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Sample records for linking species physiology

  1. Impact of UV-B exposure on amphibian embryos: linking species physiology and oviposition behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Palen, Wendy J; Williamson, Craig E; Clauser, Aaron A; Schindler, Daniel E

    2005-01-01

    Increasing ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) has recently captured the attention of ecologists as a key environmental stressor. Certain species may be particularly vulnerable as a result of either high natural exposure to UV-B or limited physiological capacity to withstand it. UV-B sensitivity has been examined at the cellular and individual level for a wide variety of taxa, but estimates of exposure to UV-B in natural systems are lacking and predictions of large-scale impacts are therefore limited. Here, we combine data on the physiological sensitivity to UV-B and patterns of field exposure across sites for embryos of several well-studied US Pacific Northwest amphibian species. We find substantial differences among species' physiological abilities to withstand UV-B and in the level of UV-B exposure of embryos in the field. More specifically, we find that species with the highest physiological sensitivity to UV-B are those with the lowest field exposures as a function of the location of embryos and the UV-B attenuation properties of water at each site. These results also suggest that conclusions made about species' vulnerability to UV-B in the absence of information on field exposures may often be misleading. PMID:16024386

  2. Mechanistic species distribution modelling as a link between physiology and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tyler G.; Diamond, Sarah E.; Kelly, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change conservation planning relies heavily on correlative species distribution models that estimate future areas of occupancy based on environmental conditions encountered in present-day ranges. The approach benefits from rapid assessment of vulnerability over a large number of organisms, but can have poor predictive power when transposed to novel environments and reveals little in the way of causal mechanisms that define changes in species distribution or abundance. Having conservation planning rely largely on this single approach also increases the risk of policy failure. Mechanistic models that are parameterized with physiological information are expected to be more robust when extrapolating distributions to future environmental conditions and can identify physiological processes that set range boundaries. Implementation of mechanistic species distribution models requires knowledge of how environmental change influences physiological performance, and because this information is currently restricted to a comparatively small number of well-studied organisms, use of mechanistic modelling in the context of climate change conservation is limited. In this review, we propose that the need to develop mechanistic models that incorporate physiological data presents an opportunity for physiologists to contribute more directly to climate change conservation and advance the field of conservation physiology. We begin by describing the prevalence of species distribution modelling in climate change conservation, highlighting the benefits and drawbacks of both mechanistic and correlative approaches. Next, we emphasize the need to expand mechanistic models and discuss potential metrics of physiological performance suitable for integration into mechanistic models. We conclude by summarizing other factors, such as the need to consider demography, limiting broader application of mechanistic models in climate change conservation. Ideally, modellers, physiologists and

  3. Remote sensing of fire severity: linking post-fire reflectance data with physiological responses in two western conifer species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, A. M.; Smith, A. M.; Kolden, C.; Apostol, K. G.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in forested ecosystems in the western U.S. and can be responsible for long-term impacts on vegetation and soil. An improved understanding of how ecosystems recover after fire is necessary so that land managers can plan for and mitigate the effects of these disturbances. Although several studies have attempted to link fire intensity with severity, direct links between spectral indices of severity and key physiological changes in vegetation are not well understood. We conducted an assessment of how two western conifer species respond to four fire radiative energy treatments, with spectra acquired pre- and up to a month post-burn. After transforming the spectral data into Landsat 8 equivalent reflectance, burn severity indices commonly used in the remote sensing community were compared to concurrent physiological measurements including gas exchange and photosynthetic rate. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships between several fire severity indices and physiological responses measured in the conifer seedlings.

  4. Linking Species Traits to the Abiotic Template of Flowing Waters: Contrasting Eco physiologies Underlie Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in a Large River-Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, A. F.

    2005-05-01

    The St. Lawrence River-Estuary was the gateway of entry for dreissenids to North America and holds some of the oldest populations. The St. Lawrence also has four distinct physical-chemical water masses (a regional scale abiotic template) that both species inhabit. Despite their ecological similarities, quagga mussels are supplanting zebra mussels in much of their shared range. In order to try to better understand the changing distributions of these two species we compared glycogen, shell mass and tissue biomass in each of the water masses. This comparative physiological combined with experimental approaches (estuarine salinity experiments and reciprocal transplants) showed that while quagga mussels should dominate in most habitats, that abiotic/bioenergetic constraints in two regions (the Ottawa River plume and the freshwater-marine transition zone) might prevent them from dominating these locations. These findings are an example of how the interaction of landscape scale abiotic heterogeneity and a species-specific physiology can have strong impacts of distribution of biota large rivers.

  5. Evidence that the negative relationship between seed mass and relative growth rate is not physiological but linked to species identity: a within-family analysis of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jorge; Reich, Peter B; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Guerrero, Juan D

    2008-07-01

    Seed mass and relative growth rate (RGR) are important determinants of early seedling growth, and hence seedling establishment. Although a positive interspecific relationship between seed mass and seedling dry mass is well established, much less is known about the relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within species. We examined relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within and among maternal plant lines of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To assess the effects of seed mass and maternal origin on RGR, individual seeds from two seed crops (years 2004 and 2005) of ten maternal plants growing under nursery conditions were weighed and then germinated. Seed mass was strongly determined by maternal plant, and seedling mass was largely determined by seed mass, with a positive correlation between these variables both across and within maternal plants. In contrast, RGR was weakly related to seed mass, with no consistent pattern in the sign of the relationship. It is well known that species differ in RGR and that RGR is related to seed mass across species. Lack of consistent evidence for this relationship within maternal lines, and for Scots pine overall, suggests that the relationship is not directly causal, but reflects consistent evolutionary covariation in these two physiologically independent traits.

  6. Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Sena, Laura A; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2012-10-26

    Historically, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) were thought to exclusively cause cellular damage and lack a physiological function. Accumulation of ROS and oxidative damage have been linked to multiple pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cancer, and premature aging. Thus, mROS were originally envisioned as a necessary evil of oxidative metabolism, a product of an imperfect system. Yet few biological systems possess such flagrant imperfections, thanks to the persistent optimization of evolution, and it appears that oxidative metabolism is no different. More and more evidence suggests that mROS are critical for healthy cell function. In this Review, we discuss this evidence following some background on the generation and regulation of mROS.

  7. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Physiological stress links parasites to carotenoid-based colour signals.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, F; Martínez-Padilla, J; Bortolotti, G R; Webster, L M I; Piertney, S B

    2010-03-01

    Vertebrates commonly use carotenoid-based traits as social signals. These can reliably advertise current nutritional status and health because carotenoids must be acquired through the diet and their allocation to ornaments is traded-off against other self-maintenance needs. We propose that the coloration more generally reveals an individual's ability to cope with stressful conditions. We tested this idea by manipulating the nematode parasite infection in free-living red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) and examining the effects on body mass, carotenoid-based coloration of a main social signal and the amount of corticosterone deposited in feathers grown during the experiment. We show that parasites increase stress and reduce carotenoid-based coloration, and that the impact of parasites on coloration was associated with changes in corticosterone, more than changes in body mass. Carotenoid-based coloration appears linked to physiological stress and could therefore reveal an individual's ability to cope with stressors.

  9. Physiological links of circadian clock and biological clock of aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Chang, Hung-Chun

    2017-01-20

    Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles. With aging, circadian desynchrony occurs at the expense of peripheral metabolic pathologies and central neurodegenerative disorders with sleep symptoms, and genetic ablation of circadian genes in model organisms resembled the aging-related features. Notably, a number of studies have linked longevity nutrient sensing pathways in modulating circadian clocks. Therapeutic strategies that bridge the nutrient sensing pathways and circadian clock might be rational designs to defy aging.

  10. Biological causal links on physiological and evolutionary time scales

    PubMed Central

    Karmon, Amit; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-01-01

    Correlation does not imply causation. If two variables, say A and B, are correlated, it could be because A causes B, or that B causes A, or because a third factor affects them both. We suggest that in many cases in biology, the causal link might be bi-directional: A causes B through a fast-acting physiological process, while B causes A through a slowly accumulating evolutionary process. Furthermore, many trained biologists tend to consistently focus at first on the fast-acting direction, and overlook the slower process in the opposite direction. We analyse several examples from modern biology that demonstrate this bias (codon usage optimality and gene expression, gene duplication and genetic dispensability, stem cell division and cancer risk, and the microbiome and host metabolism) and also discuss an example from linguistics. These examples demonstrate mutual effects between the fast physiological processes and the slow evolutionary ones. We believe that building awareness of inference biases among biologists who tend to prefer one causal direction over another could improve scientific reasoning. PMID:27113916

  11. Biological causal links on physiological and evolutionary time scales.

    PubMed

    Karmon, Amit; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-04-26

    Correlation does not imply causation. If two variables, say A and B, are correlated, it could be because A causes B, or that B causes A, or because a third factor affects them both. We suggest that in many cases in biology, the causal link might be bi-directional: A causes B through a fast-acting physiological process, while B causes A through a slowly accumulating evolutionary process. Furthermore, many trained biologists tend to consistently focus at first on the fast-acting direction, and overlook the slower process in the opposite direction. We analyse several examples from modern biology that demonstrate this bias (codon usage optimality and gene expression, gene duplication and genetic dispensability, stem cell division and cancer risk, and the microbiome and host metabolism) and also discuss an example from linguistics. These examples demonstrate mutual effects between the fast physiological processes and the slow evolutionary ones. We believe that building awareness of inference biases among biologists who tend to prefer one causal direction over another could improve scientific reasoning.

  12. Exploring the Physiological Link between Psoriasis and Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Connor, Cody J; Liu, Vincent; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin condition with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity, which often goes unrecognized. Beyond the negative consequences of mood disorders like depression and anxiety on patient quality of life, evidence suggests that these conditions can worsen the severity of psoriatic disease. The mechanisms behind this relationship are not entirely understood, but inflammation seems to be a key feature linking psoriasis with mood disorders, and physiologic modulators of this inflammation, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, demonstrate changes with psychopathology that may be contributory. Cyclical disruptions in the secretion of the sleep hormone, melatonin, are also observed in both depression and psoriasis, and with well-recognized anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, this aberration may represent a shared contributor to both conditions as well as common comorbidities like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While understanding the complexities of the biological mechanisms at play will be key in optimizing the management of patients with comorbid psoriasis and depression/anxiety, one thing is certain: recognition of psychiatric comorbidity is an imperative first step in effectively treating these patients as a whole. Evidence that improvement in mood decreases psoriasis severity underscores how psychological awareness can be critical to clinicians in their practice.

  13. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression-a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold-is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms.

  14. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  15. Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of ocean warming and acidification on individual species of marine ectothermic animals may be based on some common denominators, i.e. physiological responses that can be assumed to reflect unifying principles, common to all marine animal phyla. Identification of these principles requires studies, which reach beyond the species-specific response, and consider multiple stressors, for example temperature, CO2 or extreme hypoxia. Analyses of response and acclimation include functional traits of physiological performance on various levels of biological organisation, from changes in the transcriptome to patterns of acid-base regulation and whole animal thermal tolerance. Conclusions are substantiated by comparisons of species and phyla from temperate, Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems and also benefit from the interpretation of paleo-patterns based on the use of a unifying physiological concept, suitable to integrate relevant environmental factors into a more comprehensive picture. Studying the differential specialization of animals on climate regimes and their sensitivity to climate leads to improved understanding of ongoing and past ecosystem change and should then support more reliable projections of future scenarios. For example, accumulating CO2 causes disturbances in acid-base status. Resilience to ocean acidification may be reflected in the capacity to compensate for these disturbances or their secondary effects. Ion and pH regulation comprise thermally sensitive active and passive transfer processes across membranes. Specific responses of ion transporter genes and their products to temperature and CO2 were found in fish, crustaceans and bivalves. However, compensation may cause unfavourable shifts in energy budget and beyond that hamper cellular and mitochondrial metabolism, which are directly linked to the animal's aerobic performance window. In crabs, oysters and, possibly, fishes, a narrowing of the thermal window is caused by moderate increases in

  16. Herpetological diversity along Andean elevational gradients: links with physiological ecology and evolutionary physiology.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carlos A

    2002-11-01

    A well-defined macroecological pattern is the decline in biodiversity with altitude. However, this decline is taxa-specific. For example, amphibians are more diverse than squamates at extreme elevations in the tropical Andes, but this pattern is reversed at extreme elevations in the southern latitudes. Several ecophysiological and evolutionary factors may be related to this difference. At high-elevations in southern latitudes temperature differs dramatically among seasons and dry soils dominate, characteristics that appear to favor lizard physiological ecology. Tropical high altitudes, in contrast, are humid and offer abundant and diverse water resources. These characteristics allow for a richer anuran community but might complicate lizard egg development through temperature and oxygen constrains. Differences in strategies of thermal adaptation might also modulate diversity patterns. The thermal physiology of anurans is extremely labile so that behavioral and physiological performance is maintained despite an altitudinal decrease in field body temperature. Lizards, in contrast, exhibit a conservative thermal physiology and rely on behavioral thermoregulation to face cold and variable temperatures. Both, lizard behavioral strategies and anuran physiological adjustments seem equally efficient in allowing ecological success and diversification for both groups in the tropics up to approximately 3000 m. At higher elevations physiological thermal adaptation is required, and lizards are ecologically constrained, perhaps at various ontogenetic stages. Patterns of biodiversity along environmental clines can be better understood through a physiological approach, and can help to refine and propose hypotheses in evolutionary physiology.

  17. Physiological links between circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition are closely interlinked. A great deal of recent research has investigated not only how aspects of metabolic physiology are driven by circadian clocks, but also how these circadian clocks are themselves sensitive to metabolic change. At the cellular level, novel feedback loops have been identified that couple circadian 'clock genes' and their proteins to expression of nuclear receptors, regulation of redox state and other major pathways. Using targeted disruption of circadian clocks, mouse models are providing novel insight into the role of tissue-specific clocks in glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation. The relationship between circadian rhythms and obesity appears complex, with variable alteration of rhythms in obese individuals. However, it is clear from animal studies that the timing and nutritional composition of meals can regulate circadian rhythms, particularly in peripheral tissues. Translation of these findings to human physiology now represents an important goal.

  18. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes. PMID:26823950

  19. Circadian Dysrhythmias, Physiological Aberrations, and the Link to Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Arbesman, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are core regulators of a variety of mammalian physiologic processes and oscillate in a 24-h pattern. Many peripheral organs possess endogenous rhythmicity that is then modulated by a master clock; the skin is one of these peripheral organs. The dysregulation of rhythms is associated with decreased ability to ameliorate cellular stressors at a local and global level, which then increases the propensity for the development of neoplastic growths. In this article, we review the implications of altered circadian rhythms on DNA repair as well as modified gene expression of core clock proteins with particular focus on skin models. These findings are then correlated with epidemiologic data regarding skin cancer to showcase the effects of circadian disruption on this phenomenon. PMID:27128901

  20. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Physiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Filip, Pavel; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Manto, Mario-Ubaldo; Bareš, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Essential tremor (ET), clinically characterized by postural and kinetic tremors, predominantly in the upper extremities, originates from pathological activity in the dynamic oscillatory network comprising the majority of nodes in the central motor network. Evidence indicates dysfunction in the thalamus, the olivocerebellar loops, and intermittent cortical engagement. Pathology of the cerebellum, a structure with architecture intrinsically predisposed to oscillatory activity, has also been implicated in ET as shown by clinical, neuroimaging, and pathological studies. Despite electrophysiological studies assessing cerebellar impairment in ET being scarce, their impact is tangible, as summarized in this review. The electromyography-magnetoencephalography combination provided the first direct evidence of pathological alteration in cortico-subcortical communication, with a significant emphasis on the cerebellum. Furthermore, complex electromyography studies showed disruptions in the timing of agonist and antagonist muscle activation, a process generally attributed to the cerebellum. Evidence pointing to cerebellar engagement in ET has also been found in electrooculography measurements, cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, and, indirectly, in complex analyses of the activity of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (an area primarily receiving inputs from the cerebellum), which is also used in the advanced treatment of ET. In summary, further progress in therapy will require comprehensive electrophysiological and physiological analyses to elucidate the precise mechanisms leading to disease symptoms. The cerebellum, as a major node of this dynamic oscillatory network, requires further study to aid this endeavor.

