95% CI: 0.002-0.469). This study provided information on the distribution of MICA polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in Brazilian renal-transplant candidates. This information should help to determine the mechanisms of susceptibility to different diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in allograft rejection associated with MICA polymorphisms in a Brazilian population.

  12. Natural Allelic Diversity, Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern in Wild Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of natural allelic diversity and understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in wild germplasm accessions by large-scale genotyping of informative microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is requisite to facilitate chickpea genetic improvement. Large-scale validation and high-throughput genotyping of genome-wide physically mapped 478 genic and genomic microsatellite markers and 380 transcription factor gene-derived SNP markers using gel-based assay, fluorescent dye-labelled automated fragment analyser and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass array have been performed. Outcome revealed their high genotyping success rate (97.5%) and existence of a high level of natural allelic diversity among 94 wild and cultivated Cicer accessions. High intra- and inter-specific polymorphic potential and wider molecular diversity (11–94%) along with a broader genetic base (13–78%) specifically in the functional genic regions of wild accessions was assayed by mapped markers. It suggested their utility in monitoring introgression and transferring target trait-specific genomic (gene) regions from wild to cultivated gene pool for the genetic enhancement. Distinct species/gene pool-wise differentiation, admixed domestication pattern, and differential genome-wide recombination and LD estimates/decay observed in a six structured population of wild and cultivated accessions using mapped markers further signifies their usefulness in chickpea genetics, genomics and breeding. PMID:25222488

  13. Species Discrimination, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis Using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasundaram, Shanmugapriya; Ghosh, Modhumita; Veerasamy, Sivakumar; Ramasamy, Yasodha

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are closely related species commonly cultivated for pulp wood in many tropical countries including India. Understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) existing in these species is essential for the improvement of industrially important traits. Our goal was to evaluate the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci for species discrimination, population structure and LD analysis in these species. Investigations were carried out with the most common alleles in 93 accessions belonging to these two species using 62 SSR markers through cross amplification. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 and 0.36 to 0.93 in E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis respectively. A clear delineation between the two species was evident based on the analysis of population structure and species-specific alleles. Significant genotypic LD was found in E. camaldulensis, wherein out of 135 significant pairs, 17 pairs showed r2≥0.1. Similarly, in E. tereticornis, out of 136 significant pairs, 18 pairs showed r2≥0.1. The extent of LD decayed rapidly showing the significance of association analyses in eucalypts with higher resolution markers. The availability of whole genome sequence for E. grandis and the synteny and co-linearity in the genome of eucalypts, will allow genome-wide genotyping using microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphims. PMID:22163287

  14. An empiric comparison of linkage disequilibrium parameters in disease gene localizations; the myotonic dystrophy experience

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, L.; Baird, S.; Korneluk, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Analyses of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers of known location and disease phenotypes often provide valuable information in efforts to clone the causative genes. However, there exist a number of factors which may attenuate a consistent inverse relationship between physical distance and LD for a given pairing of a genetic marker and a human disease gene. Chief among these is the effect of the general population frequency of an allele which demonstrates LD with a disease gene. Possibly as a result of this, a number of methods of calculating LD has been proposed. We have calculated seven such LD parameters for twelve physically mapped RFLP`s from a 1.3 Mb DM gene containing region of 19q13.3 using 107 DM and 213 non-DM chromosomes. Correlation of the DM-marker physical distance with LD for the 12 loci reveals the Yule coefficient and Dij{prime} parameter to give the most consistent relationship. The D{prime} parameter shown to have a relative allele frequency independence gave only a weak correlation. A similar analysis is being carried out on published cystic fibrosis genetic and physical mapping data. The parameters identified in this study may be the most appropriate for future LD based localizations of disease genes.

  15. Linkage Disequilibrium Patterns and tagSNP Transferability among European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jakob C.; Lõhmussaar, Elin; Mägi, Reedik; Remm, Maido; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Biskup, Saskia; Illig, Thomas; Pfeufer, Arne; Luedemann, Jan; Schreiber, Stefan; Pramstaller, Peter; Pichler, Irene; Romeo, Giovanni; Gaddi, Anthony; Testa, Alessandra; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Metspalu, Andres; Meitinger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is critical for association studies, in which disease-causing variants are identified by allelic association with adjacent markers. The aim of this study is to compare the LD patterns in several distinct European populations. We analyzed four genomic regions (in total, 749 kb) containing candidate genes for complex traits. Individuals were genotyped for markers that are evenly distributed at an average spacing of ∼2–4 kb in eight population-based samples from ongoing epidemiological studies across Europe. The Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) trios of the HapMap project were included and were used as a reference population. In general, we observed a conservation of the LD patterns across European samples. Nevertheless, shifts in the positions of the boundaries of high-LD regions can be demonstrated between populations, when assessed by a novel procedure based on bootstrapping. Transferability of LD information among populations was also tested. In two of the analyzed gene regions, sets of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) selected from the HapMap CEPH trios performed surprisingly well in all local European samples. However, significant variation in the other two gene regions predicts a restricted applicability of CEPH-derived tagging markers. Simulations based on our data set show the extent to which further gain in tagSNP efficiency and transferability can be achieved by increased SNP density. PMID:15637659

  16. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Drosophila melanogaster with different rates of development

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, D.; Tucic, N.; Moya, A.; Ayala, F.J.

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined eight enzyme polymorphisms in groups of Drosophila melanogaster flies with fast, intermediate and slow development. The allelic frequencies are similar in all three developmental classes, but the distribution of the genotypes among the class is significantly heterogeneous for the three loci on the second chromosome. When the total sample of 300 individuals is examined, significant gametic disequilibrium appears in 3 out of 13 pairs of genes located on the same chromosome and in 4 out of 15 pairs of genes located on different chromosomes. This 25% incidence of disequilibrium between pairs of genes is larger than previously observed in other natural populations (but similar to the incidence observed in laboratory populations). The greater frequency of significant gametic disequilibrium in our study is probably due to the large number of genomes sampled. Some models specifically predict that individuals with faster rates of development (i.e., greater fitness) should be more heterozygous (and exhibit more linkage disequilibrium) than individuals with slower development. This hypothesis is not supported by our results.

  17. A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Egeland, Thore; Mostad, Petter

    2015-09-01

    Several applications necessitate an unbiased determination of relatedness, be it in linkage or association studies or in a forensic setting. An appropriate model to compute the joint probability of some genetic data for a set of persons given some hypothesis about the pedigree structure is then required. The increasing number of markers available through high-density SNP microarray typing and NGS technologies intensifies the demand, where using a large number of markers may lead to biased results due to strong dependencies between closely located loci, both within pedigrees (linkage) and in the population (allelic association or linkage disequilibrium (LD)). We present a new general model, based on a Markov chain for inheritance patterns and another Markov chain for founder allele patterns, the latter allowing us to account for LD. We also demonstrate a specific implementation for X chromosomal markers that allows for computation of likelihoods based on hypotheses of alleged relationships and genetic marker data. The algorithm can simultaneously account for linkage, LD, and mutations. We demonstrate its feasibility using simulated examples. The algorithm is implemented in the software FamLinkX, providing a user-friendly GUI for Windows systems (FamLinkX, as well as further usage instructions, is freely available at www.famlink.se ). Our software provides the necessary means to solve cases where no previous implementation exists. In addition, the software has the possibility to perform simulations in order to further study the impact of linkage and LD on computed likelihoods for an arbitrary set of markers.

  18. Identification of Linkage Disequilibrium SNPs from a Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome Pedigree.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei Jun; Zeng, Ying Zi; Li, Wei Hong; Zhang, Tian E; Liu, Wei Wei; Teng, Xiao Kun; Ma, Yong Xin; Yan, Shi Lin; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Wang, Mi-Qu

    2009-01-01

    In order to probe the genetic traits of Kidney-yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS), we employed a national standard of KDS diagnosis for the collection of KDS subjects. Each candidate KDS subject from a typical family was diagnosed by 5 independent physicians of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and repeated for 3 years, all on the first Saturday of December. Fifteen samples of genomic DNA were isolated and genotyped by Affymetrix 100 K arrays of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Then appropriate tools were used for the analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and bioinformatic mining of LD SNPs. The results indicated that our procedure of TCM diagnosis can effectively collect KDS subjects and therefore provide substantial basis for the linkage analysis of KDS. Five SNPs (i.e. rs514207, rs1054020, rs7685923, rs10515889 and rs10516202) were identified as LD SNPs from this KDS family, representing an unprecedented set of LD SNPs derived from TCM syndrome. These SNPs demonstrate midrange linkage disequilibrium within the KDS family. Two genes with established functions were identified within 100 bp of these SNPs. One is Homo sapiens double cortin domain containing 5, which interacts selectively with mono-, di- or tri-saccharide carbohydrate and involves certain signaling cascades. Another one, leucyl-tRNA synthetase, is also a pleiotropic gene response to cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation and protein biosynthesis. In conclusion, KDS is involved in special SNP linkage disequilibrium in the intragenic level, and genes within the flanks of these SNPs suggest some essential symptoms of KDS. However, definitive evidence to confirm or exclude these loci and to establish their biological activities will be required.

  19. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  20. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  1. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen allele linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure in volunteer bone marrow donors of Paraná State.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Paulo Rincoski; Zeck, Suelen Camargo; da Silva, Waldir Antonio; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    in the Asian group were not the most frequently observed in the Laboratory of Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility database and the National Bone Marrow Donor Registry for the state of Paraná. Linkage disequilibrium information may prove useful in the search for bone marrow donors for patients awaiting a suitable donor. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance of linkage disequilibrium between the fragile X locus and its flanking markers

    SciTech Connect

    Chiurazzi, P.; Neri, G.; Macpherson, J.

    1996-07-12

    The identification of several microsatellite markers flanking the FRAXA locus was instrumental in the positional cloning of the FMR1 gene. These markers can still be valuable in family studies, e.g., as additional evidence in prenatal diagnosis. Additionally, they were employed to verify the presence of any significant gametic disequilibrium between the fragile X mutation and some haplotypes, although the high mutation rate predicted from early segregation studies implied that new mutants would arise on almost every chromosomal background. Thus, the discovery of linkage disequilibrium encompassing the fragile X locus has been surprising. Here, we review the available evidence of such gametic association and underline its implications for the mutational mechanism. 50 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Data on genotypic distribution and linkage disequilibrium of several ANRIL polymorphisms in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Arbiol-Roca, A; Padró-Miquel, A; Hueso, M; Navarro, E; Alía-Ramos, P; González-Álvarez, M T; Rama, I; Torras, J; Grinyó, J M; Cruzado, J M; Lloberas, N

    2017-04-01

    A long non-coding RNA called ANRIL located on chromosome 9p21.3 has been identified as a novel genetic factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Investigation of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Noncoding Antisense RNA in the INK4 Locus (ANRIL) gene are of particular interest. This article reports data related to the research article entitled: "Association of ANRIL gene polymorphisms with major adverse cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients" (Arbiol-Roca et al. [1]). Data presented show the genotypic distribution of four selected ANRIL SNPs: rs10757278, rs4977574, rs10757274 and rs6475606 in a cohort constituted by 284 hemodialysis patients. This article analyzes the Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium of each studied SNP, and the linkage disequilibrium between them.

  5. A Study of Linkage Disequilibrium in British Populations of DROSOPHILA SUBOBSCURA

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Loukas, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data have been obtained concerning the genetic content of samples of O chromosomes from three British populations, and J chromosomes from one population, of Drosophila subobscura. Some improvements to the genetic map of the O and J chromosomes have been made. Allele frequencies at the loci studied do not show much geographical variation, except where associations with geographically varying gene arrangements distort the picture. Striking nonrandom associations between alleles at three enzyme loci and closely linked O chromosome gene arrangements are present. Some historical explanation for these associations cannot at present be ruled out, but it is clear that a very high degree of genetic differentiation must exist between different gene arrangements in this species. There is no convincing direct evidence for linkage disequilibrium between pairs of enzyme loci, although there is a significant association between close linkage and a high value of the linkage disequilibrium measure. This suggests that there may be disequilibria between closely linked enzyme loci that are too small to be individually detectable. These results are in broad agreement with those reported by workers on other Drosophila species. At present there appears to be no evidence to support the concept that selection is sufficiently strong at individual enzyme loci to produce a high degree of nonrandom associations. (Franklin and Lewontin 1970). PMID:17248938

  6. Breeding patterns and cultivated beets origins by genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium analyses.

    PubMed

    Mangin, Brigitte; Sandron, Florian; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Brigitte; Willems, Glenda; Devaux, Pierre; Goudemand, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity in worldwide population of beets is strongly affected by the domestication history, and the comparison of linkage disequilibrium in worldwide and elite populations highlights strong selection pressure. Genetic relationships and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated in a set of 2035 worldwide beet accessions and in another of 1338 elite sugar beet lines, using 320 and 769 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively. The structures of the populations were analyzed using four different approaches. Within the worldwide population, three of the methods gave a very coherent picture of the population structure. Fodder beet and sugar beet accessions were grouped together, separated from garden beets and sea beets, reflecting well the origins of beet domestication. The structure of the elite panel, however, was less stable between clustering methods, which was probably because of the high level of genetic mixing in breeding programs. For the linkage disequilibrium analysis, the usual measure (r (2)) was used, and compared with others that correct for population structure and relatedness (r S (2) , r V (2) , r VS (2)). The LD as measured by r (2) persisted beyond 10 cM within the elite panel and fell below 0.1 after less than 2 cM in the worldwide population, for almost all chromosomes. With correction for relatedness, LD decreased under 0.1 by 1 cM for almost all chromosomes in both populations, except for chromosomes 3 and 9 within the elite panel. In these regions, the larger extent of LD could be explained by strong selection pressure.

  7. The Decay of Disease Association with Declining Linkage Disequilibrium: A Fine Mapping Theorem

    PubMed Central

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Bansal, Naveen K.; Upadhya, Jiblal; Farazi, Manzur R.; Li, Xiang; He, Max M.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Ye, Zhan; Schrodi, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Several important and fundamental aspects of disease genetics models have yet to be described. One such property is the relationship of disease association statistics at a marker site closely linked to a disease causing site. A complete description of this two-locus system is of particular importance to experimental efforts to fine map association signals for complex diseases. Here, we present a simple relationship between disease association statistics and the decline of linkage disequilibrium from a causal site. Specifically, the ratio of Chi-square disease association statistics at a marker site and causal site is equivalent to the standard measure of pairwise linkage disequilibrium, r2. A complete derivation of this relationship from a general disease model is shown. Quite interestingly, this relationship holds across all modes of inheritance. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations using a disease genetics model applied to chromosomes subjected to a standard model of recombination are employed to better understand the variation around this fine mapping theorem due to sampling effects. We also use this relationship to provide a framework for estimating properties of a non-interrogated causal site using data at closely linked markers. Lastly, we apply this way of examining association data from high-density genotyping in a large, publicly-available data set investigating extreme BMI. We anticipate that understanding the patterns of disease association decay with declining linkage disequilibrium from a causal site will enable more powerful fine mapping methods and provide new avenues for identifying causal sites/genes from fine-mapping studies. PMID:28018425

  8. Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in human populations: Limits and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.C.; Briscoe, D.; O`Brien, S.J.

    1994-10-01

    Certain human hereditary conditions, notably those with low penetrance and those which require an environmental event such as infectious disease exposure, are difficult to localize in pedigree analysis, because of uncertainty in the phenotype of an affected patient`s relatives. An approach to locating these genes in human cohort studies would be to use association analysis, which depends on linkage disequilibrium of flanking polymorphic DNA markers. In theory, a high degree of linkage disequilibrium between genes separated by 10-20 cM will be generated and persist in populations that have a history of recent (3-20 generations ago) admixture between genetically differentiated racial groups, such as has occurred in African Americans and Hispanic populations. We have conducted analytic and computer simulations to quantify the effect of genetic, genomic, and population parameters that affect the amount and ascertainment of linkage disequilibrium in populations with a history of genetic admixture. Our goal is to thoroughly explore the ranges of all relevant parameters or factors (e.g., sample size and degree of genetic differentiation between populations) that may be involved in gene localization studies, in hopes of prescribing guidelines for an efficient mapping strategy. The results provide reasonable limits on sample size (200-300 patients), marker number (200-300 in 20-cM intervals), and allele differentiation (loci with allele frequency difference of {ge}.3 between admixed parent populations) to produce an efficient approach (>95% ascertainment) for locating genes not easily tracked in human pedigrees. 321 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of G-olf{sub {alpha}} (GNAL) in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiouris, S.J.; Breschel, T.S.; Xu, J.

    1996-09-20

    This study examines G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a possible candidate gene for susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) using the Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT). G-olf{sub {alpha}}, which encodes a subunit of a G-protein involved in intracellular signaling, maps within a region of chromosome 18 that has been implicated by two different linkage studies as a potential site of BPAD susceptibility loci. The expression pattern of G-olf{sub {alpha}} in the brain, its coupling to dopamine receptors, and the effects of lithium salts on G-proteins all support G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a candidate gene for BPAD. Our study population consisted of 106 probands and sibs with bipolar I disorder, with a median age-at-onset of 21.5 years ascertained from the United States. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between BPAD and any of the observed G-olf{sub {alpha}} alleles in our sample. Division of families based on sex of the transmitting parent did not significantly change the results. This sample had good power (78%) to detect linkage disequilibrium with alleles conferring a relative risk equal to that estimated for the putative 18p locus (2.58). Our results do not support a major role for G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a susceptibility locus for BPAD in a substantial portion of our sample. Other genes lying near G-olf{sub {alpha}} within the linked region on chromosome 18 cannot be excluded by our data. This study illustrates the use of the TDT in evaluating candidate genes within linked chromosome regions. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Accuracy of genomic prediction in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) improved by accounting for linkage disequilibrium

    DOE PAGES

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; ...

    2016-02-11

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height,more » and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Furthermore, some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs.« less

  11. Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at nine microsatellite loci of Cariniana legalis (Mart.) O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Tambarussi, E V; Vencovsky, R; Freitas, M L M; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-11-11

    Cariniana legalis is one of the largest tropical trees with a wide distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We investigated the Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at seven microsatellite loci specifically isolated for C. legalis, and at two previously developed heterologous microsatellite loci. Forty to 100 open-pollinated seeds were collected from 22 seed-trees in two populations. Using the Bonferroni correction, no remarkable deviations from the expected Mendelian segregation, linkage, or genotypic disequilibrium were detected in the nine loci studied. Only 3.7% of the tests were significant for investigations of the Mendelian proportions. On the other hand, only 2.8% of tests for linkage detection showed significance. In addition, among all pairwise tests used for investigating linkage disequilibrium, significance was found in 9.7% of the locus pairs. Our results show clear evidence that the nine simple sequence repeat loci can be used without restriction in genetic diversity, mating system, and parentage analyses.

  12. The linkage disequilibrium pattern of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene in Arabic and Asian population groups.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, Najla; Abdelmouleh, Wafa; Abdelhedi, Rania; Alfadhli, Suad; Rebai, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    DNA variations within the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene have been shown to be involved in the aetiology of several common diseases and the therapeutic response. This study reports a comparison of haplotype analysis of five SNPs in the ACE gene region using a sample of 100 healthy subjects derived from five different populations (Tunisian, Iranian, Kuwaiti, Bahraini and Indian). Strong linkage disequilibrium was found among all SNPs studied for all populations. Two SNPs (rs1800764 and rs4340) were identified as key SNPs for all populations. These SNPs will be valuable for future effective association studies of the ACE gene polymorphisms in Arab and Asian populations.

  13. Genomewide Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Severe Bipolar Disorder in a Population Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ophoff, Roel A.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Service, Susan K.; Spesny, Mitzi; Meshi, Dar B.; Poon, Wingman; Molina, Julio; Fournier, Eduardo; Gallegos, Alvaro; Mathews, Carol; Neylan, Thomas; Batki, Steven L.; Roche, Erin; Ramirez, Margarita; Silva, Sandra; De Mille, Melissa C.; Dong, Penny; Leon, Pedro E.; Reus, Victor I.; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2002-01-01

    Genomewide association studies may offer the best promise for genetic mapping of complex traits. Such studies in outbred populations require very densely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In recently founded population isolates, however, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) may make these studies feasible with currently available sets of short tandem repeat markers, spaced at intervals as large as a few centimorgans. We report the results of a genomewide association study of severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), using patients from the isolated population of the central valley of Costa Rica. We observed LD with BP-I on several chromosomes; the most striking results were in proximal 8p, a region that has previously shown linkage to schizophrenia. This region could be important for severe psychiatric disorders, rather than for a specific phenotype. PMID:12119601

  14. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and past effective population size in three Korean cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sudrajad, P; Seo, D W; Choi, T J; Park, B H; Roh, S H; Jung, W Y; Lee, S S; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Lee, S H

    2017-02-01

    The routine collection and use of genomic data are useful for effectively managing breeding programs for endangered populations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) using high-density DNA markers has been widely used to determine population structures and predict the genomic regions that are associated with economic traits in beef cattle. The extent of LD also provides information about historical events, including past effective population size (Ne ), and it allows inferences on the genetic diversity of breeds. The objective of this study was to estimate the LD and Ne in three Korean cattle breeds that are genetically similar but have different coat colors (Brown, Brindle and Jeju Black Hanwoo). Brindle and Jeju Black are endangered breeds with small populations, whereas Brown Hanwoo is the main breeding population in Korea. DNA samples from these cattle breeds were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip. We examined 13 cattle breeds, including European taurines, African taurines and indicines, and hybrids to compare their LD values. Brown Hanwoo consistently had the lowest mean LD compared to Jeju Black, Brindle and the other 13 cattle breeds (0.13, 0.19, 0.21 and 0.15-0.22 respectively). The high LD values of Brindle and Jeju Black contributed to small Ne values (53 and 60 respectively), which were distinct from that of Brown Hanwoo (531) for 11 generations ago. The differences in LD and Ne for each breed reflect the breeding strategy applied. The Ne for these endangered cattle breeds remain low; thus, effort is needed to bring them back to a sustainable tract. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Dissecting linkage disequilibrium in African-American genomes: roles of markers and individuals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Haifeng; He, Yungang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi; Qian, Ji; Xiong, Momiao; Jin, Li

    2007-09-01

    Substantial increases of linkage disequilibrium (LD) both in magnitude and in range have been observed in recently admixed populations such as African-American (AfA). On the other hand, it has also been shown that LD in AfAs was very similar to that of African. In this study, we attempted to resolve these contradicting observations by conducting a systematic examination of the LD structure in AfAs by genotyping a sample of AfA individuals at 24,341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning almost the entire chromosome 21, with an average density of 1.5 kb/SNP. The overall LD in AfAs is similar to that in African populations and much less than that in European populations. Even when the ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were used, extended LD in AfA was found to be limited to certain magnitude range (0.2 < or = r(2) < or = 0.8) and certain distance range, that is, between-marker distance more than 200 kb. Furthermore, the inclusion of AfA individuals with predominant African ancestry was found to reduce the overall magnitude of LD. Elevation of LD in the AfA population, compared with its parental populations, can only be observed at the markers with large allele frequency differences between 2 parental populations at limited scenario. AfA individuals of wholly African ancestry contribute little to the extended LD in the AfA population, and further genotyping or association analysis conducted using only admixed individuals may lead to higher statistical power and possibly reduced cost.

  16. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Burrell, A Millie; Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Klein, Robert R; Klein, Patricia E

    2013-05-20

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 13,390 single-nucleotide polymorphims. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms were produced using a highly multiplexed genotyping-by-sequencing methodology. Genetic structure was established using principal component, Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic, and Bayesian cluster analyses. These analyses indicated that the mini-core collection was structured along both geographic origin and sorghum race classification. Examples of the former were accessions from Southern Africa, East Asia, and Yemen. Examples of the latter were caudatums with widespread geographical distribution, durras from India, and guineas from West Africa. Race bicolor, the most primitive and the least clearly defined sorghum race, clustered among other races and formed only one clear bicolor-centric cluster. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analyses showed linkage disequilibrium decayed, on average, within 10-30 kb, whereas the short arm of SBI-06 contained a linkage disequilibrium block of 20.33 Mb, confirming a previous report of low recombination on this chromosome arm. Four smaller but equally significant linkage disequilibrium blocks of 3.5-35.5 kb were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, and 10. We examined the genes encoded within each block to provide a first look at candidates such as homologs of GS3 and FT that may indicate a selective sweep during sorghum domestication.

  17. Discordant patterns of linkage disequilibrium of the peptide-transporter loci within the HLA class II region

    SciTech Connect

    Klitz, W.; Grote, M.; Stephens, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Disequilibrium between genetic markers is expected to decline monotonically with recombinational map distance. We present evidence from the HLA class II region that seems to violate this principle. Pairwise disequilibrium values were calculated for six loci ranging in physical separation from 15 kb to 550 kb. The histocompatibility loci DRB1, DQA1, and DQBI, located on the distal end of the class II region, behave as a single evolutionary unit within which extremely high linkage disequilibrium exists. Lower but still significant levels of disequilibrium are present between these loci and DPB1, located at the proximal edge of the HLA complex. The peptide-transporter loci TAP1 and TAP2, located in the intervening region, reveal no disequilibrium with each other and low or negligible disequilibrium with the flanking loci. The action of two genetic processes is required to account for this phenomenon: a recombinational hotspot operating between TAP1 and TAP2, to eliminate disequilibrium between these loci, and at the same time selection operating on particular combinations of alleles across the DR-DP region, to create disequilibrium in the favored haplotypes. The forces producing the patterns of disequilibrium observed here have implications for the mapping of trait loci and disease genes: markers of TAP1, for example, would give a false impression as to the influence of DPB1 on a trait known to be associated with DQB1. 44 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Haplotype Analysis and Linkage Disequilibrium at Five Loci in Eragrostis tef.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shavannor M; Yuan, Yinan; Doust, Andrew N; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2012-03-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), a member of the Chloridoideae subfamily of grasses, is one of the most important food crops in Ethiopia. Lodging is the most important production problem in tef. The rht1 and sd1 dwarfing genes have been useful for improving lodging resistance in wheat and rice, respectively, in what has been known as the "Green Revolution." All homologs of rht1 and sd1 were cloned and sequenced from 31 tef accessions collected from across Ethiopia. The allotetraploid tef genome was found to carry two rht1 homologs. From sequence variation between these two putative homologs, an approximate ancestral divergence date of 6.4 million years ago was calculated for the two genomes within tef. Three sd1 homologs were identified in tef, with unknown orthologous/paralogous relationships. The genetic diversity in the 31 studied accessions was organized into a relatively small number of haplotypes (2-4) for four of these genes, whereas one rht1 homeologue exhibited 10 haplotypes. A low level of nucleotide diversity was observed at all loci. Linkage disequilibrium analysis demonstrated strong linkage disequilibrium, extending the length of the five genes investigated (2-4 kb), with no significant decline. There was no significant correlation between haplotypes of any of these genes and their recorded site of origin.

  19. Accounting for Linkage Disequilibrium in genome scans for selection without individual genotypes: the local score approach.

    PubMed

    Fariello, María Inés; Boitard, Simon; Mercier, Sabine; Robelin, David; Faraut, Thomas; Arnould, Cécile; Recoquillay, Julien; Bouchez, Olivier; Salin, Gérald; Dehais, Patrice; Gourichon, David; Leroux, Sophie; Pitel, Frédérique; Leterrier, Christine; SanCristobal, Magali

    2017-04-10

    Detecting genomic footprints of selection is an important step in the understanding of evolution. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome scans increases detection power, but haplotype-based methods require individual genotypes and are not applicable on pool-sequenced samples. We propose to take advantage of the local score approach to account for linkage disequilibrium in genome scans for selection, cumulating (possibly small) signals from single markers over a genomic segment, to clearly pinpoint a selection signal. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this approach detects selection with higher power than several state-of-the-art single marker, windowing or haplotype-based approaches. We illustrate this on two benchmark data sets including individual genotypes, for which we obtain similar results with the local score and one haplotype-based approach. Finally, we apply the local score approach to Pool-Seq data obtained from a divergent selection experiment on behavior in quail, and obtain precise and biologically coherent selection signals: while competing methods fail to highlight any clear selection signature, our method detects several regions involving genes known to act on social responsiveness or autistic traits. Although we focus here on the detection of positive selection from multiple population data, the local score approach is general and can be applied to other genome scans for selection or other genome-wide analyses such as GWAS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Haplotype Analysis and Linkage Disequilibrium at Five Loci in Eragrostis tef

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shavannor M.; Yuan, Yinan; Doust, Andrew N.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), a member of the Chloridoideae subfamily of grasses, is one of the most important food crops in Ethiopia. Lodging is the most important production problem in tef. The rht1 and sd1 dwarfing genes have been useful for improving lodging resistance in wheat and rice, respectively, in what has been known as the “Green Revolution.” All homologs of rht1 and sd1 were cloned and sequenced from 31 tef accessions collected from across Ethiopia. The allotetraploid tef genome was found to carry two rht1 homologs. From sequence variation between these two putative homologs, an approximate ancestral divergence date of 6.4 million years ago was calculated for the two genomes within tef. Three sd1 homologs were identified in tef, with unknown orthologous/paralogous relationships. The genetic diversity in the 31 studied accessions was organized into a relatively small number of haplotypes (2−4) for four of these genes, whereas one rht1 homeologue exhibited 10 haplotypes. A low level of nucleotide diversity was observed at all loci. Linkage disequilibrium analysis demonstrated strong linkage disequilibrium, extending the length of the five genes investigated (2−4 kb), with no significant decline. There was no significant correlation between haplotypes of any of these genes and their recorded site of origin. PMID:22413094

  1. High Nucleotide Polymorphism and Rapid Decay of Linkage Disequilibrium in Wild Populations of Caenorhabditis remanei

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Asher D.; Baird, Scott E.; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The common ancestor of the self-fertilizing nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae must have reproduced by obligate outcrossing, like most species in this genus. However, we have only a limited understanding about how genetic variation is patterned in such male–female (gonochoristic) Caenorhabditis species. Here, we report results from surveying nucleotide variation of six nuclear loci in a broad geographic sample of wild isolates of the gonochoristic C. remanei. We find high levels of diversity in this species, with silent-site diversity averaging 4.7%, implying an effective population size close to 1 million. Additionally, the pattern of polymorphisms reveals little evidence for population structure or deviation from neutral expectations, suggesting that the sampled C. remanei populations approximate panmixis and demographic equilibrium. Combined with the observation that linkage disequilibrium between pairs of polymorphic sites decays rapidly with distance, this suggests that C. remanei will provide an excellent system for identifying the genetic targets of natural selection from deviant patterns of polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium. The patterns revealed in this obligately outcrossing species may provide a useful model of the evolutionary circumstances in C. elegans' gonochoristic progenitor. This will be especially important if self-fertilization evolved recently in C. elegans history, because most of the evolutionary time separating C. elegans from its known relatives would have occurred in a state of obligate outcrossing. PMID:16951062

  2. Novel linkage disequilibrium clustering algorithm identifies new lupus genes on meta-analysis of GWAS datasets.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disorder. Genetic association studies of complex disorders suffer from the following three major issues: phenotypic heterogeneity, false positive (type I error), and false negative (type II error) results. Hence, genes with low to moderate effects are missed in standard analyses, especially after statistical corrections. OASIS is a novel linkage disequilibrium clustering algorithm that can potentially address false positives and negatives in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex disorders such as SLE. OASIS was applied to two SLE dbGAP GWAS datasets (6077 subjects; ∼0.75 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms). OASIS identified three known SLE genes viz. IFIH1, TNIP1, and CD44, not previously reported using these GWAS datasets. In addition, 22 novel loci for SLE were identified and the 5 SLE genes previously reported using these datasets were verified. OASIS methodology was validated using single-variant replication and gene-based analysis with GATES. This led to the verification of 60% of OASIS loci. New SLE genes that OASIS identified and were further verified include TNFAIP6, DNAJB3, TTF1, GRIN2B, MON2, LATS2, SNX6, RBFOX1, NCOA3, and CHAF1B. This study presents the OASIS algorithm, software, and the meta-analyses of two publicly available SLE GWAS datasets along with the novel SLE genes. Hence, OASIS is a novel linkage disequilibrium clustering method that can be universally applied to existing GWAS datasets for the identification of new genes.

  3. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium in the Spanish polycystic kidney disease 1 population

    SciTech Connect

    Peral, B.; Ward, C.J.; Thomas, S.; Harris, P.C. ); Stallings, R.L. ); San Millan, J.L.; Moreno, F.

    1994-05-01

    Forty-one Spanish families with polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) were studied for evidence of linkage disequilibrium between the disease locus and six closely linked markers. Four of these loci - three highly polymorphic microsatellites (SM6, CW3, and CW2) and a RFLP marker (BLu24) - are described for the first time in this report. Overall the results reveal many different haplotypes on the disease-carrying chromosome, suggesting a variety of independent PKD1 mutations. However, linkage disequilibrium was found between BLu24 and PKD1, and this was corroborated by haplotype analysis including the microsatellite polymorphisms. From this analysis a group of closely related haplotypes, consisting of four markers, was found on 40% of PKD1 chromosomes, although markers flanking this homogeneous region showed greater variability. This study has highlighted an interesting subpopulation of Spanish PKD1 chromosomes, many of which have a common origin, that may be useful for localizing the PKD1 locus more precisely. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping of genes influencing human obesity in chromosome region 7q22.1-7q35.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Dong; Li, Ding; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Shuanglin; Zhao, Hongyu; Price, R Arlen

    2003-06-01

    Linkage results suggest that the region of chromosome 7 containing the leptin gene cosegregates with extreme obesity; however, leptin coding region mutations are rare. To investigate whether the leptin flanking sequence and/or a larger 40-cM region (7q22.1-7q35) contributes to obesity, we genotyped individuals from 200 European American families segregating extreme obesity and normal weight (1,020 subjects) using 21 microsatellite markers and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and conducted nonparametric linkage (NPL) analyses. We also carried out transmission disequilibrium tests for 135 European American triads using 27 markers (including eight SNPs). Both quantitative (MERLIN-regress) and qualitative (GENEHUNTER and MERLIN-npl) analyses provided evidence for linkage for BMI (GENEHUNTER NPL = 2.98, 20 cM centromeric to leptin at the marker D7S692; MERLIN Z score = 3.56). Results for several other regions in 7q gave weak linkage. Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and quantitative TDT (and quantitative pedigree disequilibrium test) analyses suggest linkage disequilibrium near leptin and other regions of 7q. Our results suggested that there could be two or more genes in chromosome region 7q22.1-7q35 that influence obesity. A new region found by this study (D7S692-D7S523, 7q31.1) has the most consistent linkage results and could harbor obesity-related genes.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna) gives a global view of chromosomal inversions, local adaptation and geographic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Petri; Knight, Christopher G; Sarma, Devojit K; Hlaing, Thaung; Prakash, Anil; Maung Maung, Yan Naung; Somboon, Pradya; Mahanta, Jagadish; Walton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing allow population-genomic data to be generated for virtually any species. However, approaches to analyse such data lag behind the ability to generate it, particularly in nonmodel species. Linkage disequilibrium (LD, the nonrandom association of alleles from different loci) is a highly sensitive indicator of many evolutionary phenomena including chromosomal inversions, local adaptation and geographical structure. Here, we present linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna), which accesses information on LD shared between multiple loci genomewide. In LD networks, vertices represent loci, and connections between vertices represent the LD between them. We analysed such networks in two test cases: a new restriction-site-associated DNA sequence (RAD-seq) data set for Anopheles baimaii, a Southeast Asian malaria vector; and a well-characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data set from 21 three-spined stickleback individuals. In each case, we readily identified five distinct LD network clusters (single-outlier clusters, SOCs), each comprising many loci connected by high LD. In A. baimaii, further population-genetic analyses supported the inference that each SOC corresponds to a large inversion, consistent with previous cytological studies. For sticklebacks, we inferred that each SOC was associated with a distinct evolutionary phenomenon: two chromosomal inversions, local adaptation, population-demographic history and geographic structure. LDna is thus a useful exploratory tool, able to give a global overview of LD associated with diverse evolutionary phenomena and identify loci potentially involved. LDna does not require a linkage map or reference genome, so it is applicable to any population-genomic data set, making it especially valuable for nonmodel species. PMID:25573196

  6. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium in chromosome band 1p36 in American Chaldeans with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Nicolae, D L; Ramos, R; Fields, C T; Rabenau, K; Corradino, S; Brant, S R; Espinosa, R; LeBeau, M; Hanauer, S B; Bodzin, J; Bonen, D K

    2000-05-22

    The idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are complex genetic disorders involving chronic inflammation of the intestines. Multiple genetic loci have been implicated through genome-wide searches, but refinement of localization sufficient to undertake positional cloning efforts has been problematic. This difficulty can be obviated through identification of ancestrally shared regions in genetic isolates, such as the Chaldean population, a Roman Catholic group from Iraq. We analyzed four multiply affected American Chaldean families with inflammatory bowel disease not known to be related. We observed evidence for linkage and linkage disequilibrium in precisely the same region of chromosome band 1p36 reported previously in an outbred population. Maximal evidence for linkage was observed near D1S1597 by multipoint analysis (MLOD = 3.01, P = 6.1 x 10(-5)). A shared haplotype (D1S507 to D1S1628) was observed over 27 cM between two families. There was homozygous sharing of a 5 cM portion of that haplotype in one family and over a <1 cM region in the second family. Homozygous sharing of this haplotype near D1S2697 and D1S3669 was observed in one individual in a third multiply affected family, with heterozygous sharing in a fourth family. Linkage in outbred families as well as in this genetic isolate indicates that a pathophysiologically crucial IBD susceptibility gene is located in 1p36. These findings provide a unique opportunity to refine the localization and identify a major susceptibility gene for a complex genetic disorder.

  7. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in a mass-selected population of maritime pine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The accessibility of high-throughput genotyping technologies has contributed greatly to the development of genomic resources in non-model organisms. High-density genotyping arrays have only recently been developed for some economically important species such as conifers. The potential for using genomic technologies in association mapping and breeding depends largely on the genome wide patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium in current breeding populations. This study aims to deepen our knowledge regarding these issues in maritime pine, the first species used for reforestation in south western Europe. Results Using a new map merging algorithm, we first established a 1,712 cM composite linkage map (comprising 1,838 SNP markers in 12 linkage groups) by bringing together three already available genetic maps. Using rigorous statistical testing based on kernel density estimation and resampling we identified cold and hot spots of recombination. In parallel, 186 unrelated trees of a mass-selected population were genotyped using a 12k-SNP array. A total of 2,600 informative SNPs allowed to describe historical recombination, genetic diversity and genetic structure of this recently domesticated breeding pool that forms the basis of much of the current and future breeding of this species. We observe very low levels of population genetic structure and find no evidence that artificial selection has caused a reduction in genetic diversity. By combining these two pieces of information, we provided the map position of 1,671 SNPs corresponding to 1,192 different loci. This made it possible to analyze the spatial pattern of genetic diversity (H e ) and long distance linkage disequilibrium (LD) along the chromosomes. We found no particular pattern in the empirical variogram of H e across the 12 linkage groups and, as expected for an outcrossing species with large effective population size, we observed an almost complete lack of long distance LD. Conclusions These

  8. Novel microsatellite repeats (MSRs) and linkage disequilibrium analysis in the SMA region of 5q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Yaraghi, Z.; Roy, N.; MacKenzie, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular atrophy associated with progressive paralysis. The gene involved in SMA has been mapped by linkage analysis to a region of 5q13.1 flanked centromerically by D5S435 and telomerically by D5S557. We are in the process of identifying new microsatellite repeats to further define the genetic map of the SMA region. A contiguous array of YAC clones covering the SMA containing D5S435-D56S112 interval of 5q13.1 was established. From this contig, a 700 kb clone 76C1, which contains the 200 kb CMS-1/CATT-1 critical region, was used to generate a partial Sau3A1 phage library. We have previously shown that 2 CATT-1 subloci are in linkage disequilibrium with type I SMA. The 76C1 subloci are in linkage disequilibrium with type I SMA. The 76C1 phage library has been screened for human MSRs. To date we have identified two novel polymorphic microsatellites and four further candidates are being characterized. Results of linkage disequilibrium studies currently underway will be presented. The identification of a linkage disequilibrium maximum will be helpful in the further narrowing of the SMA region.

