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Sample records for linked fault tree

  1. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  2. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1992-01-01

    FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

  3. Fault Tree Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    uat r CmIi S ft II >5±4"’’ NUREG-0492 Fault Tree Handbook Date Published: January 1981 W. E. Vesely, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission F. F...Goldberg, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission N. H. Roberts, University of Washington D. F. Haasl, Institute of System Sciences, Inc. Systems and...Reliability Research Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington, D.C. 20555 RG &,, ý0 For sale by the U.S

  4. Fault trees and sequence dependencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Boyd, Mark A.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the frequently cited shortcomings of fault-tree models, their inability to model so-called sequence dependencies, is discussed. Several sources of such sequence dependencies are discussed, and new fault-tree gates to capture this behavior are defined. These complex behaviors can be included in present fault-tree models because they utilize a Markov solution. The utility of the new gates is demonstrated by presenting several models of the fault-tolerant parallel processor, which include both hot and cold spares.

  5. The fault-tree compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  6. Fault Tree Analysis: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Fault tree analysis is a top-down approach to the identification of process hazards. It is as one of the best methods for systematically identifying an graphically displaying the many ways some things can go wrong. This bibliography references 266 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts. fault tree analysis, risk an probability theory, in the basic index or major subject terms. An abstract is included with most citations, followed by the applicable subject terms.

  7. Fault tree analysis for maintenance needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halme, Jari; Aikala, Antti

    2012-05-01

    One of the key issues in maintenance is to allocate focus and resources to those components and subsystems which are the most unreliable and prone to failures. In industrial systems, fault tree analysis technique can be used to study the reliability of the complex systems and their substructures. In this paper a fault tree application for analyzing online the current reliability and failure probability for maintenance purposes is presented. The analysis is utilizing data connected to the fault tree root causes and events. An indication of an anomaly case, service action, cumulative loading, etc., or just time passed or service hour counter level can trigger a new calculation of current probabilities of the fault tree events and subsystem interactions. In proposed approach real time, dynamic information from several available data sources and different measurement are interconnected to each fault tree event and root cause. There is also formulated an active, constantly updated link between the fault tree events and maintenance databases for the maintenance decision support, and to keep the analysis up to date. Typically top event probability is evaluated based on updated root cause probabilities and lower level events. At the industrial plant level an identification of a failure in a component event defined within a constructed and operatively existing fault tree explicitly means that the event's failure probability is one. By utilizing this indication, the most probable failure branches through the fault tree sub events to root causes can be identified and printed as a valid check list for maintenance purposes to focus service actions first to those fault tree branches most probable causing the failure. Respectively, during the checks, service actions, etc., components, especially those within the critical branches, detected as healthy can be a updated as having zero failure probability. This information can be used to further update the fault tree and produce

  8. Tutorial: Advanced fault tree applications using HARP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Boyd, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Reliability analysis of fault tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. These modeling difficulties are discussed and dynamic fault tree modeling techniques for handling them are described and demonstrated. Several advanced fault tolerant computer systems are described, and fault tree models for their analysis are presented. HARP (Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor) is a software package developed at Duke University and NASA Langley Research Center that is capable of solving the fault tree models presented.

  9. Reconfigurable tree architectures using subtree oriented fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    An approach to the design of reconfigurable tree architecture is presented in which spare processors are allocated at the leaves. The approach is unique in that spares are associated with subtrees and sharing of spares between these subtrees can occur. The Subtree Oriented Fault Tolerance (SOFT) approach is more reliable than previous approaches capable of tolerating link and switch failures for both single chip and multichip tree implementations while reducing redundancy in terms of both spare processors and links. VLSI layout is 0(n) for binary trees and is directly extensible to N-ary trees and fault tolerance through performance degradation.

  10. Fault trees and imperfect coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne B.

    1989-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for solving the fault tree. The algorithm includes the dynamic behavior of the fault/error handling model but obviates the need for the Markov chain solution. As the state space is expanded in a breadth-first search (the same is done in the conversion to a Markov chain), the state's contribution to each future state is calculated exactly. A dynamic state truncation technique is also presented; it produces bounds on the unreliability of the system by considering only part of the state space. Since the model is solved as the state space is generated, the process can be stopped as soon as the desired accuracy is reached.

  11. Two Trees: Migrating Fault Trees to Decision Trees for Real Time Fault Detection on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Charles; Alena, Richard L.; Robinson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We started from ISS fault trees example to migrate to decision trees, presented a method to convert fault trees to decision trees. The method shows that the visualizations of root cause of fault are easier and the tree manipulating becomes more programmatic via available decision tree programs. The visualization of decision trees for the diagnostic shows a format of straight forward and easy understands. For ISS real time fault diagnostic, the status of the systems could be shown by mining the signals through the trees and see where it stops at. The other advantage to use decision trees is that the trees can learn the fault patterns and predict the future fault from the historic data. The learning is not only on the static data sets but also can be online, through accumulating the real time data sets, the decision trees can gain and store faults patterns in the trees and recognize them when they come.

  12. Fault tree models for fault tolerant hypercube multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Tuazon, Jezus O.

    1991-01-01

    Three candidate fault tolerant hypercube architectures are modeled, their reliability analyses are compared, and the resulting implications of these methods of incorporating fault tolerance into hypercube multiprocessors are discussed. In the course of performing the reliability analyses, the use of HARP and fault trees in modeling sequence dependent system behaviors is demonstrated.

  13. Fault tree models for fault tolerant hypercube multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Tuazon, Jezus O.

    1991-01-01

    Three candidate fault tolerant hypercube architectures are modeled, their reliability analyses are compared, and the resulting implications of these methods of incorporating fault tolerance into hypercube multiprocessors are discussed. In the course of performing the reliability analyses, the use of HARP and fault trees in modeling sequence dependent system behaviors is demonstrated.

  14. Microcomputer applications of, and modifications to, the modular fault trees

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, T.L.; Graves, N.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.; Whitehead, D.W.

    1994-10-01

    The LaSalle Probabilistic Risk Assessment was the first major application of the modular logic fault trees after the IREP program. In the process of performing the analysis, many errors were discovered in the fault tree modules that led to difficulties in combining the modules to form the final system fault trees. These errors are corrected in the revised modules listed in this report. In addition, the application of the modules in terms of editing them and forming them into the system fault trees was inefficient. Originally, the editing had to be done line by line and no error checking was performed by the computer. This led to many typos and other logic errors in the construction of the modular fault tree files. Two programs were written to help alleviate this problem: (1) MODEDIT - This program allows an operator to retrieve a file for editing, edit the file for the plant specific application, perform some general error checking while the file is being modified, and store the file for later use, and (2) INDEX - This program checks that the modules that are supposed to form one fault tree all link up appropriately before the files are,loaded onto the mainframe computer. Lastly, the modules were not designed for relay type logic common in BWR designs but for solid state type logic. Some additional modules were defined for modeling relay logic, and an explanation and example of their use are included in this report.

  15. Fault diagnosis of power transformer based on fault-tree analysis (FTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Jianwei; Li, SuoYu

    2017-05-01

    Power transformers is an important equipment in power plants and substations, power distribution transmission link is made an important hub of power systems. Its performance directly affects the quality and health of the power system reliability and stability. This paper summarizes the five parts according to the fault type power transformers, then from the time dimension divided into three stages of power transformer fault, use DGA routine analysis and infrared diagnostics criterion set power transformer running state, finally, according to the needs of power transformer fault diagnosis, by the general to the section by stepwise refinement of dendritic tree constructed power transformer fault

  16. SOFT TREE: Fault Tree Technique as Applied to Software. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    I -A64 748 SOFT TREE: FAULT TREE TECHNIQUE AS APPLIED TO SOFTUdRE i/ iI REVISION(U) RMAMENT DIV (AFSC) EGLIN AFB FLI DIRECTORATE OF SYSTEMS SAFETY J N...BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A IN .," !.. - .4 0 / 0 ir r * .. a ,. I. ~ a I *~~ II - VI ~. p (I * ’. I, 0 @1 0 0 0 07 0- 1. - -d -1 -~ SOFT TREE FAULT...Safety Program Manager Reviewed by: William B. Collins Director, Systems Safety ii -.. w -w %v -Lx r-wu-lw."w-w-11 W w-u- 7- -m W - UnclassifiedIL

  17. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Geon; Choi, Dooho; Seo, Jungtaek; Kim, Howon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit's reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool. PMID:23698267

  18. Automatic translation of digraph to fault-tree models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The author presents a technique for converting digraph models, including those models containing cycles, to a fault-tree format. A computer program which automatically performs this translation using an object-oriented representation of the models has been developed. The fault-trees resulting from translations can be used for fault-tree analysis and diagnosis. Programs to calculate fault-tree and digraph cut sets and perform diagnosis with fault-tree models have also been developed. The digraph to fault-tree translation system has been successfully tested on several digraphs of varying size and complexity. Details of some representative translation problems are presented. Most of the computation performed by the program is dedicated to finding minimal cut sets for digraph nodes in order to break cycles in the digraph. Fault-trees produced by the translator have been successfully used with NASA's Fault-Tree Diagnosis System (FTDS) to produce automated diagnostic systems.

  19. Automatic translation of digraph to fault-tree models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, David L.

    The author presents a technique for converting digraph models, including those models containing cycles, to a fault-tree format. A computer program which automatically performs this translation using an object-oriented representation of the models has been developed. The fault-trees resulting from translations can be used for fault-tree analysis and diagnosis. Programs to calculate fault-tree and digraph cut sets and perform diagnosis with fault-tree models have also been developed. The digraph to fault-tree translation system has been successfully tested on several digraphs of varying size and complexity. Details of some representative translation problems are presented. Most of the computation performed by the program is dedicated to finding minimal cut sets for digraph nodes in order to break cycles in the digraph. Fault-trees produced by the translator have been successfully used with NASA's Fault-Tree Diagnosis System (FTDS) to produce automated diagnostic systems.

  20. Automatic translation of digraph to fault-tree models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The author presents a technique for converting digraph models, including those models containing cycles, to a fault-tree format. A computer program which automatically performs this translation using an object-oriented representation of the models has been developed. The fault-trees resulting from translations can be used for fault-tree analysis and diagnosis. Programs to calculate fault-tree and digraph cut sets and perform diagnosis with fault-tree models have also been developed. The digraph to fault-tree translation system has been successfully tested on several digraphs of varying size and complexity. Details of some representative translation problems are presented. Most of the computation performed by the program is dedicated to finding minimal cut sets for digraph nodes in order to break cycles in the digraph. Fault-trees produced by the translator have been successfully used with NASA's Fault-Tree Diagnosis System (FTDS) to produce automated diagnostic systems.

  1. Fault isolation with fanin tree technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kang S.

    1996-09-01

    With the ever increasing complexity in IC design and with the introduction of flip chip technology, the pressing need for computer aided fault isolation (FI) is sensed. Fanin tree is a collection of subsequent fan-in signals with respect to a given node. As such, possible failing locations can be narrowed down to nodes that reside within the fanin tree only. Multiple fanin trees from multiple known failing nodes can also be intersected to locate common driving nodes. This paper presents an application program that was developed for Intel standard (.sch) netlist format. The result is FTREE; a fanin tree tool that is independent of product. This tool enhances the performance of other FA tools; but for its optimum usage, proper scan node selection is required during design stage. Selection of these nodes also is presented.

  2. A dynamic fault tree model of a propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Hong; Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Meshkat, Leila

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic fault tree model of the benchmark propulsion system, and solve it using Galileo. Dynamic fault trees (DFT) extend traditional static fault trees with special gates to model spares and other sequence dependencies. Galileo solves DFT models using a judicious combination of automatically generated Markov and Binary Decision Diagram models. Galileo easily handles the complexities exhibited by the benchmark problem. In particular, Galileo is designed to model phased mission systems.

  3. A dynamic fault tree model of a propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Hong; Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Meshkat, Leila

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic fault tree model of the benchmark propulsion system, and solve it using Galileo. Dynamic fault trees (DFT) extend traditional static fault trees with special gates to model spares and other sequence dependencies. Galileo solves DFT models using a judicious combination of automatically generated Markov and Binary Decision Diagram models. Galileo easily handles the complexities exhibited by the benchmark problem. In particular, Galileo is designed to model phased mission systems.

  4. Fault Tree in the Trenches, A Success Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, R. Allen; Goodson, Amanda (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Getting caught up in the explanation of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) minutiae is easy. In fact, most FTA literature tends to address FTA concepts and methodology. Yet there seems to be few articles addressing actual design changes resulting from the successful application of fault tree analysis. This paper demonstrates how fault tree analysis was used to identify and solve a potentially catastrophic mechanical problem at a rocket motor manufacturer. While developing the fault tree given in this example, the analyst was told by several organizations that the piece of equipment in question had been evaluated by several committees and organizations, and that the analyst was wasting his time. The fault tree/cutset analysis resulted in a joint-redesign of the control system by the tool engineering group and the fault tree analyst, as well as bragging rights for the analyst. (That the fault tree found problems where other engineering reviews had failed was not lost on the other engineering groups.) Even more interesting was that this was the analyst's first fault tree which further demonstrates how effective fault tree analysis can be in guiding (i.e., forcing) the analyst to take a methodical approach in evaluating complex systems.

  5. Technology transfer by means of fault tree synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Since Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) attempts to model and analyze failure processes of engineering, it forms a common technique for good industrial practice. On the contrary, fault tree synthesis (FTS) refers to the methodology of constructing complex trees either from dentritic modules built ad hoc or from fault tress already used and stored in a Knowledge Base. In both cases, technology transfer takes place in a quasi-inductive mode, from partial to holistic knowledge. In this work, an algorithmic procedure, including 9 activity steps and 3 decision nodes is developed for performing effectively this transfer when the fault under investigation occurs within one of the latter stages of an industrial procedure with several stages in series. The main parts of the algorithmic procedure are: (i) the construction of a local fault tree within the corresponding production stage, where the fault has been detected, (ii) the formation of an interface made of input faults that might occur upstream, (iii) the fuzzy (to count for uncertainty) multicriteria ranking of these faults according to their significance, and (iv) the synthesis of an extended fault tree based on the construction of part (i) and on the local fault tree of the first-ranked fault in part (iii). An implementation is presented, referring to 'uneven sealing of Al anodic film', thus proving the functionality of the developed methodology.

  6. Applications of fault tree analysis to the design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, R. W.

    1988-07-01

    Fault tree analysis of a system can provide a complete characterization of system failure modes, i.e., what combinations of component failures can give rise to system failure. This can be applied to the design process at several levels: (1) confirmatory analysis, in which a fault tree development is used to verify design adequacy, (2) importance analysis, in which fault tree analysis is used to highlight system vulnerabilities, and (3) design optimization, in which fault tree analysis is used to pick the least expensive configuration from a collection of possibilities satisfying a given constraint. Experience shows that the complexity of real systems warrants the systematic and structured development of fault trees for systems whose failure can have severe consequences.

  7. The Fault Tree Compiler (FTC): Program and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1989-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top-event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, AND m OF n gates. The high-level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precisely (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) within a user specified number of digits accuracy. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX computer with the VMS operation system.

  8. [The Application of the Fault Tree Analysis Method in Medical Equipment Maintenance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the traditional fault tree analysis method is presented, detailed instructions for its application characteristics in medical instrument maintenance is made. It is made significant changes when the traditional fault tree analysis method is introduced into the medical instrument maintenance: gave up the logic symbolic, logic analysis and calculation, gave up its complicated programs, and only keep its image and practical fault tree diagram, and the fault tree diagram there are also differences: the fault tree is no longer a logical tree but the thinking tree in troubleshooting, the definition of the fault tree's nodes is different, the composition of the fault tree's branches is also different.

  9. Software For Fault-Tree Diagnosis Of A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, Dave; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Liao, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Fault Tree Diagnosis System (FTDS) computer program is automated-diagnostic-system program identifying likely causes of specified failure on basis of information represented in system-reliability mathematical models known as fault trees. Is modified implementation of failure-cause-identification phase of Narayanan's and Viswanadham's methodology for acquisition of knowledge and reasoning in analyzing failures of systems. Knowledge base of if/then rules replaced with object-oriented fault-tree representation. Enhancement yields more-efficient identification of causes of failures and enables dynamic updating of knowledge base. Written in C language, C++, and Common LISP.

  10. Software For Fault-Tree Diagnosis Of A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, Dave; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Liao, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Fault Tree Diagnosis System (FTDS) computer program is automated-diagnostic-system program identifying likely causes of specified failure on basis of information represented in system-reliability mathematical models known as fault trees. Is modified implementation of failure-cause-identification phase of Narayanan's and Viswanadham's methodology for acquisition of knowledge and reasoning in analyzing failures of systems. Knowledge base of if/then rules replaced with object-oriented fault-tree representation. Enhancement yields more-efficient identification of causes of failures and enables dynamic updating of knowledge base. Written in C language, C++, and Common LISP.

  11. Object-oriented fault tree evaluation program for quantitative analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    Object-oriented programming can be combined with fault free techniques to give a significantly improved environment for evaluating the safety and reliability of large complex systems for space missions. Deep knowledge about system components and interactions, available from reliability studies and other sources, can be described using objects that make up a knowledge base. This knowledge base can be interrogated throughout the design process, during system testing, and during operation, and can be easily modified to reflect design changes in order to maintain a consistent information source. An object-oriented environment for reliability assessment has been developed on a Texas Instrument (TI) Explorer LISP workstation. The program, which directly evaluates system fault trees, utilizes the object-oriented extension to LISP called Flavors that is available on the Explorer. The object representation of a fault tree facilitates the storage and retrieval of information associated with each event in the tree, including tree structural information and intermediate results obtained during the tree reduction process. Reliability data associated with each basic event are stored in the fault tree objects. The object-oriented environment on the Explorer also includes a graphical tree editor which was modified to display and edit the fault trees.

  12. Fault Tree Analysis Application for Safety and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial software tools exist for fault tree analysis (FTA), an accepted method for mitigating risk in systems. The method embedded in the tools identifies a root as use in system components, but when software is identified as a root cause, it does not build trees into the software component. No commercial software tools have been built specifically for development and analysis of software fault trees. Research indicates that the methods of FTA could be applied to software, but the method is not practical without automated tool support. With appropriate automated tool support, software fault tree analysis (SFTA) may be a practical technique for identifying the underlying cause of software faults that may lead to critical system failures. We strive to demonstrate that existing commercial tools for FTA can be adapted for use with SFTA, and that applied to a safety-critical system, SFTA can be used to identify serious potential problems long before integrator and system testing.

  13. Fault Tree Analysis Application for Safety and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial software tools exist for fault tree analysis (FTA), an accepted method for mitigating risk in systems. The method embedded in the tools identifies a root as use in system components, but when software is identified as a root cause, it does not build trees into the software component. No commercial software tools have been built specifically for development and analysis of software fault trees. Research indicates that the methods of FTA could be applied to software, but the method is not practical without automated tool support. With appropriate automated tool support, software fault tree analysis (SFTA) may be a practical technique for identifying the underlying cause of software faults that may lead to critical system failures. We strive to demonstrate that existing commercial tools for FTA can be adapted for use with SFTA, and that applied to a safety-critical system, SFTA can be used to identify serious potential problems long before integrator and system testing.

  14. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry fault trees

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    An abbreviated fault tree method is used to evaluate and model Browns Ferry systems in the Interim Reliability Evaluation programs, simplifying the recording and displaying of events, yet maintaining the system of identifying faults. The level of investigation is not changed. The analytical thought process inherent in the conventional method is not compromised. But the abbreviated method takes less time, and the fault modes are much more visible.

  15. Object-Oriented Algorithm For Evaluation Of Fault Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm for direct evaluation of fault trees incorporates techniques of object-oriented programming. Reduces number of calls needed to solve trees with repeated events. Provides significantly improved software environment for such computations as quantitative analyses of safety and reliability of complicated systems of equipment (e.g., spacecraft or factories).

  16. Object-oriented fault tree models applied to system diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    When a diagnosis system is used in a dynamic environment, such as the distributed computer system planned for use on Space Station Freedom, it must execute quickly and its knowledge base must be easily updated. Representing system knowledge as object-oriented augmented fault trees provides both features. The diagnosis system described here is based on the failure cause identification process of the diagnostic system described by Narayanan and Viswanadham. Their system has been enhanced in this implementation by replacing the knowledge base of if-then rules with an object-oriented fault tree representation. This allows the system to perform its task much faster and facilitates dynamic updating of the knowledge base in a changing diagnosis environment. Accessing the information contained in the objects is more efficient than performing a lookup operation on an indexed rule base. Additionally, the object-oriented fault trees can be easily updated to represent current system status. This paper describes the fault tree representation, the diagnosis algorithm extensions, and an example application of this system. Comparisons are made between the object-oriented fault tree knowledge structure solution and one implementation of a rule-based solution. Plans for future work on this system are also discussed.

  17. Evidential Networks for Fault Tree Analysis with Imprecise Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianping; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Liu, Yu; Li, Yan-Feng

    2012-06-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA), as one of the powerful tools in reliability engineering, has been widely used to enhance system quality attributes. In most fault tree analyses, precise values are adopted to represent the probabilities of occurrence of those events. Due to the lack of sufficient data or imprecision of existing data at the early stage of product design, it is often difficult to accurately estimate the failure rates of individual events or the probabilities of occurrence of the events. Therefore, such imprecision and uncertainty need to be taken into account in reliability analysis. In this paper, the evidential networks (EN) are employed to quantify and propagate the aforementioned uncertainty and imprecision in fault tree analysis. The detailed conversion processes of some logic gates to EN are described in fault tree (FT). The figures of the logic gates and the converted equivalent EN, together with the associated truth tables and the conditional belief mass tables, are also presented in this work. The new epistemic importance is proposed to describe the effect of ignorance degree of event. The fault tree of an aircraft engine damaged by oil filter plugs is presented to demonstrate the proposed method.

  18. Accident Fault Trees for Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1999-06-22

    The purpose of this report is to document fault tree analyses which have been completed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) safety analysis. Logic models for equipment failures and human error combinations that could lead to flammable gas explosions in various process tanks, or failure of critical support systems were developed for internal initiating events and for earthquakes. These fault trees provide frequency estimates for support systems failures and accidents that could lead to radioactive and hazardous chemical releases both on-site and off-site. Top event frequency results from these fault trees will be used in further APET analyses to calculate accident risk associated with DWPF facility operations. This report lists and explains important underlying assumptions, provides references for failure data sources, and briefly describes the fault tree method used. Specific commitments from DWPF to provide new procedural/administrative controls or system design changes are listed in the ''Facility Commitments'' section. The purpose of the ''Assumptions'' section is to clarify the basis for fault tree modeling, and is not necessarily a list of items required to be protected by Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs).

  19. Research on fault diagnosis technique on aerocamera communication based on fault tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijuan; He, Binggao; Tian, Chengjun; Yang, Chengyu; Duan, Jie

    2008-12-01

    ARINC429 is the standard of digital transmission of avionic device. This paper used fault tree analysis to diagnosis failures of aerocamera 429 communication, built up fault tree of aerocamera 429 communication, analyzed and diagnosed the failures, and designed the detecting flaw, finished aerocamera 429 communication detecting system finally. This detecting system can detect aerocamera 429 communication board fast and effectively, and cut down period of clearing of fault. In addition, it can increase the direction of maintenance and repair, improve the overall function of aerocamera.

  20. Approximate fault-tree analysis without cut sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeweiss, Winfrid G.

    It is shown that a rather efficient approximate fault tree analysis is possible on the basis of the Shannon decomposition. The main advantages are: (1) no preprocessing is necessary to determine all the mincuts; (2) the maximum error can be prespecified; and (3) noncoherent systems and systems with dependent component states can be treated. The main disadvantage is the fact that the cutting off of certain subtrees of the decomposition tree (for upper bound results) may need some trial and error test calculations.

  1. Bayesian network based on a fault tree and its application in diesel engine fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Gang; Zheng, Shengguo; Cao, Longhan

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the faults diagnosis of diesel engine systems. This research aims at the optimization of the diagnosis results. Inspired by Bayesian Network (BN) possessing good performance in solving uncertainty problems, a new method was proposed for establishing a BN of diesel engine faults quickly, and diagnosing faults exactly. This method consisted of two stages,namely the establishment of a BN model, and a faults diagnosis of the diesel engine system using that BN mode. For the purpose of establishing the BN, a new algorithm, which can establish a BN quickly and easily, is presented. The Fault Tree (FT) diagnosis model of the diesel engine system was established first. Then it was transformed it into a BN by using our algorithm. Finally, the BN was used to diagnose the faults of a diesel engine system. Experimental results show that the diagnosis speed is increased and the accuracy is improved.

  2. An overview of the phase-modular fault tree approach to phased mission system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, L.; Xing, L.; Donohue, S. K.; Ou, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We look at how fault tree analysis (FTA), a primary means of performing reliability analysis of PMS, can meet this challenge in this paper by presenting an overview of the modular approach to solving fault trees that represent PMS.

  3. An overview of the phase-modular fault tree approach to phased mission system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, L.; Xing, L.; Donohue, S. K.; Ou, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We look at how fault tree analysis (FTA), a primary means of performing reliability analysis of PMS, can meet this challenge in this paper by presenting an overview of the modular approach to solving fault trees that represent PMS.

  4. A Fault Tree Approach to Analysis of Organizational Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth; Stephens, Kent G.

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method of examing communication in an organization by focusing on: (1) the complex interrelationships in human systems, particularly in communication systems; (2) interactions across subsystems and system boundaries; and (3) the need to select and "prioritize" channels which will eliminate noise in the…

  5. A diagnosis system using object-oriented fault tree models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceborne computing systems must provide reliable, continuous operation for extended periods. Due to weight, power, and volume constraints, these systems must manage resources very effectively. A fault diagnosis algorithm is described which enables fast and flexible diagnoses in the dynamic distributed computing environments planned for future space missions. The algorithm uses a knowledge base that is easily changed and updated to reflect current system status. Augmented fault trees represented in an object-oriented form provide deep system knowledge that is easy to access and revise as a system changes. Given such a fault tree, a set of failure events that have occurred, and a set of failure events that have not occurred, this diagnosis system uses forward and backward chaining to propagate causal and temporal information about other failure events in the system being diagnosed. Once the system has established temporal and causal constraints, it reasons backward from heuristically selected failure events to find a set of basic failure events which are a likely cause of the occurrence of the top failure event in the fault tree. The diagnosis system has been implemented in common LISP using Flavors.

  6. An empirical evaluation of Bayesian networks derived from fault trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Shane; Sheppard, John

    Fault Isolation Manuals (FIMs) are derived from a type of decision tree and play an important role in maintenance troubleshooting of large systems. However, there are some drawbacks to using decision trees for maintenance, such as requiring a static order of tests to reach a conclusion. One method to overcome these limitations is by converting FIMs to Bayesian networks. However, it has been shown that Bayesian networks derived from FIMs will not contain the entire set of fault and alarm relationships present in the system from which the FIM was developed. In this paper we analyze Bayesian networks that have been derived from FIMs and report on several measurements, such as accuracy, relative probability of target diagnoses, diagnosis rank, and KL-divergence. Based on our results, we found that even with incomplete information, the Bayesian networks derived from the FIMs were still able to perform reasonably well.

  7. Hydrologic Network Fault Trees Help Understand Patterns of Water Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklitz, A.; Shuster, W.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2014-12-01

    Surface waters are used for recreation, food supply, habitat, drinking water supply, and a variety of other ecological services that can be interrupted by water contamination. The stochastic nature of environmental systems makes the evaluation of reliability of these services necessary; however this is a major challenge due to system complexity and tool availability. We address this issue through adoption of fault-tree risk diagrams that have been used in Civil Engineering to conceptualize, analyze, and visualize complex and interconnected system behavior. A fault tree risk diagram is able to represent the connective geometry of the system, and to identify its possible failure modes. Environmental systems, like their engineered counterparts, are complex, interconnected, and have multiple system failure modes which include unsafe levels of contaminants in surface water. We have developed a Monte-Carlo procedure to obtain a fault tree risk diagram of the stream river network, and to perform system reliability evaluation. This study aims to allow for a more holistic watershed management by incorporating risk concepts with the geometric connectivity of a stream network. It aims to answer questions like "what are the areas in a watershed that increase the likelihood of overall water contamination?", "what is the spatial and temporal distribution of probability of exceeding contaminant standards in the entire watershed?", "which combination of individual sources will increase this probability?", and "which areas of the watershed would be most sensitive to implementation of management measures".

  8. Modular techniques for dynamic fault-tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Dugan, Joanne B.

    It is noted that current approaches used to assess the dependability of complex systems such as Space Station Freedom and the Air Traffic Control System are incapable of handling the size and complexity of these highly integrated designs. A novel technique for modeling such systems which is built upon current techniques in Markov theory and combinatorial analysis is described. It enables the development of a hierarchical representation of system behavior which is more flexible than either technique alone. A solution strategy which is based on an object-oriented approach to model representation and evaluation is discussed. The technique is virtually transparent to the user since the fault tree models can be built graphically and the objects defined automatically. The tree modularization procedure allows the two model types, Markov and combinatoric, to coexist and does not require that the entire fault tree be translated to a Markov chain for evaluation. This effectively reduces the size of the Markov chain required and enables solutions with less truncation, making analysis of longer mission times possible. Using the fault-tolerant parallel processor as an example, a model is built and solved for a specific mission scenario and the solution approach is illustrated in detail.

  9. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David; Parsons, Tom; Hart, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface—a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake (M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact. PMID:27774514

  10. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David A.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface—a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake (M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  11. FTC - THE FAULT-TREE COMPILER (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    FTC, the Fault-Tree Compiler program, is a tool used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault-tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. The high-level input language is easy to understand and use. In addition, the program supports a hierarchical fault tree definition feature which simplifies the tree-description process and reduces execution time. A rigorous error bound is derived for the solution technique. This bound enables the program to supply an answer precisely (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) at a user-specified number of digits accuracy. The program also facilitates sensitivity analysis with respect to any specified parameter of the fault tree such as a component failure rate or a specific event probability by allowing the user to vary one failure rate or the failure probability over a range of values and plot the results. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. Although different solution techniques are utilized on different programs, it is possible to have a common input language. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of programs that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation. The set of programs are: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920); and the FTC fault tree tool (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree. PAWS/STEM and SURE are programs which interpret the same SURE language, but utilize different solution methods. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. SURE, ASSIST, and PAWS/STEM are also offered as a bundle. Please see the abstract for COS-10039/COS

  12. FTC - THE FAULT-TREE COMPILER (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    FTC, the Fault-Tree Compiler program, is a tool used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault-tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. The high-level input language is easy to understand and use. In addition, the program supports a hierarchical fault tree definition feature which simplifies the tree-description process and reduces execution time. A rigorous error bound is derived for the solution technique. This bound enables the program to supply an answer precisely (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) at a user-specified number of digits accuracy. The program also facilitates sensitivity analysis with respect to any specified parameter of the fault tree such as a component failure rate or a specific event probability by allowing the user to vary one failure rate or the failure probability over a range of values and plot the results. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. Although different solution techniques are utilized on different programs, it is possible to have a common input language. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of programs that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation. The set of programs are: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920); and the FTC fault tree tool (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree. PAWS/STEM and SURE are programs which interpret the same SURE language, but utilize different solution methods. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. SURE, ASSIST, and PAWS/STEM are also offered as a bundle. Please see the abstract for COS-10039/COS

  13. FTC - THE FAULT-TREE COMPILER (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    FTC, the Fault-Tree Compiler program, is a tool used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault-tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. The high-level input language is easy to understand and use. In addition, the program supports a hierarchical fault tree definition feature which simplifies the tree-description process and reduces execution time. A rigorous error bound is derived for the solution technique. This bound enables the program to supply an answer precisely (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) at a user-specified number of digits accuracy. The program also facilitates sensitivity analysis with respect to any specified parameter of the fault tree such as a component failure rate or a specific event probability by allowing the user to vary one failure rate or the failure probability over a range of values and plot the results. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. Although different solution techniques are utilized on different programs, it is possible to have a common input language. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of programs that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation. The set of programs are: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920); and the FTC fault tree tool (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree. PAWS/STEM and SURE are programs which interpret the same SURE language, but utilize different solution methods. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. SURE, ASSIST, and PAWS/STEM are also offered as a bundle. Please see the abstract for COS-10039/COS

  14. FTC - THE FAULT-TREE COMPILER (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    FTC, the Fault-Tree Compiler program, is a tool used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault-tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. The high-level input language is easy to understand and use. In addition, the program supports a hierarchical fault tree definition feature which simplifies the tree-description process and reduces execution time. A rigorous error bound is derived for the solution technique. This bound enables the program to supply an answer precisely (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) at a user-specified number of digits accuracy. The program also facilitates sensitivity analysis with respect to any specified parameter of the fault tree such as a component failure rate or a specific event probability by allowing the user to vary one failure rate or the failure probability over a range of values and plot the results. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. Although different solution techniques are utilized on different programs, it is possible to have a common input language. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of programs that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation. The set of programs are: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920); and the FTC fault tree tool (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree. PAWS/STEM and SURE are programs which interpret the same SURE language, but utilize different solution methods. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. SURE, ASSIST, and PAWS/STEM are also offered as a bundle. Please see the abstract for COS-10039/COS

  15. Multi-link faults localization and restoration based on fuzzy fault set for dynamic optical networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Xin; Li, Huadong; Wang, Xinbo; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Shanguo

    2013-01-28

    Based on a distributed method of bit-error-rate (BER) monitoring, a novel multi-link faults restoration algorithm is proposed for dynamic optical networks. The concept of fuzzy fault set (FFS) is first introduced for multi-link faults localization, which includes all possible optical equipment or fiber links with a membership describing the possibility of faults. Such a set is characterized by a membership function which assigns each object a grade of membership ranging from zero to one. OSPF protocol extension is designed for the BER information flooding in the network. The BER information can be correlated to link faults through FFS. Based on the BER information and FFS, multi-link faults localization mechanism and restoration algorithm are implemented and experimentally demonstrated on a GMPLS enabled optical network testbed with 40 wavelengths in each fiber link. Experimental results show that the novel localization mechanism has better performance compared with the extended limited perimeter vector matching (LVM) protocol and the restoration algorithm can improve the restoration success rate under multi-link faults scenario.

  16. DG TO FT - AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION OF DIGRAPH TO FAULT TREE MODELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Fault tree and digraph models are frequently used for system failure analysis. Both types of models represent a failure space view of the system using AND and OR nodes in a directed graph structure. Each model has its advantages. While digraphs can be derived in a fairly straightforward manner from system schematics and knowledge about component failure modes and system design, fault tree structure allows for fast processing using efficient techniques developed for tree data structures. The similarities between digraphs and fault trees permits the information encoded in the digraph to be translated into a logically equivalent fault tree. The DG TO FT translation tool will automatically translate digraph models, including those with loops or cycles, into fault tree models that have the same minimum cut set solutions as the input digraph. This tool could be useful, for example, if some parts of a system have been modeled using digraphs and others using fault trees. The digraphs could be translated and incorporated into the fault trees, allowing them to be analyzed using a number of powerful fault tree processing codes, such as cut set and quantitative solution codes. A cut set for a given node is a group of failure events that will cause the failure of the node. A minimum cut set for a node is any cut set that, if any of the failures in the set were to be removed, the occurrence of the other failures in the set will not cause the failure of the event represented by the node. Cut sets calculations can be used to find dependencies, weak links, and vital system components whose failures would cause serious systems failure. The DG TO FT translation system reads in a digraph with each node listed as a separate object in the input file. The user specifies a terminal node for the digraph that will be used as the top node of the resulting fault tree. A fault tree basic event node representing the failure of that digraph node is created and becomes a child of the terminal

  17. DG TO FT - AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION OF DIGRAPH TO FAULT TREE MODELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Fault tree and digraph models are frequently used for system failure analysis. Both types of models represent a failure space view of the system using AND and OR nodes in a directed graph structure. Each model has its advantages. While digraphs can be derived in a fairly straightforward manner from system schematics and knowledge about component failure modes and system design, fault tree structure allows for fast processing using efficient techniques developed for tree data structures. The similarities between digraphs and fault trees permits the information encoded in the digraph to be translated into a logically equivalent fault tree. The DG TO FT translation tool will automatically translate digraph models, including those with loops or cycles, into fault tree models that have the same minimum cut set solutions as the input digraph. This tool could be useful, for example, if some parts of a system have been modeled using digraphs and others using fault trees. The digraphs could be translated and incorporated into the fault trees, allowing them to be analyzed using a number of powerful fault tree processing codes, such as cut set and quantitative solution codes. A cut set for a given node is a group of failure events that will cause the failure of the node. A minimum cut set for a node is any cut set that, if any of the failures in the set were to be removed, the occurrence of the other failures in the set will not cause the failure of the event represented by the node. Cut sets calculations can be used to find dependencies, weak links, and vital system components whose failures would cause serious systems failure. The DG TO FT translation system reads in a digraph with each node listed as a separate object in the input file. The user specifies a terminal node for the digraph that will be used as the top node of the resulting fault tree. A fault tree basic event node representing the failure of that digraph node is created and becomes a child of the terminal

  18. DG TO FT - AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION OF DIGRAPH TO FAULT TREE MODELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Fault tree and digraph models are frequently used for system failure analysis. Both types of models represent a failure space view of the system using AND and OR nodes in a directed graph structure. Each model has its advantages. While digraphs can be derived in a fairly straightforward manner from system schematics and knowledge about component failure modes and system design, fault tree structure allows for fast processing using efficient techniques developed for tree data structures. The similarities between digraphs and fault trees permits the information encoded in the digraph to be translated into a logically equivalent fault tree. The DG TO FT translation tool will automatically translate digraph models, including those with loops or cycles, into fault tree models that have the same minimum cut set solutions as the input digraph. This tool could be useful, for example, if some parts of a system have been modeled using digraphs and others using fault trees. The digraphs could be translated and incorporated into the fault trees, allowing them to be analyzed using a number of powerful fault tree processing codes, such as cut set and quantitative solution codes. A cut set for a given node is a group of failure events that will cause the failure of the node. A minimum cut set for a node is any cut set that, if any of the failures in the set were to be removed, the occurrence of the other failures in the set will not cause the failure of the event represented by the node. Cut sets calculations can be used to find dependencies, weak links, and vital system components whose failures would cause serious systems failure. The DG TO FT translation system reads in a digraph with each node listed as a separate object in the input file. The user specifies a terminal node for the digraph that will be used as the top node of the resulting fault tree. A fault tree basic event node representing the failure of that digraph node is created and becomes a child of the terminal

  19. Robot reliability using fuzzy fault trees and Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschen, Martin; Walker, Ian D.; Cavallaro, Joseph R.

    1996-10-01

    Robot reliability has become an increasingly important issue in the last few years, in part due to the increased application of robots in hazardous and unstructured environments. However, much of this work leads to complex and nonintuitive analysis, which results in many techniques being impractical due to computational complexity or lack of appropriately complex models for the manipulator. In this paper, we consider the application of notions and techniques from fuzzy logic, fault trees, and Markov modeling to robot fault tolerance. Fuzzy logic lends itself to quantitative reliability calculations in robotics. The crisp failure rates which are usually used are not actually known, while fuzzy logic, due to its ability to work with the actual approximate (fuzzy) failure rates available during the design process, avoids making too many unwarranted assumptions. Fault trees are a standard reliability tool that can easily assimilate fuzzy logic. Markov modeling allows evaluation of multiple failure modes simultaneously, and is thus an appropriate method of modeling failures in redundant robotic systems. However, no method of applying fuzzy logic to Markov models was known to the authors. This opens up the possibility of new techniques for reliability using Markov modeling and fuzzy logic techniques, which are developed in this paper.

  20. An Application of Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis to Uncontained Events of an Areo-Engine Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfeng; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Liu, Yu; Xiao, Ning-Cong

    2012-12-01

    Fault tree analysis is an important tool for system reliability analysis. Fuzzy fault tree analysis of uncontained events for aero-engine rotor is performed in this article. In addition, a new methodology based on fuzzy set theory is also used in fault tree analysis to quantify the failure probabilities of basic events. The theory of fuzzy fault tree is introduced firstly. Then the fault tree for uncontained events of an aero-engine rotor is established, in which the descending method is used to determine the minimal cut sets. Furthermore, the interval representation and calculation strategy is presented by using the symmetrical L-R type fuzzy number to describe the failure probability, and the resulting fault tree is analyzed quantitatively in the case study.

  1. Waste Management Fault Tree Data Bank (WM): 1992 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, D.F.; Hang, P.; Townsend, C.S.

    1993-08-30

    The Risk Assessment Methodology Group (RAM) of the Nuclear Process Safety Research Section (NPSR) maintains a compilation of incidents that have occurred in the Waste Management facilities. The Waste Management Fault Tree Data Bank (WM) contains more than 35,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with significant potential for injury or contamination of personnel. This report documents the status of the WM data bank including: availability, training, source of data, search options, and usage, to which these data have been applied. Periodic updates to this memorandum are planned as additional data or applications are acquired.

  2. A Method to Quantify Plant Availability and Initiating Event Frequency Using a Large Event Tree, Small Fault Tree Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, Ernest J.; Sun, Alice; Rodgers, Shawn; Popova, ElmiraV; Nelson, Paul; Moiseytseva, Vera; Wang, Eric

    2006-07-01

    South Texas Project uses a large fault tree to produce scenarios (minimal cut sets) used in quantification of plant availability and event frequency predictions. On the other hand, the South Texas Project probabilistic risk assessment model uses a large event tree, small fault tree for quantifying core damage and radioactive release frequency predictions. The South Texas Project is converting its availability and event frequency model to use a large event tree, small fault in an effort to streamline application support and to provide additional detail in results. The availability and event frequency model as well as the applications it supports (maintenance and operational risk management, system engineering health assessment, preventive maintenance optimization, and RIAM) are briefly described. A methodology to perform availability modeling in a large event tree, small fault tree framework is described in detail. How the methodology can be used to support South Texas Project maintenance and operations risk management is described in detail. Differences with other fault tree methods and other recently proposed methods are discussed in detail. While the methods described are novel to the South Texas Project Risk Management program and to large event tree, small fault tree models, concepts in the area of application support and availability modeling have wider applicability to the industry. (authors)

  3. Fault tree analysis of most common rolling bearing tribological failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vencl, Aleksandar; Gašić, Vlada; Stojanović, Blaža

    2017-02-01

    Wear as a tribological process has a major influence on the reliability and life of rolling bearings. Field examinations of bearing failures due to wear indicate possible causes and point to the necessary measurements for wear reduction or elimination. Wear itself is a very complex process initiated by the action of different mechanisms, and can be manifested by different wear types which are often related. However, the dominant type of wear can be approximately determined. The paper presents the classification of most common bearing damages according to the dominant wear type, i.e. abrasive wear, adhesive wear, surface fatigue wear, erosive wear, fretting wear and corrosive wear. The wear types are correlated with the terms used in ISO 15243 standard. Each wear type is illustrated with an appropriate photograph, and for each wear type, appropriate description of causes and manifestations is presented. Possible causes of rolling bearing failure are used for the fault tree analysis (FTA). It was performed to determine the root causes for bearing failures. The constructed fault tree diagram for rolling bearing failure can be useful tool for maintenance engineers.

  4. Building method of diagnostic model of Bayesian networks based on fault tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Haijun; Li, Lin

    2008-10-01

    Fault tree (FT) is usually a reliability and security analysis and diagnoses decision model. It is also in common use that expressing fault diagnosis question with fault tree model. But it will not be changed easily if fault free model was built, and it could not accept and deal with new information easily. It is difficult to put the information which have nothing to do with equipment fault but can be used to fault diagnosis into diagnostic course. Bayesian Networks (BN) can learn and improve its network architecture and parameters at any time by way of practice accumulation, and raises the ability of fault diagnosis. The method of building BN based on FT is researched on this article, this method could break through the limitations of FT itself, make BN be more extensively applied to the domain of fault diagnosis and gains much better ability of fault analysis and diagnosis.

  5. Fault Tree Analysis: An Operations Research Tool for Identifying and Reducing Undesired Events in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Petersen, Paul D.

    This paper explores the fault-tree analysis approach to isolating failure modes within a system. Fault tree investigates potentially undesirable events and then looks for failures in sequence that would lead to their occurring. Relationships among these events are symbolized by AND or OR logic gates, AND used when single events must coexist to…

  6. TU-AB-BRD-03: Fault Tree Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, P.

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to

  7. Enterprise architecture availability analysis using fault trees and stakeholder interviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Närman, Per; Franke, Ulrik; König, Johan; Buschle, Markus; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The availability of enterprise information systems is a key concern for many organisations. This article describes a method for availability analysis based on Fault Tree Analysis and constructs from the ArchiMate enterprise architecture (EA) language. To test the quality of the method, several case-studies within the banking and electrical utility industries were performed. Input data were collected through stakeholder interviews. The results from the case studies were compared with availability of log data to determine the accuracy of the method's predictions. In the five cases where accurate log data were available, the yearly downtime estimates were within eight hours from the actual downtimes. The cost of performing the analysis was low; no case study required more than 20 man-hours of work, making the method ideal for practitioners with an interest in obtaining rapid availability estimates of their enterprise information systems.

  8. Reliability analysis of the solar array based on Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianing, Wu; Shaoze, Yan

    2011-07-01

    The solar array is an important device used in the spacecraft, which influences the quality of in-orbit operation of the spacecraft and even the launches. This paper analyzes the reliability of the mechanical system and certifies the most vital subsystem of the solar array. The fault tree analysis (FTA) model is established according to the operating process of the mechanical system based on DFH-3 satellite; the logical expression of the top event is obtained by Boolean algebra and the reliability of the solar array is calculated. The conclusion shows that the hinges are the most vital links between the solar arrays. By analyzing the structure importance(SI) of the hinge's FTA model, some fatal causes, including faults of the seal, insufficient torque of the locking spring, temperature in space, and friction force, can be identified. Damage is the initial stage of the fault, so limiting damage is significant to prevent faults. Furthermore, recommendations for improving reliability associated with damage limitation are discussed, which can be used for the redesigning of the solar array and the reliability growth planning.

  9. An Algorithm of Making Switching Operation Sequence for Fault Testing using Tree Structured Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Masatoshi; Komai, Kenji; Yamanishi, Asao

    This paper describes an algorithm of making switching operation sequence for fault testing using tree structured data. When the faulty section is not isolated exactly, faulty section is tested whether the fault exist in the section by energizing. The proposed algorithm can determine appropriate order of components for fault testing and valid switching operation sequence for each fault testing. An example shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is used at actual control centers.