  1. Linking vegetation structure, function and physiology through spectroscopic remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, S.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Rogers, A.; Desai, A. R.; Kruger, E. L.; Townsend, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem process models require detailed information on ecosystem states and canopy properties to properly simulate the fluxes of carbon (C), water and energy from the land to the atmosphere and assess the vulnerability of ecosystems to perturbations. Current models fail to adequately capture the magnitude, spatial variation, and seasonality of terrestrial C uptake and storage, leading to significant uncertainties in the size and fate of the terrestrial C sink. By and large, these parameter and process uncertainties arise from inadequate spatial and temporal representation of plant traits, vegetation structure, and functioning. With increases in computational power and changes to model architecture and approaches, it is now possible for models to leverage detailed, data rich and spatially explicit descriptions of ecosystems to inform parameter distributions and trait tradeoffs. In this regard, spectroscopy and imaging spectroscopy data have been shown to be invaluable observational datasets to capture broad-scale spatial and, eventually, temporal dynamics in important vegetation properties. We illustrate the linkage of plant traits and spectral observations to supply key data constraints for model parameterization. These constraints can come either in the form of the raw spectroscopic data (reflectance, absorbtance) or physiological traits derived from spectroscopy. In this presentation we highlight our ongoing work to build ecological scaling relationships between critical vegetation characteristics and optical properties across diverse and complex canopies, including temperate broadleaf and conifer forests, Mediterranean vegetation, Arctic systems, and agriculture. We focus on work at the leaf, stand, and landscape scales, illustrating the importance of capturing the underlying variability in a range of parameters (including vertical variation within canopies) to enable more efficient scaling of traits related to functional diversity of ecosystems.

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Beckhauser, Thiago Fernando; Francis-Oliveira, José; De Pasquale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity. Nevertheless, controlled ROS production provides the optimal redox state for the activation of transductional pathways involved in synaptic changes. Since ROS may regulate neuronal activity and elicit negative effects at the same time, the distinction between beneficial and deleterious consequences is unclear. In this regard, this review assesses current research and describes the main sources of ROS in neurons, specifying their involvement in synaptic plasticity and distinguishing between physiological and pathological processes implicated. PMID:27625575

  3. Species-specific identification of penicillium linked to patulin contamination.

    PubMed

    Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann; McGovern, Amy E

    2007-11-01

    Certain species of Penicillium have been reported to produce the mycotoxin patulin, and research was undertaken to identify these with the use of oligonucleotide primer pairs. Species examined were found in food, plants, and soil and were reported to produce patulin. Penicillium expansum is the most commonly detected species linked to the presence of patulin in apple juice. At least 10 different enzymes are involved in the patulin biosynthetic pathway, including the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene. Based on nucleotide sequences previously determined for the idh gene in Penicillium species, PCR primers were designed for the species-specific detection of patulin-producing species. The 5' primers were based on differences in the second intron of the idh gene. To ensure that the primer pairs produced a PCR product restricted to the species for which it was designed, and not to unrelated species, all of the primer pairs were tested against all of the Penicillium species. With one exception, it was possible to detect a reaction only with the organism of interest. The primer pair for Penicillium griseofulvum also amplified DNA from Penicillium dipodomyicola, a closely related species; however, it was possible to distinguish between these two species by doing a second amplification, with a different primer pair specific only for P. dipodomyicola. Consequently, with different primer sets, it was possible to identify individual patulin-producing species of Penicillium.

  4. Physiological effects of toxic substances on wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Kacmar, Peter; Legath, J.

    1983-01-01

    Study of the physiological effects of contaminants on wildlife species has expanded as more sophisticated medical techniques are adapted to wildlife and as the mode of action of new classes of pesticides increase the number of organ systems which may be sublethally or lethally impacted. This paper summarizes some of the latest data published on toxicant affects on organ systems of warm-blooded vertebrates. Reporting on effects with enzyme systems concentrates on cholinesterase in blood and plasma after sublethal and lethal exposure to organophosphate end carbamate pesticides, but also covers, recent work with Na+, k+-ATPases, AST, AAT, and AL.AD. A discussion of recent work on hormones, biogenlc amines, and other compounds which indicate alteration of specific organ systems, is followed by examples of histopathological lesions associated both pathognomically and non-specifically with widely-used and/or severely toxic contaminants. All these specific effects and lesions are then discussed in terms of their potential for use diagnostically in field problems and their practical and possible impact on wildlife populations.

  5. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question.

  6. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  7. Linking mechanistic models of tree physiology with models of forest dynamics: Problems of temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.W.; Emanuel, W.R.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    The individual-based forest gap models are a potential resource in the study of forest growth responses to environmental stress acting on physiological processes. This approach is currently limited by the lack of physiological detail in the gap models and by the temporal scales separating tree physiology and the annual tree growth simulated by the gap models. We describe a general procedure that integrates process-based models of tree physiology with forest gap models. The procedure involves (1) a link between a physiological model and a gap model provided by the simulation of annual wood production (AWP), (2) a factorial execution of a physiological model to generate AWP, (3) a response-surface model describing the relationship between AWP and driving variables appropriate to the annual time scale of a gap model, and (4) a revised gap model that includes a rescaled physiological model. The modified gap model can be used to simulate the impact of environmental stress on forest growth and succession. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Cell resilience in species lifespans: a link to inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Finch, CE; Morgan, TE; Longo, VD; de Magalhaes, JP

    2010-01-01

    Species differences in lifespan have been attributed to cellular survival during various stressors, designated here as ‘cell resilience’. In primary fibroblast cultures, cell resilience during exposure to free radicals, hypoglycemia, hyperthermia, and various toxins has shown generally consistent correlations with the species characteristic lifespans of birds and mammals. However, the mechanistic links of cell resilience in fibroblast cultures to different species lifespans are poorly understood. We propose that certain experimental stressors are relevant to somatic damage in vivo during inflammatory responses of innate immunity, particularly, resistance to ROS, low glucose, and hyperthermia. According to this hypothesis, somatic cell resilience determines species' differences in longevity during repeated infections and traumatic injuries in the natural environment. Infections and injury expose local fibroblasts and other cells to ROS generated by macrophages and to local temperature elevations. Systemically, acute phase immune reactions cause hypoglycemia and hyperthermia. We propose that cell resilience to somatic stressors incurred in inflammation is important in the evolution of longevity and that longer-lived species are specifically more resistant to immune-related stressors. This hypothesis further specifies Kirkwood's disposable soma theory. We suggest expanding the battery of stressors and markers used for comparative studies to additional cell types and additional parameters relevant to host defense and to their ecological specificities. PMID:20415721

  9. Linking Insects with Crustacea: Physiology of the Pancrustacea: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    PubMed

    Tamone, Sherry L; Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    Insects and crustaceans represent critical, dominant animal groups (by biomass and species number) in terrestrial and aquatic systems, respectively. Insects (hexapods) and crustaceans are historically grouped under separate taxonomic classes within the Phylum Arthropoda, and the research communities studying hexapods and crustaceans are quite distinct. More recently, the hexapods have been shown to be evolutionarily derived from basal crustaceans, and the clade Pancrustacea recognizes this relationship. This recent evolutionary perspective, and the fact that the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology has strong communities in both invertebrate biology and insect physiology, provides the motivation for this symposium. Speakers in this symposium were selected because of their expertise in a particular field of insect or crustacean physiology, and paired in such a way as to provide a comparative view of the state of the current research in their respective fields. Presenters discussed what aspects of the physiological system are clearly conserved across insects and crustaceans and how cross-talk between researchers utilizing insects and crustaceans can fertilize understanding of such conserved systems. Speakers were also asked to identify strategies that would enable improved understanding of the evolution of physiological systems of the terrestrial insects from the aquatic crustaceans. The following collection of articles describes multiple recent advances in our understanding of Pancrustacean physiology.

  10. Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Subhashini; Jaimes, Edgar A.

    2013-01-01

    The air that we breathe contains nearly 21% oxygen, most of which is utilized by mitochondria during respiration. While we cannot live without it, it was perceived as a bane to aerobic organisms due to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites by mitochondria and other cellular compartments. However, this dogma was challenged when these species were demonstrated to modulate cellular responses through altering signaling pathways. In fact, since this discovery of a dichotomous role of reactive species in immune function and signal transduction, research in this field grew at an exponential pace and the pursuit for mechanisms involved began. Due to a significant number of review articles present on the reactive species mediated cell death, we have focused on emerging novel pathways such as autophagy, signaling and maintenance of the mitochondrial network. Despite its role in several processes, increased reactive species generation has been associated with the origin and pathogenesis of a plethora of diseases. While it is tempting to speculate that anti-oxidant therapy would protect against these disorders, growing evidence suggests that this may not be true. This further supports our belief that these reactive species play a fundamental role in maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23528859

  11. Linking Wildfire and Climate as Drivers of Plant Species and Community-level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newingham, B. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Bright, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plant species distributions and community shifts after fire are affected by burn severity, elevation, aspect, and climate. However, little empirical data exists on long-term (decadal) recovery after fire across these interacting factors, limiting understanding of fire regime characteristics and climate in post-fire community trajectories. We examined plant species and community responses a decade after fire across five fires in ponderosa pine, dry mixed coniferous, and moist mixed coniferous forests across the western USA. Using field data, we determined changes in plant communities one and ten years post-fire across gradients of burn severity, elevation, and aspect. Existing published work has shown that plant species distributions can be accurately predicted from physiologically relevant climate variables using non-parametric Random Forests models; such models have also been linked to projected climate profiles in 2030, 2060, and 2090 generated from three commonly used general circulation models (GCMs). We explore the possibility that fire and climate are coupled drivers affecting plant species distributions. Climate change may not manifest as a slow shift in plant species distributions, but as sudden, localized events tied to changing fire and other disturbance regimes.

  12. Use of automated monitoring to assess behavioral toxicology in fish: Linking behavior and physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; DeLonay, A.J.; Beauvais, S.L.; Little, E.E.; Jones, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    We measured locomotory behaviors (distance traveled, speed, tortuosity of path, and rate of change in direction) with computer-assisted analysis in 30 day posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to pesticides. We also examined cholinesterase inhibition as a potential endpoint linking physiology and behavior. Sublethal exposure to chemicals often causes changes in swimming behavior, reflecting alterations in sensory and motor systems. Swimming behavior also integrates functions of the nervous system. Rarely are the connections between physiology and behavior made. Although behavior is often suggested as a sensitive, early indicator of toxicity, behavioral toxicology has not been used to its full potential because conventional methods of behavioral assessment have relied on manual techniques, which are often time-consuming and difficult to quantify. This has severely limited the application and utility of behavioral procedures. Swimming behavior is particularly amenable to computerized assessment and automated monitoring. Locomotory responses are sensitive to toxicants and can be easily measured. We briefly discuss the use of behavior in toxicology and automated techniques used in behavioral toxicology. We also describe the system we used to determine locomotory behaviors of fish, and present data demonstrating the system's effectiveness in measuring alterations in response to chemical challenges. Lastly, we correlate behavioral and physiological endpoints.

  13. Physiological Plasticity to Water Flow Habitat in the Damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: Linking Phenotype to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Binning, Sandra A.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Nusbaumer, David; Roche, Dominique G.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1) whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2) whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3) whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology. PMID:25807560

  14. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  15. Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    characterize the effects of RP/BR-aerosol exposure on the visual startle responses of rock doves. Based upon previous drug studies (e.g., Davis, 1980; Ison...Inspection Denver Federal Center Service Denver, CO 80225-0266 ID BEHAVIORAL-PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RED PHOSPHORUS (0 SMOKE INHALATION ON TWO WILDLIFE...TITLE (Include Securnty Clawf icatson) (U) Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species 12. PERSONAL

  16. Na+/H+ exchangers: physiology and link to hypertension and organ ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Bobulescu, I. Alexandru; Di Sole, Francesca; Moe, Orson W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) are ubiquitous proteins with a very wide array of physiological functions, which are summarized here with an emphasis on the most recent advances. Hypertension and organ ischemia are two disease states of paramount importance in which NHEs have been implicated. The involvement of NHEs in the pathophysiology of these disorders is incompletely understood. This paper reviews the principal findings and current hypotheses linking NHE dysfunction to hypertension and ischemia. Recent findings With the advent of large-scale sequencing projects and powerful in-silico analyses, we have come to know what is most likely the entire mammalian NHE gene family. Recent advances have detailed the roles of NHE proteins, exploring new functions such as anchoring, scaffolding and pH regulation of intracellular compartments. Studies of NHEs in disease models, though not conclusive to date, have contributed new evidence on the interplay of ion transporters and the delicate ion balances that may become disrupted. Summary This review provides the interested reader with a concise overview of NHE physiology, and addresses the implication of NHEs in the pathophysiology of hypertension and organ ischemia in light of the most recent literature. PMID:16046909

  17. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity in an ecological context: linking physiological mechanisms to evolutionary processes.

    PubMed

    Lema, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    Hormones are chemical signaling molecules that regulate patterns of cellular physiology and gene expression underlying phenotypic traits. Hormone-signaling pathways respond to an organism's external environment to mediate developmental stage-specific malleability in phenotypes, so that environmental variation experienced at different stages of development has distinct effects on an organism's phenotype. Studies of hormone-signaling are therefore playing a central role in efforts to understand how plastic phenotypic responses to environmental variation are generated during development. But, how do adaptive, hormonally mediated phenotypes evolve if the individual signaling components (hormones, conversion enzymes, membrane transporters, and receptors) that comprise any hormone-signaling pathway show expressional flexibility in response to environmental variation? What relevance do these components hold as molecular targets for selection to couple or decouple correlated hormonally mediated traits? This article explores how studying the endocrine underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant context can provide insights into these, and other, crucial questions into the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution, including how plasticity itself evolves. These issues are discussed in the light of investigations into how thyroid hormones mediate morphological plasticity in Death Valley's clade of pupfishes (Cyprinodon spp.). Findings from this work with pupfish illustrate that the study of hormone-signaling from an ecological perspective can reveal how phenotypic plasticity contributes to the generation of phenotypic novelty, as well as how physiological mechanisms developmentally link an organism's phenotype to its environmental experiences.

  18. Linking hydrothermal geochemistry to organismal physiology: physiological versatility in Riftia pachyptila from sedimented and basalt-hosted vents.

    PubMed

    Robidart, Julie C; Roque, Annelys; Song, Pengfei; Girguis, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Much of what is known regarding Riftia pachyptila physiology is based on the wealth of studies of tubeworms living at diffuse flows along the fast-spreading, basalt-hosted East Pacific Rise (EPR). These studies have collectively suggested that Riftia pachyptila and its chemoautotrophic symbionts are physiologically specialized, highly productive associations relying on hydrogen sulfide and oxygen to generate energy for carbon fixation, and the symbiont's nitrate reduction to ammonia for energy and biosynthesis. However, Riftia also flourish in sediment-hosted vents, which are markedly different in geochemistry than basalt-hosted systems. Here we present data from shipboard physiological studies and global quantitative proteomic analyses of Riftia pachyptila trophosome tissue recovered from tubeworms residing in the EPR and the Guaymas basin, a sedimented, hydrothermal vent field. We observed marked differences in symbiont nitrogen metabolism in both the respirometric and proteomic data. The proteomic data further suggest that Riftia associations in Guaymas may utilize different sulfur compounds for energy generation, may have an increased capacity for energy storage, and may play a role in degrading exogenous organic carbon. Together these data reveal that Riftia symbionts are far more physiologically plastic than previously considered, and that--contrary to previous assertions--Riftia do assimilate reduced nitrogen in some habitats. These observations raise new hypotheses regarding adaptations to the geochemical diversity of habitats occupied by Riftia, and the degree to which the environment influences symbiont physiology and evolution.