  9. A method for detecting recent changes in contemporary effective population size from linkage disequilibrium at linked and unlinked loci.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, C M; Portnoy, D S; Gold, J R

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of contemporary effective population size (Ne) from linkage disequilibrium (LD) between unlinked pairs of genetic markers has become an important tool in the field of population and conservation genetics. If data pertaining to physical linkage or genomic position are available for genetic markers, estimates of recombination rate between loci can be combined with LD data to estimate contemporary Ne at various times in the past. We extend the well-known, LD-based method of estimating contemporary Ne to include linkage information and show via simulation that even relatively small, recent changes in Ne can be detected reliably with a modest number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. We explore several issues important to interpretation of the results and quantify the bias in estimates of contemporary Ne associated with the assumption that all loci in a large SNP data set are unlinked. The approach is applied to an empirical data set of SNP genotypes from a population of a marine fish where a recent, temporary decline in Ne is known to have occurred.

  10. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium and genetic structure in Sicilian dairy sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Tortorici, Lina; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare

    2014-10-10

    The recent availability of sheep genome-wide SNP panels allows providing background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD), the genetic diversity and population structure in Valle del Belice, Comisana, and Pinzirita dairy sheep breeds using the Illumina Ovine SNP50K Genotyping array. Average r (2) between adjacent SNPs across all chromosomes was 0.155 ± 0.204 for Valle del Belice, 0.156 ± 0.208 for Comisana, and 0.128 ± 0.188 for Pinzirita breeds, and some variations in LD value across chromosomes were observed, in particular for Valle del Belice and Comisana breeds. Average values of r (2) estimated for all pairwise combinations of SNPs pooled over all autosomes were 0.058 ± 0.023 for Valle del Belice, 0.056 ± 0.021 for Comisana, and 0.037 ± 0.017 for Pinzirita breeds. The LD declined as a function of distance and average r (2) was lower than the values observed in other sheep breeds. Consistency of results among the several used approaches (Principal component analysis, Bayesian clustering, F ST, Neighbor networks) showed that while Valle del Belice and Pinzirita breeds formed a unique cluster, Comisana breed showed the presence of substructure. In Valle del Belice breed, the high level of genetic differentiation within breed, the heterogeneous cluster in Admixture analysis, but at the same time the highest inbreeding coefficient, suggested that the breed had a wide genetic base with inbred individuals belonging to the same flock. The Sicilian breeds were characterized by low genetic differentiation and high level of admixture. Pinzirita breed displayed the highest genetic diversity (He, Ne) whereas the lowest value was found in Valle del Belice breed. This study has reported for the first time estimates of LD and genetic diversity from a genome-wide perspective in Sicilian dairy sheep breeds. Our results indicate that breeds formed non

  11. A linkage disequilibrium perspective on the genetic mosaic of speciation in two hybridizing Mediterranean white oaks

    PubMed Central

    Goicoechea, P G; Herrán, A; Durand, J; Bodénès, C; Plomion, C; Kremer, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic mosaic of speciation in two hybridizing Mediterranean white oaks from the Iberian Peninsula (Quercus faginea Lamb. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.). The two species show ecological divergence in flowering phenology, leaf morphology and composition, and in their basic or acidic soil preferences. Ninety expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and eight nuclear SSRs were genotyped in 96 trees from each species. Genotyping was designed in two steps. First, we used 69 markers evenly distributed over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak linkage map to confirm the species genetic identity of the sampled genotypes, and searched for differentiation outliers. Then, we genotyped 29 additional markers from the chromosome bins containing the outliers and repeated the multilocus scans. We found one or two additional outliers within four saturated bins, thus confirming that outliers are organized into clusters. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was extensive; even for loosely linked and for independent markers. Consequently, score tests for association between two-marker haplotypes and the ‘species trait' showed a broad genomic divergence, although substantial variation across the genome and within LGs was also observed. We discuss the influence of several confounding effects on neutrality tests and review the evolutionary processes leading to extensive LD. Finally, we examine how LD analyses within regions that contain outlier clusters and quantitative trait loci can help to identify regions of divergence and/or genomic hitchhiking in the light of predictions from ecological speciation theory. PMID:25515016

  12. Dissecting the genetics of complex inheritance: linkage disequilibrium mapping provides insight into Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Elding, Heather; Lau, Winston; Swallow, Dallas M; Maniatis, Nikolas

    2011-12-09

    Family studies for Crohn disease (CD) report extensive linkage on chromosome 16q and pinpoint NOD2 as a possible causative locus. However, linkage is also observed in families that do not bear the most frequent NOD2 causative mutations, but no other signals on 16q have been found so far in published genome-wide association studies. Our aim is to identify this missing genetic contribution. We apply a powerful genetic mapping approach to the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases genome-wide association data on CD. This method takes into account the underlying structure of linkage disequilibrium (LD) by using genetic distances from LD maps and provides a location for the causal agent. We find genetic heterogeneity within the NOD2 locus and also show an independent and unsuspected involvement of the neighboring gene, CYLD. We find associations with the IRF8 region and the region containing CDH1 and CDH3, as well as substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity for CD itself. The genes are known to be involved in inflammation and immune dysregulation. These findings provide insight into the genetics of CD and suggest promising directions for understanding disease heterogeneity. The application of this method thus paves the way for understanding complex inheritance in general, leading to the dissection of different pathways and ultimately, personalized treatment. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissecting the Genetics of Complex Inheritance: Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Provides Insight into Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Elding, Heather; Lau, Winston; Swallow, Dallas M.; Maniatis, Nikolas

    2011-01-01

    Family studies for Crohn disease (CD) report extensive linkage on chromosome 16q and pinpoint NOD2 as a possible causative locus. However, linkage is also observed in families that do not bear the most frequent NOD2 causative mutations, but no other signals on 16q have been found so far in published genome-wide association studies. Our aim is to identify this missing genetic contribution. We apply a powerful genetic mapping approach to the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases genome-wide association data on CD. This method takes into account the underlying structure of linkage disequilibrium (LD) by using genetic distances from LD maps and provides a location for the causal agent. We find genetic heterogeneity within the NOD2 locus and also show an independent and unsuspected involvement of the neighboring gene, CYLD. We find associations with the IRF8 region and the region containing CDH1 and CDH3, as well as substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity for CD itself. The genes are known to be involved in inflammation and immune dysregulation. These findings provide insight into the genetics of CD and suggest promising directions for understanding disease heterogeneity. The application of this method thus paves the way for understanding complex inheritance in general, leading to the dissection of different pathways and ultimately, personalized treatment. PMID:22152681

  14. An investigation of genetic heterogeneity and linkage disequilibrium in 161 families with spinal muscular atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Merette, C.; Gilliam, T.C.; Brzustowicz, L.M. ); Daniels, R.J.; Davies, K.E. ); Melki, J.; Munnich, A. ); Pericak-Vance, M.A. ); Siddique, T. ); Voosen, B. )

    1994-05-01

    The authors performed linkage analysis of 161 families with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in which affected individuals suffer from the intermediate or mild form of the disease (Types II or III). Markers for six loci encompassing the chromosome 5q11.2-q13.3 region were typed. The best map location for the disease locus was found to be between D5S6 and MAP1B. The corresponding 1 lod unit support interval is confined to this interval and spans 0.5 cM. The data strongly support the hypothesis of linkage heterogeneity (likelihood ratio, 1.14 [times] 10[sup 4]), with 5% of the families unlinked. Four families have a probability of less than 50% of segregating the SMA gene linked to the region 5q11.2-q13.3. A likelihood approach to test for linkage disequilibrium revealed no significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with any marker under study. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium within the HLA class II region

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, A.B.; McClure, G.R.; Suraj, V.C.; Helmuth, R.C.; Fildes, N.; Bugawan, T.L.; Erlich, H.A. ); Klitz, W. )

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-nine CEPH families, comprised of 502 individuals, have been typed for the HLA class II genes DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 using nonradioactive sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to analyze polymerase chain reaction amplified DNA. This population, which consists of 266 independent chromosomes, contains 27 DRB1, 7 DQA1, 12 DQB1, and 17 DPB1 alleles. Analysis of the distribution of allele frequencies using the homozygosity statistic, which gives an indication of past selection pressures, suggests that balancing selection has acted on the DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci. The distribution of DPB1 alleles, however, suggests a different evolutionary past. Family data permits the estimation of recombination rates and the unambiguous assignment of haplotypes. No recombinants were found between DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1; however, recombinants were detected between DQB1 and DPB1, resulting in an estimated recombination fraction of [ge]0.008 [+-] 0.004. Only 33 distinct DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes were found in this population which illustrates the extreme nonrandom haplotypic association of alleles at these loci. A few of these haplotypes are unusual (previously unreported) for a Caucasian population and most likely result from past recombination events between the DR and DQ subregions. Examination of disequilibrium across the HLA region using these data and the available serologic HLA-A and HLA-B types of these samples shows that global disequilibrium between these loci declines with the recombination fraction, approaching statistic nonsignificance at the most distant interval, HLA-A and HLA-DP. DR-DQ haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with DPB1 and B are noted and, finally, the evolutionary origin of certain class II haplotypes is addressed. 63 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Linkage disequilibrium utilized to establish a refined genetic position of the Salla disease locus on 6q14-q15

    SciTech Connect

    Schleutker, J.; Laine, A.P.; Haataja, L. |

    1995-05-20

    Salla disease (SD), an inherited free sialic acid storage disorder, is caused by impaired transport of free sialic acid across the lyosomal membrane. Clinical characteristics of the disease include severe psychomotor retardation and some neurological abnormalities. The authors report detailed linkage analyses of 50 Finnish SD families that localize the SD disease gene to a refined chromosomal area on 6q14-q15. The highest lod score of 17.30 was obtained with a microsatellite marker of locus D6S280. When linkage disequilibrium was adopted in the linkage analyses, they could further assign the SD locus to the immediate vicinity of marker locus D6S406. Linkage disequilibrium facilitated further restriction of the critical chromosomal region to approximately 80 kb, well within the limits of positional cloning techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites

    SciTech Connect

    Bowcock, A.M.; Tomfohrde, J. ); Weissenbach, J. ); Bonne-Tamir, B.; George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Farrer, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability to the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. The authors have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with >70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of >4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here, the authors present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084[times]c5 alleles and WND allels in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084[times]c5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [[theta

  18. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Bowcock, A. M.; Tomfohrde, J.; Weissenbach, J.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; St George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability of the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. We have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with > 70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of > 4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here we present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084xc5 alleles and WND alleles in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084xc5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [phi] = .61) suggests that the number of mutations accounting for WND is less than expected on the basis of the variety of clinical symptoms that are observed. PMID:8279473

  19. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  20. Linkage Disequilibrium and Inversion-Typing of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome Reference Panel

    PubMed Central

    Houle, David; Márquez, Eladio J.

    2015-01-01

    We calculated the linkage disequilibrium between all pairs of variants in the Drosophila Genome Reference Panel with minor allele count ≥5. We used r2 ≥ 0.5 as the cutoff for a highly correlated SNP. We make available the list of all highly correlated SNPs for use in association studies. Seventy-six percent of variant SNPs are highly correlated with at least one other SNP, and the mean number of highly correlated SNPs per variant over the whole genome is 83.9. Disequilibrium between distant SNPs is also common when minor allele frequency (MAF) is low: 37% of SNPs with MAF < 0.1 are highly correlated with SNPs more than 100 kb distant. Although SNPs within regions with polymorphic inversions are highly correlated with somewhat larger numbers of SNPs, and these correlated SNPs are on average farther away, the probability that a SNP in such regions is highly correlated with at least one other SNP is very similar to SNPs outside inversions. Previous karyotyping of the DGRP lines has been inconsistent, and we used LD and genotype to investigate these discrepancies. When previous studies agreed on inversion karyotype, our analysis was almost perfectly concordant with those assignments. In discordant cases, and for inversion heterozygotes, our results suggest errors in two previous analyses or discordance between genotype and karyotype. Heterozygosities of chromosome arms are, in many cases, surprisingly highly correlated, suggesting strong epsistatic selection during the inbreeding and maintenance of the DGRP lines. PMID:26068573

  1. Model and Algorithm for Linkage Disequilibrium Analysis in a Non-Equilibrium Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yaqun; Li, Runze; Wu, Rongling

    2011-01-01

    The multilocus analysis of polymorphisms has emerged as a vital ingredient of population genetics and evolutionary biology. A fundamental assumption used for existing multilocus analysis approaches is Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium at which maternally- and paternally-derived gametes unite randomly during fertilization. Given the fact that natural populations are rarely panmictic, these approaches will have a significant limitation for practical use. We present a robust model for multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis which does not rely on the assumption of random mating. This new disequilibrium model capitalizes on Weir’s definition of zygotic disequilibria and is based on an open-pollinated design in which multiple maternal individuals and their half-sib families are sampled from a natural population. This design captures two levels of associations: one is at the upper level that describes the pattern of cosegregation between different loci in the parental population and the other is at the lower level that specifies the extent of co-transmission of non-alleles at different loci from parents to their offspring. An MCMC method was implemented to estimate genetic parameters that define these associations. Simulation studies were used to validate the statistical behavior of the new model. PMID:22754562

  2. Linkage Disequilibrium and Inversion-Typing of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome Reference Panel.

    PubMed

    Houle, David; Márquez, Eladio J

    2015-06-10

    We calculated the linkage disequilibrium between all pairs of variants in the Drosophila Genome Reference Panel with minor allele count ≥5. We used r(2) ≥ 0.5 as the cutoff for a highly correlated SNP. We make available the list of all highly correlated SNPs for use in association studies. Seventy-six percent of variant SNPs are highly correlated with at least one other SNP, and the mean number of highly correlated SNPs per variant over the whole genome is 83.9. Disequilibrium between distant SNPs is also common when minor allele frequency (MAF) is low: 37% of SNPs with MAF < 0.1 are highly correlated with SNPs more than 100 kb distant. Although SNPs within regions with polymorphic inversions are highly correlated with somewhat larger numbers of SNPs, and these correlated SNPs are on average farther away, the probability that a SNP in such regions is highly correlated with at least one other SNP is very similar to SNPs outside inversions. Previous karyotyping of the DGRP lines has been inconsistent, and we used LD and genotype to investigate these discrepancies. When previous studies agreed on inversion karyotype, our analysis was almost perfectly concordant with those assignments. In discordant cases, and for inversion heterozygotes, our results suggest errors in two previous analyses or discordance between genotype and karyotype. Heterozygosities of chromosome arms are, in many cases, surprisingly highly correlated, suggesting strong epsistatic selection during the inbreeding and maintenance of the DGRP lines. Copyright © 2015 Houle and Márquez.

  3. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of disease genes by reconstruction of ancestral haplotypes in founder populations.

    PubMed Central

    Service, S K; Lang, D W; Freimer, N B; Sandkuijl, L A

    1999-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping may be a powerful means for genome screening to identify susceptibility loci for common diseases. A new statistical approach for detection of LD around a disease gene is presented here. This method compares the distribution of haplotypes in affected individuals versus that expected for individuals descended from a common ancestor who carried a mutation of the disease gene. Simulations demonstrate that this method, which we term "ancestral haplotype reconstruction" (AHR), should be powerful for genome screening of phenotypes characterized by a high degree of etiologic heterogeneity, even with currently available marker maps. AHR is best suited to application in isolated populations where affected individuals are relatively recently descended (< approximately 25 generations) from a common disease mutation-bearing founder. PMID:10330361

  4. Extreme Population-Dependent Linkage Disequilibrium Detected in an Inbreeding Plant Species, Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Katherine S.; Russell, Joanne; Langridge, Peter; Powell, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    In human genetics a detailed knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is considered a prerequisite for effective population-based, high-resolution gene mapping and cloning. Similar opportunities exist for plants; however, differences in breeding system and population history need to be considered. Here we report a detailed study of localized LD in different populations of an inbreeding crop species. We measured LD between and within four gene loci within the region surrounding the hardness locus in three different gene pools of barley (Hordeum vulgare). We demonstrate that LD extends to at least 212 kb in elite barley cultivars but is rapidly eroded in related inbreeding ancestral populations. Our results indicate that haplotype-based sequence analysis in multiple populations will provide new opportunities to adjust the resolution of association studies in inbreeding crop species. PMID:16219791

  5. Linkage disequilibrium matches forensic genetic records to disjoint genomic marker sets

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Michael D.; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F. B.; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2017-01-01

    Combining genotypes across datasets is central in facilitating advances in genetics. Data aggregation efforts often face the challenge of record matching—the identification of dataset entries that represent the same individual. We show that records can be matched across genotype datasets that have no shared markers based on linkage disequilibrium between loci appearing in different datasets. Using two datasets for the same 872 people—one with 642,563 genome-wide SNPs and the other with 13 short tandem repeats (STRs) used in forensic applications—we find that 90–98% of forensic STR records can be connected to corresponding SNP records and vice versa. Accuracy increases to 99–100% when ∼30 STRs are used. Our method expands the potential of data aggregation, but it also suggests privacy risks intrinsic in maintenance of databases containing even small numbers of markers—including databases of forensic significance. PMID:28507140

  6. Human population dispersal "Out of Africa" estimated from linkage disequilibrium and allele frequencies of SNPs.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Brian P; Powell, Joseph E; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    Genetic and fossil evidence supports a single, recent (<200,000 yr) origin of modern Homo sapiens in Africa, followed by later population divergence and dispersal across the globe (the "Out of Africa" model). However, there is less agreement on the exact nature of this migration event and dispersal of populations relative to one another. We use the empirically observed genetic correlation structure (or linkage disequilibrium) between 242,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 global populations to reconstruct two key parameters of human evolution: effective population size (N(e)) and population divergence times (T). A linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based approach allows changes in human population size to be traced over time and reveals a substantial reduction in N(e) accompanying the "Out of Africa" exodus as well as the dramatic re-expansion of non-Africans as they spread across the globe. Secondly, two parallel estimates of population divergence times provide clear evidence of population dispersal patterns "Out of Africa" and subsequent dispersal of proto-European and proto-East Asian populations. Estimates of divergence times between European-African and East Asian-African populations are inconsistent with its simplest manifestation: a single dispersal from the continent followed by a split into Western and Eastern Eurasian branches. Rather, population divergence times are consistent with substantial ancient gene flow to the proto-European population after its divergence with proto-East Asians, suggesting distinct, early dispersals of modern H. sapiens from Africa. We use simulated genetic polymorphism data to demonstrate the validity of our conclusions against alternative population demographic scenarios.

  7. The Effects of Migration and Assortative Mating on Admixture Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zaitlen, Noah; Huntsman, Scott; Hu, Donglei; Spear, Melissa; Eng, Celeste; Oh, Sam S; White, Marquitta J; Mak, Angel; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelly; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Burchard, Esteban G; Halperin, Eran

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models in medical and population genetics typically assume that individuals assort randomly in a population. While this simplifies model complexity, it contradicts an increasing body of evidence of nonrandom mating in human populations. Specifically, it has been shown that assortative mating is significantly affected by genomic ancestry. In this work, we examine the effects of ancestry-assortative mating on the linkage disequilibrium between local ancestry tracks of individuals in an admixed population. To accomplish this, we develop an extension to the Wright-Fisher model that allows for ancestry-based assortative mating. We show that ancestry-assortment perturbs the distribution of local ancestry linkage disequilibrium (LAD) and the variance of ancestry in a population as a function of the number of generations since admixture. This assortment effect can induce errors in demographic inference of admixed populations when methods assume random mating. We derive closed form formulae for LAD under an assortative-mating model with and without migration. We observe that LAD depends on the correlation of global ancestry of couples in each generation, the migration rate of each of the ancestral populations, the initial proportions of ancestral populations, and the number of generations since admixture. We also present the first direct evidence of ancestry-assortment in African Americans and examine LAD in simulated and real admixed population data of African Americans. We find that demographic inference under the assumption of random mating significantly underestimates the number of generations since admixture, and that accounting for assortative mating using the patterns of LAD results in estimates that more closely agrees with the historical narrative. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium levels in Iranian indigenous cattle using whole genome SNPs data.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Karim; Esmailizadeh Koshkoiyeh, Ali; Gondro, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) levels among different populations can be used to detect genetic diversity and to investigate the historical changes in population sizes. Availability of large numbers of SNP through new sequencing technologies has provided opportunities for extensive researches in quantifying LD patterns in cattle breeds. The aim of this study was to compare the extent of linkage disequilibrium among Iranian cattle breeds using high density SNP genotyping data. A total of 70 samples, representing seven Iranian indigenous cattle breeds, were genotyped for 777962 SNPs. The average values of LD based on the r(2) criterion were computed by grouping all syntenic SNP pairwises for inter-marker distances from 0 Kb up to 1 Mb using three distance sets. Average r(2) above 0.3 was observed at distances less than 30 Kb for Sistani and Kermani, 20 Kb for Najdi, Taleshi, Kurdi and Sarabi, and 10 Kb for Mazandarani. The LD levels were considerably different among the Iranian cattle breeds and the difference in LD extent was more detectable between the studied breeds at longer distances. Lower level of LD was observed for Mazandarani breed as compared to other breeds indicating larger ancestral population size in this breed. Kermani breed continued to have more slowly LD decay than all of the other breeds after 3 Kb distances. More slowly LD decay was observed in Kurdi and Sarabi breeds at larger distances (>100 Kb) showing that population decline has been more intense in more recent generations for these populations. A wide genetic diversity and different historical background were well reflected in the LD levels among Iranian cattle breeds. More LD fluctuation was observed in the shorter distances (less than 10 Kb) in different cattle populations. Despite of the sample size effects, High LD levels found in this study were in accordance with the presence of inbreeding and population decline in Iranian cattle breeds.

  9. Significant linkage disequilibrium between the Huntington disease gene and the loci D4S10 and D4S95 in the Dutch population

    SciTech Connect

    Skraastad, M.I.; Van de Vosse, E.; Belfroid, R.; Hoeld, K.; Vegter-van der Vlis, M.; Bakker, E.; van Ommen, G.J.B. ); Sandkuijl, L.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Significant linkage disequilibrium has been found between the Huntington disease (HD) gene and DNA markers located around D4S95 and D4S98. The linkage-disequilibrium studies favor the proximal location of the HD gene, in contrast to the conflicting results of recombination analyses. The authors have analyzed 45 Dutch HD families with 19 DNA markers and have calculated the strength of linkage disequilibrium. Highly significant linkage disequilibrium has been detected with D4S95, consistent with the studies in other populations. In contrast with most other studies, however, the area of linkage disequilibrium extends from D4S10 proximally to D4S95, covering 1,100 kb. These results confirm that the HD gene most likely maps near D4S95. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Extensive genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium within the COMT locus in Germplasm Enhancement of Maize populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Caffeic acid 3-O-methytransferase (COMT) gene is a prime candidate for cell wall digestibility improvement based on the characterization of brown midrib-3 mutants. We compared the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium at COMT locus between populations sampled within the Germplasm Enhance...

  11. Accurate Estimation of Effective Population Size in the Korean Dairy Cattle Based on Linkage Disequilibrium Corrected by Genomic Relationship Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Heebal

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size (Ne) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the final analysis. We characterized more accurate linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 96 dairy cattle producing milk in Korea. Estimated linkage disequilibrium was relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 10 kb) and decreased with increasing distance. Using formulae that related the expected linkage disequilibrium to Ne, and assuming a constant actual population size, Ne was estimated to be approximately 122 in this population. Historical Ne, calculated assuming linear population growth, was suggestive of a rapid increase Ne over the past 10 generations, and increased slowly thereafter. Additionally, we corrected the genomic relationship structure per chromosome in calculating r2 and estimated Ne. The observed Ne based on r2 corrected by genomics relationship structure can be rationalized using current knowledge of the history of the dairy cattle breeds producing milk in Korea. PMID:25049757

  12. A First Insight into Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in the US Peanut Mini-core Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of genetic diversity, population structure, and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target association mapping populations is of great importance and is a prerequisite for LD-based mapping. In the present study, 96 genotypes comprising 92 accessions of the U.S. peanut mini-core colle...

  13. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 14,739 SNPs. The SNPs were produced using a highly multiplexed g...

  14. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of...

  15. Accurate estimation of effective population size in the korean dairy cattle based on linkage disequilibrium corrected by genomic relationship matrix.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Heebal

    2013-12-01

    Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size (Ne) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the final analysis. We characterized more accurate linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 96 dairy cattle producing milk in Korea. Estimated linkage disequilibrium was relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 10 kb) and decreased with increasing distance. Using formulae that related the expected linkage disequilibrium to Ne, and assuming a constant actual population size, Ne was estimated to be approximately 122 in this population. Historical Ne, calculated assuming linear population growth, was suggestive of a rapid increase Ne over the past 10 generations, and increased slowly thereafter. Additionally, we corrected the genomic relationship structure per chromosome in calculating r(2) and estimated Ne. The observed Ne based on r(2) corrected by genomics relationship structure can be rationalized using current knowledge of the history of the dairy cattle breeds producing milk in Korea.

  16. Genetic Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium and Signature of Selection in Sorghum: Lessons from Physically Anchored DArT Markers

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Pot, David; Deu, Monique; Rami, Jean-François; Billot, Claire; Perrier, Xavier; Rivallan, Ronan; Gardes, Laëtitia; Xia, Ling; Wenzl, Peter; Kilian, Andrzej; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) as well as signatures of selection were investigated in sorghum using a core sample representative of worldwide diversity. A total of 177 accessions were genotyped with 1122 informative physically anchored DArT markers. The properties of DArTs to describe sorghum genetic structure were compared to those of SSRs and of previously published RFLP markers. Model-based (STRUCTURE software) and Neighbor-Joining diversity analyses led to the identification of 6 groups and confirmed previous evolutionary hypotheses. Results were globally consistent between the different marker systems. However, DArTs appeared more robust in terms of data resolution and bayesian group assignment. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium as measured by mean r2 decreased from 0.18 (between 0 to 10 kb) to 0.03 (between 100 kb to 1 Mb), stabilizing at 0.03 after 1 Mb. Effects on LD estimations of sample size and genetic structure were tested using i. random sampling, ii. the Maximum Length SubTree algorithm (MLST), and iii. structure groups. Optimizing population composition by the MLST reduced the biases in small samples and seemed to be an efficient way of selecting samples to make the best use of LD as a genome mapping approach in structured populations. These results also suggested that more than 100,000 markers may be required to perform genome-wide association studies in collections covering worldwide sorghum diversity. Analysis of DArT markers differentiation between the identified genetic groups pointed out outlier loci potentially linked to genes controlling traits of interest, including disease resistance genes for which evidence of selection had already been reported. In addition, evidence of selection near a homologous locus of FAR1 concurred with sorghum phenotypic diversity for sensitivity to photoperiod. PMID:22428056

  17. [Analysis of HLA haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia from Northern Chinese Han].

    PubMed

    Gao, Su-qing; Cheng, Liang-hong; Lu, Liang; Jing, Shi-zheng; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Yin-ze; Zou, Hong-yan; Deng, Zhi-hui

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the difference between the frequencies of HLA-A-B, B-DRB1 and A-B-DRB1 haplotype, as well as their linkage disequilibrium pattern in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) and healthy controls from Northern Chinese Han. The frequencies of HLA-A-B, B-DRB1, A-B-DR haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium were estimated by Expectation Maximization method based on the genotypes of 643 patients with ALL and 2 0359 unrelated healthy donors, and the statistical significance between the two groups were estimated by chi-square test. Linkage disequilibrium was analyzed with population genetic methods. The most common HLA-A-B, B-DRB1, and A-B-DR haplotypes were A30-B13, A2-B46, A33-B58, B13-DR7, B46-DR9, B52-DR15, B58-DR17, A30-B13-DR7, A33-B58-DR17 and A1-B37-DR10 in both groups. The frequencies of A30-B13, A2-B46, A33-B44, B13-DR7, A30-B13-DR7 and A2-B46-DR9 haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium value were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the patient group than that in the control group. On the other hand, the frequencies of A2-B52, A31-B61, A24- B8, B60-DR9, B27-DR4, B52-DR14, B44-DR17, B27-DR12 and A11-B27-DR12 haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium value were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the patient group than that in the control group. There are some common and positive linkage disequilibrium haplotypes in both the ALL patients and the healthy donors in Northern Chinese Han. Interestingly, some haplotypes and their linkage disequilibrium patterns had significantly different distributions between the two groups. The study provided basic data for the relationship of ALL and HLA haplotype and for finding the HLA-A, B, DR matching donors.

  18. Linkage disequilibrium between TNF-α-308 G/A promoter and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen alleles in Han-nationality lung transplant recipients from Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Huijun, Mu; Ji, Zhang; Ping, Xie; Jingyu, Chen; Bin, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Genes encoding histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) and proinflammatory cytokines are involved in rejection after organ transplant. The authors explored the association between HLA alleles and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α-308 G/A promoter region in lung transplant recipients of Han nationality from East China. They also evaluated the correlation between TNF-α-308 G/A and the onset of acute rejection after lung transplant. All lung transplant recipients of Han nationality who were admitted into our hospital between August 2004 and July 2011 were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of acute rejection episodes. Genotypes of HLA and single nucleotide polymorphisms of TNF-α-308 G/A were determined using polymerase chain reaction-single specific primer kits. A total of 106 lung transplant recipients were investigated. HLA-A*2 allele was in linkage disequilibrium with TNF-α-308 G allele. HLA-A*33, -B*58 and -DRB1*03 alleles were in linkage disequilibrium with TNF-α-308 A allele. Notably, TNF-α-308 A allele was in complete linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B*58 allele. Furthermore, TNF-α-308 A allele was in linkage disequilibrium with the HLA-A*33-DRB1*03 and HLA-B*58-DRB1*03 haplotypes. Clinical analysis indicated that TNF-α-308 G/A was not associated with onset of acute rejection after lung transplant. TNF-α-308 G/A polymorphism was strongly associated with HLA-A*2, -A*33, -B*58, and -DRB1*03 alleles in our population. HLA genotyping can identify lung transplant recipients carrying the highly productive phenotype of TNF-α-308 A allele, which may provide information on rejection after transplant. However, the authors found that TNF-α-308 A subtype has no correlation with acute rejection after lung transplant.

  19. Estimating contemporary effective population size in non-model species using linkage disequilibrium across thousands of loci.

    PubMed

    Waples, R K; Larson, W A; Waples, R S

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary effective population size (Ne) can be estimated using linkage disequilibrium (LD) observed across pairs of loci presumed to be selectively neutral and unlinked. This method has been commonly applied to data sets containing 10-100 loci to inform conservation and study population demography. Performance of these Ne estimates could be improved by incorporating data from thousands of loci. However, these thousands of loci exist on a limited number of chromosomes, ensuring that some fraction will be physically linked. Linked loci have elevated LD due to limited recombination, which if not accounted for can cause Ne estimates to be downwardly biased. Here, we present results from coalescent and forward simulations designed to evaluate the bias of LD-based Ne estimates ([Ncirc ]e). Contrary to common perceptions, increasing the number of loci does not increase the magnitude of linkage. Although we show it is possible to identify some pairs of loci that produce unusually large r(2) values, simply removing large r(2) values is not a reliable way to eliminate bias. Fortunately, the magnitude of bias in [Ncirc ]e is strongly and negatively correlated with the process of recombination, including the number of chromosomes and their length, and this relationship provides a general way to adjust for bias. Additionally, we show that with thousands of loci, precision of [Ncirc ]e is much lower than expected based on the assumption that each pair of loci provides completely independent information.

  20. Linkage disequilibrium in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.

    PubMed

    Barnaud, A; Laucou, V; This, P; Lacombe, T; Doligez, A

    2010-05-01

    Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide high resolution for whole-genome mapping of genes underlying phenotypic variation. This field has received considerable attention over the last decade. We present here the first characterization of LD in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris. To assess the pattern and extent of LD, we used a sample of 85 plants from southern France and 36 microsatellite markers distributed over 5 linkage groups. LD was evaluated with independence tests and multiallelic r(2), using both unphased genotypic data and reconstructed haplotypic data. LD decayed rapidly, with r(2) values decreasing to 0.1 within 2.7 cM for genotypic data and within 1.4 cM for haplotypic data. Compared to the results of a previous study on cultivated grapevine subsp. sativa, where significant LD was found up to 16.8 cM, LD in subsp. silvestris was no longer significant past 1.4 cM. LD was therefore 12 times further extended in cultivated than wild grapevine, even though LD in wild grapevine seemed to extend slightly further than in wild relatives of other crops. Domestication bottlenecks and vegetative propagation are the primary factors responsible for this difference between cultivated and wild grapevine. The rapid decay of LD observed in this study seems promising for future association mapping studies of functional variation in wild V. vinifera grapevine.

  1. Detection of linkage disequilibrium between the myotonic dystrophy locus and a new polymorphic DNA marker.

    PubMed Central

    Harley, H G; Brook, J D; Floyd, J; Rundle, S A; Crow, S; Walsh, K V; Thibault, M C; Harper, P S; Shaw, D J

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the linkage of two new polymorphic DNA markers (D19S62 and D19S63) and a previously unreported polymorphism with an existing DNA marker (ERCC1) to the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus. In addition, we have used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to obtain a fine-structure map of this region. The detection of linkage disequilibrium between DM and one of these markers (D19S63) is the first demonstration of this phenomenon in a heterogeneous DM population. The results suggest that at least 58% of DM patients in the British population, as well as those in a French-Canadian subpopulation, are descended from the same ancestral DM mutation. We discuss the implications of this finding in terms of strategies for cloning the DM gene, for a possible role in modification of risk for prenatal and presymptomatic testing, and we speculate on the origin and number of existing mutations which may result in a DM phenotype. PMID:2063878

  2. Patterns of Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in a Large Collection of Pea Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Smýkal, Petr; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum, L.) is a major pulse crop used both for animal and human alimentation. Owing to its association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is also a valuable component for low-input cropping systems. To evaluate the genetic diversity and the scale of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in pea, we genotyped a collection of 917 accessions, gathering elite cultivars, landraces, and wild relatives using an array of ∼13,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genetic diversity is broadly distributed across three groups corresponding to wild/landraces peas, winter types, and spring types. At a finer subdivision level, genetic groups relate to local breeding programs and type usage. LD decreases steeply as genetic distance increases. When considering subsets of the data, LD values can be higher, even if the steep decay remains. We looked for genomic regions exhibiting high level of differentiation between wild/landraces, winter, and spring pea, respectively. Two regions on linkage groups 5 and 6 containing 33 SNPs exhibit stronger differentiation between winter and spring peas than would be expected under neutrality. Interestingly, QTL for resistance to cold acclimation and frost resistance have been identified previously in the same regions. PMID:28611254

  3. Heritability and Familiality of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Korean Families with Schizophrenic Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee Jeong; Chung, Young In; Yi, Young Mi

    2016-05-31

    Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD). We recruited 179 probands (with schizophrenia) as well as, whenever possible, their parents and siblings. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure personality and symptomatic dimensions. The heritability of personality dimensions in a total of 472 family members was estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). To measure familiality, we compared the personality dimensions of family members with those of 336 healthy unrelated controls using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Three of the seven TCI variables were significantly heritable and were included in subsequent analyses. The three groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to significantly differ from one another, with the expected order of average group scores, for all heritable dimensions. Despite several study limitations with respect to family recruitment and phenotyping, our results show that aberrations in several personality dimensions related to genetic-environment coactions or interactions may underlie the complexity of the schizophrenic syndrome.

  4. A first-generation metric linkage disequilibrium map of bovine chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Collins, Andrew; Cavanagh, Julie A L; Hawken, Rachel J; Hobbs, Matthew; Zenger, Kyall R; Barris, Wes; McClintock, Alexander E; Thomson, Peter C; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

    2006-09-01

    We constructed a metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) on the basis of data from 220 SNPs genotyped on 433 Australian dairy bulls. This metric LD map has distances in LD units (LDUs) that are analogous to centimorgans in linkage maps. The LD map of BTA6 has a total length of 8.9 LDUs. Within the LD map, regions of high LD (represented as blocks) and regions of low LD (steps) are observed, when plotted against the integrated map in kilobases. At the most stringent block definition, namely a set of loci with zero LDU increase over the span of these markers, BTA6 comprises 40 blocks, accounting for 41% of the chromosome. At a slightly lower stringency of block definition (a set of loci covering a maximum of 0.2 LDUs on the LD map), up to 81% of BTA6 is spanned by 46 blocks and with 13 steps that are likely to reflect recombination hot spots. The mean swept radius (the distance over which LD is likely to be useful for mapping) is 13.3 Mb, confirming extensive LD in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, which makes such populations ideal for whole-genome association studies.

  5. Heritability and Familiality of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Korean Families with Schizophrenic Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee Jeong; Chung, Young In; Yi, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD). Methods We recruited 179 probands (with schizophrenia) as well as, whenever possible, their parents and siblings. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure personality and symptomatic dimensions. The heritability of personality dimensions in a total of 472 family members was estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). To measure familiality, we compared the personality dimensions of family members with those of 336 healthy unrelated controls using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results Three of the seven TCI variables were significantly heritable and were included in subsequent analyses. The three groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to significantly differ from one another, with the expected order of average group scores, for all heritable dimensions. Conclusion Despite several study limitations with respect to family recruitment and phenotyping, our results show that aberrations in several personality dimensions related to genetic-environment coactions or interactions may underlie the complexity of the schizophrenic syndrome. PMID:27121432

  6. Patterns of Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in a Large Collection of Pea Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Smýkal, Petr; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2017-08-07

    Pea (Pisum sativum, L.) is a major pulse crop used both for animal and human alimentation. Owing to its association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is also a valuable component for low-input cropping systems. To evaluate the genetic diversity and the scale of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in pea, we genotyped a collection of 917 accessions, gathering elite cultivars, landraces, and wild relatives using an array of ∼13,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genetic diversity is broadly distributed across three groups corresponding to wild/landraces peas, winter types, and spring types. At a finer subdivision level, genetic groups relate to local breeding programs and type usage. LD decreases steeply as genetic distance increases. When considering subsets of the data, LD values can be higher, even if the steep decay remains. We looked for genomic regions exhibiting high level of differentiation between wild/landraces, winter, and spring pea, respectively. Two regions on linkage groups 5 and 6 containing 33 SNPs exhibit stronger differentiation between winter and spring peas than would be expected under neutrality. Interestingly, QTL for resistance to cold acclimation and frost resistance have been identified previously in the same regions. Copyright © 2017 Siol et al.

  7. Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium for nine microsatellite loci in Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi) Kuntze (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kubota, T Y K; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Silva, A A; Pupin, S; Silva, M S; Moraes, M A; Moraes, M L T; Sebbenn, A M

    2017-05-04

    Cariniana estrellensis is one of the largest trees found in Brazilian tropical forests. The species is typical of advanced stages of succession, characteristic of climax forests, and essential in genetic conservation and environmental restoration plans. In this study, we assessed Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in nine microsatellite loci for a C. estrellensis population. We sampled and genotyped 285 adult trees and collected seeds from 20 trees in a fragmented forest landscape in Brazil. Based on maternal genotypes and their seeds, we found no deviation from the expected 1:1 Mendelian segregation and no genetic linkage between pairwise loci. However, for adults, genotypic disequilibrium was detected for four pairs of loci, suggesting that this result was not caused by genetic linkage. Based on these results, we analyzed microsatellite loci that are suitable for use in population genetic studies assessing genetic diversity, mating system, and gene flow in C. estrellensis populations.

  8. Effects of identity disequilibrium and linkage on quantitative variation in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Tachida, H; Cockerham, C C

    1989-02-01

    Identity disequilibrium, ID, is the difference between joint identity by descent and the product of the separate probabilities of identity by descent for two loci. The effects of ID on the additive by additive (a*a) epistatic variance and joint dominance component between populations and in the additive, dominance and a*a variance within populations, including the effects on covariances of relatives within populations, were studied for finite monoecious populations. The effects are formulated in terms of three additive partitions, eta b, eta a and eta d, of the total ID, each of which increases from zero to a maximum at some generation dependent upon linkage and population size and decreases thereafter. eta d is about four times the magnitude of the other two but none is of any consequence except for tight linkage and very small populations. For single-generation bottleneck populations only eta d is not zero. With random mating of expanded populations eta b remains constant and eta a and eta d go to zero at a rate dependent upon linkage, very fast with free recombination. The contributions of joint dominance to the genetic components of variance within and between populations are entirely a function of the eta's while those of a*a variance to the components are functions mainly of the coancestry coefficient and only modified by the eta's. The contributions of both to the covariances of half-sibs, full-sibs and parent-offspring follow the pattern expected from their contributions to the genetic components of variance within populations except for minor terms which most likely are of little importance.