  10. Application of Fault Tree Analysis and Fuzzy Neural Networks to Fault Diagnosis in the Internet of Things (IoT) for Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingyi; Zhen, Zhumi; Yu, Huihui; Xu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In the Internet of Things (IoT) equipment used for aquaculture is often deployed in outdoor ponds located in remote areas. Faults occur frequently in these tough environments and the staff generally lack professional knowledge and pay a low degree of attention in these areas. Once faults happen, expert personnel must carry out maintenance outdoors. Therefore, this study presents an intelligent method for fault diagnosis based on fault tree analysis and a fuzzy neural network. In the proposed method, first, the fault tree presents a logic structure of fault symptoms and faults. Second, rules extracted from the fault trees avoid duplicate and redundancy. Third, the fuzzy neural network is applied to train the relationship mapping between fault symptoms and faults. In the aquaculture IoT, one fault can cause various fault symptoms, and one symptom can be caused by a variety of faults. Four fault relationships are obtained. Results show that one symptom-to-one fault, two symptoms-to-two faults, and two symptoms-to-one fault relationships can be rapidly diagnosed with high precision, while one symptom-to-two faults patterns perform not so well, but are still worth researching. This model implements diagnosis for most kinds of faults in the aquaculture IoT. PMID:28098822

  11. Application of Fault Tree Analysis and Fuzzy Neural Networks to Fault Diagnosis in the Internet of Things (IoT) for Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingyi; Zhen, Zhumi; Yu, Huihui; Xu, Jing

    2017-01-14

    In the Internet of Things (IoT) equipment used for aquaculture is often deployed in outdoor ponds located in remote areas. Faults occur frequently in these tough environments and the staff generally lack professional knowledge and pay a low degree of attention in these areas. Once faults happen, expert personnel must carry out maintenance outdoors. Therefore, this study presents an intelligent method for fault diagnosis based on fault tree analysis and a fuzzy neural network. In the proposed method, first, the fault tree presents a logic structure of fault symptoms and faults. Second, rules extracted from the fault trees avoid duplicate and redundancy. Third, the fuzzy neural network is applied to train the relationship mapping between fault symptoms and faults. In the aquaculture IoT, one fault can cause various fault symptoms, and one symptom can be caused by a variety of faults. Four fault relationships are obtained. Results show that one symptom-to-one fault, two symptoms-to-two faults, and two symptoms-to-one fault relationships can be rapidly diagnosed with high precision, while one symptom-to-two faults patterns perform not so well, but are still worth researching. This model implements diagnosis for most kinds of faults in the aquaculture IoT.

  12. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  13. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2016-06-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  14. Review: Evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Using Fault Tree Analysis.

    PubMed

    Isoda, N; Kadohira, M; Sekiguchi, S; Schuppers, M; Stärk, K D C

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causes huge economic losses and animal welfare problems. Although much can be learnt from past FMD outbreaks, several countries are not satisfied with their degree of contingency planning and aiming at more assurance that their control measures will be effective. The purpose of the present article was to develop a generic fault tree framework for the control of an FMD outbreak as a basis for systematic improvement and refinement of control activities and general preparedness. Fault trees are typically used in engineering to document pathways that can lead to an undesired event, that is, ineffective FMD control. The fault tree method allows risk managers to identify immature parts of the control system and to analyse the events or steps that will most probably delay rapid and effective disease control during a real outbreak. The present developed fault tree is generic and can be tailored to fit the specific needs of countries. For instance, the specific fault tree for the 2001 FMD outbreak in the UK was refined based on control weaknesses discussed in peer-reviewed articles. Furthermore, the specific fault tree based on the 2001 outbreak was applied to the subsequent FMD outbreak in 2007 to assess the refinement of control measures following the earlier, major outbreak. The FMD fault tree can assist risk managers to develop more refined and adequate control activities against FMD outbreaks and to find optimum strategies for rapid control. Further application using the current tree will be one of the basic measures for FMD control worldwide.

  15. Binary tree-based fault location algorithm for optical burst switching network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ru-Yan; Liu, Dan; Peng, Huan-Jia; Lv, Ke-Wei

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes an effective method of fault location based on a binary tree for optical burst switching (OBS) network. To minimize the monitoring cost, we divide the network into several monitor domains by introducing monitoring-cycle algorithms. In order to generate an exclusive code, we modify the monitoring cycle algorithm when two nodes have the same code. Through the binary tree algorithm, a pre-computation of faults in the OBS network can be achieved. When a fault happens, we can locate it immediately and accurately. Examples have proved that the algorithm has general applicability.

  16. Integrating Insults: Using Fault Tree Analysis to Guide Schizophrenia Research across Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald III, Angus W.; Zick, Jennifer L.; Chafee, Matthew V.; Netoff, Theoden I.

    2016-01-01

    The grand challenges of schizophrenia research are linking the causes of the disorder to its symptoms and finding ways to overcome those symptoms. We argue that the field will be unable to address these challenges within psychiatry’s standard neo-Kraepelinian (DSM) perspective. At the same time the current corrective, based in molecular genetics and cognitive neuroscience, is also likely to flounder due to its neglect for psychiatry’s syndromal structure. We suggest adopting a new approach long used in reliability engineering, which also serves as a synthesis of these approaches. This approach, known as fault tree analysis, can be combined with extant neuroscientific data collection and computational modeling efforts to uncover the causal structures underlying the cognitive and affective failures in people with schizophrenia as well as other complex psychiatric phenomena. By making explicit how causes combine from basic faults to downstream failures, this approach makes affordances for: (1) causes that are neither necessary nor sufficient in and of themselves; (2) within-diagnosis heterogeneity; and (3) between diagnosis co-morbidity. PMID:26779007

  17. Linking leaf and tree water use with an individual-tree model.

    PubMed

    Medlyn, Belinda E; Pepper, David A; O'Grady, Anthony P; Keith, Heather

    2007-12-01

    We tested the ability of a model to scale gas exchange from leaf level to whole-tree level by: (1) measuring leaf gas exchange in the canopy of 10 trees in a tall Eucalyptus delegatensis RT Baker forest in NSW, Australia; (2) monitoring sap flow of the same 10 trees during the measurement week; and (3) using an individual-tree-based model (MAESTRA) to link the two sets of measurements. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance components of the model were parameterized with the leaf gas exchange data, and canopy structure was parameterized with crown heights, dimensions and leaf areas of each of the measurement trees and up to 45 neighboring trees. Transpiration of the measurement trees was predicted by the model and compared with sap flow data. Leaf gas exchange parameters were similar for all 10 trees, with the exception of two smaller trees that had relatively low stomatal conductances. We hypothesize that these trees may have experienced water stress as a result of competition from large neighboring trees. The model performed well, and in most cases, was able to replicate the time course of tree transpiration. Maximum rates of transpiration were higher than measured rates for some trees and lower than measured rates for others, which may have been a result of inaccuracy in estimating tree leaf area. There was a small lag (about 15-30 minutes) between sap flow and modeled transpiration for some trees in the morning, likely associated with use of water stored in stems. The model also captured patterns of variation in sap flow among trees. Overall, the study confirms the ability of models to estimate forest canopy transpiration from leaf-level measurements.

  18. The weakest t-norm based intuitionistic fuzzy fault-tree analysis to evaluate system reliability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mohit; Yadav, Shiv Prasad

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a new approach of intuitionistic fuzzy fault-tree analysis is proposed to evaluate system reliability and to find the most critical system component that affects the system reliability. Here weakest t-norm based intuitionistic fuzzy fault tree analysis is presented to calculate fault interval of system components from integrating expert's knowledge and experience in terms of providing the possibility of failure of bottom events. It applies fault-tree analysis, α-cut of intuitionistic fuzzy set and T(ω) (the weakest t-norm) based arithmetic operations on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy sets to obtain fault interval and reliability interval of the system. This paper also modifies Tanaka et al.'s fuzzy fault-tree definition. In numerical verification, a malfunction of weapon system "automatic gun" is presented as a numerical example. The result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of reliability analysis methods. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fault isolation through no-overhead link level CRC

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.

    2007-04-24

    A fault isolation technique for checking the accuracy of data packets transmitted between nodes of a parallel processor. An independent crc is kept of all data sent from one processor to another, and received from one processor to another. At the end of each checkpoint, the crcs are compared. If they do not match, there was an error. The crcs may be cleared and restarted at each checkpoint. In the preferred embodiment, the basic functionality is to calculate a CRC of all packet data that has been successfully transmitted across a given link. This CRC is done on both ends of the link, thereby allowing an independent check on all data believed to have been correctly transmitted. Preferably, all links have this CRC coverage, and the CRC used in this link level check is different from that used in the packet transfer protocol. This independent check, if successfully passed, virtually eliminates the possibility that any data errors were missed during the previous transfer period.

  20. Fault Tree Analysis for an Inspection Robot in a Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Thomas A.; Lu, Lixuan

    2017-09-01

    The life extension of current nuclear reactors has led to an increasing demand on inspection and maintenance of critical reactor components that are too expensive to replace. To reduce the exposure dosage to workers, robotics have become an attractive alternative as a preventative safety tool in nuclear power plants. It is crucial to understand the reliability of these robots in order to increase the veracity and confidence of their results. This study presents the Fault Tree (FT) analysis to a coolant outlet piper snake-arm inspection robot in a nuclear power plant. Fault trees were constructed for a qualitative analysis to determine the reliability of the robot. Insight on the applicability of fault tree methods for inspection robotics in the nuclear industry is gained through this investigation.

  1. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  2. Structural system reliability calculation using a probabilistic fault tree analysis method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torng, T. Y.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) method for calculating structural system reliability is summarized. The proposed PFTA procedure includes: developing a fault tree to represent the complex structural system, constructing an approximation function for each bottom event, determining a dominant sampling sequence for all bottom events, and calculating the system reliability using an adaptive importance sampling method. PFTA is suitable for complicated structural problems that require computer-intensive computer calculations. A computer program has been developed to implement the PFTA.

  3. Fault tree applications within the safety program of Idaho Nuclear Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    Computerized fault tree analyses are used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information about the safety and reliability of an electrical control system that shuts the reactor down when certain safety criteria are exceeded, in the design of a nuclear plant protection system, and in an investigation of a backup emergency system for reactor shutdown. The fault tree yields the modes by which the system failure or accident will occur, the most critical failure or accident causing areas, detailed failure probabilities, and the response of safety or reliability to design modifications and maintenance schemes.

  4. Reliability database development for use with an object-oriented fault tree evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heger, A. Sharif; Harringtton, Robert J.; Koen, Billy V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a fault-tree analysis method using object-oriented programming. In addition, the authors discuss the programs that have been developed or are under development to connect a fault-tree analysis routine to a reliability database. To assess the performance of the routines, a relational database simulating one of the nuclear power industry databases has been constructed. For a realistic assessment of the results of this project, the use of one of existing nuclear power reliability databases is planned.

  5. Fault tree applications within the safety program of Idaho Nuclear Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    Computerized fault tree analyses are used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information about the safety and reliability of an electrical control system that shuts the reactor down when certain safety criteria are exceeded, in the design of a nuclear plant protection system, and in an investigation of a backup emergency system for reactor shutdown. The fault tree yields the modes by which the system failure or accident will occur, the most critical failure or accident causing areas, detailed failure probabilities, and the response of safety or reliability to design modifications and maintenance schemes.

  6. A FAULT MODEL FOR ONTOLOGY MAPPING, ALIGNMENT, AND LINKING SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, HELEN L.; COHEN, K. BRETONNEL; HUNTER, LAWRENCE

    2008-01-01

    There has been much work devoted to the mapping, alignment, and linking of ontologies (MALO), but little has been published about how to evaluate systems that do this. A fault model for conducting fine-grained evaluations of MALO systems is proposed, and its application to the system described in Johnson et al. [15] is illustrated. Two judges categorized errors according to the model, and inter-judge agreement was calculated by error category. Overall inter-judge agreement was 98% after dispute resolution, suggesting that the model is consistently applicable. The results of applying the model to the system described in [15] reveal the reason for a puzzling set of results in that paper, and also suggest a number of avenues and techniques for improving the state of the art in MALO, including the development of biomedical domain specific language processing tools, filtering of high frequency matching results, and word sense disambiguation. PMID:17990495

  7. Direct evaluation of fault trees using object-oriented programming techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1989-01-01

    Object-oriented programming techniques are used in an algorithm for the direct evaluation of fault trees. The algorithm combines a simple bottom-up procedure for trees without repeated events with a top-down recursive procedure for trees with repeated events. The object-oriented approach results in a dynamic modularization of the tree at each step in the reduction process. The algorithm reduces the number of recursive calls required to solve trees with repeated events and calculates intermediate results as well as the solution of the top event. The intermediate results can be reused if part of the tree is modified. An example is presented in which the results of the algorithm implemented with conventional techniques are compared to those of the object-oriented approach.

  8. Automatic rule learning using decision tree for fuzzy classifier in fault diagnosis of roller bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, V.; Ramachandran, K. I.

    2007-07-01

    Roller bearing is one of the most widely used elements in rotary machines. Condition monitoring of such elements is conceived as pattern recognition problem. Pattern recognition has two main phases: feature extraction and feature classification. Statistical features like minimum value, standard error and kurtosis, etc. are widely used as features in fault diagnostics. These features are extracted from vibration signals. A rule set is formed from the extracted features and input to a fuzzy classifier. The rule set necessary for building the fuzzy classifier is obtained largely by intuition and domain knowledge. This paper presents the use of decision tree to generate the rules automatically from the feature set. The vibration signal from a piezo-electric transducer is captured for the following conditions—good bearing, bearing with inner race fault, bearing with outer race fault, and inner and outer race fault. The statistical features are extracted and good features that discriminate the different fault conditions of the bearing are selected using decision tree. The rule set for fuzzy classifier is obtained once again by using the decision tree. A fuzzy classifier is built and tested with representative data. The results are found to be encouraging.

  9. Applying Fault Tree Analysis to the Prevention of Wrong Site Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abecassis, Zachary A.; McElroy, Lisa M.; Patel, Ronak M.; Khorzad, Rebeca; Carroll, Charles; Mehrotra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Wrong Site Surgery (WSS) is a rare event that occurs to hundreds of patients each year. Despite national implementation of the Universal Protocol over the past decade, development of effective interventions remains a challenge. We performed a systematic review of the literature reporting root causes of WSS, and used the results to perform a fault tree analysis in order to assess the reliability of the system in preventing (WSS) and identify high-priority targets for interventions aimed at reducing WSS. Process components where a single error could result in WSS were labeled with OR gates; process aspects reinforced by verification were labeled with AND gates. The overall redundancy of the system was evaluated based on prevalence of AND gates and OR gates. In total, 37 studies described risk factors for Wrong Site Surgery. The fault tree contains 35 faults, the majority of which fall into five main categories. Despite the Universal Protocol mandating patient verification, surgical site signing and a brief timeout, a large proportion of the process relies on human transcription and verification. Fault Tree Analysis provides a standardized perspective of errors or faults within the system of surgical scheduling and site confirmation. It can be adapted by institutions or specialties to lead to more targeted interventions to increase redundancy and reliability within the preoperative process. PMID:25277361

  10. Graphical fault tree analysis for fatal falls in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Syuan-Zih; Dewi, Ratna Sari

    2014-11-01

    The current study applied a fault tree analysis to represent the causal relationships among events and causes that contributed to fatal falls in the construction industry. Four hundred and eleven work-related fatalities in the Taiwanese construction industry were analyzed in terms of age, gender, experience, falling site, falling height, company size, and the causes for each fatality. Given that most fatal accidents involve multiple events, the current study coded up to a maximum of three causes for each fall fatality. After the Boolean algebra and minimal cut set analyses, accident causes associated with each falling site can be presented as a fault tree to provide an overview of the basic causes, which could trigger fall fatalities in the construction industry. Graphical icons were designed for each falling site along with the associated accident causes to illustrate the fault tree in a graphical manner. A graphical fault tree can improve inter-disciplinary discussion of risk management and the communication of accident causation to first line supervisors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Method of fault-tree quantitative analysis for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baochao; Yang, Yicai; Xie, Weimin

    1993-08-01

    Based on the existing problem in determining the failure probabilities of base events in solid rocket motor fault-tree quantitative analysis, an engineering method of 'Solicitation Opinions to Give Marks' was put forward to determine the failure probability. A satisfactory result was obtained by analyzing the practical example of structure reliability for some solid rocket motors at the test sample stage.

  12. Method of fault-tree quantitative analysis for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baochao; Yang, Yicai; Xie, Weimin

    1993-08-01

    Based on the existing problem of determining the failure probabilities of base events in solid rocket motor fault tree quantitative analysis, an engineering method of Solicitation Opinions to Give Marks is put forward to determine failure probability. A more satisfactory result is obtained by analyzing the actual example of the structural reliability of solid rocket motors at the test sample stage.

  13. Fault tree safety analysis of a large Li/SOCl 2 spacecraft battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, O. Manuel; Maurer, R. H.

    The use of Fault Tree Analysis allows designers to identify the relative importance of events and their probabilities in leading to a catastrophic failure of a spacecraft battery. Such an analysis is demonstrated for the case of a 576 cell Li/SOCl 2 battery, showing how the probability of catastrophic failure can be reduced to one in one million.

  14. Investigation of network tree technology as a tool for developing effective fault isolation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.

    The use of the Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA) for effective fault isolation procedure development is investigated, resulting in the definition of a structured methodology for creating logic trees with development and evaluation applications. A systems point-to-point electrical continuity is encoded in a card-image format in order to accomplish data entry, which should be performed via an interactive system. The sorting process should be as batch a process as possible, and the resulting groups are plotted in forest and network tree form. These trees are then used to determine normal and abnormal system response. Finally, the fault isolation procedure logic is developed. It is noted that the resulting methodology can be used for verification purposes, and for other systems analyses.

  15. Irregular Recurrence of Large Earthquakes along the San Andreas Fault: Evidence from Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Gordon C.; Sheppard, Paul R.; Sieh, Kerry E.

    1988-07-01

    Old trees growing along the San Andreas fault near Wrightwood, California, record in their annual ring-width patterns the effects of a major earthquake in the fall or winter of 1812 to 1813. Paleoseismic data and historical information indicate that this event was the ``San Juan Capistrano'' earthquake of 8 December 1812, with a magnitude of 7.5. The discovery that at least 12 kilometers of the Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1812, only 44 years before the great January 1857 rupture, demonstrates that intervals between large earthquakes on this part of the fault are highly variable. This variability increases the uncertainty of forecasting destructive earthquakes on the basis of past behavior and accentuates the need for a more fundamental knowledge of San Andreas fault dynamics.

  16. SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.

    PubMed

    Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

    2001-10-12

    As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study.

  17. Network tree technology: As applied to development of fault isolation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes the activities and conclusions of the Air Force study contract designed to investigate the application of network tree technology to the development of Fault Isolation Procedures. Network tree technology, which was initiated as a formal electrical analysis technique known as Sneak Circuit Analysis, requires that the exact electrical configuration of a system be resident in a computerized data base. This study was to determine how this data base can be used to aid the fault isolation process. Through the analysis of a specific test case, the details of a formal Fault Isolation Procedure development methodology were developed along with the definition of key areas in which automation could be used to make this methodology more cost effective. The results of this study show that the task of developing Fault Isolation Procedure is greatly aided by the use of a computerized data base that depicts te exact electrical continuity of the target system. This data base is selectively sorted to produce plots of system continuity at various levels of detail, and each plot is then used as a tool to create the fault isolation logic.

  18. Link between diurnal stem radius changes and tree water relations.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, R; Item, H; Häsler, R

    2001-08-01

    Internal water reserves are depleted and replenished daily, not only in succulent plants, but also in trees. The significance of these changes in tissue water storage for tree water relations was investigated by monitoring diurnal fluctuations in stem radius. In 6-year-old potted Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees, whole-tree transpiration rate (T), sap flow at the stem base and fluctuations in stem radius were measured at 10-min intervals over eight successive weeks. The dynamics of diurnal water storage in relation to the daily course of water movement was simulated and the contribution of stored water to T quantified. The finding that, in P. abies, the course of bark water content is linearly coupled to stem radius fluctuations provided the basis for linking stem radius changes to a functional flow and storage model for tree water relations. This model, which consists of physical functions only and is driven by a single input variable (T), accurately simulates the diurnal course of changes in stem radius and water storage of the tree crown and stem. It was concluded that fluctuations were mainly determined by the course of transpiration. The availability of soil water and the degree to which storage tissues were saturated were also factors affecting the diurnal course of stem radius changes. Internally stored water contributed to daily transpiration even in well-watered trees, indicating that stored water plays an important role not only during periods of drought, but whenever water transport occurs within the tree. Needle and bark water reserves were most heavily depleted during transpiration. Together they supplied approximately 10% of daily T on sunny days, and up to 65% on cloudy days. On a daily basis, the crown (mainly needles) contributed approximately eight times more water to T than the stem (mainly bark). The depletion of the two storage pools and the water movements observed in the trees always occurred in the same sequence. In the morning

  19. Fault tree analysis for system modeling in case of intentional EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genender, E.; Mleczko, M.; Döring, O.; Garbe, H.; Potthast, S.

    2011-08-01

    The complexity of modern systems on the one hand and the rising threat of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) on the other hand increase the necessity for systematical risk analysis. Most of the problems can not be treated deterministically since slight changes in the configuration (source, position, polarization, ...) can dramatically change the outcome of an event. For that purpose, methods known from probabilistic risk analysis can be applied. One of the most common approaches is the fault tree analysis (FTA). The FTA is used to determine the system failure probability and also the main contributors to its failure. In this paper the fault tree analysis is introduced and a possible application of that method is shown using a small computer network as an example. The constraints of this methods are explained and conclusions for further research are drawn.

  20. OPTIMUM INSPECTION POLICY FOR LONG SPAN BRIDGE BASED ON FAULT TREE ANALYSIS WITH VISUAL INSPECTION DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kanaji, Hidesada; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mashima, Nobuhiro; Ohishi, Hideo; Matsuoka, Kodai

    This paper proposes a decision making methodology on an optimal inspection method/cycle for long span bridges, based on the two evaluation items: lifecycle cost and risk probability. Firstly, the authors formulate the aggregative Markov deterioration hazard model using visual inspection data, and propose a model for minimizing lifecycle cost. In addition, the authors express the risk of the management limit in the visual inspection of a long bridge with a fault tree, and calculate the probabilities of events constituting the fault tree with the Markov transition probability. Then, it becomes possible to grasp the variation in risk probability due to the difference in inspection and repair policies. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the actual case of determining an optimal inspection policy, to discuss its effectiveness empirically.

  1. CUTSETS - MINIMAL CUT SET CALCULATION FOR DIGRAPH AND FAULT TREE RELIABILITY MODELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Fault tree and digraph models are frequently used for system failure analysis. Both type of models represent a failure space view of the system using AND and OR nodes in a directed graph structure. Fault trees must have a tree structure and do not allow cycles or loops in the graph. Digraphs allow any pattern of interconnection between loops in the graphs. A common operation performed on digraph and fault tree models is the calculation of minimal cut sets. A cut set is a set of basic failures that could cause a given target failure event to occur. A minimal cut set for a target event node in a fault tree or digraph is any cut set for the node with the property that if any one of the failures in the set is removed, the occurrence of the other failures in the set will not cause the target failure event. CUTSETS will identify all the minimal cut sets for a given node. The CUTSETS package contains programs that solve for minimal cut sets of fault trees and digraphs using object-oriented programming techniques. These cut set codes can be used to solve graph models for reliability analysis and identify potential single point failures in a modeled system. The fault tree minimal cut set code reads in a fault tree model input file with each node listed in a text format. In the input file the user specifies a top node of the fault tree and a maximum cut set size to be calculated. CUTSETS will find minimal sets of basic events which would cause the failure at the output of a given fault tree gate. The program can find all the minimal cut sets of a node, or minimal cut sets up to a specified size. The algorithm performs a recursive top down parse of the fault tree, starting at the specified top node, and combines the cut sets of each child node into sets of basic event failures that would cause the failure event at the output of that gate. Minimal cut set solutions can be found for all nodes in the fault tree or just for the top node. The digraph cut set code uses the same

  2. Fault tree analysis: NiH2 aerospace cells for LEO mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of several reliability analyses or assessments applied to battery cells to be utilized in typical Electric Power Subsystems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit missions. FTA is generally the process of reviewing and analytically examining a system or equipment in such a way as to emphasize the lower level fault occurrences which directly or indirectly contribute to the major fault or top level event. This qualitative FTA addresses the potential of occurrence for five specific top level events: hydrogen leakage through either discrete leakage paths or through pressure vessel rupture; and four distinct modes of performance degradation - high charge voltage, suppressed discharge voltage, loss of capacity, and high pressure.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Decision Trees with Logistic Regression in Predicting Fault-Prone Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yogesh; Takkar, Arvinder Kaur; Malhotra, Ruchika

    There are available metrics for predicting fault prone classes, which may help software organizations for planning and performing testing activities. This may be possible due to proper allocation of resources on fault prone parts of the design and code of the software. Hence, importance and usefulness of such metrics is understandable, but empirical validation of these metrics is always a great challenge. Decision Tree (DT) methods have been successfully applied for solving classification problems in many applications. This paper evaluates the capability of three DT methods and compares its performance with statistical method in predicting fault prone software classes using publicly available NASA data set. The results indicate that the prediction performance of DT is generally better than statistical model. However, similar types of studies are required to be carried out in order to establish the acceptability of the DT models.

  4. Fault tree analysis: NiH2 aerospace cells for LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1992-02-01

    The Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of several reliability analyses or assessments applied to battery cells to be utilized in typical Electric Power Subsystems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit missions. FTA is generally the process of reviewing and analytically examining a system or equipment in such a way as to emphasize the lower level fault occurrences which directly or indirectly contribute to the major fault or top level event. This qualitative FTA addresses the potential of occurrence for five specific top level events: hydrogen leakage through either discrete leakage paths or through pressure vessel rupture; and four distinct modes of performance degradation - high charge voltage, suppressed discharge voltage, loss of capacity, and high pressure.

  5. Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Automotive Reliability and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H

    2003-09-24

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) evolved from the aerospace industry in the 1960's. A fault tree is deductive logic model that is generated with a top undesired event in mind. FTA answers the question, ''how can something occur?'' as opposed to failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) that is inductive and answers the question, ''what if?'' FTA is used in risk, reliability and safety assessments. FTA is currently being used by several industries such as nuclear power and chemical processing. Typically the automotive industries uses failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) such as design FMEAs and process FMEAs. The use of FTA has spread to the automotive industry. This paper discusses the use of FTA for automotive applications. With the addition automotive electronics for various applications in systems such as engine/power control, cruise control and braking/traction, FTA is well suited to address failure modes within these systems. FTA can determine the importance of these failure modes from various perspectives such as cost, reliability and safety. A fault tree analysis of a car starting system is presented as an example.

  6. Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault; Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.

    2011-12-01

    Tree rings provide a precise dating source for characterizing natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as San Andres fault in California or Denali fault in Alaska. Dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where most recent surface rupturing event was the M7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses on 28 Pinus sylvestris trees demonstrated the effects of surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. Number of trees yielding positive results, linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the attribution of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake through this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

  7. Heat Transfer Processes Linking Fire Behavior and Tree Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.

    2004-12-01

    Traditional methods for predicting post-fire tree mortality employ statistical models which neglect the processes linking fire behavior to physiological mortality mechanisms. Here we present a physical process approach which predicts tree mortality by linking fireline intensity with lateral (vascular cambium) and apical (vegetative bud) meristem necrosis. We use a linefire plume model with independently validated conduction and lumped capacitance heat transfer analyses to predict lethal meristem temperatures in tree stems, branches, and buds. These models show that meristem necrosis in large diameter (Bi ≥ 0.3) stems/branches is governed by meristem height, bark thickness, and bark water content, while meristem necrosis in small diameter (Bi < 0.3) branches/buds is governed by meristem height, branch/bud size, branch/bud water content, and foliage architecture. To investigate effects of interspecfic variation in these properties, we compare model results for Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and Pinus contorta Loudon var. latifolia Engelm. at fireline intensities from 50 to 3000 kWm-1. Parameters are obtained from allometric models which relate stem/branch diameter to bark thickness and height, as well as bark and bud water content data collected in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Variation in foliage architecture is quantified using forced convection heat transfer coefficients measured in a laminar flow wind tunnel at Re from 100 to 2000, typical for branches/buds in a linefire plume. Results indicate that in unfoliated stems/branches, P. glauca meristems are more protected due to thicker bark, whereas in foliated branches/buds, P. contorta meristems are more protected due to larger bud size and foliage architecture.

  8. Coseismic Slip Variation and the Intimate Link with Fault Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliner, C. W. D.; Sammis, C. G.; Allam, A. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Hollingsworth, J.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.

    2015-12-01

    Co-seismic along-strike slip heterogeneity is widely observed for many surface-rupturing earthquakes as revealed by field and high-resolution geodetic methods. However, this co-seismic slip variability is currently a poorly understood phenomenon. Key unanswered questions include: What are the characteristics and underlying causes of along-strike slip variability? Do the properties of slip variability change from fault-to-fault, along-strike or at different scales? We cross-correlate optical, pre- and post-event air photos using the program COSI-Corr to measure the near-field, surface deformation pattern of the 1992 Mw = 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw = 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in high-resolution. We produce the co-seismic slip profiles of both events from over 1,500 displacement measurements and observe consistent along-strike slip variability. Although the observed slip heterogeneity seems apparently complex and disordered, a spectral analysis reveals that the slip distributions are self-affine fractal and variations of slip are not random. We find a fractal dimension of 1.68 + 0.25 and 1.58 + 0.30 for the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, respectively, indicating the slip distribution is rougher for the former. We show deterministically that the wavelength and amplitude of slip fluctuations of both earthquakes can be directly correlated to points of geometrical fault complexities (such as stepovers, kinks or bends) of similar size. We find the correlation of the wavelength of slip fluctuations to the size of geometrical fault complexities at all observable length scales, can explain why the complex surface rupture of the Landers earthquake has a rougher slip distribution than the geometrically simpler surface rupture of the Hector Mine event. Our results address longstanding questions concerning co-seismic slip variability, resulting in a more complete understanding of the relationship between slip distributions and fault structure.

  9. Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault, Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacı, Ã.-Zgür

    2012-01-01

    Tree ring analysis provides a precise dating source for characterizing the timing of natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as the San Andreas fault in California and Denali fault in Alaska. In this study, dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where the most recent surface rupturing event was the Mw 7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses of 28Pinus sylvestristrees demonstrates the effects of proximal surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. The number of trees yielding similar results, the linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the correlation of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake along this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

  10. Decision tree and PCA-based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weixiang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jiaqing

    2007-04-01

    After analysing the flaws of conventional fault diagnosis methods, data mining technology is introduced to fault diagnosis field, and a new method based on C4.5 decision tree and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. In this method, PCA is used to reduce features after data collection, preprocessing and feature extraction. Then, C4.5 is trained by using the samples to generate a decision tree model with diagnosis knowledge. At last the tree model is used to make diagnosis analysis. To validate the method proposed, six kinds of running states (normal or without any defect, unbalance, rotor radial rub, oil whirl, shaft crack and a simultaneous state of unbalance and radial rub), are simulated on Bently Rotor Kit RK4 to test C4.5 and PCA-based method and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The result shows that C4.5 and PCA-based diagnosis method has higher accuracy and needs less training time than BPNN.

  11. Fault Tree Based Diagnosis with Optimal Test Sequencing for Field Service Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; George, Laurence L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    When field service engineers go to customer sites to service equipment, they want to diagnose and repair failures quickly and cost effectively. Symptoms exhibited by failed equipment frequently suggest several possible causes which require different approaches to diagnosis. This can lead the engineer to follow several fruitless paths in the diagnostic process before they find the actual failure. To assist in this situation, we have developed the Fault Tree Diagnosis and Optimal Test Sequence (FTDOTS) software system that performs automated diagnosis and ranks diagnostic hypotheses based on failure probability and the time or cost required to isolate and repair each failure. FTDOTS first finds a set of possible failures that explain exhibited symptoms by using a fault tree reliability model as a diagnostic knowledge to rank the hypothesized failures based on how likely they are and how long it would take or how much it would cost to isolate and repair them. This ordering suggests an optimal sequence for the field service engineer to investigate the hypothesized failures in order to minimize the time or cost required to accomplish the repair task. Previously, field service personnel would arrive at the customer site and choose which components to investigate based on past experience and service manuals. Using FTDOTS running on a portable computer, they can now enter a set of symptoms and get a list of possible failures ordered in an optimal test sequence to help them in their decisions. If facilities are available, the field engineer can connect the portable computer to the malfunctioning device for automated data gathering. FTDOTS is currently being applied to field service of medical test equipment. The techniques are flexible enough to use for many different types of devices. If a fault tree model of the equipment and information about component failure probabilities and isolation times or costs are available, a diagnostic knowledge base for that device can be

  12. Fault Tree Based Diagnosis with Optimal Test Sequencing for Field Service Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; George, Laurence L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    When field service engineers go to customer sites to service equipment, they want to diagnose and repair failures quickly and cost effectively. Symptoms exhibited by failed equipment frequently suggest several possible causes which require different approaches to diagnosis. This can lead the engineer to follow several fruitless paths in the diagnostic process before they find the actual failure. To assist in this situation, we have developed the Fault Tree Diagnosis and Optimal Test Sequence (FTDOTS) software system that performs automated diagnosis and ranks diagnostic hypotheses based on failure probability and the time or cost required to isolate and repair each failure. FTDOTS first finds a set of possible failures that explain exhibited symptoms by using a fault tree reliability model as a diagnostic knowledge to rank the hypothesized failures based on how likely they are and how long it would take or how much it would cost to isolate and repair them. This ordering suggests an optimal sequence for the field service engineer to investigate the hypothesized failures in order to minimize the time or cost required to accomplish the repair task. Previously, field service personnel would arrive at the customer site and choose which components to investigate based on past experience and service manuals. Using FTDOTS running on a portable computer, they can now enter a set of symptoms and get a list of possible failures ordered in an optimal test sequence to help them in their decisions. If facilities are available, the field engineer can connect the portable computer to the malfunctioning device for automated data gathering. FTDOTS is currently being applied to field service of medical test equipment. The techniques are flexible enough to use for many different types of devices. If a fault tree model of the equipment and information about component failure probabilities and isolation times or costs are available, a diagnostic knowledge base for that device can be

  13. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees.

    PubMed

    Page, Roderic D M

    2013-01-01

    BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic "dashboard" where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question "what is this taxon?" BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION), and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  14. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic “dashboard” where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question “what is this taxon?” BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION), and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org. PMID:24244913

  15. Fault tree safety analysis of a large Li/SOCl(sub)2 spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uy, O. Manuel; Maurer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the safety fault tree analysis on the eight module, 576 F cell Li/SOCl2 battery on the spacecraft and in the integration and test environment prior to launch on the ground are presented. The analysis showed that with the right combination of blocking diodes, electrical fuses, thermal fuses, thermal switches, cell balance, cell vents, and battery module vents the probability of a single cell or a 72 cell module exploding can be reduced to .000001, essentially the probability due to explosion for unexplained reasons.

  16. Evaluating systems for oxygen service through the use of quantitative fault tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santay, Anthony J.

    In the event of a process plant upset, systems not normally intended for use in oxygen service may be suddenly subject to an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. If the upset condition occurs frequently, a conservative approach would be to design all components as if they were normally in oxygen service. As an alternative, one could calculate the probability of the upset condition to quantitatively assess the risk and recommend corrective measures to further reduce the risk. Quantified fault tree techniques are used to determine a system's compatibility when exposed to oxygen in this manner.

  17. Fault tree safety analysis of a large Li/SOCl(sub)2 spacecraft battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, O. Manuel; Maurer, R. H.

    1987-09-01

    The results of the safety fault tree analysis on the eight module, 576 F cell Li/SOCl2 battery on the spacecraft and in the integration and test environment prior to launch on the ground are presented. The analysis showed that with the right combination of blocking diodes, electrical fuses, thermal fuses, thermal switches, cell balance, cell vents, and battery module vents the probability of a single cell or a 72 cell module exploding can be reduced to .000001, essentially the probability due to explosion for unexplained reasons.

  18. Viewpoint on ISA TR84.0.02--simplified methods and fault tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, A E

    2000-01-01

    ANSI/ISA-S84.01-1996 and IEC 61508 require the establishment of a safety integrity level for any safety instrumented system or safety related system used to mitigate risk. Each stage of design, operation, maintenance, and testing is judged against this safety integrity level. Quantitative techniques can be used to verify whether the safety integrity level is met. ISA-dTR84.0.02 is a technical report under development by ISA, which discusses how to apply quantitative analysis techniques to safety instrumented systems. This paper discusses two of those techniques: (1) Simplified equations and (2) Fault tree analysis.

  19. Displacement Addition on Linking Extensional Fault Arrays in the Canyonlands Graben, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commins, D. C.; Gupta, S.; Cartwright, J. A.; Phillips, W. M.

    2003-12-01

    immediately following linkage, and recovery to a standard D-l profile is gained through this process. (5) The locus of displacement accumulation is not fixed in time; the central fault segment does not always experience the greatest displacement enhancement. Preliminary results of cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of bedrock with quartz from the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone indicate recent (<10ka) timing of rapid displacement addition on linking faults.

  20. LinkFinder: An expert system that constructs phylogenic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglehart, James; Nelson, Peter C.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) that automates the process of constructing DNA sequence based phylogenies (trees or lineages) that indicate evolutionary relationships. LinkFinder takes as input homologous DNA sequences from distinct individual organisms. It measures variations between the sequences, selects appropriate proportionality constants, and estimates the time that has passed since each pair of organisms diverged from a common ancestor. It then designs and outputs a phylogenic map summarizing these results. LinkFinder can find genetic relationships between different species, and between individuals of the same species, including humans. It was designed to take advantage of the vast amount of sequence data being produced by the Genome Project, and should be of value to evolution theorists who wish to utilize this data, but who have no formal training in molecular genetics. Evolutionary theory holds that distinct organisms carrying a common gene inherited that gene from a common ancestor. Homologous genes vary from individual to individual and species to species, and the amount of variation is now believed to be directly proportional to the time that has passed since divergence from a common ancestor. The proportionality constant must be determined experimentally; it varies considerably with the types of organisms and DNA molecules under study. Given an appropriate constant, and the variation between two DNA sequences, a simple linear equation gives the divergence time.

  1. Probability and possibility-based representations of uncertainty in fault tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Flage, Roger; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico; Aven, Terje

    2013-01-01

    Expert knowledge is an important source of input to risk analysis. In practice, experts might be reluctant to characterize their knowledge and the related (epistemic) uncertainty using precise probabilities. The theory of possibility allows for imprecision in probability assignments. The associated possibilistic representation of epistemic uncertainty can be combined with, and transformed into, a probabilistic representation; in this article, we show this with reference to a simple fault tree analysis. We apply an integrated (hybrid) probabilistic-possibilistic computational framework for the joint propagation of the epistemic uncertainty on the values of the (limiting relative frequency) probabilities of the basic events of the fault tree, and we use possibility-probability (probability-possibility) transformations for propagating the epistemic uncertainty within purely probabilistic and possibilistic settings. The results of the different approaches (hybrid, probabilistic, and possibilistic) are compared with respect to the representation of uncertainty about the top event (limiting relative frequency) probability. Both the rationale underpinning the approaches and the computational efforts they require are critically examined. We conclude that the approaches relevant in a given setting depend on the purpose of the risk analysis, and that further research is required to make the possibilistic approaches operational in a risk analysis context.

  2. Failure analysis of storage tank component in LNG regasification unit using fault tree analysis method (FTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Muhammad, Fajar; Saad, Aswad H.; Mariah, Riveli, Nowo

    2017-03-01

    Storage tank component is the most critical component in LNG regasification terminal. It has the risk of failure and accident which impacts to human health and environment. Risk assessment is conducted to detect and reduce the risk of failure in storage tank. The aim of this research is determining and calculating the probability of failure in regasification unit of LNG. In this case, the failure is caused by Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) and jet fire in LNG storage tank component. The failure probability can be determined by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Besides that, the impact of heat radiation which is generated is calculated. Fault tree for BLEVE and jet fire on storage tank component has been determined and obtained with the value of failure probability for BLEVE of 5.63 × 10-19 and for jet fire of 9.57 × 10-3. The value of failure probability for jet fire is high enough and need to be reduced by customizing PID scheme of regasification LNG unit in pipeline number 1312 and unit 1. The value of failure probability after customization has been obtained of 4.22 × 10-6.

  3. The integration methods of fuzzy fault mode and effect analysis and fault tree analysis for risk analysis of yogurt production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprilia, Ayu Rizky; Santoso, Imam; Ekasari, Dhita Murita

    2017-05-01

    Yogurt is a product based on milk, which has beneficial effects for health. The process for the production of yogurt is very susceptible to failure because it involves bacteria and fermentation. For an industry, the risks may cause harm and have a negative impact. In order for a product to be successful and profitable, it requires the analysis of risks that may occur during the production process. Risk analysis can identify the risks in detail and prevent as well as determine its handling, so that the risks can be minimized. Therefore, this study will analyze the risks of the production process with a case study in CV.XYZ. The method used in this research is the Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (fuzzy FMEA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The results showed that there are 6 risks from equipment variables, raw material variables, and process variables. Those risks include the critical risk, which is the risk of a lack of an aseptic process, more specifically if starter yogurt is damaged due to contamination by fungus or other bacteria and a lack of sanitation equipment. The results of quantitative analysis of FTA showed that the highest probability is the probability of the lack of an aseptic process, with a risk of 3.902%. The recommendations for improvement include establishing SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures), which include the process, workers, and environment, controlling the starter of yogurt and improving the production planning and sanitation equipment using hot water immersion.

  4. Surface rupture on the Denali Fault interpreted from tree damage during the 1912 Delta river Mw 7.2-7.4 earthquake: Implications for the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake slip distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carver, G.; Plafker, G.; Metz, M.; Cluff, L.; Slemmons, B.; Johnson, E.; Roddick, J.; Sorensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the 3 November 2002 Denali fault earthquake, surface rupture propagated through a small, old-growth forest in the Delta River valley and damaged many trees growing on the fault. Damage was principally the result of fault offset of tree roots and tilting of trees. Some trees were split by surface faults that intersected the base of their trunks or large taproots. A few trees appear to have been damaged by strong shaking. Many of the older trees damaged in 2002 were deformed and scarred. Some of these scarred trees exhibit past damage indicative of surface faulting and have abrupt changes in their annual ring patterns that coincide with the past damage. Annual ring counts from several of these older scarred trees indicate the damage was caused by surface rupture on the Denali fault in 1912. The only earthquake of sufficient magnitude that fits the requirements for timing and general location as recorded by the damaged trees is a widely felt Ms 7.2-7.4 earthquake on 6 July 1912 informally referred to as the 1912 Delta River earthquake. Seismologic data and intensity distribution for the 1912 Delta River earthquake indicate that its epicenter was within 60-90 km of the Delta River and that rupture probably propagated toward the west. Inferred fault length, displacement, and rupture direction suggest the 1912 rupture was probably largely coincident with the western, lower slip section of the 2002 rupture.

  5. Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new representation that enables rigorous definition and decomposition of both nominal and off-nominal system goals and functions: the Goal-Function Tree (GFT). GFTs extend the concept and process of functional decomposition, utilizing state variables as a key mechanism to ensure physical and logical consistency and completeness of the decomposition of goals (requirements) and functions, and enabling full and complete traceabilitiy to the design. The GFT also provides for means to define and represent off-nominal goals and functions that are activated when the system's nominal goals are not met. The physical accuracy of the GFT, and its ability to represent both nominal and off-nominal goals enable the GFT to be used for various analyses of the system, including assessments of the completeness and traceability of system goals and functions, the coverage of fault management failure detections, and definition of system failure scenarios.

  6. Fault tree application to the study of systems interactions at Indian Point 3

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.; Mitra, S.; MacDonald, G.; Mazour, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an application of fault tree methods to search for systems interactions at Indian Point 3. This project was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interaction. Here, the methods are introduced, the findings are presented, and comments on the methods are offered. Findings are presented in the following manner. Systems interactions which may qualitatively violate regulatory requirements (regardless of their probability) are discussed; additionally, a probabilistically ranked list of system interactions is provided. This study resulted in the discovery of a previously undetected active single failure causing loss of low pressure injection. After verifying this finding, the licensee took immediate corrective actions, including a design modification to the switching logic for one of the safety buses, as well as procedural changes.

  7. Risk assessment for enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementations: a fault tree analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yajun; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.

    2013-08-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementations are often characterised with large capital outlay, long implementation duration, and high risk of failure. In order to avoid ERP implementation failure and realise the benefits of the system, sound risk management is the key. This paper proposes a probabilistic risk assessment approach for ERP system implementation projects based on fault tree analysis, which models the relationship between ERP system components and specific risk factors. Unlike traditional risk management approaches that have been mostly focused on meeting project budget and schedule objectives, the proposed approach intends to address the risks that may cause ERP system usage failure. The approach can be used to identify the root causes of ERP system implementation usage failure and quantify the impact of critical component failures or critical risk events in the implementation process.

  8. Risk management of PPP project in the preparation stage based on Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yuanzhi; Guan, Qiuling

    2017-03-01

    The risk management of PPP(Public Private Partnership) project can improve the level of risk control between government departments and private investors, so as to make more beneficial decisions, reduce investment losses and achieve mutual benefit as well. Therefore, this paper takes the PPP project preparation stage venture as the research object to identify and confirm four types of risks. At the same time, fault tree analysis(FTA) is used to evaluate the risk factors that belong to different parts, and quantify the influencing degree of risk impact on the basis of risk identification. In addition, it determines the importance order of risk factors by calculating unit structure importance on PPP project preparation stage. The result shows that accuracy of government decision-making, rationality of private investors funds allocation and instability of market returns are the main factors to generate the shared risk on the project.

  9. Displacement transfer system linking the Furnace Creek and Walker Lane fault systems, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, G.; Oldow, J.S.; Sisson, V.B.; Donelick, R.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic (10 Ma to recent) strike-slip displacements on the northwest-striking Walker Lane fault system (WLF) and Furnace Creek fault (FCF) are kinematically linked by east-northeast high-angle and low-angle extensional faults in west-central Nevada. At least 35 km of right-slip is accommodated by the northwest-striking FCF which stretches 250 km from eastern California to its northern terminus in Fish Lake Valley of western Nevada. High-angle fault trajectories at the northern end of the FCF swing easterly forming a broad belt of east-northeast striking faults. The apexes of the curved faults are the locus of greatest extension and correspond to deep, prismatic basins of the Mina deflection. Within the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain extensional complex (SPLM), a widespread detachment fault separates deformed late Miocene clastic and relatively unmetamorphosed lower Paleozoic rocks from an underlying assemblage of amphibolite facies metamorphic tectonites formed during earlier episode of regional deformation. The detachment is warped in northwest domes and basins but when active dipped shallowly to the northwest. Displacement began in the mid-Miocene and continued into the late Miocene to early Pliocene. Fission-track length analysis of apatite from the lower-plate metamorphic rocks indicate cooling through 100--120 C at about 5 Ma. Strike-slip transfer resulted in northwesterly extension on the SPLM. Northwest-trending warps in the SPLM detachment fault formed during transpressional deformation of the transfer zone during northwest-directed simple shear.

  10. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FOR EXPOSURE TO REFRIGERANTS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fault tree analysis was used to estimate the number of refrigerant exposures of automotive service technicians and vehicle occupants in the United States. Exposures of service technicians can occur when service equipment or automotive air-conditioning systems leak during servic...

  11. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FOR EXPOSURE TO REFRIGERANTS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fault tree analysis was used to estimate the number of refrigerant exposures of automotive service technicians and vehicle occupants in the United States. Exposures of service technicians can occur when service equipment or automotive air-conditioning systems leak during servic...