  19. A link between eumelanism and calcium physiology in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre; Dauwe, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel; Beaud, Michel

    2006-09-01

    In many animals, melanin-based coloration is strongly heritable and is largely insensitive to the environment and body condition. According to the handicap principle, such a trait may not reveal individual quality because the production of different melanin-based colorations often entails similar costs. However, a recent study showed that the production of eumelanin pigments requires relatively large amounts of calcium, potentially implying that melanin-based coloration is associated with physiological processes requiring calcium. If this is the case, eumelanism may be traded-off against other metabolic processes that require the same elements. We used a correlative approach to examine, for the first time, this proposition in the barn owl, a species in which individuals vary in the amount, size, and blackness of eumelanic spots. For this purpose, we measured calcium concentration in the left humerus of 85 dead owls. Results showed that the humeri of heavily spotted individuals had a higher concentration of calcium. This suggests either that plumage spottiness signals the ability to absorb calcium from the diet for both eumelanin production and storage in bones, or that lightly spotted individuals use more calcium for metabolic processes at the expense of calcium storage in bones. Our study supports the idea that eumelanin-based coloration is associated with a number of physiological processes requiring calcium.

  20. A link between eumelanism and calcium physiology in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Dauwe, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel; Beaud, Michel

    2006-09-01

    In many animals, melanin-based coloration is strongly heritable and is largely insensitive to the environment and body condition. According to the handicap principle, such a trait may not reveal individual quality because the production of different melanin-based colorations often entails similar costs. However, a recent study showed that the production of eumelanin pigments requires relatively large amounts of calcium, potentially implying that melanin-based coloration is associated with physiological processes requiring calcium. If this is the case, eumelanism may be traded-off against other metabolic processes that require the same elements. We used a correlative approach to examine, for the first time, this proposition in the barn owl, a species in which individuals vary in the amount, size, and blackness of eumelanic spots. For this purpose, we measured calcium concentration in the left humerus of 85 dead owls. Results showed that the humeri of heavily spotted individuals had a higher concentration of calcium. This suggests either that plumage spottiness signals the ability to absorb calcium from the diet for both eumelanin production and storage in bones, or that lightly spotted individuals use more calcium for metabolic processes at the expense of calcium storage in bones. Our study supports the idea that eumelanin-based coloration is associated with a number of physiological processes requiring calcium.

  1. The physiological link between metabolic rate depression and tau phosphorylation in mammalian hibernation.

    PubMed

    Stieler, Jens T; Bullmann, Torsten; Kohl, Franziska; Tøien, Øivind; Brückner, Martina K; Härtig, Wolfgang; Barnes, Brian M; Arendt, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein are hallmarks of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased tau phosphorylation is assumed to represent an early event in pathogenesis and a pivotal aspect for aggregation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the regulation of tau phosphorylation in vivo and the causes for its increased stage of phosphorylation in AD are still not well understood, a fact that is primarily based on the lack of adequate animal models. Recently we described the reversible formation of highly phosphorylated tau protein in hibernating European ground squirrels. Hence, mammalian hibernation represents a model system very well suited to study molecular mechanisms of both tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation under in vivo physiological conditions. Here, we analysed the extent and kinetics of hibernation-state dependent tau phosphorylation in various brain regions of three species of hibernating mammals: arctic ground squirrels, Syrian hamsters and black bears. Overall, tau protein was highly phosphorylated in torpor states and phosphorylation levels decreased after arousal in all species. Differences between brain regions, hibernation-states and phosphosites were observed with respect to degree and kinetics of tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, we tested the phosphate net turnover of tau protein to analyse potential alterations in kinase and/or phosphatase activities during hibernation. Our results demonstrate that the hibernation-state dependent phosphorylation of tau protein is specifically regulated but involves, in addition, passive, temperature driven regulatory mechanisms. By determining the activity-state profile for key enzymes of tau phosphorylation we could identify kinases potentially involved in the differentially regulated, reversible tau phosphorylation that occurs during hibernation. We show that in black bears hibernation is associated with conformational

  2. Locomotor performance of closely related Tropidurus species: relationships with physiological parameters and ecological divergence.

    PubMed

    Kohlsdorf, Tiana; James, Rob S; Carvalho, José E; Wilson, Robbie S; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Navas, Carlos A

    2004-03-01

    Tropidurid lizards have colonized a variety of Brazilian open environments without remarkable morphological variation, despite ecological and structural differences among habitats used. This study focuses on two Tropidurus sister-species that, despite systematic proximity and similar morphology, exhibit great ecological divergence and a third ecologically generalist congeneric species providing an outgroup comparison. We quantified jumping capacity and sprint speed of each species on sand and rock to test whether ecological divergence was also accompanied by differences in locomotor performance. Relevant physiological traits possibly associated with locomotor performance - metabolic scopes and fiber type composition, power output and activity of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase of the iliofibularis muscle - were also compared among the three Tropidurus species. We found that the two sister-species exhibited remarkable differences in jumping performance, while Tropidurus oreadicus, the more distantly related species, exhibited intermediate values. Tropidurus psamonastes, a species endemic to sand dunes, exhibited high absolute sprint speeds on sand, jumped rarely and possessed a high proportion of glycolytic fibers and low activity of citrate synthase. The sister-species Tropidurus itambere, endemic to rocky outcrops, performed a large number of jumps and achieved lower absolute sprint speed than T. psamonastes. This study provides evidence of rapid divergence of locomotor parameters between sister-species that use different substrates, which is only partially explained by variation in physiological parameters of the iliofibularis muscle.

  3. Small Fish Species as Powerful Model Systems to Study Vertebrate Physiology in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M.; Aceto, J.; Dalcq, J.; Alestrom, P.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Goerlich, R.; Schiller, V.; Winkler, C.; Renn, J.; Eberius, M.; Slenzka, K.

    2008-06-01

    Small fish models, mainly zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes), have been used for many years as powerful model systems for vertebrate developmental biology. Moreover, these species are increasingly recognized as valuable systems to study vertebrate physiology, pathology, pharmacology and toxicology, including in particular bone physiology. The biology of small fishes presents many advantages, such as transparency of the embryos, external and rapid development, small size and easy reproduction. Further characteristics are particularly useful for space research or for large scale screening approaches. Finally, many technologies for easily characterizing bones are available. Our objective is to investigate the changes induced by microgravity in small fish. By combining whole genome analysis (microarray, DNA methylation, chromatin modification) with live imaging of selected genes in transgenic animals, a comprehensive and integrated characterization of physiological changes in space could be gained, especially concerning bone physiology.

  4. Major Crop Species Show Differential Balance between Root Morphological and Physiological Responses to Variable Phosphorus Supply

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yang; Tang, Hongliang; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R.; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production. PMID:28066491

  5. Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Fan, Dayong; Wu, Qian; Yan, Hui; Xu, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE) or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called "temporary drought stress" may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China.

  6. Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Hui; Xu, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE) or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China. PMID:24555059

  7. Oma1 Links Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control and TOR Signaling To Modulate Physiological Plasticity and Cellular Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Bohovych, Iryna; Kastora, Stavroula; Christianson, Sara; Topil, Danelle; Kim, Heejeong; Fangman, Teresa; Zhou, You J; Barrientos, Antoni; Lee, Jaekwon; Brown, Alistair J P; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2016-09-01

    A network of conserved proteases known as the intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) system is central to mitochondrial protein homeostasis and cellular health. IMQC proteases also appear to participate in establishment of signaling cues for mitochondrion-to-nucleus communication. However, little is known about this process. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation of the membrane-bound IMQC protease Oma1 interferes with oxidative-stress responses through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during logarithmic growth and reduced stress signaling via the TORC1-Rim15-Msn2/Msn4 axis. Pharmacological or genetic prevention of ROS accumulation in Oma1-deficient cells restores this defective TOR signaling. Additionally, inactivation of the Oma1 ortholog in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans also alters TOR signaling and, unexpectedly, leads to increased resistance to neutrophil killing and virulence in the invertebrate animal model Galleria mellonella Our findings reveal a novel and evolutionarily conserved link between IMQC and TOR-mediated signaling that regulates physiological plasticity and pancellular oxidative-stress responses.

  8. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model linking plasma protein binding interactions with drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Buur, J L; Baynes, R E; Smith, G W; Riviere, J E

    2009-04-01

    Combination drug therapy increases the chance for an adverse drug reactions due to drug-drug interactions. Altered disposition for sulfamethazine (SMZ) when concurrently administered with flunixin meglumine (FLU) in swine could lead to increased tissue residues. There is a need for a pharmacokinetic modeling technique that can predict the consequences of possible drug interactions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed that links plasma protein binding interactions to drug disposition for SMZ and FLU in swine. The model predicted a sustained decrease in total drug and a temporary increase in free drug concentration. An in vivo study confirmed the presence of a drug interaction. Neither the model nor the in vivo study revealed clinically significant changes that alter tissue disposition. This novel linkage approach has use in the prediction of the clinical impact of plasma protein binding interactions. Ultimately it could be used in the design of dosing regimens and in the protection of the food supply through prediction and minimization of tissue residues.

  9. The coordination of leaf photosynthesis links C and N fluxes in C3 plant species.

    PubMed

    Maire, Vincent; Martre, Pierre; Kattge, Jens; Gastal, François; Esser, Gerd; Fontaine, Sébastien; Soussana, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters in vegetation models and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content links the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Process understanding for reliably predicting photosynthetic capacity is still missing. To advance this understanding we have tested across C(3) plant species the coordination hypothesis, which assumes nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic processes such that photosynthesis tends to be co-limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation and regeneration. The coordination hypothesis yields an analytical solution to predict photosynthetic capacity and calculate area-based leaf nitrogen content (N(a)). The resulting model linking leaf photosynthesis, stomata conductance and nitrogen investment provides testable hypotheses about the physiological regulation of these processes. Based on a dataset of 293 observations for 31 species grown under a range of environmental conditions, we confirm the coordination hypothesis: under mean environmental conditions experienced by leaves during the preceding month, RuBP carboxylation equals RuBP regeneration. We identify three key parameters for photosynthetic coordination: specific leaf area and two photosynthetic traits (k(3), which modulates N investment and is the ratio of RuBP carboxylation/oxygenation capacity (V(Cmax)) to leaf photosynthetic N content (N(pa)); and J(fac), which modulates photosynthesis for a given k(3) and is the ratio of RuBP regeneration capacity (J(max)) to V(Cmax)). With species-specific parameter values of SLA, k(3) and J(fac), our leaf photosynthesis coordination model accounts for 93% of the total variance in N(a) across species and environmental conditions. A calibration by plant functional type of k(3) and J(fac) still leads to accurate model prediction of N(a), while SLA calibration is essentially required at species level. Observed variations in k(3) and J(fac) are partly explained by environmental and phylogenetic

  10. Physiological minimum temperatures for root growth in seven common European broad-leaved tree species.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter

    2014-03-01

    Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across species, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated species indicates species-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a species, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures.

  11. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  12. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs.

  13. Growth rates, seed size, and physiology: do small-seeded species really grow faster?

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Paul-Victor, Cloé; Schmid, Bernhard; Purves, Drew W

    2008-05-01

    Relative growth rate (RGR) is currently the most commonly used method for measuring and comparing species' intrinsic growth potential. Comparative studies have, for example, revealed that small-seeded species have higher RGR, leading to the common belief that small-seeded species possess physiological adaptations for rapid growth that would allow them to outgrow large-seeded species, given sufficient time. We show that, because RGR declines as individual plants grow, it is heavily biased by initial size and does not measure the size-corrected growth potential that determines the outcome of competition in the long-term. We develop a daily growth model that includes a simple mechanistic representation of aboveground and belowground growth and its dependency on plant size and environmental factors. Intrinsic growth potential is encapsulated by the size-independent growth coefficient, G. We parameterized the model using repeated-harvest data from 1724 plants of nine species growing in contrasting nutrient and temperature regimes. Using information-theoretic criteria, we found evidence for interspecific differences in only three of nine model parameters: G, aboveground allocation, and frost damage. With other parameters shared between species, the model accurately reproduced above- and belowground biomass trajectories for all nine species in each set of environmental conditions. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the relationship between G and seed size was positive, despite a strong negative correlation between seed size and average RGR, meaning that large-seeded rather than small-seeded species have higher size-corrected growth potential. Further, we found a significant positive correlation between G and frost damage that, according to simulations, causes rank reversals in final biomass under daily temperature changes of +/- 5 degrees C. We recommend the wider use of this new kind of plant growth analysis as a better way of understanding underlying differences in

  14. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For 40 years ecologists have sought a canonical productivity-species richness relationship 48 (PRR) for ecosystems, despite continuing disagreements about expected form and 49 interpretation. Using a large global dataset of terrestrial grasslands, we consider how 50 productivity and richness relate ...

  15. Dynamic root growth and architecture responses to limiting nutrient availability: linking physiological models and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes A; Schurr, Ulrich; Fiorani, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the study of root phenotypic plasticity in response to sub-optimal environmental factors and the genetic control of these responses have received renewed attention. As a path to increased productivity, in particular for low fertility soils, several applied research projects worldwide target the improvement of crop root traits both in plant breeding and biotechnology contexts. To assist these tasks and address the challenge of optimizing root growth and architecture for enhanced mineral resource use, the development of realistic simulation models is of great importance. We review this research field from a modeling perspective focusing particularly on nutrient acquisition strategies for crop production on low nitrogen and low phosphorous soils. Soil heterogeneity and the dynamics of nutrient availability in the soil pose a challenging environment in which plants have to forage efficiently for nutrients in order to maintain their internal nutrient homeostasis throughout their life cycle. Mathematical models assist in understanding plant growth strategies and associated root phenes that have potential to be tested and introduced in physiological breeding programs. At the same time, we stress that it is necessary to carefully consider model assumptions and development from a whole plant-resource allocation perspective and to introduce or refine modules simulating explicitly root growth and architecture dynamics through ontogeny with reference to key factors that constrain root growth. In this view it is important to understand negative feedbacks such as plant-plant competition. We conclude by briefly touching on available and developing technologies for quantitative root phenotyping from lab to field, from quantification of partial root profiles in the field to 3D reconstruction of whole root systems. Finally, we discuss how these approaches can and should be tightly linked to modeling to explore the root phenome.

  16. Proposal of fifteen new species of Parasynechococcus based on genomic, physiological and ecological features.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, F H; Dutilh, B E; Thompson, C C; Thompson, F L

    2016-12-01

    Members of the recently proposed genus Parasynechococcus (Cyanobacteria) are extremely abundant throughout the global ocean and contribute significantly to global primary productivity. However, the taxonomy of these organisms remains poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to propose a new taxonomic framework for Parasynechococcus based on a genomic taxonomy approach that incorporates genomic, physiological and ecological data. Through in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, average amino acid identity, dinucleotide signatures and phylogenetic reconstruction, a total of 15 species of Parasynechococcus could be delineated. Each species was then described on the basis of their gene content, light and nutrient utilization strategies, geographical distribution patterns throughout the oceans and response to environmental parameters.

  17. Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spasojevic, Marko J.; Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2013-01-01

    1. The physiological tolerance hypothesis proposes that plant species richness is highest in warm and/or wet climates because a wider range of functional strategies can persist under such conditions. Functional diversity metrics, combined with statistical modeling, offer new ways to test whether diversity-environment relationships are consistent with this hypothesis. 2. In a classic study by R. H. Whittaker (1960), herb species richness declined from mesic (cool, moist, northerly) slopes to xeric (hot, dry, southerly) slopes. Building on this dataset, we measured four plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area, leaf water content and foliar C:N) and used them to calculate three functional diversity metrics (functional richness, evenness, and dispersion). We then used a structural equation model to ask if ‘functional diversity’ (modeled as the joint responses of richness, evenness, and dispersion) could explain the observed relationship of topographic climate gradients to species richness. We then repeated our model examining the functional diversity of each of the four traits individually. 3. Consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis, we found that functional diversity was higher in more favorable climatic conditions (mesic slopes), and that multivariate functional diversity mediated the relationship of the topographic climate gradient to plant species richness. We found similar patterns for models focusing on individual trait functional diversity of leaf water content and foliar C:N. 4. Synthesis. Our results provide trait-based support for the physiological tolerance hypothesis, suggesting that benign climates support more species because they allow for a wider range of functional strategies.