  9. Linkage Disequilibrium with Linkage Analysis of Multiline Crosses Reveals Different Multiallelic QTL for Hybrid Performance in the Flint and Dent Heterotic Groups of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Héloïse; Lehermeier, Christina; Bauer, Eva; Falque, Matthieu; Segura, Vincent; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Meyer, Nina; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Menz, Monica; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Moreau, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Multiparental designs combined with dense genotyping of parents have been proposed as a way to increase the diversity and resolution of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies, using methods combining linkage disequilibrium information with linkage analysis (LDLA). Two new nested association mapping designs adapted to European conditions were derived from the complementary dent and flint heterotic groups of maize (Zea mays L.). Ten biparental dent families (N = 841) and 11 biparental flint families (N = 811) were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and evaluated as test crosses with the central line of the reciprocal design for biomass yield, plant height, and precocity. Alleles at candidate QTL were defined as (i) parental alleles, (ii) haplotypic identity by descent, and (iii) single-marker groupings. Between five and 16 QTL were detected depending on the model, trait, and genetic group considered. In the flint design, a major QTL (R2 = 27%) with pleiotropic effects was detected on chromosome 10, whereas other QTL displayed milder effects (R2 < 10%). On average, the LDLA models detected more QTL but generally explained lower percentages of variance, consistent with the fact that most QTL display complex allelic series. Only 15% of the QTL were common to the two designs. A joint analysis of the two designs detected between 15 and 21 QTL for the five traits. Of these, between 27 for silking date and 41% for tasseling date were significant in both groups. Favorable allelic effects detected in both groups open perspectives for improving biomass production. PMID:25271305

  10. Contrasting Linkage-Disequilibrium Patterns between Cases and Controls as a Novel Association-Mapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Meng, Zhaoling; Ehm, Margaret G.

    2006-01-01

    Identification and description of genetic variation underlying disease susceptibility, efficacy, and adverse reactions to drugs remains a difficult problem. One of the important steps in the analysis of variation in a candidate region is the characterization of linkage disequilibrium (LD). In a region of genetic association, the extent of LD varies between the case and the control groups. Separate plots of pairwise standardized measures of LD (e.g., D′) for cases and controls are often presented for a candidate region, to graphically convey case-control differences in LD. However, the observed graphic differences lack statistical support. Therefore, we suggest the “LD contrast” test to compare whole matrices of disequilibrium between two samples. A common technique of assessing LD when the haplotype phase is unobserved is the expectation-maximization algorithm, with the likelihood incorporating the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). This approach presents a potential problem in that, in the region of genetic association, the HWE assumption may not hold when samples are selected on the basis of phenotypes. Here, we present a computationally feasible approach that does not assume HWE, along with graphic displays and a statistical comparison of pairwise matrices of LD between case and control samples. LD-contrast tests provide a useful addition to existing tools of finding and characterizing genetic associations. Although haplotype association tests are expected to provide superior power when susceptibilities are primarily determined by haplotypes, the LD-contrast tests demonstrate substantially higher power under certain haplotype-driven disease models. PMID:16642430

  11. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  12. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of D12S391 and vWA in U.S. population and paternity samples.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kristen Lewis; Hill, Carolyn R; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes voted to adopt five additional STR loci (D12S391, D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, and D22S1045) to their existing European Standard Set of seven STRs (TH01, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D18S51, D21S11, and D3S1358). The D12S391 and vWA loci are located 6.3megabases (Mb) apart on chromosome 12. Ideally for use in forensic analyses, genetic markers on the same chromosome should be more than 50Mb in physical distance in order to ensure full recombination and thus independent inheritance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the closely located D12S391 and vWA loci are independent and, consequently, if these loci can be included in the product rule calculation for forensic and kinship analyses. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium between the D12S391 and vWA loci were tested using n=654 unrelated U.S. African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic samples, and n=764 father/son paternity samples. In the unrelated U.S. population samples, no significant departures from HWE were detected for D12S391 or vWA. No significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the loci in the population samples. However, significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in U.S. African American, Caucasian, and Asian father/son samples with phased genotypes. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for U.S. Hispanic paternity samples. The use of phased father/son pairs allowed for robust detection of linkage disequilibrium between D12S391 and vWA. In unrelated population samples, linkage disequilibrium is present but more difficult to detect due to the large number of possible haplotype combinations and unknown allelic phase. For casework analyses that involve unrelated or related individuals, the single-locus genotype probabilities for D12S391 and vWA should not be multiplied to determine the match probability of an autosomal STR profile. Since the D12S391 and vWA loci are not

  13. Theory of the effects of population structure and sampling on patterns of linkage disequilibrium applied to genomic data from humans.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeley, John; Lessard, Sabin

    2003-01-01

    We develop predictions for the correlation of heterozygosity and for linkage disequilibrium between two loci using a simple model of population structure that includes migration among local populations, or demes. We compare the results for a sample of size two from the same deme (a single-deme sample) to those for a sample of size two from two different demes (a scattered sample). The correlation in heterozygosity for a scattered sample is surprisingly insensitive to both the migration rate and the number of demes. In contrast, the correlation in heterozygosity for a single-deme sample is sensitive to both, and the effect of an increase in the number of demes is qualitatively similar to that of a decrease in the migration rate: both increase the correlation in heterozygosity. These same conclusions hold for a commonly used measure of linkage disequilibrium (r(2)). We compare the predictions of the theory to genomic data from humans and show that subdivision might account for a substantial portion of the genetic associations observed within the human genome, even though migration rates among local populations of humans are relatively large. Because correlations due to subdivision rather than to physical linkage can be large even in a single-deme sample, then if long-term migration has been important in shaping patterns of human polymorphism, the common practice of disease mapping using linkage disequilibrium in "isolated" local populations may be subject to error. PMID:12871914

  14. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Jonnie N; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Scheffler, Brain E; Pepper, Alan E; Yu, John Z; Kohel, Russell J; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor

    2009-07-01

    Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. This underlies a need for characterization, tagging, and utilization of existing natural polymorphisms in cotton germplasm collections. Here we report genetic diversity, population characteristics, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and association mapping of fiber quality traits using 202 microsatellite marker primer pairs in 335 G. hirsutum germplasm grown in two diverse environments, Uzbekistan and Mexico. At the significance threshold (r (2) >or= 0.1), a genome-wide average of LD extended up to genetic distance of 25 cM in assayed cotton variety accessions. Genome wide LD at r (2) >or= 0.2 was reduced to approximately 5-6 cM, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. Results suggest linkage, selection, inbreeding, population stratification, and genetic drift as the potential LD-generating factors in cotton. In two environments, an average of ~20 SSR markers was associated with each main fiber quality traits using a unified mixed liner model (MLM) incorporating population structure and kinship. These MLM-derived significant associations were confirmed in general linear model and structured association test, accounting for population structure and permutation-based multiple testing. Several common markers, showing the significant associations in both Uzbekistan and Mexican environments, were determined. Between 7 and 43% of the MLM-derived significant associations were supported by a minimum Bayes factor at 'moderate to strong' and 'strong to very strong' evidence levels, suggesting their usefulness for marker-assisted breeding programs and overall effectiveness of association mapping using cotton germplasm resources.

  15. Effective Population Size, Extended Linkage Disequilibrium and Signatures of Selection in the Rare Dog Breed Lundehund

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    The Lundehund is an old dog breed with remarkable anatomical features including polydactyly in all four limbs and extraordinary flexibility of the spine. We genotyped 28 Lundehund using the canine Illumina high density beadchip to estimate the effective population size (Ne) and inbreeding coefficients as well as to identify potential regions of positive selection. The decay of linkage disequilibrium was slow with r2 = 0.95 in 50 kb distance. The last 7-200 generations ago, Ne was at 10-13. An increase of Ne was noted in the very recent generations with a peak value of 19 for Ne at generation 4. The FROH estimated for 50-, 65- and 358-SNP windows were 0.87, 087 and 0.81, respectively. The most likely estimates for FROH after removing identical-by-state segments due to linkage disequilibria were at 0.80-0.81. The extreme loss of heterozygosity has been accumulated through continued inbreeding over 200 generations within a probably closed population with a small effective population size. The mean inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree data for the last 11 generations (FPed = 0.10) was strongly biased downwards due to the unknown coancestry of the founders in this pedigree data. The long-range haplotype test identified regions with genes involved in processes of immunity, olfaction, woundhealing and neuronal development as potential targets of selection. The genes QSOX2, BMPR1B and PRRX2 as well as MYOM1 are candidates for selection on the Lundehund characteristics small body size, increased number of digits per paw and extraordinary mobility, respectively. PMID:25860808

  16. Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle

    PubMed Central

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Cavanagh, Julie AL; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

    2006-01-01

    We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian approach as implemented in PHASE. LD was then estimated using the Hedrick multiallelic extension of Lewontin normalised coefficient D'. Estimates of D' from the two approaches were in close agreement (r = 0.91). The mean estimates of D' for marker pairs with an inter-marker distance of less than 5 cM (n = 13) are 0.57 and 0.51, and for distances more than 20 cM (n = 44) are 0.29 and 0.17, estimated from the E-M and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The Malecot model was fitted for the exponential decline of LD with map distance between markers. The swept radii (the distance at which LD has declined to 1/e (~37%) of its initial value) are 11.6 and 13.7 cM for the above two methods, respectively. The Malecot model was also fitted using map distance in Mb from the bovine integrated map (bovine location database, bLDB) in addition to cM from the MARC map. Overall, the results indicate a high level of LD on chromosome 6 in Australian dairy cattle. PMID:16954040

  17. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium in mitochondrial DNA of 16 ruminant populations.

    PubMed

    Slate, J; Phua, S H

    2003-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a widely employed molecular tool in phylogeography, in the inference of human evolutionary history, in dating the domestication of livestock and in forensic science. In humans and other vertebrates the popularity of mtDNA can be partially attributed to an assumption of strict maternal inheritance, such that there is no recombination between mitochondrial lineages. The recent demonstration that linkage disequilibrium (LD) declines as a function of distance between polymorphic sites in hominid mitochondrial genomes has been interpreted as evidence of recombination between mtDNA haplotypes, and hence nonclonal inheritance. However, critics of mtDNA recombination have suggested that this association is an artefact of an inappropriate measure of LD or of sequencing error, and subsequent studies of other populations have failed to replicate the initial finding. Here we report the analysis of 16 ruminant populations and present evidence that LD significantly declines with distance in five of them. A meta-analysis of the data indicates a nonsignificant trend of LD declining with distance. Most of the earlier criticisms of patterns between LD and distance in hominid mtDNA are not applicable to this data set. Our results suggest that either ruminant mtDNA is not strictly clonal or that compensatory selection has influenced patterns of variation at closely linked sites within the mitochondrial control region. The potential impact of these processes should be considered when using mtDNA as a tool in vertebrate population genetic, phylogenetic and forensic studies.

  18. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in wild avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Haofeng; Morrell, Peter L; de la Cruz, Marlene; Clegg, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    Resequencing studies provide the ultimate resolution of genetic diversity because they identify all mutations in a gene that are present within the sampled individuals. We report a resequencing study of Persea americana, a subtropical tree species native to Meso- and Central America and the progenitor of cultivated avocado. The sample includes 21 wild accessions from Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic. Estimated levels of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are obtained from fully resolved haplotype data from 4 nuclear loci that span 5960 nucleotide sites. Results show that, although avocado is a subtropical tree crop and a predominantly outcrossing plant, the overall level of genetic variation is not exceptionally high (nucleotide diversity at silent sites, pi(sil) = 0.0102) compared with available estimates from temperate plant species. Intralocus LD decays rapidly to half the initial value within about 1 kb. Estimates of recombination rate (based on the sequence data) show that the rate is not exceptionally high when compared with annual plants such as wild barley or maize. Interlocus LD is significant owing to substantial population structure induced by mixing of the 3 botanical races of avocado.

  19. X-chromosomal genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium patterns in Amerindians and non-Amerindian populations.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G; Wang, Sijia; Marrero, Andrea R; Salzano, Francisco M; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2011-01-01

    We report X-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in Amerindian (Kogi, Wayuu, and Zenu) and admixed Latin American (Central Valley of Costa Rica and Southern Brazilian Gaucho) populations. Short tandem repeats (STRs) widespread along the X-chromosome were investigated in 132 and 124 chromosomes sampled from the Amerindian tribes and the admixed Latin American populations, respectively. Diversity indexes (gene diversity and average numbers of alleles per locus) were estimated for each population and the level of LD was inferred with an exact test. The Amerindian populations presented lower genetic diversity and a higher proportion of loci in LD than the admixed ones. Two haplotype blocks were identified in the X-chromosome, both restricted to the Amerindians. The first involved DXS8051 and DXS7108 in Xp22.22 and Xp22.3, while the second found only among the Kogi, included eight loci in a region between Xp11.4 and Xq21.1. In accordance to previous work done with other populations, human isolates, such as Amerindian tribes, seem to be an optimal choice for the implementation of association studies due to the wide extent of LD which can be found in their gene pool. On the other hand, the low proportion of loci in LD found in both admixed populations studied here could be explained by events related to their history and similarities between the allele frequencies in the parental stocks. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CRMP1 and EVC genes.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Theru A; Lesperance, Marci M

    2004-11-01

    In this report, we present the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in the Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 1 (CRMP1) and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) gene region. We genotyped eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRMP1 and EVC genes in 90 control individuals of diverse ethnicity. The minor allele frequencies ranged from 3.3-49.4%, with most having a frequency >25%. A total of 37 haplotypes were derived from these eight polymorphisms, with only one haplotype having a frequency >10%. Pairwise LD analysis showed a weak but significant LD between markers located about 243 kb apart in this region. The LD was significant between markers spaced about 208 kb apart in EVC, whereas no LD was found between a pair of markers located about 5 kb apart in CRMP1. However, in general, LD correlated with the distance between loci. The CRMP1 and EVC genes are located near WFS1, the Wolfram syndrome type 1 gene, in which mutations also cause low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). The haplotypes obtained from these polymorphisms will be useful to track the segregation of phenotypes in families with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Weyers acrodental dysostosis, LFSNHL and Wolfram syndrome type 1.

  1. Genetic Isolates in East Asia: A Study of Linkage Disequilibrium in the X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, T.; Mano, S.; Ikuta, T.; Munkhbat, B.; Tounai, K.; Ando, H.; Munkhtuvshin, N.; Imanishi, T.; Inoko, H.; Tamiya, G.

    2002-01-01

    The background linkage disequilibrium (LD) in genetic isolates is of great interest in human genetics. Although many empirical studies have evaluated the background LD in European isolates, such as the Finnish and Sardinians, few data from other regions, such as Asia, have been reported. To evaluate the extent of background LD in East Asian genetic isolates, we analyzed the X chromosome in the Japanese population and in four Mongolian populations (Khalkh, Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin), the demographic histories of which are quite different from one another. Fisher’s exact test revealed that the Japanese and Khalkh, which are the expanded populations, had the same or a relatively higher level of LD than did the Finnish, European American, and Sardinian populations. In contrast, the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations, which have kept their population size constant, had a higher background LD. These results were consistent with previous genetic anthropological studies in European isolates and indicate that the Japanese and Khalkh populations could be utilized in the fine mapping of both complex and monogenic diseases, whereas the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations could play an important role in the initial mapping of complex disease genes. PMID:12082643

  2. Linkage Disequilibrium and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A.; Colecchia, Salvatore A.; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker–trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker–trait associations. PMID:24759998

  3. Distinguishing Functional Amino Acid Covariation from Background Linkage Disequilibrium in HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Lee, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Correlated amino acid mutation analysis has been widely used to infer functional interactions between different sites in a protein. However, this analysis can be confounded by important phylogenetic effects broadly classifiable as background linkage disequilibrium (BLD). We have systematically separated the covariation induced by selective interactions between amino acids from background LD, using synonymous (S) vs. amino acid (A) mutations. Covariation between two amino acid mutations, (A,A), can be affected by selective interactions between amino acids, whereas covariation within (A,S) pairs or (S,S) pairs cannot. Our analysis of the pol gene — including the protease and the reverse transcriptase genes — in HIV reveals that (A,A) covariation levels are enormously higher than for either (A,S) or (S,S), and thus cannot be attributed to phylogenetic effects. The magnitude of these effects suggests that a large portion of (A,A) covariation in the HIV pol gene results from selective interactions. Inspection of the most prominent (A,A) interactions in the HIV pol gene showed that they are known sites of independently identified drug resistance mutations, and physically cluster around the drug binding site. Moreover, the specific set of (A,A) interaction pairs was reproducible in different drug treatment studies, and vanished in untreated HIV samples. The (S,S) covariation curves measured a low but detectable level of background LD in HIV. PMID:17726544

  4. Linkage disequilibrium and genome-wide association mapping in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    PubMed

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Mastrangelo, Anna M; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker-trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker-trait associations.

  5. Extended linkage disequilibrium surrounding the hemoglobin E variant due to malarial selection.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Jun; Naka, Izumi; Patarapotikul, Jintana; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Brittenham, Gary; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Clark, Andrew G; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2004-06-01

    The hemoglobin E variant (HbE; ( beta )26Glu-->Lys) is concentrated in parts of Southeast Asia where malaria is endemic, and HbE carrier status has been shown to confer some protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. To examine the effect of natural selection on the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and to infer the evolutionary history of the HbE variant, we analyzed biallelic markers surrounding the HbE variant in a Thai population. Pairwise LD analysis of HbE and 43 surrounding biallelic markers revealed LD of HbE extending beyond 100 kb, whereas no LD was observed between non-HbE variants and the same markers. The inferred haplotype network suggests a single origin of the HbE variant in the Thai population. Forward-in-time computer simulations under a variety of selection models indicate that the HbE variant arose 1,240-4,440 years ago. These results support the conjecture that the HbE mutation occurred recently, and the allele frequency has increased rapidly. Our study provides another clear demonstration that a high-resolution LD map across the human genome can detect recent variants that have been subjected to positive selection.

  6. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analysis in bread wheat and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Somers, Daryl J; Banks, Travis; Depauw, Ron; Fox, Stephen; Clarke, John; Pozniak, Curtis; McCartney, Curt

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat and durum wheat were examined for linkage disequilibrium (LD) using microsatellite markers distributed across the genome. The allele database consisted of 189 bread wheat accessions genotyped at 370 loci and 93 durum wheat accessions genotyped at 245 loci. A significance level of p < 0.001 was set for all comparisons. The bread and durum wheat collections showed that 47.9% and 14.0% of all locus pairs were in LD, respectively. LD was more prevalent between loci on the same chromosome compared with loci on independent chromosomes and was highest between adjacent loci. Only a small fraction (bread wheat, 0.9%; durum wheat, 3.2%) of the locus pairs in LD showed R2 values > 0.2. The LD between adjacent locus pairs extended (R2 > 0.2) approximately 2-3 cM, on average, but some regions of the bread and durum wheat genomes showed high levels of LD (R2 = 0.7 and 1.0, respectively) extending 41.2 and 25.5 cM, respectively. The wheat collections were clustered by similarity into subpopulations using unlinked microsatellite data and the software Structure. Analysis within subpopulations showed 14- to 16-fold fewer locus pairs in LD, higher R2 values for those pairs in LD, and LD extending further along the chromosome. The data suggest that LD mapping of wheat can be performed with simple sequence repeats to a resolution of <5 cM.

  7. Distribution of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium based on microsatellite loci in the Samoan population

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Whole genome-wide scanning for susceptibility loci based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) has been proposed as a powerful strategy for mapping common complex diseases, especially in isolated populations. We recruited 389 individuals from 175 families in the US territory of American Samoa, and 96 unrelated individuals from American Samoa and the independent country of Samoa in order to examine background LD by using a 10 centimorgan (cM) map containing 381 autosomal and 18 X-linked microsatellite markers. We tested the relationship between LD and recombination fraction by fitting a regression model. We estimated a slope of -0.021 (SE 0.00354; p < 0.0001). Based on our results, LD in the Samoan population decays steadily as the recombination fraction between autosomal markers increases. The patterns of LD observed in the Samoan population are quite similar to those previously observed in Palau but markedly contrast with those observed in a non-isolated Caucasian sample, where there is essentially no marker-to-marker LD. Our analyses support the hypothesis of a recent bottleneck, which is consistent with the known demographic history of the Samoan population. Furthermore, population substructure tests support the hypothesis that self-identified Samoans represent one homogenous genetic population. PMID:15588493

  8. Structure of linkage disequilibrium and phenotypic associations in the maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Remington, David L.; Thornsberry, Jeffry M.; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Wilson, Larissa M.; Whitt, Sherry R.; Doebley, John; Kresovich, Stephen; Goodman, Major M.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2001-01-01

    Association studies based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide high resolution for identifying genes that may contribute to phenotypic variation. We report patterns of local and genome-wide LD in 102 maize inbred lines representing much of the worldwide genetic diversity used in maize breeding, and address its implications for association studies in maize. In a survey of six genes, we found that intragenic LD generally declined rapidly with distance (r2 < 0.1 within 1500 bp), but rates of decline were highly variable among genes. This rapid decline probably reflects large effective population sizes in maize during its evolution and high levels of recombination within genes. A set of 47 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci showed stronger evidence of genome-wide LD than did single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. LD was greatly reduced but not eliminated by grouping lines into three empirically determined subpopulations. SSR data also supplied evidence that divergent artificial selection on flowering time may have played a role in generating population structure. Provided the effects of population structure are effectively controlled, this research suggests that association studies show great promise for identifying the genetic basis of important traits in maize with very high resolution. PMID:11562485

  9. Recovering Power in Association Mapping Panels with Variable Levels of Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Rincent, Renaud; Moreau, Laurence; Monod, Hervé; Kuhn, Estelle; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Malvar, Rosa A.; Moreno-Gonzalez, Jesus; Nicolas, Stéphane; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Dumas, Fabrice; Altmann, Thomas; Brunel, Dominique; Ouzunova, Milena; Flament, Pascal; Dubreuil, Pierre; Charcosset, Alain; Mary-Huard, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping has permitted the discovery of major QTL in many species. It can be applied to existing populations and, as a consequence, it is generally necessary to take into account structure and relatedness among individuals in the statistical model to control false positives. We analytically studied power in association studies by computing noncentrality parameter of the tests and its relationship with parameters characterizing diversity (genetic differentiation between groups and allele frequencies) and kinship between individuals. Investigation of three different maize diversity panels genotyped with the 50k SNPs array highlighted contrasted average power among panels and revealed gaps of power of classical mixed models in regions with high linkage disequilibrium (LD). These gaps could be related to the fact that markers are used for both testing association and estimating relatedness. We thus considered two alternative approaches to estimating the kinship matrix to recover power in regions of high LD. In the first one, we estimated the kinship with all the markers that are not located on the same chromosome than the tested SNP. In the second one, correlation between markers was taken into account to weight the contribution of each marker to the kinship. Simulations revealed that these two approaches were efficient to control false positives and were more powerful than classical models. PMID:24532779

  10. The Textile Plot: A New Linkage Disequilibrium Display of Multiple-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a major concern in many genetic studies because of the markedly increased density of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) genotype markers. This dramatic increase in the number of SNPs may cause problems in statistical analyses, such as by introducing multiple comparisons in hypothesis testing and colinearity in logistic regression models, because of the presence of complex LD structures. Inferences must be made about the underlying genetic variation through the LD structure before applying statistical models to the data. Therefore, we introduced the textile plot to provide a visualization of LD to improve the analysis of the genetic variation present in multiple-SNP genotype data. The plot can accentuate LD by displaying specific geometrical shapes, and allowing for the underlying haplotype structure to be inferred without any haplotype-phasing algorithms. Application of this technique to simulated and real data sets illustrated the potential usefulness of the textile plot as an aid to the interpretation of LD in multiple-SNP genotype data. The initial results of LD mapping and haplotype analyses of disease genes are encouraging, indicating that the textile plot may be useful in disease association studies. PMID:20436909

  11. Linkage disequilibrium mapping places the gene causing familial Mediterranean fever close to D16S246

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E. N.; Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents refined genetic mapping data for the gene causing familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a recessively inherited disorder of inflammation. We sampled 65 Jewish, Armenian, and Arab families and typed them for eight markers from chromosome 16p. Using a new algorithm that permits multipoint calculations for a dense map of markers in consanguineous families, we obtained a maximal LOD score of 49.2 at a location 1.6 cM centromeric to D16S246. A specific haplotype at D16S283-D16S94-D16S246 was found in 76% of Moroccan and 32% of non-Moroccan Jewish carrier chromosomes, but this haplotype was not overrepresented in Armenian or Arab FMF carriers. Moreover, the 2.5-kb allele at D16S246 was significantly associated with FMF in Moroccan and non-Moroccan Jews but not in Armenians or Arabs. Since the Moroccan Jewish community represents a relatively recently established and genetically isolated founder population, we analyzed the Moroccan linkage-disequilibrium data by using Luria-Delbruck formulas and simulations based on a Poisson branching process. These methods place the FMF susceptibility gene within 0.305 cM of D16S246 (2-LOD-unit range 0.02-0.64 cM). 41 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Recombination hotspots rather than population history dominate linkage disequilibrium in the MHC class II region.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Liisa; Sajantila, Antti; Jeffreys, Alec J

    2003-01-01

    Recombination, demographic history, drift and selection influence the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome, but their relative contributions remain unclear. To investigate the effect of meiotic recombination versus population history on LD, three populations with different demographic histories (UK north Europeans, Saami and Zimbabweans) were genotyped for high-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a 75 kb DNA segment of the MHC class II region. This region spans three well-characterized recombination hotspots and a 60 kb long LD block. Despite a high level of underlying haplotype diversity and considerable divergence in haplotype composition between populations, all three populations showed very similar patterns of LD. Surprisingly, the entire 60 kb LD block was present even in Africans, although it was relatively difficult to detect owing to a systematic deficiency of high frequency SNPs. In contrast, DNA within recombination hotspots did not show this low nucleotide diversity in Africans. Thus, while population history has some influence on LD, our findings suggest that recombination hotspots play a major global role in shaping LD patterns as well as helping to maintain localized SNP diversity in this region of the MHC.

  13. Modeling linkage disequilibrium and identifying recombination hotspots using single-nucleotide polymorphism data.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Stephens, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new statistical model for patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) among multiple SNPs in a population sample. The model overcomes limitations of existing approaches to understanding, summarizing, and interpreting LD by (i) relating patterns of LD directly to the underlying recombination process; (ii) considering all loci simultaneously, rather than pairwise; (iii) avoiding the assumption that LD necessarily has a "block-like" structure; and (iv) being computationally tractable for huge genomic regions (up to complete chromosomes). We examine in detail one natural application of the model: estimation of underlying recombination rates from population data. Using simulation, we show that in the case where recombination is assumed constant across the region of interest, recombination rate estimates based on our model are competitive with the very best of current available methods. More importantly, we demonstrate, on real and simulated data, the potential of the model to help identify and quantify fine-scale variation in recombination rate from population data. We also outline how the model could be useful in other contexts, such as in the development of more efficient haplotype-based methods for LD mapping. PMID:14704198

  14. Accommodating Linkage Disequilibrium in Genetic-Association Analyses via Ridge Regression

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Nathalie; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale genetic-association studies that take advantage of an extremely dense set of genetic markers have begun to produce very compelling statistical associations between multiple makers exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) in a single genomic region and a phenotype of interest. However, the ultimate biological or “functional” significance of these multiple associations has been difficult to discern. In fact, the LD relationships between not only the markers found to be associated with the phenotype but also potential functionally or causally relevant genetic variations that reside near those markers have been exploited in such studies. Unfortunately, LD, especially strong LD, between variations at neighboring loci can make it difficult to distinguish the functionally relevant variations from nonfunctional variations. Although there are (rare) situations in which it is impossible to determine the independent phenotypic effects of variations in LD, there are strategies for accommodating LD between variations at different loci, and they can be used to tease out their independent effects on a phenotype. These strategies make it possible to differentiate potentially causative from noncausative variations. We describe one such approach involving ridge regression. We showcase the method by using both simulated and real data. Our results suggest that ridge regression and related techniques have the potential to distinguish causative from noncausative variations in association studies. PMID:18252218

  15. Revealing misassembled segments in the bovine reference genome by high resolution linkage disequilibrium scan.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Adam T H; Santos, Daniel J A; Boison, Solomon A; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Bickhart, Derek M; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F; da Fonseca, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcos V G B

    2016-09-05

    Misassembly signatures, created by shuffling the order of sequences while assembling a genome, can be detected by the unexpected behavior of marker linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. We developed a heuristic process to identify misassembly signatures, applied it to the bovine reference genome assembly (UMDv3.1) and presented the consequences of misassemblies in two case studies. We identified 2,906 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers presenting unexpected LD decay behavior in 626 putative misassembled contigs, which comprised less than 1 % of the whole genome. Although this represents a small fraction of the reference sequence, these poorly assembled segments can lead to severe implications to local genome context. For instance, we showed that one of the misassembled regions mapped to the POLL locus, which affected the annotation of positional candidate genes in a GWAS case study for polledness in Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle). Additionally, we found that poorly performing markers in imputation mapped to putative misassembled regions, and that correction of marker positions based on LD was capable to recover imputation accuracy. This heuristic approach can be useful to cross validate reference assemblies and to filter out markers located at low confidence genomic regions before conducting downstream analyses.

  16. Temporal dynamics of linkage disequilibrium in two populations of bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua M; Poissant, Jocelyn; Malenfant, René M; Hogg, John T; Coltman, David W

    2015-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles at two markers. Patterns of LD have biological implications as well as practical ones when designing association studies or conservation programs aimed at identifying the genetic basis of fitness differences within and among populations. However, the temporal dynamics of LD in wild populations has received little empirical attention. In this study, we examined the overall extent of LD, the effect of sample size on the accuracy and precision of LD estimates, and the temporal dynamics of LD in two populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) with different demographic histories. Using over 200 microsatellite loci, we assessed two metrics of multi-allelic LD, D′, and χ′2. We found that both populations exhibited high levels of LD, although the extent was much shorter in a native population than one that was founded via translocation, experienced a prolonged bottleneck post founding, followed by recent admixture. In addition, we observed significant variation in LD in relation to the sample size used, with small sample sizes leading to depressed estimates of the extent of LD but inflated estimates of background levels of LD. In contrast, there was not much variation in LD among yearly cross-sections within either population once sample size was accounted for. Lack of pronounced interannual variability suggests that researchers may not have to worry about interannual variation when estimating LD in a population and can instead focus on obtaining the largest sample size possible. PMID:26380673

  17. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction method reflecting the degree of linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Satoh, M

    2015-10-01

    The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers differs depending on the location of the genome; this difference biases genetic evaluation by genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP). To correct this bias, we used three GBLUP methods reflecting the degree of LD (GBLUP-LD). In the three GBLUP-LD methods, genomic relationship matrices were conducted from single nucleotide polymorphism markers weighted according to local LD levels. The predictive abilities of GBLUP-LD were investigated by estimating variance components and assessing the accuracies of estimated breeding values using simulation data. When quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located at weak LD regions, the predictive abilities of the three GBLUP-LD methods were superior to those of GBLUP and Bayesian lasso except when the number of QTL was small. In particular, the superiority of GBLUP-LD increased with decreasing trait heritability. The rates of QTL at weak LD regions would increase when selection by GBLUP continues; this consequently decreases the predictive ability of GBLUP. Thus, the GBLUP-LD could be applicable for populations selected by GBLUP for a long time. However, if QTL were located at strong LD regions, the accuracies of three GBLUP-LD methods were lower than GBLUP and Bayesian lasso. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium for Ultrahigh-Dimensional Genome-Wide Data with an Integrated Statistical Approach.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Michelle; Fu, Guifang; Bushman, Shaun; Corcoran, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Genome-wide data with millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be highly correlated due to linkage disequilibrium (LD). The ultrahigh dimensionality of big data brings unprecedented challenges to statistical modeling such as noise accumulation, the curse of dimensionality, computational burden, spurious correlations, and a processing and storing bottleneck. The traditional statistical approaches lose their power due to [Formula: see text] (n is the number of observations and p is the number of SNPs) and the complex correlation structure among SNPs. In this article, we propose an integrated distance correlation ridge regression (DCRR) approach to accommodate the ultrahigh dimensionality, joint polygenic effects of multiple loci, and the complex LD structures. Initially, a distance correlation (DC) screening approach is used to extensively remove noise, after which LD structure is addressed using a ridge penalized multiple logistic regression (LRR) model. The false discovery rate, true positive discovery rate, and computational cost were simultaneously assessed through a large number of simulations. A binary trait of Arabidopsis thaliana, the hypersensitive response to the bacterial elicitor AvrRpm1, was analyzed in 84 inbred lines (28 susceptibilities and 56 resistances) with 216,130 SNPs. Compared to previous SNP discovery methods implemented on the same data set, the DCRR approach successfully detected the causative SNP while dramatically reducing spurious associations and computational time. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium in Nine-Spined Stickleback Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji; Shikano, Takahito; Li, Meng-Hua; Merilä, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the extent and magnitude of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) among populations residing in different habitats has seldom been studied in wild vertebrates. We used a total of 109 microsatellite markers to quantify the level and patterns of genome-wide LD in 13 Fennoscandian nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations from four (viz. marine, lake, pond, and river) different habitat types. In general, high magnitude (D’ > 0.5) of LD was found both in freshwater and marine populations, and the magnitude of LD was significantly greater in inland freshwater than in marine populations. Interestingly, three coastal freshwater populations located in close geographic proximity to the marine populations exhibited similar LD patterns and genetic diversity as their marine neighbors. The greater levels of LD in inland freshwater compared with marine and costal freshwater populations can be explained in terms of their contrasting demographic histories: founder events, long-term isolation, small effective sizes, and population bottlenecks are factors likely to have contributed to the high levels of LD in the inland freshwater populations. In general, these findings shed new light on the patterns and extent of variation in genome-wide LD, as well as the ecological and evolutionary factors driving them. PMID:25122668

  20. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis among Polish families with spinal muscular atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Brzustowicz, L.M.; Wang, C.H.; Matseoane, D.; Kleyn, P.W.; Vitale, E.; Das, K.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Gilliam, T.C.; Munsat, T.L.; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited degenerative disorder of anterior horn cells that results in progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The autosomal recessive forms of childhood-onset SMA have been mapped to chromosome 5q11.2-13.3, in a number of studies examining different populations. A total of 9 simple sequence repeat markers were genotyped against 32 Polish families with SMA. The markers span an {approximately}0.7 cM region defined by the SMA flanking markers D5S435 and MAP1B. Significant linkage disequilibrium (corrected P<0.5) was detected at four of these markers, with D/D{sub max} values of {le}.89. Extended haplotype analysis revealed a predominant haplotype associated with SMA. The apparently high mutation rate of some of the markers has resulted in a number of haplotypes that vary slightly from this predominant haplotype. The predominant haplotype and these closely related patterns represent 25% of the disease chromosomes and none of the nontransmitted parental chromosomes. This predominant haplotype is present both in patients with acute (type I) and in chronic (types II and III) forms of SMA and occurs twice in a homozygous state, both times in children with chronic SMA. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Potential linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and locus D22S278 on the long arm of chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Moises, H.W.; Yang, L.; Havsteen, B.

    1995-10-09

    Locus D22S278 at 22q12 has been implicated in schizophrenia by sib-pair analysis. In order to replicate these results, we performed the transmission test for linkage disequilibrium (TDT) in 113 unrelated schizophrenic patients and their 226 parents. Evidence for potential linkage disequilibrium was obtained between schizophrenia and allele 243 of the marker AFM 182xd12 at the locus D22S278 (P = 0.02). The results of our study suggest a detectable oligogenic gene in a multigene system for schizophrenia closely linked to D22S278 on the long arm of chromosome 22. If confirmed by others, this finding could lead to the identification of a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Consistency of linkage disequilibrium between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins and genomic prediction for Chinese Holsteins using a joint reference population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yachun; Lund, Mogens S; Su, Guosheng

    2013-03-21

    In China, the reference population of genotyped Holstein cattle is relatively small with to date, 80 bulls and 2091 cows genotyped with the Illumina 54 K chip. Including genotyped Holstein cattle from other countries in the reference population could improve the accuracy of genomic prediction of the Chinese Holstein population. This study investigated the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers between the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations, and compared the reliability of genomic predictions based on the Chinese reference population only or the combined Chinese and Nordic reference populations. Genomic estimated breeding values of Chinese Holstein cattle were predicted using a single-trait GBLUP model based on the Chinese reference dataset, and using a two-trait GBLUP model based on a joint reference dataset that included both the Chinese and Nordic Holstein data. The extent of linkage disequilibrium was similar in the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations and the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between the two populations was very high, with a correlation of 0.97. Genomic prediction using the joint versus the Chinese reference dataset increased reliabilities of genomic predictions of Chinese Holstein bulls in the test data from 0.22, 0.15 and 0.11 to 0.51, 0.47 and 0.36 for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. Using five-fold cross-validation, reliabilities of genomic predictions of Chinese cows increased from 0.15, 0.12 and 0.15 to 0.26, 0.17 and 0.20 for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium between the two populations was very consistent and using the combined Nordic and Chinese reference dataset substantially increased reliabilities of genomic predictions for Chinese Holstein cattle.

  3. High-density SNP-based genetic map development and linkage disequilibrium assessment in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High density genetic maps built with SNP markers that are polymorphic in various genetic backgrounds are very useful for studying the genetics of agronomical traits as well as genome organization and evolution. Simultaneous dense SNP genotyping of segregating populations and variety collections was applied to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to obtain a high density genetic map for this species and to study the linkage disequilibrium pattern. Results We developed an integrated genetic map for oilseed rape by high throughput SNP genotyping of four segregating doubled haploid populations. A very high level of collinearity was observed between the four individual maps and a large number of markers (>59%) was common to more than two maps. The precise integrated map comprises 5764 SNP and 1603 PCR markers. With a total genetic length of 2250 cM, the integrated map contains a density of 3.27 markers (2.56 SNP) per cM. Genotyping of these mapped SNP markers in oilseed rape collections allowed polymorphism level and linkage disequilibrium (LD) to be studied across the different collections (winter vs spring, different seed quality types) and along the linkage groups. Overall, polymorphism level was higher and LD decayed faster in spring than in “00” winter oilseed rape types but this was shown to vary greatly along the linkage groups. Conclusions Our study provides a valuable resource for further genetic studies using linkage or association mapping, for marker assisted breeding and for Brassica napus sequence assembly and genome organization analyses. PMID:23432809

  4. [Frequency and linkage disequilibrium of specific HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Xia; Hu, Zhi-Fei; Zu, Qiang; Lu, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Jun

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution feature of HLA-DR/DQ gene linkage disequilibrium in Chinese Han population and to improve the accuracy of HLA matching results. Genotyping of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ gene locus was performed using PCR-SSP typing in Chinese Han population receiving kidney transplantation. The results showed that there were 29 new linkage combinations in 1799 patients, in which DR13-DQ5, DR11-DQ8 and DR8-DQ8 were discovered for 11, 8 and 7 times respectively while DR9-DQ8, DR12-DQ6 and DR14-DQ4 were both discovered for 6 times. The linkage disequilibrium parameters of these haplotypes were negative, showing that these linkages were uncommon. It is concluded that this study not only enriches the classical HLA-DR/DQ linkage combinations, but also indicates the national relevance of combination distribution, and it has great importance in improving the accuracy of HLA matching experiments and reducing unnecessary repeated work.