  12. Fault tree analysis for integrated and probabilistic risk analysis of drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof

    2009-04-01

    Drinking water systems are vulnerable and subject to a wide range of risks. To avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction options, risk analyses need to include the entire drinking water system, from source to tap. Such an integrated approach demands tools that are able to model interactions between different events. Fault tree analysis is a risk estimation tool with the ability to model interactions between events. Using fault tree analysis on an integrated level, a probabilistic risk analysis of a large drinking water system in Sweden was carried out. The primary aims of the study were: (1) to develop a method for integrated and probabilistic risk analysis of entire drinking water systems; and (2) to evaluate the applicability of Customer Minutes Lost (CML) as a measure of risk. The analysis included situations where no water is delivered to the consumer (quantity failure) and situations where water is delivered but does not comply with water quality standards (quality failure). Hard data as well as expert judgements were used to estimate probabilities of events and uncertainties in the estimates. The calculations were performed using Monte Carlo simulations. CML is shown to be a useful measure of risks associated with drinking water systems. The method presented provides information on risk levels, probabilities of failure, failure rates and downtimes of the system. This information is available for the entire system as well as its different sub-systems. Furthermore, the method enables comparison of the results with performance targets and acceptable levels of risk. The method thus facilitates integrated risk analysis and consequently helps decision-makers to minimise sub-optimisation of risk-reduction options.

  13. Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment.

  14. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs by Means of Fault Tree Analysis: An Initial Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; McHugh, R.; Wei, X.

    2016-12-01

    The development and combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has unlocked unconventional hydrocarbon reserves around the globe. These advances have triggered a number of concerns regarding aquifer contamination and over-exploitation, leading to scientific studies investigating potential risks posed by directional hydraulic fracturing activities. These studies, balanced with potential economic benefits of energy production, are a crucial source of information for communities considering the development of unconventional reservoirs. However, probabilistic quantification of the overall risk posed by hydraulic fracturing at the system level are rare. Here we present the concept of fault tree analysis to determine the overall probability of groundwater contamination or over-exploitation, broadly referred to as the probability of failure. The potential utility of fault tree analysis for the quantification and communication of risks is approached with a general application. However, the fault tree design is robust and can handle various combinations of regional-specific data pertaining to relevant spatial scales, geological conditions, and industry practices where available. All available data are grouped into quantity and quality-based impacts and sub-divided based on the stage of the hydraulic fracturing process in which the data is relevant as described by the USEPA. Each stage is broken down into the unique basic events required for failure; for example, to quantify the risk of an on-site spill we must consider the likelihood, magnitude, composition, and subsurface transport of the spill. The structure of the fault tree described above can be used to render a highly complex system of variables into a straightforward equation for risk calculation based on Boolean logic. This project shows the utility of fault tree analysis for the visual communication of the potential risks of hydraulic fracturing activities on groundwater resources.

  15. Tipping points in tropical tree cover: linking theory to data.

    PubMed

    van Nes, Egbert H; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Scheffer, Marten

    2014-03-01

    It has recently been found that the frequency distribution of remotely sensed tree cover in the tropics has three distinct modes, which seem to correspond to forest, savanna, and treeless states. This pattern has been suggested to imply that these states represent alternative attractors, and that the response of these systems to climate change would be characterized by critical transitions and hysteresis. Here, we show how this inference is contingent upon mechanisms at play. We present a simple dynamical model that can generate three alternative tree cover states (forest, savanna, and a treeless state), based on known mechanisms, and use this model to simulate patterns of tree cover under different scenarios. We use these synthetic data to show that the hysteresis inferred from remotely sensed tree cover patterns will be inflated by spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions. On the other hand, we show that the hysteresis inferred from satellite data may actually underestimate real hysteresis in response to climate change if there exists a positive feedback between regional tree cover and precipitation. Our results also indicate that such positive feedback between vegetation and climate should cause direct shifts between forest and a treeless state (rather than through an intermediate savanna state) to become more likely. Finally, we show how directionality of historical change in conditions may bias the observed relationship between tree cover and environmental conditions.

  16. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    PubMed

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  17. Feature selection using Decision Tree and classification through Proximal Support Vector Machine for fault diagnostics of roller bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, V.; Muralidharan, V.; Ramachandran, K. I.

    2007-02-01

    Roller bearing is one of the most widely used rotary elements in a rotary machine. The roller bearing's nature of vibration reveals its condition and the features that show the nature, are to be extracted through some indirect means. Statistical parameters like kurtosis, standard deviation, maximum value, etc. form a set of features, which are widely used in fault diagnostics. Often the problem is, finding out good features that discriminate the different fault conditions of the bearing. Selection of good features is an important phase in pattern recognition and requires detailed domain knowledge. This paper illustrates the use of a Decision Tree that identifies the best features from a given set of samples for the purpose of classification. It uses Proximal Support Vector Machine (PSVM), which has the capability to efficiently classify the faults using statistical features. The vibration signal from a piezoelectric transducer is captured for the following conditions: good bearing, bearing with inner race fault, bearing with outer race fault, and inner and outer race fault. The statistical features are extracted therefrom and classified successfully using PSVM and SVM. The results of PSVM and SVM are compared.

  18. Systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0. Fault tree, event tree, and piping & instrumentation diagram (FEP) editors reference manual: Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.K.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (FEP) editors allow the user to graphically build and edit fault trees, and event trees, and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs). The software is designed to enable the independent use of the graphical-based editors found in the Integrated Reliability and Risk Assessment System (IRRAS). FEP is comprised of three separate editors (Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram) and a utility module. This reference manual provides a screen-by-screen guide of the entire FEP System.

  19. Fault tree analysis for data-loss in long-term monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Dirksen, J; ten Veldhuis, J A E; Schilperoort, R P S

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of data-loss is an important aspect in the design as well as the operational phase of monitoring networks since data-loss can seriously limit intended information yield. In the literature limited attention has been paid to the origin of unreliable or doubtful data from monitoring networks. Better understanding of causes of data-loss points out effective solutions to increase data yield. This paper introduces FTA as a diagnostic tool to systematically deduce causes of data-loss in long-term monitoring networks in urban drainage systems. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of FTA, a fault tree is developed for a monitoring network and FTA is applied to analyze the data yield of a UV/VIS submersible spectrophotometer. Although some of the causes of data-loss cannot be recovered because the historical database of metadata has been updated infrequently, the example points out that FTA still is a powerful tool to analyze the causes of data-loss and provides useful information on effective data-loss prevention.

  20. An approach for automated fault diagnosis based on a fuzzy decision tree and boundary analysis of a reconstructed phase space.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ilhan; Karakose, Mehmet; Akin, Erhan

    2014-03-01

    Although reconstructed phase space is one of the most powerful methods for analyzing a time series, it can fail in fault diagnosis of an induction motor when the appropriate pre-processing is not performed. Therefore, boundary analysis based a new feature extraction method in phase space is proposed for diagnosis of induction motor faults. The proposed approach requires the measurement of one phase current signal to construct the phase space representation. Each phase space is converted into an image, and the boundary of each image is extracted by a boundary detection algorithm. A fuzzy decision tree has been designed to detect broken rotor bars and broken connector faults. The results indicate that the proposed approach has a higher recognition rate than other methods on the same dataset.

  1. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation.

  3. A possible link between faulting, cryptodomes and lateral collapses at Vesuvius Volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio Maria; Bellucci, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    Vesuvius is an active volcano that has been affected by late Quaternary lateral collapses and tectonic faults. Cryptodomes and two debris avalanche, 18 ka-old DA1 and 3.5 ka-old DA2, were previously documented off Vesuvius and for the younger avalanche a link between onshore and offshore stratigraphy was reconstructed. The interpretation of seismic reflection profiles off Vesuvius, borehole stratigraphies, onshore and geomorphological data allowed to recognise the relationships among debris avalanches, criptodomes and faulting. Stratigraphic data reveal a remarkable difference between the architecture of the northern and southern volcano sectors that is compatible with the occurrence of the DA1 debris avalanche in the southern volcano sector. A contour map and a three-dimensional model of a surface merging the morphology of the top of the Somma lavas, in the northern volcano sector, with that of the top of the DA1 debris avalanche, in the southern volcano sector, were reconstructed. We present a new lateral collapse model of Vesuvius Volcano and document the relevance of inherited tectonic faults in guiding collapse geometry. It is possible that the SW-directed collapse (DA1) was driven towards the hangingwall blocks of NW-SE normal faults, while the propagation of the W-directed collapse (DA2) can be ascribed to the activity of the E-W strike-slip fault. Because of their distal location a minor role of cryptodome intrusion on collapses of Vesuvius can be postulated. The detailed analysis of substrate and edifice structure presented here establishes clear connexion between substrate tectonics and lateral collapse. This approach broadens the horizons of volcanic hazard assessment of Vesuvius.

  4. Reliability analysis method of a solar array by using fault tree analysis and fuzzy reasoning Petri net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Xie, Liyang

    2011-12-01

    To address the impact of solar array anomalies, it is important to perform analysis of the solar array reliability. This paper establishes the fault tree analysis (FTA) and fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN) models of a solar array mechanical system and analyzes reliability to find mechanisms of the solar array fault. The index final truth degree (FTD) and cosine matching function (CMF) are employed to resolve the issue of how to evaluate the importance and influence of different faults. So an improvement reliability analysis method is developed by means of the sorting of FTD and CMF. An example is analyzed using the proposed method. The analysis results show that harsh thermal environment and impact caused by particles in space are the most vital causes of the solar array fault. Furthermore, other fault modes and the corresponding improvement methods are discussed. The results reported in this paper could be useful for the spacecraft designers, particularly, in the process of redesigning the solar array and scheduling its reliability growth plan.

  5. Control model design to limit DC-link voltage during grid fault in a dfig variable speed wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwosu, Cajethan M.; Ogbuka, Cosmas U.; Oti, Stephen E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a control model design capable of inhibiting the phenomenal rise in the DC-link voltage during grid- fault condition in a variable speed wind turbine. Against the use of power circuit protection strategies with inherent limitations in fault ride-through capability, a control circuit algorithm capable of limiting the DC-link voltage rise which in turn bears dynamics that has direct influence on the characteristics of the rotor voltage especially during grid faults is here proposed. The model results so obtained compare favorably with the simulation results as obtained in a MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The generated model may therefore be used to predict near accurately the nature of DC-link voltage variations during fault given some factors which include speed and speed mode of operation, the value of damping resistor relative to half the product of inner loop current control bandwidth and the filter inductance.

  6. Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The draft NASA Fault Management (FM) Handbook (2012) states that Fault Management (FM) is a "part of systems engineering", and that it "demands a system-level perspective" (NASAHDBK- 1002, 7). What, exactly, is the relationship between systems engineering and FM? To NASA, systems engineering (SE) is "the art and science of developing an operable system capable of meeting requirements within often opposed constraints" (NASA/SP-2007-6105, 3). Systems engineering starts with the elucidation and development of requirements, which set the goals that the system is to achieve. To achieve these goals, the systems engineer typically defines functions, and the functions in turn are the basis for design trades to determine the best means to perform the functions. System Health Management (SHM), by contrast, defines "the capabilities of a system that preserve the system's ability to function as intended" (Johnson et al., 2011, 3). Fault Management, in turn, is the operational subset of SHM, which detects current or future failures, and takes operational measures to prevent or respond to these failures. Failure, in turn, is the "unacceptable performance of intended function." (Johnson 2011, 605) Thus the relationship of SE to FM is that SE defines the functions and the design to perform those functions to meet system goals and requirements, while FM detects the inability to perform those functions and takes action. SHM and FM are in essence "the dark side" of SE. For every function to be performed (SE), there is the possibility that it is not successfully performed (SHM); FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this lack of success. We can also describe this in terms of goals: for every goal to be achieved, there is the possibility that it is not achieved; FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this inability to achieve the goal. This brief description of relationships between SE, SHM, and FM provide hints to a modeling approach to

  7. The Local Wind Pump for Marginal Societies in Indonesia: A Perspective of Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Insan; Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    There are many efforts to reduce a cost of investment of well established hybrid wind pump applied to rural areas. A recent study on a local wind pump (LWP) for marginal societies in Indonesia (traditional farmers, peasant and tribes) was one of the efforts reporting a new application area. The objectives of the study were defined to measure reliability value of the LWP due to fluctuated wind intensity, low wind speed, economic point of view regarding a prolong economic crisis occurring and an available local component of the LWP and to sustain economics productivity (agriculture product) of the society. In the study, a fault tree analysis (FTA) was deployed as one of three methods used for assessing the LWP. In this article, the FTA has been thoroughly discussed in order to improve a better performance of the LWP applied in dry land watering system of Mesuji district of Lampung province-Indonesia. In the early stage, all of local component of the LWP was classified in term of its function. There were four groups of the components. Moreover, all of the sub components of each group were subjected to failure modes of the FTA, namely (1) primary failure modes; (2) secondary failure modes and (3) common failure modes. In the data processing stage, an available software package, ITEM was deployed. It was observed that the component indicated obtaining relative a long life duration of operational life cycle in 1,666 hours. Moreover, to enhance high performance the LWP, maintenance schedule, critical sub component suffering from failure and an overhaul priority have been identified in term of quantity values. Throughout a year pilot project, it can be concluded that the LWP is a reliable product to the societies enhancing their economics productivities.

  8. Bayesian updating in a fault tree model for shipwreck risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Landquist, H; Rosén, L; Lindhe, A; Norberg, T; Hassellöv, I-M

    2017-03-14

    Shipwrecks containing oil and other hazardous substances have been deteriorating on the seabeds of the world for many years and are threatening to pollute the marine environment. The status of the wrecks and the potential volume of harmful substances present in the wrecks are affected by a multitude of uncertainties. Each shipwreck poses a unique threat, the nature of which is determined by the structural status of the wreck and possible damage resulting from hazardous activities that could potentially cause a discharge. Decision support is required to ensure the efficiency of the prioritisation process and the allocation of resources required to carry out risk mitigation measures. Whilst risk assessments can provide the requisite decision support, comprehensive methods that take into account key uncertainties related to shipwrecks are limited. The aim of this paper was to develop a method for estimating the probability of discharge of hazardous substances from shipwrecks. The method is based on Bayesian updating of generic information on the hazards posed by different activities in the surroundings of the wreck, with information on site-specific and wreck-specific conditions in a fault tree model. Bayesian updating is performed using Monte Carlo simulations for estimating the probability of a discharge of hazardous substances and formal handling of intrinsic uncertainties. An example application involving two wrecks located off the Swedish coast is presented. Results show the estimated probability of opening, discharge and volume of the discharge for the two wrecks and illustrate the capability of the model to provide decision support. Together with consequence estimations of a discharge of hazardous substances, the suggested model enables comprehensive and probabilistic risk assessments of shipwrecks to be made.

  9. The Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone: A component of upper plate extension of the subduction transform edge propagator fault linking Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J.; Aksu, A. E.; Elitez, I.; Yaltırak, C.; Çifçi, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, that mark the convergent boundary of the African and Aegean-Anatolian plates, are offset along a subduction transform edge propagator ('STEP') fault running NE-SW along the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The continuation of the fault to the northeast through the Rhodes Basin and into SW Anatolia is assessed. Seismic reflection profiles show that the structural architecture of the northern sector of the Rhodes Basin includes a large crustal-scale fold-thrust belt which is overprinted by numerous faults with small extensional stratigraphic separations. A protracted episode of convergence in the Miocene resulted in the development of a prominent NE-SW-striking and NW-verging fold-thrust belt in the Rhodes Basin. The absence of evaporites in the Rhodes Basin and several seaward prograded vertically stacked Quaternary delta successions resting at 2500-3500 m water depth collectively suggest that the Rhodes Basin must have remained above the depositional base of marine evaporite environment during the Messinian and that the region must have subsided very rapidly during the Pliocene-Quaternary. During the Pliocene-Quaternary, a NE-SW-trending belt developed across the Rhodes Basin: while the structural framework of this belt was characterised by reactivated thrusts in the central portion of the basin, a prominent zone of NE-SW-striking and NW- and SE-dipping faults with extensional separations developed in the northern portion of the basin. Two seismic profiles running parallel to the present-day coastline provide the much needed linkage between the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone onland and the reactivated thrusts in central Rhodes Basin, and show that the Pliocene-Quaternary zone of high-angle faults with extensional separations clearly link with the similarly trending and dipping strike-slip faults onland in the Eşen Valley, thus providing the continuity between the Pliny-Strabo Trenches in the southwest and the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone in the

  10. Locating of the earth fault of the single-phase at the tree distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li-Ping

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes method through the combination of ranging the C-type traveling wave and the analysis and selection of line to the component of the line mode to locate the fault point. Inject into high amplitude and narrow signals in the beginning of a line and detect circuit returning from the arrival time of the waveform. Comparing of the normal waveform and failure waveform in both cases, receive the reflected wave fault at the arrival time. And then determine the fault distance. Using the effect from the fault which generate the shocks of the traveling wave and comparing the shock time of each branch line, the line which acquires the longest duration of vibration is the fault line. Through the theoretical analysis, Matlab simulation and effective analysis of the selected data, this paper proves the correctness of the method and demonstrate that the method of fault location in distribution networks is practical.

  11. Linking canopy leaf area and light environments with tree size distributions to explain Amazon forest demography.

    PubMed

    Stark, Scott C; Enquist, Brian J; Saleska, Scott R; Leitold, Veronika; Schietti, Juliana; Longo, Marcos; Alves, Luciana F; Camargo, Plinio B; Oliveira, Raimundo C

    2015-07-01

    Forest biophysical structure - the arrangement and frequency of leaves and stems - emerges from growth, mortality and space filling dynamics, and may also influence those dynamics by structuring light environments. To investigate this interaction, we developed models that could use LiDAR remote sensing to link leaf area profiles with tree size distributions, comparing models which did not (metabolic scaling theory) and did allow light to influence this link. We found that a light environment-to-structure link was necessary to accurately simulate tree size distributions and canopy structure in two contrasting Amazon forests. Partitioning leaf area profiles into size-class components, we found that demographic rates were related to variation in light absorption, with mortality increasing relative to growth in higher light, consistent with a light environment feedback to size distributions. Combining LiDAR with models linking forest structure and demography offers a high-throughput approach to advance theory and investigate climate-relevant tropical forest change.

  12. Enhancement of signal denoising and multiple fault signatures detecting in rotating machinery using dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxue; He, Zhengjia; Zi, Yanyang

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance the desired features related to some special type of machine fault, a technique based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated that DTCWT enjoys better shift invariance and reduced spectral aliasing than second-generation wavelet transform (SGWT) and empirical mode decomposition by means of numerical simulations. These advantages of the DTCWT arise from the relationship between the two dual-tree wavelet basis functions, instead of the matching of the used single wavelet basis function to the signal being analyzed. Since noise inevitably exists in the measured signals, an enhanced vibration signals denoising algorithm incorporating DTCWT with NeighCoeff shrinkage is also developed. Denoising results of vibration signals resulting from a crack gear indicate the proposed denoising method can effectively remove noise and retain the valuable information as much as possible compared to those DWT- and SGWT-based NeighCoeff shrinkage denoising methods. As is well known, excavation of comprehensive signatures embedded in the vibration signals is of practical importance to clearly clarify the roots of the fault, especially the combined faults. In the case of multiple features detection, diagnosis results of rolling element bearings with combined faults and an actual industrial equipment confirm that the proposed DTCWT-based method is a powerful and versatile tool and consistently outperforms SGWT and fast kurtogram, which are widely used recently. Moreover, it must be noted, the proposed method is completely suitable for on-line surveillance and diagnosis due to its good robustness and efficient algorithm.

  13. Fault2SHA- A European Working group to link faults and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment communities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Oona; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The key questions we ask are: What is the best strategy to fill in the gap in knowledge and know-how in Europe when considering faults in seismic hazard assessments? Are field geologists providing the relevant information for seismic hazard assessment? Are seismic hazard analysts interpreting field data appropriately? Is the full range of uncertainties associated with the characterization of faults correctly understood and propagated in the computations? How can fault-modellers contribute to a better representation of the long-term behaviour of fault-networks in seismic hazard studies? Providing answers to these questions is fundamental, in order to reduce the consequences of future earthquakes and improve the reliability of seismic hazard assessments. An informal working group was thus created at a meeting in Paris in November 2014, partly financed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, with the aim to motivate exchanges between field geologists, fault modellers and seismic hazard practitioners. A variety of approaches were presented at the meeting and a clear gap emerged between some field geologists, that are not necessarily familiar with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methods and needs and practitioners that do not necessarily propagate the "full" uncertainty associated with the characterization of faults. The group thus decided to meet again a year later in Chieti (Italy), to share concepts and ideas through a specific exercise on a test case study. Some solutions emerged but many problems of seismic source characterizations with people working in the field as well as with people tackling models of interacting faults remained. Now, in Wien, we want to open the group and launch a call for the European community at large to contribute to the discussion. The 2016 EGU session Fault2SHA is motivated by such an urgency to increase the number of round tables on this topic and debate on the peculiarities of using faults in seismic hazard

  14. Failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis of surface image guided cranial radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Manger, Ryan P; Paxton, Adam B; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2015-05-01

    Surface image guided, Linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS) is a modern approach for delivering radiosurgery that utilizes optical stereoscopic imaging to monitor the surface of the patient during treatment in lieu of using a head frame for patient immobilization. Considering the novelty of the SIG-RS approach and the severity of errors associated with delivery of large doses per fraction, a risk assessment should be conducted to identify potential hazards, determine their causes, and formulate mitigation strategies. The purpose of this work is to investigate SIG-RS using the combined application of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA), report on the effort required to complete the analysis, and evaluate the use of FTA in conjunction with FMEA. A multidisciplinary team was assembled to conduct the FMEA on the SIG-RS process. A process map detailing the steps of the SIG-RS was created to guide the FMEA. Failure modes were determined for each step in the SIG-RS process, and risk priority numbers (RPNs) were estimated for each failure mode to facilitate risk stratification. The failure modes were ranked by RPN, and FTA was used to determine the root factors contributing to the riskiest failure modes. Using the FTA, mitigation strategies were formulated to address the root factors and reduce the risk of the process. The RPNs were re-estimated based on the mitigation strategies to determine the margin of risk reduction. The FMEA and FTAs for the top two failure modes required an effort of 36 person-hours (30 person-hours for the FMEA and 6 person-hours for two FTAs). The SIG-RS process consisted of 13 major subprocesses and 91 steps, which amounted to 167 failure modes. Of the 91 steps, 16 were directly related to surface imaging. Twenty-five failure modes resulted in a RPN of 100 or greater. Only one of these top 25 failure modes was specific to surface imaging. The riskiest surface imaging failure mode had an overall RPN-rank of eighth

  15. Slip triggered on southern California faults by the 1992 Joshua Tree, Landers, and big bear earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodin, Paul; Bilham, Roger; Behr, Jeff; Gomberg, Joan; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    1994-01-01

    Five out of six functioning creepmeters on southern California faults recorded slip triggered at the time of some or all of the three largest events of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence. Digital creep data indicate that dextral slip was triggered within 1 min of each mainshock and that maximum slip velocities occurred 2 to 3 min later. The duration of triggered slip events ranged from a few hours to several weeks. We note that triggered slip occurs commonly on faults that exhibit fault creep. To account for the observation that slip can be triggered repeatedly on a fault, we propose that the amplitude of triggered slip may be proportional to the depth of slip in the creep event and to the available near-surface tectonic strain that would otherwise eventually be released as fault creep. We advance the notion that seismic surface waves, perhaps amplified by sediments, generate transient local conditions that favor the release of tectonic strain to varying depths. Synthetic strain seismograms are presented that suggest increased pore pressure during periods of fault-normal contraction may be responsible for triggered slip, since maximum dextral shear strain transients correspond to times of maximum fault-normal contraction.

  16. A possible link between life and death of a xeric tree in desert.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Qing; McDowell, Nate G; Li, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the interactions between drought and tree ontogeny or size remains an essential research priority because size-specific mortality patterns have large impacts on ecosystem structure and function, determine forest carbon storage capacity, and are sensitive to climatic change. Here we investigate a xerophytic tree species (Haloxylon ammodendron (C.A. Mey.)) with which the changes in biomass allocation with tree size may play an important role in size-specific mortality patterns. Size-related changes in biomass allocation, root distribution, plant water status, gas exchange, hydraulic architecture and non-structural carbohydrate reserves of this xerophytic tree species were investigated to assess their potential role in the observed U-shaped mortality pattern. We found that excessively negative water potentials (<-4.7MPa, beyond the P50leaf of -4.1MPa) during prolonged drought in young trees lead to hydraulic failure; while the imbalance of photoassimilate allocation between leaf and root system in larger trees, accompanied with declining C reserves (<2% dry matter across four tissues), might have led to carbon starvation. The drought-resistance strategy of this species is preferential biomass allocation to the roots to improve water capture. In young trees, the drought-resistance strategy is not well developed, and hydraulic failure appears to be the dominant driver of mortality during drought. With old trees, excess root growth at the expense of leaf area may lead to carbon starvation during prolonged drought. Our results suggest that the drought-resistance strategy of this xeric tree is closely linked to its life and death: well-developed drought-resistance strategy means life, while underdeveloped or overdeveloped drought-resistance strategy means death.

  17. Rupture process of oceanic transform faults linked to material variability: local observations and models of the Gofar Fault, EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Liu, Y.; Behn, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of the rupture process associated with the end of the earthquake cycle on a mid-ocean ridge transform fault (RTF) and consider it in the context of the detailed fault zone thermal and mechanical properties and seismic velocity structure. Seismicity that occurred during the 2008 rupture event on the western-most segment of the Gofar Fault on the East Pacific Rise included a Mw 6.0 mainshock earthquake, preceded by a prolific foreshock sequence, and followed months later by an earthquake swarm, each on discrete sections of the fault. These events were captured by a local array of ocean bottom seismometers and strong motion accelerometers, and for the first time, details of the spatial distribution of seismic slip provide insight into many outstanding questions that exist about RTF fault mechanics. While thermal rheologies work well at predicting the size of earthquakes on continents and along subduction zones, at oceanic transform faults low average seismic coupling estimates suggest that other factors must influence the mechanical behavior. We present the observed earthquake distribution along with a new, more realistic thermal model developed for the Gofar fault that improves upon the halfspace cooling model typically used to estimate the RTF thermal structure and thermally controlled seismogenic area. The 3D temperature structure is calculated using a visco-plastic rheology with non-Newtonian viscous mantle flow, shear heating, and hydrothermal circulation. Fault slip over multiple earthquake cycles is modeled in the rate and state friction framework using gabbro friction data and the new Gofar thermal model. We also present the seismic velocity structure, determined using arrival time tomography from a wide-angle refraction survey across the foreshock zone that illuminates a significant low velocity damage zone associated with the central Gofar Fault. Reduced seismic velocities at the base of the crust within the

  18. A coupled Bayesian and fault tree methodology to assess future groundwater conditions in light of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. J.; Du, M.; McBean, E. A.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.

    2014-08-01

    Maintaining acceptable groundwater levels, particularly in arid areas, while protecting ecosystems, are key measures against desertification. Due to complicated hydrological processes and their inherent uncertainties, investigations of groundwater recharge conditions are challenging, particularly in arid areas under climate changing conditions. To assist planning to protect against desertification, a fault tree methodology, in conjunction with fuzzy logic and Bayesian data mining, are applied to Minqin Oasis, a highly vulnerable regime in northern China. A set of risk factors is employed within the fault tree framework, with fuzzy logic translating qualitative risk data into probabilities. Bayesian data mining is used to quantify the contribution of each risk factor to the final aggregated risk. The implications of both historical and future climate trends are employed for temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) to assess water table changes under various future scenarios. The findings indicate that water table levels will continue to drop at the rate of 0.6 m yr-1 in the future when climatic effects alone are considered, if agricultural and industrial production capacity remain at 2004 levels.

  19. Molecular Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Survival Analysis and Algorithms Linking Phylogenies to Transmission Trees.

    PubMed

    Kenah, Eben; Britton, Tom; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2016-04-01

    Recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. However, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. Reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. In a survival analysis framework, estimation of transmission parameters is based on sums or averages over the possible transmission trees. A phylogeny can increase the precision of these estimates by providing partial information about who infected whom. The leaves of the phylogeny represent sampled pathogens, which have known hosts. The interior nodes represent common ancestors of sampled pathogens, which have unknown hosts. Starting from assumptions about disease biology and epidemiologic study design, we prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the possible assignments of interior node hosts and the transmission trees simultaneously consistent with the phylogeny and the epidemiologic data on person, place, and time. We develop algorithms to enumerate these transmission trees and show these can be used to calculate likelihoods that incorporate both epidemiologic data and a phylogeny. A simulation study confirms that this leads to more efficient estimates of hazard ratios for infectiousness and baseline hazards of infectious contact, and we use these methods to analyze data from a foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. These results demonstrate the importance of data on individuals who escape infection, which is often overlooked. The combination of survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees is a rigorous but flexible statistical foundation for molecular infectious disease epidemiology.

  20. Molecular Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Survival Analysis and Algorithms Linking Phylogenies to Transmission Trees

    PubMed Central

    Kenah, Eben; Britton, Tom; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. However, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. Reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. In a survival analysis framework, estimation of transmission parameters is based on sums or averages over the possible transmission trees. A phylogeny can increase the precision of these estimates by providing partial information about who infected whom. The leaves of the phylogeny represent sampled pathogens, which have known hosts. The interior nodes represent common ancestors of sampled pathogens, which have unknown hosts. Starting from assumptions about disease biology and epidemiologic study design, we prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the possible assignments of interior node hosts and the transmission trees simultaneously consistent with the phylogeny and the epidemiologic data on person, place, and time. We develop algorithms to enumerate these transmission trees and show these can be used to calculate likelihoods that incorporate both epidemiologic data and a phylogeny. A simulation study confirms that this leads to more efficient estimates of hazard ratios for infectiousness and baseline hazards of infectious contact, and we use these methods to analyze data from a foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. These results demonstrate the importance of data on individuals who escape infection, which is often overlooked. The combination of survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees is a rigorous but flexible statistical foundation for molecular infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:27070316

  1. Interacting faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Nixon, C. W.; Rotevatn, A.; Sanderson, D. J.; Zuluaga, L. F.

    2017-04-01

    The way that faults interact with each other controls fault geometries, displacements and strains. Faults rarely occur individually but as sets or networks, with the arrangement of these faults producing a variety of different fault interactions. Fault interactions are characterised in terms of the following: 1) Geometry - the spatial arrangement of the faults. Interacting faults may or may not be geometrically linked (i.e. physically connected), when fault planes share an intersection line. 2) Kinematics - the displacement distributions of the interacting faults and whether the displacement directions are parallel, perpendicular or oblique to the intersection line. Interacting faults may or may not be kinematically linked, where the displacements, stresses and strains of one fault influences those of the other. 3) Displacement and strain in the interaction zone - whether the faults have the same or opposite displacement directions, and if extension or contraction dominates in the acute bisector between the faults. 4) Chronology - the relative ages of the faults. This characterisation scheme is used to suggest a classification for interacting faults. Different types of interaction are illustrated using metre-scale faults from the Mesozoic rocks of Somerset and examples from the literature.

  2. Coseismic fault slip associated with the 1992 M(sub w) 6.1 Joshua Tree, California, earthquake: Implications for the Joshua Tree-Landers earthquake sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Richard A.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Rodi, William; Li, Yingping; Toksoz, M. Nafi; Hudnut, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Coseismic surface deformation associated with the M(sub w) 6.1, April 23, 1992, Joshua Tree earthquake is well represented by estimates of geodetic monument displacements at 20 locations independently derived from Global Positioning System and trilateration measurements. The rms signal to noise ratio for these inferred displacements is 1.8 with near-fault displacement estimates exceeding 40 mm. In order to determine the long-wavelength distribution of slip over the plane of rupture, a Tikhonov regularization operator is applied to these estimates which minimizes stress variability subject to purely right-lateral slip and zero surface slip constraints. The resulting slip distribution yields a geodetic moment estimate of 1.7 x 10(exp 18) N m with corresponding maximum slip around 0.8 m and compares well with independent and complementary information including seismic moment and source time function estimates and main shock and aftershock locations. From empirical Green's functions analyses, a rupture duration of 5 s is obtained which implies a rupture radius of 6-8 km. Most of the inferred slip lies to the north of the hypocenter, consistent with northward rupture propagation. Stress drop estimates are in the range of 2-4 MPa. In addition, predicted Coulomb stress increases correlate remarkably well with the distribution of aftershock hypocenters; most of the aftershocks occur in areas for which the mainshock rupture produced stress increases larger than about 0.1 MPa. In contrast, predicted stress changes are near zero at the hypocenter of the M(sub w) 7.3, June 28, 1992, Landers earthquake which nucleated about 20 km beyond the northernmost edge of the Joshua Tree rupture. Based on aftershock migrations and the predicted static stress field, we speculate that redistribution of Joshua Tree-induced stress perturbations played a role in the spatio-temporal development of the earth sequence culminating in the Landers event.

  3. Coseismic fault slip associated with the 1992 M(sub w) 6.1 Joshua Tree, California, earthquake: Implications for the Joshua Tree-Landers earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Richard A.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Rodi, William; Li, Yingping; Toksoz, M. Nafi; Hudnut, Ken

    1995-04-01

    Coseismic surface deformation associated with the M(sub w) 6.1, April 23, 1992, Joshua Tree earthquake is well represented by estimates of geodetic monument displacements at 20 locations independently derived from Global Positioning System and trilateration measurements. The rms signal to noise ratio for these inferred displacements is 1.8 with near-fault displacement estimates exceeding 40 mm. In order to determine the long-wavelength distribution of slip over the plane of rupture, a Tikhonov regularization operator is applied to these estimates which minimizes stress variability subject to purely right-lateral slip and zero surface slip constraints. The resulting slip distribution yields a geodetic moment estimate of 1.7 x 10(exp 18) N m with corresponding maximum slip around 0.8 m and compares well with independent and complementary information including seismic moment and source time function estimates and main shock and aftershock locations. From empirical Green's functions analyses, a rupture duration of 5 s is obtained which implies a rupture radius of 6-8 km. Most of the inferred slip lies to the north of the hypocenter, consistent with northward rupture propagation. Stress drop estimates are in the range of 2-4 MPa. In addition, predicted Coulomb stress increases correlate remarkably well with the distribution of aftershock hypocenters; most of the aftershocks occur in areas for which the mainshock rupture produced stress increases larger than about 0.1 MPa. In contrast, predicted stress changes are near zero at the hypocenter of the M(sub w) 7.3, June 28, 1992, Landers earthquake which nucleated about 20 km beyond the northernmost edge of the Joshua Tree rupture. Based on aftershock migrations and the predicted static stress field, we speculate that redistribution of Joshua Tree-induced stress perturbations played a role in the spatio-temporal development of the earth sequence culminating in the Landers event.

  4. Where Does the Seattle Fault End? Structural Links and Kinematic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. L.; Dragovich, J. D.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R.; Brocher, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Seattle fault is one of several east-trending compressional structures in the Puget Lowland (PL), seemingly at odds with the northeasterly oriented compression along the Juan de Fuca subduction zone. The existence of these faults is thought to be related to the northward movement of a strong Oregon forearc block. A weaker PL block accommodates north-south shortening between Siletzia and the slower-moving Canadian Coast Mountains to the north. The northward movement of the PL requires either the Cascade and Olympic Mountains to move northward and shorten at nearly the same rate as the PL, or the existence of strike-slip accommodation zones bounding the PL. We use results from three study areas along the Seattle fault to constrain its behavior: the westward terminus at the foot of the Olympic Mountains, its central reach near Bainbridge Island and its eastward terminus in the Cascade foothills near Fall City, WA. Geologic map data, trench observations across faults, Lidar topographic scarp observations, seismic reflection profiles and potential field anomalies are integrated to determine fault structure. These data indicate that the Seattle fault extends further east and west than previously thought. This suggests its connection to strike-slip fault zones bounding the east (Rattlesnake Mountain fault zone, right-lateral) and west (Saddle Mountain deformation zone, left-lateral) ends of the fault. Gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies along the Seattle fault are best modeled by a fairly simple, reverse fault (dipping south 35-50 degrees). The strike of the proposed PL-block bounding faults suggests a kinematic explanation for the existence, position and dip of the Seattle fault and other east-striking compressional structures in the region. An analog (clay) model illustrates the growth of both the Seattle uplift and the Kingston arch resulting from these proposed kinematic bounding conditions. The strike-slip faults form a crustal "funnel", narrowing to the north

  5. Fault tree analysis of failure cause of crushing plant and mixing bed hall at Khoy cement factory in Iran☆

    PubMed Central

    Nouri.Gharahasanlou, Ali; Mokhtarei, Ashkan; Khodayarei, Aliasqar; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and analyzing the risk in the mining industry is a new approach for improving the machinery performance. Reliability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can enhance the overall availability and utilization of the mining technological systems. This study investigates the failure occurrence probability of the crushing and mixing bed hall department at Azarabadegan Khoy cement plant by using fault tree analysis (FTA) method. The results of the analysis in 200 h operating interval show that the probability of failure occurrence for crushing, conveyor systems, crushing and mixing bed hall department is 73, 64, and 95 percent respectively and the conveyor belt subsystem found as the most probable system for failure. Finally, maintenance as a method of control and prevent the occurrence of failure is proposed. PMID:26779433

  6. Assessing the risk of groundwater contamination posed by hydraulic fracturing through the use of a fault tree assisted numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, J.; Pinder, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Shale gas exploitation in the United States is an increasingly important resource, since 2007 the production of shale gas has increased at an average annual rate of 44%. The increasing importance of shale gas to U.S. energy production and energy security necessitates an appropriate risk assessment of all processes of hydraulic fracturing to ensure its continued safety. This paper seeks to address the methodology needed to develop a quantitative risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing on subsurface aquifers using a fault tree in conjunction with a numerical model. The model incorporates geologic uncertainty through the use of a Monte Carlo simulation. The workflow of the model is presented through the use of a case study site within the Marcellus Shale.

  7. Probabilistic risk analysis and fault trees: Initial discussion of application to identification of risk at a wellhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C.; Silliman, S.

    2012-02-01

    Wellhead protection is of critical importance for managing groundwater resources. While a number of previous authors have addressed questions related to uncertainties in advective capture zones, methods for addressing wellhead protection in the presence of uncertainty in the chemistry of groundwater contaminants, the relationship between land-use and contaminant sources, and the impact on health of the receiving population are limited. It is herein suggested that probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) combined with fault trees (FT) provides a structure whereby chemical transport can be combined with uncertainties in source, chemistry, and health impact to assess the probability of negative health outcomes in the population. As such, PRA-FT provides a new strategy for the identification of areas of probabilistically high human health risk. Application of this approach is demonstrated through a simplified case study involving flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer with heterogeneity in aquifer properties and contaminant sources.

  8. Using fault tree analysis to identify contributing factors to engulfment in flowing grain in on-farm grain bins.

    PubMed

    Kingman, D M; Field, W E

    2005-11-01

    Findings reported by researchers at Illinois State University and Purdue University indicated that since 1980, an average of eight individuals per year have become engulfed and died in farm grain bins in the U.S. and Canada and that all these deaths are significant because they are believed to be preventable. During a recent effort to develop intervention strategies and recommendations for an ASAE farm grain bin safety standard, fault tree analysis (FTA) was utilized to identify contributing factors to engulfments in grain stored in on-farm grain bins. FTA diagrams provided a spatial perspective of the circumstances that occurred prior to engulfment incidents, a perspective never before presented in other hazard analyses. The FTA also demonstrated relationships and interrelationships of the contributing factors. FTA is a useful tool that should be applied more often in agricultural incident investigations to assist in the more complete understanding of the problem studied.

  9. Fault tree analysis of failure cause of crushing plant and mixing bed hall at Khoy cement factory in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nouri Gharahasanlou, Ali; Mokhtarei, Ashkan; Khodayarei, Aliasqar; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Evaluating and analyzing the risk in the mining industry is a new approach for improving the machinery performance. Reliability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can enhance the overall availability and utilization of the mining technological systems. This study investigates the failure occurrence probability of the crushing and mixing bed hall department at Azarabadegan Khoy cement plant by using fault tree analysis (FTA) method. The results of the analysis in 200 h operating interval show that the probability of failure occurrence for crushing, conveyor systems, crushing and mixing bed hall department is 73, 64, and 95 percent respectively and the conveyor belt subsystem found as the most probable system for failure. Finally, maintenance as a method of control and prevent the occurrence of failure is proposed.

  10. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  11. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future. PMID:28591146

  12. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    PubMed

    Nüchel, Jonas; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  13. Formation and Evolution of the San Cristobal Trough Transform Fault Linking the Southern Solomon Islands and Northern New Hebrides Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Hayes, G. P.; Herman, M. W.; Benz, H.

    2014-12-01

    The San Cristobal Trough, which occupies the southern segment of the South Solomon Trench, hosts a dominantly left-lateral transform plate boundary (SCTF) linking the southern end of the Solomon Islands subduction zone (SISZ) to the northern end of the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) subduction zone (NHSZ). At its western end (SISZ), the Australia plate is torn as a result of the transition from subduction to transform motion. The southern side of the tear translates approximately 375 km along the SCTF before subducting beneath the Santa Cruz Islands at the NHSZ. Earthquakes occurring along this transform reflect the processes of plate tearing, fault zone evolution, and subsequent underthrusting and subduction of the Australia-plate-side of the transform. A knot of earthquake activity at the western end of the SCTF juxtaposes high-angle thrust faulting events with left-lateral strike slip events. These record the tearing of Australian lithosphere, as shown by a recent pair of large earthquakes in that region - a Mw 7.6 strike-slip event (12 April 2014) followed 22 hours later by a Mw 7.4 high-angle reverse faulting event (13 April 2014). Associated displacements reflect oblique tearing (northern-side down and west), allowing the Australia Plate to follow two disparate paths - subduction at the SISZ to the north and translation along the SCTF to the south. Moving eastward along the transform, the plate boundary shows three styles of earthquake activity. The main transform is dominated by shallow, E-W striking, left-lateral faulting and E-W striking thrust faults (with a north-dipping shallow fault plane) - these reflect partitioning of oblique motion along the transform between the Australia and Pacific plates. Outboard (+/- 100 km) of the plate boundary, a group of E-W striking shallow normal faulting events reflect upward bending driven by the convergent component of plate motions. Approaching the NHSZ, normal faulting earthquakes in the Australia Plate rotate clockwise

  14. Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    The draft NASA Fault Management (FM) Handbook (2012) states that Fault Management (FM) is a "part of systems engineering", and that it "demands a system-level perspective" (NASAHDBK- 1002, 7). What, exactly, is the relationship between systems engineering and FM? To NASA, systems engineering (SE) is "the art and science of developing an operable system capable of meeting requirements within often opposed constraints" (NASA/SP-2007-6105, 3). Systems engineering starts with the elucidation and development of requirements, which set the goals that the system is to achieve. To achieve these goals, the systems engineer typically defines functions, and the functions in turn are the basis for design trades to determine the best means to perform the functions. System Health Management (SHM), by contrast, defines "the capabilities of a system that preserve the system's ability to function as intended" (Johnson et al., 2011, 3). Fault Management, in turn, is the operational subset of SHM, which detects current or future failures, and takes operational measures to prevent or respond to these failures. Failure, in turn, is the "unacceptable performance of intended function." (Johnson 2011, 605) Thus the relationship of SE to FM is that SE defines the functions and the design to perform those functions to meet system goals and requirements, while FM detects the inability to perform those functions and takes action. SHM and FM are in essence "the dark side" of SE. For every function to be performed (SE), there is the possibility that it is not successfully performed (SHM); FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this lack of success. We can also describe this in terms of goals: for every goal to be achieved, there is the possibility that it is not achieved; FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this inability to achieve the goal. This brief description of relationships between SE, SHM, and FM provide hints to a modeling approach to

  15. Linking fault pattern with groundwater flow in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; Berger, Alfons; Mäder, Urs K.; Niklaus Waber, H.; Kober, Florian; Herwegh, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Water flow across crystalline bedrock is of major interest for deep-seated geothermal energy projects as well as for underground disposal of radioactive waste. In crystalline rocks enhanced fluid flow is related to zones of increased permeability, i.e. to fractures that are associated to fault zones. The flow regime around the Grimsel Test Site (GTS, Central Aar massif) was assessed by establishing a 3D fault zone pattern on a local scale in the GTS underground facility (deca-meter scale) and on a regional scale at the surface (km-scale). The study reveals the existence of a dense fault zone network consisting of several km long and few tens of cm to meter wide, sub-vertically oriented major faults that are connected by tens to hundreds of meters long minor bridging faults. This geometrical information was used as input for the generation of a 3D fault zone network model. The faults originate from ductile shear zones that were reactivated as brittle faults under retrograde conditions during exhumation. Embrittlement and associated dilatancy along the faults provide the pathways for today's groundwater flow. Detection of the actual 3D flow paths is, however, challenging since flow seem to be not planar but rather tube-like. Two strategies are applied to constrain the 3D geometry of the flow tubes: (i) Characterization of the groundwater infiltrating into the GTS (location, yield, hydraulic head, and chemical composition) and (ii) stress modelling on the base of the 3D structural model to unravel potential domains of enhanced fluid flow such as fault plane intersections and domains of dilatancy. At the Grimsel Test Site, hydraulic and structural data demonstrate that the groundwater flow is head-driven from the surface towards the GTS located some 450 m below the surface. The residence time of the groundwater in this surface-near section is >60 years as evidenced by absence of detectable tritium. However, hydraulic heads obtained from interval pressure measurements

  16. Categorization of PWR accident sequences and guidelines for fault trees: seismic initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1984-09-01

    This study developed a set of dominant accident sequences that could be applied generically to domestic commercial PWRs as a standardized basis for a probabilistic seismic risk assessment. This was accomplished by ranking the Zion 1 accident sequences. The pertinent PWR safety systems were compared on a plant-by-plant basis to determine the applicability of the dominant accident sequences of Zion 1 to other PWR plants. The functional event trees were developed to describe the system functions that must work or not work in order for a certain accident sequence to happen, one for pipe breaks and one for transients.