  18. Binary pulsar evolution: unveiled links and new species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possenti, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    In the last years a series of blind and/or targeted pulsar searches led to almost triple the number of known binary pulsars in the galactic field with respect to a decade ago. The focus will be on few outliers, which are emerging from the average properties of the enlarged binary pulsar population. Some of them may represent the long sought missing links between two kinds of neutron star binaries, while others could represent the stereotype of new groups of binaries, resulting from an evolutionary path which is more exotic than those considered until recently. In particular, a new class of binaries, which can be dubbed Ultra Low Mass Binary Pulsars (ULMBPs), is emerging from recent data.

  19. Mammal predator and prey species richness are strongly linked at macroscales.

    PubMed

    Sandom, Christopher; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Kissling, W Daniel; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-05-01

    Predator-prey interactions play an important role for species composition and community dynamics at local scales, but their importance in shaping large-scale gradients of species richness remains unexplored. Here, we use global range maps, structural equation models (SEM), and comprehensive databases of dietary preferences and body masses of all terrestrial, non-volant mammals worldwide, to test whether (1) prey bottom-up or predator top-down relationships are important drivers of broad-scale species richness gradients once the environment and human influence have been accounted for, (2) predator-prey richness associations vary among biogeographic regions, and (3) body size influences large-scale covariation between predators and prey. SEMs including only productivity, climate, and human factors explained a high proportion of variance in prey richness (R2=0.56) but considerably less in predator richness (R2=0.13). Adding predator-to-prey or prey-to-predator paths strongly increased the explained variance in both cases (prey R2=0.79, predator R2=0.57), suggesting that predator-prey interactions play an important role in driving global diversity gradients. Prey bottom-up effects prevailed over productivity, climate, and human influence to explain predator richness, whereas productivity and climate were more important than predator top-down effects for explaining prey richness, although predator top-down effects were still significant. Global predator-prey associations were not reproduced in all regions, indicating that distinct paleoclimate and evolutionary histories (Africa and Australia) may alter species interactions across trophic levels. Stronger cross-trophic-level associations were recorded within categories of similar body size (e.g., large prey to large predators) than between them (e.g., large prey to small predators), suggesting that mass-related energetic and physiological constraints influence broad-scale richness links, especially for large

  20. Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Miao, Ling-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a greenhouse for comparative analysis of their physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress. The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the adaptive responses to drought stress vary between the two poplar species. As a consequence of drought stress, the stem height increment and leaf number increment are more significantly inhibited in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, in response to drought stress, more significant cellular damages such as reduction in leaf relative water content and CO(2) assimilation rate, increments in the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide and downregulation or degradation of proteins related to photosynthesis occur in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, P. kangdingensis can cope better with the negative impact on the entire regulatory network. This includes more efficient increases in content of solute sugar, soluble protein and free proline and activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as specific expressions of certain proteins related to protein processing, redox homeostasis and sugar metabolism. Morphological consequences as well as physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress between species revealed that P. kangdingensis originating from a high altitude manifest stronger drought adaptation than did P. cathayana originating from a low altitude. Functions of various proteins identified by proteomic experiment are related with physiological phenomena. Physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in poplar may work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis, allowing poplar to develop a certain level of drought tolerance.

  1. Imidazopurinones are markers of physiological genomic damage linked to DNA instability and glyoxalase 1-associated tumour multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Thornalley, Paul J; Waris, Sahar; Fleming, Thomas; Santarius, Thomas; Larkin, Sarah J; Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte M; Stratton, Michael R; Rabbani, Naila

    2010-09-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are reactive dicarbonyl metabolites formed and metabolized in physiological systems. Increased exposure to these dicarbonyls is linked to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity and enhanced dicarbonyl metabolism by overexpression of glyoxalase 1 is linked to tumour multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. We report herein that glycation of DNA by glyoxal and methylglyoxal produces a quantitatively important class of nucleotide adduct in physiological systems-imidazopurinones. The adduct derived from methylglyoxal-3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-6/7-methylimidazo-[2,3-b]purine-9(8)one isomers-was the major quantitative adduct detected in mononuclear leukocytes in vivo and tumour cell lines in vitro. It was linked to frequency of DNA strand breaks and increased markedly during apoptosis induced by a cell permeable glyoxalase 1 inhibitor. Unexpectedly, the DNA content of methylglyoxal-derived imidazopurinone and oxidative marker 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were increased moderately in glyoxalase 1-linked multidrug resistant tumour cell lines. Together these findings suggest that imidazopurinones are a major type of endogenous DNA damage and glyoxalase 1 overexpression in tumour cells strives to counter increased imidazopurinone formation in tumour cells likely linked to their high glycolytic activity.

  2. Linking microbial ultrastructure and physiology to iron depositional processes in deep sea hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; Fleming, E. J.; Emerson, D.; Edwards, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    Clara S. Chan, Emily Fleming, David Emerson, Katrina J. Edwards Iron microbial mats have been discovered in a variety of deep-sea hydrothermal environments and are increasingly being recognized as more seafloor is explored. The predominant structures found in many of these mats are iron oxyhydroxide-rich filaments. One of the most common structures is a helical stalk bearing a resemblance to the twisted stalk of the terrestrial iron-oxidizing microbe, Gallionella ferruginea. While Gallionella has not been detected in, or isolated from, these mats microaerophilic iron-oxidizing, a stalk- forming bacterium, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans (PV-1 and related strains) has been isolated from mats at the Loihi seamount in Hawaii (Emerson et al. 2007, PLoS One 2(8): e667). Fossilized aggregates of iron filaments have been observed in the rock record (e.g. Little et al. 2004, Geomicrobiol. J. 21:415), and may represent ancient versions of these microbial mats. If this is shown to be true, such filaments would represent one of the few microfossil morphologies that can be linked to a specific microbial metabolism. We have used a combination of test tube culturing, microslide culturing, time lapse microscopy, and electron microscopy to study Mariprofundus stalk morphology and genesis and link these details to physiological responses to environmental chemistry. The goals include determining specific attributes of stalk morphology that can be used to determine the biogenicity of putative iron microfossils, and interpret the conditions of the depositional environment. Light microscopic observation of microslide cultures over the course of several days allowed for determination of bacterial response to developing oxygen and Fe(II) gradients. Once gradients have been established, given an abundant supply of oxygen, cells congregate in a band perpendicular to the gradient and stalks are formed, growing in the direction of increasing oxygen (and decreasing Fe) concentration. This

  3. Tameness and stress physiology in a predator-naive island species confronted with novel predation threat.

    PubMed

    Rödl, Thomas; Berger, Silke; Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2007-02-22

    Tame behaviour, i.e. low wariness, in terrestrial island species is often attributed to low predation pressure. However, we know little about its physiological control and its flexibility in the face of predator introductions. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galapagos Islands are a good model to study the physiological correlates of low wariness. They have lived virtually without predation for 5-15 Myr until some populations were first confronted with feral cats and dogs some 150 years ago. We tested whether and to what extent marine iguanas can adjust their behaviour and endocrine stress response to novel predation threats. Here, we show that a corticosterone stress response to experimental chasing is absent in naive animals, but is quickly restored with experience. Initially, low wariness also increases with experience, but remains an order of magnitude too low to allow successful escape from introduced predators. Our data suggest that the ability of marine iguanas to cope with predator introductions is limited by narrow reaction norms for behavioural wariness rather than by constraints in the underlying physiological stress system. In general, we predict that island endemics show flexible physiological stress responses but are restricted by narrow behavioural plasticity.

  4. Tameness and stress physiology in a predator-naive island species confronted with novel predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Rödl, Thomas; Berger, Silke; Michael Romero, L; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Tame behaviour, i.e. low wariness, in terrestrial island species is often attributed to low predation pressure. However, we know little about its physiological control and its flexibility in the face of predator introductions. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands are a good model to study the physiological correlates of low wariness. They have lived virtually without predation for 5–15 Myr until some populations were first confronted with feral cats and dogs some 150 years ago. We tested whether and to what extent marine iguanas can adjust their behaviour and endocrine stress response to novel predation threats. Here, we show that a corticosterone stress response to experimental chasing is absent in naive animals, but is quickly restored with experience. Initially, low wariness also increases with experience, but remains an order of magnitude too low to allow successful escape from introduced predators. Our data suggest that the ability of marine iguanas to cope with predator introductions is limited by narrow reaction norms for behavioural wariness rather than by constraints in the underlying physiological stress system. In general, we predict that island endemics show flexible physiological stress responses but are restricted by narrow behavioural plasticity. PMID:17476779

  5. Invariance in current dipole moment density across brain structures and species: physiological constraint for neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shingo; Okada, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    Although anatomical constraints have been shown to be effective for MEG and EEG inverse solutions, there are still no effective physiological constraints. Strength of the current generator is normally described by the moment of an equivalent current dipole Q. This value is quite variable since it depends on size of active tissue. In contrast, the current dipole moment density q, defined as Q per surface area of active cortex, is independent of size of active tissue. Here we studied whether the value of q has a maximum in physiological conditions across brain structures and species. We determined the value due to the primary neuronal current (q primary) alone, correcting for distortions due to measurement conditions and secondary current sources at boundaries separating regions of differing electrical conductivities. The values were in the same range for turtle cerebellum (0.56-1.48 nAm/mm(2)), guinea pig hippocampus (0.30-1.34 nAm/mm(2)), and swine neocortex (0.18-1.63 nAm/mm(2)), rat neocortex (~2.2 nAm/mm(2)), monkey neocortex (~0.40 nAm/mm(2)) and human neocortex (0.16-0.77 nAm/mm(2)). Thus, there appears to be a maximum value across the brain structures and species (1-2 nAm/mm(2)). The empirical values closely matched the theoretical values obtained with our independently validated neural network model (1.6-2.8 nAm/mm(2) for initial spike and 0.7-3.1 nAm/mm(2) for burst), indicating that the apparent invariance is not coincidental. Our model study shows that a single maximum value may exist across a wide range of brain structures and species, varying in neuron density, due to fundamental electrical properties of neurons. The maximum value of q primary may serve as an effective physiological constraint for MEG/EEG inverse solutions.

  6. Linking host prokaryotic physiology to viral lifestyle dynamics in a temperate freshwater lake (Lake Pavin, France).

    PubMed

    Palesse, S; Colombet, J; Pradeep Ram, A S; Sime-Ngando, T

    2014-11-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, fluctuations in environmental conditions and prokaryotic host physiological states can strongly affect the dynamics of viral life strategies. The influence of prokaryote physiology and environmental factors on viral replication cycles (lytic and lysogeny) was investigated from April to September 2011 at three different strata (epi, meta, and hypolimnion) in the mixolimnion of deep volcanic temperate freshwater Lake Pavin (France). Overall, the euphotic region (epi and metalimnion) was more dynamic and showed significant variation in microbial standing stocks, prokaryotic physiological state, and viral life strategies compared to the aphotic hypolimnion which was stable within sampled months. The prokaryotic host physiology as inferred from the nucleic acid content of prokaryotic cells (high or low nucleic acid) was strongly regulated by the chlorophyll concentration. The predominance of the high nucleic acid (HNA) prokaryotes (cells) over low nucleic acid (LNA) prokaryotes (cells) in the spring (HNA/LNA = 1.2) and vice versa in the summer period (HNA/LNA = 0.4) suggest that the natural prokaryotic communities underwent major shifts in their physiological states during investigated time period. The increase in the percentage of inducible lysogenic prokaryotes in the summer period was associated with the switch in the dominance of LNA over HNA cells, which coincided with the periods of strong resource (nutrient) limitation. This supports the idea that lysogeny represents a maintenance strategy for viruses in unproductive or harsh nutrient/host conditions. A negative correlation of percentage of lysogenic prokaryotes with HNA cell abundance and chlorophyll suggest that lysogenic cycle is closely related to prokaryotic cells which are stressed or starved due to unavailability of resources for its growth and activity. Our results provide support to previous findings that changes in prokaryote physiology are critical for the promotion and

  7. Small Fish Species as Powerful Model Systems to Study Vertebrate Physiology in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, J.; Muller, M.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Alestrom, P.; van Loon, J.; Schiller, V.; Goerlich, R.; Renn, J.; Winkler, C.

    2008-06-01

    Small fish models, mainly zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) present many advantages for studying vertebrate development and physiology. In recent years, the genome sequencing and annotation is proceeding rapidly for both species, opening the way to large-scale genome-wide analyses. Our aim is to investigate the changes induced by microgravity in small fish species by combining several whole genome approaches, with a special interest in bone related genes. We present data obtained by analyzing modulation of gene expression on a whole genome level in zebrafish exposed to two different microgravity simulation experiments or to the bonemetabolizing drug Parathyroid Hormone. Our results indicate that experimental conditions play a significant role and that a one-day exposure to clinorotation or Random Positioning Machine results in few genes regulated in common. In addition, the expression of several specific candidate genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in medaka.

  8. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required to maintain genomic stability in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao-Sheng; Marbán, Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Stem cell cytogenetic abnormalities constitute a roadblock to regenerative therapies. We investigated the possibility that reactive oxygen species (ROSs) influence genomic stability in cardiac and embryonic stem cells. Karyotypic abnormalities in primary human cardiac stem cells were suppressed by culture in physiological (5%) oxygen, but addition of antioxidants to the medium unexpectedly increased aneuploidy. Intracellular ROS levels were moderately decreased in physiological oxygen, but dramatically decreased by the addition of high-dose antioxidants. Quantification of DNA damage in cardiac stem cells and in human embryonic stem cells revealed a biphasic dose-dependence: antioxidants suppressed DNA damage at low concentrations, but potentiated such damage at higher concentrations. High-dose antioxidants decreased cellular levels of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and other DNA repair enzymes, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the observed effects. These results indicate that physiological levels of intracellular ROS are required to activate the DNA repair pathway for maintaining genomic stability in stem cells. The concept of an "oxidative optimum" for genomic stability has broad implications for stem cell biology and carcinogenesis.