  5. Nucleotide Polymorphism and Linkage Disequilibrium Within and Among Natural Populations of European Aspen (Populus tremula L., Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2005-01-01

    Populus is an important model organism in forest biology, but levels of nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium have never been investigated in natural populations. Here I present a study on levels of nucleotide polymorphism, haplotype structure, and population subdivision in five nuclear genes in the European aspen Populus tremula. Results show substantial levels of genetic variation. Levels of silent site polymorphisms, πs, averaged 0.016 across the five genes. Linkage disequilibrium was generally low, extending only a few hundred base pairs, suggesting that rates of recombination are high in this obligate outcrossing species. Significant genetic differentiation was found at all five genes, with an average estimate of FST = 0.116. Levels of polymorphism in P. tremula are 2- to 10-fold higher than those in other woody, long-lived perennial plants, such as Pinus and Cryptomeria. The high levels of nucleotide polymorphism and low linkage disequilibrium suggest that it may be possible to map functional variation to very fine scales in P. tremula using association-mapping approaches. PMID:15489521

  6. A powerful likelihood method for the analysis of linkage disequilibrium between trait loci and one or more polymorphic marker loci

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    Historically, most methods for detecting linkage disequilibrium were designed for use with diallelic marker loci, for which the analysis is straightforward. With the advent of polymorphic markers with many alleles, the normal approach to their analysis has been either to extend the methodology for two-allele systems (leading to an increase in df and to a corresponding loss of power) or to select the allele believed to be associated and then collapse the other alleles, reducing, in a biased way, the locus to a diallelic system. I propose a likelihood-based approach to testing for linkage disequilibrium, an approach that becomes more conservative as the number of alleles increases, and as the number of markers considered jointly increases in a multipoint test for linkage disequilibrium, while maintaining high power. Properties of this method for detecting associations and fine mapping the location of disease traits are investigated. It is found to be, in general, more powerful than conventional methods, and it provides a tractable framework for the fine mapping of new disease loci. Application to the cystic fibrosis data of Kerem et al. is included to illustrate the method. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium, population structure and construction of a core collection of Prunus avium L. landraces and bred cultivars.

    PubMed

    Campoy, José Antonio; Lerigoleur-Balsemin, Emilie; Christmann, Hélène; Beauvieux, Rémi; Girollet, Nabil; Quero-García, José; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Barreneche, Teresa

    2016-02-24

    Depiction of the genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure is essential for the efficient organization and exploitation of genetic resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) to evaluate the genetic diversity and to detect the patterns of LD, (ii) to estimate the levels of population structure and (iii) to identify a 'core collection' suitable for association genetic studies in sweet cherry. A total of 210 genotypes including modern cultivars and landraces from 16 countries were genotyped using the RosBREED cherry 6 K SNP array v1. Two groups, mainly bred cultivars and landraces, respectively, were first detected using STRUCTURE software and confirmed by Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA). Further analyses identified nine subgroups using STRUCTURE and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC). Several sub-groups correspond to different eco-geographic regions of landraces distribution. Linkage disequilibrium was evaluated showing lower values than in peach, the reference Prunus species. A 'core collection' containing 156 accessions was selected using the maximum length sub tree method. The present study constitutes the first population genetics analysis in cultivated sweet cherry using a medium-density SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) marker array. We provided estimations of linkage disequilibrium, genetic structure and the definition of a first INRA's Sweet Cherry core collection useful for breeding programs, germplasm management and association genetics studies.

  8. Accuracy of genomic prediction in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) improved by accounting for linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Buell, C. Robin; Casler, Michael D.

    2016-02-11

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height, and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Furthermore, some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium between the juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis gene and marker loci on chromosome 16p12. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, T.J.; MacCormack, K.; Gleitsman, J.; Schlumpf, K.; Breakefield, X.O.; Gusella, J.F.; Haines, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; Batten disease) are a collection of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigments in the neurons and other cell types. Clinically, these disorders are characterized by progressive encephalopathy, loss of vision, and seizures. CLN3, the gene responsible for juvenile NCL, has been mapped to a 15-cM region flanked by the marker loci D16S148 and D16S150 on human chromosome 16. CLN2, the gene causing the late-infantile form of NCL (LNCL), is not yet mapped. The authors have used highly informative dinucleoide repeat markers mapping between D16S148 and D16S150 to refine the localization of CLN3 and to test for linkage to CLN2. The authors find significant linkage disequilibrium between CLN3 and the dinucleotide repeat marker loci D16S288 (X[sup 2](7) = 46.5, P < .005), D16S298 (X[sup 2](6) = 36.6, P < .005), and D16S299 (X[sup 2](7) = 73.8, P < .005), and also a novel RFLP marker at the D16S272 locus (X[sup 2](1) = 5.7, P = .02). These markers all map to 16p12.1. The D16S298/D16S299 haplotype [open quotes]5/4[close quotes] is highly overrepresented, accounting for 54% of CLN3 chromosomes as compared with 8% of control chromosomes (X[sup 2] = 117, df = 1, P < .001). Examination of the haplotypes suggests that the CLN3 locus can be narrowed to the region immediately surrounding these markers in 16p12.1. Analysis of D16S299 in LNCL pedigrees supports the previous finding that CLN3 and CLN2 are different genetic loci. This study also indicates that dinucleotide repeat markers play a valuable role in disequilibrium studies. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Genome-wide evaluation of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genotyping with high-density markers nowadays enable genome-wide genomic analyses in crops. A detailed characterisation of the population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is essential for the application of genomic approaches and consequently for knowledge-based breeding. In this study we used the triticale-specific DArT array to analyze population structure, genetic diversity, and LD in a worldwide set of 161 winter and spring triticale lines. Results The principal coordinate analysis revealed that the first principal coordinate divides the triticale population into two clusters according to their growth habit. The density distributions of the first ten principal coordinates revealed that several show a distribution indicative of population structure. In addition, we observed relatedness within growth habits which was higher among the spring types than among the winter types. The genome-wide analysis of polymorphic information content (PIC) showed that the PIC is variable among and along chromosomes and that especially the R genome of spring types possesses a reduced genetic diversity. We also found that several chromosomes showed regions of high genetic distance between the two growth habits, indicative of divergent selection. Regarding linkage disequilibrium, the A and B genomes showed a similar LD of 0.24 for closely linked markers and a decay within approximately 12 cM. LD in the R genome was lower with 0.19 and decayed within a shorter map distance of approximately 5 cM. The extent of LD was generally higher for the spring types compared to the winter types. In addition, we observed strong variability of LD along the chromosomes. Conclusions Our results confirm winter and spring growth habit are the major contributors to population structure in triticale, and a family structure exists in both growth types. The specific patterns of genetic diversity observed within these types, such as the low diversity on some rye

  11. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Four South African Sanga Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Makina, Sithembile O; Taylor, Jeremy F; van Marle-Köster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Makgahlela, Mahlako L; MacNeil, Michael D; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne) for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), and Bonsmara breeds (n = 46), using Angus (n = 31) and Holstein (n = 29) as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21) and Holstein (0.21) and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20). This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r (2)≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000-50,000 SNPs. However, r (2)≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for GWAS in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne = 95 (Nguni), Ne = 87 (Drakensberger), Ne = 77 (Bonsmara), and Ne = 41 (Afrikaner). Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  12. The heterogeneous levels of linkage disequilibrium in white spruce genes and comparative analysis with other conifers

    PubMed Central

    Pavy, N; Namroud, M-C; Gagnon, F; Isabel, N; Bousquet, J

    2012-01-01

    In plants, knowledge about linkage disequilibrium (LD) is relevant for the design of efficient single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in relation to their use in population and association genomics studies. Previous studies of conifer genes have shown LD to decay rapidly within gene limits, but exceptions have been reported. To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity of LD among conifer genes and its potential causes, we examined LD in 105 genes of white spruce (Picea glauca) by sequencing a panel of 48 haploid megagametophytes from natural populations and further compared it with LD in other conifer species. The average pairwise r2 value was 0.19 (s.d.=0.19), and LD dropped quickly with a half-decay being reached at a distance of 65 nucleotides between sites. However, LD was significantly heterogeneous among genes. A first group of 29 genes had stronger LD (mean r2=0.28), and a second group of 38 genes had weaker LD (mean r2=0.12). While a strong relationship was found with the recombination rate, there was no obvious relationship between LD and functional classification. The level of nucleotide diversity, which was highly heterogeneous across genes, was also not significantly correlated with LD. A search for selection signatures highlighted significant deviations from the standard neutral model, which could be mostly attributed to recent demographic changes. Little evidence was seen for hitchhiking and clear relationships with LD. When compared among conifer species, on average, levels of LD were similar in genes from white spruce, Norway spruce and Scots pine, whereas loblolly pine and Douglas fir genes exhibited a significantly higher LD. PMID:21897435

  13. The heterogeneous levels of linkage disequilibrium in white spruce genes and comparative analysis with other conifers.

    PubMed

    Pavy, N; Namroud, M-C; Gagnon, F; Isabel, N; Bousquet, J

    2012-03-01

    In plants, knowledge about linkage disequilibrium (LD) is relevant for the design of efficient single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in relation to their use in population and association genomics studies. Previous studies of conifer genes have shown LD to decay rapidly within gene limits, but exceptions have been reported. To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity of LD among conifer genes and its potential causes, we examined LD in 105 genes of white spruce (Picea glauca) by sequencing a panel of 48 haploid megagametophytes from natural populations and further compared it with LD in other conifer species. The average pairwise r(2) value was 0.19 (s.d.=0.19), and LD dropped quickly with a half-decay being reached at a distance of 65 nucleotides between sites. However, LD was significantly heterogeneous among genes. A first group of 29 genes had stronger LD (mean r(2)=0.28), and a second group of 38 genes had weaker LD (mean r(2)=0.12). While a strong relationship was found with the recombination rate, there was no obvious relationship between LD and functional classification. The level of nucleotide diversity, which was highly heterogeneous across genes, was also not significantly correlated with LD. A search for selection signatures highlighted significant deviations from the standard neutral model, which could be mostly attributed to recent demographic changes. Little evidence was seen for hitchhiking and clear relationships with LD. When compared among conifer species, on average, levels of LD were similar in genes from white spruce, Norway spruce and Scots pine, whereas loblolly pine and Douglas fir genes exhibited a significantly higher LD.

  14. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Rexroad, Caird E; Vallejo, Roger L

    2009-12-14

    The use of molecular genetic technologies for broodstock management and selective breeding of aquaculture species is becoming increasingly more common with the continued development of genome tools and reagents. Several laboratories have produced genetic maps for rainbow trout to aid in the identification of loci affecting phenotypes of interest. These maps have resulted in the identification of many quantitative/qualitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in traits associated with albinism, disease resistance, temperature tolerance, sex determination, embryonic development rate, spawning date, condition factor and growth. Unfortunately, the elucidation of the precise allelic variation and/or genes underlying phenotypic diversity has yet to be achieved in this species having low marker densities and lacking a whole genome reference sequence. Experimental designs which integrate segregation analyses with linkage disequilibrium (LD) approaches facilitate the discovery of genes affecting important traits. To date the extent of LD has been characterized for humans and several agriculturally important livestock species but not for rainbow trout. We observed that the level of LD between syntenic loci decayed rapidly at distances greater than 2 cM which is similar to observations of LD in other agriculturally important species including cattle, sheep, pigs and chickens. However, in some cases significant LD was also observed up to 50 cM. Our estimate of effective population size based on genome wide estimates of LD for the NCCCWA broodstock population was 145, indicating that this population will respond well to high selection intensity. However, the range of effective population size based on individual chromosomes was 75.51 - 203.35, possibly indicating that suites of genes on each chromosome are disproportionately under selection pressures. Our results indicate that large numbers of markers, more than are currently available for this species, will be required

  15. Using multilocus sequence data to assess population structure, natural selection, and linkage disequilibrium in wild tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Stephan, Wolfgang; Städler, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    We employed a multilocus approach to examine the effects of population subdivision and natural selection on DNA polymorphism in 2 closely related wild tomato species (Solanum peruvianum and Solanum chilense), using sequence data for 8 nuclear loci from populations across much of the species' range. Both species exhibit substantial levels of nucleotide variation. The species-wide level of silent nucleotide diversity is 18% higher in S. peruvianum (pi(sil) approximately 2.50%) than in S. chilense (pi(sil) approximately 2.12%). One of the loci deviates from neutral expectations, showing a clinal pattern of nucleotide diversity and haplotype structure in S. chilense. This geographic pattern of variation is suggestive of an incomplete (ongoing) selective sweep, but neutral explanations cannot be entirely dismissed. Both wild tomato species exhibit moderate levels of population differentiation (average F(ST) approximately 0.20). Interestingly, the pooled samples (across different demes) exhibit more negative Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D values; this marked excess of low-frequency polymorphism can only be explained by population (or range) expansion and is unlikely to be due to population structure per se. We thus propose that population structure and population/range expansion are among the most important evolutionary forces shaping patterns of nucleotide diversity within and among demes in these wild tomatoes. Patterns of population differentiation may also be impacted by soil seed banks and historical associations mediated by climatic cycles. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly with physical distance, suggesting high recombination rates and effective population sizes in both species. The rapid decline of LD seems very promising for future association studies with the purpose of mapping functional variation in wild tomatoes.

  16. Ethnic-Difference Markers for Use in Mapping by Admixture Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Collins-Schramm, Heather E.; Phillips, Carolyn M.; Operario, Darwin J.; Lee, Jane S.; Weber, James L.; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Cooper, Richard; Li, Hongzhe; Seldin, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) is a potentially powerful technique for the mapping of complex genetic diseases. The practical requirements of this method include (a) a set of markers spanning the genome that have large allele-frequency differences between the parental ethnicities contributing to the admixed population and (b) an understanding of the extent of admixture in the study population. To this end, a DNA-pooling technique was used to screen microsatellite and diallelic insertion/deletion markers for allele-frequency differences between putative representatives of the parental populations of the admixed Mexican American (MA) and African American (AA) populations. Markers with promising pooled differences were then confirmed by individual genotyping in both the parental and admixed populations. For the MA population, screening of >600 markers identified 151 ethnic-difference markers (EDMs) with δ>0.30 (where δ is the absolute value of each allele-frequency difference between two populations, summed over all marker alleles and divided by two) that are likely to be useful for MALD analysis. For the AA population, analysis of >400 markers identified 97 EDMs. In addition, individual genotyping of these markers in Pima Amerindians, Yavapai Amerindians, European American (EA) individuals, Africans from Zimbabwe, MA individuals, and AA individuals, as well as comparison to the CEPH genotyping set, suggests that the differences between subpopulations of an ethnicity are small for many markers with large interethnic differences. Estimates of admixture that are based on individual genotyping of these markers are consistent with a 60% EA:40% Amerindian contribution to MA populations and with a 20% EA:80% African contribution to AA populations. Taken together, these data suggest that EDMs with large interpopulation and small intrapopulation differences can be readily identified for MALD studies in both AA and MA populations. PMID:11845411

  17. Ethnic-difference markers for use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Collins-Schramm, Heather E; Phillips, Carolyn M; Operario, Darwin J; Lee, Jane S; Weber, James L; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Cooper, Richard; Li, Hongzhe; Seldin, Michael F

    2002-03-01

    Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) is a potentially powerful technique for the mapping of complex genetic diseases. The practical requirements of this method include (a) a set of markers spanning the genome that have large allele-frequency differences between the parental ethnicities contributing to the admixed population and (b) an understanding of the extent of admixture in the study population. To this end, a DNA-pooling technique was used to screen microsatellite and diallelic insertion/deletion markers for allele-frequency differences between putative representatives of the parental populations of the admixed Mexican American (MA) and African American (AA) populations. Markers with promising pooled differences were then confirmed by individual genotyping in both the parental and admixed populations. For the MA population, screening of >600 markers identified 151 ethnic-difference markers (EDMs) with delta>0.30 (where delta is the absolute value of each allele-frequency difference between two populations, summed over all marker alleles and divided by two) that are likely to be useful for MALD analysis. For the AA population, analysis of >400 markers identified 97 EDMs. In addition, individual genotyping of these markers in Pima Amerindians, Yavapai Amerindians, European American (EA) individuals, Africans from Zimbabwe, MA individuals, and AA individuals, as well as comparison to the CEPH genotyping set, suggests that the differences between subpopulations of an ethnicity are small for many markers with large interethnic differences. Estimates of admixture that are based on individual genotyping of these markers are consistent with a 60% EA:40% Amerindian contribution to MA populations and with a 20% EA:80% African contribution to AA populations. Taken together, these data suggest that EDMs with large interpopulation and small intrapopulation differences can be readily identified for MALD studies in both AA and MA populations.

  18. Multiple linear combination (MLC) regression tests for common variants adapted to linkage disequilibrium structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Poirier, Julia G.; Paterson, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By jointly analyzing multiple variants within a gene, instead of one at a time, gene‐based multiple regression can improve power, robustness, and interpretation in genetic association analysis. We investigate multiple linear combination (MLC) test statistics for analysis of common variants under realistic trait models with linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on HapMap Asian haplotypes. MLC is a directional test that exploits LD structure in a gene to construct clusters of closely correlated variants recoded such that the majority of pairwise correlations are positive. It combines variant effects within the same cluster linearly, and aggregates cluster‐specific effects in a quadratic sum of squares and cross‐products, producing a test statistic with reduced degrees of freedom (df) equal to the number of clusters. By simulation studies of 1000 genes from across the genome, we demonstrate that MLC is a well‐powered and robust choice among existing methods across a broad range of gene structures. Compared to minimum P‐value, variance‐component, and principal‐component methods, the mean power of MLC is never much lower than that of other methods, and can be higher, particularly with multiple causal variants. Moreover, the variation in gene‐specific MLC test size and power across 1000 genes is less than that of other methods, suggesting it is a complementary approach for discovery in genome‐wide analysis. The cluster construction of the MLC test statistics helps reveal within‐gene LD structure, allowing interpretation of clustered variants as haplotypic effects, while multiple regression helps to distinguish direct and indirect associations. PMID:27885705

  19. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in the Domestic Cat, Felis silvestris catus, and Its Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Khan, Razib; Grahn, Robert A.; Gandolfi, Barbara; Mullikin, James C.; Cole, Shelley A.; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Häggström, Jens; Lohi, Hannes; Longeri, Maria; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD) are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r2) was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds’ population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits. PMID:23308248

  20. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P < 0.01) in the bulk of 337 lines, and decayed steeply with map distance between markers. The partitioning of multilocus associations into various components indicated that genetic drift and founder effects played a major role in determining the overall genetic makeup of the diversity in these landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled.

  1. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in 11 expressed resistance candidate genes in Lolium perenne

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yongzhong; Frei, Uschi; Schejbel, Britt; Asp, Torben; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background Association analysis is an alternative way for QTL mapping in ryegrass. So far, knowledge on nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in ryegrass is lacking, which is essential for the efficiency of association analyses. Results 11 expressed disease resistance candidate (R) genes including 6 nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) like genes and 5 non-NBS-LRR genes were analyzed for nucleotide diversity. For each of the genes about 1 kb genomic fragments were isolated from 20 heterozygous genotypes in ryegrass. The number of haplotypes per gene ranged from 9 to 27. On average, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was present per 33 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the 11 genes. NBS-LRR like gene fragments showed a high degree of nucleotide diversity, with one SNP every 22 bp between two randomly sampled sequences. NBS-LRR like gene fragments showed very high non-synonymous mutation rates, leading to altered amino acid sequences. Particularly LRR regions showed very high diversity with on average one SNP every 10 bp between two sequences. In contrast, non-NBS LRR resistance candidate genes showed a lower degree of nucleotide diversity, with one SNP every 112 bp. 78% of haplotypes occurred at low frequency (<5%) within the collection of 20 genotypes. Low intragenic LD was detected for most R genes, and rapid LD decay within 500 bp was detected. Conclusion Substantial LD decay was found within a distance of 500 bp for most resistance candidate genes in this study. Hence, LD based association analysis is feasible and promising for QTL fine mapping of resistance traits in ryegrass. PMID:17683574

  2. Linkage disequilibrium between HLA-G*0104 and HLA-E*0103 alleles in Tswa Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Di Cristofaro, J; Julie, D C; Buhler, S; Frassati, C; Basire, A; Galicher, V; Baier, C; Essautier, A; Regnier, A; Granier, T; Lepfoundzou, A D; Chiaroni, J; Picard, C

    2011-03-01

    Nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and -E loci are separated by approximately 660 kb on the short arm of chromosome 6. Interestingly, some functional and expression characteristics are relatively identical or associated for both molecules. For example, expression of HLA-E on the cell surface has been linked to preferential binding of nonameric leader peptides derived from the signal sequence of HLA-G. It has been suggested that these two molecules act synergistically in modulating susceptibility to infectious or chronic inflammatory diseases. A possible explanation for these observations is that HLA-E and HLA-G are evolving under analogous selective pressures and have functions that place them under selective regimes differing from classical HLA genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of this hypothesis based on the characterization of the molecular polymorphism of these two genes and their linkage disequilibrium (LD) in three populations, i.e. Southeastern French (n = 57), Teke Congolese (n = 84) and Tswa Pygmies (n = 74). Allelic frequencies observed for HLA-G and HLA-E and for 14-bp ins/del polymorphism in the three populations were similar to those observed in the literature for populations from corresponding geographic areas. Only one of the recently described HLA-G polymorphisms (HLA-G*01:07-01:16) was found, i.e. HLA-G*01:15 in one individual from Congo. We showed that two haplotypes in Tswa Pygmies, i.e. HLA-G*01:04-E*01:03:01 and G*01:04-E*01:01, exhibited highly significant positive and negative D' values respectively. Although these LD could have functional implications, it is more likely because of the genetic drift as the two other populations did not display any significant LD. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. The extent of linkage disequilibrium in beef cattle breeds using high-density SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between molecular markers impacts genome-wide association studies and implementation of genomic selection. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms makes it possible to investigate LD at an unprecedented resolution. In this work, we characterised LD decay in breeds of beef cattle of taurine, indicine and composite origins and explored its variation across autosomes and the X chromosome. Findings In each breed, LD decayed rapidly and r2 was less than 0.2 for marker pairs separated by 50 kb. The LD decay curves clustered into three groups of similar LD decay that distinguished the three main cattle types. At short distances between markers (< 10 kb), taurine breeds showed higher LD (r2 = 0.45) than their indicine (r2 = 0.25) and composite (r2 = 0.32) counterparts. This higher LD in taurine breeds was attributed to a smaller effective population size and a stronger bottleneck during breed formation. Using all SNPs on only the X chromosome, the three cattle types could still be distinguished. However for taurine breeds, the LD decay on the X chromosome was much faster and the background level much lower than for indicine breeds and composite populations. When using only SNPs that were polymorphic in all breeds, the analysis of the X chromosome mimicked that of the autosomes. Conclusions The pattern of LD mirrored some aspects of the history of breed populations and showed a sharp decay with increasing physical distance between markers. We conclude that the availability of the HD chip can be used to detect association signals that remained hidden when using lower density genotyping platforms, since LD dropped below 0.2 at distances of 50 kb. PMID:24661366

  4. Effects of Overlapping Generations on Linkage Disequilibrium Estimates of Effective Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S.; Antao, Tiago; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Use of single-sample genetic methods to estimate effective population size has skyrocketed in recent years. Although the underlying models assume discrete generations, they are widely applied to age-structured species. We simulated genetic data for 21 iteroparous animal and plant species to evaluate two untested hypotheses regarding performance of the single-sample method based on linkage disequilibrium (LD): (1) estimates based on single-cohort samples reflect the effective number of breeders in one reproductive cycle (Nb), and (2) mixed-age samples reflect the effective size per generation (Ne). We calculated true Ne and Nb, using the model species’ vital rates, and verified these with individual-based simulations. We show that single-cohort samples should be equally influenced by Nb and Ne and confirm this with simulated results: N^b was a linear (r2 = 0.98) function of the harmonic mean of Ne and Nb. We provide a quantitative bias correction for raw N^b based on the ratio Nb/Ne, which can be estimated from two or three simple life history traits. Bias-adjusted estimates were within 5% of true Nb for all 21 study species and proved robust when challenged with new data. Mixed-age adult samples produced downwardly biased estimates in all species, which we attribute to a two-locus Wahlund effect (mixture LD) caused by combining parents from different cohorts in a single sample. Results from this study will facilitate interpretation of rapidly accumulating genetic estimates in terms of both Ne (which influences long-term evolutionary processes) and Nb (which is more important for understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics and mating systems). PMID:24717176

  5. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

    PubMed

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Khan, Razib; Grahn, Robert A; Gandolfi, Barbara; Mullikin, James C; Cole, Shelley A; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Häggström, Jens; Lohi, Hannes; Longeri, Maria; Lyons, Leslie A

    2013-01-01

    Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD) are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2)) was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2) was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2) ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2) ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  6. Elevated Linkage Disequilibrium and Signatures of Soft Sweeps Are Common in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Garud, Nandita R; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which selection and demography impact patterns of genetic diversity in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster is yet to be fully understood. We previously observed that linkage disequilibrium (LD) at scales of ∼10 kb in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), consisting of 145 inbred strains from Raleigh, North Carolina, measured both between pairs of sites and as haplotype homozygosity, is elevated above neutral demographic expectations. We also demonstrated that signatures of strong and recent soft sweeps are abundant. However, the extent to which these patterns are specific to this derived and admixed population is unknown. It is also unclear whether these patterns are a consequence of the extensive inbreeding performed to generate the DGRP data. Here we analyze LD statistics in a sample of >100 fully-sequenced strains from Zambia; an ancestral population to the Raleigh population that has experienced little to no admixture and was generated by sequencing haploid embryos rather than inbred strains. We find an elevation in long-range LD and haplotype homozygosity compared to neutral expectations in the Zambian sample, thus showing the elevation in LD is not specific to the DGRP data set. This elevation in LD and haplotype structure remains even after controlling for possible confounders including genomic inversions, admixture, population substructure, close relatedness of individual strains, and recombination rate variation. Furthermore, signatures of partial soft sweeps similar to those found in the DGRP as well as partial hard sweeps are common in Zambia. These results suggest that while the selective forces and sources of adaptive mutations may differ in Zambia and Raleigh, elevated long-range LD and signatures of soft sweeps are generic in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Multiple linear combination (MLC) regression tests for common variants adapted to linkage disequilibrium structure.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Poirier, Julia G; Paterson, Andrew D; Bull, Shelley B

    2017-02-01

    By jointly analyzing multiple variants within a gene, instead of one at a time, gene-based multiple regression can improve power, robustness, and interpretation in genetic association analysis. We investigate multiple linear combination (MLC) test statistics for analysis of common variants under realistic trait models with linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on HapMap Asian haplotypes. MLC is a directional test that exploits LD structure in a gene to construct clusters of closely correlated variants recoded such that the majority of pairwise correlations are positive. It combines variant effects within the same cluster linearly, and aggregates cluster-specific effects in a quadratic sum of squares and cross-products, producing a test statistic with reduced degrees of freedom (df) equal to the number of clusters. By simulation studies of 1000 genes from across the genome, we demonstrate that MLC is a well-powered and robust choice among existing methods across a broad range of gene structures. Compared to minimum P-value, variance-component, and principal-component methods, the mean power of MLC is never much lower than that of other methods, and can be higher, particularly with multiple causal variants. Moreover, the variation in gene-specific MLC test size and power across 1000 genes is less than that of other methods, suggesting it is a complementary approach for discovery in genome-wide analysis. The cluster construction of the MLC test statistics helps reveal within-gene LD structure, allowing interpretation of clustered variants as haplotypic effects, while multiple regression helps to distinguish direct and indirect associations. © 2016 The Authors Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Four South African Sanga Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Makina, Sithembile O.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; van Marle-Köster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; Makgahlela, Mahlako L.; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne) for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), and Bonsmara breeds (n = 46), using Angus (n = 31) and Holstein (n = 29) as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40–60 kb in Angus (0.21) and Holstein (0.21) and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20). This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000–50,000 SNPs. However, r2≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10–20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20–40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for GWAS in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne = 95 (Nguni), Ne = 87 (Drakensberger), Ne = 77 (Bonsmara), and Ne = 41 (Afrikaner). Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa. PMID:26648975

  9. Population Structure, Genetic Variation, and Linkage Disequilibrium in Perennial Ryegrass Populations Divergently Selected for Freezing Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Fjellheim, Siri; Sandve, Simen R.; Larsen, Arild; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben; Kent, Matthew Peter; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and freezing tolerance is a complex trait of major agronomical importance in northern and central Europe. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. The plant material investigated in this study was an experimental synthetic population derived from pair-crosses among five European perennial ryegrass genotypes, representing adaptations to a range of climatic conditions across Europe. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF], and 27 of Unselected [US]) from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected (US) control population were genotyped using 278 genome-wide SNPs derived from perennial ryegrass transcriptome sequences. Our studies investigated the genetic diversity among the three experimental populations by analysis of molecular variance and population structure, and determined that the HF and LF populations are very divergent after selection for freezing tolerance, whereas the HF and US populations are more similar. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay varied across the seven chromosomes and the conspicuous pattern of LD between the HF and LF population confirmed their divergence in freezing tolerance. Furthermore, two Fst outlier methods; finite island model (fdist) by LOSITAN and hierarchical structure model using ARLEQUIN, both detected six loci under directional selection. These outlier loci are most probably linked to genes involved in freezing tolerance, cold adaptation, and abiotic stress. These six candidate loci under directional selection for freezing tolerance might be potential marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved freezing tolerance. PMID:26617611

  10. Genome-wide analysis of zygotic linkage disequilibrium and its components in crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes at linked or independent loci can occur at gametic and zygotic levels known asgametic LD and zygotic LD, respectively. Gametic LD is well known for its roles in fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, genomic selection and evolutionary inference. The less-well studied is the zygotic LD and its components that can be also estimated directly from the unphased SNPs. Results This study was set up to investigate the genome-wide extent and patterns of zygotic LD and its components in a crossbred cattle population using the genomic data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 beadchip. The animal population arose from repeated crossbreeding of multiple breeds and selection for growth and cow reproduction. The study showed that similar genomic structures in gametic and zygotic LD were observed, with zygotic LD decaying faster than gametic LD over marker distance. The trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria were generally two- to three-fold smaller than the usual digenic disequilibria (gametic or composite LD). There was less power of testing for these high-order genic disequilibria than for the digenic disequilibria. The power estimates decreased with the marker distance between markers though the decay trend is more obvious for the digenic disequilibria than for high-order disequilibria. Conclusions This study is the first major genome-wide survey of all non-allelic associations between pairs of SNPs in a cattle population. Such analysis allows us to assess the relative importance of gametic LD vs. all other non-allelic genic LDs regardless of whether or not the population is in HWE. The observed predominance of digenic LD (gametic or composite LD) coupled with insignificant high-order trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria supports the current intensive focus on the use of high-density SNP markers for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection activities in the cattle population. PMID:22827586

  11. A Scale-Corrected Comparison of Linkage Disequilibrium Levels between Genic and Non-Genic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Swetlana; Schlather, Martin; de los Campos, Gustavo; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Erbe, Malena; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of non-random association between loci, termed linkage disequilibrium (LD), plays a central role in genomic research. Since causal mutations are generally not included in genomic marker data, LD between those and available markers is essential for capturing the effects of causal loci on localizing genes responsible for traits. Thus, the interpretation of association studies requires a detailed knowledge of LD patterns. It is well known that most LD measures depend on minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the considered loci and the magnitude of LD is influenced by the physical distances between loci. In the present study, a procedure to compare the LD structure between genomic regions comprising several markers each is suggested. The approach accounts for different scaling factors, namely the distribution of MAF, the distribution of pair-wise differences in MAF, and the physical extent of compared regions, reflected by the distribution of pair-wise physical distances. In the first step, genomic regions are matched based on similarity in these scaling factors. In the second step, chromosome- and genome-wide significance tests for differences in medians of LD measures in each pair are performed. The proposed framework was applied to test the hypothesis that the average LD is different in genic and non-genic regions. This was tested with a genome-wide approach with data sets for humans (Homo sapiens), a highly selected chicken line (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In all three data sets we found a significantly higher level of LD in genic regions compared to non-genic regions. About 31% more LD was detected genome-wide in genic compared to non-genic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana, followed by 13.6% in human and 6% chicken. Chromosome-wide comparison discovered significant differences on all 5 chromosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and on one third of the human and of the chicken chromosomes. PMID:26517830

  12. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium in different populations: implications and opportunities for lipid-associated loci identified from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Sim, Xueling

    2010-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies across numerous populations have uncovered a remarkable number of loci implicated with lipid-related traits. The association signals at a number of these loci have been successfully replicated across multiple populations, but a fraction failed to be reproduced when tested in other populations. The present review examines the patterns of linkage disequilibrium at these lipid-associated loci and the implications to replication studies, meta-analyses and fine-mapping efforts across multiple populations. The extent of linkage disequilibrium has been well established to differ across populations, particularly between African and non-African groups. A novel strategy has been developed for assessing interpopulation variations in regional patterns of linkage disequilibrium. This approach has been applied to the genomes of populations in public databases, identifying regions where linkage disequilibrium is considerably different, some of which exist in regions associated with phenotypic variation. It has been shown that such diversity in linkage disequilibrium can challenge replication studies and meta-analyses while benefiting the pursuit for the functional variants in fine-mapping studies. The next phases in genome-wide studies aim to reproduce the emerging association signals across different populations and to identify the functional variants directly responsible for these signals. Recent publications are beginning to yield valuable insights into the unique challenges and opportunities presented by both consistent and varying patterns of linkage disequilibrium in these follow-up phases.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium analysis by searching for shared segments: Mapping a locus for benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Freimer, N.; Baharloo, S.; Blankenship, K.

    1994-09-01

    The lod score method of linkage analysis has two important drawbacks: parameters must be specified for the transmission of the disease (e.g. penetrance), and large numbers of genetically informative individuals must be studied. Although several robust non-parametric methods are available, these also require large sample sizes. The availability of dense genetic maps permits genome screening to be conducted by linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping methods, which are statistically powerful and non-parametric. Lander & Botstein proposed that LD mapping could be employed to screen the human genome for disease loci; we have now applied this strategy to map a gene for an autosomal recessive disorder, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestatis (BRIC). Our approach to LD mapping was based on identifying chromosome segments shared between distantly related patients; we used 256 microsatellite markers to genotype three affected individuals, and their parents, from an isolated town in The Netherlands. Because endogamy occurred in this population for several generations, all of the BRIC patients are known to be distantly related to each other, but the pedigree structure and connections could not be certainly established more than three generations before the present, so lod score analysis was impossible. A 20 cM region on chromosome 18 is shared by 5/6 patient chromosomes; subsequently, we noted that 6/6 chromosomes shared an interval of about 3 cM in this region. Calculations indicate that it is extremely unlikely that such a region could be inherited by chance rather than by descent from a common ancestor. Thus, LD mapping by searching for shared chromosomal segments is an extremely powerful approach for genome screening to identify disease loci.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  15. Pseudovitamin D deficient rickets (PDDR). Linkage disequilibrium mapping in young populations

    SciTech Connect

    Labuda, M.; Korab-Laskowska, M.; Labuda, D.

    1994-09-01

    PDDR is an autosomal recessive disorder with elevated prevalence in French Canadians. The condition is believed to be due to a deficient renal 25(OH)-vitamin D 1-alpha hydroxylase, but its underlying molecular defect is unknown. By linkage analysis we have earlier mapped PDDR to human chromosome 12q14. Using recently developed microsatellite markers we narrowed down the disease locus to a 5.6 cM interval between two clusters of loci: 234tf12, 207yh10, 249vf9, 329zh9, on proximal, and 259zc9 and 184yf2 on the distal side. Further refinement of the PDDR locus was obtained from analysis of those markers on 85 French Canadian PDDR chromosomes by linkage disequilibrium (LD). Ten-marker haplotype analysis for all chromosomes allowed to divide this sample into two groups, one of Saguenay-Lac St. Jean-Charlevoix (SLSJ-Ch), the other from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (NS, NB). All SLSJ-Ch PDDR chromosomes shared an identical haplotype for markers 172x38, 184yf2, 259zc9, pointing to a single founder in this population. In the NS, NB group, the founder effect was also pronounced; however, the link of 2 PDDR chromosomes to either of these groups remains to be elucidated. In the absence of recombination in 12 generations of the SLSJ-Ch population, the genetic distance between PDDR and markers 172xd8, 184yf2, 259zc9 was estimated to be less than 0.4 cM. Finally the marker 207va9 was found to be the closest proximal one based on one recombination in a Polish PDDR family, its CEPH map position as well as its localization on the same YAC together with the distal markers 184yf2, 309xh1 and the marker 172xd8, probably the closest to the PDDR gene. Our study clearly shows the potential of LD for mapping human disorders in populations as young as 10-12 generations. Here it allowed narrowing PDDR position down to a single YAC.

  16. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD

  17. Linkage disequilibrium with linkage analysis of multiline crosses reveals different multiallelic QTL for hybrid performance in the flint and dent heterotic groups of maize.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Héloïse; Lehermeier, Christina; Bauer, Eva; Falque, Matthieu; Segura, Vincent; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Meyer, Nina; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Menz, Monica; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Moreau, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Multiparental designs combined with dense genotyping of parents have been proposed as a way to increase the diversity and resolution of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies, using methods combining linkage disequilibrium information with linkage analysis (LDLA). Two new nested association mapping designs adapted to European conditions were derived from the complementary dent and flint heterotic groups of maize (Zea mays L.). Ten biparental dent families (N = 841) and 11 biparental flint families (N = 811) were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and evaluated as test crosses with the central line of the reciprocal design for biomass yield, plant height, and precocity. Alleles at candidate QTL were defined as (i) parental alleles, (ii) haplotypic identity by descent, and (iii) single-marker groupings. Between five and 16 QTL were detected depending on the model, trait, and genetic group considered. In the flint design, a major QTL (R(2) = 27%) with pleiotropic effects was detected on chromosome 10, whereas other QTL displayed milder effects (R(2) < 10%). On average, the LDLA models detected more QTL but generally explained lower percentages of variance, consistent with the fact that most QTL display complex allelic series. Only 15% of the QTL were common to the two designs. A joint analysis of the two designs detected between 15 and 21 QTL for the five traits. Of these, between 27 for silking date and 41% for tasseling date were significant in both groups. Favorable allelic effects detected in both groups open perspectives for improving biomass production. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. A genome-wide set of SNPs detects population substructure and long range linkage disequilibrium in wild sheep.

    PubMed

    Miller, J M; Poissant, J; Kijas, J W; Coltman, D W

    2011-03-01

    The development of genomic resources for wild species is still in its infancy. However, cross-species utilization of technologies developed for their domestic counterparts has the potential to unlock the genomes of organisms that currently lack genomic resources. Here, we apply the OvineSNP50 BeadChip, developed for domestic sheep, to two related wild ungulate species: the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and the thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli). Over 95% of the domestic sheep markers were successfully genotyped in a sample of fifty-two bighorn sheep while over 90% were genotyped in two thinhorn sheep. Pooling the results from both species identified 868 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 570 were detected in bighorn sheep, while 330 SNPs were identified in thinhorn sheep. The total panel of SNPs was able to discriminate between the two species, assign population of origin for bighorn sheep and detect known relationship classes within one population of bighorn sheep. Using an informative subset of these SNPs (n=308), we examined the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) within one population of bighorn sheep and found that high levels of LD persist over 4 Mb.

  19. Distribution of long-range linkage disequilibrium and Tajima's D values in Scandinavian populations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hanna; Källman, Thomas; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-05-20

    The site frequency spectrum of mutations (SFS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are the two major sources of information in population genetics studies. In this study we focus on the levels of LD and the SFS and on the effect of sample size on summary statistics in 10 Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce. We found that previous estimates of a low level of LD were highly influenced by both sampling strategy and the fact that data from multiple loci were analyzed jointly. Estimates of LD were in fact heterogeneous across loci and increased within individual populations compared with the estimate from the total data. The variation in levels of LD among populations most likely reflects different demographic histories, although we were unable to detect population structure by using standard approaches. As in previous studies, we also found that the SFS-based test Tajima's D was highly sensitive to sample size, revealing that care should be taken to draw strong conclusions from this test when sample size is small. In conclusion, the results from this study are in line with recent studies in other conifers that have revealed a more complex and variable pattern of LD than earlier studies suggested and with studies in trees and humans that suggest that Tajima's D is sensitive to sample size. This has large consequences for the design of future association and population genetic studies in Norway spruce.