  17. Linking mechanistic models of tree physiology with models of forest dynamics: Problems of temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.W.; Emanuel, W.R.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    The individual-based forest gap models are a potential resource in the study of forest growth responses to environmental stress acting on physiological processes. This approach is currently limited by the lack of physiological detail in the gap models and by the temporal scales separating tree physiology and the annual tree growth simulated by the gap models. We describe a general procedure that integrates process-based models of tree physiology with forest gap models. The procedure involves (1) a link between a physiological model and a gap model provided by the simulation of annual wood production (AWP), (2) a factorial execution of a physiological model to generate AWP, (3) a response-surface model describing the relationship between AWP and driving variables appropriate to the annual time scale of a gap model, and (4) a revised gap model that includes a rescaled physiological model. The modified gap model can be used to simulate the impact of environmental stress on forest growth and succession. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Probabilistic Risk Analysis and Fault Trees as Tools in Improving the Delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas: An Initial Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Delineation of a wellhead protection area (WHPA) is a critical component of managing / protecting the aquifer(s) supplying potable water to a public water-supply well. While a number of previous authors have addressed questions related to uncertainties in advective capture zones, methods for assessing WHPAs in the presence of uncertainty in the chemistry of groundwater contaminants, the relationship between land-use and contaminant sources, and the impact on health risk within the receiving population are more limited. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) combined with fault trees (FT) addresses this latter challenge by providing a structure whereby four key WHPA issues may be addressed: (i) uncertainty in land-use practices and chemical release, (ii) uncertainty in groundwater flow, (iii) variability in natural attenuation properties (and/or remediation) of the contaminants, and (iv) estimated health risk from contaminant arrival at a well. The potential utility of PRA-FT in this application is considered through a simplified case study involving management decisions related both to regional land use planning and local land-use zoning regulation. An application-specific fault tree is constructed to visualize and identify the events required for health risk failure at the well and a Monte Carlo approach is used to create multiple realizations of groundwater flow and chemical transport to a well in a model of a simple, unconfined aquifer. Model parameters allowed to vary during this simplified case study include hydraulic conductivity, probability of a chemical spill (related to land use variation in space), and natural attenuation through variation in rate of decay of the contaminant. Numerical results are interpreted in association with multiple land-use management scenarios as well as multiple cancer risk assumptions regarding the contaminant arriving at the well. This case study shows significant variability of health risk at the well, however general trends were

  19. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  20. Linking Tree Growth Response to Measured Microclimate - A Field Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. T.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Looker, N. T.; Jencso, K. G.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    climate and annual ring formation, and suggest a rather immediate growth response to critical micro-meteorological conditions occurring at different times across the landscape by linking the timing and magnitude of tree growth responses to in situ measurements of environmental conditions.

  1. Seeing the forest and the trees: USGS scientist links local changes to global scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jim; Allen, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The recent recipient of two major awards, Craig D. Allen, a research ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center, has loved trees since childhood. He is now considered an expert of world renown on the twin phenomena of forest changes and tree mortality resulting from climate warming and drought, and in 2010 was twice recognized for his scientific contributions. In December 2010, Dr. Allen was named a 2010 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science “for outstanding leadership in the synthesis of global forest responses to climate change, built from worldwide collaboration and a deep understanding of the environmental history of the southwestern United States.” In March 2010, he was honored with the Meritorious Service Award from the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) in recognition of his outstanding vision, initiative, and scientific contributions to the USGS, DOI, and U.S. Department of Agriculture in establishing a model science program to support adaptive land management at the new Valles Caldera National Preserve in north-central New Mexico. Dr. Allen has authored more than 85 publications on landscape ecology and landscape change, from fire history and ecology to ecosystem responses to climate change. He has appeared on NOVA discussing fire ecology and on The Discovery Channel and Discovery Canada explaining the links between drought-induced tree mortality and climate warming, in addition to being interviewed and quoted in innumerable newspaper articles on both topics. But how did this unassuming scientist grow from nurturing maple saplings on 40 acres in Wisconsin to understanding forest system stress worldwide?

  2. Linking root traits to nutrient foraging in arbuscular mycorrhizal trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Eissenstat, David M; Kucharski, Joshua M; Zadworny, Marcin; Adams, Thomas S; Koide, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    The identification of plant functional traits that can be linked to ecosystem processes is of wide interest, especially for predicting vegetational responses to climate change. Root diameter of the finest absorptive roots may be one plant trait that has wide significance. Do species with relatively thick absorptive roots forage in nutrient-rich patches differently from species with relatively fine absorptive roots? We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology and architecture, root proliferation, and mycorrhizal colonization) across six coexisting arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) temperate tree species with and without nutrient addition. Root traits such as root diameter and specific root length were highly correlated with root branching intensity, with thin-root species having higher branching intensity than thick-root species. In both fertilized and unfertilized soil, species with thin absorptive roots and high branching intensity showed much greater root length and mass proliferation but lower mycorrhizal colonization than species with thick absorptive roots. Across all species, fertilization led to increased root proliferation and reduced mycorrhizal colonization. These results suggest that thin-root species forage more by root proliferation, whereas thick-root species forage more by mycorrhizal fungi. In mineral nutrient-rich patches, AM trees seem to forage more by proliferating roots than by mycorrhizal fungi.

  3. Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; McGeehin, J.P.; King, J.C.; Heasler, H.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms to explain swarms of shallow seismicity and inflation-deflation cycles at Yellowstone caldera (western United States) commonly invoke episodic escape of magma-derived brines or gases from the ductile zone, but no correlative changes in the surface efflux of magmatic constituents have ever been documented. Our analysis of individual growth rings in a tree core from the Mud Volcano thermal area within the caldera links a sharp ~25% drop in 14C to a local seismic swarm in 1978. The implied fivefold increase in CO2 emissions clearly associates swarm seismicity with upflow of magma-derived fluid and shows that pulses of magmatic CO2 can rapidly traverse the 5-kmthick brittle zone, even through Yellowstone's enormous hydrothermal reservoir. The 1978 event predates annual deformation surveys, but recognized connections between subsequent seismic swarms and changes in deformation suggest that CO2 might drive both processes. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  4. Sentinel-1 observations of the 2016 Menyuan earthquake: A buried reverse event linked to the left-lateral Haiyuan fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Ng, A. H.-M.; Ge, L.; Javed, F.; Long, F.; Aoudia, A.; Feng, J.; Shao, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge on the interaction of active structures is essential to understand mechanics of continental deformation and estimate the earthquake potential in complex tectonic settings. Here we use Sentinel-1A radar imagery to investigate coseismic deformation associated with the 2016 Menyuan (Qinghai) earthquake, which occurred in the vicinity of the left-lateral Haiyuan fault. The ascending and descending interferograms indicate thrust-dominated slip, with the maximum line-of-sight displacements of 58 and 68 mm, respectively. The InSAR observations fit well with the uniform-slip dislocation models except for a larger slip-to-width ratio than that predicted by the empirical scaling law. We suggest that geometric complexities near the Leng Long Ling restraining bend confine rupture propagation, resulting in high slip occurred within a small area and much higher stress drop than global estimates. Although InSAR observations cannot distinguish the primary plane, we prefer the west-dipping solution considering aftershocks distribution and the general tectonic context. Both InSAR modelling and aftershock locations indicate that the rupture plane linked to the Haiyuan fault at 10 km depth, a typical seismogenic depth in Tibet. We suggest that the earthquake more likely occurred on a secondary branch at a restraining bend of the Haiyuan fault, even though we cannot completely rule out the possibility of it being on a splay of the North Qilian Shan thrusts.

  5. A methodological combined framework for roadmapping biosensor research: a fault tree analysis approach within a strategic technology evaluation frame.

    PubMed

    Siontorou, Christina G; Batzias, Fragiskos A

    2014-03-01

    Biosensor technology began in the 1960s to revolutionize instrumentation and measurement. Despite the glucose sensor market success that revolutionized medical diagnostics, and artificial pancreas promise currently the approval stage, the industry is reluctant to capitalize on other relevant university-produced knowledge and innovation. On the other hand, the scientific literature is extensive and persisting, while the number of university-hosted biosensor groups is growing. Considering the limited marketability of biosensors compared to the available research output, the biosensor field has been used by the present authors as a suitable paradigm for developing a methodological combined framework for "roadmapping" university research output in this discipline. This framework adopts the basic principles of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), replacing the lower level of technology alternatives with internal barriers (drawbacks, limitations, disadvantages), modeled through fault tree analysis (FTA) relying on fuzzy reasoning to count for uncertainty. The proposed methodology is validated retrospectively using ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) - based biosensors as a case example, and then implemented prospectively membrane biosensors, putting an emphasis on the manufacturability issues. The analysis performed the trajectory of membrane platforms differently than the available market roadmaps that, considering the vast industrial experience in tailoring and handling crystallic forms, suggest the technology path of biomimetic and synthetic materials. The results presented herein indicate that future trajectories lie along with nanotechnology, and especially nanofabrication and nano-bioinformatics, and focused, more on the science-path, that is, on controlling the natural process of self-assembly and the thermodynamics of bioelement-lipid interaction. This retained the nature-derived sensitivity of the biosensor platform, pointing out the differences

  6. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  7. Linking movement and oviposition behaviour to spatial population distribution in the tree hole mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Alicia M

    2008-01-01

    tree hole mosquito larvae is determined in part by adult habitat selection (H(1)), but do not exclude additional effects from passive aggregation (H(4)), or spatial patterns in adult mortality (H(5)). 5. This research illustrates the importance of studying oviposition behaviour at the population scale to better evaluate its relative importance in determining population distribution and dynamics. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of linking behavioural and population dynamics for understanding evolutionary relationships among life-history traits (e.g. preference and offspring performance) and predicting when behaviour will be important in determining population phenomena.

  8. Comparison of decision tree-fuzzy and rough set-fuzzy methods for fault categorization of mono-block centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, N. R.; Sugumaran, V.; Nair, Binoy. B.

    2010-08-01

    Mono-block centrifugal pumps are widely used in a variety of applications. In many applications the role of mono-block centrifugal pump is critical and condition monitoring is essential. Vibration based continuous monitoring and analysis using machine learning approach is gaining momentum. Particularly, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic have been employed for continuous monitoring and fault diagnosis. This paper presents the use of decision tree and rough sets to generate the rules from statistical features extracted from vibration signals under good and faulty conditions of a mono-block centrifugal pump. A fuzzy classifier is built using decision tree and rough set rules and tested using test data. The results obtained using decision tree rules and those obtained using rough set rules are compared. Finally, the accuracy of a principle component analysis based decision tree-fuzzy system is also evaluated. The study reveals that overall classification accuracy obtained by the decision tree-fuzzy hybrid system is to some extent better than the rough set-fuzzy hybrid system.

  9. Characterizing Recent Slip on the Kuikui Fault, a Link Between the Green Valley and Bartlett Springs Fault Zones, Wilson Valley, Northern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; DeLong, S. B.; McPherson, R. C.; Mielke, J.; Avdievitch, N.; Pickering, A.; Lloyd, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Green Valley and Bartlett Springs faults (GVF-BSF) together form the third largest branch of the dextral San Andreas transform fault system in northern California. Wilson Valley lies at the center of a tectonic pull-apart basin formed in the 2.5-km stepover between the Hunting Creek fault (northernmost section of the GVF) and the Highway-20 section of the BSF. A major regional drainage, Cache Creek flows through this depression and has been offset ~6 km right-laterally by the GVF-BSF during the Quaternary. We recently discovered the Kuikui fault, a dextral-oblique slip fault within the stepover, using high-resolution imagery from LiDAR acquired by USGS in 2011 along major northern California fault zones (ARRA11_USGS, DOI: 10.5069/G9H70CRD, http://dx.doi.org/10.5069/G9H70CRD). The Kuikui fault is ~2-3 km in length and forms steep, well-preserved scarps up to ~2.5 m high. It has only subtle expression of dextral slip, so its ratio of dip slip to strike slip is uncertain. Any evidence of large paleoearthquakes in the Wilson Valley stepover might indicate rupture of either the GVF or the BSF or both together, and timing information could be used to correlate events with other paleoseismic sites on the fault system. Additionally, fault creep has been documented on both the Highway 20 and Hunting Creek fault sections, so that any fault offset on the Kuikui fault might also include some aseismic slip. Because wilderness regulations required manual excavation, several participants from USGS, HSU, other colleagues and volunteers together dug an 8-m long by ≤1 m deep trench by hand to expose faulting in thin layers of alluvium deposited across the Kuikui fault. The youngest, and currently active soil layer is vertically offset by a minimum of 7 cm on a single fault strand. A much broader fault zone suggests larger movement has occurred. This exposure did not allow us to discriminate whether slip occurred as creep or by dynamic rupture. Future additional exposures may

  10. Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-11-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  11. Linking definitions, mechanisms, and modeling of drought-induced tree death.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Berry, Joseph A; Field, Christopher B

    2012-12-01

    Tree death from drought and heat stress is a critical and uncertain component in forest ecosystem responses to a changing climate. Recent research has illuminated how tree mortality is a complex cascade of changes involving interconnected plant systems over multiple timescales. Explicit consideration of the definitions, dynamics, and temporal and biological scales of tree mortality research can guide experimental and modeling approaches. In this review, we draw on the medical literature concerning human death to propose a water resource-based approach to tree mortality that considers the tree as a complex organism with a distinct growth strategy. This approach provides insight into mortality mechanisms at the tree and landscape scales and presents promising avenues into modeling tree death from drought and temperature stress.

  12. Tree ecophysiological traits related to tree drought mortality are linked to the aridity of the environment in eucalypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S. K.; Sanders, G.; Hirsch, M.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in tree drought mortality are observed in forest ecosystems in all continents but the actual mechanisms how trees succumb to drought are still controversial. Physiological traits and thresholds have often be proposed as possible tools to predict tree drought mortality but these traits and thresholds have only been studied in a few tree species in detail. We investigated the vulnerability to hydraulic cavitation in leaves (P50leaf), turgor loss point (TLP) and osmotic potential at full turgor (OPFT) in 16 different eucalypts species that occur in environments of differing aridity in south-eastern Australia (gradient from 300mm to 1500 mm of precipitation per year). The species were grown from seed, planted in an arboretum in Melbourne and measured under well-watered conditions as two-year old saplings. We observed strong correlations between all measured ecophysiological traits and the aridity of the environment of the origin of the species. P50leaf and TLP were more negative in the eucalypts from more arid environments and more positive in eucalypts from more mesic environments, indicating that eucalypts in arid environments lose turgor at lower water potentials and have a lower vulnerability to hydraulic cavitation in leaves. Eucalypts from arid environments also had a much more negative osmotic potential at full turgor than eucalypts from mesic environments and more rigid cell walls. The measured plants all grew in the same environmental conditions and were well watered at the time of measurement. The results therefore indicate a strong genetic control over these physiological traits in eucalypts - trees from more arid environments lose turgor and hydraulic conductivity at lower water potentials and achieve these lower water potentials by having more osmotically active substances, even if they are not drought stressed. This is the first time these strong correlations between physiological traits and aridity of the origin of the species have been

  13. An asynchronous solver for systems of ODEs linked by a directed tree structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Scott J.; Jay, Laurent O.; Mantilla, Ricardo; Curtu, Rodica; Cunha, Luciana K.; Fonley, Morgan; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper documents our development and evaluation of a numerical solver for systems of sparsely linked ordinary differential equations in which the connectivity between equations is determined by a directed tree. These types of systems arise in distributed hydrological models. The numerical solver is based on dense output Runge-Kutta methods that allow for asynchronous integration. A partition of the system is used to distribute the workload among different processes, enabling a parallel implementation that capitalizes on a distributed memory system. Communication between processes is performed asynchronously. We illustrate the solver capabilities by integrating flow transport equations for a ˜17,000 km2 river basin subdivided into 305,000 sub-watersheds that are interconnected by the river network. Numerical experiments for a few models are performed and the runtimes and scalability on our parallel computer are presented. Efficient numerical integrators such as the one demonstrated here bring closer to reality the goal of implementing fully distributed real-time flood forecasting systems supported by physics based hydrological models and high-quality/high-resolution rainfall products.

  14. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Control of Networked Uncertain Euler-Lagrange Systems Under Actuator Faults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-05-03

    This paper investigates the distributed fault-tolerant control problem of networked Euler-Lagrange systems with actuator and communication link faults. An adaptive fault-tolerant cooperative control scheme is proposed to achieve the coordinated tracking control of networked uncertain Lagrange systems on a general directed communication topology, which contains a spanning tree with the root node being the active target system. The proposed algorithm is capable of compensating for the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of effectiveness actuation fault, the communication link fault, the model uncertainty, and the external disturbance simultaneously. The control scheme does not use any fault detection and isolation mechanism to detect, separate, and identify the actuator faults online, which largely reduces the online computation and expedites the responsiveness of the controller. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a test-bed of multiple robot-arm cooperative control system is developed for real-time verification. Experiments on the networked robot-arms are conduced and the results confirm the benefits and the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault-tolerant control algorithms.

  15. Exploring the link between drought indicators and impacts through data visualization and regression trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Stahl, Kerstin; Blauhut, Veit; Kohn, Irene

    2014-05-01

    impact occurrence. The applied data visualization and regression tree approach proved to be a valuable methodology for exploring the link between indicators and impacts. Nevertheless, the results are influenced by the uncertainty of identifying and quantifying drought impacts and vulnerability factors at a suitable spatial and temporal scale. This calls for more research on methodological issues of drought impact and vulnerability assessment, as well as for further developing impact inventories and exploiting the link between drought indicators and impacts.

  16. The Tjellefonna fault system of Western Norway: Linking late-Caledonian extension, post-Caledonian normal faulting, and Tertiary rock column uplift with the landslide-generated tsunami event of 1756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T. F.; Osmundsen, P. T.

    2009-09-01

    On February 22, 1756, approximately 15.7 million cubic meters of bedrock were catastrophically released as a giant rockslide into the Langfjorden. Subsequently, three ˜ 40 meter high tsunami waves overwhelmed the village of Tjelle and several other local communities. Inherited structures had isolated a compartment in the hanging wall damage zone of the fjord-dwelling Tjellefonna fault. Because the region is seismically active in oblique-normal mode, and in accordance with scant historical sources, we speculate that an earthquake on a nearby fault may have caused the already-weakened Tjelle hillside to fail. From interpretation of structural, geomorphic, and thermo-chronological data we suggest that today's escarpment topography of Møre og Trøndelag is controlled to a first order by post-rift reactivation of faults parallel to the Mesozoic passive margin. In turn, a number of these faults reactivated Late Caledonian or early post-Caledonian fabrics. Normal-sense reactivation of inherited structures along much of coastal Norway suggests that a structural link exists between the processes that destroy today's mountains and those that created them. The Paleozoic Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex was reactivated as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and, probably, throughout the Cenozoic until the present day. Its NE-SW trending strands crop out between the coast and the base of a c. 1.7 km high NW-facing topographic 'Great Escarpment.' Well-preserved kinematic indicators and multiple generations of fault products are exposed along the Tjellefonna fault, a well-defined structural and topographic lineament parallel to both the Langfjorden and the Great Escarpment. The slope instability that was formerly present at Tjelle, and additional instabilities currently present throughout the region, may be viewed as the direct product of past and ongoing development of tectonic topography in Møre og Trøndelag county. In the Langfjorden region in particular, structural geometry

  17. Linking leaf veins to growth and mortality rates: an example from a subtropical tree community.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Sun, I-Fang; Price, Charles A; Chen, Chien-Teh; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Huang, Chun-Lin; Swenson, Nathan G

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in ecology is to link variation in species function to performance, but functional trait-performance investigations have had mixed success. This indicates that less commonly measured functional traits may more clearly elucidate trait-performance relationships. Despite the potential importance of leaf vein traits, which are expected to be related to resource delivery rates and photosynthetic capacity, there are few studies, which examine associations between these traits and demographic performance in communities. Here, we examined the associations between species traits including leaf venation traits and demographic rates (Relative Growth Rate, RGR and mortality) as well as the spatial distributions of traits along soil environment for 54 co-occurring species in a subtropical forest. Size-related changes in demographic rates were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. Next, Kendall's rank correlations were quantified between traits and estimated demographic rates at a given size and between traits and species-average soil environment. Species with denser venation, smaller areoles, less succulent, or thinner leaves showed higher RGR for a wide range of size classes. Species with leaves of denser veins, larger area, cheaper construction costs or thinner, or low-density wood were associated with high mortality rates only in small size classes. Lastly, contrary to our expectations, acquisitive traits were not related to resource-rich edaphic conditions. This study shows that leaf vein traits are weakly, but significantly related to tree demographic performance together with other species traits. Because leaf traits associated with an acquisitive strategy such as denser venation, less succulence, and thinner leaves showed higher growth rate, but similar leaf traits were not associated with mortality, different pathways may shape species growth and survival. This study suggests that we are still not measuring some of key traits related to

  18. Application of fault tree approach for the causation mechanism of urban haze in Beijing--Considering the risk events related with exhausts of coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Qian, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Haze weather has become a serious environmental pollution problem which occurs in many Chinese cities. One of the most critical factors for the formation of haze weather is the exhausts of coal combustion, thus it is meaningful to figure out the causation mechanism between urban haze and the exhausts of coal combustion. Based on above considerations, the fault tree analysis (FAT) approach was employed for the causation mechanism of urban haze in Beijing by considering the risk events related with the exhausts of coal combustion for the first time. Using this approach, firstly the fault tree of the urban haze causation system connecting with coal combustion exhausts was established; consequently the risk events were discussed and identified; then, the minimal cut sets were successfully determined using Boolean algebra; finally, the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk events were completed for the qualitative and quantitative assessment. The study results proved that the FTA was an effective and simple tool for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of urban haze in China.

  19. Links to Literature--Huge Trees, Small Drawings: Ideas of Relative Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Gail

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a unit integrating science, mathematics, and environmental education centered around "The Great Kapok Tree," by Lynne Cherry (1990). Ratios are used to make scale drawings of trees in a rain forest. Other activities include a terrarium and problem-solving activities based on eating habits of rain forest animals. (KMC)

  20. Links to Literature--Huge Trees, Small Drawings: Ideas of Relative Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Gail

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a unit integrating science, mathematics, and environmental education centered around "The Great Kapok Tree," by Lynne Cherry (1990). Ratios are used to make scale drawings of trees in a rain forest. Other activities include a terrarium and problem-solving activities based on eating habits of rain forest animals. (KMC)

  1. The engine fuel system fault analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Song, Hanqiang; Yang, Changsheng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    For improving the reliability of the engine fuel system, the typical fault factor of the engine fuel system was analyzed from the point view of structure and functional. The fault character was gotten by building the fuel system fault tree. According the utilizing of fault mode effect analysis method (FMEA), several factors of key component fuel regulator was obtained, which include the fault mode, the fault cause, and the fault influences. All of this made foundation for next development of fault diagnosis system.

  2. One tree to link them all: a phylogenetic dataset for the European tetrapoda.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-08-08

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty.

  3. One Tree to Link Them All: A Phylogenetic Dataset for the European Tetrapoda

    PubMed Central

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty. PMID:25685620

  4. Locating hardware faults in a data communications network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-01-12

    Hardware faults location in a data communications network of a parallel computer. Such a parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes and a data communications network that couples the compute nodes for data communications and organizes the compute node as a tree. Locating hardware faults includes identifying a next compute node as a parent node and a root of a parent test tree, identifying for each child compute node of the parent node a child test tree having the child compute node as root, running a same test suite on the parent test tree and each child test tree, and identifying the parent compute node as having a defective link connected from the parent compute node to a child compute node if the test suite fails on the parent test tree and succeeds on all the child test trees.

  5. Two New Fern Chloroplasts and Decelerated Evolution Linked to the Long Generation Time in Tree Ferns

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bojian; Fong, Richard; Collins, Lesley J.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    We report the chloroplast genomes of a tree fern (Dicksonia squarrosa) and a “fern ally” (Tmesipteris elongata), and show that the phylogeny of early land plants is basically as expected, and the estimates of divergence time are largely unaffected after removing the fastest evolving sites. The tree fern shows the major reduction in the rate of evolution, and there has been a major slowdown in the rate of mutation in both families of tree ferns. We suggest that this is related to a generation time effect; if there is a long time period between generations, then this is probably incompatible with a high mutation rate because otherwise nearly every propagule would probably have several lethal mutations. This effect will be especially strong in organisms that have large numbers of cell divisions between generations. This shows the necessity of going beyond phylogeny and integrating its study with other properties of organisms. PMID:24787621

  6. Two new fern chloroplasts and decelerated evolution linked to the long generation time in tree ferns.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bojian; Fong, Richard; Collins, Lesley J; McLenachan, Patricia A; Penny, David

    2014-04-30

    We report the chloroplast genomes of a tree fern (Dicksonia squarrosa) and a "fern ally" (Tmesipteris elongata), and show that the phylogeny of early land plants is basically as expected, and the estimates of divergence time are largely unaffected after removing the fastest evolving sites. The tree fern shows the major reduction in the rate of evolution, and there has been a major slowdown in the rate of mutation in both families of tree ferns. We suggest that this is related to a generation time effect; if there is a long time period between generations, then this is probably incompatible with a high mutation rate because otherwise nearly every propagule would probably have several lethal mutations. This effect will be especially strong in organisms that have large numbers of cell divisions between generations. This shows the necessity of going beyond phylogeny and integrating its study with other properties of organisms.

  7. Modeling carbon cycle responses to tree mortality: linking microbial and biogeochemical changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. J.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E. L.; Zobitz, J. M.; Gallery, R.

    2013-12-01

    Amid a worldwide increase in tree mortality, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) have killed billions of trees from Mexico to Alaska in the last 13 years. This mortality is predicted to influence important carbon, water and energy balance feedbacks on the Earth system. We studied changes in soil biogeochemical cycling and microbial community structure after tree mortality. We show, using a decade long chronosequence, that tree mortality causes no increase in total respiration from local to watershed scales, with corresponding changes in biogeochemical pools of nitrogen and phosphorus. We also found comparable declines in both gross primary productivity and respiration suggesting little change in net flux. We tested the mechanisms controlling these patterns using an ecosystem model; contrasting a simplified microbial subroutine with a 'dead soil' model. We coupled our modeling work with direct measurements of microbial biomass, enzyme kinetics and community structure. The transitory recovery of respiration 6-7 years after mortality was associated with increased microbial biomass, increased incorporation of leaf litter carbon into soil organic matter, and was followed by a secondary decline in respiration during years 8-10. Our findings are consistent with the mechanism of reduced input of new carbon causing a decline in microbial biomass rather than an increased output of older carbon.

  8. Links between tree species, symbiotic fungal diversity and ecosystem functioning in simplified tropical ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Catherine E; Ewel, John J

    2005-07-01

    We studied the relationships among plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity, and their effects on ecosystem function, in a series of replicate tropical forestry plots in the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Forestry plots were 12 yr old and were either monocultures of three tree species, or polycultures of the tree species with two additional understory species. Relationships among the AM fungal spore community, host species, plant community diversity and ecosystem phosphorus-use efficiency (PUE) and net primary productivity (NPP) were assessed. Analysis of the relative abundance of AM fungal spores found that host tree species had a significant effect on the AM fungal community, as did host plant community diversity (monocultures vs polycultures). The Shannon diversity index of the AM fungal spore community differed significantly among the three host tree species, but was not significantly different between monoculture and polyculture plots. Over all the plots, significant positive relationships were found between AM fungal diversity and ecosystem NPP, and between AM fungal community evenness and PUE. Relative abundance of two of the dominant AM fungal species also showed significant correlations with NPP and PUE. We conclude that the AM fungal community composition in tropical forests is sensitive to host species, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that the diversity of AM fungi in tropical forests and ecosystem NPP covaries.

  9. Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S

    2014-02-01

    Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature

  10. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  11. Sampling strategies for species trees: the effects on phylogenetic inference of the number of genes, number of individuals, and whether loci are mitochondrial, sex-linked, or autosomal.

    PubMed

    Corl, Ammon; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Systematists can now use multi-locus data to construct species trees that take into account the stochastic nature of gene tree divergence among populations. There is a need to evaluate the new methods for species tree reconstruction in order to determine what kinds of loci to use and the most effective sampling schemes in terms of numbers of genes and numbers of individuals per species. Here we study sampling strategies with an empirical data set for six shorebird species in which we sequenced 1 mitochondrial, 12 autosomal, and 12 Z-linked loci for >8 individuals/species. We found that sampling greater numbers of genes resulted in substantial improvements to the resolution of the species tree, but sampling greater numbers of individuals had minor effects. We found that Z-linked loci significantly outperformed autosomal loci at all levels of sampling, which likely resulted from the lower effective population size of the Z-linked loci. Therefore, sex-linked loci are likely to be a powerful tool for multi-locus phylogenetic studies. We found that adding a mitochondrial gene to a set of Z-linked or autosomal loci substantially improved the resolution of the tree. Overall, our results help evaluate how best to maximize phylogenetic resolution while minimizing the costs of sequencing and computation when performing species tree analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A mathematical model linking tree sap flow dynamics to daily stem diameter fluctuations and radial stem growth.

    PubMed

    Steppe, Kathy; De Pauw, Dirk J W; Lemeur, Raoul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2006-03-01

    To date, models for simulating sap flow dynamics in individual trees with a direct link to stem diameter variation include only the diameter fluctuation driven by a change in stem water storage. This paper reports results obtained with a comprehensive flow and storage model using whole-tree leaf transpiration as the only input variable. The model includes radial stem growth based on Lockhart's equation for irreversible cell expansion. It was demonstrated that including growth is essential to obtaining good simulation results. To model sap flow dynamics, capacitance of storage tissues was assumed either constant (i.e., electrical analogue approach) or variable and dependent on the water content of the respective storage tissue (i.e., hydraulic system approach). These approaches resulted in different shapes for the desorption curve used to calculate the capacitance of storage tissues. Comparison of these methods allowed detection of specific differences in model simulation of sap flow at the stem base (F(stem)) and stem diameter variation (D). Sensitivity analysis was performed to select a limited subset of identifiable parameters driving most of the variability in model predictions of F(stem) and D Both the electrical analogue and the hydraulic system approach for the flow and storage model were successfully calibrated and validated for the case of a young beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.). Use of an objective model selection criterion revealed that the flow and storage model based on the electrical analogue approach yielded better predictions.

  13. The two-domain tree of life is linked to a new root for the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Raymann, Kasie; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology is the origin of the lineage leading to eukaryotes. Recent phylogenomic analyses have indicated an emergence of eukaryotes from within the radiation of modern Archaea and specifically from a group comprising Thaumarchaeota/“Aigarchaeota” (candidate phylum)/Crenarchaeota/Korarchaeota (TACK). Despite their major implications, these studies were all based on the reconstruction of universal trees and left the exact placement of eukaryotes with respect to the TACK lineage unclear. Here we have applied an original two-step approach that involves the separate analysis of markers shared between Archaea and eukaryotes and between Archaea and Bacteria. This strategy allowed us to use a larger number of markers and greater taxonomic coverage, obtain high-quality alignments, and alleviate tree reconstruction artifacts potentially introduced when analyzing the three domains simultaneously. Our results robustly indicate a sister relationship of eukaryotes with the TACK superphylum that is strongly associated with a distinct root of the Archaea that lies within the Euryarchaeota, challenging the traditional topology of the archaeal tree. Therefore, if we are to embrace an archaeal origin for eukaryotes, our view of the evolution of the third domain of life will have to be profoundly reconsidered, as will many areas of investigation aimed at inferring ancestral characteristics of early life and Earth. PMID:25964353

  14. The two-domain tree of life is linked to a new root for the Archaea.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Kasie; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2015-05-26

    One of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology is the origin of the lineage leading to eukaryotes. Recent phylogenomic analyses have indicated an emergence of eukaryotes from within the radiation of modern Archaea and specifically from a group comprising Thaumarchaeota/"Aigarchaeota" (candidate phylum)/Crenarchaeota/Korarchaeota (TACK). Despite their major implications, these studies were all based on the reconstruction of universal trees and left the exact placement of eukaryotes with respect to the TACK lineage unclear. Here we have applied an original two-step approach that involves the separate analysis of markers shared between Archaea and eukaryotes and between Archaea and Bacteria. This strategy allowed us to use a larger number of markers and greater taxonomic coverage, obtain high-quality alignments, and alleviate tree reconstruction artifacts potentially introduced when analyzing the three domains simultaneously. Our results robustly indicate a sister relationship of eukaryotes with the TACK superphylum that is strongly associated with a distinct root of the Archaea that lies within the Euryarchaeota, challenging the traditional topology of the archaeal tree. Therefore, if we are to embrace an archaeal origin for eukaryotes, our view of the evolution of the third domain of life will have to be profoundly reconsidered, as will many areas of investigation aimed at inferring ancestral characteristics of early life and Earth.

  15. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  16. How to better link regional monsoon circulation to local hydroclimate for interpreting tree-ring chronologies in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoon, consisting of 3 major subsystems, is characterized by a distinct seasonal precipitation onset that affects the regions of India, the Indochina peninsula, and East Asia. Current monsoon indices for Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent capture the large-scale circulation patterns and, in turn, the hydro-climate of the specified area affected by the Asian Monsoon System. However, their skill in representing regional circulation features and links to the local hydro-climate are less understood. Here, we assessed the variability within the Dynamical Indian Monsoon Index, the East Asian Western North Pacific Index, and the South Asian Monsoon Index and their links to regional climate features over Southeast Asia, from inter-annual to decadal timescales, using various observations and reanalysis products at monthly resolution and an extended 1300-yr pre-industrial control run with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The monsoon indices in the model compared well with those in the reanalysis, with similar statistical properties. Furthermore, composites of precipitation, sea surface temperatures (SST), wind fields and moisture advection during years with an extreme monsoon index (i.e. top and bottom 10%) were explored for the three monsoon indices in the reanalyses and model, respectively. Composites demonstrate large-scale changes in Indo-Pacific SST, circulation, and moisture advection across Southeast Asia, consistent with effects on seasonal precipitation within the region as well as distinct Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals. Anomalies in the monsoon indices are also linked to drought occurrence across the region, using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), a network of hydroclimatically sensitive tree-ring chronologies. Our analysis further investigates the paleo-climate of Southeast Asia through the CESM run to identify periods of anomalous Indo-Pacific SST and their effects on circulation

  17. Frost hardiness in walnut trees (Juglans regia L.): how to link physiology and modelling?

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Poirier, Magalie; Bonhomme, Marc; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    In the literature, frost hardiness (FH) studies in trees have often been restricted to one organ (buds, leaves, needles or twigs). To extend our knowledge and gain a unified view, FH differences between organs and tissues or throughout the life of the tree have to be characterized in relation to physiological changes. In this study, different organs and tissues of young potted and mature orchard walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) were compared for seasonal changes in FH during different years. FH was assessed using the electrolyte leakage method. Physiological parameters were concomitantly monitored focusing on two significant traits: water content (WC) and carbohydrate content (glucose + fructose + sucrose, GFS). No seasonal variation in FH was observed in the root system, but acclimation and deacclimation were observed aboveground. Among organs and tissues, cold sensitivity levels were different in deep winter, with buds most sensitive and bark most resistant, but acclimation/deacclimation dynamics followed similar patterns. Physiological variation was also similar among organs: FH increased when WC decreased and/or soluble carbohydrates increased. Based on these results, relations between soluble carbohydrate content, WC and FH were calculated independently or in interaction. The key results were that: (i) the relationship between FH and physiological parameters (GFS and WC), which had previously been shown for branches only, could be generalized to all aboveground organs; (ii) lower WC increased the cryoprotective effect of GFS, showing a synergic effect of the two factors; (iii) the best fit was a non-linear function of WC and GFS, yielding a predictive model with an root mean square error of 5.07 °C on an independent dataset and 2.59 °C for the most sensitive stages; and (iv) the same parameters used for all organs yielded a unified model of FH depending on physiology, although the variability of GFS or WC was wide. The model should be of value for predicting

  18. Fault tolerance in space-based digital signal processing and switching systems: Protecting up-link processing resources, demultiplexer, demodulator, and decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redinbo, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Fault tolerance features in the first three major subsystems appearing in the next generation of communications satellites are described. These satellites will contain extensive but efficient high-speed processing and switching capabilities to support the low signal strengths associated with very small aperture terminals. The terminals' numerous data channels are combined through frequency division multiplexing (FDM) on the up-links and are protected individually by forward error-correcting (FEC) binary convolutional codes. The front-end processing resources, demultiplexer, demodulators, and FEC decoders extract all data channels which are then switched individually, multiplexed, and remodulated before retransmission to earth terminals through narrow beam spot antennas. Algorithm based fault tolerance (ABFT) techniques, which relate real number parity values with data flows and operations, are used to protect the data processing operations. The additional checking features utilize resources that can be substituted for normal processing elements when resource reconfiguration is required to replace a failed unit.

  19. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Proactive Tools (Process Mapping, Value Stream Mapping, Fault Tree Analysis, and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Frank

    2008-05-01

    This article examines the concepts of quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA), as well as the current state of QM and QA practices in radiotherapy. A systematic approach incorporating a series of industrial engineering-based tools is proposed, which can be applied in health care organizations proactively to improve process outcomes, reduce risk and/or improve patient safety, improve through-put, and reduce cost. This tool set includes process mapping and process flowcharting, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), value stream mapping, and fault tree analysis (FTA). Many health care organizations do not have experience in applying these tools and therefore do not understand how and when to use them. As a result there are many misconceptions about how to use these tools, and they are often incorrectly applied. This article describes these industrial engineering-based tools and also how to use them, when they should be used (and not used), and the intended purposes for their use. In addition the strengths and weaknesses of each of these tools are described, and examples are given to demonstrate the application of these tools in health care settings.

  20. Tools for developing a quality management program: proactive tools (process mapping, value stream mapping, fault tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis).

    PubMed

    Rath, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the concepts of quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA), as well as the current state of QM and QA practices in radiotherapy. A systematic approach incorporating a series of industrial engineering-based tools is proposed, which can be applied in health care organizations proactively to improve process outcomes, reduce risk and/or improve patient safety, improve through-put, and reduce cost. This tool set includes process mapping and process flowcharting, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), value stream mapping, and fault tree analysis (FTA). Many health care organizations do not have experience in applying these tools and therefore do not understand how and when to use them. As a result there are many misconceptions about how to use these tools, and they are often incorrectly applied. This article describes these industrial engineering-based tools and also how to use them, when they should be used (and not used), and the intended purposes for their use. In addition the strengths and weaknesses of each of these tools are described, and examples are given to demonstrate the application of these tools in health care settings.

  1. Surface Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Tree Species are Tightly Linked in Northeastern USA Forested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. S.; Juillerat, J.

    2008-12-01

    We measured C and N ratios in 608 surface soil horizons (primarily Oa) from ten small watersheds at seven established research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). In the soil, both the C (50-530 g/kg) and C/N ratio (11.6- 45.3) had a wide distribution. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were positively and linearly related to C content. For these nine watersheds, the average N (g/kg) = 6.9 + 0.030 X C (g/kg), R2 = 0.97. The C/N ratios at Cone were much higher than would be predicted from the other data and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Across all watersheds, C concentration was also positively correlated with forest floor depth (and therefore C pools). Although sugar maple dominance was negatively correlated with C/N ratio and C, better relationships were obtained by combining species. Carbon concentration of the humified surface horizon was negatively related to maple + birch dominance and positively related to conifer + beech dominance. Among nine of these ten watersheds, the average C concentration in the surface soil varied (187-441 g/kg) with a constant C/N ratio of 33. The remarkably tight relationships between C, N, and species suggest predicable patterns in C accumulation.

  2. Spray-by-spray in situ cross-linking alginate hydrogels delivering a tea tree oil microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; Straccia, M C; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Romano, I; Mazzarella, G; Santagata, G; Quaglia, F; Laurienzo, P; Malinconico, M

    2015-01-23

    In this paper we propose an in situ forming ionically cross-linked alginate (Alg) hydrogel delivering a Tea Tree Oil microemulsion (MeTTO) and potentially useful as an advanced dressing for infected wounds. Alg hydrogels were prepared by a spray-by-spray deposition method with the aim to minimize the discomforts during application. From pseudoternary phase diagrams, it was found that proper combination of TTO, water, polysorbate 80 and ethanol gave stable spherical MeTTO with good antimicrobial activity. On this basis, MeTTO at 20% TTO was selected for further inclusion in an Alg hydrogel prepared by alternating sprays of Alg/MeTTO and calcium chloride solutions. Homogeneous dispersion of MeTTO inside cross-linked Alg was assessed by different macroscopic and microscopic methods demonstrating the superior propensity of MeTTO to be integrated in the water-based hydrogel as compared to TTO. Antimicrobial effect of Alg/MeTTO hydrogels on Escherichia Coli strains was remarkable, highlighting the potential of the system as bioactive wound dressing.

  3. New Pleomagnetic Evidence for Counter Clockwise Block Rotation of the Dofan Magmatic Segment Linked to Variation in Fault Slip Directions Along the Different Fault Systems, Main Ethiopian Rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birke, T. K.; Nugsse, K.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-six paleomagnetic sites were sampled from basalt, trachyte and ignimbrite flows of the Dofan magmatic segment, Northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The samples were then cut in to 200 standard and their Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) directions were measured using the JR6A Spinner Magnetometer, of Addis Ababa University. Twin specimens from same sample were subjected to stepwise alternative field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetizations respectively with the corresponding directional measurements done at each step. Directional analysis of individual specimens revealed either one or two components of NRM; the first is isolated below a temperature of 300°C or AF field below 20mT; the second is isolated above those steps and defined straight lines directed towards the origin, which were interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during cooling. Rock magnetic experiments on representative specimens indicated that the dominant magnetic minerals are titanium poor titanomagnetite with few cases of titanohematites. The overall mean directions calculated for the 24 stable polarity sites of Dofan is Dec=351.8°, Inc=11.5° (N=24, K=21.4, α95=6.5°). When these values are compared with the 1.5 Ma mean expected geomagnetic dipole reference field directions Dec=1.0°, Inc=16.4° (N=32, K=105.6, α95=2.3°) obtained from African Apparent Polar Wander Path Curve (Besse & Courtillot, 1991, 2003); a difference in declination ΔD=-9.2°± 5.6° and inclination ΔI=4.9°±5.5° are determind. This declination difference is interpreted as counterclockwise rotation of the Dofan segment about vertical axis and it is consistent with previous paleomagnetic reports in Fentale area (Kidane et al., 2009) and also with the recent analogue models of RE-Orientation of extension directions and pure extensional faulting at the oblique rift margins of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) (Corti et al., 2013).

  4. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  5. Field-based Digital Mapping of the November 3, 2002 Susitna Glacier Fault Rupture - Integrating remotely sensed data, GIS, and photo-linking technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staft, L. A.; Craw, P. A.

    2003-12-01

    In July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted field studies on the Susitna Glacier Fault (SGF), which ruptured on November 2002 during the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. The DGGS assumed responsibility for Geographic Information System (GIS) and data management, integrating remotely sensed imagery, GPS data, GIS, and photo-linking software to aid in planning and documentation of fieldwork. Pre-field preparation included acquisition of over 150, 1:6,000-scale true-color aerial photographs taken shortly after the SGF rupture, 1:63,360-scale color-infrared (CIR) 1980 aerial photographs, and digital geographic information including a 15-minute Digital Elevation Model (DEM), 1:63,360-scale Digital Raster Graphics (DRG), and LandSat 7 satellite imagery. Using Orthomapper software, we orthorectified and mosaiced seven CIRs, creating a georeferenced, digital photo base of the study area. We used this base to reference the 1:6,000-scale aerial photography, to view locations of field sites downloaded from GPS, and to locate linked digital photographs that were taken in the field. Photos were linked using GPS-Photo Link software which "links" digital photographs to GPS data by correlating time stamps from the GPS track log or waypoint file to those of the digital photos, using the correlated point data to create a photo location ESRI shape file. When this file is opened in ArcMap or ArcView with the GPS-Photo Link utility enabled, a thumbnail image of the linked photo appears when the cursor is over the photo location. Viewing photographed features and scarp-profile locations in GIS allowed us to evaluate data coverage of the rupture daily. Using remotely sensed imagery in the field with GIS gave us the versatility to display data on a variety of bases, including topographic maps, air photos, and satellite imagery, during fieldwork. In the field, we downloaded, processed, and reviewed data as it was

  6. ReprOlive: a database with linked data for the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) reproductive transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Rosario; Zafra, Adoración; Seoane, Pedro; Castro, Antonio J; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Castillo-Castillo, Trinidad; Medina-García, Ana; Cánovas, Francisco M; Aldana-Montes, José F; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Alché, Juan de Dios; Claros, M Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproductive transcriptomes have been analyzed in different species due to the agronomical and biotechnological importance of plant reproduction. Here we presented an olive tree reproductive transcriptome database with samples from pollen and pistil at different developmental stages, and leaf and root as control vegetative tissues http://reprolive.eez.csic.es). It was developed from 2,077,309 raw reads to 1,549 Sanger sequences. Using a pre-defined workflow based on open-source tools, sequences were pre-processed, assembled, mapped, and annotated with expression data, descriptions, GO terms, InterPro signatures, EC numbers, KEGG pathways, ORFs, and SSRs. Tentative transcripts (TTs) were also annotated with the corresponding orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana from TAIR and RefSeq databases to enable Linked Data integration. It results in a reproductive transcriptome comprising 72,846 contigs with average length of 686 bp, of which 63,965 (87.8%) included at least one functional annotation, and 55,356 (75.9%) had an ortholog. A minimum of 23,568 different TTs was identified and 5,835 of them contain a complete ORF. The representative reproductive transcriptome can be reduced to 28,972 TTs for further gene expression studies. Partial transcriptomes from pollen, pistil, and vegetative tissues as control were also constructed. ReprOlive provides free access and download capability to these results. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and transcript annotations are provided. Graphical localization of annotated enzymes into KEGG pathways is also possible. Finally, ReprOlive has included a semantic conceptualisation by means of a Resource Description Framework (RDF) allowing a Linked Data search for extracting the most updated information related to enzymes, interactions, allergens, structures, and reactive oxygen species.

  7. ReprOlive: a database with linked data for the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) reproductive transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Rosario; Zafra, Adoración; Seoane, Pedro; Castro, Antonio J.; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Castillo-Castillo, Trinidad; Medina-García, Ana; Cánovas, Francisco M.; Aldana-Montes, José F.; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Alché, Juan de Dios; Claros, M. Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproductive transcriptomes have been analyzed in different species due to the agronomical and biotechnological importance of plant reproduction. Here we presented an olive tree reproductive transcriptome database with samples from pollen and pistil at different developmental stages, and leaf and root as control vegetative tissues http://reprolive.eez.csic.es). It was developed from 2,077,309 raw reads to 1,549 Sanger sequences. Using a pre-defined workflow based on open-source tools, sequences were pre-processed, assembled, mapped, and annotated with expression data, descriptions, GO terms, InterPro signatures, EC numbers, KEGG pathways, ORFs, and SSRs. Tentative transcripts (TTs) were also annotated with the corresponding orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana from TAIR and RefSeq databases to enable Linked Data integration. It results in a reproductive transcriptome comprising 72,846 contigs with average length of 686 bp, of which 63,965 (87.8%) included at least one functional annotation, and 55,356 (75.9%) had an ortholog. A minimum of 23,568 different TTs was identified and 5,835 of them contain a complete ORF. The representative reproductive transcriptome can be reduced to 28,972 TTs for further gene expression studies. Partial transcriptomes from pollen, pistil, and vegetative tissues as control were also constructed. ReprOlive provides free access and download capability to these results. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and transcript annotations are provided. Graphical localization of annotated enzymes into KEGG pathways is also possible. Finally, ReprOlive has included a semantic conceptualisation by means of a Resource Description Framework (RDF) allowing a Linked Data search for extracting the most updated information related to enzymes, interactions, allergens, structures, and reactive oxygen species. PMID:26322066

  8. Methods to enhance seismic faults and construct fault surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming; Zhu, Zhihui

    2017-10-01

    Faults are often apparent as reflector discontinuities in a seismic volume. Numerous types of fault attributes have been proposed to highlight fault positions from a seismic volume by measuring reflection discontinuities. These attribute volumes, however, can be sensitive to noise and stratigraphic features that are also apparent as discontinuities in a seismic volume. We propose a matched filtering method to enhance a precomputed fault attribute volume, and simultaneously estimate fault strikes and dips. In this method, a set of efficient 2D exponential filters, oriented by all possible combinations of strike and dip angles, are applied to the input attribute volume to find the maximum filtering responses at all samples in the volume. These maximum filtering responses are recorded to obtain the enhanced fault attribute volume while the corresponding strike and dip angles, that yield the maximum filtering responses, are recoded to obtain volumes of fault strikes and dips. By doing this, we assume that a fault surface is locally planar, and a 2D smoothing filter will yield a maximum response if the smoothing plane coincides with a local fault plane. With the enhanced fault attribute volume and the estimated fault strike and dip volumes, we then compute oriented fault samples on the ridges of the enhanced fault attribute volume, and each sample is oriented by the estimated fault strike and dip. Fault surfaces can be constructed by directly linking the oriented fault samples with consistent fault strikes and dips. For complicated cases with missing fault samples and noisy samples, we further propose to use a perceptual grouping method to infer fault surfaces that reasonably fit the positions and orientations of the fault samples. We apply these methods to 3D synthetic and real examples and successfully extract multiple intersecting fault surfaces and complete fault surfaces without holes.