  9. Physiological characteristics of tropical rain forest tree species: A basis for the development of silvicultural technology

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Satohiko

    2008-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of the dominant tree species in the tropical rain forest mainly belonging to dipterocarps as well as the environmental conditions especially for the light in the forest were studied to establish the silvicultural system for the forest regeneration in the tropical South Asia. The flowering patterns of the dipterocarp trees are usually irregular and unpredictable, which make difficult to collect sufficient seeds for raising the seedlings. The field survey revealed the diverged features of the so-called gregarious or simultaneous flowering of various species of this group. Appropriate conditions and methods for the storage of the seeds were established according to the detailed analyses of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seeds such as the low temperature tolerance and the moisture contents. The intensity and spectra of the light in the forest primarily determine the growth and the morphological development of the seedlings under the canopy. Based on the measurements of the diffused light at the sites in the tropical forest in the varying sunlight, the parameters such as “the steady state of the diffuse light” and “the turning point” were defined, which were useful to evaluate the light conditions in the forest. To improve the survival of the transplanted seedlings, a planting method of “the bare-root seedlings”, the seedlings easy to be handled by removal of all leaves, soil and pots, was developed. Its marked efficiency was proved with various dipterocarps and other tropical trees by the field trial in the practical scale. Tolerance of the various species to the extreme environmental conditions such as fires, acid soils and drought were examined by the experiments and the field survey, which revealed marked adaptability of Shorea roxburghii as a potential species for regeneration of the tropical forests. PMID:18941286

  10. The Effects of Drought and Shade on the Performance, Morphology and Physiology of Ghanaian Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Amissah, Lucy; Mohren, Godefridus M. J.; Kyereh, Boateng; Poorter, Lourens

    2015-01-01

    In tropical forests light and water availability are the most important factors for seedling growth and survival but an increasing frequency of drought may affect tree regeneration. One central question is whether drought and shade have interactive effects on seedling growth and survival. Here, we present results of a greenhouse experiment, in which seedlings of 10 Ghanaian tree species were exposed to combinations of strong seasonal drought (continuous watering versus withholding water for nine weeks) and shade (5% irradiance versus 20% irradiance). We evaluated the effects of drought and shade on seedling survival and growth and plasticity of 11 underlying traits related to biomass allocation, morphology and physiology. Seedling survival under dry conditions was higher in shade than in high light, thus providing support for the “facilitation hypothesis” that shade enhances plant performance through improved microclimatic conditions, and rejecting the trade-off hypothesis that drought should have stronger impact in shade because of reduced root investment. Shaded plants had low biomass fraction in roots, in line with the trade-off hypothesis, but they compensated for this with a higher specific root length (i.e., root length per unit root mass), resulting in a similar root length per plant mass and, hence, similar water uptake capacity as high-light plants. The majority (60%) of traits studied responded independently to drought and shade, indicating that within species shade- and drought tolerances are not in trade-off, but largely uncoupled. When individual species responses were analysed, then for most of the traits only one to three species showed significant interactive effects between drought and shade. The uncoupled response of most species to drought and shade should provide ample opportunity for niche differentiation and species coexistence under a range of water and light conditions. Overall our greenhouse results suggest that, in the absence of root

  11. Drought stress limits the geographic ranges of two tree species via different physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Leander D L; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2016-03-01

    Range shifts are among the most ubiquitous ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change and have large consequences for ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ecophysiological forces that constrain range boundaries are poorly understood, making it difficult to mechanistically project range shifts. To explore the physiological mechanisms by which drought stress controls dry range boundaries in trees, we quantified elevational variation in drought tolerance and in drought avoidance-related functional traits of a widespread gymnosperm (ponderosa pine - Pinus ponderosa) and angiosperm (trembling aspen - Populus tremuloides) tree species in the southwestern USA. Specifically, we quantified tree-to-tree variation in growth, water stress (predawn and midday xylem tension), drought avoidance traits (branch conductivity, leaf/needle size, tree height, leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio), and drought tolerance traits (xylem resistance to embolism, hydraulic safety margin, wood density) at the range margins and range center of each species. Although water stress increased and growth declined strongly at lower range margins of both species, ponderosa pine and aspen showed contrasting patterns of clinal trait variation. Trembling aspen increased its drought tolerance at its dry range edge by growing stronger but more carbon dense branch and leaf tissues, implying an increased cost of growth at its range boundary. By contrast, ponderosa pine showed little elevational variation in drought-related traits but avoided drought stress at low elevations by limiting transpiration through stomatal closure, such that its dry range boundary is associated with limited carbon assimilation even in average climatic conditions. Thus, the same climatic factor (drought) may drive range boundaries through different physiological mechanisms - a result that has important implications for process-based modeling approaches to tree biogeography. Further, we show that comparing intraspecific patterns of

  12. Frost hardiness in walnut trees (Juglans regia L.): how to link physiology and modelling?

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Poirier, Magalie; Bonhomme, Marc; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    In the literature, frost hardiness (FH) studies in trees have often been restricted to one organ (buds, leaves, needles or twigs). To extend our knowledge and gain a unified view, FH differences between organs and tissues or throughout the life of the tree have to be characterized in relation to physiological changes. In this study, different organs and tissues of young potted and mature orchard walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) were compared for seasonal changes in FH during different years. FH was assessed using the electrolyte leakage method. Physiological parameters were concomitantly monitored focusing on two significant traits: water content (WC) and carbohydrate content (glucose + fructose + sucrose, GFS). No seasonal variation in FH was observed in the root system, but acclimation and deacclimation were observed aboveground. Among organs and tissues, cold sensitivity levels were different in deep winter, with buds most sensitive and bark most resistant, but acclimation/deacclimation dynamics followed similar patterns. Physiological variation was also similar among organs: FH increased when WC decreased and/or soluble carbohydrates increased. Based on these results, relations between soluble carbohydrate content, WC and FH were calculated independently or in interaction. The key results were that: (i) the relationship between FH and physiological parameters (GFS and WC), which had previously been shown for branches only, could be generalized to all aboveground organs; (ii) lower WC increased the cryoprotective effect of GFS, showing a synergic effect of the two factors; (iii) the best fit was a non-linear function of WC and GFS, yielding a predictive model with an root mean square error of 5.07 °C on an independent dataset and 2.59 °C for the most sensitive stages; and (iv) the same parameters used for all organs yielded a unified model of FH depending on physiology, although the variability of GFS or WC was wide. The model should be of value for predicting

  13. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  14. Invariance in current dipole moment density across brain structures and species: Physiological constraint for neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shingo; Okada, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Although anatomical constraints have been shown to be effective for MEG and EEG inverse solutions, there are still no effective physiological constraints. Strength of the current generator is normally described by the moment of an equivalent current dipole Q. This value is quite variable since it depends on size of active tissue. In contrast, the current dipole moment density q, defined as Q per surface area of active cortex, is independent of size of active tissue. Here we studied whether the value of q has a maximum in physiological conditions across brain structures and species. We determined the value due to the primary neuronal current (qprimary) alone, correcting for distortions due to measurement conditions and secondary current sources at boundaries separating regions of differing electrical conductivity. The values were in the same range for turtle cerebellum (0.56–1.48 nAm/mm2), guinea pig hippocampus (0.30–1.34 nAm/mm2), and swine neocortex (0.18–1.63 nAm/mm2), rat neocortex (~2.2 nAm/mm2), monkey neocortex (~0.40 nAm/mm2) and human neocortex (0.16–0.77 nAm/mm2). Thus, there appears to be a maximum value across the brain structures and species (1–2 nAm/mm2). The empirical values closely matched the theoretical values obtained with our independently validated neural network model (1.6–2.8 nAm/mm2 for initial spike and 0.7–3.1 nAm/mm2 for burst), indicating that the apparent invariance is not coincidental. Our model study shows that a single maximum value may exist across a wide range of brain structures and species, varying in neuron density, due to fundamental electrical properties of neurons. The maximum value of qprimary may serve as an effective physiological constraint for MEG/EEG inverse solutions. PMID:25680520

  15. Morphological and physiological species-dependent characteristics of the rodent Grueneberg ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Brechbühl, Julien; Klaey, Magali; Moine, Fabian; Bovay, Esther; Hurni, Nicolas; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    In the mouse, the Grueneberg ganglion (GG) is an olfactory subsystem implicated both in chemo- and thermo-sensing. It is specifically involved in the recognition of volatile danger cues such as alarm pheromones and structurally-related predator scents. No evidence for these GG sensory functions has been reported yet in other rodent species. In this study, we used a combination of histological and physiological techniques to verify the presence of a GG and investigate its function in the rat, hamster, and gerbil comparing with the mouse. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), we found isolated or groups of large GG cells of different shapes that in spite of their gross anatomical similarities, display important structural differences between species. We performed a comparative and morphological study focusing on the conserved olfactory features of these cells. We found fine ciliary processes, mostly wrapped in ensheating glial cells, in variable number of clusters deeply invaginated in the neuronal soma. Interestingly, the glial wrapping, the amount of microtubules and their distribution in the ciliary processes were different between rodents. Using immunohistochemistry, we were able to detect the expression of known GG proteins, such as the membrane guanylyl cyclase G and the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel A3. Both the expression and the subcellular localization of these signaling proteins were found to be species-dependent. Calcium imaging experiments on acute tissue slice preparations from rodent GG demonstrated that the chemo- and thermo-evoked neuronal responses were different between species. Thus, GG neurons from mice and rats displayed both chemo- and thermo-sensing, while hamsters and gerbils showed profound differences in their sensitivities. We suggest that the integrative comparison between the structural morphologies, the sensory properties, and the ethological contexts supports species-dependent GG features

  16. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  17. Physiological correlates of symbiont migration during bleaching of two octocoral species.

    PubMed

    Netherton, Sarah E; Scheer, Daniele M; Morrison, Patrick R; Parrin, Austin P; Blackstone, Neil W

    2014-05-01

    Perturbed colonies of Phenganax parrini and Sarcothelia sp. exhibit migration of symbionts of Symbiodinium spp. into the stolons. Densitometry and visual inspection indicated that polyps bleached while stolons did not. When migration was triggered by temperature, light and confinement, colonies of Sarcothelia sp. decreased rates of oxygen formation in the light (due to the effects of perturbation on photosynthesis and respiration) and increased rates of oxygen uptake in the dark (due to the effects of perturbation on respiration alone). Colonies of P. parrini, by contrast, showed no significant changes in either aspect of oxygen metabolism. When migration was triggered by light and confinement, colonies of Sarcothelia sp. showed decreased rates of oxygen formation in the light and increased rates of oxygen uptake in the dark, while colonies of P. parrini maintained the former and increased the latter. During symbiont migration into their stolons, colonies of both species showed dramatic increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), as visualized with a fluorescent probe, with stolons of Sarcothelia sp. exhibiting a nearly immediate increase of ROS. Differences in symbiont type may explain the greater sensitivity of colonies of Sarcothelia sp. Using fluorescent probes, direct measurements of migrating symbionts in the stolons of Sarcothelia sp. showed higher levels of reactive nitrogen species and lower levels of ROS than the surrounding host tissue. As measured by native fluorescence, levels of NAD(P)H in the stolons were unaffected by perturbation. Symbiont migration thus correlates with dramatic physiological changes and may serve as a marker for coral condition.

  18. Physiological inputs regulate species-specific anatomy during embryogenesis and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly G.; Emmons-Bell, Maya; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key problem in evolutionary developmental biology is identifying the sources of instructive information that determine species-specific anatomical pattern. Understanding the inputs to large-scale morphology is also crucial for efforts to manipulate pattern formation in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Recent studies have revealed a physiological system of communication among cells that regulates pattern during embryogenesis and regeneration in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Somatic tissues form networks using the same ion channels, electrical synapses, and neurotransmitter mechanisms exploited by the brain for information-processing. Experimental manipulation of these circuits was recently shown to override genome default patterning outcomes, resulting in head shapes resembling those of other species in planaria and Xenopus. The ability to drastically alter macroscopic anatomy to that of other extant species, despite a wild-type genomic sequence, suggests exciting new approaches to the understanding and control of patterning. Here, we review these results and discuss hypotheses regarding non-genomic systems of instructive information that determine biological growth and form. PMID:27574538

  19. Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence across Species

    PubMed Central

    Phung, Tanya N.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.

    2016-01-01

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only

  20. Invasive insect effects on nitrogen cycling and host physiology are not tightly linked.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Lucy; Charles, Sherley; Sirulnik, Abby G; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2015-02-01

    Invasive insects may dramatically alter resource cycling and productivity in forest ecosystems. Yet, although responses of individual trees should both reflect and affect ecosystem-scale responses, relationships between physiological- and ecosystem-scale responses to invasive insects have not been extensively studied. To address this issue, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) cycling, N uptake and allocation, and needle biochemistry and physiology in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr) saplings, associated with infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), an invasive insect causing widespread decline of eastern hemlock in the eastern USA. Compared with uninfested saplings, infested saplings had soils that exhibited faster nitrification rates, and more needle (15)N uptake, N and total protein concentrations. However, these variables did not clearly covary. Further, within infested saplings, needle N concentration did not vary with HWA density. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (Asat) declined by 42% as HWA density increased from 0 to 3 adelgids per needle, but did not vary with needle N concentration. Rather, Asat varied with stomatal conductance, which was highest at the lowest HWA density and accounted for 79% of the variation in Asat. Photosynthetic light response did not differ among HWA densities. Our results suggest that the effects of HWA infestation on soil N pools and fluxes, (15)N uptake, needle N and protein concentrations, and needle physiology may not be tightly coupled under at least some conditions. This pattern may reflect direct effects of the HWA on N uptake by host trees, as well as effects of other scale-dependent factors, such as tree hydrology, affected by HWA activity.

  1. Biological and physiological role of reactive oxygen species--the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Zuo, L; Zhou, T; Pannell, B K; Ziegler, A C; Best, T M

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules that are naturally produced within biological systems. Research has focused extensively on revealing the multi-faceted and complex roles that ROS play in living tissues. In regard to the good side of ROS, this article explores the effects of ROS on signalling, immune response and other physiological responses. To review the potentially bad side of ROS, we explain the consequences of high concentrations of molecules that lead to the disruption of redox homeostasis, which induces oxidative stress damaging intracellular components. The ugly effects of ROS can be observed in devastating cardiac, pulmonary, neurodegenerative and other disorders. Furthermore, this article covers the regulatory enzymes that mitigate the effects of ROS. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase are discussed in particular detail. The current understanding of ROS is incomplete, and it is imperative that future research be performed to understand the implications of ROS in various therapeutic interventions.

  2. Does physiological response to disease incur cost to reproductive ecology in a sexually dichromatic amphibian species?

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has contributed to amphibian declines worldwide. The impact of Bd varies, with some species being more susceptible to infection than others. Recent evidence has shown that Bd can have sub-lethal effects, whereby increases in stress hormones have been associated with infection. Could this increased stress response, which is a physiological adaptation that provides an increased resilience against Bd infection, potentially be a trade-off with important life-history traits such as reproduction? We studied this question in adult male frogs of a non-declining species (Litoria wilcoxii). Frogs were sampled for (1) seasonal hormone (testosterone and corticosterone), color and disease profiles, (2) the relationship between disease infection status and hormone levels or dorsal color, (3) subclinical effects of Bd by investigating disease load and hormone level, and (4) reproductive and stress hormone relationships independent of disease. Testosterone levels and color score varied seasonally (throughout the spring/summer months) while corticosterone levels remained stable. Frogs with high Bd prevalence had significantly higher corticosterone levels and lower testosterone levels compared to uninfected frogs, and no differences in color were observed. There was a significant positive correlation between disease load and corticosterone levels, and a significant negative relationship between disease load and testosterone. Our field data provides novel evidence that increased physiological stress response associated with Bd infection in wild frogs, could suppress reproduction by down-regulating gonadal hormones in amphibians, however the impacts on reproductive output is yet to be established.

  3. Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Kelly D.; Jeffrey, Jennifer D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Suski, Cory D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium), exposed to control pCO2 (~1000 µatm) or intermittent conditions of pCO2 (ranging from ~1000 to ~55 000 µatm) 12 times per day over a 28 day period were gathered. There was no indication of recovery in the physiological responses of mussels between applications of CO2, suggesting that the recovery time between CO2 pulses (1.5 h) was not sufficient for recovery from the CO2 exposure period (0.5 h). Observations of acid–base and stress responses were consistent with what has been observed in chronic studies of freshwater mussels exposed to elevated pCO2 (i.e. elevations in HCO3 −, Ca2+, Na+ and glucose, and decreases in Mg2+ and Cl−). However, species differences were observed across almost all variables measured, which emphasizes the need for multispecies studies. PMID:28066552

  4. Abundance and physiology of dominant soft corals linked to water quality in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Januar, Indra; Wild, Christian; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Declining water quality is one of the main reasons of coral reef degradation in the Thousand Islands off the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Shifts in benthic community composition to higher soft coral abundances have been reported for many degraded reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. However, it is not clear to what extent soft coral abundance and physiology are influenced by water quality. In this study, live benthic cover and water quality (i.e. dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN), turbidity (NTU), and sedimentation) were assessed at three sites (< 20 km north of Jakarta) in Jakarta Bay (JB) and five sites along the outer Thousand Islands (20–60 km north of Jakarta). This was supplemented by measurements of photosynthetic yield and, for the first time, respiratory electron transport system (ETS) activity of two dominant soft coral genera, Sarcophyton spp. and Nephthea spp. Findings revealed highly eutrophic water conditions in JB compared to the outer Thousand Islands, with 44% higher DIN load (7.65 μM/L), 67% higher NTU (1.49 NTU) and 47% higher sedimentation rate (30.4 g m−2 d−1). Soft corals were the dominant type of coral cover within the bay (2.4% hard and 12.8% soft coral cover) compared to the outer Thousand Islands (28.3% hard and 6.9% soft coral cover). Soft coral abundances, photosynthetic yield, and ETS activity were highly correlated with key water quality parameters, particularly DIN and sedimentation rates. The findings suggest water quality controls the relative abundance and physiology of dominant soft corals in JB and may thus contribute to phase shifts from hard to soft coral dominance, highlighting the need to better manage water quality in order to prevent or reverse phase shifts. PMID:27904802

  5. Abundance and physiology of dominant soft corals linked to water quality in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Indra; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Wild, Christian; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Declining water quality is one of the main reasons of coral reef degradation in the Thousand Islands off the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Shifts in benthic community composition to higher soft coral abundances have been reported for many degraded reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. However, it is not clear to what extent soft coral abundance and physiology are influenced by water quality. In this study, live benthic cover and water quality (i.e. dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN), turbidity (NTU), and sedimentation) were assessed at three sites (< 20 km north of Jakarta) in Jakarta Bay (JB) and five sites along the outer Thousand Islands (20-60 km north of Jakarta). This was supplemented by measurements of photosynthetic yield and, for the first time, respiratory electron transport system (ETS) activity of two dominant soft coral genera, Sarcophyton spp. and Nephthea spp. Findings revealed highly eutrophic water conditions in JB compared to the outer Thousand Islands, with 44% higher DIN load (7.65 μM/L), 67% higher NTU (1.49 NTU) and 47% higher sedimentation rate (30.4 g m(-2) d(-1)). Soft corals were the dominant type of coral cover within the bay (2.4% hard and 12.8% soft coral cover) compared to the outer Thousand Islands (28.3% hard and 6.9% soft coral cover). Soft coral abundances, photosynthetic yield, and ETS activity were highly correlated with key water quality parameters, particularly DIN and sedimentation rates. The findings suggest water quality controls the relative abundance and physiology of dominant soft corals in JB and may thus contribute to phase shifts from hard to soft coral dominance, highlighting the need to better manage water quality in order to prevent or reverse phase shifts.