  20. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes in Chinese Merino (Xinjiang type) sheep by genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shudong; He, Sangang; Chen, Lei; Li, Wenrong; Di, Jiang; Liu, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is important for effective genome-wide association studies and accurate genomic prediction. Chinese Merino (Xinjiang type) is well-known fine wool sheep breed. However, the extent of LD across the genome remains unexplored. In this study, we calculated autosomal LD based on genome-wide SNPs of 635 Chinese Merino (Xinjiang type) sheep by Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChip. A moderate level of LD (r(2) ≥ 0.25) across the whole genome was observed at short distances of 0-10 kb. Further, the ancestral effective population size (Ne ) was analyzed by extent of LD and found that Ne increased with the increase of generations and declined rapidly within the most recent 50 generations, which is consistent with the history of Chinese Merino sheep breeding, initiated in 1971. We also noted that even when the effective population size was estimated across different single chromosomes, Ne only ranged from 140.36 to 183.33 at five generations in the past, exhibiting a rapid decrease compared with that at ten generations in the past. These results indicated that the genetic diversity in Chinese Merino sheep recently decreased and proper protective measures should be taken to maintain the diversity. Our datasets provided essential genetic information to track molecular variations which potentially contribute to phenotypic variation in Chinese Merino sheep.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium between an allele at the dopamine D4 receptor locus and Tourette syndrome, by the transmission-disequilibrium test

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, D.E.; Gelernter, J.; Leckman, J.F.; Pauls, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic multiple tics. We used the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) method to test for linkage disequilibrium between a specific allele (the seven-repeat allele (DRD4*7R) of the exon 3 VNTR polymorphic site) at the D4 dopamine receptor locus (DRD4) and expression of chronic multiple tics and TS. This particular allele had been shown in functional studies to have different binding properties compared with the other common alleles in this DRD4 polymorphic system. We studied 64 family trios (consisting of an affected person and two parents, at least one heterozygous for DRD4*7R), including 12 nuclear family trios and 52 trios from four large TS kindreds. The DRD4*7R allele was transmitted significantly more frequently than expected ({chi}{sup 2}{sub TDT} ranging from 8.47 [P < .004] to 10.80 [P = .001], depending on breadth of disease definition and inclusion or exclusion of inferred genotypes). Confirmation of this finding will depend on either replication in other samples or the identification of a transmitted functional mutation within this sample. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Linkage disequilibrium at the human dopamine D2 receptor locus (DRD2) in three populations from Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, H.C.; Lu, R.B.; Chang, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    There are now at least several polymorphisms distributed across the coding regions of DRD2. The TaqI A and B systems are roughly 30 kb apart; the TaqI A system is about 10 kb downstream from the last exon and the TaqI B system is about 5 kb upstream of exon 2 (which contains the initiation codon). Previous studies in U.S. Blacks and Caucasians have show significant linkage disequilibrium. We have studied three ethnic groups living on Taiwan: Chinese Han (44 individuals), Atayal (41 individuals) and Ami (40 individuals). All three groups show significant linkage disequilibrium between the TaqI A and TaqI B systems. The haplotype frequencies differ significantly among the three groups, Blacks and Caucasians; the magnitude of disequilibrium also differs among the six. However, all six groups show a pattern of higher than expected frequencies of A1B1 and A2B2, and lower than expected frequencies of A1B2 and A2B1.

  3. Genome-wide patterns of segregation and linkage disequilibrium: the construction of a linkage genetic map of the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina

    PubMed Central

    Pernaci, Michaël; De Mita, Stéphane; Andrieux, Axelle; Pétrowski, Jérémy; Halkett, Fabien; Duplessis, Sébastien; Frey, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina causes significant yield reduction and severe economic losses in commercial poplar plantations. After several decades of breeding for qualitative resistance and subsequent breakdown of the released resistance genes, breeders now focus on quantitative resistance, perceived to be more durable. But quantitative resistance also can be challenged by an increase of aggressiveness in the pathogen. Thus, it is of primary importance to better understand the genetic architecture of aggressiveness traits. To this aim, our goal is to build a genetic linkage map for M. larici-populina in order to map quantitative trait loci related to aggressiveness. First, a large progeny of M. larici-populina was generated through selfing of the reference strain 98AG31 (which genome sequence is available) on larch plants, the alternate host of the poplar rust fungus. The progeny's meiotic origin was validated through a segregation analysis of 115 offspring with 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers, of which 12 segregated in the expected 1:2:1 Mendelian ratio. A microsatellite-based linkage disequilibrium analysis allowed us to identify one potential linkage group comprising two scaffolds. The whole genome of a subset of 47 offspring was resequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology at a mean sequencing depth of 6X. The reads were mapped onto the reference genome of the parental strain and 144,566 SNPs were identified across the genome. Analysis of distribution and polymorphism of the SNPs along the genome led to the identification of 2580 recombination blocks. A second linkage disequilibrium analysis, using the recombination blocks as markers, allowed us to group 81 scaffolds into 23 potential linkage groups. These preliminary results showed that a high-density linkage map could be constructed by using high-quality SNPs based on low-coverage resequencing of a larger number of M. larici-populina offspring. PMID:25309554

  4. Refined assignment of the infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, CLN1) locus at 1p32: Incorporation of linkage disequilibrium in multipoint analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, E.; Vesa, J.; Peltonen, L.; Jaervela, I. ); Speer, M.C.; Ott, J. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York ); Maekelae, T.P.; Alitalo, K. )

    1993-06-01

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, INCL, CLN1, is an autosomally inherited progressive neuro-generative disorder. The disease results in the massive death of cortical neurons, suggesting an essential role for the CLN1 gene product in the normal neuronal maturation during the first years of life. Identification of new multiallelic markers has now made possible the construction of a refined genetic map encompassing the CLN1 locus at 1p32. Strong allelic association was detected with a new, highly polymorphic HY-TM1 marker. The authors incorporated this observed linkage disequilibrium into multipoint linkage analysis, which significantly increased the informativeness of the limited family material and facilitated refined assignment of the CLN1 locus. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Anonymous marker loci within 400 kb of HLA-A generate haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with the hemochromatosis gene (HFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Yaouanq, J.; Perichon, M.; Treut, A.L.; Kahloun, A.E.; Mauvieux, V.; Blayau, M.; Jouanolle, A.M.; Chauvel, B.; Le Gall, J.Y.; David, V. )

    1994-02-01

    The hemochromatosis gene (HFE) maps to 6p21.3 and is less than 1 cM from the HLA class I gene; however, the precise physical location of the gene has remained elusive and controversial. The unambiguous identification of a crossover event within hemochromatosis families is very difficult; it is particularly hampered by the variability of the phenotypic expression as well as by the sex- and age-related penetrance of the disease. For these considerations, traditional linkage analysis could prove of limited value in further refining the extrapolated physical position of HFE. The authors therefore embarked upon a linkage-disequilibrium analysis of HFE and normal chromosomes for the Brittany population. In this report, 66 hemochromatosis families yielding 151 hemochromatosis chromosomes and 182 normal chromosomes were RFLP-typed with a battery of probes, including two newly derived polymorphic markers from the 6.7 and HLA-F loci located 150 and 250 kb telomeric to HLA-A, respectively. The results suggest a strong peak of existing linkage disequilibrium focused within the i82-to-6.7 interval (approximately 250 kb). The zone of linkage disequilibrium is flanked by the i97 locus, positioned 30 kb proximal to i82, and the HLA-F gene, found 250 kb distal to HLA-A, markers of which display no significant association with HFE. These data support the possibility that HFE resides within the 400-kb expanse of DNA between i97 and HLA-F. Alternatively, the very tight association of HLA-A3 and allele 1 of the 6.7 locus, both of which are comprised by the major ancestral or founder HFE haplotype in Brittany, supports the possibility that the disease gene may reside immediately telomeric to the 6.7 locus within the linkage-disequilibrium zone. Additionally, hemochromatosis haplotypes possessing HLA-A11 and the low-frequency HLA-F polymorphism (allele 2) are supportive of a separate founder chromosome containing a second, independently arising mutant allele. 69 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. The use of family relationships and linkage disequilibrium to impute phase and missing genotypes in up to whole-genome sequence density genotypic data.

    PubMed

    Meuwissen, Theo; Goddard, Mike

    2010-08-01

    A novel method, called linkage disequilibrium multilocus iterative peeling (LDMIP), for the imputation of phase and missing genotypes is developed. LDMIP performs an iterative peeling step for every locus, which accounts for the family data, and uses a forward-backward algorithm to accumulate information across loci. Marker similarity between haplotype pairs is used to impute possible missing genotypes and phases, which relies on the linkage disequilibrium between closely linked markers. After this imputation step, the combined iterative peeling/forward-backward algorithm is applied again, until convergence. The calculations per iteration scale linearly with number of markers and number of individuals in the pedigree, which makes LDMIP well suited to large numbers of markers and/or large numbers of individuals. Per iteration calculations scale quadratically with the number of alleles, which implies biallelic markers are preferred. In a situation with up to 15% randomly missing genotypes, the error rate of the imputed genotypes was <1% and approximately 99% of the missing genotypes were imputed. In another example, LDMIP was used to impute whole-genome sequence data consisting of 17,321 SNPs on a chromosome. Imputation of the sequence was based on the information of 20 (re)sequenced founder individuals and genotyping their descendants for a panel of 3000 SNPs. The error rate of the imputed SNP genotypes was 10%. However, if the parents of these 20 founders are also sequenced, >99% of missing genotypes are imputed correctly.

  7. Exome genotyping, linkage disequilibrium and population structure in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Mengmeng; Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Nelson, C Dana; Koralewski, Tomasz E; Byram, Thomas D; Loopstra, Carol A

    2016-09-13

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the most widely planted and commercially important forest tree species in the USA and worldwide, and is an object of intense genomic research. However, whole genome resequencing in loblolly pine is hampered by its large size and complexity and a lack of a good reference. As a valid and more feasible alternative, entire exome sequencing was hence employed to identify the gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to genotype the sampled trees. The exons were captured in the ADEPT2 association mapping population of 375 clonally-propagated loblolly pine trees using NimbleGen oligonucleotide hybridization probes, and then exome-enriched genomic DNA fragments were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on 199,723 exons (≈49 Mbp) partitioned from the loblolly pine reference genome (PineRefSeq v. 1.01). The probes covered 90.2 % of the target regions. Capture efficiency was high; on average, 67 % of the sequence reads generated for each tree could be mapped to the capture target regions, and more than 70 % of the captured target bases had at least 10X sequencing depth per tree. A total of 972,720 high quality SNPs were identified after filtering. Among them, 53 % were located in coding regions (CDS), 5 % in 5' or 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and 42 % in non-target and non-coding regions, such as introns and adjacent intergenic regions collaterally captured. We found that linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed very rapidly, with the correlation coefficient (r (2)) between pairs of SNPs linked within single scaffolds decaying to half maximum (r (2) = 0.22) within 55 bp, to r (2) = 0.1 within 192 bp, and to r (2) = 0.05 within 451 bp. Population structure analysis using unlinked SNPs demonstrated the presence of two main distinct clusters representing western and eastern parts of the loblolly pine range included in our sample of trees. The

  8. Microsatellites haplotyping of CF chromosomes shows linkage disequilibrium and several founder effects in Brittany (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Raguenes, O.; Ferec, C.; Mercier, B.

    1994-09-01

    A large study on cystic fibrosis (CF) is underway in Brittany (France). It is based on 902 CF patients distributed in 795 families who were or are still followed at the {open_quotes}Centre Helio-Marin{close_quotes} in Roscoff and/or were subjected to a molecular analysis at the {open_quotes}Centre de Biogenetique{close_quotes} in Brest. At present, the CF mutations have been identified in 309 patients born in Brittany, most of them of Celtic origin. A microsatellite (MS) study using IVS 17b TA, IVS 17b CA and IVS 8 CA was also completed in 63 CF patients and their parents (carriers of the {Delta}F508 mutation or the G551D mutation or the 1078delT mutation or the W846X mutation). All the 21 chromosomes carrying the 1078delT mutation had the same MS haplotype (16-21-13), which was also found on 9 of the 83 non-CF chromosomes analyzed. All the 16 chromosomes with the G551D mutation carried another MS haplotype (16-7-17), which was also found on 13.3% of the non-CF chromosomes. All the 6 chromosomes with the W846X mutation carried the 16-32-13 haplotype, also found on 6.0% of the non-CF chromosomes. Sixteen different MS haplotypes were found among the 74 chromosomes carrying the{Delta}F508 mutation, three of them representing 74.3% (55/74) of the chromosomes. These were the 23-31-13 haplotype (31/74 - 41.9%), the 17-31-13 haplotype (11/74 - 14.9%), and the 17-32-13 haplotype (13/74 - 17.6%). These results show that the CF mutations observed in Brittany are in linkage disequilibrium with the MS haplotypes. They also suggest that their presence in Brittany is the consequence of several founder effects.

  9. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and genetic diversity in five populations of Australian domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, Hawlader Abdullah; Clark, Samuel A; Kwan, Paul; Gondro, Cedric

    2015-11-24

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and overall diversity of livestock species is important to maximise the potential of genome-wide association studies and genomic prediction. Commonly used measures such as linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (N e ), heterozygosity, fixation index (F ST) and runs of homozygosity (ROH) are widely used and help to improve our knowledge about genetic diversity in animal populations. The development of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and the subsequent genotyping of large numbers of animals have greatly increased the accuracy of these population-based estimates. In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip array to estimate and compare LD (measured by r (2) and D'), N e , heterozygosity, F ST and ROH in five Australian sheep populations: three pure breeds, i.e., Merino (MER), Border Leicester (BL), Poll Dorset (PD) and two crossbred populations i.e. F1 crosses of Merino and Border Leicester (MxB) and MxB crossed to Poll Dorset (MxBxP). Compared to other livestock species, the sheep populations that were analysed in this study had low levels of LD and high levels of genetic diversity. The rate of LD decay was greater in Merino than in the other pure breeds. Over short distances (<10 kb), the levels of LD were higher in BL and PD than in MER. Similarly, BL and PD had comparatively smaller N e than MER. Observed heterozygosity in the pure breeds ranged from 0.3 in BL to 0.38 in MER. Genetic distances between breeds were modest compared to other livestock species (highest F ST = 0.063) but the genetic diversity within breeds was high. Based on ROH, two chromosomal regions showed evidence of strong recent selection. This study shows that there is a large range of genome diversity in Australian sheep breeds, especially in Merino sheep. The observed range of diversity will influence the design of genome-wide association studies and the results that can be obtained from them. This

  10. Genetic diversity, extent of linkage disequilibrium and persistence of gametic phase in Canadian pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Daniela A; Jafarikia, Mohsen; Brito, Luiz F; Buzanskas, Marcos E; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flávio S

    2017-01-21

    Knowledge on the levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome, persistence of gametic phase between breed pairs, genetic diversity and population structure are important parameters for the successful implementation of genomic selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate these parameters in order to assess the feasibility of a multi-herd and multi-breed training population for genomic selection in important purebred and crossbred pig populations in Canada. A total of 3,057 animals, representative of the national populations, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip (62,163 markers). The overall LD (r (2)) between adjacent SNPs was 0.49, 0.38, 0.40 and 0.31 for Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire and Crossbred (Landrace x Yorkshire) populations, respectively. The highest correlation of phase (r) across breeds was observed between Crossbred animals and either Landrace or Yorkshire breeds, in which r was approximately 0.80 at 1 Mbp of distance. Landrace and Yorkshire breeds presented r ≥ 0.80 in distances up to 0.1 Mbp, while Duroc breed showed r ≥ 0.80 for distances up to 0.03 Mbp with all other populations. The persistence of phase across herds were strong for all breeds, with r ≥ 0.80 up to 1.81 Mbp for Yorkshire, 1.20 Mbp for Duroc, and 0.70 Mbp for Landrace. The first two principal components clearly discriminate all the breeds. Similar levels of genetic diversity were observed among all breed groups. The current effective population size was equal to 75 for Duroc and 92 for both Landrace and Yorkshire. An overview of population structure, LD decay, demographic history and inbreeding of important pig breeds in Canada was presented. The rate of LD decay for the three Canadian pig breeds indicates that genomic selection can be successfully implemented within breeds with the current 60 K SNP panel. The use of a multi-breed training population involving Landrace and Yorkshire to estimate the genomic

  11. Combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium QTL mapping in multiple families of maize (Zea mays L.) line crosses highlights complementarities between models based on parental haplotype and single locus polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bardol, N; Ventelon, M; Mangin, B; Jasson, S; Loywick, V; Couton, F; Derue, C; Blanchard, P; Charcosset, A; Moreau, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing marker density. This opens new possibilities for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), in particular by combining linkage disequilibrium information and linkage analysis (LDLA). In this study, we compared different approaches to detect QTL for four traits of agronomical importance in two large multi-parental datasets of maize (Zea mays L.) of 895 and 928 testcross progenies composed of 7 and 21 biparental families, respectively, and genotyped with 491 markers. We compared to traditional linkage-based methods two LDLA models relying on the dense genotyping of parental lines with 17,728 SNP: one based on a clustering approach of parental line segments into ancestral alleles and one based on single marker information. The two LDLA models generally identified more QTL (60 and 52 QTL in total) than classical linkage models (49 and 44 QTL in total). However, they performed inconsistently over datasets and traits suggesting that a compromise must be found between the reduction of allele number for increasing statistical power and the adequacy of the model to potentially complex allelic variation. For some QTL, the model exclusively based on linkage analysis, which assumed that each parental line carried a different QTL allele, was able to capture remaining variation not explained by LDLA models. These complementarities between models clearly suggest that the different QTL mapping approaches must be considered to capture the different levels of allelic variation at QTL involved in complex traits.

  12. The age of human mutation: Genealogical and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CLN5 mutation in the Finnish population

    SciTech Connect

    Varilo, T; Savukoski, M.; Peltonen, L.

    1996-03-01

    Variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL) is an autosomal recessive progressive encephalopathy of childhood enriched in the western part of Finland, with a local incidence of 1/1,500. We recently assigned the locus for vLINCL, CLN5, to 13q21.1-q32. In the present study, the haplotype analysis of Finnish CLN5 chromosomes provides evidence that one single mutation causes vLINCL in the Finnish population. Eight microsatellite markers closely linked to the CLN5 gene on chromosome 13q were analyzed, to study identity by descent by shared haplotype analysis. One single haplotype formed by flanking markers D13S160 and D13S162 in strong linkage disequilibrium (P < .0001) was present in 81% of disease-bearing chromosomes. Allele 4 at the marker locus D13S162 was detected in 94% of disease-bearing chromosomes. To evaluate the age of the CLN5 mutation by virtue of its restricted geographical distribution, church records were used to identify the common ancestors for 18 vLINCL families diagnosed in Finland. The pedigrees of the vLINCL ancestors merged on many occasions, which also supports a single founder mutation that obviously happened 20-30 generations ago (i.e., {approximately}500 years ago) in this isolated population. Linkage disequilibrium was detected with seven markers covering an extended genetic distance of 11 cM, which further supports the young age of the CLN5 mutation. When the results of genealogical and linkage disequilibrium studies were combined, the CLN5 gene was predicted to lie {approximately}200-400 kb (total range 30-1,360 kb) from the closest marker D13S162. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. A first insight into population structure and linkage disequilibrium in the US peanut minicore collection.

    PubMed

    Belamkar, Vikas; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Ayers, Jamie L; Payton, Paxton R; Puppala, Naveen; Burow, Mark D

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of genetic diversity, population structure, and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target association mapping populations is of great importance and is a prerequisite for LD-based mapping. In the present study, 96 genotypes comprising 92 accessions of the US peanut minicore collection, a component line of the tetraploid variety Florunner, diploid progenitors A. duranensis (AA) and A. ipaënsis (BB), and synthetic amphidiploid accession TxAG-6 were investigated with 392 simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker bands amplified using 32 highly-polymorphic SSR primer pairs. Both distance- and model-based (Bayesian) cluster analysis revealed the presence of structured diversity. In general, the wild-species accessions and the synthetic amphidiploid grouped separately from most minicore accessions except for COC155, and were eliminated from most subsequent analyses. UPGMA analysis divided the population into four subgroups, two major subgroups representing subspecies fastigiata and hypogaea, a third group containing individuals from each subspecies or possibly of mixed ancestry, and a fourth group, either consisting of COC155 alone if wild species were excluded, or of COC155, the diploid species, and the synthetic amphidiploid. Model-based clustering identified four subgroups- one each for fastigiata and hypogaea subspecies, a third consisting of individuals of both subspecies or of mixed ancestry predominantly from Africa or Asia, and a fourth group, consisting of individuals predominantly of var fastigiata, peruviana, and aequatoriana accessions from South America, including COC155. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed statistically-significant (P < 0.0001) genetic variance of 16.87% among subgroups. A total of 4.85% of SSR marker pairs revealed significant LD (at r(2) ≥ 0.1). Of the syntenic marker pairs separated by distances < 10 cM, 11-20 cM, 21-50 cM, and > 50 cM, 19.33, 5.19, 6.25 and 5.29% of marker pairs were found in strong

  14. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of the gene for Margarita Island ectodermal dysplasia (ED4) to 11q23.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Bustos, T; Spritz, R A

    1998-01-01

    Margarita Island ectodermal dysplasia (ED4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by unusual facies, dental anomalies, hypotrichosis, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and onychodysplasia, syndactyly, and cleft lip/cleft palate. We have used an affected-only DNA-pooling strategy to carry out linkage disequilibrium mapping of the ED4 gene to 11q23. Haplotype analysis of four complex Margarita Island ED4 families localized the ED4 gene to an approximately 1-2-Mb interval spanned by just two YACs. PMID:9758630

  15. Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium and power of a large grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) diversity panel newly designed for association studies.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Stéphane D; Péros, Jean-Pierre; Lacombe, Thierry; Launay, Amandine; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Mangin, Brigitte; Valière, Sophie; Martins, Frédéric; Le Cunff, Loïc; Laucou, Valérie; Bacilieri, Roberto; Dereeper, Alexis; Chatelet, Philippe; This, Patrice; Doligez, Agnès

    2016-03-22

    As for many crops, new high-quality grapevine varieties requiring less pesticide and adapted to climate change are needed. In perennial species, breeding is a long process which can be speeded up by gaining knowledge about quantitative trait loci linked to agronomic traits variation. However, due to the long juvenile period of these species, establishing numerous highly recombinant populations for high resolution mapping is both costly and time-consuming. Genome wide association studies in germplasm panels is an alternative method of choice, since it allows identifying the main quantitative trait loci with high resolution by exploiting past recombination events between cultivars. Such studies require adequate panel design to represent most of the available genetic and phenotypic diversity. Assessing linkage disequilibrium extent and panel power is also needed to determine the marker density required for association studies. Starting from the largest grapevine collection worldwide maintained in Vassal (France), we designed a diversity panel of 279 cultivars with limited relatedness, reflecting the low structuration in three genetic pools resulting from different uses (table vs wine) and geographical origin (East vs West), and including the major founders of modern cultivars. With 20 simple sequence repeat markers and five quantitative traits, we showed that our panel adequately captured most of the genetic and phenotypic diversity existing within the entire Vassal collection. To assess linkage disequilibrium extent and panel power, we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms: 372 over four genomic regions and 129 distributed over the whole genome. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by correlation corrected for kinship, reached 0.2 for a physical distance between 9 and 458 Kb depending on genetic pool and genomic region, with varying size of linkage disequilibrium blocks. This panel achieved reasonable power to detect associations between traits with high broad

  16. Linkage disequilibrium between BLM, FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom`s syndrome (BS)

    SciTech Connect

    German, J.; Lennon, D.; Proytcheva, M.

    1994-09-01

    BS is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. About 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries bbm, a BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome sub-band 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. We have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of bbm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking linkage disequilibrium has been observed between BLM and FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 -- three loci unseparated by conventional pedigree analysis. The linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis. We have also analyzed blm and BLM haplotypes when genotype information from the parents was available. The haplotype analysis indicates that the chromosome in the hypothetical founder carried the C3 allele at FES, either the 145 bp or the 147 bp allele at D15S127, and the 83 bp allele at IP15M9. Besides providing strong support for the founder-effect hypothesis, haplotype analysis in a fetus at risk for BS also provided evidence against either homozygosity or heterozygosity for mutation at BLM -- evidence shown valuable by the subsequent birth of a normal boy to a couple, the father being Ashkenazi Jewish and the mother being Sephardi-Egyptian Jewish.

  17. Conservative Extensions of Linkage Disequilibrium Measures from Pairwise to Multi-loci and Algorithms for Optimal Tagging SNP Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpine, Ryan; Lam, Fumei; Istrail, Sorin

    We present results on two classes of problems. The first result addresses the long standing open problem of finding unifying principles for Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) measures in population genetics (Lewontin 1964 [10], Hedrick 1987 [8], Devlin and Risch 1995 [5]). Two desirable properties have been proposed in the extensive literature on this topic and the mutual consistency between these properties has remained at the heart of statistical and algorithmic difficulties with haplotype and genome-wide association study analysis. The first axiom is (1) The ability to extend LD measures to multiple loci as a conservative extension of pairwise LD. All widely used LD measures are pairwise measures. Despite significant attempts, it is not clear how to naturally extend these measures to multiple loci, leading to a "curse of the pairwise". The second axiom is (2) The Interpretability of Intermediate Values. In this paper, we resolve this mutual consistency problem by introducing a new LD measure, directed informativeness overrightarrow{I} (the directed graph theoretic counterpart of the informativeness measure introduced by Halldorsson et al. [6]) and show that it satisfies both of the above axioms. We also show the maximum informative subset of tagging SNPs based on overrightarrow{I} can be computed exactly in polynomial time for realistic genome-wide data. Furthermore, we present polynomial time algorithms for optimal genome-wide tagging SNPs selection for a number of commonly used LD measures, under the bounded neighborhood assumption for linked pairs of SNPs. One problem in the area is the search for a quality measure for tagging SNPs selection that unifies the LD-based methods such as LD-select (implemented in Tagger, de Bakker et al. 2005 [4], Carlson et al. 2004 [3]) and the information-theoretic ones such as informativeness. We show that the objective function of the LD-select algorithm is the Minimal Dominating Set (MDS) on r 2-SNP graphs and show that we can

  18. X-chromosome as a marker for population history: linkage disequilibrium and haplotype study in Eurasian populations

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Maris; Wiebe, Victor; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Remm, Maido; Pääbo, Svante

    2005-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium structure is still unpredictable because the interplay of regional recombination rate and demographic history is poorly understood. We have compared the distribution of LD across two genomic regions differing in crossing-over activity – Xq13 (0.166 cM/Mb) and Xp22 (1.3 cM/Mb) – in 15 Eurasian populations. Demographic events predicted to increase the LD level – genetic drift, bottleneck and admixture – had a very strong impact on extent and patterns of regional LD across Xq13 compared to Xp22. The haplotype distribution of the DXS1225-DXS8082 microsatellites from Xq13 exhibiting strong association in all populations was remarkably influenced by population history. European populations shared one common haplotype with a frequency of 25-40%. The Volga-Ural populations studied, living at the geographic borderline of Europe, showed elevated LD as well as harboring a significant fraction of haplotypes originating from East Asia, thus reflecting their past migrations and admixture. In the young Kuusamo isolate from Finland, a bottleneck has led to allelic associations between loci and shifted the haplotype distribution, but has much less affected single microsatellite allele frequencies compared to the main Finnish population. The data show that the footprint of a demographic event is longer preserved in haplotype distribution within a region of low crossing-over rate, than in the information content of a single marker, or between actively recombining markers. As the knowledge of LD patterns is often chosen to assist association mapping of common disease, our conclusions emphasise the importance of understanding the history, structure and variation of a study population. PMID:15657606

  19. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (P<0.001) in this association panel. The LD level for linked markers is significantly higher than that for unlinked markers, suggesting that physical linkage strongly influences LD in this panel, and LD level was elevated when the panel was classified into groups and subgroups. The LD decay analysis for several chromosomes showed that different chromosomes showed a notable change in LD decay distances for the same gene pool. Based on the disease nursery and greenhouse environment, 42 marker loci associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified through association mapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt

  20. Genetic Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium and Association Mapping of Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Elite Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Germplasm Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a–c, G2a–d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (P<0.001) in this association panel. The LD level for linked markers is significantly higher than that for unlinked markers, suggesting that physical linkage strongly influences LD in this panel, and LD level was elevated when the panel was classified into groups and subgroups. The LD decay analysis for several chromosomes showed that different chromosomes showed a notable change in LD decay distances for the same gene pool. Based on the disease nursery and greenhouse environment, 42 marker loci associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified through association mapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt

  1. Variance in estimated pairwise genetic distance under high versus low coverage sequencing: The contribution of linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Max; Ni, Yang; Lu, Jie; Müller, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The mean pairwise genetic distance among haplotypes is an estimator of the population mutation rate θ and a standard measure of variation in a population. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, this and other population parameters can be estimated under different modes of sampling. One approach is to sequence individual genomes with high coverage, and to calculate genetic distance over all sample pairs. The second approach, typically used for microbial samples or for tumor cells, is sequencing a large number of pooled genomes with very low individual coverage. With low coverage, pairwise genetic distances are calculated across independently sampled sites rather than across individual genomes. In this study, we show that the variance in genetic distance estimates is reduced with low coverage sampling if the mean pairwise linkage disequilibrium weighted by allele frequencies is positive. Practically, this means that if on average the most frequent alleles over pairs of loci are in positive linkage disequilibrium, low coverage sequencing results in improved estimates of θ, assuming similar per-site read depths. We show that this result holds under the expected distribution of allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria for an infinite sites model at mutation-drift equilibrium. From simulations, we find that the conditions for reduced variance only fail to hold in cases where variant alleles are few and at very low frequency. These results are applied to haplotype frequencies from a lung cancer tumor to compute the weighted linkage disequilibria and the expected error in estimated genetic distance using high versus low coverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson).

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2013-04-09

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. However, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large because estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes of approximately 5000. This number was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest SD of Ne estimates occurred when low-frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or nonbreeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were greater than 24,000.

  3. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson)

    PubMed Central

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. However, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large because estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes of approximately 5000. This number was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest SD of Ne estimates occurred when low-frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or nonbreeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were greater than 24,000. PMID:23550119

  4. Short Communication Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, M A; Kubota, T Y K; Silva, E C B; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Furlani Junior, E; Sebbenn, A M

    2016-07-29

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa is a deciduous and monoecious Neotropical tree species pollinated by bats. Due to overexploitation and habitat destruction, the population size has drastically diminished in nature. No previous study has investigated Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in the available microsatellite markers in this species. So, our aim was to estimate these parameters using six microsatellite loci in a sample of 470 adults and 219 juveniles from two populations of H. stigonocarpa. In addition, 30 seeds per tree from 35 seed-trees were collected. Each seed was kept record of the seed-trees and fruit origin. Based on the six microsatellite loci, we found that only 10.6% of the cases showed significant deviations from Mendelian segregation and 15.3% showed linkage. We detected no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between the loci in the adult trees or juveniles. Thus, our results suggest that these loci can be used with great accuracy in future genetic analyses of H. stigonocarpa populations.

  5. Genetic variation, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Switchgrass with ISSR, SCoT and EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xiaoli; Huang, Linkai; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xinquan; Zhang, Lexin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate genetic variation, population structure, and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), 134 switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) samples were analyzed with 51 markers, including 16 ISSRs, 20 SCoTs, and 15 EST-SSRs. In this study, a high level of genetic variation was observed in the switchgrass samples and they had an average Nei's gene diversity index (H) of 0.311. A total of 793 bands were obtained, of which 708 (89.28 %) were polymorphic. Using a parameter marker index (MI), the efficiency of the three types of markers (ISSR, SCoT, and EST-SSR) in the study were compared and we found that SCoT had a higher marker efficiency than the other two markers. The 134 switchgrass samples could be divided into two sub-populations based on STRUCTURE, UPGMA clustering, and principal coordinate analyses (PCA), and upland and lowland ecotypes could be separated by UPGMA clustering and PCA analyses. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r(2) of 0.035 across all 51 markers, indicating a trend of higher LD in sub-population 2 than that in sub-population 1 (P < 0.01). The population structure revealed in this study will guide the design of future association studies using these switchgrass samples.

  6. Genomic polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium in human major histocompatibility complex-encoded antigen-processing genes

    SciTech Connect

    van Endert, P.M.; Lopez, M.T.; Patel, S.D.; McDevitt, H.O. ); Monaco, J.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Recently, two subunits of a large cytosolic protease and two putative peptide transporter proteins were found to be encoded by genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These genes have been suggested to be involved in the processing of antigenic proteins for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Because of the high degree of polymorphism in MHC genes, and previous evidence for both functional and polypeptide sequence polymorphism in the proteins encoded by the antigen-processing genes, we tested DNA from 27 consanguineous human cell lines for genomic polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. These studies demonstrate a strong linkage disequilibrium between TAP1 and LMP2 RFLPs. Moreover, RFLPs, as well as a polymorphic stop codon in the telomeric TAP2 gene, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR alleles and RFLPs in the HLA-DO gene. A high rate of recombination, however, seems to occur in the center of the complex, between the TAP1 and TAP2 genes.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium organization of the human KIR superlocus: implications for KIR data analyses

    PubMed Central

    Meenagh, Ashley; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Middleton, Derek

    2010-01-01

    An extensive family-based study of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) cluster was performed. We aimed to describe the LD structure in the KIR gene cluster using a sample of 418 founder haplotypes identified by segregation in a group of 106 families from Northern Ireland. The LD was studied at two levels of polymorphism: the structural level (presence or absence of KIR genes) and the allelic level (between alleles of KIR genes). LD was further assessed using the predictive value of one KIR polymorphism for another one in order to provide an interpretative framework for the LD effect in association studies. In line with previous research, distinct patterns of KIR genetic diversity within the genomic region centromeric to KIR2DL4 (excluding KIR2DL4) and within the telomeric region including KIR2DL4 were found. In a comprehensive PPV/NPV-based LD analysis within the KIR cluster, robust tag markers were found that can be used to identify which genes are concomitantly present or absent and to further identify groups of associated KIR alleles. Several extended KIR haplotypes in the study population were identified (KIR2DS2*POS–KIR2DL2*001–KIR2DL5B*002–KIR2DS3*00103–KIR2DL1*00401; KIR2DL4*011–KIR3DL1/S1*005–KIR2DS4*003–KIR3DL2*003; KIR2DL4*00802–KIR3DL1/S1*004–KIR2DS4*006–KIR3DL2*005; KIR2DL4*00801–KIR3DL1/S1*00101–KIR2DS4*003–KIR3DL2*001; KIR2DL4*00103–KIR3DL1/S1*008–KIR2DS4*003–KIR3DL2*009; KIR2DL4*00102–KIR3DL1/S1*01502/*002–KIR2DS4*00101–KIR3DL2*002; KIR2DL4*00501–KIR3DL1/S1*013–KIR2DL5A*001–KIR2DS5*002–KIR2DS1*002–KIR3DL2*007). The present study provides a rationale for analyzing associations of KIR polymorphisms by taking into account the complex LD structure of the KIR region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-010-0478-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20878401

  8. Estimating Effective Population Size from Linkage Disequilibrium between Unlinked Loci: Theory and Application to Fruit Fly Outbreak Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sved, John A; Cameron, Emilie C.; Gilchrist, A. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial literature on the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to estimate effective population size using unlinked loci. The estimates are extremely sensitive to the sampling process, and there is currently no theory to cope with the possible biases. We derive formulae for the analysis of idealised populations mating at random with multi-allelic (microsatellite) loci. The ‘Burrows composite index’ is introduced in a novel way with a ‘composite haplotype table’. We show that in a sample of diploid size , the mean value of or from the composite haplotype table is biased by a factor of , rather than the usual factor for a conventional haplotype table. But analysis of population data using these formulae leads to estimates that are unrealistically low. We provide theory and simulation to show that this bias towards low estimates is due to null alleles, and introduce a randomised permutation correction to compensate for the bias. We also consider the effect of introducing a within-locus disequilibrium factor to , and find that this factor leads to a bias in the estimate. However this bias can be overcome using the same randomised permutation correction, to yield an altered with lower variance than the original , and one that is also insensitive to null alleles. The resulting formulae are used to provide estimates on 40 samples of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, from populations with widely divergent expectations. Linkage relationships are known for most of the microsatellite loci in this species. We find that there is little difference in the estimated values from using known unlinked loci as compared to using all loci, which is important for conservation studies where linkage relationships are unknown. PMID:23894410

  9. Short communication: The combined use of linkage disequilibrium-based haploblocks and allele frequency-based haplotype selection methods enhances genomic evaluation accuracy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Dávid; Ducrocq, Vincent; Croiseau, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The construction and use of haploblocks [adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in strong linkage disequilibrium] for genomic evaluation is advantageous, because the number of effects to be estimated can be reduced without discarding relevant genomic information. Furthermore, haplotypes (the combination of 2 or more SNP) can increase the probability of capturing the quantitative trait loci effect compared with individual SNP markers. With regards to haplotypes, the allele frequency parameter is also of interest, because as a selection criterion, it allows the number of rare alleles to be reduced, and the effects of those alleles are usually difficult to estimate. We have proposed a simple pipeline that simultaneously incorporates linkage disequilibrium and allele frequency information in genomic evaluation, and here we present the first results obtained with this procedure. We used a population of 2,235 progeny-tested bulls from the Montbéliarde breed for the tests. Phenotype data were available in the form of daughter yield deviations on 5 production traits, and genotype data were available from the 50K SNP chip. We conducted a classical validation study by splitting the population into training (80% oldest animals) and validation (20% youngest animals) sets to emulate a real-life scenario in which the selection candidates had no available phenotype data. We measured all reported parameters for the validation set. Our results proved that the proposed method was indeed advantageous, and that the accuracy of genomic evaluation could be improved. Compared with results from a genomic BLUP analysis, correlations between daughter yield deviations (a proxy for true) and genomic estimated breeding values increased by an average of 2.7 percentage points for the 5 traits. Inflation of the genomic evaluation of the selection candidates was also significantly reduced. The proposed method outperformed the other SNP and haplotype-based tests we had evaluated in a

  10. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in Synthetic Populations Depending on the Number of Parents, Relatedness, and Ancestral Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Pascal; Müller, Dominik; Technow, Frank; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2017-01-01

    Synthetics play an important role in quantitative genetic research and plant breeding, but few studies have investigated the application of genomic prediction (GP) to these populations. Synthetics are generated by intermating a small number of parents ([Formula: see text] and thereby possess unique genetic properties, which make them especially suited for systematic investigations of factors contributing to the accuracy of GP. We generated synthetics in silico from [Formula: see text]2 to 32 maize (Zea mays L.) lines taken from an ancestral population with either short- or long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD). In eight scenarios differing in relatedness of the training and prediction sets and in the types of data used to calculate the relationship matrix (QTL, SNPs, tag markers, and pedigree), we investigated the prediction accuracy (PA) of Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and analyzed contributions from pedigree relationships captured by SNP markers, as well as from cosegregation and ancestral LD between QTL and SNPs. The effects of training set size [Formula: see text] and marker density were also studied. Sampling few parents ([Formula: see text]) generates substantial sample LD that carries over into synthetics through cosegregation of alleles at linked loci. For fixed [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] influences PA most strongly. If the training and prediction set are related, using [Formula: see text] parents yields high PA regardless of ancestral LD because SNPs capture pedigree relationships and Mendelian sampling through cosegregation. As [Formula: see text] increases, ancestral LD contributes more information, while other factors contribute less due to lower frequencies of closely related individuals. For unrelated prediction sets, only ancestral LD contributes information and accuracies were poor and highly variable for [Formula: see text] due to large sample LD. For large [Formula: see text], achieving moderate accuracy requires

  11. Chromosome 11-q24 region in Tourette syndrome: association and linkage disequilibrium study in the French Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Joober, Ridha; Saint-Onge, Judith; Dion, Yves; Lespérance, Paul; Richer, Francois; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy Armand

    2005-10-15

    Previous studies have found association and linkage between Tourette syndrome (TS) and markers at the 11q24 region, mainly with markers D11S1377 and D11S933. In order to determine if these positive findings could be replicated in our sample, we undertook a family-based association study in 199 French Canadian TS nuclear families. We genotyped 572 individuals from 174 complete and 25 incomplete TS trios. TDT analysis failed to detect an association between TS and six markers from 11q24. Furthermore, no haplotype combining alleles from D11S1377, D11S933, or any of the other four markers was associated with the disorder. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed evidence of historical recombination between every contiguous pair of markers, indicating that these genetic variants are probably in equilibrium in the French Canadian population. Further analysis in additional families, with different methodologies (linkage and association) will be required in order to determine if the 11q24 region harbors a susceptibility locus for TS. If it does, this defect may not be frequent in the French Canadian population due to locus heterogeneity.