  9. Faults Discovery By Using Mined Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Fault discovery in the complex systems consist of model based reasoning, fault tree analysis, rule based inference methods, and other approaches. Model based reasoning builds models for the systems either by mathematic formulations or by experiment model. Fault Tree Analysis shows the possible causes of a system malfunction by enumerating the suspect components and their respective failure modes that may have induced the problem. The rule based inference build the model based on the expert knowledge. Those models and methods have one thing in common; they have presumed some prior-conditions. Complex systems often use fault trees to analyze the faults. Fault diagnosis, when error occurs, is performed by engineers and analysts performing extensive examination of all data gathered during the mission. International Space Station (ISS) control center operates on the data feedback from the system and decisions are made based on threshold values by using fault trees. Since those decision-making tasks are safety critical and must be done promptly, the engineers who manually analyze the data are facing time challenge. To automate this process, this paper present an approach that uses decision trees to discover fault from data in real-time and capture the contents of fault trees as the initial state of the trees.

  10. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  11. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  12. Using minimal spanning trees to compare the reliability of network topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leister, Karen J.; White, Allan L.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    Graph theoretic methods are applied to compute the reliability for several types of networks of moderate size. The graph theory methods used are minimal spanning trees for networks with bi-directional links and the related concept of strongly connected directed graphs for networks with uni-directional links. A comparison is conducted of ring networks and braided networks. The case is covered where just the links fail and the case where both links and nodes fail. Two different failure modes for the links are considered. For one failure mode, the link no longer carries messages. For the other failure mode, the link delivers incorrect messages. There is a description and comparison of link-redundancy versus path-redundancy as methods to achieve reliability. All the computations are carried out by means of a fault tree program.

  13. AADL Fault Modeling and Analysis Within an ARP4761 Safety Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Model 25 3.1.3 Fault and Hazard Analysis Report Example 26 3.2 Fault Tree Analysis Support 27 3.2.1 Introduction 27 3.2.2 Using the Fault Tree ...Errors Information in the AADL Model 51 4.2.3 Functional Hazard Assessment 56 4.2.4 Fault Tree Analysis 57 4.2.5 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis...8: Error State for the Fault Tree Analysis 27 Figure 9: OSATE’s Reports Subdirectory 27 Figure 10: Fault Tree Analysis as Shown in OpenFTA 28

  14. Faulting Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-15

    This region of Xanthe Terra has mostly been contracted due to thrust faulting, but this local region shows evidence of extensional faulting, also called normal faulting. When two normal faults face each other, they create a bathtub-like depression called a "graben." http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20813

  15. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  16. Changes in fault length distributions due to fault linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; García-Hernández, J.; Murillo-Muñetón, G.

    2010-01-01

    Fault linkage plays an important role in the growth of faults. In this paper we analyze a published synthetic model to simulate fault linkage. The results of the simulation indicate that fault linkage is the cause of the shallower local slopes on the length-frequency plots. The shallower local slopes lead to two effects. First, the curves of log cumulative number against log length exhibit fluctuating shapes as reported in literature. Second, for a given fault population, the power-law exponents after linkage are negatively related to the linked length scales. Also, we present datasets of fault length measured from four structural maps at the Cantarell oilfield in the southern Gulf of Mexico (offshore Campeche). The results demonstrate that the fault length data, corrected by seismic resolution at the tip fault zone, also exhibit fluctuating curves of log cumulative frequency vs. log length. The steps (shallower slopes) on the curves imply the scale positions of fault linkage. We conclude that fault linkage is the main reason for the fluctuating shapes of log cumulative frequency vs. log length. On the other hand, our data show that the two-tip faults are better for linear analysis between maximum displacement ( D) and length ( L). Evidently, two-tip faults underwent fewer fault linkages and interactions.

  17. High-resolution shear-wave seismics across the Carlsberg Fault zone south of Copenhagen - Implications for linking Mesozoic and late Pleistocene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    The Carlsberg Fault zone (CFZ) is a NNW-SSE striking structure close to the transition zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. We examine the fault evolution by combining very-high-resolution onshore shear-wave seismic data, one conventional onshore seismic profile and marine reflection seismic profiles. The faulting geometry indicates a strong influence of Triassic subsidence and rifting in the Central European Basin System. Growth strata within the CFZ surrounding Höllviken Graben reveal syntectonic sedimentation in the Lower Triassic, indicating the opening to be a result of Triassic rifting. In the Upper Cretaceous growth faulting documents continued rifting. These findings contrast the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene inversion tectonics in neighboring structures, such as the Tornquist Zone. The high-resolution shear-wave seismic method was used to image faulting in Quaternary and Danian layers in the CFZ. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below. In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the uppermost 30 m of the western part of CFZ. The complex fault zone comprises normal block faults and one reverse block fault. The observed faults cut through the Danian as well as the Quaternary overburden. Hence, there are strong indicators for ongoing faulting, like mapped faulting in Quaternary sediments and ongoing subsidence of the eastern block of the CFZ as interpreted by other authors. The lack of earthquakes localized in the fault zone implies that either the frequency of occurring earthquakes is too small to be recorded in the observation time-span, or that the movement of the shallow sub-surface layers may be due to other sources than purely tectonic processes.

  18. Linking climate and environmental factors to the recent and surprising growth increase of red spruce trees across the northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosiba, A. M.; Schaberg, P. G.; Rayback, S. A.; Hawley, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent investigations have uncovered an unanticipated trend: red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees in the northeastern US are undergoing a marked surge in growth. This discovery stands in contrast to the declines in growth and vigor for red spruce that were documented in the second half of the 20th century and quantitatively attributed to acid deposition-induced calcium depletion. Further, predictions of potential habitat due to climate change depict red spruce habitat constricting from low elevations and latitudes. Considering these conflicting findings, we asked: what factors are most likely stimulating growth increases for red spruce trees? Here we use a uniquely large and both spatially- and temporally-explicit tree ring dataset to assess changes in red spruce growth over time. We compare patterns in growth to local weather data, atmospheric deposition rates, and other environmental and forest-stand metrics, including nutrient soil status and buffering capacity. These results allow us to model areas in the region where we predict similar growth increases for red spruce trees. Through this study, we suggest that this temperate conifer may be uniquely posed to benefit from a lengthened functional growing season, increased annual temperatures, particularly in winter, and decreased atmospheric pollution levels that proved problematic in the past.

  19. Woody climbers show greater population genetic differentiation than trees: Insights into the link between ecological traits and diversification.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Saldaña, Alfredo; Ríos, Rodrigo S

    2016-12-01

    The climbing habit is a key innovation in plants: climbing taxa have higher species richness than nonclimbing sister groups. We evaluated the hypothesis that climbing plant species show greater among-population genetic differentiation than nonclimber species. We compared the among-population genetic distance in woody climbers (eight species, 30 populations) and trees (seven species, 29 populations) coexisting in nine communities in a temperate rainforest. We also compared within-population genetic diversity in co-occurring woody climbers and trees in two communities. Mean genetic distance between populations of climbers was twice that of trees. Isolation by distance (increase in genetic distance with geographic distance) was greater for climbers. Climbers and trees showed similar within-population genetic diversity. Our longevity estimate suggested that climbers had shorter generation times, while other biological features often associated with diversification (dispersal and pollination syndromes, mating system, size, and metabolic rate) did not show significant differences between groups. We hypothesize that the greater population differentiation in climbers could result from greater evolutionary responses to local selection acting on initially higher within-population genetic diversity, which could be driven by neutral processes associated with shorter generation times. Increased population genetic differentiation could be incorporated as another line of evidence when testing for key innovations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Tropical rain forest tree growth and atmospheric carbon dynamics linked to interannual temperature variation during 1984–2000

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D. A.; Piper, S. C.; Keeling, C. D.; Clark, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    During 1984–2000, canopy tree growth in old-growth tropical rain forest at La Selva, Costa Rica, varied >2-fold among years. The trees' annual diameter increments in this 16-yr period were negatively correlated with annual means of daily minimum temperatures. The tree growth variations also negatively covaried with the net carbon exchange of the terrestrial tropics as a whole, as inferred from nearly pole-to-pole measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) interpreted by an inverse tracer–transport model. Strong reductions in tree growth and large inferred tropical releases of CO2 to the atmosphere occurred during the record-hot 1997–1998 El Niño. These and other recent findings are consistent with decreased net primary production in tropical forests in the warmer years of the last two decades. As has been projected by recent process model studies, such a sensitivity of tropical forest productivity to on-going climate change would accelerate the rate of atmospheric CO2 accumulation. PMID:12719545

  1. New star on the stage: amount of ray parenchyma in tree rings shows a link to climate.

    PubMed

    Olano, José Miguel; Arzac, Alberto; García-Cervigón, Ana I; von Arx, Georg; Rozas, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Tree-ring anatomy reflects the year-by-year impact of environmental factors on tree growth. Up to now, research in this field has mainly focused on the hydraulic architecture, with ray parenchyma neglected despite the growing recognition of its relevance for xylem function. Our aim was to address this gap by exploring the potential of the annual patterns of xylem parenchyma as a climate proxy. We constructed ring-width and ray-parenchyma chronologies from 1965 to 2004 for 20 Juniperus thurifera trees growing in a Mediterranean continental climate. Chronologies were related to climate records by means of correlation, multiple regression and partial correlation analyses. Ray parenchyma responded to climatic conditions at critical stages during the xylogenetic process; namely, at the end of the previous year's xylogenesis (October) and at the onset of earlywood (May) and latewood formation (August). Ray parenchyma-based chronologies have potential to complement ring-width chronologies as a tool for climate reconstructions. Furthermore, medium- and low-frequency signals in the variation of ray parenchyma may improve our understanding of how trees respond to environmental fluctuations and to global change.

  2. Fault detection and fault tolerance in robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visinsky, Monica; Walker, Ian D.; Cavallaro, Joseph R.

    1992-01-01

    Robots are used in inaccessible or hazardous environments in order to alleviate some of the time, cost and risk involved in preparing men to endure these conditions. In order to perform their expected tasks, the robots are often quite complex, thus increasing their potential for failures. If men must be sent into these environments to repair each component failure in the robot, the advantages of using the robot are quickly lost. Fault tolerant robots are needed which can effectively cope with failures and continue their tasks until repairs can be realistically scheduled. Before fault tolerant capabilities can be created, methods of detecting and pinpointing failures must be perfected. This paper develops a basic fault tree analysis of a robot in order to obtain a better understanding of where failures can occur and how they contribute to other failures in the robot. The resulting failure flow chart can also be used to analyze the resiliency of the robot in the presence of specific faults. By simulating robot failures and fault detection schemes, the problems involved in detecting failures for robots are explored in more depth.

  3. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis – The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A.; Longares, Luis A.; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  4. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis - The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events.

    PubMed

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A; Longares, Luis A; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  5. Linking tree size distribution to active remote sensing parameters: consequences for observation strategies and impacts on biomass retrieval (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Behrman, K. D.; Keitt, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation 3D structure measurements from active remote sensing (i.e. lidar and radar) are usually averaged and reported at the regional level. However, environmental gradients and disturbance can structure vegetation patterns at multiple scales. Thus, a critical challenge in designing global observation strategies is to obtain confidence intervals on vegetation parameters as a function of biome, sensor, and resolution of observation. We present strategies to gain knowledge on forest spatial heterogeneity that can be translated into confidence intervals for above ground biomass and canopy height measurements. We use data from two airborne systems: the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) and the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) acquired over sites in the US (NH and ME), Canada (Quebec) and Costa Rica. We first describe two parameters (alpha and beta) that summarize tree size distribution for individual patches, thereby capturing forest successional stage. In this scenario, the uncertainty in predicting above ground biomass stems from: (1) the ability to estimate alpha and beta with the lidar/radar signals, and (2) the error in deriving above ground biomass from tree size distribution statistics. The processes of competition and self-thinning create skewed tree size distributions where smaller individuals are common and large individuals are rare. Using a global dataset of spaceborne lidar points from the sensor ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), we show the importance of sampling extreme values when using spatially sparse data. This raises the need to obtain expectations for the second-order properties of forest stands. To this end, we employed wavelet transforms to quantify variation in lidar-derived canopy height metrics across >20 Km transects and asked whether environmental gradients such as elevation can constrain the spatial autocorrelation among large trees.

  6. Linking dominant Hawaiian tree species to understory development in recovering pastures via impacts on soils and litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Large areas of tropical forest have been cleared and planted with exotic grass species for use as cattle pasture. These often remain persistent grasslands after grazer removal, which is problematic for restoring native forest communities. It is often hoped that remnant and/or planted trees can jump-start forest succession; however, there is little mechanistic information on how different canopy species affect community trajectories. To investigate this, I surveyed understory communities, exotic grass biomass, standing litter pools, and soil properties under two dominant canopy trees—Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a) and Acacia koa (koa)—in recovering Hawaiian forests. I then used structural equation models (SEMs) to elucidate direct and indirect effects of trees on native understory. Native understory communities developed under ‘ōhi‘a, which had larger standing litter pools, lower soil nitrogen, and lower exotic grass biomass than koa. This pattern was variable, potentially due to historical site differences and/or distance to intact forest. Koa, in contrast, showed little understory development. Instead, data suggest that increased soil nitrogen under koa leads to high grass biomass that stalls native recruitment. SEMs suggested that indirect effects of trees via litter and soils were as or more important than direct effects for determining native cover. It is suggested that diverse plantings which incorporate species that have high carbon to nitrogen ratios may help ameliorate the negative indirect effects of koa on natural understory regeneration.

  7. Impact of fault models on probabilistic seismic hazard assessment: the example of the West Corinth rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Thomas; Scotti, Oona; Boiselet, Aurelien; Lyon-Caen, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Including faults in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment tends to increase the degree of uncertainty in the results due to the intrinsically uncertain nature of the fault data. This is especially the case in the low to moderate seismicity regions of Europe, where slow slipping faults are difficult to characterize. In order to better understand the key parameters that control the uncertainty in the fault-related hazard computations, we propose to build an analytic tool that provides a clear link between the different components of the fault-related hazard computations and their impact on the results. This will allow identifying the important parameters that need to be better constrained in order to reduce the resulting uncertainty in hazard and also provide a more hazard-oriented strategy for collecting relevant fault parameters in the field. The tool will be illustrated through the example of the West Corinth rifts fault-models. Recent work performed in the gulf has shown the complexity of the normal faulting system that is accommodating the extensional deformation of the rift. A logic-tree approach is proposed to account for this complexity and the multiplicity of scientifically defendable interpretations. At the nodes of the logic tree, different options that could be considered at each step of the fault-related seismic hazard will be considered. The first nodes represent the uncertainty in the geometries of the faults and their slip rates, which can derive from different data and methodologies. The subsequent node explores, for a given geometry/slip rate of faults, different earthquake rupture scenarios that may occur in the complex network of faults. The idea is to allow the possibility of several faults segments to break together in a single rupture scenario. To build these multiple-fault-segment scenarios, two approaches are considered: one based on simple rules (i.e. minimum distance between faults) and a second one that relies on physically

  8. Asian Monsoon Climate from Tropical Tree Rings: Decadal Scale Variability and Links to Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Duangsathaporn, K.; Borgaonkar, H.; Palakit, K.

    2006-12-01

    Records of climate from the terrestrial tropics for the period before instrumentation are very limited. Tropical tree ring research, particularly in the Asian tropics, has been limited by difficulties ranging from problematic annual ring formation, poor understanding of phenology and physiology of thousands of tree species, complicated forest dynamics factors, and political turmoil and resultant effects on access. The need for understanding the potential range of variability in the monsoon regions of Asia is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of potential hydrological changes associated with global climate change. A growing body of work from the SSEA-DENDRO (South and Southeast Asian Dendrochronology) project, one component of an NSF-funded project "Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Asian Monsoon Climate Dynamics", is beginning to allow analyses of local and regional climate from Monsoon Asian tree rings. We now have continuous records of 500-plus years, that enable analyses of important time periods such as the Little Ice Age (LIA), while "floating" time series span portions of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). From these records, we see clear evidence of decadal-scale reduced monsoon strength from India to Thailand for much of the 18th century, and we suggest warm SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific as one of the primary factors. We compare our tree-ring based results with evidence from Speleothem research from northeast India that corroborates the decadal-scale monsoon weakening in the LIA, while revealing increased rainfall during the MCA. The role of SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific is seen as significant, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, in the study region. Persistent state changes in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale patterns we are seeing in monsoon Asia, with far-reaching influence into the western hemisphere as well. More

  9. Linking ice accretion and crown structure: towards a model of the effect of freezing rain on tree canopies

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Charles A.; Lecigne, Bastien; Taugourdeau, Olivier; Greene, David F.; Dauzat, Jean; Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite a longstanding interest in variation in tree species vulnerability to ice storm damage, quantitative analyses of the influence of crown structure on within-crown variation in ice accretion are rare. In particular, the effect of prior interception by higher branches on lower branch accumulation remains unstudied. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intra-crown ice accretion can be predicted by a measure of the degree of sheltering by neighbouring branches. Methods Freezing rain was artificially applied to Acer platanoides L., and in situ branch-ice thickness was measured directly and from LiDAR point clouds. Two models of freezing rain interception were developed: ‘IceCube’, which uses point clouds to relate ice accretion to a voxel-based index (sheltering factor; SF) of the sheltering effect of branch elements above a measurement point; and ‘IceTree’, a simulation model for in silico evaluation of the interception pattern of freezing rain in virtual tree crowns. Key Results Intra-crown radial ice accretion varied strongly, declining from the tips to the bases of branches and from the top to the base of the crown. SF for branches varied strongly within the crown, and differences among branches were consistent for a range of model parameters. Intra-crown variation in ice accretion on branches was related to SF (R2 = 0·46), with in silico results from IceTree supporting empirical relationships from IceCube. Conclusions Empirical results and simulations confirmed a key role for crown architecture in determining intra-crown patterns of ice accretion. As suspected, the concentration of freezing rain droplets is attenuated by passage through the upper crown, and thus higher branches accumulate more ice than lower branches. This is the first step in developing a model that can provide a quantitative basis for investigating intra-crown and inter-specific variation in freezing rain damage. PMID:27107412

  10. Linking ice accretion and crown structure: towards a model of the effect of freezing rain on tree canopies.

    PubMed

    Nock, Charles A; Lecigne, Bastien; Taugourdeau, Olivier; Greene, David F; Dauzat, Jean; Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Despite a longstanding interest in variation in tree species vulnerability to ice storm damage, quantitative analyses of the influence of crown structure on within-crown variation in ice accretion are rare. In particular, the effect of prior interception by higher branches on lower branch accumulation remains unstudied. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intra-crown ice accretion can be predicted by a measure of the degree of sheltering by neighbouring branches. Freezing rain was artificially applied to Acer platanoides L., and in situ branch-ice thickness was measured directly and from LiDAR point clouds. Two models of freezing rain interception were developed: 'IceCube', which uses point clouds to relate ice accretion to a voxel-based index (sheltering factor; SF) of the sheltering effect of branch elements above a measurement point; and 'IceTree', a simulation model for in silico evaluation of the interception pattern of freezing rain in virtual tree crowns. Intra-crown radial ice accretion varied strongly, declining from the tips to the bases of branches and from the top to the base of the crown. SF for branches varied strongly within the crown, and differences among branches were consistent for a range of model parameters. Intra-crown variation in ice accretion on branches was related to SF (R(2) = 0·46), with in silico results from IceTree supporting empirical relationships from IceCube. Empirical results and simulations confirmed a key role for crown architecture in determining intra-crown patterns of ice accretion. As suspected, the concentration of freezing rain droplets is attenuated by passage through the upper crown, and thus higher branches accumulate more ice than lower branches. This is the first step in developing a model that can provide a quantitative basis for investigating intra-crown and inter-specific variation in freezing rain damage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  11. Zipper Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.; Passchier, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Intersecting simultaneously active pairs of faults with different orientations and opposing slip sense ("conjugate faults") present geometrical and kinematic problems. Such faults rarely offset each other, even when they have displacements of many km. A simple solution to the problem is that the two faults merge, either zippering up or unzippering, depending on the relationship between the angle of intersection and the slip senses. A widely recognized example of this is the so-called blind front developed in some thrust belts, where a backthrust branches off a decollement surface at depth. The decollement progressively unzippers, so that its hanging wall becomes the hanging wall of the backthrust, and its footwall becomes the footwall of the active decollement. The opposite situation commonly arises in core complexes, where conjugate low-angle normal faults merge to form a single detachment; in this case the two faults zipper up. Analogous situations may arise for conjugate pairs of strike-slip faults. We present kinematic and geometrical analyses of the Garlock and San Andreas faults in California, the Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia, the North and East Anatolian faults, the Karakoram and Altyn Tagh faults in Tibet, and the Tonale and Guidicarie faults in the southern Alps, all of which appear to have undergone zippering over distances of several tens to hundreds of km. The zippering process may produce complex and significant patterns of strain and rotation in the surrounding rocks, particularly if the angle between the zippered faults is large. A zippering fault may be inactive during active movement on the intersecting faults, or it may have a slip rate that differs from either fault. Intersecting conjugate ductile shear zones behave in the same way on outcrop and micro-scales.

  12. Fault finder

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  13. Towards theory integration: Threshold model as a link between signal detection theory, fast-and-frugal trees and evidence accumulation theory.

    PubMed

    Hozo, Iztok; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Luan, Shenghua; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    Theories of decision making are divided between those aiming to help decision makers in the real, 'large' world and those who study decisions in idealized 'small' world settings. For the most part, these large- and small-world decision theories remain disconnected. We linked the small-world decision theoretic concepts of signal detection theory (SDT) and evidence accumulation theory (EAT) to the threshold model and the large world of heuristic decision making that rely on fast-and-frugal decision trees (FFT). We connected these large- and small-world theories by demonstrating that seemingly different decision-making concepts are actually equivalent. In doing so, we were able (1) to link the threshold model to EAT and FFT, thereby creating decision criteria that take into account both the classification accuracy of FFT and the consequences built in the threshold model; (2) to demonstrate how threshold criteria can be used as a strategy for optimal selection of cues when constructing FFT; and (3) to show that the compensatory strategy expressed in the threshold model can be linked to a non-compensatory FFT approach to decision making. We also showed how construction and performance of FFT depend on having reliable information - the results were highly sensitive to the estimates of benefits and harms of health interventions. We illustrate the practical usefulness of our analysis by describing an FFT we developed for prescribing statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By linking SDT and EAT to the compensatory threshold model and to non-compensatory heuristic decision making (FFT), we showed how these two decision strategies are ultimately linked within a broader theoretical framework and thereby respond to calls for integrating decision theory paradigms. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Real-time monitoring and fault locating using amplified spontaneous emission noise reflection for tree-structured Ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naim, Nani Fadzlina; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, optical networks are becoming dense while detecting faulty branches in the tree-structured networks has become problematic. Conventional methods are inconvenient as they require an engineer to visit the failure site to check the optical fiber using an optical time-domain reflectometer. An innovative monitoring technique for tree-structured network topology in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) by using the erbium-doped fiber amplifier to amplify the traffic signal is demonstrated, and in the meantime, a residual amplified spontaneous emission spectrum is used as the input signal to monitor the optical cable from the central office. Fiber Bragg gratings with distinct center wavelengths are employed to reflect the monitoring signals. Faulty branches of the tree-structured EPONs can be identified using a simple and low-cost receiver. We will show that this technique is capable of providing monitoring range up to 32 optical network units using a power meter with a sensitivity of -65 dBm while maintaining the bit error rate of 10-13.

  15. Fossil tubeworms link coastal uplift of the northern Noto Peninsula to rupture of the Wajima-oki fault in AD 1729

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Masaaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Oda, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    The active fault zone on the seafloor off the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula of central Japan is divided into four segments from west to east: Monzen-oki, Saruyama-oki, Wajima-oki, and Suzu-oki. To examine the latest event that occurred in these segments, we investigated the dates and elevations of fossilized intertidal tubeworms along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula, located on the hanging-wall sides of the faults, using radioactive carbon dating and global positioning measurements. For each fossil, we calculated the difference between the past and present elevation, thereby estimating the elevation of the sea level at the date of the fossil, using a curve for sea level change. This calculation provided us with the elevation change at each site. The vertical changes estimated from the elevations and ages of the intertidal tubeworms revealed that the coastal emergence probably occurred between 1600 and 1800 AD. This area of coastal emergence lies adjacent to active faults within the Wajima-oki segment. A model for rectangular faults with three fault planes and a moment magnitude of 6.6 for the Wajima-oki segment reproduced the observed pattern of coastal emergence well. Only one damaging earthquake, that in 1729, is known to have occurred in this part of the northern Noto Peninsula between 1600 and 1800 AD, and there has not been one since 1800 AD. The slip distribution of the fault predicted by the model is consistent with the distribution of shaking-related damage documented in 1729. We conclude that rupture of the Wajima-oki segment caused the 1729 earthquake.

  16. Linking Xylem Hydraulic Conductivity and Vulnerability to the Leaf Economics Spectrum—A Cross-Species Study of 39 Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Subtropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance. PMID:25423316

  17. Linking xylem hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to the leaf economics spectrum--a cross-species study of 39 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance.

  18. Fault linkage and continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, Derren; Lymer, Gaël; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The magma-poor rifted margin off the west coast of Galicia (NW Spain) has provided some of the key observations in the development of models describing the final stages of rifting and continental breakup. In 2013, we collected a 68 x 20 km 3D seismic survey across the Galicia margin, NE Atlantic. Processing through to 3D Pre-stack Time Migration (12.5 m bin-size) and 3D depth conversion reveals the key structures, including an underlying detachment fault (the S detachment), and the intra-block and inter-block faults. These data reveal multiple phases of faulting, which overlap spatially and temporally, have thinned the crust to between zero and a few km thickness, producing 'basement windows' where crustal basement has been completely pulled apart and sediments lie directly on the mantle. Two approximately N-S trending fault systems are observed: 1) a margin proximal system of two linked faults that are the upward extension (breakaway faults) of the S; in the south they form one surface that splays northward to form two faults with an intervening fault block. These faults were thus demonstrably active at one time rather than sequentially. 2) An oceanward relay structure that shows clear along strike linkage. Faults within the relay trend NE-SW and heavily dissect the basement. The main block bounding faults can be traced from the S detachment through the basement into, and heavily deforming, the syn-rift sediments where they die out, suggesting that the faults propagated up from the S detachment surface. Analysis of the fault heaves and associated maps at different structural levels show complementary fault systems. The pattern of faulting suggests a variation in main tectonic transport direction moving oceanward. This might be interpreted as a temporal change during sequential faulting, however the transfer of extension between faults and the lateral variability of fault blocks suggests that many of the faults across the 3D volume were active at least in part

  19. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  20. Comparison of upwards splaying and upwards merging segmented normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, U. A.; Sanderson, D. J.; Lonergan, L.; Bevan, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    A common model for normal fault growth involves a single fault at depth splaying upwards into a series of en-echelon segments. This model is applied to faults as well as a range of extension fractures, including veins, joints and igneous dykes. Examples of splaying growth fault systems in the Columbus Basin, offshore Trinidad, are presented. They include the commonly described upwards splaying type, but also one fault zone with an upward change from disconnected overlapping synthetic faults to a continuous fault. One fault zone with high-displacement fault segments is separated by a relay ramp at depth, becomes breached higher up, developing into a continuous fault at its upper part, where displacements are least. This example suggests that whilst kinematic linkage typically precedes geometric linkage in the evolution of relay ramps, low-displacement parts of a fault system may be geometrically linked whereas higher displacement areas are only kinematically linked.

  1. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  2. Fault mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

  3. Growth of faults in crystalline rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The growth of faults depends on the coupled interplay of the distribution of slip, fault geometry, the stress field in the host rock, and deformation of the host rock, which commonly is manifest in secondary fracturing. The distribution of slip along a fault depends highly on its structure, the stress perturbation associated with its interaction with nearby faults, and its strength distribution; mechanical analyses indicate that the first two factors are more influential than the third. Slip distribution data typically are discrete, but commonly are described, either explicitly or implicitly, using continuous interpolation schemes. Where the third derivative of a continuous slip profile is discontinuous, the compatibility conditions of strain are violated, and fracturing and perturbations to fault geometry should occur. Discontinuous third derivatives accompany not only piecewise linear functions, but also functions as seemingly benign as cubic splines. The stress distribution and fracture distribution along a fault depends strongly on how the fault grows. Evidence to date indicates that a fault that nucleates along a pre-existing, nearly planar joint or a dike typically develops secondary fractures only near its tipline when the slip is small relative to the fault length. In contrast, stress concentrations and fractures are predicted where a discontinuous or non-planar fault exhibits steps and bends; field observations bear this prediction out. Secondary fracturing influences how faults grow by creating damage zones and by linking originally discontinuous elements into a single fault zone. Field observations of both strike-slip faults and dip-slip faults show that linked segments usually will not be coplanar; elastic stress analyses indicate that this is an inherent tendency of how three-dimensional faults grow. Advances in the data we collect and in the rigor and sophistication of our analyses seem essential to substantially advance our ability to successfully

  4. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  5. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Treesearch

    Klemen Novak; Martin de Luis; Miguel A. Saz; Luis A. Longares; Roberto Serrano-Notivoli; Josep Raventos; Katarina Cufar; Jozica Gricar; Alfredo Di Filippo; Gianluca Piovesan; Cyrille B.K. Rathgeber; Andreas Papadopoulos; Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of...

  6. Micro-seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz: Is there a link between micro-seismicity, high magnitude earthquakes and active faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sónia; Terrinha, Pedro; Matias, Luis; Duarte, João C.; Roque, Cristina; Ranero, César R.; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Zitellini, Nevio

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz seismicity is characterized by persistent low to intermediate magnitude earthquakes, occasionally punctuated by high magnitude events such as the M 8.7 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake and the M = 7.9 event of February 28th, 1969. Micro-seismicity was recorded during 11 months by a temporary network of 25 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in an area of high seismic activity, encompassing the potential source areas of the mentioned large magnitude earthquakes. We combined micro-seismicity analysis with processing and interpretation of deep crustal seismic reflection profiles and available refraction data to investigate the possible tectonic control of the seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz area. Three controlling mechanisms are explored: i) active tectonic structures, ii) transitions between different lithospheric domains and inherited Mesozoic structures, and iii) fault weakening mechanisms. Our results show that micro-seismicity is mostly located in the upper mantle and is associated with tectonic inversion of extensional rift structures and to the transition between different lithospheric/rheological domains. Even though the crustal structure is well imaged in the seismic profiles and in the bathymetry, crustal faults show low to negligible seismic activity. A possible explanation for this is that the crustal thrusts are thin-skinned structures rooting in relatively shallow sub-horizontal décollements associated with (aseismic) serpentinization levels at the top of the lithospheric mantle. Therefore, co-seismic slip along crustal thrusts may only occur during large magnitude events, while for most of the inter-seismic cycle these thrusts remain locked, or slip aseismically. We further speculate that high magnitude earthquake's ruptures may only nucleate in the lithospheric mantle and then propagate into the crust across the serpentinized layers.

  7. Quantifying Anderson's fault types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Ce??le??rier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ?? and ?? to new quantities named A?? and A??. In their simple forms, A?? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?? ranges from 0?? to 60??, 60?? to 120??, and 120?? to 180??, respectively. After scaling, A?? and A?? agree to within 2% (or 1??), a difference of little practical significance, although A?? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A?? ranging from -3 to +3 and A?? from -180?? to +180??. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A?? and A?? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  9. Sequential Test Strategies for Multiple Fault Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Kell, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing near optimal test sequencing algorithms for diagnosing multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and Lagrangian relaxation, we present several static and dynamic (on-line or interactive) test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem that provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a static diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a static diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. Computational results based on real-world systems indicate that the size of a static multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system, and that the use of an on-line multiple fault strategy can diagnose faults in systems with as many as 10,000 failure sources.

  10. The link between strength of lattice preferred orientation, second phase content and grain boundary migration: A case study from the Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.; Lindroos, Zoe Reid

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the microstructure and quartz LPOs of 36 layers of varying composition from a several-meter thick sequence of amphibolite-facies metacherts and related mica-garnet-plagioclase-quartz bearing schists from the central Southern Alps in the mylonite zone related to the Alpine Fault. Quartz contents vary from ∼10 to 100% and all of the LPO fabric skeletons are similar, featuring an asymmetric single girdle of [c]-axes inclined ∼30° away from the ZY plane. LPO strength is typically low at quartz contents <70% (M Index of ∼0.05) whereas it may be very high for nearly pure quartz rocks (M Index of up to 4.0). We attribute this change to a sparseness of interphase boundaries in the more quartzose rocks, a reduction in grain-boundary pinning, and a corresponding efficiency of grain boundary migration during dynamic recrystallization. The transition corresponds to a Zener parameter of approximately 700. In layers poor in quartz and rich in mica, the quartz grain size was kept small, and phase-boundary density, high. This may have promoted grain-size sensitive creep and dislocation glide in mica. Dislocation creep in the interspersed quartz grains was correspondingly reduced, and weaker quartz LPOs were produced. In highly quartzose layers, quartz grain boundaries experienced little drag or pinning from impurity phases and were able to migrate quickly into higher strain-energy grains. Preferential consumption of poorly oriented grains strengthened quartz LPOs, geometrically softened the dislocation creep process in these quartzose layers, and contributed to grain coarsening. The lack of evidence for instabilities in the thinly layered (<1 mm, quartz-rich vs. mica-rich) mylonite implies that a combination of deformation mechanisms, grain-size sensitive flow and dislocation creep, in the layers were able to accommodate a nearly homogeneous deformation between the different composition layers.

  11. Geophysics: a moving fluid pulse in a fault zone.

    PubMed

    Haney, Matthew M; Snieder, Roel; Sheiman, Jon; Losh, Steven

    2005-09-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico, fault zones are linked with a complex and dynamic system of plumbing in the Earth's subsurface. Here we use time-lapse seismic-reflection imaging to reveal a pulse of fluid ascending rapidly inside one of these fault zones. Such intermittent fault 'burping' is likely to be an important factor in the migration of subsurface hydrocarbons.

  12. Strike-slip linked core complexes: A new kinematic model of basement rock exhumation in a crustal-scale fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Sven Erik; Passchier, Cees; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    Metamorphic core complexes usually develop as extensional features during continental crustal thinning, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15 km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140 km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE-trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and changes by more than 90 degrees from a NS-trending strike-slip zone to an EW-trending 40 degree south-dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike-slip shear zone during 40 km of horizontal strike-slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed later during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip

  13. An in situ approach to detect tree root ecology: linking ground-penetrating radar imaging to isotope-derived water acquisition zones

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Marney E; Anglaaere, Luke C N

    2013-01-01

    Tree root distribution and activity are determinants of belowground competition. However, studying root response to environmental and management conditions remains logistically challenging. Methodologically, nondestructive in situ tree root ecology analysis has lagged. In this study, we tested a nondestructive approach to determine tree coarse root architecture and function of a perennial tree crop, Theobroma cacao L., at two edaphically contrasting sites (sandstone and phyllite–granite derived soils) in Ghana, West Africa. We detected coarse root vertical distribution using ground-penetrating radar and root activity via soil water acquisition using isotopic matching of δ18O plant and soil signatures. Coarse roots were detected to a depth of 50 cm, however, intraspecifc coarse root vertical distribution was modified by edaphic conditions. Soil δ18O isotopic signature declined with depth, providing conditions for plant–soil δ18O isotopic matching. This pattern held only under sandstone conditions where water acquisition zones were identifiably narrow in the 10–20 cm depth but broader under phyllite–granite conditions, presumably due to resource patchiness. Detected coarse root count by depth and measured fine root density were strongly correlated as were detected coarse root count and identified water acquisition zones, thus validating root detection capability of ground-penetrating radar, but exclusively on sandstone soils. This approach was able to characterize trends between intraspecific root architecture and edaphic-dependent resource availability, however, limited by site conditions. This study successfully demonstrates a new approach for in situ root studies that moves beyond invasive point sampling to nondestructive detection of root architecture and function. We discuss the transfer of such an approach to answer root ecology questions in various tree-based landscapes. PMID:23762519

  14. An in situ approach to detect tree root ecology: linking ground-penetrating radar imaging to isotope-derived water acquisition zones.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Marney E; Anglaaere, Luke C N

    2013-05-01

    Tree root distribution and activity are determinants of belowground competition. However, studying root response to environmental and management conditions remains logistically challenging. Methodologically, nondestructive in situ tree root ecology analysis has lagged. In this study, we tested a nondestructive approach to determine tree coarse root architecture and function of a perennial tree crop, Theobroma cacao L., at two edaphically contrasting sites (sandstone and phyllite-granite derived soils) in Ghana, West Africa. We detected coarse root vertical distribution using ground-penetrating radar and root activity via soil water acquisition using isotopic matching of δ(18)O plant and soil signatures. Coarse roots were detected to a depth of 50 cm, however, intraspecifc coarse root vertical distribution was modified by edaphic conditions. Soil δ(18)O isotopic signature declined with depth, providing conditions for plant-soil δ(18)O isotopic matching. This pattern held only under sandstone conditions where water acquisition zones were identifiably narrow in the 10-20 cm depth but broader under phyllite-granite conditions, presumably due to resource patchiness. Detected coarse root count by depth and measured fine root density were strongly correlated as were detected coarse root count and identified water acquisition zones, thus validating root detection capability of ground-penetrating radar, but exclusively on sandstone soils. This approach was able to characterize trends between intraspecific root architecture and edaphic-dependent resource availability, however, limited by site conditions. This study successfully demonstrates a new approach for in situ root studies that moves beyond invasive point sampling to nondestructive detection of root architecture and function. We discuss the transfer of such an approach to answer root ecology questions in various tree-based landscapes.

  15. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  16. An update of Quaternary faults of central and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, Ray J.; Fletcher, D.K.; Weldon, E.M.; Scharer, K.M.; McCrory, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. We have updated the eastern portion of our previous active fault map of Oregon (Pezzopane, Nakata, and Weldon, 1992) as a contribution to the larger USGS effort to produce digital maps of active faults in the Pacific Northwest region. The 1992 fault map has seen wide distribution and has been reproduced in essentially all subsequent compilations of active faults of Oregon. The new map provides a substantial update of known active or suspected active faults east of the Cascades. Improvements in the new map include (1) many newly recognized active faults, (2) a linked ArcInfo map and reference database, (3) more precise locations for previously recognized faults on shaded relief quadrangles generated from USGS 30-m digital elevations models (DEM), (4) more uniform coverage resulting in more consistent grouping of the ages of active faults, and (5) a new category of 'possibly' active faults that share characteristics with known active faults, but have not been studied adequately to assess their activity. The distribution of active faults has not changed substantially from the original Pezzopane, Nakata and Weldon map. Most faults occur in the south-central Basin and Range tectonic province that is located in the backarc portion of the Cascadia subduction margin. These faults occur in zones consisting of numerous short faults with similar rates, ages, and styles of movement. Many active faults strongly correlate with the most active volcanic centers of Oregon, including Newberry Craters and Crater Lake.

  17. Near-surface soil carbon, carbon/nitrogen ratio,and tree species are tightly linked across northeastern United States watersheds

    Treesearch

    Donald S. Ross; Scott W. Bailey; Gregory B. Lawrence; James B. Shanley; Guinevere Fredriksen; Austin E. Jamison; Patricia A. Brousseau

    2011-01-01

    Forest soils hold large stores of carbon, with the highest concentrations in the surface horizons. In these horizons, both the total C mass and the C/N ratio may respond more rapidly to changes in tree species than lower horizons. We measured C and C/N ratios in the Oa or A horizon from 12 watersheds at 8 established forested research sites in the northeastern United...

  18. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C. (Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX)

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis.

  19. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  20. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  1. Structural styles of Paleozoic intracratonic fault reactivation: A case study of the Grays Point fault zone in southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clendenin, C.W.; Diehl, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    A pronounced, subparallel set of northeast-striking faults occurs in southeastern Missouri, but little is known about these faults because of poor exposure. The Commerce fault system is the southernmost exposed fault system in this set and has an ancestry related to Reelfoot rift extension. Recent published work indicates that this fault system has a long history of reactivation. The northeast-striking Grays Point fault zone is a segment of the Commerce fault system and is well exposed along the southeast rim of an inactive quarry. Our mapping shows that the Grays Point fault zone also has a complex history of polyphase reactivation, involving three periods of Paleozoic reactivation that occurred in Late Ordovician, Devonian, and post-Mississippian. Each period is characterized by divergent, right-lateral oblique-slip faulting. Petrographic examination of sidwall rip-out clasts in calcite-filled faults associated with the Grays Point fault zone supports a minimum of three periods of right-lateral oblique-slip. The reported observations imply that a genetic link exists between intracratonic fault reactivation and strain produced by Paleozoic orogenies affecting the eastern margin of Laurentia (North America). Interpretation of this link indicate that right-lateral oblique-slip has occurred on all of the northeast-striking faults in southeastern Missouri as a result of strain influenced by the convergence directions of the different Paleozoic orogenies.

  2. Dissecting Oceanic Detachment Faults: Fault Zone Geometry, Deformation Mechanisms, and Nature of Fluid-Rock Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnemains, D.; Escartin, J.; Verlaguet, A.; Andreani, M.; Mevel, C.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the extreme strain localization at long-lived oceanic detachment faults rooting deeply below the axis, we present results of geological investigations at the 13°19'N detachment along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, conducted during the ODEMAR cruise (Nov-Dec13, NO Pourquoi Pas?) with ROV Victor6000 (IFREMER). During this cruise we investigated and sampled the corrugated fault to understand its geometry, nature of deformation, and links to fluid flow. We identified and explored 7 fault outcrops on the flanks of microbathymetric striations subparallel to extension. These outcrops expose extensive fault planes, with the most prominent ones extending 40-90m laterally, and up to 10 m vertically. These fault surfaces systematically show subhorizontal striations subparallel to extension, and define slabs of fault-rock that are flat and also striated at sample scale. Visual observations show a complex detachment fault zone, with anastomosing fault planes at outcrop scale (1-10 m), with a highly heterogeneous distribution of deformation. We observe heterogeneity in fault-rock nature at outcrop scale. In situ samples from striated faults are primarily basalt breccias with prior green-schist facies alteration, and a few ultramafic fault-rocks that show a complex deformation history, with early schistose textures, brittlely reworked as clasts within the fault. The basalt breccias show variable silicification and associated sulfides, recording important fluid-rock interactions during exhumation. To understand the link between fluid and deformation during exhumation, we will present microstructural observation of deformation textures, composition, and distribution and origin of quartz and sulfides, as well as constraints on the temperature of silicifying fluids from fluid inclusions in quartz. These results allow us to characterize in detail the detachment fault zone geometry, and investigate the timing of silicification relative to deformation.

  3. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    PubMed

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  4. How geometrical constraints contribute to the weakness of mature faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing evidence that the San Andreas fault has low shear strength1 has fuelled considerable discussion regarding the role of fluid pressure in controlling fault strength. Byerlee2,3 and Rice4 have shown how fluid pressure gradients within a fault zone can produce a fault with low strength while avoiding hydraulic fracture of the surrounding rock due to excessive fluid pressure. It may not be widely realised, however, that the same analysis2-4 shows that even in the absence of fluids, the presence of a relatively soft 'gouge' layer surrounded by harder country rock can also reduce the effective shear strength of the fault. As shown most recently by Byerlee and Savage5, as the shear stress across a fault increases, the stress state within the fault zone evolves to a limiting condition in which the maximum shear stress within the fault zone is parallel to the fault, which then slips with a lower apparent coefficient of friction than the same material unconstrained by the fault. Here we confirm the importance of fault geometry in determining the apparent weakness of fault zones, by showing that the apparent friction on a sawcut granite surface can be predicted from the friction measured in intact rock, given only the geometrical constraints introduced by the fault surfaces. This link between the sliding friction of faults and the internal friction of intact rock suggests a new approach to understanding the microphysical processes that underlie friction in brittle materials.

  5. Hi-trees and their layout.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Kim; Sbarski, Peter; van Gelder, Tim; Prager, Daniel; Bulka, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.

  6. Influence of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergence on shallow structure, geomorphology, and hazards, Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    We mapped a ~94-km-long portion of the right-lateral Hosgri Fault Zone from Point Sal to Piedras Blancas in offshore central California using high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, marine magnetic data, and multibeam bathymetry. The database includes 121 seismic profiles across the fault zone and is perhaps the most comprehensive reported survey of the shallow structure of an active strike-slip fault. These data document the location, length, and near-surface continuity of multiple fault strands, highlight fault-zone heterogeneity, and demonstrate the importance of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergences in the development of shallow structure and tectonic geomorphology. The Hosgri Fault Zone is continuous through the study area passing through a broad arc in which fault trend changes from about 338° to 328° from south to north. The southern ~40 km of the fault zone in this area is more extensional, resulting in accommodation space that is filled by deltaic sediments of the Santa Maria River. The central ~24 km of the fault zone is characterized by oblique convergence of the Hosgri Fault Zone with the more northwest-trending Los Osos and Shoreline Faults. Convergence between these faults has resulted in the formation of local restraining and releasing fault bends, transpressive uplifts, and transtensional basins of varying size and morphology. We present a hypothesis that links development of a paired fault bend to indenting and bulging of the Hosgri Fault by a strong crustal block translated to the northwest along the Shoreline Fault. Two diverging Hosgri Fault strands bounding a central uplifted block characterize the northern ~30 km of the Hosgri Fault in this area. The eastern Hosgri strand passes through releasing and restraining bends; the releasing bend is the primary control on development of an elongate, asymmetric, "Lazy Z" sedimentary basin. The western strand of the Hosgri Fault Zone passes through a significant restraining bend and

  7. The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  8. Photosynthetic capacities of mature tropical forest trees in Rwanda are linked to successional group identity rather than to leaf nutrient content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Adolfsson, Lisa; Niyonzima, Felix; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are crucial in the global carbon balance, yet information required to estimate how much carbon that enter these ecosystems through photosynthesis is very limited, in particular for Africa and for tropical montane forests. In order to increases the knowledge of natural variability of photosynthetic capacities in tropical tree species in tropical Africa, measurements of leaf traits and gas exchange were conducted on sun and shade leaves of ten tree species growing in two tropical forests in Rwanda in central Africa. Seven species were studied in Ruhande Arboretum, a forest plantation at mid altitude (1700 m), and six species in Nyungwe National Park, a cooler and higher altitude (at 2500 m) montane rainforest. Three species were common to both sites. At Nyungwe, three species each belonged to the successional groups pioneer and climax species. Climax species had considerably lower maximum rates of photosynthetic carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax) than pioneer species. This difference was not related to leaf nutrient content, but rather seemed to be caused by differences in within-leaf N allocation between the two successional groups. With respect to N, leaves of climax species invested less N into photosynthetic enzymes (as judged by lower Vcmax and Jmax values) and more N into chlorophyll (as judged by higher SPAD values). Photosynthetic capacities, (i.e., Jmax and Vcmax), Jmax to Vcmax ratio and P content were significantly higher in Nyungwe than in Arboretum. Sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacities and nutrient content than shade leaves. Across the entire dataset, variation in photosynthetic capacities among species was not related to leaf nutrient content, although significant relationships were found within individual species. This study contributes critical tropical data for global carbon models and suggests that, for montane rainforest trees of different functional types, successional group identity is a better

  9. Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

    1990-01-01

    Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

  10. Analysis of the effects of asymmetric faults in three-phase superconducting inductive fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Pina, J. M.; Vilhena, N.; Arsénio, P.; Pronto, A. G.; Martins, J.