  6. Physiological strategies contributing to the coexistence of two predatory species of stoneflies: Dinocras cephalotes and Perla bipunctata.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A; Trenzado, C E; López-Rodríguez, M J; Tierno de Figueroa, J M

    2014-09-01

    Our study focuses on the oxidative state of two aquatic insects of the order Plecoptera belonging to the family Perlidae, namely Dinocras cephalotes (Curtis, 1827) and Perla bipunctata Pictet, 1833. These species are widely distributed throughout the Western Palearctic region and coexist in the stream where individuals for this study come from. We highlight the physiological strategies of these two different predator species of stoneflies, showing a higher accumulation of lipid reserves in P. bipunctata, higher glucose levels in the body tissues of D. cephalotes and a higher capacity of the antioxidant enzymes in P. bipunctata, what provides it a protection against oxidation of lipids, which are greater in this species. This leads to a similar oxidative state in both species. Based on these results is discussed how two close related species developing a very similar ecological role in the same habitat can achieve a similar fitness with differences in their physiological strategies.

  7. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    PubMed

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  8. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    PubMed Central

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark–recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation. PMID:27293619

  9. Linking Predation Risk, Herbivore Physiological Stress and Microbial Decomposition of Plant Litter

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.; Bradford, Mark A.; Strickland, Michael S.; Hawlena, Dror

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of detritus entering the soil determines the rate of decomposition by microbial communities as well as recycle rates of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) sequestration1,2. Plant litter comprises the majority of detritus3, and so it is assumed that decomposition is only marginally influenced by biomass inputs from animals such as herbivores and carnivores4,5. However, carnivores may influence microbial decomposition of plant litter via a chain of interactions in which predation risk alters the physiology of their herbivore prey that in turn alters soil microbial functioning when the herbivore carcasses are decomposed6. A physiological stress response by herbivores to the risk of predation can change the C:N elemental composition of herbivore biomass7,8,9 because stress from predation risk increases herbivore basal energy demands that in nutrient-limited systems forces herbivores to shift their consumption from N-rich resources to support growth and reproduction to C-rich carbohydrate resources to support heightened metabolism6. Herbivores have limited ability to store excess nutrients, so stressed herbivores excrete N as they increase carbohydrate-C consumption7. Ultimately, prey stressed by predation risk increase their body C:N ratio7,10, making them poorer quality resources for the soil microbial pool likely due to lower availability of labile N for microbial enzyme production6. Thus, decomposition of carcasses of stressed herbivores has a priming effect on the functioning of microbial communities that decreases subsequent ability to of microbes to decompose plant litter6,10,11. We present the methodology to evaluate linkages between predation risk and litter decomposition by soil microbes. We describe how to: induce stress in herbivores from predation risk; measure those stress responses, and measure the consequences on microbial decomposition. We use insights from a model grassland ecosystem comprising the hunting spider predator (Pisuarina

  10. Linking Leaf Chlorophyll Fluorescence Properties to Physiological Responses for Stress Detection in Coastal Plant Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    conductance, photosynthesis, xylem pressure potential (c) and fluorescence were conducted following treatment. The onset of stress began at 2 g l21 for M...stress were induced and measurements of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, xylem pressure potential (c) and fluorescence were conducted following...were induced and measurements of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, xylem pressure potential (c) and fluorescence were conducted following

  11. [Physiologic and molecular mechanisms linking physical activity to cancer risk and progression].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, C M; Wiskemann, J; Steindorf, K

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of colon, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancer. Evidence for mediating molecular mechanisms from experimental studies substantially strengthens the causal inference for this relationship. Randomized controlled trials indicate that exercise affects metabolic profiles, including hormone levels (estrogen, insulin signaling), inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein), and adipokine concentrations (e.g., leptin). The size of the effect depends frequently on concurrent changes in body composition. There is also initial evidence for effects on immune function, oxidative stress, and possibly DNA repair capacity. Finally, outdoor physical activity can directly increase 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, providing another potential mechanism for linking physical activity to cancer risk. Randomized controlled studies with biomarker measurements are essential to increase evidence for causality and to identify the most effective intervention strategies and pharmacologic targets.

  12. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links With Pragmatic Language

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 28 with typical development (TD), aged 4–15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  13. Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of large pelagic fishes

    PubMed Central

    Horodysky, Andrij Z.; Cooke, Steven J.; Graves, John E.; Brill, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of tunas, billfishes and pelagic sharks are fished at or over capacity in many regions of the world. They are captured by directed commercial and recreational fisheries (the latter of which often promote catch and release) or as incidental catch or bycatch in commercial fisheries. Population assessments of pelagic fishes typically incorporate catch-per-unit-effort time-series data from commercial and recreational fisheries; however, there have been notable changes in target species, areas fished and depth-specific gear deployments over the years that may have affected catchability. Some regional fisheries management organizations take into account the effects of time- and area-specific changes in the behaviours of fish and fishers, as well as fishing gear, to standardize catch-per-unit-effort indices and refine population estimates. However, estimates of changes in stock size over time may be very sensitive to underlying assumptions of the effects of oceanographic conditions and prey distribution on the horizontal and vertical movement patterns and distribution of pelagic fishes. Effective management and successful conservation of pelagic fishes requires a mechanistic understanding of their physiological and behavioural responses to environmental variability, potential for interaction with commercial and recreational fishing gear, and the capture process. The interdisciplinary field of conservation physiology can provide insights into pelagic fish demography and ecology (including environmental relationships and interspecific interactions) by uniting the complementary expertise and skills of fish physiologists and fisheries scientists. The iterative testing by one discipline of hypotheses generated by the other can span the fundamental–applied science continuum, leading to the development of robust insights supporting informed management. The resulting species-specific understanding of physiological abilities and tolerances can help to improve stock

  14. Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of large pelagic fishes.

    PubMed

    Horodysky, Andrij Z; Cooke, Steven J; Graves, John E; Brill, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Populations of tunas, billfishes and pelagic sharks are fished at or over capacity in many regions of the world. They are captured by directed commercial and recreational fisheries (the latter of which often promote catch and release) or as incidental catch or bycatch in commercial fisheries. Population assessments of pelagic fishes typically incorporate catch-per-unit-effort time-series data from commercial and recreational fisheries; however, there have been notable changes in target species, areas fished and depth-specific gear deployments over the years that may have affected catchability. Some regional fisheries management organizations take into account the effects of time- and area-specific changes in the behaviours of fish and fishers, as well as fishing gear, to standardize catch-per-unit-effort indices and refine population estimates. However, estimates of changes in stock size over time may be very sensitive to underlying assumptions of the effects of oceanographic conditions and prey distribution on the horizontal and vertical movement patterns and distribution of pelagic fishes. Effective management and successful conservation of pelagic fishes requires a mechanistic understanding of their physiological and behavioural responses to environmental variability, potential for interaction with commercial and recreational fishing gear, and the capture process. The interdisciplinary field of conservation physiology can provide insights into pelagic fish demography and ecology (including environmental relationships and interspecific interactions) by uniting the complementary expertise and skills of fish physiologists and fisheries scientists. The iterative testing by one discipline of hypotheses generated by the other can span the fundamental-applied science continuum, leading to the development of robust insights supporting informed management. The resulting species-specific understanding of physiological abilities and tolerances can help to improve stock

  15. Linking behavior, physiology, and survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, Daniel S.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Decreased marine survival is identified as a component driver of continued declines of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. However, estimates of marine mortality often incorporate loss incurred during estuary migration that may be mechanistically distinct from factors affecting marine mortality. We examined movements and survival of 941 smolts (141 wild and 800 hatchery-reared fish) released in freshwater during passage through the Penobscot River estuary, Maine, from 2005 to 2013. We related trends in estuary arrival date, movement rate, and survival to fish characteristics, migratory history, and environmental conditions in the estuary. Fish that experienced the warmest thermal history arrived in the estuary 8 d earlier than those experiencing the coolest thermal history during development. Estuary arrival date was 10 d later for fish experiencing high flow than for fish experiencing low flow. Fish released furthest upstream arrived in the estuary 3 d later than those stocked further downstream but moved 0.5 km/h faster through the estuary. Temporally, movement rate and survival in the estuary both peaked in mid-May. Spatially, movement rate and survival both decreased from freshwater to the ocean. Wild smolts arrived in the estuary later than hatchery fish, but we observed no change in movement rate or survival attributable to rearing history. Fish with the highest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity incurred 25% lower mortality through the estuary than fish with the lowest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Smolt survival decreased (by up to 40%) with the increasing number of dams passed (ranging from two to nine) during freshwater migration. These results underscore the importance of physiological preparedness on performance and the delayed, indirect effects of dams on survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration, ultimately affecting marine survival estimates.

  16. Multiple QTLs Linked to Agro-Morphological and Physiological Traits Related to Drought Tolerance in Potato.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Awais; Saravia, David; Munive, Susan; Lozano, Flavio; Farfan, Evelyn; Eyzaguirre, Raul; Bonierbale, Merideth

    Dissection of the genetic architecture of adaptation and abiotic stress-related traits is highly desirable for developing drought-tolerant potatoes and enhancing the resilience of existing cultivars, particularly as agricultural production in rain-fed areas may be reduced by up to 50 % by 2020. The "DMDD" potato progeny was developed at International Potato Center (CIP) by crossing the sequenced double monoploid line DM and a diploid cultivar of the Solanum tuberosum diploid Andigenum Goniocalyx group. Recently, a high-density integrated genetic map based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), diversity array technology (DArT), simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was also made available for this population. Two trials were conducted, in greenhouse and field, for drought tolerance with two treatments each, well-watered and terminal drought, in which watering was suspended 60 days after planting. The DMDD population was evaluated for agro-morphological and physiological traits before and after initiation of stress, at multiple time points. Two dense parental genetic maps were constructed using published genotypic data, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified 45 genomic regions associated with nine traits in well-watered and terminal drought treatments and 26 potentially associated with drought stress. In this study, the strong influence of environmental factors besides water shortage on the expression of traits and QTLs reflects the multigenic control of traits related to drought tolerance. This is the first study to our knowledge in potato identifying QTLs for drought-related traits in field and greenhouse trials, giving new insights into genetic architecture of drought-related traits. Many of the QTLs identified have the potential to be used in potato breeding programs for enhanced drought tolerance.

  17. Mammalian HspB1 (Hsp27) is a molecular sensor linked to the physiology and environment of the cell.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2017-01-31

    Constitutively expressed small heat shock protein HspB1 regulates many fundamental cellular processes and plays major roles in many human pathological diseases. In that regard, this chaperone has a huge number of apparently unrelated functions that appear linked to its ability to recognize many client polypeptides that are subsequently modified in their activity and/or half-life. A major parameter to understand how HspB1 is dedicated to interact with particular clients in defined cellular conditions relates to its complex oligomerization and phosphorylation properties. Indeed, HspB1 structural organization displays dynamic and complex rearrangements in response to changes in the cellular environment or when the cell physiology is modified. These structural modifications probably reflect the formation of structural platforms aimed at recognizing specific client polypeptides. Here, I have reviewed data from the literature and re-analyzed my own studies to describe and discuss these fascinating changes in HspB1 structural organization.

  18. Sun-induced fluorescence of phytoplankton in the ocean: Linking physiology and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Yannick

    non-photochemical quenching, damage and repair of photosystem II (PSII), acclimation of the antenna size of PSII, the ratio of photoprotective to photosynthetic pigments, and nutrient limitation. The results of this thesis should allow better retrieval and interpretation of the physiological and taxonomic information contained in sun-induced fluorescence.

  19. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    PubMed

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (<1.6 and 1.6-1.8 g cm(-3) ) and bulk soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for

  20. Physiologically relevant oxidative degradation of oligo(proline) cross-linked polymeric scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shann S; Koblin, Rachel L; Zachman, Angela L; Perrien, Daniel S; Hofmeister, Lucas H; Giorgio, Todd D; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2011-12-12

    Chronic inflammation-mediated oxidative stress is a common mechanism of implant rejection and failure. Therefore, polymer scaffolds that can degrade slowly in response to this environment may provide a viable platform for implant site-specific, sustained release of immunomodulatory agents over a long time period. In this work, proline oligomers of varying lengths (P(n)) were synthesized and exposed to oxidative environments, and their accelerated degradation under oxidative conditions was verified via high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Next, diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were carboxylated to form 100 kDa terpolymers of 4%PEG-86%PCL-10%cPCL (cPCL = poly(carboxyl-ε-caprolactone); i% indicates molar ratio). The polymers were then cross-linked with biaminated PEG-P(n)-PEG chains, where P(n) indicates the length of the proline oligomer flanked by PEG chains. Salt-leaching of the polymeric matrices created scaffolds of macroporous and microporous architecture, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The degradation of scaffolds was accelerated under oxidative conditions, as evidenced by mass loss and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Immortalized murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages were then seeded on the scaffolds and activated through the addition of γ-interferon and lipopolysaccharide throughout the 9-day study period. This treatment promoted the release of H(2)O(2) by the macrophages and the degradation of proline-containing scaffolds compared to the control scaffolds. The accelerated degradation was evidenced by increased scaffold porosity, as visualized through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography imaging. The current study provides insight into the development of scaffolds that respond to oxidative environments through gradual degradation for the controlled release of therapeutics targeted to diseases that feature chronic

  1. Effects of arbuscular-mycorrhizal glomus species on drought tolerance: physiological and nutritional plant responses.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lozano, J M; Azcon, R; Gomez, M

    1995-02-01

    The tolerance of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romana) to drought stress differed with the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal isolate with which the plants were associated. Seven fungal species belonging to the genus Glomus were studied for their ability to enhance the drought tolerance of lettuce plants. These fungi had different traits that affected the drought resistance of host plants. The ranking of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal effects on drought tolerance, based on the relative decreases in shoot dry weight, was as follows: Glomus deserticola > Glomus fasciculatum > Glomus mosseae > Glomus etunicatum > Glomus intraradices > Glomus caledonium > Glomus occultum. In this comparative study specific mycorrhizal fungi had consistent effects on plant growth, mineral uptake, the CO(inf2) exchange rate, water use efficiency, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, and proline accumulation under either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions. The ability of the isolates to maintain plant growth effectively under water stress conditions was related to higher transpiration rates, levels of leaf conductance, and proline, N, and P contents. Differences in proline accumulation in leaves among the fungal symbioses suggested that the fungi were able to induce different degrees of osmotic adjustment. The detrimental effects of drought were not related to decreases in photosynthesis or water use efficiency. Neither of these parameters was related to P nutrition. The differences in P and K acquisition, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were related to the mycorrhizal efficiencies of the different fungi. Our observations revealed the propensities of different Glomus species to assert their protective effects during plant water stress. The greater effectiveness of G. deserticola in improving water deficit tolerance was associated with the lowest level of growth reduction (9%) under stress conditions. The growth of plants

  2. Effects of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Glomus Species on Drought Tolerance: Physiological and Nutritional Plant Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lozano, J. M.; Azcon, R.; Gomez, M.