  12. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of the Chromosome 6q21–22.31 Bipolar I Disorder Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jinbo; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; McQueen, Matthew B.; Devlin, Bernie; Purcell, Shaun; Faraone, Stephen V.; Allen, Michael H.; Bowden, Charles L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Fossey, Mark D.; Friedman, Edward S.; Gyulai, Laszlo; Hauser, Peter; Ketter, Terence B.; Marangell, Lauren B.; Miklowitz, David J.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Patel, Jayendra K.; Sachs, Gary S.; Thase, Michael E.; Molay, Francine B.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Sklar, Pamela; Laird, Nan M.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported genome-wide significant evidence for linkage between chromosome 6q and bipolar I disorder (BPI) by performing a meta-analysis of original genotype data from 11 genome scan linkage studies. We now present follow-up linkage disequilibrium mapping of the linked region utilizing 3,047 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in a case–control sample (N = 530 cases, 534 controls) and family-based sample (N = 256 nuclear families, 1,301 individuals). The strongest single SNP result (rs6938431, P=6.72× 10−5) was observed in the case–control sample, near the solute carrier family 22, member 16 gene (SLC22A16). In a replication study, we genotyped 151 SNPs in an independent sample (N = 622 cases, 1,181 controls) and observed further evidence of association between variants at SLC22A16 and BPI. Although consistent evidence of association with any single variant was not seen across samples, SNP-wise and gene-based test results in the three samples provided convergent evidence for association with SLC22A16, a carnitine transporter, implicating this gene as a novel candidate for BPI risk. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to clarify which, if any, genes in the 6q region confer risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:19308960

  13. Experimental habitat fragmentation increases linkage disequilibrium but does not affect genetic diversity or population structure in the Amazonian liverwort Radula flaccida.

    PubMed

    Zartman, Charles E; McDaniel, Stuart F; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2006-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation increases the migration distances among remnant populations, and is predicted to play a significant role in altering both demographic and genetic processes. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in light of information about population dynamics in the same set of organisms. In a 10,000-km(2) experimentally fragmented landscape of rainforest reserves in central Amazonia, we examine patterns of genetic variation (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLPs) in the epiphyllous (e.g. leaf-inhabiting) liverwort Radula flaccida Gott. Previous demographic work indicates that colonization rates in this species are significantly reduced in small forest reserves. We scored 113 polymorphic loci in 86 individuals representing five fragmented and five experimentally unmanipulated populations. Most of the variation (82%) in all populations was harboured at the smallest (400 m(2)) sampling unit. The mean ((+/-) SD) within-population genetic diversity (Nei's), of forest remnants (0.412 +/- 0.2) was indistinguishable from continuous (0.413 +/- 0.2) forests. Similarly, F(ST) was identical among small (1- and 10-ha) and large (> or = 100-ha) reserves (0.19 and 0.18, respectively), but linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was significantly elevated in fragmented populations relative to those in continuous forests. These results illustrate that inferences regarding the long-term viability of fragmented populations based on neutral marker data alone must be viewed with caution, and underscore the importance of jointly evaluating information on both genetic structure and demography. Second, multilocus analyses may be more sensitive to the effects of fragmentation in the short term, although the effects of increasing linkage disequilibrium on population viability remain uncertain.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype studies of chromosome 8p 11. 1-21. 1 markers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Schellenberg, G.D.; Oshima, Junko; Martin, G.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M. ); Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio ); Poot, M.; Hoehn, H. )

    1994-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.2-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here the authors present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. They present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering [approximately] 16.5 cM in total. They show that three of the markers examined - D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus - show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, they show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Systematic linkage disequilibrium analysis of SLC12A8 at PSORS5 confirms a role in susceptibility to psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hüffmeier, Ulrike; Lascorz, Jesús; Traupe, Heiko; Böhm, Beate; Schürmeier-Horst, Funda; Ständer, Markward; Kelsch, Reinhard; Baumann, Claudia; Küster, Wolfgang; Burkhardt, Harald; Reis, André

    2005-11-01

    The gene for solute carrier family 12 member A8 has recently been proposed as a candidate gene for psoriasis susceptibility (PSORS5) on chromosome 3q based on association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Swedish patients. To investigate whether this locus is relevant for German psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) patients, we analyzed a group of 210 trios and a case-control group including 375 patients. Based on our investigation of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure of SLC12A8, we assayed 35 haplotype tag SNP and grouped them into nine LD-blocks. In the case-control study, we detected an association for six SNP and three LD-based haplotypes. Association was strongest for ss35527511 (chi2 = 11.224, p = 0.0008) and haplotype E-2 (chi2 = 11.788, p = 0.00059) and independent of the presence of an HLA-associated PSORS1 risk allele. Through extended haplotype analysis, we could show that two independent association signals exist in SLC12A8, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. None of the SNP showed association in trios, apart from a weak association of rs2228674 (transmission disequilibrium test statistics p = 0.048), probably due to insufficient power. We conclude that SLC12A8 is a susceptibility locus for PsV. In order to establish the exact nature of this association, efforts to identify the disease-causing variants are ongoing.

  16. Modeling how reproductive ecology can drive protein diversification and result in linkage disequilibrium between sperm and egg proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Levitan, Don R

    2010-07-01

    Gamete-recognition proteins determine whether sperm and eggs are compatible at fertilization, and they often evolve rapidly. The source of selection driving the evolution of these proteins is still debated. It has been suggested that sexual conflict can result in proliferation of genetic variation and possibly linkage disequilibrium between sperm and egg proteins. Empirical evidence suggests that both male and female reproductive success can be predicted by their sperm ligand genotype, but why female success can be predicted by a protein expressed only in males is unknown. Here we use mathematical modeling to investigate the interaction between reproductive behavior and sperm availability on the evolution of sperm ligands and egg receptors. We consider haploid and diploid expression in gametes in two possible ecological scenarios, monogamous spawning and competitive spawning. Reproductive behavior plays an important role in determining possible outcomes resulting from sexual conflict. Sperm limitation selects for common genotypes regardless of mating behavior. Under conditions of sperm abundance, competitive spawning provides conditions for the persistence of allelic variation and gametic disequilibrium. With monogamous spawning, such conditions are more restrictive.

  17. Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Studies of Chromosome 8p 11.1-21.1 Markers and Werner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang-En; Oshima, Junko; Goddard, Katrina A. B.; Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio; Poot, Martin; Hoehn, Holger; Fraccaro, Marco; Piussan, Charles; Martin, George M.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Wijsman, Ellen M.

    1994-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.1-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here we present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. We present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering ∼16.5 cM in total. We show that three of the markers examined—D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus—show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, we show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. PMID:8037212

  18. Brief communication: patterns of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity at Xq13 in six Native American populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Bedoya, Gabriel; Labuda, Damian; Ruiz-Linares, Andres

    2010-07-01

    Comparative studies of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide insights into human demographic history. Here, we characterize LD in six Native American populations using seven microsatellite markers in Xq13, a region of the genome extensively studied in populations around the world. Native Americans show relatively low diversity and high LD, in agreement with recent genome-wide survey and a scenario of sequential founder effects accompanying human population dispersal around the globe. LD in Native Americans is similar to that observed in some recently described small population isolates and higher than in large European isolates (e.g., Finns), which have been extensively analyzed in medical genetics studies. Haplotype analyses are consistent with a colonization of the New World by a differentiated East Asian population, followed by extensive genetic drift in the Americas. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  20. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  1. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  2. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM). Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The

  3. Detecting introgressive hybridization between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) by admixture linkage disequilibrium analysis.

    PubMed

    Verardi, A; Lucchini, V; Randi, E

    2006-09-01

    Occasional crossbreeding between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) has been detected in some European countries by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and genotyping unlinked microsatellite loci. Maternal and unlinked genomic markers, however, might underestimate the extent of introgressive hybridization, and their impacts on the preservation of wild wolf gene pools. In this study, we genotyped 220 presumed Italian wolves, 85 dogs and 7 known hybrids at 16 microsatellites belonging to four different linkage groups (plus four unlinked microsatellites). Population clustering and individual assignments were performed using a Bayesian procedure implemented in structure 2.1, which models the gametic disequilibrium arising between linked loci during admixtures, aiming to trace hybridization events further back in time and infer the population of origin of chromosomal blocks. Results indicate that (i) linkage disequilibrium was higher in wolves than in dogs; (ii) 11 out of 220 wolves (5.0%) were likely admixed, a proportion that is significantly higher than one admixed genotype in 107 wolves found previously in a study using unlinked markers; (iii) posterior maximum-likelihood estimates of the recombination parameter r revealed that introgression in Italian wolves is not recent, but could have continued for the last 70 (+/- 20) generations, corresponding to approximately 140-210 years. Bayesian clustering showed that, despite some admixture, wolf and dog gene pools remain sharply distinct (the average proportions of membership to wolf and dog clusters were Q(w) = 0.95 and Q(d) = 0.98, respectively), suggesting that hybridization was not frequent, and that introgression in nature is counteracted by behavioural or selective constraints.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium and genomic scan to detect selective loci in cattle populations adapted to different ecological conditions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Edea, Z; Dadi, H; Kim, S-W; Park, J-H; Shin, G-H; Dessie, T; Kim, K-S

    2014-10-01

    Despite the wide range of observed phenotypic diversities and adaptation to different ecological conditions, little has been studied regarding the genetics of adaptation in the genome of indigenous cattle breeds of developing countries. Here, we investigated the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and identified the subset of outlier loci that are highly differentiated among cattle populations adapted to different ecological conditions in Ethiopia. Specifically, we genotyped 47 unrelated animals sampled from high- versus low-altitude environments using a Bovine 50K SNP BeadChip. Linkage disequilibrium was assessed using both D' and r(2) between adjacent SNPs. We calculated FST and heterozygosity at different significance levels as measures of genetic differentiation for each locus between high- and low-altitude populations following the hierarchical island model approach. We identified 816 loci (p < 0.01) showing selection signals and are associated with genes that might have roles in local adaptation. Some of them are associated with candidate genes that are involved in metabolism (ATP2A3, CA2, MYO18B, SIK3, INPP4A, and IREB2), hypoxia response (BDNF, TFRC, and PML) and heat stress (PRKDC, CDK1, and TFDC). Average r(2) and D' values were 0.14 ± 0.21 and 0.57 ± 0.34, respectively, for a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 and were found to increase with increasing MAF value. The outlier loci identified in the studied Ethiopian cattle populations indicate the presence of genetic variation produced/shaped by adaptation to different environmental conditions and provide a basis for further validation and functional analysis using a reasonable sample size and high-density markers. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, E A; Erlich, H A; Rickards, O; DeStefano, G F; Klitz, W

    1995-01-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative evenness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. PMID:7668268

  6. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H.A.; Klitz, W.

    1995-08-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative eveness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. 50 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms generated by genotyping by sequencing to characterize genome-wide diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and selective sweeps in cultivated watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large datasets containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to analyze genome-wide diversity in a robust collection of cultivars from representative accessions, across the world. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a population determines the number of markers required fo...

  8. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  9. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and interspecific gene flow in Ficedula flycatchers by a newly developed 50k single-nucleotide polymorphism array

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Backström, Niclas; Burri, Reto; Husby, Arild; Olason, Pall; Rice, Amber M; Ålund, Murielle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2014-01-01

    With the access to draft genome sequence assemblies and whole-genome resequencing data from population samples, molecular ecology studies will be able to take truly genome-wide approaches. This now applies to an avian model system in ecological and evolutionary research: Old World flycatchers of the genus Ficedula, for which we recently obtained a 1.1 Gb collared flycatcher genome assembly and identified 13 million single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s in population resequencing of this species and its sister species, pied flycatcher. Here, we developed a custom 50K Illumina iSelect flycatcher SNP array with markers covering 30 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Using a number of selection criteria for inclusion in the array, both genotyping success rate and polymorphism information content (mean marker heterozygosity = 0.41) were high. We used the array to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and hybridization in flycatchers. Linkage disequilibrium declined quickly to the background level at an average distance of 17 kb, but the extent of LD varied markedly within the genome and was more than 10-fold higher in ‘genomic islands’ of differentiation than in the rest of the genome. Genetic ancestry analysis identified 33 F1 hybrids but no later-generation hybrids from sympatric populations of collared flycatchers and pied flycatchers, contradicting earlier reports of backcrosses identified from much fewer number of markers. With an estimated divergence time as recently as <1 Ma, this suggests strong selection against F1 hybrids and unusually rapid evolution of reproductive incompatibility in an avian system. PMID:24784959

  10. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J.; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome “Darmor-bzh.” The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS. PMID:26730738

  11. HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, -DRB1 linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity in a Mestizo population from Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortes, L M; Baltazar, L M; Perea, F J; Gallegos-Arreola, M P; Flores, S E; Sandoval, L; Olivares, N; Lorenz, M G O; Xu, H; Barton, S A; Chakraborty, R; Rivas, F

    2004-05-01

    HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, and -DRB1 genes were typed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) in 159 healthy volunteers from 32 families living in Guadalajara, Mexico. Three-locus genotype data from all family members were used to infer haplotypes in 54 unrelated individuals of the sample, from which estimate of segregating haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) between loci were computed. Genotype distributions were concordant with Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) for all three loci, and allele distributions were similar to the ones observed in other Latin-American populations. Of the 56 distinct three-site (DQB1-DQA1-DRB1) haplotypes observed in the sample, the five most common (i.e., with frequencies of five counts or more) were: *0302-*0301-*04, *0201-*0201-*07, *0301-*0501-*14, *0402-*0401-*08, and *0501-*0101-*01. These common three-locus haplotypes also contributed to the majority of the significant two-locus linkage disequilibria of these three sites.

  12. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome "Darmor-bzh." The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS.

  13. Fine-mapping quantitative trait loci with a medium density marker panel: efficiency of population structures and comparison of linkage disequilibrium linkage analysis models.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Dana L; Gilbert, Hélène; Henshall, John M; Legarra, Andrés; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2012-08-01

    Recently, a Haley-Knott-type regression method using combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analyses (LDLA) was proposed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Chromosome of 5 and 25 cM with 0·25 and 0·05 cM, respectively, between markers were simulated. The differences between the LDLA approaches with regard to QTL position accuracy were very limited, with a significantly better mean square error (MSE) with the LDLA regression (LDLA_reg) in sparse map cases; the contrary was observed, but not significantly, in dense map situations. The computing time required for the LDLA variance components (LDLA_vc) model was much higher than the LDLA_reg model. The precision of QTL position estimation was compared for four numbers of half-sib families, four different family sizes and two experimental designs (half-sibs, and full- and half-sibs). Regarding the number of families, MSE values were lowest for 15 or 50 half-sib families, differences not being significant. We observed that the greater the number of progenies per sire, the more accurate the QTL position. However, for a fixed population size, reducing the number of families (e.g. using a small number of large full-sib families) could lead to less accuracy of estimated QTL position.

  14. On the uses and applications of the most commonly used measures of linkage disequilibrium from the comparative analysis of their statistical properties.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of linkage disequilibrium is relevant for the exploration of the structure and evolution of genomes and for the gene mapping of quantitative characters and human diseases. The strength of linkage disequilibrium between diallelic loci is commonly measured by the coefficients D' and r. Recent studies suggest that r is more useful than D' as a general measure of the strength of disequilibrium because it provides much more precise (lower sampling variance) and accurate (lower bias) estimates of disequilibrium. We compared for the first time the statistical properties of D' and r taking into account their differences in range. The sampling properties of D' and r were evaluated by simulation under a variety of realistic population conditions and varying sample sizes using standardised statistics that allow for comparisons of the precision, accuracy and efficiency of estimates with different ranges. Simulations revealed that estimates of r do not tend to be significantly more precise, accurate or efficient than those of D' when compared by means of standardised statistics. The supposed advantage of r over D' based on direct comparisons of their sampling distributions is more apparent than real. The obtained results are useful to assess the uses and applications of these widely used disequilibrium measures. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Strong linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis in Japanese pedigrees with Machado-Joseph disease

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Kotaro; Tanaka, Hajime; Saito, Masaaki

    1996-09-20

    To identify the markers tightly linked to Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and to investigate whether a limited number of ancestral chromosomes are shared by Japanese MJD pedigrees, a detailed linkage analysis employing D14S55, D14S48, D14S67, D14S291, D14S280, AFM343vf1, D14S81, D14S265, D14S62, and D14S65 was performed. The results of multipoint linkage analysis as well as detection of critical recombination events indicate that the gene for MJD is localized in a 4-cM region between D14S280-D14S81. We found strong linkage disequilibria at AFM343vf1 and D14S81, and association of a few common haplotypes with MJD. These results indicate that there is an obvious founder effect in Japanese MJD and suggest the possibility of the existence of predisposing haplotypes which are prone to expansions of CAG repeats. 47 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Toward localization of the Werner syndrome gene by linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotyping: Lessons learned from analysis of 35 chromosome 8p11.1-21.1 markers

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M.; Martin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature onset of a number of age-related diseases. The gene for WS, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region with further localization through linkage disequilibrium mapping. Here we present the results of linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotype analyses of 35 markers to further refine the location of WRN. We identified an interval in this region in which 14 of 18 markers tested show significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in at least one of the two populations tested. Analysis of extended and partial haplotypes covering 21 of the markers studied supports the existence of both obligate and probable ancestral recombinant events which localize WRN almost certainly to the interval between DSS2196 and D8S2186, and most likely to the narrower interval between D8S2168 and D8S2186. These haplotype analyses also suggest that there are multiple WRN mutations in each of the two populations under study. We also present a comparison of approaches to performing disequilibrium tests with multiallelic markers, and show that some commonly used approximations for such tests perform poorly in comparison to exact probability tests. Finally, we discuss some of the difficulties introduced by the high mutation rate at microsatellite markers which influence our ability to use ancestral haplotype analysis to localize disease genes. 51 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Strength of linkage disequilibrium between two vitamin D receptor markers in five ethnic groups: implications for association studies.

    PubMed

    Ingles, S A; Haile, R W; Henderson, B E; Kolonel, L N; Nakaichi, G; Shi, C Y; Yu, M C; Ross, R K; Coetzee, G A

    1997-02-01

    Markers in the 3' end of the vitamin D receptor gene have recently been associated with prostate cancer risk. To evaluate the adequacy of the commonly used BsmI restriction fragment length polymorphism as a marker of this locus, we genotyped 627 individuals from five ethnic groups for this marker, as well as for a polymorphic site in the 3' untranslated region of this gene. At the latter site, we identified 12 alleles, A13 to A24, of a poly(A) microsatellite. Allele size followed a bimodal distribution with distinct short (A13-A17) and long (A18-A24) allele populations. Poly(A) allele frequency differed by ethnicity, with the frequency of short alleles being highest in non-Hispanic whites (41%), intermediate in Hispanics and African-Americans (31 and 29%, respectively), and lowest in Japanese-Americans and Chinese (8 and 9%, respectively). In each of the ethnic groups, some degree of coupling was observed between BsmI B and short poly(A) alleles and between BsmI b and long poly(A) alleles. However, the strength of the linkage disequilibrium varied by ethnicity, with departures from complete disequilibrium producing disagreement between the BsmI and poly(A) genotypes. Genotypic disagreement was lowest in Japanese-Americans and non-Hispanic whites (6 and 7%, respectively), intermediate in Chinese and Hispanics (11 and 19%, respectively), and highest among African-Americans (37%), indicating that BsmI is not a good marker for the vitamin D receptor 3' untranslated region genotype in all populations. This finding may explain contradictory results from recent association studies using the BsmI marker.

  18. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium in chromosome 13-linked Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Othmane, K.B.; Speer, M.C.; Stauffer, J.

    1995-09-01

    Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (DLMD) is an autosomal recessive Limb Girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) characterized by late age of onset, proximal muscle weakness leading to disability, high creatine kinase values, normal intelligence and normal dystrophin in muscle biopsy. We have shown previously that three DLMD families from Tunisia are linked to chromosome 13q12. To further localize the LGMD2C gene, we have investigated seven additional families (119 individuals). Both genotyping and two-point linkage analysis were performed as described elsewhere. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Population genomic structure and linkage disequilibrium analysis of South African goat breeds using genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Huson, H J; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-08-01

    The sustainability of goat farming in marginal areas of southern Africa depends on local breeds that are adapted to specific agro-ecological conditions. Unimproved non-descript goats are the main genetic resources used for the development of commercial meat-type breeds of South Africa. Little is known about genetic diversity and the genetics of adaptation of these indigenous goat populations. This study investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and breed relations, linkage disequilibrium, effective population size and persistence of gametic phase in goat populations of South Africa. Three locally developed meat-type breeds of the Boer (n = 33), Savanna (n = 31), Kalahari Red (n = 40), a feral breed of Tankwa (n = 25) and unimproved non-descript village ecotypes (n = 110) from four goat-producing provinces of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West were assessed using the Illumina Goat 50K SNP Bead Chip assay. The proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies >0.05 ranged from 84.22% in the Tankwa to 97.58% in the Xhosa ecotype, with a mean of 0.32 ± 0.13 across populations. Principal components analysis, admixture and pairwise FST identified Tankwa as a genetically distinct population and supported clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. Genome-wide FST identified 101 markers potentially under positive selection in the Tankwa. Average linkage disequilibrium was highest in the Tankwa (r(2)  = 0.25 ± 0.26) and lowest in the village ecotypes (r(2) range = 0.09 ± 0.12 to 0.11 ± 0.14). We observed an effective population size of <150 for all populations 13 generations ago. The estimated correlations for all breed pairs were lower than 0.80 at marker distances >100 kb with the exception of those in Savanna and Tswana populations. This study highlights the high level of genetic diversity in South African indigenous goats as well as the utility of the genome-wide SNP marker panels in

  20. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Malysheva-Otto, Lyudmyla V; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2006-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles), Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i) geographical regions and (ii) agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2). The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize). The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P < 0.001 was 100% in the whole set of varieties, but only 45% in the subgroup of European 2-rowed spring barleys. The value of LD also varied depending on the polymorphism of the loci selected for genotyping. The 17 most polymorphic loci (PIC > 0.80) provided higher LD values as compared

  1. CYP21A2 polymorphisms in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease, and linkage disequilibrium to HLA risk alleles.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Ingeborg; Skinningsrud, Beate; Bratland, Eirik; Løvås, Kristian; Undlien, Dag; Sverre Husebye, Eystein; Wolff, Anette Susanne Bøe

    2014-12-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase, encoded by CYP21A2, is the major autoantigen in autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). CYP21A2 is located in the region of the HLA complex on chromosome 6p21.3, which harbours several risk alleles for AAD. The objective was to investigate whether CYP21A2 gene variants confer risk of AAD independently of other risk alleles in the HLA loci. DNA samples from 381 Norwegian patients with AAD and 340 healthy controls (HC) previously genotyped for the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, and -DQB1 and MICA loci were used for genotyping of CYP21A2. Genotyping of CYP21A2 was carried out by direct sequencing. Linkage of CYP21A2 to the HLA loci was assessed using UNPHASED version 3.0.10 and PHASE version 2.1. Heterozygotes of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs397515394, rs6467, rs6474, rs76565726 and rs6473 were detected significantly more frequently in AAD patients compared with HC (P<0.005), but all SNPs were in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) with high-risk HLA-DRB1 haplotypes. rs6472C protected against AAD (odds ratio=0.15, 95% CI (0.08-0.30), P=3.8×10(-10)). This SNP was not in an LD with HLA loci (P=0.02), but did not increase protection when considering the effect of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Mutations causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia were found in heterozygosity in <1.5% of the cases in both groups. Genetic variants of CYP21A2 associated to AAD are in LD with the main AAD risk locus HLA-DRB1, and CYP21A2 does not constitute an independent susceptibility locus. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Molecular diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide collection of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study were to assess the phylogeny and the population structure of tobacco accessions representing a wide range of genetic diversity; identify a subset of accessions as a core collection capturing most of the existing genetic diversity; and estimate, in the tobacco core collection, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in seven genomic regions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To this end, a collection of accessions were genotyped with SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated and LD was analyzed across seven regions of the genome. Results A genotyping database for 312 tobacco accessions was profiled with 49 SSR markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian cluster analysis revealed structuring of the tobacco population with regard to commercial classes and six main clades were identified, which correspond to "Oriental", Flue-Cured", "Burley", "Dark", "Primitive", and "Other" classes. Pairwise kinship was calculated between accessions, and an overall low level of co-ancestry was observed. A set of 89 genotypes was identified that captured the whole genetic diversity detected at the 49 loci. LD was evaluated on these genotypes, using 422 SSR markers mapping on seven linkage groups. LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2). The pattern of intrachromosomal LD revealed that in tobacco LD extended up to distances as great as 75 cM with r2 > 0.05 or up to 1 cM with r2 > 0.2. The pattern of LD was clearly dependent on the population structure. Conclusions A global population of tobacco is highly structured. Clustering highlights the accessions with the same market class. LD in tobacco extends up to 75 cM and is strongly dependent on the population structure. PMID:22435796

  3. Molecular diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide collection of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Fricano, Agostino; Bakaher, Nicolas; Del Corvo, Marcello; Piffanelli, Pietro; Donini, Paolo; Stella, Alessandra; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Pozzi, Carlo

    2012-03-21

    The goals of our study were to assess the phylogeny and the population structure of tobacco accessions representing a wide range of genetic diversity; identify a subset of accessions as a core collection capturing most of the existing genetic diversity; and estimate, in the tobacco core collection, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in seven genomic regions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To this end, a collection of accessions were genotyped with SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated and LD was analyzed across seven regions of the genome. A genotyping database for 312 tobacco accessions was profiled with 49 SSR markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian cluster analysis revealed structuring of the tobacco population with regard to commercial classes and six main clades were identified, which correspond to "Oriental", Flue-Cured", "Burley", "Dark", "Primitive", and "Other" classes. Pairwise kinship was calculated between accessions, and an overall low level of co-ancestry was observed. A set of 89 genotypes was identified that captured the whole genetic diversity detected at the 49 loci. LD was evaluated on these genotypes, using 422 SSR markers mapping on seven linkage groups. LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2). The pattern of intrachromosomal LD revealed that in tobacco LD extended up to distances as great as 75 cM with r2 > 0.05 or up to 1 cM with r2 > 0.2. The pattern of LD was clearly dependent on the population structure. A global population of tobacco is highly structured. Clustering highlights the accessions with the same market class. LD in tobacco extends up to 75 cM and is strongly dependent on the population structure.

  4. Assortative mating drives linkage disequilibrium between sperm and egg recognition protein loci in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Stapper, Andres Plata; Beerli, Peter; Levitan, Don R

    2015-04-01

    Sperm and eggs have interacting proteins on their surfaces that influence their compatibility during fertilization. These proteins are often polymorphic within species, producing variation in gamete affinities. We first demonstrate the fitness consequences of various sperm bindin protein (Bindin) variants in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and assortative mating between males and females based on their sperm Bindin genotype. This empirical finding of assortative mating based on sperm Bindin genotype could arise by linkage disequilibrium (LD) between interacting sperm and egg recognition loci. We then examine sequence variation in eight exons of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm Bindin (EBR1). We find little evidence of LD among the eight exons of EBR1, yet strong evidence for LD between sperm Bindin and EBR1 overall, and varying degrees of LD between sperm Bindin among the eight exons. We reject the alternate hypotheses of LD driven by shared evolutionary histories, population structure, or close physical linkage between these interacting loci on the genome. The most parsimonious explanation for this pattern of LD is that it represents selection driven by assortative mating based on interactions among these sperm and egg loci. These findings indicate the importance of ongoing sexual selection in the maintenance of protein polymorphisms and LD, and more generally highlight how LD can be used as an indication of current mate choice, as opposed to historic selection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Nucleotide Variation, Linkage Disequilibrium and Founder-Facilitated Speciation in Wild Populations of the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Edwards, Scott V.

    2009-01-01

    The zebra finch has long been an important model system for the study of vocal learning, vocal production, and behavior. With the imminent sequencing of its genome, the zebra finch is now poised to become a model system for population genetics. Using a panel of 30 noncoding loci, we characterized patterns of polymorphism and divergence among wild zebra finch populations. Continental Australian populations displayed little population structure, exceptionally high levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.010), a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and a high population recombination rate (ρ ≈ 0.05), all of which suggest an open and fluid genomic background that could facilitate adaptive variation. By contrast, substantial divergence between the Australian and Lesser Sunda Island populations (KST = 0.193), reduced genetic diversity (π = 0.002), and higher levels of LD in the island population suggest a strong but relatively recent founder event, which may have contributed to speciation between these populations as envisioned under founder-effect speciation models. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that under a simple quantitative genetic model both drift and selection could have contributed to the observed divergence in six quantitative traits. In both Australian and Lesser Sundas populations, diversity in Z-linked loci was significantly lower than in autosomal loci. Our analysis provides a quantitative framework for studying the role of selection and drift in shaping patterns of molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. PMID:19047416

  6. Refined mapping of a gene responsible for Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy: Evidence for strong linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Toda, Tatsushi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Okui, Keiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Kondo, Eri; Saito, Kayoko; Fukuyama, Yukio; Yoshioka, Mieko; Kumagai, Toshiyuki

    1994-11-01

    Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy in Japan, is an autosomal recessive severe muscular dystrophy associated with an anomaly of the brain. After our initial mapping of the FCMD locus to chromosome 9q31-33, we further defined the locus within a region of {approximately}5 cM between loci D9S127 and CA246, by homozygosity mapping in patients born to consanguineous marriages and by recombination analyses in other families. We also found evidence for strong linkage disequilibrium between FCMD and a polymorphic microsatellite marker, mfd220, which showed no recombination and a lod score of (Z) 17.49. A {open_quotes}111-bp{close_quotes} allele for the mfd220 was observed in 22 (34%) of 64 FCMD chromosomes, but it was present in only 1 of 120 normal chromosomes. This allelic association with FCMD was highly significant ({chi}{sup 2} = 50.7; P < .0001). Hence, we suspect that the FCMD gene could lie within a few hundred kilobases of the mfd220 locus. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The Genetic Diversity and Structure of Linkage Disequilibrium of the MTHFR Gene in Populations of Northern Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Trifonova, E.A.; Eremina, E.R.; Urnov, F.D.; Stepanov, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) in 9 population groups from Northern Eurasia and populations of the international HapMap project was investigated in the present study. The data suggest that the architecture of LD in the human genome is largely determined by the evolutionary history of populations; however, the results of phylogenetic and haplotype analyses seems to suggest that in fact there may be a common “old” mechanism for the formation of certain patterns of LD. Variability in the structure of LD and the level of diversity of MTHFRhaplotypes cause a certain set of tagSNPs with an established prognostic significance for each population. In our opinion, the results obtained in the present study are of considerable interest for understanding multiple genetic phenomena: namely, the association of interpopulation differences in the patterns of LD with structures possessing a genetic susceptibility to complex diseases, and the functional significance of the pleiotropicMTHFR gene effect. Summarizing the results of this study, a conclusion can be made that the genetic variability analysis with emphasis on the structure of LD in human populations is a powerful tool that can make a significant contribution to such areas of biomedical science as human evolutionary biology, functional genomics, genetics of complex diseases, and pharmacogenomics. PMID:22708063

  8. Sequence diversity, natural selection and linkage disequilibrium in the human T cell receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Livingston, Robert J; Eberle, Michael A; Carlson, Christopher S; Yi, Qian; Akey, Joshua M; Nickerson, Deborah A

    2006-04-01

    T cell receptors (TR), through their interaction with the major histocompatibility complex, play a central role in immune responsiveness and potentially immune-related disorders. We resequenced all 57 variable (V) genes in the human T cell receptor alpha and delta (TRA/TRD) locus in 40 individuals of Northern European, Mexican, African-American and Chinese descent. Two hundred and eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The distribution of SNPs between V genes was heterogeneous, with an average of five SNPs per gene and a range of zero to 15. We describe the patterns of linkage disequilibrium for these newly discovered SNPs and compare these patterns with other emerging large-scale datasets (e.g. Perlegen and HapMap projects) to place our findings into a framework for future analysis of genotype-phenotype associations across this locus. Furthermore, we explore signatures of natural selection across V genes. We find evidence of strong directional selection at this locus as evidenced by unusually high values of Fst.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium analysis in young populations: Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets and the founder effect in French Canadians

    SciTech Connect

    Labuda, M.; Glorieux, F.H.; Labuda, D.; Korab-Laskowska, M.

    1996-09-01

    Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) was mapped close to D12S90 and between proximal D12S312 and distal (D12S305, D12S104) microsatellites that were subsequently found on a single YAC clone. Analysis of a complex haplotype in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the disease discriminated among distinct founder effects in French Canadian populations in Acadia and in Charlevoix-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Ch-SLSJ), as well as an earlier one in precolonial Europe. A simple demographic model suggested the historical age of the founder effect in Ch-SLSJ to be {approximately}12 generations. The corresponding LD data are consistent with this figure when they are analyzed within the framework of Luria-Delbruck model, which takes into account the population growth. Population sampling due to a limited number of first settlers and the rapid demographic expansion appear to have played a major role in the founding of PDDR in Ch-SLSJ and, presumably, other genetic disorders endemic to French Canada. Similarly, the founder effect in Ashkenazim, coinciding with their early settlement in medieval Poland and subsequent expansion eastward, could explain the origin of frequent genetic diseases in this population. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium between the FES, D15S127, and BLM loci in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, N.A.; Roe, A.M.; Kozloski, J.; Proytcheva, M.; Falk, C.; German, J.

    1994-09-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. Approximately 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries blm, the BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome subband 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. The authors have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of blm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking association of the C3 allele at FES with blm ({Delta} = .422; p = 5.52 x 10{sup {minus}7}) and of the 145-bp and 147-bp alleles at D15S127 with blm ({Delta} = .392 and {Delta} = .483, respectively; p = 2.8 x 10{sup {minus}5} and p = 5.4 x 10{sup {minus}7}, respectively) was detected in Ashkenazi Jews with BS. This linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis; the chromosome in the hypothetical founder who carried blm also carried the C3 allele at FES and either the 145-bp or the 147-bp allele at D15S127. 32 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca e; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis. PMID:27007903

  12. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits.

    PubMed

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca E; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.

  13. Effect of Two- and Three-Locus Linkage Disequilibrium on the Power to Detect Marker/Phenotype Associations

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Dahlia M.; Ehm, Margaret G.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Weir, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in describing the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) along a chromosome. Most empirical studies that have examined this issue have concentrated on LD between collections of pairs of markers and have not considered the joint effect of a group of markers beyond these pairwise connections. Here, we examine many different patterns of LD defined by both pairwise and joint multilocus LD terms. The LD patterns we considered were chosen in part by examining those seen in real data. We examine how changes in these patterns affect the power to detect association when performing single-marker and haplotype-based case-control tests, including a novel haplotype test based on contrasting LD between affected and unaffected individuals. Through our studies we find that differences in power between single-marker tests and haplotype-based tests in general do not appear to be large. Where moderate to high levels of multilocus LD exist, haplotype tests tend to be more powerful. Single-marker tests tend to prevail when pairwise LD is high. For moderate pairwise values and weak multilocus LD, either testing strategy may come out ahead, although it is also quite likely that neither has much power. PMID:15514073

  14. Linkage disequilibrium mapping identifies a 390 kb region associated with CYP2D6 poor drug metabolising activity.

    PubMed

    Hosking, L K; Boyd, P R; Xu, C F; Nissum, M; Cantone, K; Purvis, I J; Khakhar, R; Barnes, M R; Liberwirth, U; Hagen-Mann, K; Ehm, M G; Riley, J H

    2002-01-01

    The cytochrome p450 enzyme, CYP2D6, metabolises approximately 20% of marketed drugs. CYP2D6 multiple variants are associated with altered enzyme activities. Genotyping 1018 Caucasians for CYP2D6 polymorphisms (G1846A, delT1707, delA2549 and A2935C), known to result in the recessive CYP2D6 poor drug metaboliser (PM) phenotype, identified 41 individuals with predicted PM phenotype. These 41 individuals were classified as 'cases'. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping within an 880 kb region flanking CYP2D6, were identified to evaluate potential association between genetic variation and the CYP2D6 PM phenotype. The 41 PM cases and 977 controls were genotyped and analysed for 27 SNPs. Associations were observed across a 390 kb region between 14 SNPs and the PM phenotype (P values from 6.20 x 10(-4) to 4.54 x 10(-35)). Haplotype analysis revealed more significant levels of association (P = 3.54 x 10(-56)). Strong (D' > 0.7) linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNPs was observed across the same 390 kb region associated with the CYP2D6 phenotype. The observed phenotype:genotype association reached genome-wide levels of significance, and supports the strategy for potential application of LD mapping and whole genome association scans to pharmacogenetic studies.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium analysis in young populations: pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets and the founder effect in French Canadians.