    2014-05-01

    Inductive fault current limiters of magnetic shielding type can be described in terms of the excursion in the plane defined by flux linked with primary and line current, and this methodology has been previously applied to single-phase devices. Practical applications, however, require three-phase limiters, which, for the sake of compactness, may be built by three legged cores, instead of three single phase units. This has the advantage of using well established methods of power transformers industry, but the performance of the devices depends on the type of fault, e.g. phase to ground or phase to phase. For instance, in a three legged core, a phase to ground fault affects healthy phases, and these are the most frequent faults in distribution grids, where such systems are envisaged. The effects of asymmetric faults are analysed in this paper, by means of measured excursions in the linked flux-current plane.

  11. On the link between biomagnetic monitoring and leaf-deposited dust load of urban trees: relationships and spatial variability of different particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Jelle; Wuyts, Karen; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Brackx, Melanka; Samson, Roeland

    2014-06-01

    Biomagnetic monitoring of urban tree leaves has proven to be a good estimator of ambient particulate matter. We evaluated its relevancy by determining leaf area normalised weight (mg m(-2)) and SIRM (A) of leaf-deposited particles within three different size fractions (>10 μm, 3-10 μm and 0.2-3 μm) and the SIRM of the leaf-encapsulated particles. Results showed that throughout the in-leaf season, the trees accumulated on average 747 mg m(-2) of dust on their leaves, of which 74 mg m(-2) was within the 0.2-10 μm (∼PM10) size range and 40 mg m(-2) within the 0.2-3 μm (∼PM3) size range. A significant correlation between the SIRM and weight of the surface-deposited particles confirms the potential of biomagnetic monitoring as a proxy for the amount of leaf-deposited particles. Spatial variation of both SIRM and weight throughout the street canyon suggests traffic and wind as key factors for respectively the source and distribution of urban particulates.

  12. Reprint of On the link between biomagnetic monitoring and leaf-deposited dust load of urban trees: relationships and spatial variability of different particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Jelle; Wuyts, Karen; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Brackx, Melanka; Samson, Roeland

    2014-09-01

    Biomagnetic monitoring of urban tree leaves has proven to be a good estimator of ambient particulate matter. We evaluated its relevancy by determining leaf area normalised weight (mg m(-2)) and SIRM (A) of leaf-deposited particles within three different size fractions (>10 μm, 3-10 μm and 0.2-3 μm) and the SIRM of the leaf-encapsulated particles. Results showed that throughout the in-leaf season, the trees accumulated on average 747 mg m(-2) of dust on their leaves, of which 74 mg m(-2) was within the 0.2-10 μm (∼PM10) size range and 40 mg m(-2) within the 0.2-3 μm (∼PM3) size range. A significant correlation between the SIRM and weight of the surface-deposited particles confirms the potential of biomagnetic monitoring as a proxy for the amount of leaf-deposited particles. Spatial variation of both SIRM and weight throughout the street canyon suggests traffic and wind as key factors for respectively the source and distribution of urban particulates.

  13. Dating faults by quantifying shear heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maino, Matteo; Casini, Leonardo; Langone, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Seno, Silvio; Stuart, Finlay

    2017-04-01

    Dating brittle and brittle-ductile faults is crucial for developing seismic models and for understanding the geological evolution of a region. Improvement the geochronological approaches for absolute fault dating and its accuracy is, therefore, a key objective for the geological community. Direct dating of ancient faults may be attained by exploiting the thermal effects associated with deformation. Heat generated during faulting - i.e. the shear heating - is perhaps the best signal that provides a link between time and activity of a fault. However, other mechanisms not instantaneously related to fault motion can generate heating (advection, upwelling of hot fluids), resulting in a difficulty to determine if the thermal signal corresponds to the timing of fault movement. Recognizing the contribution of shear heating is a fundamental pre-requisite for dating the fault motion through thermochronometric techniques; therefore, a comprehensive thermal characterization of the fault zone is needed. Several methods have been proposed to assess radiometric ages of faulting from either newly grown crystals on fault gouges or surfaces (e.g. Ar/Ar dating), or thermochronometric reset of existing minerals (e.g. zircon and apatite fission tracks). In this contribution we show two cases of brittle and brittle-ductile faulting, one shallow thrust from the SW Alps and one HT, pseudotachylite-bearing fault zone in Sardinia. We applied, in both examples, a multidisciplinary approach that integrates field and micro-structural observations, petrographical characterization, geochemical and mineralogical analyses, fluid inclusion microthermometry and numerical modeling with thermochronometric dating of the two fault zones. We used the zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry to estimate the temperatures experienced by the shallow Alpine thrust. The ZHe thermochronometer has a closure temperature (Tc) of 180°C. Consequently, it is ideally suited to dating large heat-producing faults that were

  14. Owens Valley fault kinematics: Right-lateral slip transfer via north-northeast trending normal faults at the northern end of the Owens Valley fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, T. P.; Dawers, N. H.

    2003-12-01

    The occurrence of several northeast trending normal faults along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada escarpment are evidence of right-lateral slip transfer across northern Owens Valley from the Owens Valley fault to the White Mountains fault zone. Interaction between the Sierran frontal normal fault and these two fault zones has created a transtensional tectonic environment, which allows for right-lateral slip transfer via a population of northwest dipping normal faults within the Late Quaternary-Holocene alluvial valley fill of northern Owens Valley. A component of normal movement within the valley floor has been documented along fifteen faults. This includes the Tungsten Hills fault, two faults near Klondike Lake, and twelve or so, some possibly linked, small NNE trending scarps southeast of the town of Bishop. One fault segment, located just past the tip of the 1872 earthquake rupture, reveals a minimum of 3.2 meters of normal throw along much of its length. This fault shows evidence for at least three large ruptures, each exhibiting at least one meter of vertical slip. In addition, a large population of normal faults with similar orientations is mapped within the immediate vicinity of this scarp segment. These faults accommodate a substantial amount of normal movement allowing for eastward right lateral slip transfer. With the exception of the Tungsten Hills fault, they are primarily concentrated along a segment of the Sierran Escarpment known as the Coyote Warp. The pre-existing normal fault geometry along this segment acts to block the northward propagation of right-lateral movement, which is consequently forced across the valley floor to the White Mountain fault zone.

  15. Canopy cover estimates for individual tree attributes

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Randall S. Morin

    2012-01-01

    In most forest inventory data, it is not feasible to estimate the canopy coverage of trees having certain characteristics due to the lack of information on crown size. In this study, data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program was used to assign crown sizes to individual trees using published crown width models. This process effectively links trees to...

  16. Tectonic rotation about the termination of a major strike-slip fault, Marlborough fault system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Andrew P.

    1995-02-01

    The Marlborough fault system comprises a series of major right-lateral strike-slip faults that link the Apline fault to the Hikurangi subduction ozone in the Pacific/Australia plate boundary zone in New Zealand. All of the major active faults of the Marlborough fault system have continuous traces except for the Clarence fault which terminates abruptly near the Ward syncline. Paleomagnetic data from upper Miocene and lower Pliocene sedimentary rocks between the Marlborough faults indicate a consistent post-early Pliocene regional clockwise rotation of about 20 deg. An additional rotation of about 10 deg is evident at many localities near the termination of the Clarence fault. It is proposed that the additional rotation, relative to the rest of the region, is caused by a velocity gradient that likely exists between the active Awatere fault and the termination of the Clarence fault. The existence of such a velocity gradient is consistent with inferences from geodetic strain data which suggest that one-third of the displacement in the Marlborough fault system occurs between the Awatere and Clarence faults. The kinematics of rotation can be modelled by treating the area as a rigid block that pivots about the termination of the Clarence fault. The block rotation model satisfies field contraints on the styles of deformation observed at the boundaries of the block and is consistent with available paleomagnetic and geodetic data.

  17. An Intelligent Gear Fault Diagnosis Methodology Using a Complex Wavelet Enhanced Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weifang; Yao, Bin; Zeng, Nianyin; Chen, Binqiang; He, Yuchao; Cao, Xincheng; He, Wangpeng

    2017-07-12

    As a typical example of large and complex mechanical systems, rotating machinery is prone to diversified sorts of mechanical faults. Among these faults, one of the prominent causes of malfunction is generated in gear transmission chains. Although they can be collected via vibration signals, the fault signatures are always submerged in overwhelming interfering contents. Therefore, identifying the critical fault's characteristic signal is far from an easy task. In order to improve the recognition accuracy of a fault's characteristic signal, a novel intelligent fault diagnosis method is presented. In this method, a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is employed to acquire the multiscale signal's features. In addition, a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach is utilized to automatically recognise a fault feature from the multiscale signal features. The experiment results of the recognition for gear faults show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, especially in the gear's weak fault features.

  18. Potential link between biotic defense activation and recalcitrance to induction of somatic embryogenesis in shoot primordia from adult trees of white spruce (Picea glauca)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the many commercial opportunities afforded by somatic embryogenesis (SE), it is the ability to clonally propagate individual plants with rare or elite traits that has some of the most significant implications. This is particularly true for many long-lived species, such as conifers, but whose long generation times pose substantive challenges, including increased recalcitrance for SE as plants age. Identification of a clonal line of somatic embryo-derived trees whose shoot primordia have remained responsive to SE induction for over a decade, provided a unique opportunity to examine the molecular aspects underpinning SE within shoot tissues of adult white spruce trees. Results Microarray analysis was used to conduct transcriptome-wide expression profiling of shoot explants taken from this responsive genotype following one week of SE induction, which when compared with that of a nonresponsive genotype, led to the identification of four of the most differentially expressed genes within each genotype. Using absolute qPCR to expand the analysis to three weeks of induction revealed that differential expression of all eight candidate genes was maintained to the end of the induction treatment, albeit to differing degrees. Most striking was that both the magnitude and duration of candidate gene expression within the nonresponsive genotype was indicative of an intense physiological response. Examining their putative identities further revealed that all four encoded for proteins with similarity to angiosperm proteins known to play prominent roles in biotic defense, and that their high-level induction over an extended period is consistent with activation of a biotic defense response. In contrast, the more temperate response within the responsive genotype, including induction of a conifer-specific dehydrin, is more consistent with elicitation of an adaptive stress response. Conclusions While additional evidence is required to definitively establish an association

  19. Petri net modeling of fault analysis for probabilistic risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Andrew

    Fault trees and event trees have been widely accepted as the modeling strategy to perform Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). However, there are several limitations associated with fault tree/event tree modeling. These include 1. It only considers binary events; 2. It assumes independence among basic events; and 3. It does not consider timing sequence of basic events. This thesis investigates Petri net modeling as a potential alternative for PRA modeling. Petri nets have mainly been used as a simulation tool for queuing and network systems. However, it has been suggested that they could also model failure scenarios, and thus could be a potential modeling strategy for PRA. In this thesis, the transformations required to model logic gates in a fault tree by Petri nets are explored. The gap between fault tree analysis and Petri net analysis is bridged through gate equivalency analysis. Methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis for Petri nets are presented. Techniques are developed and implemented to revise and tailor traditional Petri net modeling for system failure analysis. The airlock system and the maintenance cooling system of a CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor are used as case studies to demonstrate Petri nets ability to model system failure and provide a structured approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The minimal cutsets and the probability of the airlock system failing to maintain the pressure boundary are obtained. Furthermore, the case study is extended to non-coherent system analysis due to system maintenance.

  20. On the application of a machine learning technique to fault diagnosis of power distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Togami, Masato; Abe, Norihiro; Kitahashi, T.; Ogawa, Harunao

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents one method for fault diagnosis of power distribution lines by using a decision tree. The conventional method, using a decision tree, applies only to discrete attribute values. To apply it to fault diagnosis of power distribution lines, in practice it must be revised in order to treat attributes whose values range over certain widths. This is because the sensor value or attribute value varies owing to the resistance of the fault point or is influenced by noise. The proposed method is useful when the attribute value has such a property, and it takes into consideration the cost of acquiring the information and the probability of the occurrence of a fault.

  1. An improved reconstruction of May-June precipitation using tree-ring data from western Turkey and its links to volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Köse, Nesibe; Akkemik, Unal; Güner, H Tuncay; Dalfes, H Nüzhet; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; Ozeren, M Sinan; Kındap, Tayfun

    2013-09-01

    We developed a high quality reconstruction of May-June precipitation for the interior region of southwestern Turkey using regional tree-ring data calibrated with meteorological data from Burdur. In this study, three new climate sensitive black pine chronologies were built. In addition to new chronologies, four previously published black pine chronologies were used for the reconstruction. Two separate reconstructions were developed. The first reconstruction used all site chronologies over the common interval AD 1813-2004. The second reconstruction used four of the chronologies with a common interval AD 1692-2004. R² values of the reconstructions were 0.64 and 0.51 with RE values of 0.63 and 0.51, respectively. During the period AD 1692-1938, 41 dry and 48 wet events were found. Very dry years occurred in AD 1725, 1814, 1851, 1887, 1916, and 1923, while very wet years occurred in AD 1736, 1780, 1788, 1803, and 1892. The longest dry period was 16 years long between 1860 and 1875. We then explored relationships between the reconstructed rainfall patterns and major volcanic eruptions, and discovered that wetter than normal years occurred during or immediately after the years with the largest volcanic eruptions.

  2. Sequential Testing Algorithms for Multiple Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, Mojdeh; Raghavan, Vijaya; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing optimal and near-optimal test sequencing algorithms for multiple fault diagnosis. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and AND/OR graph search, we present several test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem. These algorithms provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. The algorithms developed herein have been successfully applied to several real-world systems. Computational results indicate that the size of a multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system.

  3. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  4. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  5. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  6. TreeVector: scalable, interactive, phylogenetic trees for the web.

    PubMed

    Pethica, Ralph; Barker, Gary; Kovacs, Tim; Gough, Julian

    2010-01-28

    Phylogenetic trees are complex data forms that need to be graphically displayed to be human-readable. Traditional techniques of plotting phylogenetic trees focus on rendering a single static image, but increases in the production of biological data and large-scale analyses demand scalable, browsable, and interactive trees. We introduce TreeVector, a Scalable Vector Graphics-and Java-based method that allows trees to be integrated and viewed seamlessly in standard web browsers with no extra software required, and can be modified and linked using standard web technologies. There are now many bioinformatics servers and databases with a range of dynamic processes and updates to cope with the increasing volume of data. TreeVector is designed as a framework to integrate with these processes and produce user-customized phylogenies automatically. We also address the strengths of phylogenetic trees as part of a linked-in browsing process rather than an end graphic for print. TreeVector is fast and easy to use and is available to download precompiled, but is also open source. It can also be run from the web server listed below or the user's own web server. It has already been deployed on two recognized and widely used database Web sites.

  7. Desiccation by Foliar Deposition of Hygroscopic Aerosols may link Air Pollution to Forest Decline and Tree Mortality associated with Global-Change-Type Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, J.; Grantz, D. A.; Hunsche, M.; Pariyar, S.; Sutton, M. A.; Zinsmeister, D.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf surfaces are a major sink for atmospheric aerosol deposition. Plants benefit from aerosol associated nutrients and are able to increase deposition by leaf surface micromorphology. Recent studies have shown that deposited hygroscopic aerosols can also influence plant water relations. This might be an important issue even for remote forest ecosystems, given the strong anthropogenic influence on aerosol production and efficient atmospheric transport. We study processes of aerosol deposition to plant surfaces and their impact on water relations and drought tolerance, both for experimental particle amendment and for aerosol exclusion in filtered air (FA). FA plants experience an environment with < 10% concentration of hygroscopic aerosols compared to ambient air (AA), but no difference in trace gases. Increasing particle concentration leads to decreasing water use efficiency and increasing minimum epidermal conductance (gmin; a measure of uncontrolled water loss inversely related to drought tolerance). After particle amendment, anisohydric beech seedlings increased transpiration and maintained photosynthesis, while isohydric pine seedlings maintained transpiration and tended to reduce photosynthesis. FA seedlings of pine, oak, and fir showed lower gmin than corresponding AA seedlings. The results support the concept of hydraulic activation of stomata (HAS) and an associated wick action caused by leaf surface particles. Concentrated salt solutions formed by hygroscopicity even in unsaturated air may create a thin liquid film that penetrates the stomatal pore, allowing evaporation of liquid water at the leaf surface. Increased gmin suggests the significance of this process under ambient conditions. The direct impact of air pollution on plant drought tolerance is poorly integrated in current scenarios of forest decline and tree mortality, but might represent an important component.

  8. Faulting along the southern margin of Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Arsdale, R.; Purser, J.; Stephenson, W.; Odum, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Reelfoot Lake basin, Tennessee, is structurally complex and of great interest seismologically because it is located at the junction of two seismicity trends of the New Madrid seismic zone. To better understand the structure at this location, a 7.5-km-long seismic reflection profile was acquired on roads along the southern margin of Reelfoot Lake. The seismic line reveals a westerly dipping basin bounded on the west by the Reelfoot reverse fault zone, the Ridgely right-lateral transpressive fault zone on the east, and the Cottonwood Grove right-lateral strike-slip fault in the middle of the basin. The displacement history of the Reelfoot fault zone appears to be the same as the Ridgely fault zone, thus suggesting that movement on these fault zones has been synchronous, perhaps since the Cretaceous. Since the Reelfoot and Ridgely fault systems are believed responsible for two of the mainshocks of 1811-1812, the fault history revealed in the Reelfoot Lake profile suggests that multiple mainshocks may be typical of the New Madrid seismic zone. The Ridgely fault zone consists of two northeast-striking faults that lie at the base of and within the Mississippi Valley bluff line. This fault zone has 15 m of post-Eocene, up-to-the-east displacement and appears to locally control the eastern limit of Mississippi River migration. The Cottonwood Grove fault zone passes through the center of the seismic line and has approximately 5 m up-to-the-east displacement. Correlation of the Cottonwood Grove fault with a possible fault scarp on the floor of Reelfoot Lake and the New Markham fault north of the lake suggests the Cottonwood Grove fault may change to a northerly strike at Reelfoot Lake, thereby linking the northeast-trending zones of seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone.

  9. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  10. Buds from the tree of life: linking compartmentalized prokaryotes and eukaryotes by a non-hyperthermophile common ancestor and implications for understanding Archaean microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, John A.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2004-07-01

    The origin of the first nucleated eukaryote and the nature of the last common ancestor of the three domains of life are major questions in the evolutionary biology of cellular life on Earth, the solutions to which may be linked. Planctomycetes are unusual compartmentalized bacteria that include a membrane-bounded nucleoid. The possibility that they constitute a very deep branch of the domain Bacteria suggests a model for the evolution of the three domains of life from a last common ancestor that was a mesophile or moderate thermophile with a compartmentalized eukaryote-like cell plan. Planctomycetes and some members of the domain Archaea may have retained cell compartmentalization present in an original eukaryote-like last common ancestor of the three domains of life. The implications of this model for possible habitats of the early evolution of domains of cellular life and for interpretation of geological evidence relating to those habitats and the early emergence of life are examined here.

  11. Development, Interaction and Linkage of Normal Fault Segments along the 100-km Bilila-Mtakataka Fault, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.; Hodge, M.; Biggs, J.; Mdala, H. S.; Goda, K.

    2016-12-01

    Faults grow through the interaction and linkage of isolated fault segments. Continuous fault systems are those where segments interact, link and may slip synchronously, whereas non-continuous fault systems comprise isolated faults. As seismic moment is related to fault length (Wells and Coppersmith, 1994), understanding whether a fault system is continuous or not is critical in evaluating seismic hazard. Maturity may be a control on fault continuity: immature, low displacement faults are typically assumed to be non-continuous. Here, we study two overlapping, 20 km long, normal fault segments of the N-S striking Bilila-Mtakataka fault, Malawi, in the southern section of the East African Rift System. Despite its relative immaturity, previous studies concluded the Bilila-Mtakataka fault is continuous for its entire 100 km length, with the most recent event equating to an Mw8.0 earthquake (Jackson and Blenkinsop, 1997). We explore whether segment geometry and relationship to pre-existing high-grade metamorphic foliation has influenced segment interaction and fault development. Fault geometry and scarp height is constrained by DEMs derived from SRTM, Pleiades and `Structure from Motion' photogrammetry using a UAV, alongside direct field observations. The segment strikes differ on average by 10°, but up to 55° at their adjacent tips. The southern segment is sub-parallel to the foliation, whereas the northern segment is highly oblique to the foliation. Geometrical surface discontinuities suggest two isolated faults; however, displacement-length profiles and Coulomb stress change models suggest segment interaction, with potential for linkage at depth. Further work must be undertaken on other segments to assess the continuity of the entire fault, concluding whether an earthquake greater than that of the maximum instrumentally recorded (1910 M7.4 Rukwa) is possible.

  12. Vertical deformation of lacustrine shorelines along breached relay ramps, Catlow Valley fault, southeastern Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Michael C.; Dawers, Nancye H.

    2016-04-01

    Vertical deformation of pluvial lacustrine shorelines is attributed to slip along the Catlow Valley fault, a segmented Basin and Range style normal fault in southeastern Oregon, USA. The inner edges of shorelines are mapped along three breached relay ramps along the fault to examine the effect of fault linkage on the distribution of slip. Shoreline inner edges act as paleohorizontal datums so deviations in elevation from horizontal, outside of a 2 m error window, are taken to be indications of fault slip. The sites chosen represent a spectrum of linkage scenarios in that the throw on the linking fault compared to that on the main fault adjacent to the linking fault varies from site to site. Results show that the maturity of the linkage between segments (i.e. larger throw on the linking fault with respect to the main fault) does not control the spatial distribution of shoreline deformation. Patterns of shoreline deformation indicate that the outboard, linking, and/or smaller ramp faults have slipped since the shorelines formed. Observations indicate that displacement has not fully localized on the linking faults following complete linkage between segments.

  13. Identification of latent faults using a radon test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díez, A.; Soto, J.; Gómez-Arozamena, J.; Bonachea, J.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Cuesta, J. A.; Olague, I.; Remondo, J.; Fernández Maroto, G.; Díaz de Terán, J. R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of 222Rn concentrations in water of natural springs as a geomorphological method to identify latent faults in low-mid term activity areas. The identification of this type of active fault may be crucial in hazard analysis, structural geomorphology and in landscape evolution analysis. The test used to identify these faults is based on the measuring of 222Rn concentrations in water of springs linked to faults, and comparison with those obtained from springs which, although exactly the same lithological context, are not linked with faults (reference values). If the difference between the measured value and the reference value is positive then an anomaly is identified and that measurement indicates a spring linked to a latent fault. The test was applied and validated in springs linked to faults with a latent behaviour in Cantabria, Northern Spain. These faults have shown an intermittent movement over the last 50,000 years, and have contributed towards landslide processes playing a significant role in landscape evolution of the area.

  14. Earthquake fault superhighways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.

    2010-10-01

    Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

  15. CNVs into the wild: screening the genomes of conifer trees (Picea spp.) reveals fewer gene copy number variations in hybrids and links to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Julien; Caron, Sébastien; MacKay, John

    2017-01-18

    Copy number variations (CNVs) have been linked to different phenotypes in human, including many diseases. A genome-scale understanding of CNVs is available in a few plants but none are wild species, leaving a knowledge gap regarding their genome biology and evolutionary role. We developed a reliable CNV detection method for species lacking contiguous reference genome. We selected multiple probes within 14,078 gene sequences and developed comparative genome hybridization on arrays. Gene CNVs were assessed in three full-sib families from species with 20 Gb genomes, i.e., white and black spruce, and interior spruce - a natural hybrid. We discovered hundreds of gene CNVs in each species, 3612 in total, which were enriched in functions related to stress and defense responses and narrow expression profiles, indicating a potential role in adaptation. The number of shared CNVs was in accordance with the degree of relatedness between individuals and species. The genetically mapped subset of these genes showed a wide distribution across the genome, implying numerous structural variations. The hybrid family presented significantly fewer CNVs, suggesting that the admixture of two species within one genome reduces the occurrence of CNVs. The approach we developed is of particular interest in non-model species lacking a reference genome. Our findings point to a role for CNVs in adaptation. Their reduced abundance in the hybrid may limit genetic variability and evolvability of hybrids. We propose that CNVs make a qualitatively distinct contribution to adaptation which could be important for short term change.

  16. Trishear for curved faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

  17. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  18. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  19. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  20. Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2011-10-01

    A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

  1. ScripTree: scripting phylogenetic graphics.

    PubMed

    Chevenet, François; Croce, Olivier; Hebrard, Maxime; Christen, Richard; Berry, Vincent

    2010-04-15

    There is a large amount of tools for interactive display of phylogenetic trees. However, there is a shortage of tools for the automation of tree rendering. Scripting phylogenetic graphics would enable the saving of graphical analyses involving numerous and complex tree handling operations and would allow the automation of repetitive tasks. ScripTree is a tool intended to fill this gap. It is an interpreter to be used in batch mode. Phylogenetic graphics instructions, related to tree rendering as well as tree annotation, are stored in a text file and processed in a sequential way. ScripTree can be used online or downloaded at www.scriptree.org, under the GPL license. ScripTree, written in Tcl/Tk, is a cross-platform application available for Windows and Unix-like systems including OS X. It can be used either as a stand-alone package or included in a bioinformatic pipeline and linked to a HTTP server.

  2. Deformation associated with faulting within geologic and interseismic timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Scott T.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation consists of several distinct studies that use numerical modeling to better constrain deformation due to faulting over disparate timescales. Field mapping reveals a segment of the Lake Mead fault system, the Pinto Ridge fault, and a cluster of west-dipping normal faults located near Pinto Ridge. I suggest that this strike-slip segment was kinematically related to the Bitter Spring Valley fault, created the normal fault cluster at Pinto Ridge, and utilized these normal faults as linking structures between fault segments. Modeling results demonstrate that the location and orientations of the normal faults are consistent with having formed in the perturbed stress field around the slipping Pinto Ridge fault. Calculations of mechanical efficiency suggest that a preferred dip of normal faults in the region may reflect a crustal anisotropy at depth, such as a detachment. I present a methodology for simulating interseismic deformation in complex regions. I derive an analytical model of interseismic deformation that is equivalent to the conventional model. Based on this model, I formulate a two-step numerical simulation of geologic and interseismic deformation. I apply this technique to the Los Angeles region and find that model results match well both geologic slip rate estimates and geodetic velocities. Model results suggest that the Puente Hills thrusts are currently slipping at rates that are compatible with geologic estimates and that localized contraction in the San Gabriel basin is dominantly due to deep slip on the Sierra Madre fault. To assess the control of fault geometry and mechanical interactions on fault slip in a natural system, I create models of the Ventura region, California, using both planar and non-planar faults. I find that incorporating geologically-constrained fault surfaces into numerical models results in a better match to available geologic slip rate data than models utilizing planar faults. Because slip rates at most locations

  3. Achieving Agreement in Three Rounds With Bounded-Byzantine Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-round algorithm is presented that guarantees agreement in a system of K (nodes) greater than or equal to 3F (faults) +1 nodes provided each faulty node induces no more than F faults and each good node experiences no more than F faults, where, F is the maximum number of simultaneous faults in the network. The algorithm is based on the Oral Message algorithm of Lamport et al. and is scalable with respect to the number of nodes in the system and applies equally to the traditional node-fault model as well as the link-fault model. We also present a mechanical verification of the algorithm focusing on verifying the correctness of a bounded model of the algorithm as well as confirming claims of determinism.

  4. Strike-slip fault propagation and linkage via work optimization with application to the San Jacinto fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, E. H.; McBeck, J.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Over multiple earthquake cycles, strike-slip faults link to form through-going structures, as demonstrated by the continuous nature of the mature San Andreas fault system in California relative to the younger and more segmented San Jacinto fault system nearby. Despite its immaturity, the San Jacinto system accommodates between one third and one half of the slip along the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. It therefore poses a significant seismic threat to southern California. Better understanding of how the San Jacinto system has evolved over geologic time and of current interactions between faults within the system is critical to assessing this seismic hazard accurately. Numerical models are well suited to simulating kilometer-scale processes, but models of fault system development are challenged by the multiple physical mechanisms involved. For example, laboratory experiments on brittle materials show that faults propagate and eventually join (hard-linkage) by both opening-mode and shear failure. In addition, faults interact prior to linkage through stress transfer (soft-linkage). The new algorithm GROW (GRowth by Optimization of Work) accounts for this complex array of behaviors by taking a global approach to fault propagation while adhering to the principals of linear elastic fracture mechanics. This makes GROW a powerful tool for studying fault interactions and fault system development over geologic time. In GROW, faults evolve to minimize the work (or energy) expended during deformation, thereby maximizing the mechanical efficiency of the entire system. Furthermore, the incorporation of both static and dynamic friction allows GROW models to capture fault slip and fault propagation in single earthquakes as well as over consecutive earthquake cycles. GROW models with idealized faults reveal that the initial fault spacing and the applied stress orientation control fault linkage propensity and linkage patterns. These models allow the gains in

  5. How Faults Shape the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  6. How Faults Shape the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  7. Fault Diagnosis Method of Fault Indicator Based on Maximum Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the problem of distribution fault diagnosis in case of misreporting or failed-report of fault indicator information, the characteristics of the fault indicator are analyzed, and the concept of the minimum fault judgment area of the distribution network is developed. Based on which, the mathematical model of fault indicator fault diagnosis is evaluated. The characteristics of fault indicator signals are analyzed. Based on two-in-three principle, a probabilistic fault indicator combination signal processing method is proposed. Based on the combination of the minimum fault judgment area model, the fault indicator combination signal and the interdependence between the fault indicators, a fault diagnosis method based on maximum probability is proposed. The method is based on the similarity between the simulated fault signal and the real fault signal, and the detailed formula is given. The method has good fault-tolerance in the case of misreporting or failed-report of fault indicator information, which can more accurately determine the fault area. The probability of each area is given, and fault alternatives are provided. The proposed approach is feasible and valuable for the dispatching and maintenance personnel to deal with the fault.

  8. The implication of gouge mineralogy evolution on fault creep: an example from The North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aseismic creep is found along several sections of major active faults at shallow depth, such as the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, the San Andreas Fault in California (USA), the Longitudinal Valley Fault in Taiwan, the Haiyuan fault in China and the El Pilar Fault in Venezuela. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults, the interplay between creep and earthquakes, and the link between short-term observations from geodesy and the geological setting. Hence, studying the evolution of initial rock into damaged rock, then into gouge, is one of the key question for understanding the origin of fault creep. In order to address this question we collected samples from a dozen well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked sections of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, EPMA, XRD analysis, combined with image processing, to characterize their mineralogy and strain. We conclude that (1) there is a clear correlation between creep localization and gouge composition. The locked sections of the fault are mostly composed of massive limestone. The creeping sections comprises clay gouges with 40-80% low friction minerals such as smectite, saponite, kaolinite, that facilitates the creeping. (2) The fault gouge shows two main structures that evolve with displacement: anastomosing cleavage develop during the first stage of displacement; amplifying displacement leads to layering development oblique or sub-parallel to the fault. (3) We demonstrate that the fault gouge result from a progressive evolution of initial volcanic rocks including dissolution of soluble species that move at least partially toward the damage zones and alteration transformations by fluid flow that weaken the gouge and strengthen the damage zone.

  9. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  10. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  11. Uncertainty and Characterization of the Baton Rouge Fault System in a Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshall, A. S.; Tsai, F. T.; Hanor, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Under a Bayesian framework, we developed an indicator-kriging-based method to characterize the Baton Rouge fault system in Louisiana. The fault system includes the Baton Rouge fault and the Denham Springs-Scotlandville fault. The hydrostratigraphy of the Baton Rouge fault is of particular importance from a resource standpoint since it acts as a conduit-barrier to a series of fresh water aquifers north of the fault and saltwater aquifers south of the fault. In characterizing the complex spatial variations of subsurface geology, uncertainty always exists and multiple possible stratigraphy fault models are usually resulted. By utilizing electrical resistivity, driller logs and geological information, we constructed and calibrated several hydrostratigraphic fault models using different data sets, variogram models, and geological conceptualizations. In this study, to select only the best fault model was not an effective use of resources since the best fault model did not significantly dominate over other possible fault models. To advance beyond the typical model selection approach, an epistemic framework is needed to integrate all information from different models. This study introduced a hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method as a framework for organizing different models to present the importance of the different assumptions that we considered in the fault characterization process. Most importantly, the HBMA integrated multiple models and avoided over-confidence in the best model. The HBMA provided an insight on the model selection and model averaging through a BMA tree. A BMA model at a vertex in the BMA tree presented an integrated model of all models and information considered under this vertex. The results provide valuable insights on the fault structure and leaky areas that have resulted in salinization in the fresh water aquifers adjacent to the northern area of the Baton Rouge fault, thus elucidating previous geological studies and transport

  12. Geometric incompatibility in a fault system.

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielov, A; Keilis-Borok, V; Jackson, D D

    1996-01-01

    Interdependence between geometry of a fault system, its kinematics, and seismicity is investigated. Quantitative measure is introduced for inconsistency between a fixed configuration of faults and the slip rates on each fault. This measure, named geometric incompatibility (G), depicts summarily the instability near the fault junctions: their divergence or convergence ("unlocking" or "locking up") and accumulation of stress and deformations. Accordingly, the changes in G are connected with dynamics of seismicity. Apart from geometric incompatibility, we consider deviation K from well-known Saint Venant condition of kinematic compatibility. This deviation depicts summarily unaccounted stress and strain accumulation in the region and/or internal inconsistencies in a reconstruction of block- and fault system (its geometry and movements). The estimates of G and K provide a useful tool for bringing together the data on different types of movement in a fault system. An analog of Stokes formula is found that allows determination of the total values of G and K in a region from the data on its boundary. The phenomenon of geometric incompatibility implies that nucleation of strong earthquakes is to large extent controlled by processes near fault junctions. The junctions that have been locked up may act as transient asperities, and unlocked junctions may act as transient weakest links. Tentative estimates of K and G are made for each end of the Big Bend of the San Andreas fault system in Southern California. Recent strong earthquakes Landers (1992, M = 7.3) and Northridge (1994, M = 6.7) both reduced K but had opposite impact on G: Landers unlocked the area, whereas Northridge locked it up again. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:11607673

  13. Strain localization and evolving kinematic efficiency of initiating strike-slip faults within wet kaolin experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Using wet kaolin experiments, we document the evolution of strain localization during strike-slip fault maturation under variable boundary conditions (pre-existing fault, depth of and distribution of basal shear). While the nature of the basal shear influences strain localization observed at the clay surface, similarities between experiments reveal a general conceptual model of strain accommodation. First, shear strain is accommodated as distributed shear (Stage 0), then by development of echelon faults (Stage I), then by interaction, lengthening and propagation of those echelon faults (Stage II) and, finally, by slip along through-going fault (Stage III). Stage II serves as a transitory period when the system reorganizes after sufficient strain localization. Here, active fault system complexity is maximized as faults link producing apparent rotation of active fault surfaces without material rotation. As the shear zone narrows, off-fault deformation decreases while fault slip and kinematic efficiency increases. We quantify kinematic efficiency as the ratio of fault slip to applied displacement. All fault systems reach a steady-state efficiency in excess of 80%. Despite reducing off-fault deformation, the through-going fault maintains <1.5 cm structural irregularities (i.e., stepovers), which suggests that small (<3 km) stepovers may persist along mature, efficient faults in the crust.

  14. Ring profiler: a new method for estimating tree-ring density for improved estimates of carbon storage

    Treesearch

    David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott; J.Y. Zhu; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    Methods for estimating present and future carbon storage in trees and forests rely on measurements or estimates of tree volume or volume growth multiplied by specific gravity. Wood density can vary by tree ring and height in a tree. If data on density by tree ring could be obtained and linked to tree size and stand characteristics, it would be possible to more...

  15. The d3/d2 alkyne complexes [MX2(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']z (X = halide, z = 0 and 1+): final links in a d6-d2 redox family tree.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher J; Anderson, Kirsty M; Connelly, Neil G; Harding, David J; Hayward, Owen D; Orpen, A Guy; Patrón, Elena; Rieger, Philip H

    2009-01-21

    The d4 halide complexes [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp'] [R = Me, M = W, X = F; R = Ph, M = Mo or W, X = F or Cl; Tp' = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate] undergo two-electron oxidation in the presence of a halide source to give the d2 monocations [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ (R = Me, M = W, X1 = X2 = F; R = Ph, M = Mo, X1 = X2 = F or Cl; M = W, X1 = X2 = F or Cl; X1 = F, X2 = Cl). Each monocation (R = Ph) shows two reversible one-electron reductions (the second process was not detected for R = Me) corresponding to the stepwise formation of the neutral d3 and monoanionic d4 analogues, [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] and [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']- respectively; the potentials for the two processes can be 'tuned' over a range of ca. 1.0 V by varying M and X. Chemical one-electron reduction of [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ gave [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] (M = Mo or W, X = F or Cl). X-Ray structural studies on the redox pairs [WX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']z (X = F and Cl, z = 0 and 1+) show the alkyne to bisect the X-W-X angle in the d2 cations but align more closely with one M-X bond in the neutral d3 molecules, consistent with the anisotropic ESR spectra of the latter; the solution ESR spectrum of [MoF2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] showed equivalent fluorine atoms, i.e the alkyne oscillates at room temperature. The successful isolation of [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ and [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] completes a series in which d6 to d2 alkyne complexes are linked in a redox family tree by sequential one-electron transfer and substitution reactions. The implications for such trees in the production of new species and the selective synthesis of paramagnetic complexes acting as synthetically useful 'alkyne radicals' are discussed.

  16. On fault-tolerant structure, distributed fault-diagnosis, reconfiguration, and recovery of the array processors

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, S.H.

    1989-07-01

    The increasing need for the design of high-performance computers has led to the design of special purpose computers such as array processors. This paper studies the design of fault-tolerant array processors. First, it is shown how hardware redundancy can be employed in the existing structures in order to make them capable of withstanding the failure of some of the array links and processors. Then distributed fault-tolerance schemes are introduced for the diagnosis of the faulty elements, reconfiguration, and recovery of the array. Fault tolerance is maintained by the cooperation of processors in a decentralized form of control without the participation of any type of hardcore or fault-free central controller such as a host computer.

  17. Disturbance of trees by the 1857 Fort Tejon Earthquake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisling, Kristian E.; Sieh, Kerry E.

    1980-06-01

    Trees may suffer damage during major earthquakes due to shaking or faulting of their substrate. Damage may result in temporarily asymmetric growth and/or reduction in width of annual growth rings. To determine whether trees contain useful records of prehistoric earthquakes in southern California, we cored eight conifers along the 1857 trace of the San Andreas fault near Wrightwood and Frazier Park, California. Annual ring widths were measured and plotted against the growth year determined by ring counting. We examined significant departures from normal growth trends and interpreted them in light of the 1857 earthquake and other possible environmental factors. Of eight trees sampled, five showed damage or growth anomalies attributable to the 1857 event. One 120-year-old tree straddling the fault is undamaged, suggesting no substantial slip since about 1870. To evaluate asymmetry, ratios of correlative rings widths from opposite sides of three seismically damaged trees were calculated and plotted against growth year. Two types of ratio anomalies can be recognized: (1) short-term, unilateral suppression of growth resulting from damage and (2) long-term, unilateral enhancement of growth attributable to tilt or changes in environmental factors. Further study of ring ratio anomalies may facilitate recognition of seismically damaged trees. Success in recognizing the 1857 event in five out of eight trees suggests that a larger suite of even older trees may contain a valuable `dendroseismological' record of large prehistoric earthquakes in southern California.

  18. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  19. Tree Mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  20. Tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  1. Tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forests in a region is made up of older, senescent stands.

  2. New York Bight fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Grow, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The fault parallels a magnetic low to the east, interpreted as a buried Mesozoic rift basin from seismic-reflection data, and a gravity low to the west, interpreted as a structure within Paleozoic rocks from well data. Whether these structures control the location of, or movement on, the fault is not clear.

  3. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  4. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  5. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  6. Characterization of leaky faults

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Chao

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Footwall Extension During Low-Angle Normal Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. A.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Collettini, C.; Imber, J.

    2006-12-01

    Many previous studies have documented pervasive hangingwall deformation associated with low-angle normal faults (LANF) and metamorphic core complexes, attesting to significant horizontal extension above the evolving fault zone. However, on the Island of Elba, Italy, extension in the immediate footwall of the Zuccale LANF reaches 60%, involves a complex kinematic history, and locally exerts a strong influence on fault zone thickness and the internal distribution of fault rocks. The Zuccale LANF was active between c.13-4 Ma at a dip of 15° east, and slipped under a regional stress field characterized by vertical σ1 (also see Collettini et al. Session T36). Stratigraphic offsets suggest a displacement of 6-8km. The earliest set of extensional structures in the footwall formed as sub-horizontal or LANF-parallel semi-brittle cataclastic shears. These are crosscut by higher-angle brittle normal faults which often show listric (in 2D) or `spoon-shaped' (in 3D) geometries and can be broadly subdivided in to an older and younger set. The older faults currently dip on average 35° east and accommodated E-directed extension. They are crosscut and rotated by the youngest set of footwall faults which dip on average 60° east, but accommodated SSE-directed extension, possibly as a consequence of intrusion of the c.5.9 Ma Porto Azzurro pluton at shallow depths beneath the fault zone. Where the core of the Zuccale LANF is well exposed, high-angle footwall structures are observed to link directly into the base of the fault zone causing the fault core to increase in thickness from ~3 to ~8 metres. Synchronous movement along the main LANF and high-angle footwall structures is recorded by east-verging asymmetric folding of the fault rock foliation directly above footwall faults. Two observations indicate that these footwall faults have an important role to play throughout the history of the main LANF; 1. Early-formed fault rocks such as chlorite- and talc-rich phyllites have been

  8. Rough faults, distributed weakening, and off-fault deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. Ashley; Nielsen, Stefan; di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steven A. F.

    2010-08-01

    We report systematic spatial variations in fault rocks along nonplanar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran wavy fault) and Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia wavy fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1-2 mm) fault-parallel veins. Epidote and chlorite developed in the same seismic context as the pseudotachylyte and are especially abundant in extensional fault bends. We argue that the presence of fluids, as illustrated by this example, does not necessarily preclude the development of frictional melt. In the case of the Lobbia fault, pseudotachylyte thickness varies along the length of the fault, but the pseudotachylyte veins thicken and pool in extensional bends. We conduct a quantitative analysis of fault roughness, microcrack distribution, stress, and friction along the Lobbia fault. Numerical modeling results show that opening in extensional bends and localized thermal weakening in contractional bends counteract resistance encountered by fault waviness, resulting in an overall weaker fault than suggested by the corresponding static friction coefficient. The models also predict static stress redistribution around bends in the faults which is consistent with distribution of microcracks, indicating significant elastic and inelastic strain energy is dissipated into the wall rocks due to nonplanar fault geometry. Together these observations suggest that damage and energy dissipation occurs along the entire nonplanar fault during slip, rather than being confined to the region close to the dynamically propagating crack tip.

  9. Exploring connections between trees and human health

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey Donovan; Marie. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Humans have intuitively understood the value of trees to their physical and mental health since the beginning of recorded time. A scientist with the Pacific Northwest Research Station wondered if such a link could be scientifically validated. His research team took advantage of an infestation of emerald ash borer, an invasive pest that kills ash trees, to conduct a...

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of recurrent slope instabilities affecting undercut slopes in flysch: A dendrogeomorphic approach using broad-leaved trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šilhán, Karel; Pánek, Tomáš; Turský, Ondřej; Brázdil, Rudolf; Klimeš, Jan; Kašičková, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The undercut slope of the Skalická Strážnice/Vrchy hill situated in the piedmont of the Carpathian Mountains (Czech Republic) is a regional landslide "hotspot", notorious for its repeated recent and historical sliding reactivations. We performed tree-ring analysis of a large number (n = 274) of broad-leaved trees to reconstruct the spatio-temporal patterns of landslide reactivation for a period spanning more than one hundred years (1884-2011). Although tree rings of broad-leaved trees are less-reliable archives of landslide activity than those of conifers, the application of a methodology based on the weighting of disturbance signals within eccentricity series generated a usable dataset of sliding activity affecting anisotropic flysch bedrock. Although some known landslide years could not be found (or were expressed by only weak signals) in the reconstructed dataset, the majority of landslide events reconstructed from the tree-ring series coincide with hydrometeorological data, revealing a correlation with heavy summer rainfalls lasting from two to ten days. The spatial distribution of landslide recurrence derived from the tree-ring records together with electrical resistivity tomography and a kinematic analysis of slope failures suggest a close link between the concentration of landslide activity and the presence of faulted or fractured flysch bedrock.

  11. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Luncheon Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Tree Nut Allergies Tree nut allergy is one of ... with tree nuts during manufacturing and processing. Avoiding Tree Nuts The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer ...

  12. On implementing large binary tree architectures in VLSI and WSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hee Yong; Singh, Adit D.

    1989-04-01

    An efficient scheme for the layout of large binary-tree architectures is presented. The method involves embedding the complete binary tree in a two-dimensional array of processing elements and utilizes virtually 100 percent of the processing elements in the array as computing elements; it also shows substantial improvements in propagation delay and maximum edge length over H-tree layouts. It is shown that the layouts obtained readily lend themselves to fault-tolerant designs for overcoming fabrication defects in large-area and wafer-scale implementations of binary-tree architectures.