    1995-01-01

    The tolerance of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romana) to drought stress differed with the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal isolate with which the plants were associated. Seven fungal species belonging to the genus Glomus were studied for their ability to enhance the drought tolerance of lettuce plants. These fungi had different traits that affected the drought resistance of host plants. The ranking of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal effects on drought tolerance, based on the relative decreases in shoot dry weight, was as follows: Glomus deserticola > Glomus fasciculatum > Glomus mosseae > Glomus etunicatum > Glomus intraradices > Glomus caledonium > Glomus occultum. In this comparative study specific mycorrhizal fungi had consistent effects on plant growth, mineral uptake, the CO(inf2) exchange rate, water use efficiency, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, and proline accumulation under either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions. The ability of the isolates to maintain plant growth effectively under water stress conditions was related to higher transpiration rates, levels of leaf conductance, and proline, N, and P contents. Differences in proline accumulation in leaves among the fungal symbioses suggested that the fungi were able to induce different degrees of osmotic adjustment. The detrimental effects of drought were not related to decreases in photosynthesis or water use efficiency. Neither of these parameters was related to P nutrition. The differences in P and K acquisition, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were related to the mycorrhizal efficiencies of the different fungi. Our observations revealed the propensities of different Glomus species to assert their protective effects during plant water stress. The greater effectiveness of G. deserticola in improving water deficit tolerance was associated with the lowest level of growth reduction (9%) under stress conditions. The growth of plants

  3. Evaluating adaptation options of microcirculatory-tissue systems based on the physiological link of nutritive blood flow and redox ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Dremin, Victor V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zhu, Simian; Nabi, Ghulam; Litvinova, Karina S.; Baklanova, Anastasia P.; Bakshaliev, Ruslan M.; Ravcheev, Sergey A.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) is becoming more widely used in chemistry, biology, in various fields of medical technology and medicine in general. Many purulent wounds, burns and other destructive inflammatory processes are accompanied by changes in the fluorescent activity of the tissues, which occurs due to a misbalance in accumulation of natural fluorophores: FAD, NADH, lipofuscin, porphyrins, structural proteins, etc. The study of redox ratio (RR), characterizing the metabolic processes, is important in the assessment of the metabolic activity ofmicrocirculatory-tissue systems (MTS). However, one of the big problems of the FS method is still the correct interpretation of the data and the development of practical methods for its application in clinical medicine. To solve this problem and create new diagnostic criteria, we propose to evaluate the adaptive capacity of MTS using indicators of links between nutritive blood flow and redox ratio during a physiological rest and functional load (occlusion test). As is known, these parameters (RR and nutritive blood flow) characterize the metabolic activity of tissues.We have performedan experimental study of the relationship between the RR, defined by FS, and nutritive blood flow, defined by the methods of laser Doppler flowmetry. Preliminary results in the study of a complex approach to diagnosis of the state of biological tissue were obtained. A positive relationship between the nutritive blood flow in the microcirculatory channel and RR of skin tissue is observed.The speed of change of metabolism in the phase of occlusion and reperfusion and duration of phase of recovery may be the criteria for adaptive capabilities of MTS, which has practical significance for physiology and medicine.

  4. Identification of atypical ether-linked glycerophospholipid species in macrophages by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Brown, H. Alex

    2010-01-01

    A large scale profiling and analysis of glycerophospholipid species in macrophages has facilitated the identification of several rare and atypical glycerophospholipid species. By using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and comparison of the elution and fragmentation properties of the rare lipids to synthetic standards, we were able to identify an array of ether-linked phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines (PSs), very long chain phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) as well as phosphatidylthreonines (PTs) and a wide collection of odd carbon fatty acid-containing phospholipids in macrophages. A comprehensive qualitative analysis of glycerophospholipids from different macrophage cells was conducted. During the phospholipid profiling of the macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, we identified dozens of rare or previously uncharacterized phospholipids, including ether-linked PIs, PSs, and glycerophosphatidic acids, PTs, and PCs and PTs containing very long polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, large numbers of phospholipids containing at least one odd carbon fatty acid were identified. Using the same methodology, we also identified many of the same species of glycerophospholipids in resident peritoneal macrophages, foam cells, and murine bone marrow derived macrophages. PMID:19965583

  5. Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: Cross-scale links and potential determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Grández, César; Salo, Jukka; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-07-01

    The mechanisms that cause variation in commonness (abundances and range sizes) of species remain debated in ecology, and a repeatedly observed pattern is the positive relation between local abundances and larger scale range sizes. We used the Amazonian palm species (Arecaceae) to investigate the dependence between and potential determinants of commonness across three (local, landscape, continental) spatial scales. Commonness at the smaller scales (local abundance, landscape frequency) was estimated using data from 57 transects (5 × 500 m) in primary, non-inundated ( terra firme) rainforest in a western Amazonian landscape, while commonness at the largest scale (continental range size) was estimated from digitized distribution maps. Landscape frequency was positively related to both local abundance and continental range size, which, however, were not related to each other. Landscape frequency was positively related to topographic niche breadth. Stem height correlated with continental range size and was the only species life-history trait related to any commonness measure. Distance from the study area to a species' range centre did not influence any of the commonness measures. The factors determining commonness in the Amazonian palm flora appear to be scale-dependent, with the unrelated local scale abundance and continental range size probably being controlled by different driving factors. Interestingly, commonness at the intermediate, landscape scale seems linked to both the smaller and the larger scale. Our results point towards topographic niche breadth at the smaller scales and stem height, possibly reflecting species' dispersal potential, at the continental scale as important determinants of commonness.

  6. Linking river management to species conservation using dynamic landscape scale models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Buell, Gary R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Hughes, W. Brian; Jacobson, Robert B.; Jones, John W.; Jones, S.A.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Odom, Kenneth R.; Peterson, James T.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Shea, C.; Weaver, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve stream and river biota could benefit from tools that allow managers to evaluate landscape-scale changes in species distributions in response to water management decisions. We present a framework and methods for integrating hydrology, geographic context and metapopulation processes to simulate effects of changes in streamflow on fish occupancy dynamics across a landscape of interconnected stream segments. We illustrate this approach using a 482 km2 catchment in the southeastern US supporting 50 or more stream fish species. A spatially distributed, deterministic and physically based hydrologic model is used to simulate daily streamflow for sub-basins composing the catchment. We use geographic data to characterize stream segments with respect to channel size, confinement, position and connectedness within the stream network. Simulated streamflow dynamics are then applied to model fish metapopulation dynamics in stream segments, using hypothesized effects of streamflow magnitude and variability on population processes, conditioned by channel characteristics. The resulting time series simulate spatially explicit, annual changes in species occurrences or assemblage metrics (e.g. species richness) across the catchment as outcomes of management scenarios. Sensitivity analyses using alternative, plausible links between streamflow components and metapopulation processes, or allowing for alternative modes of fish dispersal, demonstrate large effects of ecological uncertainty on model outcomes and highlight needed research and monitoring. Nonetheless, with uncertainties explicitly acknowledged, dynamic, landscape-scale simulations may prove useful for quantitatively comparing river management alternatives with respect to species conservation.

  7. Combining physiological threshold knowledge to species distribution models is key to improving forecasts of the future niche for macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Brezo; Arenas, Francisco; Trilla, Alba; Viejo, Rosa M; Carreño, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are a useful tool for predicting species range shifts in response to global warming. However, they do not explore the mechanisms underlying biological processes, making it difficult to predict shifts outside the environmental gradient where the model was trained. In this study, we combine correlative SDMs and knowledge on physiological limits to provide more robust predictions. The thermal thresholds obtained in growth and survival experiments were used as proxies of the fundamental niches of two foundational marine macrophytes. The geographic projections of these species' distributions obtained using these thresholds and existing SDMs were similar in areas where the species are either absent-rare or frequent and where their potential and realized niches match, reaching consensus predictions. The cold-temperate foundational seaweed Himanthalia elongata was predicted to become extinct at its southern limit in northern Spain in response to global warming, whereas the occupancy of southern-lusitanic Bifurcaria bifurcata was expected to increase. Combined approaches such as this one may also highlight geographic areas where models disagree potentially due to biotic factors. Physiological thresholds alone tended to over-predict species prevalence, as they cannot identify absences in climatic conditions within the species' range of physiological tolerance or at the optima. Although SDMs tended to have higher sensitivity than threshold models, they may include regressions that do not reflect causal mechanisms, constraining their predictive power. We present a simple example of how combining correlative and mechanistic knowledge provides a rapid way to gain insight into a species' niche resulting in consistent predictions and highlighting potential sources of uncertainty in forecasted responses to climate change.

  8. Metabolic analysis reveals changes in the mevalonate and juvenile hormone synthesis pathways linked to the mosquito reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Lamboglia, Ivanna; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates reproductive maturation in insects; therefore interruption of JH biosynthesis has been considered as a strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. The corpora allata (CA) from mosquitoes is highly specialized to supply variable levels of JH, which are linked to ovarian developmental stages and influenced by nutritional signals. However, very little is known about how changes in JH synthesis relate to reproductive physiology and how JH synthesis regulation is translated into changes in the CA machinery. With the advent of new methods that facilitate the analysis of transcripts, enzymes and metabolites in the minuscule CA, we were able to provide comprehensive descriptions of the mevalonic (MVA) and JH synthesis pathways by integrating information on changes in the basic components of those pathways. Our results revealed remarkable dynamic changes in JH synthesis and exposed part of a complex mechanism that regulates CA activity. Principal component (PC) analyses validated that both pathways (MVAP and JH-branch) are transcriptionally co-regulated as a single unit, and catalytic activities for the enzymes of the MVAP and JH-branch also changed in a coordinate fashion. Metabolite studies showed that global fluctuations in the intermediate pool sizes in the MVAP and JH-branch were often inversely related. PC analyses suggest that in female mosquitoes, there are at least 4 developmental switches that alter JH synthesis by modulating the flux at distinctive points in both pathways.

  9. Species and population variation to salinity stress in Panicum hemitomon, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora: Morphological and physiological constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, M.W.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Panicum hemitomon, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora are wide-spread dominant grasses of fresh, brackish, and salt marsh plant communities, respectively. Our previous research identified significant intraspecific variation in salt tolerance and morphology among populations within each species. In this study our objectives were to determine shorter-term physiological/biochemical responses to salinity stress and identify potential indicators of salt tolerance, with the ultimate goal of discerning similarities and differences in the mechanisms of salinity stress resistance. We subjected a subset of six populations within each species, ranging from high to low salt tolerance, to sublethal salinity levels (4, 20, and 30 ppt, respectively, for species) and monitored physiological and growth responses after 1 week (early harvest) and 5 weeks (late harvest). In all three species sublethal salinity levels generally resulted in significantly reduced net CO2 assimilation, leaf expansion, midday leaf xylem pressure, water use efficiency, and live and total biomass; and significantly increased leaf Na+/K+ ratio, leaf proline, leaf glycine betaine, leaf sucrose, root-to-shoot ratio, and dead:total aboveground biomass ratio. All three species displayed significant population (intraspecific) variation in net CO2 assimilation, leaf expansion, water use efficiency, midday leaf xylem pressure, leaf proline, leaf glycine betaine (except Panicum, where it could not be accurately determined), leaf Na+/K+ ratio, leaf sucrose, total plant biomass, dead:total aboveground biomass ratio, and root-to-shoot ratio. General indicators of salt tolerance (regardless of species) included high net CO2 assimilation rates and water use efficiencies, and low ratios of root-to-shoot and dead:total aboveground biomass. Factor analysis and a-priori linear contrasts revealed some unique differences between species in terms of the relative importance of morphology and physiology in explaining

  10. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Susan B; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Habrun, Sarah K; Kempton, Jason; Birrenkott, Anna; Wiley, Faith; Bowerman, William W; Lewitus, Alan J

    2005-06-01

    Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and displacement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and associated epiphytic cyanobacterial species as a link to avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an emerging avian disease affecting herbivorous waterbirds and their avian predators. AVM, first reported in 1994, has caused the death of at least 100 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and thousands of American coots (Fulica americana) at 11 sites from Texas to North Carolina (Thomas et al., 1998; Rocke et al., 2002). Our working hypothesis is that the agent of this disease is an uncharacterized neurotoxin produced by a novel cyanobacterial epiphyte of the order Stigonematales. This undescribed species covers up to 95% of the surface area of leaves in reservoirs where bird deaths have occurred from the disease. In addition, this species is rare or not found on hydrilla collected at sites where AVM disease has not been diagnosed. Laboratory feeding trials and a sentinel bird study using naturally occurring blooms of cyanobacteria on hydrilla leaves and farm-raised mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) induced the disease experimentally. Since 1994 AVM has been diagnosed in additional sites from Texas to North Carolina. Specific site characteristics that produce the disjunct distribution of AVM are unknown, but it is probable that the incidence of this disease will increase with the introduction of hydrilla and associated cyanobacterial species into additional ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.

  11. Identification of Lipid Species Linked to the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is histologically characterized by the aberrant accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver, which is positively correlated with insulin resistance. Within the spectrum of this disease, patients can develop hepatitis and cirrhosis; i.e., non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms responsible for the progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Triacylglycerol (TAG), which is mainly found in lipid droplets, is currently considered to act as a buffer against the accumulation of non-TAG toxic lipid species. In line with this, recent studies have revealed that insulin resistance is driven by the accumulation of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol in hepatocytes and that cholesterol-overloaded stellate cells are associated with fibrosis in the liver. Therefore, it is important to identify the toxic lipid species that contribute to NAFLD progression in order to clarify the pathogenesis of NASH and find novel targets for its treatment. In this review, we divided lipids into five classes; i.e., into fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids, and described their molecular structures, distributions, and metabolism under physiological conditions, as well as the contributions they make to the progression of NAFLD.