    PubMed Central

    Labuda, M.; Labuda, D.; Korab-Laskowska, M.; Cole, D. E.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Weissenbach, J.; Popowska, E.; Pronicka, E.; Root, A. W.; Glorieux, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) was mapped close to D12S90 and between proximal D12S312 and distal (D12S305, D12S104) microsatellites that were subsequently found on a single YAC clone. Analysis of a complex haplotype in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the disease discriminated among distinct founder effects in French Canadian populations in Acadia and in Charlevoix-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Ch-SLSJ), as well as an earlier one in precolonial Europe. A simple demographic model suggested the historical age of the founder effect in Ch-SLSJ to be approximately 12 generations. The corresponding LD data are consistent with this figure when they are analyzed within the framework of Luria-Delbrück model, which takes into account the population growth. Population sampling due to a limited number of first settlers and the rapid demographic expansion appear to have played a major role in the founding of PDDR in Ch-SLSJ and, presumably, other genetic disorders endemic to French Canada. Similarly, the founder effect in Ashkenazim, coinciding with their early settlement in medieval Poland and subsequent expansion eastward, could explain the origin of frequent genetic diseases in this population. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8751865

  16. Development of an Alfalfa SNP Array and Its Use to Evaluate Patterns of Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuehui; Han, Yuanhong; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Farmer, Andrew D.; Ho, Julie; Monteros, Maria J.; Brummer, E. Charles

    2014-01-01

    A large set of genome-wide markers and a high-throughput genotyping platform can facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits and accelerate molecular breeding applications. Previously, we identified about 0.9 million SNP markers by sequencing transcriptomes of 27 diverse alfalfa genotypes. From this SNP set, we developed an Illumina Infinium array containing 9,277 SNPs. Using this array, we genotyped 280 diverse alfalfa genotypes and several genotypes from related species. About 81% (7,476) of the SNPs met the criteria for quality control and showed polymorphisms. The alfalfa SNP array also showed a high level of transferability for several closely related Medicago species. Principal component analysis and model-based clustering showed clear population structure corresponding to subspecies and ploidy levels. Within cultivated tetraploid alfalfa, genotypes from dormant and nondormant cultivars were largely assigned to different clusters; genotypes from semidormant cultivars were split between the groups. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across all genotypes rapidly decayed to 26 Kbp at r2 = 0.2, but the rate varied across ploidy levels and subspecies. A high level of consistency in LD was found between and within the two subpopulations of cultivated dormant and nondormant alfalfa suggesting that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS) could be conducted using alfalfa genotypes from throughout the fall dormancy spectrum. However, the relatively low LD levels would require a large number of markers to fully saturate the genome. PMID:24416217

  17. Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium caused by an inversion polymorphism in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, L Y; Maney, D L; Thomas, J W

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been of long-standing interest to geneticists because they are capable of suppressing recombination and facilitating the formation of adaptive gene complexes. An exceptional inversion polymorphism (ZAL2m) in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is linked to variation in plumage, social behavior and mate choice, and is maintained in the population by negative assortative mating. The ZAL2m polymorphism is a complex inversion spanning >100 Mb and has been proposed to be a strong suppressor of recombination, as well as a potential model for studying neo-sex chromosome evolution. To quantify and evaluate these features of the ZAL2m polymorphism, we generated sequence from 8 ZAL2m and 16 ZAL2 chromosomes at 58 loci inside and 4 loci outside the inversion. Inside the inversion we found that recombination was completely suppressed between ZAL2 and ZAL2m, resulting in uniformly high levels of genetic differentiation (FST=0.94), the formation of two distinct haplotype groups representing the alternate chromosome arrangements and extensive linkage disequilibrium spanning ∼104 Mb within the inversion, whereas gene flow was not suppressed outside the inversion. Finally, although ZAL2m homozygotes are exceedingly rare in the population, occurring at a frequency of <1%, we detected evidence of historical recombination between ZAL2m chromosomes inside the inversion, refuting its potential status as a non-recombining autosome. PMID:20571514

  18. Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium caused by an inversion polymorphism in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Huynh, L Y; Maney, D L; Thomas, J W

    2011-04-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been of long-standing interest to geneticists because they are capable of suppressing recombination and facilitating the formation of adaptive gene complexes. An exceptional inversion polymorphism (ZAL2(m)) in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is linked to variation in plumage, social behavior and mate choice, and is maintained in the population by negative assortative mating. The ZAL2(m) polymorphism is a complex inversion spanning > 100 Mb and has been proposed to be a strong suppressor of recombination, as well as a potential model for studying neo-sex chromosome evolution. To quantify and evaluate these features of the ZAL2(m) polymorphism, we generated sequence from 8 ZAL2(m) and 16 ZAL2 chromosomes at 58 loci inside and 4 loci outside the inversion. Inside the inversion we found that recombination was completely suppressed between ZAL2 and ZAL2(m), resulting in uniformly high levels of genetic differentiation (F(ST)=0.94), the formation of two distinct haplotype groups representing the alternate chromosome arrangements and extensive linkage disequilibrium spanning ~104 Mb within the inversion, whereas gene flow was not suppressed outside the inversion. Finally, although ZAL2(m) homozygotes are exceedingly rare in the population, occurring at a frequency of < 1%, we detected evidence of historical recombination between ZAL2(m) chromosomes inside the inversion, refuting its potential status as a non-recombining autosome.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Extensive Linkage Disequilibrium in the Achaete-Scute Complex of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. N.; Weir, B. S.; Leigh-Brown, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the level of gametic association between restriction map variants in a sample of 44 X chromosomes from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. Of 21 pairwise tests involving 7 restriction map polymorphisms in the yellow-achaete-scute complex, 17 were found to be significant, including some between restriction sites over 80 kb apart. Three-way linkage disequilibria and their variances were also estimated for all 35 three-way comparisons between these loci. Twelve such tests were found to be significant, again spanning distances of up to 80 kb on the restriction map. Only 9 of a possible 128 haplotypes were represented in the sample and 8 of these could be linked together by changes at a single site. The strength of these associations at y-ac-sc is unusual by comparison with studies on other regions of the genome of D. melanogaster, and is consistent with the very low level of recombination which has been reported for the complex. However, our estimate of nucleotide diversity in the region is not significantly different from those made for some other loci in this species. PMID:2121592

  1. Beta s gene in Central Iran is in linkage disequilibrium with the Indian-Arab haplotype.

    PubMed

    Rahgozar, S; Poorfathollah, A A; Moafi, A R; Old, J M

    2000-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is not considered to be a significant disease in Iran, although the sickle cell trait is estimated to have a high incidence in the Southern provinces. Since 1977, when the presence of a mild sickle cell anemia was reported in this country, there have been no further investigations published giving precise data on the incidence and origins of the sickle cell mutation in Iran. We report here the finding of patients with the sickle cell trait, sickle cell anemia, and sickle-beta thalassemia in Central Iran. A survey of 300 individuals from a village in Southeast Esfahan revealed an incidence of the sickle cell trait of 8.33%. "Cascade screening" enabled 96 relatives in four surrounding villages to be tested, and the at-risk couples were offered counseling as a "sickle cell control program." The hematological indices and HbF levels of the affected patients were determined. The HbF levels were unusually high, ranging from 18% to 41.4%, and SS patients with the highest levels were asymptomatic. Linkage analysis revealed the betaS gene haplotype in this population to be the Indian-Arab haplotype.

  2. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  3. Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Almeida, Aldo; Davenport, Brittany; Davidson, Joshua; Reddy, C V Chandra Mohan; Hankins, Gerald; Ebert, Andreas; Choi, Doil; Stommel, John; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST ) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9-2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers.

  4. A genomewide linkage-disequilibrium scan localizes the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean cytochrome oxidase deficiency to 2p16.

    PubMed

    Lee, N; Daly, M J; Delmonte, T; Lander, E S; Xu, F; Hudson, T J; Mitchell, G A; Morin, C C; Robinson, B H; Rioux, J D

    2001-02-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) affects 1/40,000 newborn infants in the worldwide population and is characterized by the presence of developmental delay and lactic acidosis and by a mean life expectancy variously estimated at 3-5 years. Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency (LS French-Canadian type [LSFC] [MIM 220111]), an autosomal recessive form of congenital lactic acidosis, presents with developmental delay and hypotonia. It is an LS variant that is found in a geographically isolated region of Quebec and that occurs in 1/2,178 live births. Patients with LSFC show a phenotype similar to that of patients with LS, but the two groups differ in clinical presentation. We studied DNA samples from 14 patients with LSFC and from their parents, representing a total of 13 families. Because of founder effects in the SLSJ region, considerable linkage disequilibrium (LD) was expected to surround the LSFC mutation. We therefore performed a genomewide screen for LD, using 290 autosomal microsatellite markers. A single marker, D2S1356, located on 2p16, showed significant (P < 10(-5)) genomewide LD. Using high-resolution genetic mapping with additional markers and four additional families with LSFC, we were able to identify a common ancestral haplotype and to limit the critical region to approximately 2 cM between D2S119 and D2S2174. COX7AR, a gene encoding a COX7a-related protein, had previously been mapped to this region. We determined the genomic structure and resequenced this gene in patients with LSFC and in controls but found no functional mutations. Although the LSFC gene remains to be elucidated, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of using a genomewide LD strategy to localize the critical region for a rare genetic disease in a founder population.

  5. Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L.; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Almeida, Aldo; Davenport, Brittany; Davidson, Joshua; Reddy, C. V. Chandra Mohan; Hankins, Gerald; Ebert, Andreas; Choi, Doil; Stommel, John; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9–2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers. PMID:27857720

  6. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Newell, M A; Cook, D; Tinker, N A; Jannink, J-L

    2011-02-01

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of a high-throughput, high-density marker system. The objectives of this research were to survey the level of population structure and the extent of LD in oat germplasm and determine their implications for GWAS. In total, 1,205 lines and 402 diversity array technology (DArT) markers were used to explore population structure. Principal component analysis and model-based cluster analysis of these data indicated that, for the lines used in this study, relatively weak population structure exists. To explore LD decay, map distances of 2,225 linked DArT marker pairs were compared with LD (estimated as r²). Results showed that LD between linked markers decayed rapidly to r² = 0.2 for marker pairs with a map distance of 1.0 centi-Morgan (cM). For GWAS, we suggest a minimum of one marker every cM, but higher densities of markers should increase marker-QTL association and therefore detection power. Additionally, it was found that LD was relatively consistent across the majority of germplasm clusters. These findings suggest that GWAS in oat can include germplasm with diverse origins and backgrounds. The results from this research demonstrate the feasibility of GWAS and related analyses in oat.

  7. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  8. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. Copyright © 2015 Westbrook et al.

  9. Disequilibrium mapping: Composite likelihood for pairwise disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, B.; Roeder, K.; Risch, N.

    1996-08-15

    The pattern of linkage disequilibrium between a disease locus and a set of marker loci has been shown to be a useful tool for geneticists searching for disease genes. Several methods have been advanced to utilize the pairwise disequilibrium between the disease locus and each of a set of marker loci. However, none of the methods take into account the information from all pairs simultaneously while also modeling the variability in the disequilibrium values due to the evolutionary dynamics of the population. We propose a Composite Likelihood CL model that has these features when the physical distances between the marker loci are known or can be approximated. In this instance, and assuming that there is a single disease mutation, the CL model depends on only three parameters, the recombination fraction between the disease locus and an arbitrary marker locus, {theta}, the age of the mutation, and a variance parameter. When the CL is maximized over a grid of {theta}, it provides a graph that can direct the search for the disease locus. We also show how the CL model can be generalized to account for multiple disease mutations. Evolutionary simulations demonstrate the power of the analyses, as well as their potential weaknesses. Finally, we analyze the data from two mapped diseases, cystic fibrosis and diastrophic dysplasia, finding that the CL method performs well in both cases. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Evidence, from family studies, for linkage disequilibrium between TGFA and a gene for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hongshu; Lee, A.; Gasser, D.L.; Sassani, R.; Bartlett, S.P.; Buetow, K.H.; Hecht, J.T.; Malcolm, S.; Winter, R.M.; Vintiner, G.M.

    1994-11-01

    The inheritance of alleles of the transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) locus has been studied in families affected with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), by using the transmission/disequilibrium test described by Spielman and colleagues. Only heterozygous parents with an affected child can be included in this test, but within such families a significantly greater frequency of C2 alleles were transmitted to affected children than would be expected by chance. There was no evidence that the total number of C2 alleles transmitted to affected and unaffected children differed significantly from random segregation. These data provide evidence from within families that a gene for susceptibility to CL/P is in significant linkage disequilibrium with the C2 allele of the TGFA locus. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    PubMed Central

    Fusari, Corina M; Lia, Verónica V; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A; Paniego, Norma B

    2008-01-01

    Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD) and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and short insertion and/or deletions (indels) to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056), as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88). Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2), with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1). Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data) than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance). Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop improvement

  12. FastTagger: an efficient algorithm for genome-wide tag SNP selection using multi-marker linkage disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human genome contains millions of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and these SNPs play an important role in understanding the association between genetic variations and human diseases. Many SNPs show correlated genotypes, or linkage disequilibrium (LD), thus it is not necessary to genotype all SNPs for association study. Many algorithms have been developed to find a small subset of SNPs called tag SNPs that are sufficient to infer all the other SNPs. Algorithms based on the r2 LD statistic have gained popularity because r2 is directly related to statistical power to detect disease associations. Most of existing r2 based algorithms use pairwise LD. Recent studies show that multi-marker LD can help further reduce the number of tag SNPs. However, existing tag SNP selection algorithms based on multi-marker LD are both time-consuming and memory-consuming. They cannot work on chromosomes containing more than 100 k SNPs using length-3 tagging rules. Results We propose an efficient algorithm called FastTagger to calculate multi-marker tagging rules and select tag SNPs based on multi-marker LD. FastTagger uses several techniques to reduce running time and memory consumption. Our experiment results show that FastTagger is several times faster than existing multi-marker based tag SNP selection algorithms, and it consumes much less memory at the same time. As a result, FastTagger can work on chromosomes containing more than 100 k SNPs using length-3 tagging rules. FastTagger also produces smaller sets of tag SNPs than existing multi-marker based algorithms, and the reduction ratio ranges from 3%-9% when length-3 tagging rules are used. The generated tagging rules can also be used for genotype imputation. We studied the prediction accuracy of individual rules, and the average accuracy is above 96% when r2 ≥ 0.9. Conclusions Generating multi-marker tagging rules is a computation intensive task, and it is the bottleneck of existing multi-marker based tag

  13. Linkage disequilibrium and association analysis of alpha-synuclein and alcohol and drug dependence in two American Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Clarimon, Jordi; Gray, Rebecca R; Williams, Lindsey N; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Robin, Robert W; Albaugh, Bernard; Singleton, Andrew; Goldman, David; Mulligan, Connie J

    2007-04-01

    Alpha-synuclein is involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission and has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies, in humans and in rat and monkey models, have suggested that alpha-synuclein may play a role in the development and maintenance of certain addictive disorders. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) and 1 upstream microsatellite repeat (NACP-REP1) were assayed in Southwest (SW; n=514) and Plains (n=420) American Indian populations. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) at SNCA were determined for the 2 populations and compared with Caucasian, African, and Asian populations in the HapMap database (http://www.hapmap.org). Assayed alleles and constructed haplotypes in the study populations were tested for association with 4 clinical phenotypes [alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders, drug dependence, and drug use disorders (lifetime diagnoses)] as well as with 2 symptom count phenotypes (all 18 questions and the 8 questions diagnostic for alcohol dependence). Patterns of LD at SNCA were similar in both Indian populations and were consistent with the LD structure in other populations as reflected in the HapMap database. Single allele tests revealed significant associations between 4 SNPs and drug dependence in the SW population and between 2 of those SNPs plus 2 other SNPs and drug dependence in SW males only. In the Plains population, a significant association was detected only in males between 2 SNPs and alcohol use disorders and between 1 SNP and alcohol dependence. In the SW population, 1 SNP was marginally significant with the total symptom count. However, in all cases, the support was modest and disappeared with correction for multiple comparisons. No association was found between constructed haplotypes and any of the phenotypes in either population. Despite modest support for association between multiple SNCA SNPs and several of the addictive

  14. Mapping the Rust Resistant Loci MXC3 and MER in P. trichocarpa and Assessing the Intermarker Linkage Disequilibrium in MXC3 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Tongming; Difazio, Stephen P.; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of Melampsora rust resistance in Populus trichocarpa, we have mapped two resistance loci, MXC3 and MER, and intensively characterized the flanking genomic sequence for the MXC3 locus and the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations. We used an interspecific backcross pedigree and a genetic map that was highly saturated with AFLP and SSR markers, and assembled shotgun-sequence data in the region containing markers linked to MXC3. The two loci were mapped to different linkage groups. Linkage disequilibrium for MXC3 was confined to two closely linked regions spanning 34 and 16 kb, respectively. The MXC3 region also contained six disease-resistance candidate genes. The MER and MXC3 loci are clearly distinct, and may have different mechanisms of resistance, as different classes of putative resistance genes were present near each locus. The suppressed recombination previously observed in the MXC3 region was possibly caused by extensive hemizygous rearrangements confined to the original parent tree. The relatively low observed LD may facilitate association studies using candidate genes for rust resistance, but will probably inhibit marker-aided selection.

  15. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S

    2016-08-09

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. Copyright © 2016 Berg et al.

  17. Cubic exact solutions for the estimation of pairwise haplotype frequencies: implications for linkage disequilibrium analyses and a web tool 'CubeX'

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Tom R; Rodríguez, Santiago; Day, Ian NM

    2007-01-01

    Background The frequency of a haplotype comprising one allele at each of two loci can be expressed as a cubic equation (the 'Hill equation'), the solution of which gives that frequency. Most haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis programs use iteration-based algorithms which substitute an estimate of haplotype frequency into the equation, producing a new estimate which is repeatedly fed back into the equation until the values converge to a maximum likelihood estimate (expectation-maximisation). Results We present a program, "CubeX", which calculates the biologically possible exact solution(s) and provides estimated haplotype frequencies, D', r2 and χ2 values for each. CubeX provides a "complete" analysis of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium for a pair of biallelic markers under situations where sampling variation and genotyping errors distort sample Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, potentially causing more than one biologically possible solution. We also present an analysis of simulations and real data using the algebraically exact solution, which indicates that under perfect sample Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium there is only one biologically possible solution, but that under other conditions there may be more. Conclusion Our analyses demonstrate that lower allele frequencies, lower sample numbers, population stratification and a possible |D'| value of 1 are particularly susceptible to distortion of sample Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which has significant implications for calculation of linkage disequilibrium in small sample sizes (eg HapMap) and rarer alleles (eg paucimorphisms, q < 0.05) that may have particular disease relevance and require improved approaches for meaningful evaluation. PMID:17980034

  18. Cubic exact solutions for the estimation of pairwise haplotype frequencies: implications for linkage disequilibrium analyses and a web tool 'CubeX'.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Tom R; Rodríguez, Santiago; Day, Ian Nm

    2007-11-02

    The frequency of a haplotype comprising one allele at each of two loci can be expressed as a cubic equation (the 'Hill equation'), the solution of which gives that frequency. Most haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis programs use iteration-based algorithms which substitute an estimate of haplotype frequency into the equation, producing a new estimate which is repeatedly fed back into the equation until the values converge to a maximum likelihood estimate (expectation-maximisation). We present a program, "CubeX", which calculates the biologically possible exact solution(s) and provides estimated haplotype frequencies, D', r2 and chi2 values for each. CubeX provides a "complete" analysis of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium for a pair of biallelic markers under situations where sampling variation and genotyping errors distort sample Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, potentially causing more than one biologically possible solution. We also present an analysis of simulations and real data using the algebraically exact solution, which indicates that under perfect sample Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium there is only one biologically possible solution, but that under other conditions there may be more. Our analyses demonstrate that lower allele frequencies, lower sample numbers, population stratification and a possible |D'| value of 1 are particularly susceptible to distortion of sample Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which has significant implications for calculation of linkage disequilibrium in small sample sizes (eg HapMap) and rarer alleles (eg paucimorphisms, q < 0.05) that may have particular disease relevance and require improved approaches for meaningful evaluation.

  19. Linkage Disequilibrium for Two X-Linked Genes in Sardinia and Its Bearing on the Statistical Mapping of the Human X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, G.; Rinaldi, A.; Palmarino, R.; Seravalli, E.; Siniscalco, M.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of four X-linked mutants (G6PD, Deutan, Protan and Xg) among lowland and once highly malarial populations of Sardinia discloses a clear-cut example of linkage disequilibrium between two of them (G6PD and Protan). In the same populations the distribution of G6PD-deficiency versus colorblindness of the Deutan type and the Xg blood-group is not significantly different from that expected at equilibrium. These data suggest indirectly that the loci for G6PD and Protan may be nearer to one another than those for G6PD and Deutan. PMID:301840

  20. Linkage disequilibrium between two distinct loci in chromosomes 5 and 7 of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Happi, C T; Gbotosho, G O; Folarin, O A; Sowunmi, A; Bolaji, O M; Fateye, B A; Kyle, D E; Milhous, W; Wirth, D F; Oduola, A M J

    2006-12-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with polymorphisms in loci on pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes. In this study, we determined the association and linkage disequilibrium between in vivo CQ resistance and P. falciparum polymorphisms in pfcrt gene at codon 76 and pfmdr1 gene at codon 86 in isolates obtained from 111 children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nigeria. Patients were treated with standard dosage of CQ and followed up for 28 days. Filter paper samples were collected at enrollment and during follow-up for parasites genotypes and identification of pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations. Association and linkage disequilibrium between mutant pfcrtT76 and pfmdr1Y86 alleles in pretreatment isolates of P. falciparum was determined. Fifty-five out of the 111 patients (49.5%) failed treatment. Single mutant pfcrtT76 or pfmdr1Y86 alleles were found in 55 out of 111 P. falciparum isolates screened at enrollment. Of these 55 isolates, the mutant pfcrtT76 and pfmdr1Y86 alleles were found in 84%. Both mutant pfcrtT76 (p=0.0196) and pfmdr1Y86 (p=0.000042) alleles were associated with in vivo CQ resistance. In addition, the mutant pfcrtT76 (p=0.047) and pfmdr1Y86 (p=0.006) alleles were significantly selected by CQ in patients who failed treatment. Association analysis between paired single alleles at pfcrt and pfmdr1 loci showed a significant association (p=0.0349 and chi(2)=4.45) between the pfcrt T76 allele on chromosome 7 and the pfmdr1Y86 allele on chromosome 5 and that these two mutant alleles were in linkage disequilibrium (p=0.000, D'=0.64, and r(2)=0.28). Considering the high level of CQ resistance and drug use in the study area, the observed linkage disequilibrium between the mutant pfcrtT76 and pfmdr1Y86 alleles is maintained epistatically through directional CQ selective pressure.

  1. New generation pharmacogenomic tools: a SNP linkage disequilibrium Map, validated SNP assay resource, and high-throughput instrumentation system for large-scale genetic studies.

    PubMed

    De La Vega, Francisco M; Dailey, David; Ziegle, Janet; Williams, Julie; Madden, Dawn; Gilbert, Dennis A

    2002-06-01

    Since public and private efforts announced the first draft of the human genome last year, researchers have reported great numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We believe that the availability of well-mapped, quality SNP markers constitutes the gateway to a revolution in genetics and personalized medicine that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of common complex disorders. A new generation of tools and public SNP resources for pharmacogenomic and genetic studies--specifically for candidate-gene, candidate-region, and whole-genome association studies--will form part of the new scientific landscape. This will only be possible through the greater accessibility of SNP resources and superior high-throughput instrumentation-assay systems that enable affordable, highly productive large-scale genetic studies. We are contributing to this effort by developing a high-quality linkage disequilibrium SNP marker map and an accompanying set of ready-to-use, validated SNP assays across every gene in the human genome. This effort incorporates both the public sequence and SNP data sources, and Celera Genomics' human genome assembly and enormous resource ofphysically mapped SNPs (approximately 4,000,000 unique records). This article discusses our approach and methodology for designing the map, choosing quality SNPs, designing and validating these assays, and obtaining population frequency ofthe polymorphisms. We also discuss an advanced, high-performance SNP assay chemisty--a new generation of the TaqMan probe-based, 5' nuclease assay-and high-throughput instrumentation-software system for large-scale genotyping. We provide the new SNP map and validation information, validated SNP assays and reagents, and instrumentation systems as a novel resource for genetic discoveries.

  2. Fine mapping of the gene for carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type I (CDG1): Linkage disequilibrium and founder effect in Scandinavian families

    SciTech Connect

    Bjursell, C.; Wahlstroem, J.; Martinsson, T.

    1997-02-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I (CDG I) is characterized clinically by severe nervous system involvement and biochemically by defects in the carbohydrate residues in a number of serum glycoproteins. The CDG1 gene was recently localized by us to a 13-cM interval in chromosome region 16p13. In this study 44 CDG I families from nine countries were analyzed with available markers in a region ranging from marker D16S495 to D16S497, and haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed. One specific haplotype was found to be markedly overrepresented in CDG I patients from a geographically distinct region in Scandinavia, strongly indicating that CDG I families in this region share the same ancestral CDG1 mutation. Furthermore, analysis of the extent of the common haplotype in these families indicates that the CDG1 gene is located in the region defined by markers D16S513-AFMa284wd5-Dl6S768-Dl6S406-D16S502. The critical CDG1 region, in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers AFMa284wd5, D16S768, and D16S406, thus constitutes less than 1 Mb of DNA and less than 1 cM in the very distal part of the CDG1 region defined by us previously. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Lack of concordance and linkage disequilibrium among brothers for androgenetic alopecia and CAG/GGC haplotypes of the androgen receptor gene in Mexican families.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Vázquez, Jazmín; López-Hernández, María A; Svyryd, Yevgeniya; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M

    2015-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or common baldness is the most prevalent form of hair loss in males. Familial predisposition has been recognized, and heritability estimated in monozygotic twins suggests an important genetic predisposition. Several studies indicate that the numbers of CAG/GGC repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (AR) maybe associated with AGA susceptibility. To investigate a possible correlation between AR CAG/GGC haplotypes and the presence or not of alopecia in sibships with two or more brothers among them at least one of them has AGA. Thirty-two trios including an alopecic man, one brother alopecic or not, and their mother were enrolled. Sanger sequencing of the exon 1 of the AR gene was conducted to ascertain the number of CAG/GGC repeats in each individual. Heterozygous mother for the CAG/GGC haplotypes was an inclusion criterion to analyze the segregation haplotype patterns in the family. Concordance for the number of repeats and AGA among brothers was evaluated using kappa coefficient and the probability of association in the presence of genetic linkage between CAG and GGC repeats and AGA estimated by means of the family-based association test (FBAT). The median for the CAG and GGC repeats in the AR is similar to that reported in other populations. The CAG/GGC haplotypes were less polymorphic than that reported in other studies, especially due to the GGC number of repeats found. Kappa coefficient resulted in a concordance of 37.3% (IC 95%, 5.0-69.0%) for the AGA phenotype and identical CAG/GGC haplotypes. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Our results do not confirm a possible correlation or linkage disequilibrium between the CAG/GGC haplotypes of the AR gene and androgenetic alopecia in Mexican brothers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinyu; Chen, Yuanli; Zeng, Zheng; Shu, Chang; Long, Lu; Lu, Jianhua; Huang, Yangxin; Yin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU). This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT), provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT) and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT) are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  5. Lack of association or linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the 5-HT1Dalpha and 5-HT1Dbeta autoreceptor genes: family-based association study.

    PubMed

    Ambrósio, Alda M; Kennedy, James L; Macciardi, Fabio; Coelho, Isabel; Soares, Maria J; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pato, Carlos N

    2004-07-01

    Genetic factors play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia and disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in this disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine genetic association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the 5-HT1Dalpha (TaqI) and 5-HT1Dbeta (T261G and G861C) autoreceptor genes in ninety trios from Portugal. No association or linkage disequilibrium was obtained between schizophrenia and 5-HT1Dalpha and 5-HT1Dbeta autoreceptor genes with both haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Concerning 5-HT1Dbeta autoreceptor gene, also negative results was obtained in the analysis of the haplotypes with transmit. Thus, our data provide no support for the hypothesis that polymorphisms at 5-HT1Dalpha (TaqI) and 5-HT1Dbeta (T261G and G861C) genes contributes to susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Portuguese population. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, D O; Oura, C A L; Spooner, P R; Kiara, H; Mburu, D; Hanotte, O H; Bishop, R P

    2006-07-01

    Theileria parva schizont-infected lymphocyte culture isolates from western, central and coastal Kenya were analysed for size polymorphism at 30 T. parva-specific variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci using a panel of mini- and micro-satellite markers. The mean number of alleles ranged from 3 to 11 at individual loci and 183 distinct alleles were observed in total, indicating high genetic diversity within the T. parva gene pool in Kenyan cattle. The frequency distribution of the length variation of specific alleles among isolates ranged from normal to markedly discontinuous. Genetic relationships between isolates were analysed using standard indices of genetic distance. Genetic distances and dendrograms derived from these using neighbour-joining algorithms did not indicate significant clustering on a geographical basis. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that the genetic variation between individual isolates was 72%, but only 2.3% when isolates from different regions were pooled. Both these observations suggest minimal genetic sub-structuring relative to geographical origin. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci within populations, as in certain Ugandan T. parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis.

  7. The genetic differences with whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping between responder and non-responder in interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-J; Hwang, Y; Lin, C G-J; Wu, Y-J; Wu, L S-H

    2008-04-01

    Interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy has been a mainstream treatment for hepatitis C infection. The efficacy of this combined treatment is around 30% to 60%, and the factors affecting the responsiveness are still poorly defined. Our study is intended to investigate the genetic differences between responder and non-responder patients. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium screening for loci associated with genetic difference between two patient groups was conducted by using 382 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers involving 92 patients. We have identified 19 STR markers displaying different allele frequencies between the two patient groups. In addition, based on their genomic location and biological function, we selected the CD81 and IL15 genes to perform single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. In conclusion, this study may provide a new approach for identifying the associated polymorphisms and the susceptible loci for interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  8. HLA-A-B-C-DRB1-DQB1 phased haplotypes in 124 Nigerian families indicate extreme HLA diversity and low linkage disequilibrium in Central-West Africa.

    PubMed

    Testi, M; Battarra, M; Lucarelli, G; Isgro, A; Morrone, A; Akinyanju, O; Wakama, T; Nunes, J M; Andreani, M; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2015-10-01

    The simultaneous typing of five-HLA loci at high resolution and the availability of pedigree data allowed us to characterize extended five-locus phased haplotypes in 124 Nigerian families and to compare the observed frequencies with those expected by an expectation-maximization algorithm for unphased data. Despite the occurrence of some frequent alleles at each locus (e.g. B*53:01, which is assumed to protect against Plasmodium falciparum), as many as 82% of the sampled individuals carry two unique five-locus haplotypes and only three extended haplotypes with frequency above 1% exhibit significant linkage disequilibrium. Although preliminary, these results reveal an extreme level of HLA diversity in the Nigerian population, which reflects both its multi-ethnic composition and the very ancient demographic history of African populations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium between polymorphisms at the 5{prime} untranslated region and intron 5 (Dde I) of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene in the Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.S.H.; Liu, Y.; Low, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    A length polymorphism at the 5{prime} untranslated region of exon 1 and an RFLP (Dde I) in intron 5 (nt 160) of the ATIII gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with primers of published sequences. DNA fragments were size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis (3% NuSieve and 1% Seakem GTG) and photographed over a UV transilluminator. A strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between these two polymorphisms of the ATIII gene in the Chinese ({chi}{sup 2} = 63.7; {triangle} 0.42, P < 0.001). The estimated frequencies of the three haplotypes were found to be 0.37 for SD+, 0.40 for LD+ and 0.23 for LD-.

  10. High levels of linkage disequilibrium and associations with forage quality at a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase locus in European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Krützfeldt, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignin in the cell wall. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in lignin biosynthesis in plants; the deamination of L-phenylalanine to cinnamic acid. Successive enzymatic steps lead to the formation of three monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignin. We have cloned and sequenced a PAL genomic sequence from 32 maize inbred lines currently employed in forage maize breeding programs in Europe. Low nucleotide diversity and excessive linkage disequilibrium (LD) was identified at this PAL locus, possibly reflecting selective constrains resulting from PAL being the first enzyme in the monolignol, and other, pathways. While the association analysis was affected by extended LD and population structure, several individual polymorphisms were associated with neutral detergent fiber (not considering population structure) and a single polymorphism was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (considering population structure).

  11. A hidden Markov approach for ascertaining cSNP genotypes from RNA sequence data in the presence of allelic imbalance by exploiting linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Steibel, Juan P; Wang, Heng; Zhong, Ping-Shou

    2015-02-22

    Allelic specific expression (ASE) increases our understanding of the genetic control of gene expression and its links to phenotypic variation. ASE testing is implemented through binomial or beta-binomial tests of sequence read counts of alternative alleles at a cSNP of interest in heterozygous individuals. This requires prior ascertainment of the cSNP genotypes for all individuals. To meet the needs, we propose hidden Markov methods to call SNPs from next generation RNA sequence data when ASE possibly exists. We propose two hidden Markov models (HMMs), HMM-ASE and HMM-NASE that consider or do not consider ASE, respectively, in order to improve genotyping accuracy. Both HMMs have the advantages of calling the genotypes of several SNPs simultaneously and allow mapping error which, respectively, utilize the dependence among SNPs and correct the bias due to mapping error. In addition, HMM-ASE exploits ASE information to further improve genotype accuracy when the ASE is likely to be present. Simulation results indicate that the HMMs proposed demonstrate a very good prediction accuracy in terms of controlling both the false discovery rate (FDR) and the false negative rate (FNR). When ASE is present, the HMM-ASE had a lower FNR than HMM-NASE, while both can control the false discovery rate (FDR) at a similar level. By exploiting linkage disequilibrium (LD), a real data application demonstrate that the proposed methods have better sensitivity and similar FDR in calling heterozygous SNPs than the VarScan method. Sensitivity and FDR are similar to that of the BCFtools and Beagle methods. The resulting genotypes show good properties for the estimation of the genetic parameters and ASE ratios. We introduce HMMs, which are able to exploit LD and account for the ASE and mapping errors, to simultaneously call SNPs from the next generation RNA sequence data. The method introduced can reliably call for cSNP genotypes even in the presence of ASE and under low sequencing coverage. As

  12. Linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes explains the association of TNF-308G>A variant with type 1 diabetes in a Brazilian cohort.

    PubMed

    Patente, Thiago A; Monteiro, Maria B; Vieira, Suzana M; Rossi da Silva, Maria E; Nery, Márcia; Queiroz, Márcia; Azevedo, Mirela J; Canani, Luis H; Parisi, Maria C; Pavin, Elizabeth J; Mainardi, Débora; Javor, Juraj; Velho, Gilberto; Coimbra, Cássio N; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia

    2015-08-15

    A functional variant in the promoter region of the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF; rs1800629, -308G>A) showed to confer susceptibility to T1D. However, TNF rs1800629 was found, in several populations, to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA susceptibility haplotypes to T1D. We evaluated the association of TNF rs1800629 with T1D in a cohort of Brazilian subjects, and assessed the impact of HLA susceptibility haplotypes in this association. 659 subjects with T1D and 539 control subjects were genotyped for TNF-308G>A variant. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes were genotyped in a subset of 313 subjects with T1D and 139 control subjects. Associations with T1D were observed for the A-allele of rs1800629 (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.33-2.15, p<0.0001, in a codominant model) and for 3 HLA haplotypes: DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.23-8.59, p<0.0001), DRB1*04:01-DQB1*03:02 (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21-7.21, p=0.01) and DRB1*04:02-DQB1*03:02 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02-4.50, p=0.04). Linkage disequilibrium was observed between TNF rs1800629 and HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles. In a stepwise regression analysis HLA haplotypes, but not TNF rs1800629, remained independently associated with T1D. Our results do not support an independent effect of allelic variations of TNF in the genetic susceptibility to T1D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-associated susceptibility to type 1 diabetes is caused by linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR3 haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Kaur, Gurvinder; Tandon, Nikhil; Mehra, Narinder

    2012-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). The TNF gene locus is located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region and its genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with T1D. However, it is not clear whether these associations are primary or caused by their linkage disequilibrium with other predisposing genes within the MHC. We have tested 2 TNF-α single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions -308G/A and -238G/A in the 5' untranslated region and a (GT)n microsatellite TNFa in the North Indian healthy population and T1D patients with known HLA-A-B-DR-DQ haplotypes. The allele frequencies of TNFa5, -308A, and -238G were determined to be significantly increased among patients compared with controls. Although the observed positive association of -238G was caused by its presence on all 3 DR3(+) groups, namely, B8-DR3-DQ2, B50-DR3-DQ2, and B58-DR3-DQ2 haplotypes associated with T1D in this population, the increase of the -308A allele was caused by its association with the latter 2 haplotypes. On the other hand, TNF -308G occurred on B8-DR3 haplotypes along with -238G and TNFa5 alleles, particularly in T1D patients with late disease onset (at >20 years of age). These results indicate that TNF associations with T1D are caused by their linkage disequilibrium with specific HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotypes in the Indian population. Because polymorphisms in the promoter region regulate TNF expression levels (e.g., -308A), they retain crucial immunological significance in the development of T1D and its management. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of Naturally Occurring Restriction Map Variation, Dopa Decarboxylase Activity Variation and Linkage Disequilibrium in the Ddc Gene Region of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Jennings-Jr, R. M.; Bland, M. M.; Laurie, C. C.; Langley, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-six second-chromosome lines of Drosophila melanogaster isolated from five natural populations were surveyed for restriction map variation in a 65-kb region surrounding the gene (Ddc) encoding dopa decarboxylase (DDC). Sixty-nine restriction sites were scored, 13 of which were polymorphic. Average heterozygosity per nucleotide was estimated to be 0.005. Eight large (0.7-5.0 kb) inserts, two small inserts (100 and 200 bp) and three small deletions (100-300 bp) were also observed across the 65-kb region. We see no evidence for a reduction in either nucleotide heterozygosity or insertion/deletion variation in the central 26-kb segment containing Ddc and a dense cluster of lethal complementation groups and transcripts (>/=9 genes) compared to that seen in the adjacent regions (totaling 39 kb) in which only a single gene and transcript has been detected, or to that observed for other gene regions in D. melanogaster. The distribution of restriction site variation shows no significant departure from that expected under an equilibrium neutral model. However insertions and deletions show a significant departure from neutrality in that they are too rare in frequency, consistent with them being deleterious on average. Significant linkage disequilibrium among variants exists across much of the 65-kb region. Lower regional rates of recombination combined with the influence of polymorphic chromosomal inversions, rather than epistatic selection among genes in the dense cluster, probably are sufficient explanations for the creation and/or maintenance of the linkage disequilibrium observed in the Ddc region. We have also assayed adult DDC enzyme activity in these same lines. Twofold variation in activity among lines is observed within our sample. Significant associations are observed between level of DDC enzyme activity and restriction map variants. Surprisingly, one line with a 5.0-kb insert within an intron and one line with a 1.5-kb insert near the 5' end of Ddc each show

  15. The evolutionary history of Drosophila buzzatii. XXXII. Linkage disequilibrium between allozymes and chromosome inversions in two colonizing populations.

    PubMed

    Betrán, E; Quezada-Díaz, J E; Ruiz, A; Santos, M; Fontdevila, A

    1995-02-01

    Chromosome polymorphism in Drosophila buzzatii is under selection but the genes responsible for the effect of the inversions of fitness are unknown. On the other hand, there is evidence for selection on several allozyme loci but the presence of paracentric inversions on the second chromosome, where most of the polymorphic loci are located, complicates the interpretation. Studies of the associations between allozymes and inversions are thus necessary to help understand the effect of selection at both the chromosomal and allozymic level. Until now this kind of information has only been available in D. buzzatii for two loci, Est-1 and Est-2, in Australian populations. Here we describe the genetic constitution of two Old World populations, Carboneras and Colera. Emphasis has been placed on the analysis of the linkage disequilibria between the second chromosome arrangements and three allozyme loci, Est-2, Pept-2 and Aldox, located on this chromosome. In addition, the recombination frequencies between the loci, and between the loci and the inversion breakpoints, have been estimated and a genetic map of the three loci has been produced. The two populations differ in allele and arrangement frequencies, as well as in the pattern of one-locus disequilibria. Est-2 and Aldox are associated with the second chromosome arrangements in both populations. On the other hand, Pept-2 is associated with the inversions in Colera but not in Carboneras. The gametic associations among the three loci are discussed taking into account the position of these loci on the chromosome map and the lack of recombination in the heterokaryotypes.

  16. Y-chromosome specific alleles and haplotypes in European and Asian populations: linkage disequilibrium and geographic diversity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R J; Earl, L; Fricke, B

    1997-10-01

    Variation on the Y chromosome may permit our understanding the evolution of the human paternal lineage and male gene flow. This study reports upon the distribution and non random association of alleles at four Y-chromosome specific loci in four populations, three Caucasoid (Italian, Greek and Slav) and one Asian. The markers include insertion/deletion (p12f), point mutation (92R7 and pY alpha I), and repeat sequence (p21A1) polymorphisms. Our data confirm that the p12f/TaqI 8 kb allele is a Caucasoid marker and that Asians are monomorphic at three of the loci (p12f, 92R7, and pY alpha I). The alleles at 92R7 and pY alpha I were found to be in complete disequilibrium in Europeans. Y-haplotype diversity was highly significant between Asians and all three European groups (P < 0.001), but the Greeks and Italians were also significantly different with respect to some alleles and haplotypes (P < 0.02). We find strong evidence that the p12f/TaqI 8 kb allele may have arisen only once, as a deletion event, and, additionally, that the present-day frequency distribution of Y chromosomes carrying the p12f/8 kb allele suggests that it may have been spread by colonising sea-faring peoples from the Near East, possibly the Phoenicians, rather than by expansion of Neolithic farmers into continental Europe. The p12f deletion is the key marker of a unique Y chromosome, found only in Caucasians to date, labelled 'Mediterranean' and this further increases the level of Y-chromosome diversity seen among Caucasoids when compared to the other major population groups.