  13. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  14. Fault Management Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  15. The Kunlun Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kunlun fault is one of the gigantic strike-slip faults that bound the north side of Tibet. Left-lateral motion along the 1,500-kilometer (932-mile) length of the Kunlun has occurred uniformly for the last 40,000 years at a rate of 1.1 centimeter per year, creating a cumulative offset of more than 400 meters. In this image, two splays of the fault are clearly seen crossing from east to west. The northern fault juxtaposes sedimentary rocks of the mountains against alluvial fans. Its trace is also marked by lines of vegetation, which appear red in the image. The southern, younger fault cuts through the alluvium. A dark linear area in the center of the image is wet ground where groundwater has ponded against the fault. Measurements from the image of displacements of young streams that cross the fault show 15 to 75 meters (16 to 82 yards) of left-lateral offset. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) acquired the visible light and near infrared scene on July 20, 2000. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  16. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  17. Post-Cretaceous faulting at head of Mississippi embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. ); Harrison, R.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Recent mapping in southernmost Illinois and southeastern Missouri has revealed numerous faults that displace Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Units as young as the Pliocene-Pleistocene( ) Mounds Gravel are deformed; some faults possibly displace Quaternary sediments. The faults strike northeast, dip nearly vertically, and exhibit characteristics of dextral strike-slip. Pull-apart grabens occur along right-stepping fault strands, they contain chaotically jumbled blocks of Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks downdropped as much as 800 m relative to wall rocks. Faults at the head of the Mississippi embayment probably originated during Cambrian rifting (Reelfoot rift) and have a long, complex history of reactivation under different stress fields. Some faults are on strike with faults in the New Madrid seismic zone. Kinematics of post-Cretaceous displacements fit the contemporary stress regime of ENE-WSW compression. Similar fault orientations and kinematics, as well as close proximity, suggest a close link between faulting at the head of the embayment and ongoing tectonism in the New Madrid seismic zone.

  18. Save a Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1999-10-01

    Starting in September 1925, JCE reproduced pictures of famous chemists or chemistry-related works of art as frontispieces. Often, the Journal included a biography or other article about the picture. The August 1945 frontispiece featured the largest cork oak in the United States. An accompanying article described the goals of the Cork Project to plant cork trees in suitable locations in the U.S., to compensate for uncertain European and African sources during World War II. The final frontispiece appeared in December 1956. To view supplementary material, please refer to JCE Online's supplementary links.

  19. Exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Burda, Z; Erdmann, J; Petersson, B; Wattenberg, M

    2003-02-01

    We discuss the scaling properties of free branched polymers. The scaling behavior of the model is classified by the Hausdorff dimensions for the internal geometry, d(L) and d(H), and for the external one, D(L) and D(H). The dimensions d(H) and D(H) characterize the behavior for long distances, while d(L) and D(L) for short distances. We show that the internal Hausdorff dimension is d(L)=2 for generic and scale-free trees, contrary to d(H), which is known to be equal to 2 for generic trees and to vary between 2 and infinity for scale-free trees. We show that the external Hausdorff dimension D(H) is directly related to the internal one as D(H)=alphad(H), where alpha is the stability index of the embedding weights for the nearest-vertex interactions. The index is alpha=2 for weights from the Gaussian domain of attraction and 0

  20. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  1. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1993-01-01

    Erroneous measurements in multisensor navigation systems must be detected and isolated. A recursive estimator can find fast growing errors; a least squares batch estimator can find slow growing errors. This process is called fault detection. A protection radius can be calculated as a function of time for a given location. This protection radius can be used to guarantee the integrity of the navigation data. Fault isolation can be accomplished using either a snapshot method or by examining the history of the fault detection statistics.

  2. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  3. Experimental fault characterization of a neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Chang-Huong

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a variety of faults on a neural network is quantified via simulation. The neural network consists of a single-layered clustering network and a three-layered classification network. The percentage of vectors mistagged by the clustering network, the percentage of vectors misclassified by the classification network, the time taken for the network to stabilize, and the output values are all measured. The results show that both transient and permanent faults have a significant impact on the performance of the measured network. The corresponding mistag and misclassification percentages are typically within 5 to 10 percent of each other. The average mistag percentage and the average misclassification percentage are both about 25 percent. After relearning, the percentage of misclassifications is reduced to 9 percent. In addition, transient faults are found to cause the network to be increasingly unstable as the duration of a transient is increased. The impact of link faults is relatively insignificant in comparison with node faults (1 versus 19 percent misclassified after relearning). There is a linear increase in the mistag and misclassification percentages with decreasing hardware redundancy. In addition, the mistag and misclassification percentages linearly decrease with increasing network size.

  4. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  5. Fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley, California - Field survey and fault model test -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, K.; Onishi, C. T.; Karasaki, K.; Tanaka, S.; Hamada, T.; Sasaki, T.; Ito, H.; Tsukuda, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, J.; Moriya, T.

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop hydrologic characterization technology of fault zones, it is desirable to clarify the relationship between the geologic structure and hydrologic properties of fault zones. To this end, we are performing surface-based geologic and trench investigations, geophysical surveys and borehole-based hydrologic investigations along the Wildcat fault in Berkeley,California to investigate the effect of fault zone structure on regional hydrology. The present paper outlines the fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley on the basis of results from trench excavation surveys. The approximately 20 - 25 km long Wildcat fault is located within the Berkeley Hills and extends northwest-southeast from Richmond to Oakland, subparallel to the Hayward fault. The Wildcat fault, which is a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip fault, steps right in a releasing bend at the Berkeley Hills region. A total of five trenches have been excavated across the fault to investigate the deformation structure of the fault zone in the bedrock. Along the Wildcat fault, multiple fault surfaces are branched, bent, paralleled, forming a complicated shear zone. The shear zone is ~ 300 m in width, and the fault surfaces may be classified under the following two groups: 1) Fault surfaces offsetting middle Miocene Claremont Chert on the east against late Miocene Orinda formation and/or San Pablo Group on the west. These NNW-SSE trending fault surfaces dip 50 - 60° to the southwest. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 1 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 60 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault gouge and foliated cataclasite show normal right-slip shear sense. 2) Fault surfaces forming a positive flower structure in Claremont Chert. These NW-SE trending fault surfaces are sub-vertical or steeply dipping. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 3 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 200 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault

  6. OpenStudio - Fault Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Stephen; Robertson, Joseph; Cheung, Howard; Horsey, Henry

    2014-09-19

    This software record documents the OpenStudio fault model development portion of the Fault Detection and Diagnostics LDRD project.The software provides a suite of OpenStudio measures (scripts) for modeling typical HVAC system faults in commercial buildings and also included supporting materials: example projects and OpenStudio measures for reporting fault costs and energy impacts.

  7. What Makes a Tree a Tree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on trees, focusing on the parts of trees and how they differ from other plants; (2) eight activities; and (3) ready-to-copy pages dealing with tree identification and tree rings. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  8. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-17

    This image of California Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

  9. Faults in Claritas Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-15

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter captured this image of the Claritas Fossae region, characterized by systems of graben. A graben forms when a block of the planet crust drops down between two faults, due to extension, or pulling, of the crust.

  10. Glossary of normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Knipe, R. J.; Sanderson, D. J.

    2000-03-01

    Increased interest in normal faults and extended terranes has led to the development of an increasingly complex terminology. The most important terms are defined in this paper, with original references being given wherever possible, along with examples of current usage.

  11. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of California's Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) combined to measure changes in the surface that may have occurred between the time the two images were taken.

    The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

    The radar image data are shown as a gray-scale image, with the interferometric measurements that show the changes rendered in color. Only the urbanized area could be mapped with these data. The color changes from orange tones to blue tones across the Hayward fault (marked by a thin red line) show about 2-3centimeters (0.8-1.1 inches) of gradual displacement or movement of the southwest side of the fault. The block west of the fault moved horizontally toward the northwest during the 63 months between the acquisition of the two SAR images. This fault movement is called a seismic creep because the fault moved slowly without generating an earthquake.

    Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to monitor this fault motion in an attempt to estimate the probability of earthquake on the Hayward fault, which last had a major earthquake of magnitude 7 in 1868. This analysis indicates that the northern part of the Hayward fault is creeping all the way from the surface to a depth of 12 kilometers (7.5 miles). This suggests that the potential for a large earthquake on the northern Hayward fault might be less than previously thought. The blue area to the west (lower left) of the fault near the center of the image seemed to move upward relative to the yellow and orange areas nearby by about 2 centimeters (0.8 inches). The cause of this apparent motion is not yet confirmed, but the rise of groundwater levels during the time between the images may have caused the reversal of a small portion of the subsidence that

  12. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of California's Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) combined to measure changes in the surface that may have occurred between the time the two images were taken.

    The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

    The radar image data are shown as a gray-scale image, with the interferometric measurements that show the changes rendered in color. Only the urbanized area could be mapped with these data. The color changes from orange tones to blue tones across the Hayward fault (marked by a thin red line) show about 2-3centimeters (0.8-1.1 inches) of gradual displacement or movement of the southwest side of the fault. The block west of the fault moved horizontally toward the northwest during the 63 months between the acquisition of the two SAR images. This fault movement is called a seismic creep because the fault moved slowly without generating an earthquake.

    Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to monitor this fault motion in an attempt to estimate the probability of earthquake on the Hayward fault, which last had a major earthquake of magnitude 7 in 1868. This analysis indicates that the northern part of the Hayward fault is creeping all the way from the surface to a depth of 12 kilometers (7.5 miles). This suggests that the potential for a large earthquake on the northern Hayward fault might be less than previously thought. The blue area to the west (lower left) of the fault near the center of the image seemed to move upward relative to the yellow and orange areas nearby by about 2 centimeters (0.8 inches). The cause of this apparent motion is not yet confirmed, but the rise of groundwater levels during the time between the images may have caused the reversal of a small portion of the subsidence that

  13. Achieving Agreement in Three Rounds with Bounded-Byzantine Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar, R.

    2017-01-01

    A three-round algorithm is presented that guarantees agreement in a system of K greater than or equal to 3F+1 nodes provided each faulty node induces no more than F faults and each good node experiences no more than F faults, where, F is the maximum number of simultaneous faults in the network. The algorithm is based on the Oral Message algorithm of Lamport, Shostak, and Pease and is scalable with respect to the number of nodes in the system and applies equally to traditional node-fault model as well as the link-fault model. We also present a mechanical verification of the algorithm focusing on verifying the correctness of a bounded model of the algorithm as well as confirming claims of determinism.

  14. Fault tolerant magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J.; Aimone, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

  15. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fault segment linkage and growth of the Polopos transpressive fault zone and its influence on Pleistocene drainage captures (southeastern Betics).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, F.; Booth-Rea, G.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Azañón, J. M.; Villegas, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Polopos fault zoneis a dextral-reverse fault-system that developed under Neogene to Quaternary N/S to NNW/SSE convergence between Africa and Iberia. This fault zone is formed by three main fault segments, the North and South Gafarillos dextral strike-slip faults, and the North Alhamilla reverse fault. The whole fault zone with an approximate length of 30 km has an E/W to ESE/WNW orientation and helicoidal geometry that permits the transfer of oblique SE-directed shortening in Sierra Cabrera to NW-directed shortening along the North Alhamilla reverse fault via vertical dextral Gafarillos fault segments, in between. The north Alhamilla reverse fault to the west of the system produces a fault-propagation fold in the hangingwall and an overturned fold in the footwall cutting through early Tortonian turbidites and folded Quaternary alluvial fans at the north Alhamilla mountain front. The Quaternary paleo-topographic surface formed by the alluvial fan has been displaced approximately 100 m by reverse faulting after 400 - 70 ky with a slip rate ranging between 0.25 and 1.4 mm yr-1. The South Gafarillos fault includes several N90°-110°E-striking segments with dextral and reverse-dextral kinematics. This fault cuts through the southeastern limb of the Alhamilla anticline by a fault segment that separates the basement from Messinian sediments, meanwhile other segments in the Nijar basin further south cut through Pleistocene river strath-terraces.. During the late Miocene the locus of dextral displacement occurred along the North Gafarillos fault segment that linked to a reverse fault segment at the northeast of the Sierra Alhamilla . The North Gafarillos fault segment and its associated mountain front was sealed by Messinian reefs. Since the Messinian, recent fault activity migrated towards the south forming the South Gafarillos fault segments. Fault segment migration displaced the active oblique strike-slip-related mountain fronts from the north towards the southeast

  17. The implications of fault zone transformation on aseismic creep: Example of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, Maor; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Renard, François; ćakir, Ziyadin; Lasserre, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    Aseismic creep is observed at surface along several segments of the North Anatolian right-lateral active fault in Turkey, a major plate boundary between Eurasia and Anatolia. Identifying the mechanisms that control creep and their temporal and spatial change represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults, the interplay between creep and earthquakes, and the link between short-term observations from geodesy and the long-term fault zone evolution. We combine geological observations, laboratory analyses, and imaging techniques, shedding new light on the mechanism of fault creep along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and its time-dependent change. A clear correlation is shown between shallow creep and near-surface fault gouge composition: locked segments of the NAF are mostly composed of massive limestones without clay gouges, whereas creeping segments comprise clay gouges that contain low-friction minerals. Such fault gouges appear to result from a progressive change of initial volcanic host rocks during their deformation. Anastomosing cleavage develops during the first stage of displacement, leading to layering, oblique at first and then subparallel to the fault, which accommodates part of the aseismic creep by pressure solution. Soluble minerals are dissolved, leading to passive concentration of phyllosilicates in the gouges where alteration transformations by fluid flow produce low friction minerals. At the same time damage zones are fractured and fractures are sealed by carbonates. As a result, these mineralogical and structural transformations weaken the gouge and strengthen the damage zone leading to the change from diffuse to localized seismic-aseismic zones.

  18. Trees are good, but…

    Treesearch

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  19. Packaged Fault Model for Geometric Segmentation of Active Faults Into Earthquake Source Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, T.; Kumamoto, T.

    2004-12-01

    In Japan, the empirical formula proposed by Matsuda (1975) mainly based on the length of the historical surface fault ruptures and magnitude, is generally applied to estimate the size of future earthquakes from the extent of existing active faults for seismic hazard assessment. Therefore validity of the active fault length and defining individual segment boundaries where propagating ruptures terminate are essential and crucial to the reliability for the accurate assessments. It is, however, not likely for us to clearly identify the behavioral earthquake segments from observation of surface faulting during the historical period, because most of the active faults have longer recurrence intervals than 1000 years in Japan. Besides uncertainties of the datasets obtained mainly from fault trenching studies are quite large for fault grouping/segmentation. This is why new methods or criteria should be applied for active fault grouping/segmentation, and one of the candidates may be geometric criterion of active faults. Matsuda (1990) used _gfive kilometer_h as a critical distance for grouping and separation of neighboring active faults. On the other hand, Nakata and Goto (1998) proposed the geometric criteria such as (1) branching features of active fault traces and (2) characteristic pattern of vertical-slip distribution along the fault traces as tools to predict rupture length of future earthquakes. The branching during the fault rupture propagation is regarded as an effective energy dissipation process and could result in final rupture termination. With respect to the characteristic pattern of vertical-slip distribution, especially with strike-slip components, the up-thrown sides along the faults are, in general, located on the fault blocks in the direction of relative strike-slip. Applying these new geometric criteria to the high-resolution active fault distribution maps, the fault grouping/segmentation could be more practically conducted. We tested this model

  20. Paleoseismic Investigation of the Ranong and Khlong Marui faults, Chumphon Province, Southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, C. H.; Sutiwanich, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Ranong and Khlong Marui faults are northeast-southwest trending structures in the Isthmus of Kra, southern Thailand, that apparently link the extensional regimes of the Mergui Basin in the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. These faults are depicted commonly as strike-slip faults, acting as conjugate structures to the dominant northwest-southeast trending strike-slip faults, in Southeast Asia. These faults are parallel to the predominant structural grain in the Carboniferous rocks of peninsular Thailand. In addition, they appear to be bounding structures for several Tertiary basins, including the onshore parts of the Surat Thani basin and the offshore Chumphon basin. Initial remote sensing studies showed that both faults have relatively subdued geomorphic expressions. Field reconnaissance investigations indicated a lack of youthful tectonic geomorphology along the Khlong Marui fault and ambiguous evidence for recent movement along the Ranong fault. Fault exposures along both fault trends and on minor parallel faults in the region indicated that, rather than predominantly strike-slip motion, these faults have experienced up-to-the-west reverse movement. Because of its more youthful geomorphic expression, several sites along the Ranong fault were chosen for paleoseismic trenching. Initial trench exposures indicate an absence of Holocene movement. Some exposures indicate the possibility of Late Tertiary-Early Holocene vertical movement. These investigations are currently ongoing and we hope to report our conclusions at the Fall Meeting.

  1. Fault Roughness Records Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Candela, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Fault roughness is commonly ~0.1-1% at the outcrop exposure scale. More mature faults are smoother than less mature ones, but the overall range of roughness is surprisingly limited which suggests dynamic control. In addition, the power spectra of many exposed fault surfaces follow a single power law over scales from millimeters to 10's of meters. This is another surprising observation as distinct structures such as slickenlines and mullions are clearly visible on the same surfaces at well-defined scales. We can reconcile both observations by suggesting that the roughness of fault surfaces is controlled by the maximum strain that can be supported elastically in the wallrock. If the fault surface topography requires more than 0.1-1% strain, it fails. Invoking wallrock strength explains two additional observations on the Corona Heights fault for which we have extensive roughness data. Firstly, the surface is isotropic below a scale of 30 microns and has grooves at larger scales. Samples from at least three other faults (Dixie Valley, Mount St. Helens and San Andreas) also are isotropic at scales below 10's of microns. If grooves can only persist when the walls of the grooves have a sufficiently low slope to maintain the shape, this scale of isotropy can be predicted based on the measured slip perpendicular roughness data. The observed 30 micron scale at Corona Heights is consistent with an elastic strain of 0.01 estimated from the observed slip perpendicular roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.8. The second observation at Corona Heights is that slickenlines are not deflected around meter-scale mullions. Yielding of these mullions at centimeter to meter scale is predicted from the slip parallel roughness as measured here. The success of the strain criterion for Corona Heights supports it as the appropriate control on fault roughness. Micromechanically, the criterion implies that failure of the fault surface is a continual process during slip. Macroscopically, the

  2. Mechanical interaction among normal faults: A numerical field and seismological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Juliet Gage

    1998-12-01

    The segmentation of normal faults influences both their structural development and seismogenic character. In this study, field and seismological observations of normal faults from southern Oregon are combined with three-dimensional numerical modeling to illuminate the effect of mechanical interaction among fault segments. Field observations of two overlapping normal faults and associated deformation document features common to many normal-fault relay zones. A boundary element method numerical model, using simple fault-plane geometries, material properties, and boundary conditions, reproduces the principal characteristics of the observed fault scarps. The model produces a region of high Coulomb shear stress in the relay zone. The results suggest that the mechanical interaction between segments of a normal-fault system promote the development of connected, zigzagging fault scarps. The interplay between tectonic tension and lithostatic compression should strongly influence the near-surface behavior of surface-breaking normal faults. Four simple boundary conditions are evaluated for application to modeling surface-breaking normal faults. Map patterns of normal fault linkages from Lake County, Oregon show a systematic relationship between echelon step-sense, oblique extension direction, and the position of linking faults. When the step sense is the same as the sense of oblique extension, the faults are linked in the lower part of their relay ramp. When the step-sense and extension-sense are opposite, the faults are linked in the upper part of the ramp. The calculated stress fields around echelon normal faults reveal a relationship similar to the field observations. Thus, oblique slip alters the mechanical interaction among segments and influences the geometry of fault linkage. The 1993 Klamath Falls, Oregon earthquake sequence shows evidence for fault segmentation in the occurrence of two main shocks and in the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Late stage, off fault

  3. Rough Faults, Distributed Weakening, and Off-Fault Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. A.; Nielsen, S. B.; di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A.; Niemeijer, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    We report systematic spatial variations of fault rocks along non-planar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran Wavy Fault) and the Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia Wavy Fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1-2 mm) fault-parallel veins. Epidote and chlorite developed in the same seismic context as the pseudotachylyte and are especially abundant in extensional fault bends. We argue that the presence of fluids, as illustrated by this example, does not necessarily preclude the development of frictional melt. In the case of the Lobbia fault, pseudotachylyte is present in variable thickness along the length of the fault, but the pseudotachylyte veins thicken and pool in extensional bends. The Lobbia fault surface is self-affine, and we conduct a quantitative analysis of microcrack distribution, stress, and friction along the fault. Numerical modeling results show that opening in extensional bends and localized thermal weakening in contractional bends counteract resistance encountered by fault waviness, resulting in an overall weaker fault than suggested by the corresponding static friction coefficient. Models also predict stress redistribution around bends in the faults which mirror microcrack distributions, indicating significant elastic and anelastic strain energy is dissipated into the wall rocks due to non-planar fault geometry. Together these observations suggest that, along non-planar faults, damage and energy dissipation occurs along the entire fault during slip, rather than being confined to the region close to the crack tip as predicted by classical fracture mechanics.

  4. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  5. The Design of a Fault-Tolerant COTS-Based Bus Architecture for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon; Tai, Ann T.

    2000-01-01

    The high-performance, scalability and miniaturization requirements together with the power, mass and cost constraints mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and standards in the X2000 avionics system architecture for deep-space missions. In this paper, we report our experiences and findings on the design of an IEEE 1394 compliant fault-tolerant COTS-based bus architecture. While the COTS standard IEEE 1394 adequately supports power management, high performance and scalability, its topological criteria impose restrictions on fault tolerance realization. To circumvent the difficulties, we derive a "stack-tree" topology that not only complies with the IEEE 1394 standard but also facilitates fault tolerance realization in a spaceborne system with limited dedicated resource redundancies. Moreover, by exploiting pertinent standard features of the 1394 interface which are not purposely designed for fault tolerance, we devise a comprehensive set of fault detection mechanisms to support the fault-tolerant bus architecture.

  6. The timing of fault motion in Death Valley from Illite Age Analysis of fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, E. A.; Haines, S. H.; Van der Pluijm, B.

    2014-12-01

    We constrained the timing of fluid circulation and associated fault motion in the Death Valley region of the US Basin and Range Province from Illite Age Analysis (IAA) of fault gouge at seven Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF) exposures in the Black Mountains and Panamint Mountains, and in two nearby areas. 40Ar/39Ar ages of neoformed, illitic clay minerals in these fault zones range from 2.8 Ma to 18.6 Ma, preserving asynchronous fault motion across the region that corresponds to an evolving history of crustal block movements during Neogene extensional deformation. From north to south, along the western side of the Panamint Range, the Mosaic Canyon fault yields an authigenic illite age of 16.9±2.9 Ma, the Emigrant fault has ages of less than 10-12 Ma at Tucki Mountain and Wildrose Canyon, and an age of 3.6±0.17 Ma was obtained for the Panamint Front Range LANF at South Park Canyon. Across Death Valley, along the western side of the Black Mountains, Ar ages of clay minerals are 3.2±3.9 Ma, 12.2±0.13 Ma and 2.8±0.45 Ma for the Amargosa Detachment, the Gregory Peak Fault and the Mormon Point Turtleback detachment, respectively. Complementary analysis of the δH composition of neoformed clays shows a primarily meteoric source for the mineralizing fluids in these LANF zones. The ages fall into two geologic timespans, reflecting activity pulses in the Middle Miocene and in the Upper Pliocene. Activity on both of the range front LANFs does not appear to be localized on any single portion of these fault systems. Middle Miocene fault rock ages of neoformed clays were also obtained in the Ruby Mountains (10.5±1.2 Ma) to the north of the Death Valley region and to the south in the Whipple Mountains (14.3±0.19 Ma). The presence of similar, bracketed times of activity indicate that LANFs in the Death Valley region were tectonically linked, while isotopic signatures indicate that faulting pulses involved surface fluid penetration.

  7. Displacement-length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-11-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement-distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow.

  8. Displacement–length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear

    PubMed Central

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement–distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow. PMID:26806996

  9. San Andreas tremor cascades define deep fault zone complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Weak seismic vibrations - tectonic tremor - can be used to delineate some plate boundary faults. Tremor on the deep San Andreas Fault, located at the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, is thought to be a passive indicator of slow fault slip. San Andreas Fault tremor migrates at up to 30 m s-1, but the processes regulating tremor migration are unclear. Here I use a 12-year catalogue of more than 850,000 low-frequency earthquakes to systematically analyse the high-speed migration of tremor along the San Andreas Fault. I find that tremor migrates most effectively through regions of greatest tremor production and does not propagate through regions with gaps in tremor production. I interpret the rapid tremor migration as a self-regulating cascade of seismic ruptures along the fault, which implies that tremor may be an active, rather than passive participant in the slip propagation. I also identify an isolated group of tremor sources that are offset eastwards beneath the San Andreas Fault, possibly indicative of the interface between the Monterey Microplate, a hypothesized remnant of the subducted Farallon Plate, and the North American Plate. These observations illustrate a possible link between the central San Andreas Fault and tremor-producing subduction zones.

  10. Trees in the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Richard; Forbatha, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Strategies for using trees in classroom instruction are provided. Includes: (1) activities (such as tree identification, mapping, measuring tree height/width); (2) list of asthetic, architectural, engineering, climate, and wildlife functions of trees; (3) tree discussion questions; and (4) references. (JN)

  11. Simple street tree sampling

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  12. Urban park tree inventories

    Treesearch

    Joe R. McBride; David J. Nowak

    1989-01-01

    A survey of published reports on urban park tree inventories in the United States and the United Kingdom reveal two types of inventories: (1) Tree Location Inventories and (2) Generalized Information Inventories. Tree location inventories permit managers to relocate specific park trees, along with providing individual tree characteristics and condition data. In...

  13. Community Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Katie Himanga; Douglas Jones; Jean Miller; Janette Monear; Gail Steinman; Katherine Widin

    2001-01-01

    Tree Trust has been helping people plant trees in their communities since 1976. Our goal is to educate people about the importance of trees in their community and guide them through the process of successful tree-planting projects. Franklin Delano Roosevelt once said ?to exist as a nation, to prosper as a state, and to live as a people, we must have trees?....

  14. Diagnosable systems for intermittent faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallela, S.; Masson, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    The fault diagnosis capabilities of systems composed of interconnected units capable of testing each other are studied for the case of systems with intermittent faults. A central role is played by the concept of t(i)-fault diagnosability. A system is said to be t(i)-fault diagnosable when it is such that if no more than t(i) units are intermittently faulty then a fault-free unit will never be diagnosed as faulty and the diagnosis at any time is at worst incomplete. Necessary and sufficient conditions for t(i)-fault diagnosability are proved, and bounds for t(i) are established. The conditions are in general more restrictive than those for permanent-fault diagnosability. For intermittent faults there is only one testing strategy (repetitive testing), and consequently only one type of intermittent-fault diagnosable system.

  15. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  16. Fault superimposition and linkage resulting from stress changes during rifting: Examples from 3D seismic data, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.; Gabdi, S.; Seusutthiya, K.

    2007-04-01

    The Phitsanulok basin, Thailand provides examples of changing fault displacement patterns with time associated with faults of different orientations. In the Northern Phitsanulok basin three main stress states have been identified associated with Late Oligocene-Recent fault development: (1) Late Oligocene-Late Miocene approximately E-W extension (N-S Shmax), 'main rift' stage, (2) Late Miocene-Pliocene transtension to tranpression (?) (E-W to NE-SW Shmax), 'late rift' stage, and (3) Pliocene-Recent very minor faulting, E-W extension, N-S Shmax, 'post-rift' stage. Syn-rift faults tend to strike N-S, but also follow NE-SW and NW-SE trends and are basement involved. The Late Miocene deformation produced a distinctly different type of fault population from the main rift fault set, characterized by numerous, small displacement (tens of metres), faults striking predominantly NE-SW. Most of these faults are convergent, conjugate sets aligned in discrete zones and nucleated within the sedimentary basin. Reactivation of main rift faults trends during the late rift stage favoured strike directions between 350° and 50°. The displacement characteristics of three large faults within the basin show variations depending upon fault orientation. The low-angle (23°-30° dip), Western Boundary Fault (˜7 km throw) displays little discernible difference in the distribution of displacement on fault zone during the different stress states other than increases and decreases in displacement amount. Smaller faults exhibit a more selective reactivation history than the Western Boundary fault and are more informative about fault response to a varying stress field. Activation of the (oblique) NE-SW striking NTM-1 initially produced a fault divided into three segments, splaying into N-S trends. Stress reorientation during the late rift stage finally linked NE-SW striking segments. The partial linkage of the fault zone at the time of oil migration resulted in the southwestern part of the NTM

  17. Understory plant communities and the functional distinction between savanna trees, forest trees, and pines.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Joseph W; Mattingly, W Brett; Brudvig, Lars A

    2013-02-01

    Although savanna trees and forest trees are thought to represent distinct functional groups with different effects on ecosystem processes, few empirical studies have examined these effects. In particular, it remains unclear if savanna and forest trees differ in their ability to coexist with understory plants, which comprise the majority of plant diversity in most savannas. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and data from 157 sites across three locations in the southeastern United States to understand the effects of broadleaf savanna trees, broadleaf forest trees, and pine trees on savanna understory plant communities. After accounting for underlying gradients in fire frequency and soil moisture, abundances (i.e., basal area and stem density) of forest trees and pines, but not savanna trees, were negatively correlated with the cover and density (i.e., local-scale species richness) of C4 graminoid species, a defining savanna understory functional group that is linked to ecosystem flammability. In analyses of the full understory community, abundances of trees from all functional groups were negatively correlated with species density and cover. For both the C4 and full communities, fire frequency promoted understory plants directly, and indirectly by limiting forest tree abundance. There was little indirect influence of fire on the understory mediated through savanna trees and pines, which are morefire tolerant than forest trees. We conclude that tree functional identity is an important factor that influences overstory tree relationships with savanna understory plant communities. In particular, distinct relationships between trees and C4 graminoids have implications for grass-tree coexistence and vegetation-fire feedbacks that maintain savanna environments and their associated understory plant diversity.

  18. Understory plant communities and the functional distinction between savanna trees, forest trees, and pines

    SciTech Connect

    Veldman, Joseph W.; Mattingly, W. Brett; Brudvig, Lars A.

    2013-02-01

    Although savanna trees and forest trees are thought to represent distinct functional groups with different effects on ecosystem processes, few empirical studies have examined these effects. In particular, it remains unclear if savanna and forest trees differ in their ability to coexist with understory plants, which comprise the majority of plant diversity in most savannas. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and data from 157 sites across three locations in the southeastern United States to understand the effects of broadleaf savanna trees, broadleaf forest trees, and pine trees on savanna understory plant communities. After accounting for underlying gradients in fire frequency and soil moisture, abundances (i.e., basal area and stem density) of forest trees and pines, but not savanna trees, were negatively correlated with the cover and density (i.e., local-scale species richness) of C4 graminoid species, a defining savanna understory functional group that is linked to ecosystem flammability. In analyses of the full understory community, abundances of trees from all functional groups were negatively correlated with species density and cover. For both the C4 and full communities, fire frequency promoted understory plants directly, and indirectly by limiting forest tree abundance. There was little indirect influence of fire on the understory mediated through savanna trees and pines, which are more fire tolerant than forest trees. We conclude that tree functional identity is an important factor that influences overstory tree relationships with savanna understory plant communities. In particular, distinct relationships between trees and C4 graminoids have implications for grass-tree coexistence and vegetation-fire feedbacks that maintain savanna environments and their associated understory plant diversity.

  19. WDM Multicast Tree Construction Algorithms and Their Comparative Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makabe, Tsutomu; Mikoshi, Taiju; Takenaka, Toyofumi

    We propose novel tree construction algorithms for multicast communication in photonic networks. Since multicast communications consume many more link resources than unicast communications, effective algorithms for route selection and wavelength assignment are required. We propose a novel tree construction algorithm, called the Weighted Steiner Tree (WST) algorithm and a variation of the WST algorithm, called the Composite Weighted Steiner Tree (CWST) algorithm. Because these algorithms are based on the Steiner Tree algorithm, link resources among source and destination pairs tend to be commonly used and link utilization ratios are improved. Because of this, these algorithms can accept many more multicast requests than other multicast tree construction algorithms based on the Dijkstra algorithm. However, under certain delay constraints, the blocking characteristics of the proposed Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm deteriorate since some light paths between source and destinations use many hops and cannot satisfy the delay constraint. In order to adapt the approach to the delay-sensitive environments, we have devised the Composite Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm comprising the Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm and the Dijkstra algorithm for use in a delay constrained environment such as an IPTV application. In this paper, we also give the results of simulation experiments which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed Composite Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm compared with the Distributed Minimum Hop Tree (DMHT) algorithm, from the viewpoint of the light-tree request blocking.

  20. San Francisco Bay Area Fault Observations Displayed in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, H.; Hernandez, M.; Nayak, P.; Zapata, I.; Schumaker, D.

    2006-12-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the San Francisco Bay Area has a 62% probability of experiencing a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The Hayward fault and the San Andreas fault are the two main faults in the Bay Area that are capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 or larger - a size that could profoundly affect many of the 7 million people who live in the Bay Area. The Hayward fault has a 27% probability of producing a major earthquake in next 30 years, and the San Andreas fault has a 21% probability. Our research group, which is part of the SF-ROCKS high school outreach program, studied the Hayward and San Andreas faults. The goal of our project was to observe these faults at various locations, measure the effects of creep, and to present the data in Google Earth, a freeware tool for the public to easily view and interact with these and other seismic-hazard data. We examined the Hayward and San Andreas faults (as mapped by USGS scientists) in Google Earth to identify various sites where we could possibly find evidence of fault creep. We next visited these sites in the field where we mapped the location using a hand- held Global Positioning System, identified and photographed fault evidence, and measured offset features with a ruler or tape measure. Fault evidence included en echelon shears in pavement, warped buildings, and offset features such as sidewalks. Fault creep offset measurements range from 1.5 19 cm. We also identified possible evidence of fault creep along the San Andreas fault in South San Francisco where it had not been previously described. In Google Earth, we plotted our field sites, linked photographs showing evidence of faulting, and included detailed captions to explain the photographs. We will design a webpage containing the data in a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file format for display in Google Earth. Any interested person needs only to download the free version of Google Earth software and visit our

  1. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  2. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  3. Measurement of tree canopy architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, S. N.; Ustin, S. L.; Norman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The lack of accurate extensive geometric data on tree canopies has retarded development and validation of radiative transfer models. A stratified sampling method was devised to measure the three-dimensional geometry of 16 walnut trees which had received irrigation treatments of either 100 or 33 per cent of evapotranspirational (ET) demand for the previous two years. Graphic reconstructions of the three-dimensional geometry were verified by 58 independent measurements. The distributions of stem- and leaf-size classes, lengths, and angle classes were determined and used to calculate leaf area index (LAI), stem area, and biomass. Reduced irrigation trees have lower biomass of stems, leaves and fruit, lower LAI, steeper leaf angles and altered biomass allocation to large stems. These data can be used in ecological models that link canopy processes with remotely sensed measurements.

  4. Measurement of tree canopy architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, S. N.; Ustin, S. L.; Norman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The lack of accurate extensive geometric data on tree canopies has retarded development and validation of radiative transfer models. A stratified sampling method was devised to measure the three-dimensional geometry of 16 walnut trees which had received irrigation treatments of either 100 or 33 per cent of evapotranspirational (ET) demand for the previous two years. Graphic reconstructions of the three-dimensional geometry were verified by 58 independent measurements. The distributions of stem- and leaf-size classes, lengths, and angle classes were determined and used to calculate leaf area index (LAI), stem area, and biomass. Reduced irrigation trees have lower biomass of stems, leaves and fruit, lower LAI, steeper leaf angles and altered biomass allocation to large stems. These data can be used in ecological models that link canopy processes with remotely sensed measurements.

  5. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  6. Fault displacement hazard for strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Dawson, T.E.; Chen, R.; Cao, T.; Wills, C.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Frankel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology, data, and regression equations for calculating the fault rupture hazard at sites near steeply dipping, strike-slip faults. We collected and digitized on-fault and off-fault displacement data for 9 global strikeslip earthquakes ranging from moment magnitude M 6.5 to M 7.6 and supplemented these with displacements from 13 global earthquakes compiled byWesnousky (2008), who considers events up to M 7.9. Displacements on the primary fault fall off at the rupture ends and are often measured in meters, while displacements on secondary (offfault) or distributed faults may measure a few centimeters up to more than a meter and decay with distance from the rupture. Probability of earthquake rupture is less than 15% for cells 200 m??200 m and is less than 2% for 25 m??25 m cells at distances greater than 200mfrom the primary-fault rupture. Therefore, the hazard for off-fault ruptures is much lower than the hazard near the fault. Our data indicate that rupture displacements up to 35cm can be triggered on adjacent faults at distances out to 10kmor more from the primary-fault rupture. An example calculation shows that, for an active fault which has repeated large earthquakes every few hundred years, fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in the design of structures or lifelines that are located near the principal fault, within about 150 m of well-mapped active faults with a simple trace and within 300 m of faults with poorly defined or complex traces.

  7. Training Tree Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    trees (similar to the role played by the finite- state acceptor FSA for strings). We describe the version (equivalent to TSG ( Schabes , 1990)) where...strictly contained in tree sets of tree adjoining gram- mars (Joshi and Schabes , 1997). 4 Extended-LHS Tree Transducers (xR) Section 1 informally described...changes without modifying the training procedure, as long as we stick to tree automata. 10 Related Work Tree substitution grammars or TSG ( Schabes , 1990

  8. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  9. DIFFERENTIAL FAULT SENSING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    A differential fault sensing circuit is designed for detecting arcing in high-voltage vacuum tubes arranged in parallel. A circuit is provided which senses differences in voltages appearing between corresponding elements likely to fault. Sensitivity of the circuit is adjusted to some level above which arcing will cause detectable differences in voltage. For particular corresponding elements, a group of pulse transformers are connected in parallel with diodes connected across the secondaries thereof so that only voltage excursions are transmitted to a thyratron which is biased to the sensitivity level mentioned.

  10. Topographic controls on the stress state, shallow fault structure and strain partitioning, Alpine Fault, Whataroa, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, P.; Song, B. R.; Koons, P. O.

    2016-12-01

    Although remarkably linear at scales greater than 20 km, in detail the Alpine Fault is broken into a large number of segments including more northerly striking sections that accommodate oblique thrusting and more easterly striking sections that are dominantly dextral strike-slip. We use 3D mechanical modelling to show that high relief next to the Alpine Fault perturbs the 3D stress state in the near surface and thus controls where and how displacement on the Alpine Fault is accommodated in the uppermost crust. We also explain the role of fault strength and strain softening on partitioning of deformation along the western Southern Alps. Our 3D models of the Whataroa region were based on a DEM smoothed to 200 m. All models had a pre-existing weakness representing the Alpine Fault and we varied both its frictional strength and the depth to the top of the pre-existing weakness in order to investigate where deformation developed in the near surface. A weak (Φ = 10°) structure penetrating the surface precludes any partitioning; both fault-parallel and fault-normal components of deformation were taken up entirely along this structure. A strong (Φ = 25°) dipping structure accommodated almost none of the fault-parallel displacement, instead it was partitioned onto vertical structures within the hanging wall, some parallel to the Alpine Fault, others at high angle to it which utilize larger valleys as the Whataroa. If the weak Alpine Fault is not defined all the way to the surface, the fault-parallel displacement was taken up on a vertical structure that developed from the top of the weak model fault. The fault-normal displacement occurred on structures that developed close to or at the range front and which swung into river valleys. As the depth to the top of the pre-defined weakness increased from 500 to 2000 m, the vertical structures developed further from the range front and the individual strand become more elongate, linking only the larger valleys. The lack of

  11. Design of physical and logical topologies with fault-tolerant ability in wavelength-routed optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunfeng; Liu, Hua; Fan, Ge

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of designing a network of optical cross-connects(OXCs) to provide end-to-end lightpath services to label switched routers (LSRs). Like some previous work, we select the number of OXCs as our objective. Compared with the previous studies, we take into account the fault-tolerant characteristic of logical topology. First of all, using a Prufer number randomly generated, we generate a tree. By adding some edges to the tree, we can obtain a physical topology which consists of a certain number of OXCs and fiber links connecting OXCs. It is notable that we for the first time limit the number of layers of the tree produced according to the method mentioned above. Then we design the logical topologies based on the physical topologies mentioned above. In principle, we will select the shortest path in addition to some consideration on the load balancing of links and the limitation owing to the SRLG. Notably, we implement the routing algorithm for the nodes in increasing order of the degree of the nodes. With regarding to the problem of the wavelength assignment, we adopt the heuristic algorithm of the graph coloring commonly used. It is clear our problem is computationally intractable especially when the scale of the network is large. We adopt the taboo search algorithm to find the near optimal solution to our objective. We present numerical results for up to 1000 LSRs and for a wide range of system parameters such as the number of wavelengths supported by each fiber link and traffic. The results indicate that it is possible to build large-scale optical networks with rich connectivity in a cost-effective manner, using relatively few but properly dimensioned OXCs.

  12. Dipping San Andreas and Hayward faults revealed beneath San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Hart, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is crossed by several right-lateral strike-slip faults of the San Andreas fault zone. Fault-plane reflections reveal that two of these faults, the San Andreas and Hayward, dip toward each other below seismogenic depths at 60?? and 70??, respectively, and persist to the base of the crust. Previously, a horizontal detachment linking the two faults in the lower crust beneath San Francisco Bay was proposed. The only near-vertical-incidence reflection data available prior to the most recent experiment in 1997 were recorded parallel to the major fault structures. When the new reflection data recorded orthogonal to the faults are compared with the older data, the highest, amplitude reflections show clear variations in moveout with recording azimuth. In addition, reflection times consistently increase with distance from the faults. If the reflectors were horizontal, reflection moveout would be independent of azimuth, and reflection times would be independent of distance from the faults. The best-fit solution from three-dimensional traveltime modeling is a pair of high-angle dipping surfaces. The close correspondence of these dipping structures with the San Andreas and Hayward faults leads us to conclude that they are the faults beneath seismogenic depths. If the faults retain their observed dips, they would converge into a single zone in the upper mantle -45 km beneath the surface, although we can only observe them in the crust.

  13. San Andreas Fault tremor and retrograde metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Diener, Johann F. A.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is an enigmatic low-frequency seismic phenomenon mainly observed in subduction zones, but also documented along the deep extension of the central San Andreas Fault. The physical mechanisms behind this unusual seismic event are not yet determined for any tectonic setting; however, low effective stress conditions arising from metamorphic fluid production are commonly inferred for subduction-related tremor. We investigate the petrologic conditions at which the San Andreas tectonic tremor is inferred to occur through calculations of the pressure - temperature - time evolution of stable mineral assemblages and their water content in the dominant lithologies of the Franciscan Complex. We find that tremor locations around Parkfield and Cholame are currently experiencing retrograde metamorphic conditions. Within the temperature-depth conditions of observed tremor activity, at approximately 500°C and 20 km depth, several mineralogical transitions may occur in cooling greywacke and mafic rocks, leading to localised, significant removal of free water and an associated volume decrease. This indicates that, contrary to subduction-related tremor, tremor on the San Andreas Fault is not linked to prograde, crustal metamorphic fluid production within the fault zone; rather it might be related to mantle-derived fluids from below the tremor zone, and/or fault zone weakening that occurs as phyllosilicates replace more competent and granular mineral phases.

  14. Strain compatibility and fault linkage in relay zones on normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jonathan J.; Imber, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Relay zones on normal faults are unlikely to have tabular geometries as depicted in idealised models. Rotation of a relay ramp between non-parallel and non-planar relay-bounding faults will inevitably lead to strain compatibility problems causing open gaps or overlaps within the relay zone. Linkage of relay-bounding faults does not evolve from a single branch point. Rather, linkage occurs at multiple points along the fault tip lines giving rise to initially discontinuous branch lines. Where linkage occurs along a discontinuous slip-aligned branch line, displacement at different levels within the relay zone is partitioned between variable amounts of ramp rotation and slip across the branch line. The linking fault propagates when strain compatibility can no longer be maintained by continuous deformation processes, such as thickening or thinning of incompetent layers within the relay ramp. Step-like changes in vertical displacement vs. distance (D - x) profiles on horizons containing apparently intact relay ramps are probably indicative of incipient breaching and can be used predict the presence of a slip-aligned branch line in the sub-surface. Despite the complexity of the strain distribution within relay zones, the total vertical displacement across the relay remains geometrically coherent at all levels.

  15. Fault diagnosis of analog circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, J. W.; Salama, A. E.

    1985-08-01

    Theory and algorithms associated with four main categories of modern techniques used to locate faults in analog circuits are presented. These four general approaches are: the fault dictionary (FDA), the parameter identification (PIA), the fault verification (FVA), and the approximation (AA) approaches. The preliminaries and problems associated with the FDA, such as fault dictionary construction, the methods of optimum measurement selection, fault isolation criteria, and efficient methods of fault simulation, are discussed. The PIA techniques that utilize either linear or nonlinear systems of equations for identification of network elements are examined. Description of the FVA includes node-fault diagnosis, branch-fault diagnosis, subnetwork testability conditions, as well as combinatorial techniques, the failure-bound technique, and the network decomposition technique. In the AA, probabilistic methods and optimization-based methods are considered. In addition, the artificial intelligence technique and the different measures of testability are presented. A series of block diagrams is included.

  16. Fault injection experiments using FIAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, James H.; Czeck, Edward W.; Segall, Zary Z.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

    1990-01-01

    The results of several experiments conducted using the fault-injection-based automated testing (FIAT) system are presented. FIAT is capable of emulating a variety of distributed system architectures, and it provides the capabilities to monitor system behavior and inject faults for the purpose of experimental characterization and validation of a system's dependability. The experiments consist of exhaustively injecting three separate fault types into various locations, encompassing both the code and data portions of memory images, of two distinct applications executed with several different data values and sizes. Fault types are variations of memory bit faults. The results show that there are a limited number of system-level fault manifestations. These manifestations follow a normal distribution for each fault type. Error detection latencies are found to be normally distributed. The methodology can be used to predict the system-level fault responses during the system design stage.

  17. A Fault-Tree Representation of NPATRL Security Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    member accepting a key as a result of the handshake protocol. 2. gcks losepairwisekey(G, (), (M,KGM ), N) describes the compromise of the pairwise key...3. gcks createkey(G, (), (Knew,Kold), N) describes the controller creating and distributing new key Knew and making an old key Kold obsolete. 4...statement below. member acceptkey(M, G, (KGM , Kold), N) ⇒ 3- gcks losepairwisekey(G, (), (M, KGM ), ) ∨¬(3- ( member requestkey(M, G, (), N) ∧3- gcks

  18. Software Fault Tree Analysis of Concurrent Ada Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    excerpt from the investigation into the Therac - 25 accidents: It is clear from the AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) documentation on the...Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., 1988 25 . Leveson, N.G and Turner, C.S., An Investigation of the Therac - 25 Accidents, IEEE Computer, July 1993...LIGHTS(DIR) /= GREEN) then 23 CONTROLLER. NOTIFY(DIR)y 24 end if, 24 25 end loop- 26 end SENSORTASK, 27 task body CONTROLLER is 28 begin 29 loop 30 accept

  19. Waste Management facilities fault tree databank 1995 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Minnick, W.V.; Wellmaker, K.A.