  17. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and the SCA1 CAG repeat on chromosome 6p23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Sun, Cui-E; Diehl, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    Schizophrenia and the closely related phenotype schizoaffective disorder are severe mental illnesses that affect >1.0% of the population. The major role that genetic factors contribute to disease susceptibility is very well established. Schizophrenia appears to be a highly complex and heterogeneous disorder, however, and gene-mapping efforts also face challenges in assigning diagnoses and in delineating the disease`s phenotypic boundary. Several recently reported studies indicate that a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene may reside on the distal short arm of chromosome 6. Wang et al. reported a strong suggestion of linkage to chromosome 6pter-p22, using a resource based on 186 Irish families that was developed by K. S, Kendler, D. Walsh and colleagues, and one of us (S.R.D.), as described elsewhere. In that study, locus D6S260 gave the highest pairwise LOD score, 3.5, allowing for locus heterogeneity. Analysis with D6S260 and the distal locus F13A1 yielded a multipoint LOD score of 3.9, which maximized by allowing for locus heterogeneity and assuming that 50% of families are linked to this region. Nonparametric affected-pedigree-member analyses also supported this finding. Several other groups have recently reported additional evidence suggesting linkage to this region, both in an expanded collection of Irish families and in families from a variety of other geographic locations. However, none of these studies succeed in narrowing the location of the putative disease gene beyond the {approximately}30-cM region first identified by Wang et al. 44 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-01-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the ‘standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the ‘non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r2) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0–2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform. PMID:22378357

  19. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  20. Genotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium in the CEPH human diversity panel for variants in folate pathway genes MTHFR, MTHFD, MTRR, RFC1, and GCP2.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Caprau, Diana; Romitti, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2003-08-01

    Genetic variation in enzymes involved in vitamin metabolism is a candidate for analysis in studies of how nutritional covariates may impact a disease state. The role of folate pathway genes in birth defects and cardiovascular disease in humans has been widely studied. Since incidence rates for these disorders vary by geographic origins, it is useful to know which variants are the best candidates for studies based on genotype and allele frequency, as well as linkage disequilibrium (LD) in founder populations. Six polymorphisms in five folate metabolism-related genes (MTHFR, MTHFD, MTRR, GCP2, and RFC1) were genotyped on a collection of 1064 DNA samples from populations around the world, which were made available by the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium for analysis. In this study we report the genotype frequencies for variants in the MTHFR, MTHFD, MTRR, GCP2, and RFC1 genes, and the LD for two variants (C677T and A1298C) in MTHFR. The rare allele frequency for each of the five genes studied varied widely. LD is strongest in Pakistani and Brazilian populations (D' = 1.0) and weakest in Mexican populations (D' = 0.45). These findings will allow the selection of variants that will provide the most power in studies of folate pathway genes involving different ancestral populations, and contribute to our knowledge of the population distribution of selected nutritional gene variants.

  1. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping in Domestic Dog Breeds Narrows the Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration (prcd) Interval and Identifies Ancestral Disease Transmitting Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J.; Kijas, James W.; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the ∼6.4 Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5 Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed which reduced the LD interval to 106 Kb, and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds, and demonstrate the power of LD approach in the canine model. PMID:16859891

  2. Linkage disequilibrium mapping in domestic dog breeds narrows the progressive rod-cone degeneration interval and identifies ancestral disease-transmitting chromosome.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J; Kijas, James W; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2006-11-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the approximately 6.4-Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5-Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed, which reduced the LD interval to 106 kb and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds and demonstrate the power of the LD approach in the canine model.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium analysis reveals an albuminuria risk haplotype containing three missense mutations in the cubilin gene with striking differences among European and African ancestry populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis described a variant (p.Ile2984Val) in the cubilin gene (CUBN) that is associated with levels of albuminuria in the general population and in diabetics. Methods We implemented a Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) search with data from the 1000 Genomes Project, on African and European population genomic sequences. Results We found that the p.Ile2984Val variation is part of a larger haplotype in European populations and it is almost absent in west Africans. This haplotype contains 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in very high LD, three of which are missense mutations (p.Leu2153Phe, p.Ile2984Val, p.Glu3002Gly), and two have not been previously reported. Notably, this European haplotype is absent in west African populations, and the frequency of each individual polymorphism differs significantly in Africans. Conclusions Genotyping of these variants in existing African origin sample sets coupled to measurements of urine albumin excretion levels should reveal which is the most likely functional candidate for albuminuria risk. The unique haplotypic structure of CUBN in different populations may leverage the effort to identify the functional variant and to shed light on evolution of the CUBN gene locus. PMID:23114252

  4. The impact of incomplete linkage disequilibrium and genetic model choice on the analysis and interpretation of genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Iles, Mark M

    2010-07-01

    When conducting a genetic association study, it has previously been observed that a multiplicative risk model tends to fit better at a disease-associated marker locus than at the ungenotyped causative locus. This suggests that, while overall risk decreases as linkage disequilibrium breaks down, non-multiplicative components are more affected. This effect is investigated here, in particular the practical consequences it has on testing for trait/marker associations and the estimation of mode of inheritance and risk once an associated locus has been found. The extreme significance levels required for genome-wide association studies define a restricted range of detectable allele frequencies and effect sizes. For such parameters there is little to be gained by using a test that models the correct mode of inheritance rather than the multiplicative; thus the Cochran-Armitage trend test, which assumes a multiplicative model, is preferable to a more general model as it uses fewer degrees of freedom. Equally when estimating risk, it is likely that a multiplicative risk model will provide a good fit to the data, regardless of the underlying mode of inheritance at the true susceptibility locus. This may lead to problems in interpreting risk estimates.

  5. Coordinated Action of Biological Processes during Embryogenesis Can Cause Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium in the Human Genome and Influence Age-Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Culminskaya, Irina; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Yashin, Anatoli I.

    2017-01-01

    A role of non-Mendelian inheritance in genetics of complex, age-related traits is becoming increasingly recognized. Recently, we reported on two inheritable clusters of SNPs in extensive genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), which were associated with the phenotype of premature death. Here we address biologically-related properties of these two clusters. These clusters have been unlikely selected randomly because they are functionally and structurally different from matched sets of randomly selected SNPs. For example, SNPs in LD from each cluster are highly significantly enriched in genes (p=7.1×10−22 and p=5.8×10−18), in general, and in short genes (p=1.4×10−47 and p=4.6×10−7), in particular. Mapping of SNPs in LD to genes resulted in two, partly overlapping, networks of 1764 and 4806 genes. Both these networks were gene enriched in developmental processes and in biological processes tightly linked with development including biological adhesion, cellular component organization, locomotion, localization, signaling, (p<10−4, q<10−4 for each category). Thorough analysis suggests connections of these genetic networks with different stages of embryogenesis and highlights biological interlink of specific processes enriched for genes from these networks. The results suggest that coordinated action of biological processes during embryogenesis may generate genome-wide networks of genetic variants, which may influence complex age-related phenotypes characterizing health span and lifespan. PMID:28357417

  6. The linkage disequilibrium maps of three human chromosomes across four populations reflect their demographic history and a common underlying recombination pattern

    PubMed Central

    De La Vega, Francisco M.; Isaac, Hadar; Collins, Andrew; Scafe, Charles R.; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Su, Xiaoping; Lippert, Ross A.; Wang, Yu; Laig-Webster, Marion; Koehler, Ryan T.; Ziegle, Janet S.; Wogan, Lewis T.; Stevens, Junko F.; Leinen, Kyle M.; Olson, Sheri J.; Guegler, Karl J.; You, Xiaoqing; Xu, Lily H.; Hemken, Heinz G.; Kalush, Francis; Itakura, Mitsuo; Zheng, Yi; de Thé, Guy; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Clark, Andrew G.; Istrail, Sorin; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Spier, Eugene G.; Gilbert, Dennis A.

    2005-01-01

    The extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) determine the feasibility of association studies to map genes that underlie complex traits. Here we present a comparison of the patterns of LD across four major human populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese) with a high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map covering almost the entire length of chromosomes 6, 21, and 22. We constructed metric LD maps formulated such that the units measure the extent of useful LD for association mapping. LD reaches almost twice as far in chromosome 6 as in chromosomes 21 or 22, in agreement with their differences in recombination rates. By all measures used, out-of-Africa populations showed over a third more LD than African-Americans, highlighting the role of the population's demography in shaping the patterns of LD. Despite those differences, the long-range contour of the LD maps is remarkably similar across the four populations, presumably reflecting common localization of recombination hot spots. Our results have practical implications for the rational design and selection of SNPs for disease association studies. PMID:15781572

  7. Linkage disequilibrium between the M470V variant and the IVS8 polyT alleles of the CFTR gene in CBAVD.

    PubMed Central

    de Meeus, A; Guittard, C; Desgeorges, M; Carles, S; Demaille, J; Claustres, M

    1998-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is a cause of male sterility mostly resulting from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. The most common defect is the 5T variant at the branch/acceptor site of intron 8, which induces high levels of exon 9 skipping leading to non-functional protein. However, this 5T variant has incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, suggesting that some other regulatory factors may modulate the splicing of exon 9. To identify such factors, we report here the genetic analysis of a polymorphic locus, M470V, located in exon 10 of the CFTR gene in 60 patients with CBAVD, compared to a normal control population. The statistical analysis showed strong linkage disequilibrium between the 5T allele and the V allele of the M470V polymorphism in the CBAVD population, but not in the normal population. The V allele in a gene carrying 5T could, however, contribute to lowering the level of normal transcripts, as already suggested by in vitro transcriptional studies. These genetic findings, together with previous studies, suggest involvement of the M470V variant in the modulation of the splicing of exon 9 of the CFTR gene. PMID:9678705

  8. An initial assessment of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in coffee trees: LD patterns in groups of Coffea canephora Pierre using microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A reciprocal recurrent selection program has been under way for the Coffea canephora coffee tree for approximately thirty years in the Ivory Coast. Association genetics would help to speed up this program by more rapidly selecting zones of interest in the genome. However, prior to any such studies, the linkage disequilibrium (LD) needs to be assessed between the markers on the genome. These data are essential for guiding association studies. Results This article describes the first results of an LD assessment in a coffee tree species. Guinean and Congolese breeding populations of C. canephora have been used for this work, with the goal of identifying ways of using these populations in association genetics. We identified changes in the LD along the genome within the different C. canephora diversity groups. In the different diversity groups studied, the LD was variable. Some diversity groups displayed disequilibria over long distances (up to 25 cM), whereas others had disequilibria not exceeding 1 cM. We also discovered a fine structure within the Guinean group. Conclusions Given these results, association studies can be used within the species C. canephora. The coffee recurrent selection scheme being implemented in the Ivory Coast can thus be optimized. Lastly, our results could be used to improve C. arabica because one of its parents is closely related to C. canephora. PMID:23324026

  9. Deep Haplotype Divergence and Long-Range Linkage Disequilibrium at Xp21.1 Provide Evidence That Humans Descend From a Structured Ancestral Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrigan, Daniel; Mobasher, Zahra; Kingan, Sarah B.; Wilder, Jason A.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil evidence links human ancestry with populations that evolved from modern gracile morphology in Africa 130,000–160,000 years ago. Yet fossils alone do not provide clear answers to the question of whether the ancestors of all modern Homo sapiens comprised a single African population or an amalgamation of distinct archaic populations. DNA sequence data have consistently supported a single-origin model in which anatomically modern Africans expanded and completely replaced all other archaic hominin populations. Aided by a novel experimental design, we present the first genetic evidence that statistically rejects the null hypothesis that our species descends from a single, historically panmictic population. In a global sample of 42 X chromosomes, two African individuals carry a lineage of noncoding 17.5-kb sequence that has survived for >1 million years without any clear traces of ongoing recombination with other lineages at this locus. These patterns of deep haplotype divergence and long-range linkage disequilibrium are best explained by a prolonged period of ancestral population subdivision followed by relatively recent interbreeding. This inference supports human evolution models that incorporate admixture between divergent African branches of the genus Homo. PMID:15937130

  10. Genetic association between intronic variants in AS3MT and arsenic methylation efficiency is focused on a large linkage disequilibrium cluster in chromosome 10.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Klimecki, Walter T

    2010-04-01

    Differences in arsenic metabolism are known to play a role in individual variability in arsenic-induced disease susceptibility. Genetic variants in genes relevant to arsenic metabolism are considered to be partially responsible for the variation in arsenic metabolism. Specifically, variants in arsenic (3+ oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), the key gene in the metabolism of arsenic, have been associated with increased arsenic methylation efficiency. Of particular interest is the fact that different studies have reported that several of the AS3MT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD), which also extends to a nearby gene, CYP17A1. In an effort to characterize the extent of the region in LD, we genotyped 46 SNPs in a 347,000 base region of chromosome 10 that included AS3MT in arsenic-exposed subjects from Mexico. Pairwise LD analysis showed strong LD for these polymorphisms, represented by a mean r(2) of 0.82, spanning a region that includes five genes. Genetic association analysis with arsenic metabolism confirmed the previously observed association between AS3MT variants, including this large cluster of linked polymorphisms, and arsenic methylation efficiency. The existence of a large genomic region sharing strong LD with polymorphisms associated with arsenic metabolism presents a predicament because the observed phenotype cannot be unequivocally assigned to a single SNP or even a single gene. The results reported here should be carefully considered for future genomic association studies involving AS3MT and arsenic metabolism.

  11. Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Diversity in the Genes of the Renin–Angiotensin System: Findings From the Family Blood Pressure Program

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Denise; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy; Ikeda, Morna A.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Weder, Alan; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2003-01-01

    Association studies of candidate genes with complex traits have generally used one or a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), although variation in the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within genes markedly influences the sensitivity and precision of association studies. The extent of LD and the underlying haplotype structure for most candidate genes are still unavailable. We sampled 193 blacks (African-Americans) and 160 whites (European-Americans) and estimated the intragenic LD and the haplotype structure in four genes of the renin–angiotensin system. We genotyped 25 SNPs, with all but one of the pairs spaced between 1 and 20 kb, thus providing resolution at small scale. The pattern of LD within a gene was very heterogeneous. Using a robust method to define haplotype blocks, blocks of limited haplotype diversity were identified at each locus; between these blocks, LD was lost owing to the history of recombination events. As anticipated, there was less LD among blacks, the number of haplotypes was substantially larger, and shorter haplotype segments were found, compared with whites. These findings have implications for candidate-gene association studies and indicate that variation between populations of European and African origin in haplotype diversity is characteristic of most genes. [The sequence data described in this paper are available in GenBank under the following accession nos: AGT, MIM 106150; Renin, MIM 179820; ACE, MIM 106180; Angiotensin receptor I, MIM 106165. Supplementary material is available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:12566395

  12. FCGR2C genotyping by pyrosequencing reveals linkage disequilibrium with FCGR3A V158F and FCGR2A H131R polymorphisms in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Julien; Piègu, Benoît; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Ohresser, Marc; Watier, Hervé; Thibault, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The FCGR3A-V158F and FCGR2A-H131R polymorphisms are associated with clinical responses to therapeutic mAbs and with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The FCGR2C-ORF/STOP polymorphism, controlling FcγRIIC expression on natural killer cells and therefore FcγRIIC-mediated antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is also associated with ITP. Using a new pyrosequencing assay to determine this polymorphism in a control population, we observed the expected allele frequencies (ORF:12.6%) and percentages of individuals with a single copy (10.0%) or 3 copies (12.1%) of FCGR2C, or with at least one FCGR2C-ORF allele (20.1%). No association of FCGR2C copy number variations with the FCGR3A-V158F or FCGR2A-H131R genotype was detected. More importantly, our results demonstrate a strong and a weaker linkage disequilibrium associating the FCGR2C-ORF allele with the FCGR3A-158V and the FCGR2A-131H allele, respectively.

  13. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium of an Association-Mapping Panel Revealed by Genome-Wide SNP Markers in Sesame

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chengqi; Mei, Hongxian; Liu, Yanyang; Zhang, Haiyang; Zheng, Yongzhan

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of genetic diversity and population structure can be used in tandem to detect reliable phenotype–genotype associations. In the present study, we genotyped a set of 366 sesame germplasm accessions by using 89,924 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The number of SNPs on each chromosome was consistent with the physical length of the respective chromosome, and the average marker density was approximately 2.67 kb/SNP. The genetic diversity analysis showed that the average nucleotide diversity of the panel was 1.1 × 10-3, with averages of 1.0 × 10-4, 2.7 × 10-4, and 3.6 × 10-4 obtained, respectively for three identified subgroups of the panel: Pop 1, Pop 2, and the Mixed. The genetic structure analysis revealed that these sesame germplasm accessions were structured primarily along the basis of their geographic collection, and that an extensive admixture occurred in the panel. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that an average LD extended up to ∼99 kb. The genetic diversity and population structure revealed in this study should provide guidance to the future design of association studies and the systematic utilization of the genetic variation characterizing the sesame panel. PMID:28729877

  14. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium of an Association-Mapping Panel Revealed by Genome-Wide SNP Markers in Sesame.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chengqi; Mei, Hongxian; Liu, Yanyang; Zhang, Haiyang; Zheng, Yongzhan

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of genetic diversity and population structure can be used in tandem to detect reliable phenotype-genotype associations. In the present study, we genotyped a set of 366 sesame germplasm accessions by using 89,924 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The number of SNPs on each chromosome was consistent with the physical length of the respective chromosome, and the average marker density was approximately 2.67 kb/SNP. The genetic diversity analysis showed that the average nucleotide diversity of the panel was 1.1 × 10(-3), with averages of 1.0 × 10(-4), 2.7 × 10(-4), and 3.6 × 10(-4) obtained, respectively for three identified subgroups of the panel: Pop 1, Pop 2, and the Mixed. The genetic structure analysis revealed that these sesame germplasm accessions were structured primarily along the basis of their geographic collection, and that an extensive admixture occurred in the panel. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that an average LD extended up to ∼99 kb. The genetic diversity and population structure revealed in this study should provide guidance to the future design of association studies and the systematic utilization of the genetic variation characterizing the sesame panel.

  15. Expression, SNV identification, linkage disequilibrium, and combined genotype association analysis of the muscle-specific gene CSRP3 in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Li, Zhi-Xiong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Lin

    2014-02-01

    The cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) plays an important role in the myofiber differentiation. Here, we identified five SNVs in all exon and intron regions of the CSRP3 gene using DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and forced-PCR-RFLP methods in 554 cattle. Four of the five SNVs were significantly associated with growth performance and carcass traits of the cattle. In addition, we evaluated haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of five sequence variants. The result of haplotype analysis demonstrated 28 haplotypes present in Qinchuan and two haplotypes in Chinese Holstein. Only haplotypes 1 and 8 were being shared by two populations, haplotype 14 had the highest haplotype frequency in Qinchuan (17.4%) and haplotype 8 had the highest haplotype frequency in Chinese Holstein (94.4%). Statistical analyses of combined genotypes indicated that some combined genotypes were significantly or highly significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. qPCR analyses also showed that bovine CSRP3 gene was exclusively expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and heart tissues. The data support the high potential of the CSRP3 as a marker gene for the improvement of growth performance and carcass traits in selection programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trans-ethnic follow-up of breast cancer GWAS hits using the preferential linkage disequilibrium approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qianqian; Shepherd, Lori; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Yao, Song; Liu, Qian; Hu, Qiang; Haddad, Stephen A.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Liu, Song; Haiman, Christopher A.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2016-01-01

    Leveraging population-distinct linkage equilibrium (LD) patterns, trans-ethnic follow-up of variants discovered from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has proved to be useful in facilitating the identification of bona fide causal variants. We previously developed the preferential LD approach, a novel method that successfully identified causal variants driving the GWAS signals within European-descent populations even when the causal variants were only weakly linked with the GWAS-discovered variants. To evaluate the performance of our approach in a trans-ethnic setting, we applied it to follow up breast cancer GWAS hits identified mostly from populations of European ancestry in African Americans (AA). We evaluated 74 breast cancer GWAS variants in 8,315 AA women from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. Only 27% of them were associated with breast cancer risk at significance level α=0.05, suggesting race-specificity of the identified breast cancer risk loci. We followed up on those replicated GWAS hits in the AMBER consortium utilizing the preferential LD approach, to search for causal variants or better breast cancer markers from the 1000 Genomes variant catalog. Our approach identified stronger breast cancer markers for 80% of the GWAS hits with at least nominal breast cancer association, and in 81% of these cases, the marker identified was among the top 10 of all 1000 Genomes variants in the corresponding locus. The results support trans-ethnic application of the preferential LD approach in search for candidate causal variants, and may have implications for future genetic research of breast cancer in AA women. PMID:27825120

  17. DQA1 and DQB1 promoter diversity and linkage disequilibrium with class II haplotypes in Mexican Mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Alaez, C; Vázquez-García, M N; Gorodezky, C

    2001-06-01

    The upstream sequences in the 5' flanking region of HLA class II genes, regulate their expression and contribute to the development of immunological diseases. We analyzed 105 healthy unrelated Mexican Mestizos for QAP and QBP polymorphism. DNA typing for DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, QAP1 and QBP1 was done using a standardized PCR-SSOP. Although all QAP alleles previously described were found in Mexicans, the distribution differed as compared to other populations. QAP-3.1, 4.1 and 4.2 were the most frequent alleles and were associated with DQA1*03, *0501 and *0402 respectively. The prevalent QBP alleles were 3.21, 3.1 and 4.1 found mainly associated with DQB1*0302, *0301 and *0501. Linkage disequilibria between the promoter and the corresponding DQA1 and DQB1 allele, are in general the same as described by others. A total of 61 different haplotypes were defined, only six of them with a frequency above 4%. The haplotypes DRB1*0407-QAP-3.1-DQA1*03-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302 (HF = 14.37%) and DRB1*0802-QAP-4.2-DQA1*0401-QBP-4.1-DQB1*0402 (HF = 14.22%), which have an Amerindian ancestry, are the most frequent in Mexicans. Some rare combinations were detected such as DRB1*0405-QAP-1.3-DQA1*0101/4-QBP-5.11/5.12-DQB1*0501 and DRB1*0403-QAP-3.2-DQA1*03-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302, probably due to ancient recombination events. This knowledge is relevant as a basis to evaluate functional implications and to explore the role of promoter diversity in disease expression.

  18. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium of a Core Collection of Ziziphus jujuba Assessed with Genome-wide SNPs Developed by Genotyping-by-sequencing and SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wu; Hou, Lu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Pang, Xiaoming; Li, Yingyue

    2017-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) is an economically important fruit species native to China with high nutritious and medicinal value. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to detect and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a core collection of 150 Chinese jujube accessions and further to characterize their genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD). A total of 4,680 high-quality SNPs were identified, of which 38 sets of tri-allelic SNPs were detected. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) values based on bi-allelic SNPs and tri-allelic SNPs were 0.27 and 0.38, respectively. STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses based on SNPs revealed that the 150 accessions could be clustered into two groups. However, neighbor-joining trees indicated the accessions should be grouped into three major clusters. Our data confirm that the resolving power for genetic diversity was similar for the SSRs and SNPs. In contrast, regarding population structure, the resolving power was higher for SSRs than for SNPs. The LD pattern in Chinese jujube was investigated for the first time. We observed a relatively rapid LD decay with a short range (∼10 kb) for all pseudo-chromosomes and for individual pseudo-chromosomes. Our findings provide important information for future genome-wide association analyses and marker-assisted selective breeding of Chinese jujube. PMID:28458680

  19. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium of a Core Collection of Ziziphus jujuba Assessed with Genome-wide SNPs Developed by Genotyping-by-sequencing and SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wu; Hou, Lu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Pang, Xiaoming; Li, Yingyue

    2017-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) is an economically important fruit species native to China with high nutritious and medicinal value. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to detect and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a core collection of 150 Chinese jujube accessions and further to characterize their genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD). A total of 4,680 high-quality SNPs were identified, of which 38 sets of tri-allelic SNPs were detected. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) values based on bi-allelic SNPs and tri-allelic SNPs were 0.27 and 0.38, respectively. STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses based on SNPs revealed that the 150 accessions could be clustered into two groups. However, neighbor-joining trees indicated the accessions should be grouped into three major clusters. Our data confirm that the resolving power for genetic diversity was similar for the SSRs and SNPs. In contrast, regarding population structure, the resolving power was higher for SSRs than for SNPs. The LD pattern in Chinese jujube was investigated for the first time. We observed a relatively rapid LD decay with a short range (∼10 kb) for all pseudo-chromosomes and for individual pseudo-chromosomes. Our findings provide important information for future genome-wide association analyses and marker-assisted selective breeding of Chinese jujube.

  20. Using SNP markers to dissect linkage disequilibrium at a major quantitative trait locus for resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida on potato chromosome V.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Ute; Paulo, Joao; Ilarionova, Evgenyia; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The damage caused by the parasitic root cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major yield-limiting factor in potato cultivation . Breeding for resistance is facilitated by the PCR-based marker 'HC', which is diagnostic for an allele conferring high resistance against G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3 that has been introgressed from the wild potato species Solanum vernei into the Solanum tuberosum tetraploid breeding pool. The major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling this nematode resistance maps on potato chromosome V in a hot spot for resistance to various pathogens including nematodes and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. An unstructured sample of 79 tetraploid, highly heterozygous varieties and breeding clones was selected based on presence (41 genotypes) or absence (38 genotypes) of the HC marker. Testing the clones for resistance to G. pallida confirmed the diagnostic power of the HC marker. The 79 individuals were genotyped for 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10 loci distributed over 38 cM on chromosome V. Forty-five SNPs at six loci spanning 2 cM in the interval between markers GP21-GP179 were associated with resistance to G. pallida. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP markers, six LD groups comprising between 2 and 18 SNPs were identified. The LD groups indicated the existence of multiple alleles at a single resistance locus or at several, physically linked resistance loci. LD group C comprising 18 SNPs corresponded to the 'HC' marker. LD group E included 16 SNPs and showed an association peak, which positioned one nematode resistance locus physically close to the R1 gene family.

  1. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-12-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question.

  2. Changes at the CYP2C locus and disruption of CYP2C8/9 linkage disequilibrium in patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; García-Martín, Elena; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier; Benito-León, Julián; García-Ferrer, Isabel; Vázquez-Torres, Pilar; Puertas, Inmaculada; Zurdo, José M; López-Alburquerque, Tomás; Agúndez, José A G

    2007-01-01

    To identify low-penetrance genes related to sporadic essential tremor (ET) at the CYP2C locus, located in chromosome 10 q23.33. Leukocytary DNA from 200 ET patients and a control group of 300 unrelated healthy individuals with known CYP2C19 genotypes was studied for common CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 allelic variants by using amplification-restriction analyses. Patients with ET showed the following differences compared with healthy subjects: a 1.6-fold reduction in the frequency for CYP2C8*3 (p=0.006), a 1.35-fold reduction of CYP2C9*2 (p=0.05) and a 1.52-fold reduction in the frequency for CYP2C9*3 (p=0.07). The frequency for patients with ET carrying at least one defective allele was 1.33-fold reduced as compared with healthy subjects (p=0.002). In addition, a disruption of the CYP2C8*3/CYP2C9*2 linkage disequilibrium was observed in ET patients, with a 2.1-fold reduction in the percentage for carriers of the haplotype CYP2C8*3 plus CYP2C9*2 in ET patients (p=0.0001). These findings were independent of gender, age, age of onset, or clinical symptoms. These results suggest that alterations at the CYP2C gene locus are associated with the risk for ET.

  3. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-01-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson–Kreitman–Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question. PMID:23881172

  4. Molecular evolution of regulatory genes in spruces from different species and continents: heterogeneous patterns of linkage disequilibrium and selection but correlated recent demographic changes.

    PubMed

    Namroud, Marie-Claire; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Mackay, John; Isabel, Nathalie; Bousquet, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Genes involved in transcription regulation may represent valuable targets in association genetics studies because of their key roles in plant development and potential selection at the molecular level. Selection and demographic signatures at the sequence level were investigated for five regulatory genes belonging to the knox-I family (KN1, KN2, KN3, KN4) and the HD-Zip III family (HB-3) in three Picea species affected by post-glacial recolonization in North America and Europe. To disentangle neutral and selective forces and estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) on a gene basis, complete or nearly complete gene sequences were analysed. Nucleotide variation within species, haplotype structure, LD, and neutrality tests, in addition to coalescent simulations based on Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H, were estimated. Nucleotide diversity was generally low in all species (average pi = 0.002-0.003) and much heterogeneity was seen in LD and selection signatures among genes and species. Most of the genes harboured an excess of both rare and frequent alleles in the three species. Simulations showed that this excess was significantly higher than that expected under neutrality and a bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum followed by population expansion at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary or shortly after best explains the correlated sequence patterns. These results indicate that despite recent large demographic changes in the three boreal species from two continents, species-specific selection signatures could still be detected from the analysis of nearly complete regulatory gene sequences. Such different signatures indicate differential subfunctionalization of gene family members in the three congeneric species.

  5. Molecular Evolution of Regulatory Genes in Spruces from Different Species and Continents: Heterogeneous Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium and Selection but Correlated Recent Demographic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Namroud, Marie-Claire; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Mackay, John; Isabel, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Genes involved in transcription regulation may represent valuable targets in association genetics studies because of their key roles in plant development and potential selection at the molecular level. Selection and demographic signatures at the sequence level were investigated for five regulatory genes belonging to the knox-I family (KN1, KN2, KN3, KN4) and the HD-Zip III family (HB-3) in three Picea species affected by post-glacial recolonization in North America and Europe. To disentangle neutral and selective forces and estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) on a gene basis, complete or nearly complete gene sequences were analysed. Nucleotide variation within species, haplotype structure, LD, and neutrality tests, in addition to coalescent simulations based on Tajima’s D and Fay and Wu’s H, were estimated. Nucleotide diversity was generally low in all species (average π = 0.002–0.003) and much heterogeneity was seen in LD and selection signatures among genes and species. Most of the genes harboured an excess of both rare and frequent alleles in the three species. Simulations showed that this excess was significantly higher than that expected under neutrality and a bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum followed by population expansion at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary or shortly after best explains the correlated sequence patterns. These results indicate that despite recent large demographic changes in the three boreal species from two continents, species-specific selection signatures could still be detected from the analysis of nearly complete regulatory gene sequences. Such different signatures indicate differential subfunctionalization of gene family members in the three congeneric species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9335-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20354847

  6. Estimations of linkage disequilibrium, effective population size and ROH-based inbreeding coefficients in Spanish Churra sheep using imputed high-density SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Chitneedi, P K; Arranz, J J; Suarez-Vega, A; García-Gámez, E; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the availability of the Ovine HD SNP BeadChip (HD-chip) and the development of an imputation strategy provided an opportunity to further investigate the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) at short distances in the genome of the Spanish Churra dairy sheep breed. A population of 1686 animals, including 16 rams and their half-sib daughters, previously genotyped for the 50K-chip, was imputed to the HD-chip density based on a reference population of 335 individuals. After assessing the imputation accuracy for beagle v4.0 (0.922) and fimpute v2.2 (0.921) using a cross-validation approach, the imputed HD-chip genotypes obtained with beagle were used to update the estimates of LD and effective population size for the studied population. The imputed genotypes were also used to assess the degree of homozygosity by calculating runs of homozygosity and to obtain genomic-based inbreeding coefficients. The updated LD estimations provided evidence that the extent of LD in Churra sheep is even shorter than that reported based on the 50K-chip and is one of the shortest extents compared with other sheep breeds. Through different comparisons we have also assessed the impact of imputation on LD and effective population size estimates. The inbreeding coefficient, considering the total length of the run of homozygosity, showed an average estimate (0.0404) lower than the critical level. Overall, the improved accuracy of the updated LD estimates suggests that the HD-chip, combined with an imputation strategy, offers a powerful tool that will increase the opportunities to identify genuine marker-phenotype associations and to successfully implement genomic selection in Churra sheep. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. A consensus framework map of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) suitable for linkage disequilibrium analysis and genome-wide association mapping.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Cane', Maria Angela; Sanguineti, Maria C; Salvi, Silvio; Colalongo, Maria C; Massi, Andrea; Clarke, Fran; Knox, Ron; Pozniak, Curtis J; Clarke, John M; Fahima, Tzion; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Xu, Steven; Ammar, Karim; Karsai, Ildikó; Vida, Gyula; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2014-10-07

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is a tetraploid cereal grown in the medium to low-precipitation areas of the Mediterranean Basin, North America and South-West Asia. Genomics applications in durum wheat have the potential to boost exploitation of genetic resources and to advance understanding of the genetics of important complex traits (e.g. resilience to environmental and biotic stresses). A dense and accurate consensus map specific for T. durum will greatly facilitate genetic mapping, functional genomics and marker-assisted improvement. High quality genotypic data from six core recombinant inbred line populations were used to obtain a consensus framework map of 598 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and Diversity Array Technology® (DArT) anchor markers (common across populations). Interpolation of unique markers from 14 maps allowed us to position a total of 2,575 markers in a consensus map of 2,463 cM. The T. durum A and B genomes were covered in their near totality based on the reference SSR hexaploid wheat map. The consensus locus order compared to those of the single component maps showed good correspondence, (average Spearman's rank correlation rho ρ value of 0.96). Differences in marker order and local recombination rate were observed between the durum and hexaploid wheat consensus maps. The consensus map was used to carry out a whole-genome search for genetic differentiation signatures and association to heading date in a panel of 183 accessions adapted to the Mediterranean areas. Linkage disequilibrium was found to decay below the r2 threshold=0.3 within 2.20 cM, on average. Strong molecular differentiations among sub-populations were mapped to 87 chromosome regions. A genome-wide association scan for heading date from 27 field trials in the Mediterranean Basin and in Mexico yielded 50 chromosome regions with evidences of association in multiple environments. The consensus map presented here was used as a reference for genetic diversity and mapping

  8. Detection of gene-environment interactions in the presence of linkage disequilibrium and noise by using genetic risk scores with internal weights from elastic net regression.

    PubMed

    Hüls, Anke; Ickstadt, Katja; Schikowski, Tamara; Krämer, Ursula

    2017-06-12

    SNPs estimated by a multivariate elastic net regression were shown to be a powerful tool to detect gene-environment interactions in scenarios of high Linkage disequilibrium and noise.

  9. Analysis of the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium of PPARγ gene polymorphisms rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 among patients with metabolic syndrome in Kazakh of Xinjiang Province.

    PubMed

    Guo, S X; Guo, H; Ma, R L; Ding, Y S; Zhang, J Y; Liu, J M; Zhang, M; Niu, Q; Qiang, N; Li, S G; Qi, C N

    2014-10-27

    We investigated the relationship between haplotype and linkage disequilibrium of the PPARγ gene polymorphisms rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Kazakh people of Xinjiang Province. For PPARγ, rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 genotypes were detected in 489 subjects (including 245 MS patients and 244 controls) using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Frequencies of rs3856806T, rs12490265A, rs1797912C, and rs1175543G alleles in MS patients were significantly lower than those of controls [rs3856806T allele: 12.53 vs 17.01% (P = 0.044), rs12490265A allele: 31.84 vs 38.52% (P = 0.029), rs1797912C allele: 35.31 vs 43.24% (P = 0.011), rs1175543G allele: 40.61 vs 47.54% (P = 0.029)]. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between the PPARγ rs1797912 and rs1175543 polymorphisms as well as between the rs12490265 and rs1175543 polymorphisms. A total of 14 haplotypes were found. Patients with rs3856806T, rs12490265A, rs1797912C, and rs1175543G were observed 0.267 times more frequently [95% confidence interval = 0.126-0.566] than those with rs3856806C, rs12490265G, rs1797912A, and rs1175543A, respectively. The PPARγ gene polymorphisms rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 were associated with MS in Kazakh subjects. Very strong linkage disequilibrium was found between the PPARγ rs1797912 and rs1175543 polymorphisms as well as between the rs12490265 and rs1175543 polymorphisms. AGCC and GAAT haplotypes may serve as protective factors against MS. The rs3856806T, rs12490265A, rs1797912C, and rs1175543G alleles may enhance the protective effect of MS.

  10. The phenotypic difference discards sib-pair QTL linkage information

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, F.A. |

    1997-03-01

    Kruglyak and Lander provide an important synthesis of methods for (IBD) sib-pair linkage mapping, with an emphasis on the use of complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. These procedures are implemented in the computer program MAPMAKER/SIBS, which performs interval mapping for dichotomous and quantitative traits. The authors present three methods for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs): a variant of the commonly used Haseman-Elston regression approach, a maximum-likelihood procedure involving variance components, and a rank-based nonparametric procedure. These approaches and related work use the magnitude of the difference in the sibling phenotype values for each sib pair as the observation for analysis. Linkage is detected if siblings sharing more alleles IBD have similar phenotypes (i.e., a small difference in the phenotype values), while siblings sharing fewer alleles IBD have less similar phenotypes. Such techniques have been used to detect linkage for a number of quantitative traits. However, the exclusive reliance on the phenotypic differences may be due in large part to historical inertia. A likelihood argument is presented here to show that, under certain classical assumptions, the phenotypic differences do not contain the full likelihood information for QTL mapping. Furthermore, considerable gains in power to detect linkage can be achieved with an expanded likelihood model. The development here is related to previous work, which incorporates the full set of phenotypic data using likelihood and robust quasi-likelihood methods. The purpose of this letter is not to endorse a particular approach but to spur research in alternative and perhaps more powerful linkage tests. 17 refs.

  11. SNPs rs4656317 and rs12071048 located within an enhancer in FCGR3A are in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs396991 and influence NK cell-mediated ADCC by transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Ichiro; Aki, Kensaku; Tada, Tomoki; Hosoi, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    CD16 receptors are mainly expresses on the surface of NK cells and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The authors previously reported that NK cell-mediated ADCC is influenced by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs396991 (T>G; F158V), and the structure and expression levels of CD16 differed among these genotypes. The authors examined haplotype frequency distributions among rs396991 and other SNPs, rs10917571 (G>T), rs4656317 (C>G), and rs12071048 (G>A), located in an enhancer of the FCGR3A gene. A total of 101 healthy Japanese were genotyped for the presence of these SNPs. The authors also measured ADCC activity, FCGR3A transcript levels, and surface CD16 expression on NK cells. We found that the regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) rs4656317 and rs12071048 were in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs396991. These two SNPs with major alleles had higher ADCC activity than those with minor alleles. In addition, FCGR3A transcript levels and surface CD16 expression levels were regulated by these SNPs. These findings suggest that NK cell-mediated ADCC could be influenced by transcriptional regulation of these rSNPs. These findings help to clarify our understanding of the linkage disequilibrium among functional SNPs in the FCGR3A gene, and provide a resource for investigating the roles of functional SNPs in NK cell-mediated ADCC. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  13. Enriching rare variants using family-specific linkage information.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gang; Simino, Jeannette; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2011-11-29

    Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying common variants for common complex traits in recent years. However, common variants have generally failed to explain substantial proportions of the trait heritabilities. Rare variants, structural variations, and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, among others, have been suggested as potential sources of the so-called missing heritability. With the advent of exome-wide and whole-genome next-generation sequencing technologies, finding rare variants in functionally important sites (e.g., protein-coding regions) becomes feasible. We investigate the role of linkage information to select families enriched for rare variants using the simulated Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data. In each replicate of simulated phenotypes Q1 and Q2 on 697 subjects in 8 extended pedigrees, we select one pedigree with the largest family-specific LOD score. Across all 200 replications, we compare the probability that rare causal alleles will be carried in the selected pedigree versus a randomly chosen pedigree. One example of successful enrichment was exhibited for gene VEGFC. The causal variant had minor allele frequency of 0.0717% in the simulated unrelated individuals and explained about 0.1% of the phenotypic variance. However, it explained 7.9% of the phenotypic variance in the eight simulated pedigrees and 23.8% in the family that carried the minor allele. The carrier's family was selected in all 200 replications. Thus our results show that family-specific linkage information is useful for selecting families for sequencing, thus ensuring that rare functional variants are segregating in the sequencing samples.

  14. Homozygosity and linkage-disequilibrium mapping of the syndrome of congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth and mental retardation, and dysmorphism to a 1-cM interval on chromosome 1q42-43.

    PubMed Central

    Parvari, R; Hershkovitz, E; Kanis, A; Gorodischer, R; Shalitin, S; Sheffield, V C; Carmi, R

    1998-01-01

    The syndrome of hypoparathyroidism associated with growth retardation, developmental delay, and dysmorphism (HRD) is a newly described, autosomal recessive, congenital disorder with severe, often fatal consequences. Since the syndrome is very rare, with all parents of affected individuals being consanguineous, it is presumed to be caused by homozygous inheritance of a single recessive mutation from a common ancestor. To localize the HRD gene, we performed a genomewide screen using DNA pooling and homozygosity mapping for apparently unlinked kindreds. Analysis of a panel of 359 highly polymorphic markers revealed linkage to D1S235. The maximum LOD score obtained was 4.11 at a recombination fraction of 0. Analysis of three additional markers-GGAA6F06, D1S2678, and D1S179-in a 2-cM interval around D1S235 resulted in LOD scores >3. Analysis of additional chromosome 1 markers revealed evidence of genetic linkage disequilibrium and place the HRD locus within an approximately 1-cM interval defined by D1S1540 and D1S2678 on chromosome 1q42-43. PMID:9634513

  15. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene (CYP1A2) in colorectal cancer patients and controls: allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and influence on caffeine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Christoph; Bhambra, Upinder; Smith, Gillian; Lightfoot, Tracy J; Barrett, Jennifer H; Scollay, Jenna; Garner, R Colin; Boobis, Alan R; Wolf, C Roland; Goode