    1995-08-16

    The Safety Information Management and Analysis Group (SIMA) of the Safety Engineering Department (SED) maintains compilations of incidents that have occurred in the Separations and Process Control, Waste Management, Fuel Fabrication, Tritium and SRTC facilities. This report records the status of the Waste Management (WM) Databank at the end of CY-1994. The WM Databank contains more than 35,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with significant potential for injury or contamination of personnel. This report documents the status of the WM Databank including the availability, training, sources of data, search options, Quality Assurance, and usage to which these data have been applied. Periodic updates to this memorandum are planned as additional data or applications are acquired.

  20. The property of fault zone and fault activity of Shionohira Fault, Fukushima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshimo, K.; Aoki, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Niwa, M.; Kametaka, M.; Sakai, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The April 11, 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake (hereafter the 4.11 earthquake) formed co-seismic surface ruptures trending in the NNW-SSE direction in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, which were newly named as the Shionohira Fault by Ishiyama et al. (2011). This earthquake was characterized by a westward dipping normal slip faulting, with a maximum displacement of about 2 m (e.g., Kurosawa et al., 2012). To the south of the area, the same trending lineaments were recognized to exist even though no surface ruptures occurred by the earthquake. In an attempt to elucidate the differences of active and non-active segments of the fault, this report discusses the results of observation of fault outcrops along the Shionohira Fault as well as the Coulomb stress calculations. Only a few outcrops have basement rocks of both the hanging-wall and foot-wall of the fault plane. Three of these outcrops (Kyodo-gawa, Shionohira and Betto) were selected for investigation. In addition, a fault outcrop (Nameishi-minami) located about 300 m south of the southern tip of the surface ruptures was investigated. The authors carried out observations of outcrops, polished slabs and thin sections, and performed X-ray diffraction (XRD) to fault materials. As a result, the fault zones originating from schists were investigated at Kyodo-gawa and Betto. A thick fault gouge was cut by a fault plane of the 4.11 earthquake in each outcrop. The fault materials originating from schists were fault bounded with (possibly Neogene) weakly deformed sandstone at Shionohira. A thin fault gouge was found along the fault plane of 4.11 earthquake. A small-scale fault zone with thin fault gouge was observed in Nameishi-minami. According to XRD analysis, smectite was detected in the gouges from Kyodo-gawa, Shionohira and Betto, while not in the gouge from Nameishi-minami.

  1. Learning from examples - Generation and evaluation of decision trees for software resource analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Richard W.; Porter, Adam A.

    1988-01-01

    A general solution method for the automatic generation of decision (or classification) trees is investigated. The approach is to provide insights through in-depth empirical characterization and evaluation of decision trees for software resource data analysis. The trees identify classes of objects (software modules) that had high development effort. Sixteen software systems ranging from 3,000 to 112,000 source lines were selected for analysis from a NASA production environment. The collection and analysis of 74 attributes (or metrics), for over 4,700 objects, captured information about the development effort, faults, changes, design style, and implementation style. A total of 9,600 decision trees were automatically generated and evaluated. The trees correctly identified 79.3 percent of the software modules that had high development effort or faults, and the trees generated from the best parameter combinations correctly identified 88.4 percent of the modules on the average.

  2. Learning from examples - Generation and evaluation of decision trees for software resource analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Richard W.; Porter, Adam A.

    1988-01-01

    A general solution method for the automatic generation of decision (or classification) trees is investigated. The approach is to provide insights through in-depth empirical characterization and evaluation of decision trees for software resource data analysis. The trees identify classes of objects (software modules) that had high development effort. Sixteen software systems ranging from 3,000 to 112,000 source lines were selected for analysis from a NASA production environment. The collection and analysis of 74 attributes (or metrics), for over 4,700 objects, captured information about the development effort, faults, changes, design style, and implementation style. A total of 9,600 decision trees were automatically generated and evaluated. The trees correctly identified 79.3 percent of the software modules that had high development effort or faults, and the trees generated from the best parameter combinations correctly identified 88.4 percent of the modules on the average.

  3. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-20

    California Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA shuttle Radar Topography Mission.

  4. Faults and Flows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-20

    Lava flows of Daedalia Planum can be seen at the top and bottom portions of this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The ridge and linear depression in the central part of the image are part of Mangala Fossa, a fault bounded graben.

  5. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  6. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  7. Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Mize, Jeffery J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The high frequency switching megawatt-class High Voltage Converter Modulator (HVCM) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is now in operation. One of the major problems with the modulator systems is shoot-thru conditions that can occur in a IGBTs H-bridge topology resulting in large fault currents and device failure in a few microseconds. The Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis (DFDC) is a fault monitoring system; it monitors transformer flux saturation using a window comparator and dV/dt events on the cathode voltage caused by any abnormality such as capacitor breakdown, transformer primary turns shorts, or dielectric breakdown between the transformer primary and secondary. If faults are detected, the DFDC will inhibit the IGBT gate drives and shut the system down, significantly reducing the possibility of a shoot-thru condition or other equipment damaging events. In this paper, we will present system integration considerations, performance characteristics of the DFDC, and discuss its ability to significantly reduce costly down time for the entire facility.

  8. Fault-Mechanism Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, simple mechanical model of a fault can be produced to simulate the effects leading to an earthquake. This model has been used successfully with students from elementary to college levels and can be demonstrated to classes as large as thirty students. (DF)

  9. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  10. Fault-Mechanism Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, simple mechanical model of a fault can be produced to simulate the effects leading to an earthquake. This model has been used successfully with students from elementary to college levels and can be demonstrated to classes as large as thirty students. (DF)

  11. Fault diagnosis of helical gearbox using acoustic signal and wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranesh, SK; Abraham, Siju; Sugumaran, V.; Amarnath, M.

    2017-05-01

    The efficient transmission of power in machines is needed and gears are an appropriate choice. Faults in gears result in loss of energy and money. The monitoring and fault diagnosis are done by analysis of the acoustic and vibrational signals which are generally considered to be unwanted by products. This study proposes the usage of machine learning algorithm for condition monitoring of a helical gearbox by using the sound signals produced by the gearbox. Artificial faults were created and subsequently signals were captured by a microphone. An extensive study using different wavelet transformations for feature extraction from the acoustic signals was done, followed by waveletselection and feature selection using J48 decision tree and feature classification was performed using K star algorithm. Classification accuracy of 100% was obtained in the study

  12. Surface Monocline Development Along Normal Faults in Basalt, Southwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, N. D.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    traces using a Trimble real-time differential GPS Pathfinder Pro XR data collection system. The observed monoclines are variable in scale, the largest of which exceeds 8 km in length, located on the SE side of the western graben-bounding fault at Thingvellir in the WVZ. Near the center of this fault, a throw of nearly 20 m across the upper hinge fracture combines with an additional 15 m of throw that was accommodated by the monocline itself prior to the fault breaching the surface, for a total of 35 m of throw. As the throw approaches zero towards the tips of the fault, there is an associated decrease in monocline-accommodated throw and monocline width until the monocline eventually disappears at the fault tips. Monocline geometries display the same relationship along individual, 10s of meters long fault segments near Burfell on the RP. An oblique-slip fault here is characterized by left-stepping en echelon segments that each exhibit a discrete monocline. Elsewhere on the RP, examples of monoclines lacking surface rupture (i.e., blind faults) have been mapped in regions of active faulting in the rift zone, suggesting that monocline formation is an active and ongoing process. Some examples of unbreached surface flexures contain underlying cavities several meters across that appear to occur above a vertical fracture linked to the upwardly propagating, underlying fault. The occurrence of these cavities suggests that the formation of monoclines may not necessarily be related to broad-scale warping of the surface (as appears to be true of Thingvellir), but rather a delamination phenomenon involving only the most recent lava flows that covered an active fault.

  13. Timing and rate of exhumation along the Litang fault system, implication for fault reorganization in Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan-Ze; Replumaz, Anne; Wang, Guo-Can; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Beek, Peter; Paquette, Jean Louis; Wang, An; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Li, Hai-Bing

    2015-06-01

    The Litang fault system that crosses the Litang Plateau, a low relief surface at high elevation (~4200-4800 m above sea level) that is not affected by regional incision, provides the opportunity to study exhumation related to tectonics in the SE Tibetan Plateau independently of regional erosion. Combining apatite and zircon fission track with apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronologic data, we constrain the cooling history of the Litang fault system footwall along two transects. Apatite fission track ages range from 4 to 16 Ma, AHe ages from 2 to 6 Ma, and one zircon fission track age is ~99 Ma. These data imply a tectonic quiet period sustained since at least 100 Ma with a slow denudation rate of ~0.03 km/Ma, interrupted at 7 to 5 Ma by exhumation at a rate between 0.59 and 0.99 km/Ma. We relate that faster exhumation to the onset of motion along the left-lateral/normal Litang fault system. That onset is linked to a Lower Miocene important kinematic reorganization between the Xianshuihe and the Red River faults, with the eastward propagation of the Xianshuihe fault along the Xiaojiang fault system and the formation of the Zhongdian fault. Such strike-slip faults allow the sliding to the east of a wide continental block, with the Litang fault system accommodating differential motion between rigid blocks. The regional evolution appears to be guided by the strike-slip faults, with different phases of deformation, which appears more in agreement with an "hidden plate-tectonic" model rather than with a "lower channel flow" model.

  14. Incremental Holocene slip rates from the Hope fault at Hossack Station, Marlborough fault zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, A. E.; Dolan, J. F.; Langridge, R.; Zinke, R. W.; McGuire, C. P.; Rhodes, E. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Marlborough fault system, which links the Alpine fault with the Hikurangi subduction zone within the complex Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, partitions strain between the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence and Hope faults. Previous best estimates of dextral strike-slip along the Hope fault are ≤ ~23 mm/yr± 4 mm/year. Those rates, however, are poorly constrained and could be improved using better age determinations in conjunction with measurements of fault offsets using high-resolution imagery. In this study, we use airborne lidar- and field-based mapping together with the subsurface geometry of offset channels at the Hossack site 12 km ESE of Hanmer Springs to more precisely determine stream offsets that were previously identified by McMorran (1991). Specifically, we measured fault offsets of ~10m, ~75 m, and ~195m. Together with 65 radiocarbon ages on charcoal, peat, and wood and 25 pending post-IR50-IRSL225 luminescence ages from the channel deposits, these offsets yield three different fault slip rates for the early Holocene, the late Holocene, and the past ca. 500-1,000 years. Using the large number of age determinations, we document in detail the timing of initiation and abandonment of each channel, enhancing the geomorphic interpretation at the Hossack site as channels deform over many earthquake cycles. Our preliminary incremental slip rate results from the Hossack site may indicate temporally variable strain release along the Hope fault. This study is part of a broader effort aimed at determining incremental slip rates and paleo-earthquake ages and displacements from all four main Marlborough faults. Collectively, these data will allow us to determine how the four main Marlborough faults have work together during Holocene-late Pleistocene to accommodate plate-boundary deformation in time and space.

  15. High-resolution gravity and seismic-refraction surveys of the Smoke Tree Wash area, Joshua Tree National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Watt, Janet T.; Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2016-03-02

    We describe high-resolution gravity and seismic refraction surveys acquired to determine the thickness of valley-fill deposits and to delineate geologic structures that might influence groundwater flow beneath the Smoke Tree Wash area in Joshua Tree National Park. These surveys identified a sedimentary basin that is fault-controlled. A profile across the Smoke Tree Wash fault zone reveals low gravity values and seismic velocities that coincide with a mapped strand of the Smoke Tree Wash fault. Modeling of the gravity data reveals a basin about 2–2.5 km long and 1 km wide that is roughly centered on this mapped strand, and bounded by inferred faults. According to the gravity model the deepest part of the basin is about 270 m, but this area coincides with low velocities that are not characteristic of typical basement complex rocks. Most likely, the density contrast assumed in the inversion is too high or the uncharacteristically low velocities represent highly fractured or weathered basement rocks, or both. A longer seismic profile extending onto basement outcrops would help differentiate which scenario is more accurate. The seismic velocities also determine the depth to water table along the profile to be about 40–60 m, consistent with water levels measured in water wells near the northern end of the profile.

  16. Pipeline synthetic aperture radar data compression utilizing systolic binary tree-searched architecture for vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Yung (Inventor); Fang, Wai-Chi (Inventor); Curlander, John C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system for data compression utilizing systolic array architecture for Vector Quantization (VQ) is disclosed for both full-searched and tree-searched. For a tree-searched VQ, the special case of a Binary Tree-Search VQ (BTSVQ) is disclosed with identical Processing Elements (PE) in the array for both a Raw-Codebook VQ (RCVQ) and a Difference-Codebook VQ (DCVQ) algorithm. A fault tolerant system is disclosed which allows a PE that has developed a fault to be bypassed in the array and replaced by a spare at the end of the array, with codebook memory assignment shifted one PE past the faulty PE of the array.

  17. Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nason, R.

    1979-01-01

    At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

  18. Fault connectivity, distributed shortening, and impacts on geologic- geodetic slip rate discrepancies in the central Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.; Cooke, M. L.; Grette, K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding off-fault deformation and distribution of displacement rates associated with disconnected strike-slip faults requires a three-dimensional view of fault geometries. We address problems associated with distributed faulting by studying the Mojave segment of the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ), a region dominated by northwest-directed dextral shear along disconnected northwest- southeast striking faults. We use a combination of cross-sectional interpretations, 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) models, and slip-rate measurements to test new hypothesized fault connections. We find that reverse faulting acts as an important means of slip transfer between strike-slip faults, and show that the impacts of these structural connections on shortening, uplift, strike-slip rates, and off-fault deformation, help to reconcile the overall strain budget across this portion of the ECSZ. In detail, we focus on the Calico and Blackwater faults, which are hypothesized to together represent the longest linked fault system in the Mojave ECSZ, connected by a restraining step at 35°N. Across this restraining step the system displays a pronounced displacement gradient, where dextral offset decreases from ~11.5 to <2 km from south to north. Cross-section interpretations show that ~40% of this displacement is transferred from the Calico fault to the Harper Lake and Blackwater faults via a set of north-dipping thrust ramps. Late Quaternary dextral slip rates follow a similar pattern, where 1.4 +0.8/-0.4 mm/yr of slip along the Calico fault south of 35°N is distributed to the Harper Lake, Blackwater, and Tin Can Alley faults. BEM model results using revised fault geometries for the Mojave ECSZ show areas of uplift consistent with contractional structures, and fault slip-rates that more closely match geologic data. Overall, revised fault connections and addition of off-fault deformation greatly reduces the discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates.

  19. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    PubMed

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  20. Urban tree growth modeling

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  1. Keeping trees as assets

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  2. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  3. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  4. A Conceptual Tree of Laser Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Sinko, John E.

    2008-04-28

    An original attempt to develop a conceptual tree for laser propulsion is offered. The tree provides a systematic view for practically all possible laser propulsion concepts and all inter-conceptual links, based on propellant phases and phase transfers. It also helps to see which fields of laser propulsion have been already thoroughly explored, where the next effort must be applied, and which paths should be taken with proper care or avoided entirely.

  5. Correlation Between Underground Radon Gas and Dormant Geological Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Dena, Oscar; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Rodriguez, German; Chavarria, Israel

    2016-09-01

    This work studies the concentration of radon in soil around a fault in the East Franklin Mountains in the El Paso area in West Texas. It is found that the in-soil production of radon is correlated to the existence of a fault even if it has not had any recorded activity in recent geological times. This adds to previous observations that link the production of radon to seismic activity, and seems to indicate that in non-active faults the radon production is due mainly to the radioactivity of the top soil and to the transport properties of the medium and not to deeper seismic activity. These results open the possibility of using in-soil radon gas concentrations as an examination tool of dormant faults.

  6. Dynamic 3D simulations of earthquakes on en echelon faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the mysteries of earthquake mechanics is why earthquakes stop. This process determines the difference between small and devastating ruptures. One possibility is that fault geometry controls earthquake size. We test this hypothesis using a numerical algorithm that simulates spontaneous rupture propagation in a three-dimensional medium and apply our knowledge to two California fault zones. We find that the size difference between the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield, California, earthquakes may be the product of a stepover at the southern end of the 1934 earthquake and show how the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake followed physically reasonable expectations when it jumped across en echelon faults to become a large event. If there are no linking structures, such as transfer faults, then strike-slip earthquakes are unlikely to propagate through stepovers >5 km wide. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Correlation of data on strain accumulation adjacent to the San Andreas Fault with available models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of deformation on strike slip faults were performed and the results applied to geodetic observations performed in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault in California. The initial efforts were devoted to an extensive series of finite element calculations of the deformation associated with cyclic displacements on a strike-slip fault. Measurements of strain accumulation adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicate that the zone of strain accumulation extends only a few tens of kilometers away from the fault. There is a concern about the tendency to make geodetic observations along the line to the source. This technique has serious problems for strike slip faults since the vector velocity is also along the fault. Use of a series of stations lying perpendicular to the fault whose positions are measured relative to a reference station are suggested to correct the problem. The complexity of faulting adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicated that the homogeneous elastic and viscoelastic approach to deformation had serious limitations. These limitation led to the proposal of an approach that assumes a fault is composed of a distribution of asperities and barriers on all scales. Thus, an earthquake on a fault is treated as a failure of a fractal tree. Work continued on the development of a fractal based model for deformation in the western United States. In order to better understand the distribution of seismicity on the San Andreas Fault system a fractal analog was developed. The fractal concept also provides a means of testing whether clustering in time or space is a scale-invariant process.

  8. Effect of surrounding fault on distributed fault of blind reverse fault in sedimentary basin - Uemachi Faults, Osaka Basin, Southwest Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.

    2012-12-01

    Several large cities and metropolitan areas, such as Osaka and Kobe are located in the Osaka basin, which has been filled by the Pleistocene Osaka group and the later sediments. The basin is surrounded by E-W trending strike slip faults and N-S trending reverse faults. The N-S trending 42-km-long Uemachi faults traverse in the central part of the Osaka city. The various geological, geophysical surveys, such as seismic reflection, micro tremor, gravity surveys and deep boreholes, revealed the complex basement configuration along the Uemachi faults. The depth of the basement is shallow in the central part of the Osaka plain. The Uemachi faults are locates on the western side of the basement upland. In the central part of the Uemachi faults, the displacement decreases. The fault model of the Uemachi faults consists of the two parts, the north and south parts. The NE-SW trending branch faults, Suminoe and Sakuragawa flexures, are also recognized based on various surveys around the central part. Kusumoto et al. (2001) reported that surrounding faults enable to form the basement configuration without the Uemachi faults model based on a dislocation model. Inoue et al. (2011) performed various parameter studies for dislocation model and gravity changes based on simplified faults model, which were designed based on the distribution of the real faults. The model was consisted of 7 faults including the Uemachi faults. In this study, the Osaka-wan fault was considered for the dislocation model. The results show the basement configuration including NE-SW branch faults. The basement configuration differs from the subsurface structure derived from the investigation of abundance geotechnical borehole data around the central part of the Uemachi faults. The tectonic developing process including the erosion and sea level change are require to understanding the structure from the basement to the surface of the Uemachi Fault Zone. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive

  9. Faults, fault rocks and fractures in basalts: a macro- to micro-analysis of fault rock evolution on the NE Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Imber, J.

    2009-12-01

    -permeability pathways (fault voids and their infills) through the FIBG during the latter event. We find that, in particular, faults in basalts are in many ways comparable to faults formed at shallow crustal depths in carbonate rocks and crystalline basement, most likely reflecting the similarities in their mechanical properties under near surface pressures and temperatures. The nature and style of the fault infills provides compelling evidence to suggest that subterranean voids associated with faults were persistent features within the FIBG, and if structurally linked to faults cutting the underlying basin fill sediments, could facilitate significant hydrocarbon migration from deep reservoirs.

  10. Fault Pattern and Seismicity of The Western Part of The Tunka Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunina, O.; Gladkov, A.

    The Tunka basin is a part of the Baikal rift zone and is characterized by complex geodynamical setting. Its western termination is the most interesting site to study the relationship between faults and seismicity. The active Tunka and South Tunka faults, which limit the boards of the Tunka basin, converge there, and the density of earthquake epicenters is highest. We compared the fault pattern and epicenters of earthquakes within this part from the Nilovsky interbasin link to the Mondinsky local basin. We drawn a scheme of faults in scale of 1:200000 from the data on detailed field investigations in structural geology and tectonophysics, analysis of lineaments on topographical maps, geophysical data, and materials of the State geological sur- vey. High-angle faults of sublatitudinal strike, with the traces of active movements (displacements and deformations in the Quaternary and Neogene sediments), are of the first importance in the structure of fault pattern of the investigated area. Besides, the NE faults, characterized by the same features of activity as the latitudinal faults, are obviously traced within the western part of the Tunka basin. The large NW faults are primarily concentrated in the ridges that frame the Tunka basin, and within the Nilovsky link. The submeridional faults emerge in the parts of interbasin links and within the Mondinsky local basin. The features of active displacements along the NW and submeridional faults are of less evidence in respect of structural geology. The comparison between the fault pattern of the western part of the Tunka rift basin and M>3.3 earthquakes showed that the most of them lay on the mapped faults or in the vicinity of the latter. Much smaller amount is in blocks. Large earthquakes are mainly related to the faults of sublatitudinal and north-eastern strike and do not make big con- centrations in the place of convergence of the Tunka and South Tunka faults, where the rocks are the most dislocated. Perhaps, a high

  11. Unraveling the deformational history of faults from AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvín, Pablo; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Oliva-Urcía, Belén; García-Lasanta, Cristina; Pocoví, Andrés; Gil-Imaz, Andrés; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Osácar, Cinta; José Villalaín, Juan; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Antolín-Tomás, Borja

    2014-05-01

    The faults chosen for this study belong to the Iberian Chain (Northeastern Iberian Plate) and include two kinematically different kinds of structures (thrusts and strike-slip), with well-developed fault gouges several tens or hundreds of meters thick (Datos Fault System and Daroca Fault) and thinner clayey layers linked to thrust surfaces (Cameros-Demanda Thrust). The Cameros-Demanda Thrust has a relatively simple history of Mesozoic extension and Tertiary inversion. Along the thrust several areas with fault rocks include weakly oriented breccias, deformed conglomerates and clayey fault gouge with S/C structures. The Datos and Daroca faults show a more complex history of movement and are of key importance in the Variscan and Alpine evolution of the Iberian microplate. They show fault rocks with thickness of up to hundreds of meters, consisting of fault gouges, microbreccias and fault breccias with large blocks of stratified Paleozoic and Mesozoic blocks. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) can be an useful tool in order to discriminate the tectonic evolution of such faults, remembering the different behaviors as part of different stages in northern Gondwana (Variscan cycle) and the Iberian microplate (Alpine cycle). Samples for the AMS study were collected from 56 sites, 29 (434 specimens) belonging to three areas of the Cameros-Demanda Thrust, 17 (196 specimens) in the Datos Fault System, and 10 (114 specimens) at the Daroca Fault. AMS results at the Cameros-Demanda Thrust show a main NW-SE magnetic lineation (Matute and Prejano areas), a secondary NE-SW magnetic lineation (Matute area) and a girdle distribution from NE to SW in the Panzares area. These results suggest a main NW movement for the Cameros-Demanda Thrust, consistent with kinematic indicators, but also evidence a NE-directed minor contribution, especially in the easternmost outcrops. Daroca and Datos Faults show a grater variability, both in plunge and azimuth, and magnetic lineation can be

  12. Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

  13. Relationship of the 1999 Hector Mine and 1992 Landers fault ruptures to offsets on neogene faults and distribution of late Cenozoic basins in the eastern California shear zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Matti, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the Hector Mine and Landers earthquakes in the broader context of faults and fault-related basins of the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ). We compile new estimates of total strike-slip offset (horizontal separation) at nearly 30 fault sites based on offset magnetic anomaly pairs. We also present a map of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rock (thickness of basin-filling late Cenozoic deposits) for the region, based on an inversion of gravity and geologic data. Our estimates of total long-term strike-slip offsets on faults that slipped during the 1999 Hector Mine (3.4 km), and the 1992 Landers earthquakes (3.1 ? to 4.6 km) fall within the 3- to 5-km range of total strike-slip offset proposed for most faults of the western ECSZ. Faults having offsets as great as 20 km are present in the eastern part of the ECSZ. Although the Landers rupture followed sections of a number of faults that had been mapped as independent structures, the similarity in total strike-slip offset associated with these faults is compatible with one of the following hypotheses: (1) the Landers multistrand rupture is a typical event for this linked fault system or (2) this complex rupture path has acted as a coherent entity when viewed over some characteristic multiearthquake cycle. The second hypothesis implies that, for each cycle, slip associated with smaller earthquakes on individual fault segments integrates to a uniform slip over the length of the linked faults. With one exception, the region surrounding the Hector Mine and Landers ruptures is devoid of deep late Cenozoic basins. In particular, no deep basins are found immediately north of the Pinto Mountain fault, a place where a number of kinematic models for development of the ECSZ have predicted basins. In contrast, some basins exist near Barstow and along the eastern part of the ECSZ, where the model of Dokka et al. (1998) predicts basins.

  14. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  15. Tree Data (TD)

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Tree Data (TD) methods are used to sample individual live and dead trees on a fixed-area plot to estimate tree density, size, and age class distributions before and after fire in order to assess tree survival and mortality rates. This method can also be used to sample individual shrubs if they are over 4.5 ft tall. When trees are larger than the user-specified...

  16. Fault intersections along the Hosgri Fault Zone, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, J. T.; Johnson, S. Y.; Langenheim, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    It is well-established that stresses concentrate at fault intersections or bends when subjected to tectonic loading, making focused studies of these areas particularly important for seismic hazard analysis. In addition, detailed fault models can be used to investigate how slip on one fault might transfer to another during an earthquake. We combine potential-field, high-resolution seismic-reflection, and multibeam bathymetry data with existing geologic and seismicity data to investigate the fault geometry and connectivity of the Hosgri, Los Osos, and Shoreline faults offshore of San Luis Obispo, California. The intersection of the Hosgri and Los Osos faults in Estero Bay is complex. The offshore extension of the Los Osos fault, as imaged with multibeam and high-resolution seismic data, is characterized by a west-northwest-trending zone (1-3 km wide) of near vertical faulting. Three distinct strands (northern, central, and southern) are visible on shallow seismic reflection profiles. The steep dip combined with dramatic changes in reflection character across mapped faults within this zone suggests horizontal offset of rock units and argues for predominantly strike-slip motion, however, the present orientation of the fault zone suggests oblique slip. As the Los Osos fault zone approaches the Hosgri fault, the northern and central strands become progressively more northwest-trending in line with the Hosgri fault. The northern strand runs subparallel to the Hosgri fault along the edge of a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly, intersecting the Hosgri fault southwest of Point Estero. Geophysical modeling suggests the northern strand dips 70° to the northeast, which is in agreement with earthquake focal mechanisms that parallel this strand. The central strand bends northward and intersects the Hosgri fault directly west of Morro Rock, corresponding to an area of compressional deformation visible in shallow seismic-reflection profiles. The southern strand of the Los Osos

  17. The link in Linking

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  18. The link in Linking.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block.

  19. 3-D mapping of segmented active faults in the Vienna Basin from integrated geophysical, geomorphological and geological data: building up an active fault database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, R.; Decker, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Vienna Basin basin formed as a Miocene pull-apart basin along a sinistral transform system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. Moderate seismicity in the southern Vienna Basin as well as thick Quaternary deposits in the center of the basin prove that part of the faults within the Miocene basin are active today. However, nearly no systematical data exist on the positions, segmentation, and geometry of active faults, which yield important input parameters for seismic hazard evaluations. Spatial mapping of active faults and kinematical analyses are based on 3-D reflection seismic data by OMV Austria, geomorphological features such as tilted Quaternary river terraces and fault scarps, the geometry of Quaternary basins, and published geodetic data. Interpretation of combined data sets are summarized in a map and an active fault catalog of for future seismic hazard evaluations. The map reveals two regions with different types of Quaternary and active faults. (A) The southern part of the Vienna Basin reveals a seismically active NE-striking sinistral strike-slip fault with a large negative flower structure. Recent activity of the flower structure is documented by the accumulation of up to 150 m thick Quaternary gravels. The Quaternary basin is limited by faults, depicted by 3-D seismics and near surface geophysics (Gegenleitner et al, 2003, this volume). At the surface, a prominent morphological scarp parallels the fault traces mapped from the 3-D seismic. (B) The western and central part of the Vienna Basin is characterized by major listric E-dipping normal faults branching off from the strike-slip fault system, which is localized in the seismically active area at the eastern border of the Basin. Deformation is partitioned on several normal faults via a common detachment horizon. These faults kinematically link up with the strike-slip fault system. At the surface normal faulting is documented by tilted Quaternary terraces of the Danube caused by the

  20. Holocene faulting on the Mission fault, northwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenaa, D.A.; Klinger, R.E.; Levish, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    South of Flathead Lake, fault scarps on late Quaternary surfaces are nearly continuous for 45 km along the western flank of the Mission Range. On late Pleistocene alpine lateral moraines, scarp heights reach a maximum of 17 m. Scarp heights on post glacial Lake Missoula surfaces range from 2.6--7.2 m and maximum scarp angles range from 10[degree]--24[degree]. The stratigraphy exposed in seven trenches across the fault demonstrates that the post glacial Lake Missoula scarps resulted from at least two surface-faulting events. Larger scarp heights on late Pleistocene moraines suggests a possible third event. This yields an estimated recurrence of 4--8 kyr. Analyses of scarp profiles show that the age of the most surface faulting is middle Holocene, consistent with stratigraphic evidence found in the trenches. Rupture length and displacement imply earthquake magnitudes of 7 to 7.5. Previous studies have not identified geologic evidence of late Quaternary surface faulting in the Rocky Mountain Trench or on faults north of the Lewis and Clark line despite abundant historic seismicity in the Flathead Lake area. In addition to the Mission fault, reconnaissance studies have located late Quaternary fault scarps along portions of faults bordering Jocko and Thompson Valleys. These are the first documented late Pleistocene/Holocene faults north of the Lewis and Clark line in Montana and should greatly revise estimates of earthquake hazards in this region.

  1. Randomness fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting a fault on a power line carrying a line parameter such as a load current. The apparatus monitors and analyzes the load current to obtain an energy value. The energy value is compared to a threshold value stored in a buffer. If the energy value is greater than the threshold value a counter is incremented. If the energy value is greater than a high value threshold or less than a low value threshold then a second counter is incremented. If the difference between two subsequent energy values is greater than a constant then a third counter is incremented. A fault signal is issued if the counter is greater than a counter limit value and either the second counter is greater than a second limit value or the third counter is greater than a third limit value.

  2. Managing Fault Management Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, John M.

    2010-01-01

    As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers underlying FM overruns and recommend solutions. They identified a number of areas in which increased program and project management focus can be used to control FM development cost growth. These include up-front planning for FM as a distinct engineering discipline; managing different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; ensuring the necessary resources for a disciplined, coordinated approach to end-to-end fault management engineering; and monitoring FM coordination across all mission systems.

  3. Fault Tolerant Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0105 BRI) Fault Tolerant Paradigms BENJAMIN ONG MICHIGAN STATE UNIV EAST LANSING Final Report 02/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...property allows the algorithm to outperform FFTW over a wide range of sparsity and noise values, and is to the best of our knowledge novel in the...best of our knowledge novel. The new algorithm gives excellent performance in the noisy setting without significantly increasing the computational

  4. Seamless Level 2/Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment using dynamic event tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Douglas Matthew

    The current approach to Level 2 and Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the conventional event-tree/fault-tree methodology requires pre-specification of event order occurrence which may vary significantly in the presence of uncertainties. Manual preparation of input data to evaluate the possible scenarios arising from these uncertainties may also lead to errors from faulty/incomplete input preparation and their execution using serial runs may lead to computational challenges. A methodology has been developed for Level 2 analysis using dynamic event trees (DETs) that removes these limitations with systematic and mechanized quantification of the impact of aleatory uncertainties on possible consequences and their likelihoods. The methodology is implemented using the Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees (ADAPT) software. For the purposes of this work, aleatory uncertainties are defined as those arising from the stochastic nature of the processes under consideration, such as the variability of weather, in which the probability of weather patterns is predictable but the conditions at the time of the accident are a matter of chance. Epistemic uncertainties are regarded as those arising from the uncertainty in the model (system code) input parameters (e.g., friction or heat transfer correlation parameters). This work conducts a seamless Level 2/3 PRA using a DET analysis. The research helps to quantify and potentially reduce the magnitude of the source term uncertainty currently experienced in Level 3 PRA. Current techniques have been demonstrated with aleatory uncertainties for environmental releases of radioactive materials. This research incorporates epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in a phenomenologically consistent manner through use of DETs. The DETs were determined using the ADAPT framework and linking ADAPT with MELCOR, MELMACCS, and the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2. Aleatory and epistemic uncertainties incorporated

  5. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  6. Juxtaposition of different fault rocks into fault cores in sandstone-dominated formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philit, Sven; Soliva, Roger; Ballas, Grégory; Chemenda, Alexandre; Castilla, Raymi

    2017-04-01

    but have respective porosity as low as 18% and 3%, and permeability as low as 100 mD and 0.00000001 mD, respectively. The huge amount of oxides deposit in the breccia evidences the dilatant behavior and large permeability of this fault rock. In conclusion, our study allows showing that sub-seismic displacement (<20 m) are sufficient to induce continued low-permeability structures through the juxtaposition of clusters and smear. These structures are likely to act as barriers for fluid flow since clusters of cataclastic deformation bands can form linked-segmented fault zones of several kilometers in length. We also show that such structures can evolve into seismic-scale faults and interact with diagenetic processes during the burial history. Host and fault rocks hardening due to cementation allow changing the deformation mechanisms and drastically increase along fault core permeability.

  7. Shallow Hydrothermal Flow in a Strike-Slip Fault System, Mt Isa, Australia: A Proterozoic Analog for Modern Geothermal Systems Along Strike-Slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.; Ghisetti, F.; Begbie, M.

    2014-12-01

    Strong E-W shortening during the Isan Orogeny (1590-1500 Ma) led to crustal thickening and compressional inversion of former intracontinental rift basins. The resulting metamorphic/plutonic basement complex is disrupted by conjugate, mutually cross-cutting sets of brittle, late-orogenic strike-slip faults. Dextral strike-slip faults (separations < 25 km) strike NE-NNE, while conjugate sinistral faults strike SE-SSE, defining a wrench regime (σv = σ2) with horizontal maximum compression, σ1, trending c. 100°. The strike-slip faults are recessive except in dilational sites where upwelling hydrothermal fluids have silicified the cataclastic shear zones (CSZ) which protrude as blade-like ridges extending for kilometres across the semi-arid terrain. The mineralized fault segments include sinuous releasing bends where the fault trace is deflected <10° as well as more abrupt dilational stepovers with distributed extension fracturing linking en echelon fault segments. Other components of structural permeability include: (1) innumerable fault-parallel quartz-veins (cm to m thickness) within the CSZ; (2) irregular stringer veins; and (3) a regional set of predominantly extensional, subvertical planar quartz veins oriented 080-120° at moderate angles to the main faults. Broad contemporaneity is indicated by mutual cross-cutting relationships between all structural components. Measured strike separations along shear fractures are consistent with seismic slip increments which refreshed fracture permeability and promoted hydrothermal flow. Textures suggest the faults were exhumed from epithermal boiling environments (<1-2 km depth). Restoration of fault cohesive strength by hydrothermal cementation was critical in allowing continued vein formation by hydraulic extension fracturing. The distribution of hydrothermal quartz within the fault system provides a guide to structural localization of upflow zones in geothermal fields developed along strike-slip faults.

  8. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  9. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-03-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  10. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Treesearch

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  11. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    struck in 1992 (Landers), 1994 (Northridge) and 1999 (Hector Mine) as well as the 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah (EM-C) earthquake (just south of the US-Mexico border). Of these four notable events, all produced extensive surface faulting except for the 1994 Northridge event, which was close to the Los Angeles urban area on a buried thrust fault. Northridge caused by far the most destruction, topping $20B (US) and resulting in 57 fatalities due to its location under an urban area. The Landers, Hector Mine and EM-C events occurred in desert areas away from major urban centers, and each proved to be a new and unique test-bed for making rapid progress in earthquake science and creative use of geodetic imagery. InSAR studies were linked to GPS deformation and mapping of surface ruptures and seismicity in a series of important papers about these earthquakes. The hazard in California remains extremely high, with tens of millions of people living in close proximity to the San Andreas Fault system as it runs past both San Francisco and Los Angeles. Dense in-situ networks of seismic and geodetic instruments are continually used for research and earthquake monitoring, as well as development of an earthquake early warning capability. Principles of peer review from funding agencies and open data availability will be observed for all data. For all of these reasons, the San Andreas Fault system is highly appropriate for consideration as a world-class permanent Supersite in the GEO framework.

  12. The Trees that surround us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. E. G.; Rodrigues, M. A. S.

    2012-04-01

    In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. In this study we are going to collect data about the predominant tree species in the region, especially the invasive trees from the acacia species, the native tree species and the commercial species. We are going to study the reasons for the appearance of each species and draw a chart of soil occupation in the council. This chart will also allow the study of the distribution and use of land for each tree species. This research work is the first stage for a contribution to warn the town council of the dangers of the invasive species to the future economy of the council.

  13. Imaging of subsurface faults using refraction migration with fault flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Ahmed; Hanafy, Sherif; Guo, Bowen; Kosmicki, Maximillian

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except that it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  14. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  15. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    tectonic analyses shed light on this important issue. This method for reconstructing normal fault evolution could potentially be applied to any normal faults in which constraints on fault throw and footwall relief can be linked to the transient response of catchments to a tectonic perturbation.

  16. Physical models of normal-fault relays between variably offset grabens

    SciTech Connect

    Vendeville, B.C.; Le Calvez, J.

    1995-08-01

    We conducted a series of scaled models in which two grabens initially offset along the direction of regional extension subsequently propagated freely along strike while synkinematic sediments were added. Models comprised a thick layer of dry sand overlying a thin lubricating layer of viscous silicone. The experiments are applicable to both crustal scale and to the scale of a brittle sedimentary cover above a salt or shale decollement. Results show that fault orientation and linkage vary with graben offset ({Delta}L) and model thickness (h). Grabens with small offset (O < {Delta}L< h/2) propagated along strike while remaining perpendicular to the direction of regional extension; the grabens eventually linked. Fault traces were initially jagged but straightened after further extension and sedimentation. Grabens with moderate offsets (h/2 < {Delta}L < 2h) widened as they propagated toward each other. Soft fault linkage created ramps of strained overburden blocks between faults. Later, ramps were cut by hard-linked faults. Hour-glass structures formed where faults of opposite vergence intersected. Fault slip progressively decreased along strike. Where graben offset was large ({Delta}L > 2h), a transtensional graben was generated oblique to the direction of regional extension, providing hard linkage with each initial graben. Fault-slip gradients along fault strike remained low. We infer that formation of a new oblique graben reflects a size threshold above which the rock volume between the grabens (proportional to graben offset) cannot rotate or deform by soft linkage to accommodate deformation.

  17. Fault management for data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1993-01-01

    Issues related to automating the process of fault management (fault diagnosis and response) for data management systems are considered. Substantial benefits are to be gained by successful automation of this process, particularly for large, complex systems. The use of graph-based models to develop a computer assisted fault management system is advocated. The general problem is described and the motivation behind choosing graph-based models over other approaches for developing fault diagnosis computer programs is outlined. Some existing work in the area of graph-based fault diagnosis is reviewed, and a new fault management method which was developed from existing methods is offered. Our method is applied to an automatic telescope system intended as a prototype for future lunar telescope programs. Finally, an application of our method to general data management systems is described.

  18. Mechanical stratigraphy and normal faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Hill, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stratigraphy encompasses the mechanical properties, thicknesses, and interface properties of rock units. Although mechanical stratigraphy often relates directly to lithostratigraphy, lithologic description alone does not adequately describe mechanical behavior. Analyses of normal faults with displacements of millimeters to 10's of kilometers in mechanically layered rocks reveal that mechanical stratigraphy influences nucleation, failure mode, fault geometry, displacement gradient, displacement distribution, fault core and damage zone characteristics, and fault zone deformation processes. The relationship between normal faulting and mechanical stratigraphy can be used either to predict structural style using knowledge of mechanical stratigraphy, or conversely to interpret mechanical stratigraphy based on characterization of the structural style. This review paper explores a range of mechanical stratigraphic controls on normal faulting illustrated by natural and modeled examples.

  19. Handling Software Faults with Redundancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Gorla, Alessandra; Pezzè, Mauro

    Software engineering methods can increase the dependability of software systems, and yet some faults escape even the most rigorous and methodical development process. Therefore, to guarantee high levels of reliability in the presence of faults, software systems must be designed to reduce the impact of the failures caused by such faults, for example by deploying techniques to detect and compensate for erroneous runtime conditions. In this chapter, we focus on software techniques to handle software faults, and we survey several such techniques developed in the area of fault tolerance and more recently in the area of autonomic computing. Since practically all techniques exploit some form of redundancy, we consider the impact of redundancy on the software architecture, and we propose a taxonomy centered on the nature and use of redundancy in software systems. The primary utility of this taxonomy is to classify and compare techniques to handle software faults.

  20. Seismic interpretation of the deep structure of the Wabash Valley Fault System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bear, G.W.; Rupp, J.A.; Rudman, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretations of newly available seismic reflection profiles near the center of the Illinois Basin indicate that the Wabash Valley Fault System is rooted in a series of basement-penetrating faults. The fault system is composed predominantly of north-northeast-trending high-angle normal faults. The largest faults in the system bound the 22-km wide 40-km long Grayville Graben. Structure contour maps drawn on the base of the Mount Simon Sandstone (Cambrian System) and a deeper pre-Mount Simon horizon show dip-slip displacements totaling at least 600 meters across the New Harmony fault. In contrast to previous interpretations, the N-S extent of significant fault offsets is restricted to a region north of 38?? latitude and south of 38.35?? latitude. This suggests that the graben is not a NE extension of the structural complex composed of the Rough Creek Fault System and the Reelfoot Rift as previously interpreted. Structural complexity on the graben floor also decreases to the south. Structural trends north of 38?? latitude are offset laterally across several large faults, indicating strike-slip motions of 2 to 4 km. Some of the major faults are interpreted to penetrate to depths of 7 km or more. Correlation of these faults with steep potential field gradients suggests that the fault positions are controlled by major lithologic contacts within the basement and that the faults may extend into the depth range where earthquakes are generated, revealing a potential link between specific faults and recently observed low-level seismicity in the area.

  1. Miocene tectonics of the Maramures area (Northern Romania): implications for the Mid-Hungarian fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, M.; Gröger, H. R.; Fügenschuh, B.; Schmid, S. M.

    2007-06-01

    The interplay between the emplacement of crustal blocks (e.g. “ALCAPA”, “Tisza”, “Dacia”) and subduction retreat is a key issue for understanding the Miocene tectonic history of the Carpathians. Coeval thrusting and basin formation is linked by transfer zones, such as the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, which seperates ALCAPA from Tisza-Dacia. The presented study provides new kinematic data from this transfer zone. Early Burdigalian (20.5 to ˜18.5 Ma) SE-directed thrusting of the easternmost tip of ALCAPA (Pienides), over Tisza-Dacia is linked to movements along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone and the Periadriatic line, accommodating the lateral extrusion of ALCAPA. Minor Late Burdigalian (˜18.5 to 16 Ma) NE-SW extension is interpreted as related to back-arc extension. Post Burdigalian (post-16 Ma) NE SW shortening and NW SE extension correlate with “soft collision” of Tisza-Dacia with the European foreland coupled with southward migration of active subduction. During this stage the Bogdan-Voda and Dragos-Voda faults were kinematically linked to the Mid-Hungarian fault zone. Sinistral transpression (16 to 12 Ma) at the Bogdan-Voda fault was followed by sinistral transtension (12 10 Ma) along the coupled Bogdan-Dragos-Voda fault system. During the transtensional stage left-lateral offset was reduced eastwards by SW trending normal faults, the fault system finally terminating in an extensional horse-tail splay.

  2. Software Evolution and the Fault Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

    1999-01-01

    In developing a software system, we would like to estimate the way in which the fault content changes during its development, as well determine the locations having the highest concentration of faults. In the phases prior to test, however, there may be very little direct information regarding the number and location of faults. This lack of direct information requires developing a fault surrogate from which the number of faults and their location can be estimated. We develop a fault surrogate based on changes in the fault index, a synthetic measure which has been successfully used as a fault surrogate in previous work. We show that changes in the fault index can be used to estimate the rates at which faults are inserted into a system between successive revisions. We can then continuously monitor the total number of faults inserted into a system, the residual fault content, and identify those portions of a system requiring the application of additional fault detection and removal resources.

  3. Link direction for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-03-01

    Almost all previous studies on link prediction have focused on using the properties of the network to predict the existence of links between pairs of nodes. Unfortunately, previous methods rarely consider the role of link direction for link prediction. In fact, many real-world complex networks are directed and ignoring the link direction will mean overlooking important information. In this study, we propose a phase-dynamic algorithm of the directed network nodes to analyse the role of link directions and demonstrate that the bi-directional links and the one-directional links have different roles in link prediction and network structure formation. From this, we propose new directional prediction methods and use six real networks to test our algorithms. In real networks, we find that compared to a pair of nodes which are connected by a one-directional link, a pair of nodes which are connected by a bi-directional link always have higher probabilities to connect to the common neighbours with only bi-directional links (or conversely by one-directional links). We suggest that, in the real networks, the bi-directional links will generally be more informative for link prediction and network structure formation. In addition, we propose a new directional randomized algorithm to demonstrate that the direction of the links plays a significant role in link prediction and network structure formation.

  4. Introduction to Special Section: Mechanical Involvement of Fluids in Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Stephen; Sibson, Richard; Bruhn, Ronald

    1995-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that fluids are intimately linked to a variety of faulting processes. These include the long term structural and compositional evolution of fault zones; fault creep; and the nucleation, propagation, arrest, and recurrence of earthquake ruptures. Besides the widely recognized physical role of fluid pressures in controlling the strength of crustal fault zones, it is also apparent that fluids can exert mechanical influence through a variety of chemical effects. The United States Geological Survey sponsored a Conference on the Mechanical Effects of Fluids in Faulting under the auspices of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program at Fish Camp, California, from June 6 to 10, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to draw together and to evaluate the disparate evidence for the involvement of fluids in faulting; to establish communication on the importance of fluids in the mechanics of faulting between the different disciplines concerned with fault zone processes; and to help define future critical investigations, experiments, and observational procedures for evaluating the role of fluids in faulting. This conference drew together a diverse group of 45 scientists, with expertise in electrical and magnetic methods, geochemistry, hydrology, ore deposits, rock mechanics, seismology, and structural geology. Some of the outstanding questions addressed at this workshop included the following: 1. What are fluid pressures at different levels within seismically active fault zones? Do they remain hydrostatic throughout the full depth extent of the seismogenic regime, or are they generally superhydrostatic at depths in excess of a few kilometers? 2. Are fluid pressures at depth within fault zones constant through an earthquake cycle, or are they time-dependent? What is the spatial variability in fluid pressures? 3. What is the role of crustal fluids in the overall process of stress accumulation, release, and transfer during the earthquake

  5. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  6. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fault. 404.507 Section 404.507 Employees... Officer § 404.507 Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 404.506 and 42 CFR 405.355) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making the overpayment,...

  7. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Be