  12. Environmental and physiological regulation of transpiration in tropical forest gap species: the influence of boundary layer and hydraulic properties.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Goldstein, G; Jackson, P; Holbrook, N M; Gutiérrez, M V; Cavelier, J

    1995-04-01

    Environmental and physiological regulation of transpiration were examined in several gap-colonizing shrub and tree species during two consecutive dry seasons in a moist, lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Whole plant transpiration, stomatal and total vapor phase (stomatal + boundary layer) conductance, plant water potential and environmental variables were measured concurrently. This allowed control of transpiration (E) to be partitioned quantitatively between stomatal (g s) and boundary layer (g b) conductance and permitted the impact of invividual environmental and physiological variables on stomatal behavior and E to be assessed. Wind speed in treefall gap sites was often below the 0.25 m s(-1) stalling speed of the anemometer used and was rarely above 0.5 m s(-1), resulting in uniformly low g b (c. 200-300 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) among all species studied regardless of leaf size. Stomatal conductance was typically equal to or somewhat greater than g b. This strongly decoupled E from control by stomata, so that in Miconia argentea a 10% change in g s when g s was near its mean value was predicted to yield only a 2.5% change in E. Porometric estimates of E, obtained as the product of g s and the leaf-bulk air vapor pressure difference (VPD) without taking g b into account, were up to 300% higher than actual E determined from sap flow measurements. Porometry was thus inadequate as a means of assessing the physiological consequences of stomatal behavior in different gap colonizing species. Stomatal responses to humidity strongly limited the increase in E with increasing evaporative demand. Stomata of all species studied appeared to respond to increasing evaporative demand in the same manner when the leaf surface was selected as the reference point for determination of external vapor pressure and when simultaneous variation of light and leaf-air VPD was taken into account. This result suggests that contrasting stomatal responses to similar leaf

  13. The Ecology of Stress: linking life-history traits with physiological control mechanisms in free-living guanacos

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Graciela A.; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Novaro, Andrés J.; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits, habitat features constrain successful ecological and physiological strategies. In vertebrates, a key response to life’s challenges is the activation of the Stress (HPA) and Gonadal (HPG) axes. Much of the interest in stress ecology is motivated by the desire to understand the physiological mechanisms in which the environment affects fitness. As reported in the literature, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect variability in hormone levels. In both social and non-social animals, the frequency and type of interaction with conspecifics, as well as the status in social species, can affect HPA axis activity, resulting in changes in the reproductive success of animals. We predicted that a social environment can affect both guanaco axes by increasing the secretion of testosterone (T) and Glucocorticoid (GCs) in response to individual social interactions and the energetic demands of breeding. Assuming that prolonged elevated levels of GCs over time can be harmful to individuals, it is predicted that the HPA axis suppresses the HPG axis and causes T levels to decrease, as GCs increase. Methods All of the data for individuals were collected by non-invasive methods (fecal samples) to address hormonal activities. This is a novel approach in physiological ecology because feces are easily obtained through non-invasive sampling in animal populations. Results As expected, there was a marked adrenal (p-value = .3.4e−12) and gonadal (p-value = 0.002656) response due to seasonal variation in Lama guanicoe. No significant differences were found in fecal GCs metabolites between males/females*season for the entire study period (p-value = 0.2839). Despite the seasonal activity variation in the hormonal profiles, our results show a positive correlation (p-value = 1.952e−11, COR = 0.50) between the adrenal and gonadal system. The marked endocrine (r2 = 0.806) and gonad (r2 = 0.7231) response due

  14. Climate change, species distribution models, and physiological performance metrics: predicting when biogeographic models are likely to fail

    PubMed Central

    Woodin, Sarah A; Hilbish, Thomas J; Helmuth, Brian; Jones, Sierra J; Wethey, David S

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the biogeographic consequences of climate change requires confidence in model predictions under novel conditions. However, models often fail when extended to new locales, and such instances have been used as evidence of a change in physiological tolerance, that is, a fundamental niche shift. We explore an alternative explanation and propose a method for predicting the likelihood of failure based on physiological performance curves and environmental variance in the original and new environments. We define the transient event margin (TEM) as the gap between energetic performance failure, defined as CTmax, and the upper lethal limit, defined as LTmax. If TEM is large relative to environmental fluctuations, models will likely fail in new locales. If TEM is small relative to environmental fluctuations, models are likely to be robust for new locales, even when mechanism is unknown. Using temperature, we predict when biogeographic models are likely to fail and illustrate this with a case study. We suggest that failure is predictable from an understanding of how climate drives nonlethal physiological responses, but for many species such data have not been collected. Successful biogeographic forecasting thus depends on understanding when the mechanisms limiting distribution of a species will differ among geographic regions, or at different times, resulting in realized niche shifts. TEM allows prediction of the likelihood of such model failure. PMID:24223272

  15. Physiological Basis for Differential Sensitivities of Plant Species to Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Timothy D.; Becerril, José M.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Duke, Mary V.; Jacobs, Judy M.; Jacobs, Nicholas J.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1991-01-01

    With a leaf disc assay, 11 species were tested for effects of the herbicide acifluorfen on porphyrin accumulation in darkness and subsequent electrolyte leakage and photobleaching of chlorophyll after exposure to light. Protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX) was the only porphyrin that was substantially increased by the herbicide in any of the species. However, there was a wide range in the amount of Proto IX accumulation caused by 0.1 millimolar acifluorfen between species. Within species, there was a reduced effect of the herbicide in older tissues. Therefore, direct quantitative comparisons between species are difficult. Nevertheless, when data from different species and from tissues of different age within a species were plotted, there was a curvilinear relationship between the amount of Proto IX caused to accumulate during 20 hours of darkness and the amount of electrolyte leakage or chlorophyll photobleaching caused after 6 and 24 hours of light, respectively, following the dark period. Herbicidal damage plateaued at about 10 nanomoles of Proto IX per gram of fresh weight. Little difference was found between in vitro acifluorfen inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) of plastid preparations of mustard, cucumber, and morning glory, three species with large differences in their susceptibility at the tissue level. Mustard, a highly tolerant species, produced little Proto IX in response to the herbicide, despite having a highly susceptible Protox. Acifluorfen blocked carbon flow from δ-aminolevulinic acid to protochlorophyllide in mustard, indicating that it inhibits Protox in vivo. Increasing δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations (33-333 micromolar) supplied to mustard with 0.1 millimolar acifluorfen increased Proto IX accumulation and herbicidal activity, demonstrating that mustard sensitivity to Proto IX was similar to other species. Differential susceptibility to acifluorfen of the species examined in this study appears to be due in large part to

  16. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    PubMed

    Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts.

  17. Taxonomy and physiological characterisation of Scheffersomyces titanus sp. nov., a new D-xylose-fermenting yeast species from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Cao, Wan-Nan; Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Yi, Ze-Hao; Liu, Zheng; Hui, Feng-Li

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of a d-xylose-fermenting yeast species were isolated from the host beetle Dorcus titanus collected from two different localities in Henan Province, Central China. These strains formed two hat-shaped ascospores in conjugated and deliquescent asci. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis that included the nearly complete small subunit (SSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rDNAs, as well as RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) gene demonstrated that these strains represent a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Scheffersomyces. The phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of the xylose reductase (XYL1) gene supported the view that the new strains could be grouped as a unique species. Although this new species is highly similar to Scheffersomyces stipitis-like yeasts in terms of nrDNA sequences and morphological and physiological characteristics, the species can be clearly differentiated from its close relatives on the basis of the sequences of XYL1 and RPB1. Therefore, a novel yeast species, Scheffersomyces titanus sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is NYNU 14712T (CICC 33061T = CBS 13926T). PMID:27558134

  18. Taxonomy and physiological characterisation of Scheffersomyces titanus sp. nov., a new D-xylose-fermenting yeast species from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Cao, Wan-Nan; Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Yi, Ze-Hao; Liu, Zheng; Hui, Feng-Li

    2016-08-25

    Three strains of a d-xylose-fermenting yeast species were isolated from the host beetle Dorcus titanus collected from two different localities in Henan Province, Central China. These strains formed two hat-shaped ascospores in conjugated and deliquescent asci. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis that included the nearly complete small subunit (SSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rDNAs, as well as RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) gene demonstrated that these strains represent a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Scheffersomyces. The phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of the xylose reductase (XYL1) gene supported the view that the new strains could be grouped as a unique species. Although this new species is highly similar to Scheffersomyces stipitis-like yeasts in terms of nrDNA sequences and morphological and physiological characteristics, the species can be clearly differentiated from its close relatives on the basis of the sequences of XYL1 and RPB1. Therefore, a novel yeast species, Scheffersomyces titanus sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is NYNU 14712(T) (CICC 33061(T) = CBS 13926(T)).

  19. Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    data collections is needed-for an " ecotoxicological or ecoepidemioiogical. assessment" of smoke-caused effects . Such a series includes: (a...systems for ecotoxicological assessments of RP/BR-smoke effects . * Thus, while the research afforded a comparative perspective on the consequences of RP...Agriculture Inspection Denver Federal Center Service Denver, CO 80225-02("qG BEttAVIORAL-PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RED PHOSPHORUS SMOKE INHALATION ON

  20. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis: the physiology of a new species related to the spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces lentus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Steels, Hazel; James, Steve A; Bond, Chris J; Roberts, Ian N; Stratford, Malcolm

    2002-05-01

    Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis was recently discovered in the 'tea fungus' used to make fermented tea. Z. kombuchaensis was shown by ribosomal DNA sequencing to be a novel species, and a close relative of Zygosaccharomyces lentus, from which it could not be distinguished by conventional physiological tests. Z. lentus was originally established as a new taxon by growth at 4 degrees C, sensitivity for heat and oxidative stress, and lack of growth in aerobic shaken culture at temperatures above 25 degrees C. Subsequent analysis of Z. kombuchaensis reveals that this species shares these unusual characteristics, confirming its close genealogical relationship to Z. lentus. Detailed physiological data from a number of Z. kombuchaensis and Z. lentus strains clearly demonstrate that these two species can in fact be distinguished from one another based on their differing resistance/sensitivity to the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid. The spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Z. lentus are resistant to both acetic acid and sorbic acid, whereas Z. kombuchaensis is resistant to acetic acid but sensitive to sorbic acid. This would indicate that Z. kombuchaensis strains lack the mechanism for resistance to sorbic acid, but possess the means of resistance to acetic acid. This observation would therefore suggest that these two resistance mechanisms are different, and that in all probability acetic and sorbic acids inhibit yeast growth by different modes of action. Z. kombuchaensis strains were also sensitive to benzoic acid, again suggesting inhibition dissimilar from that to acetic acid.

  1. Corneal Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UV-A in the Mouse Cornea in Vivo: Morphological, Biochemical, and Physiological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Sabine; Hammer, Arthur; Conti, Alain; Hafezi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To morphologically, biochemically, and physiologically characterize corneal cross-linking with riboflavin and UV-A light (CXL) in a newly established in vivo murine model. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type mice (N = 67) were treated with various CXL protocols, with modification of the following parameters: total energy (fluence) used, duration of UV-A irradiation, continuous versus pulsed irradiation, and CXL under hypoxic conditions (contact lens). Corneas were evaluated biomicroscopically, histologically, and using optical coherence tomography. Conformational collagen changes were evaluated via changes in the speed of enzymatic digestion. Results A fluence of 5.4 J/cm2 induced scar formation, while fluences of < 0.18 J/cm2 induced neovascularization. Fluences between 1.62 and 2.7 J/cm2 reduced epithelial thickness, but maintained a transparent cornea after 1 month. Pulsed UV irradiation inhibited neovascularization, but favored scar formation. Changes in the speed of enzymatic digestion suggest that CXL in mice, when compared to humans, requires less UV-A energy than the difference in corneal thickness between the species would suggest. Conclusions We demonstrated the in vivo response of very strong and very weak CXL and identified the best suited range of UV fluence in murine corneas. The presented murine CXL model may be helpful in future research addressing cellular and molecular pathways associated to CXL treatment. Translational Relevance Adverse tissue reactions following CXL treatment were observed, if the administered UV energy was out of the treatment window—raising concern about novel CXL treatment protocols that have not been previously validated in an experimental setting. PMID:28149672

  2. Flooding effects on plant physiology and VOC emissions from Amazonian tree species from two different flooding environments: Varzea and Igapo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho Nunez, A.; Knothe, N.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    A land area of 300.000 km² in the Amazon basin is subjected to a continuous flooding pulse, being flooded for 210 days a-1 on an average (Junk et al. 1993). To survive the flooding period vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies to mitigate the produced stress due to root anoxia. One of the strategies is fermentation of sucrose in the roots to comply with the energy demand under anoxia. The resulting toxic metabolite ethanol is transported through the transpiration stream to the leaves and can be directly emitted into the atmosphere or converted to acetaldehyde and/or acetate, still volatile enough to be partly released. We investigated short-term and long-term flooding effects on physiology and VOC emission by plant species from várzea and igapó and observed ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from the várzea species Vatairea guianensis after one day of flooding, which decreased considerably within the next three days. The same species from igapó showed no acetaldehyde emission and much lower emission rates of ethanol, than the várzea species. In contrast Hevea spruceana from both várzea and igapó showed no ethanol or acetaldehyde emissions. After long term flooding (2 months) we did not find any emissions of acetaldehyde or ethanol from all plant species investigated. However, isoprene and monoterpene emissions were clearly affected, showing a significant decrease. Carbon dioxide assimilation was not affected by short term flooding, but declined after two months root anoxia in the case of Hevea spruceana.

  3. Physiological and biochemical responses of two keystone polychaete species: Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor to Multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Lucia; Neto, Victor; Pretti, Carlo; Figueira, Etelvina; Chiellini, Federica; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanomaterials (NMs). The production and use of these carbon NMs is increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become increasingly important. However, limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant, namely in invertebrate species. Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor are keystone polychaete species inhabiting estuaries and shallow water bodies intertidal mudflats, frequently used to evaluate the impact of environmental disturbances in these systems. To our knowledge, no information is available on physiological and biochemical alterations on these two species due to MWCNTs exposure. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of different MWCNTs concentrations (0.01; 0.10 and 1.00mg/L) in both species physiological (regenerative capacity and respiration rate) and biochemical (energy reserves, metabolic activities, oxidative stress related biomarkers and neurotoxicity markers) performance, after 28 days of exposure. The results obtained revealed that exposure to MWCNTs induced negative effects on the regenerative capacity of D. neapolitana. Additionally, higher MWCNTs concentrations induced increased respiration rates in D. neapolitana. MWCNTs altered energy-related responses, with higher values of electron transport system activity, glycogen and protein concentrations in both polychaetes exposed to this contaminant. Furthermore, when exposed to MWCNTs both species showed oxidative stress with higher lipid peroxidation, lower ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione, and higher activity of antioxidant (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzymes in exposed organisms.

  4. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimilation of mineral oil, and decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)] were studied in a set of 40 strains of mesophilic Exophiala species focused on the salmonis-clade mainly containing waterborne species. Thermophilic species and waterborne species outside the salmonis-clade were included for comparison. Strains were able to tolerate a wide range of pHs, although optimal growth was observed between pH 4.0 and 5.5. All strains tested were laccase positive. Strains were able to grow in the presence of the compounds (mineral oil and RBBR) with some differences in assimilation patterns between strains tested and also were capable of degrading the main chromophore of RBBR. The study revealed that distantly related mesophilic species behave similarly, and no particular trend in evolutionary adaptation was observed.

  5. Host-plant specialization in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex: a physiological, behavioral, and genetical analysis.

    PubMed

    R'Kha, S; Capy, P; David, J R

    1991-03-01

    Drosophila sechellia, endemic to the Seychelles, breeds in a single resource, Morinda citrifolia, whereas its close sympatric relative, Drosophila simulans, is a cosmopolitan generalist breeding in a great variety of resources. The effects of morinda on various fitness traits of these two species, their F1 hybrids, and reciprocal backcrosses were analyzed. Morinda fruit is highly toxic to Drosophila species, except D. sechellia. The toxicity is expressed in adults, embryos, and larvae. In embryos, early mortality is a maternally inherited trait, depending only on mother's genotype. The tolerance of D. sechellia to morinda is fully dominant in F1 hybrids. Egg production is stimulated by morinda in D. sechellia but inhibited in D. simulans; in hybrids, the inhibition observed in D. simulans is dominant. Morinda is an oviposition attractant for D. sechellia but a repellent for D. simulans; F1 hybrids and backcross individuals exhibit intermediate, approximately additive, behavior. In the field, adult flies of the two species exhibit opposite behavior in that D. sechellia is attracted to morinda and D. simulans is attracted to banana; hybrids have an intermediate behavior. These differences between the species explain why they do not hybridize in nature although living in sympatry. The various traits have different genetic bases: three or four different genes, or groups of genes, differentiate the ecological niches of the two species.

  6. Host-plant specialization in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex: a physiological, behavioral, and genetical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    R'Kha, S; Capy, P; David, J R

    1991-01-01

    Drosophila sechellia, endemic to the Seychelles, breeds in a single resource, Morinda citrifolia, whereas its close sympatric relative, Drosophila simulans, is a cosmopolitan generalist breeding in a great variety of resources. The effects of morinda on various fitness traits of these two species, their F1 hybrids, and reciprocal backcrosses were analyzed. Morinda fruit is highly toxic to Drosophila species, except D. sechellia. The toxicity is expressed in adults, embryos, and larvae. In embryos, early mortality is a maternally inherited trait, depending only on mother's genotype. The tolerance of D. sechellia to morinda is fully dominant in F1 hybrids. Egg production is stimulated by morinda in D. sechellia but inhibited in D. simulans; in hybrids, the inhibition observed in D. simulans is dominant. Morinda is an oviposition attractant for D. sechellia but a repellent for D. simulans; F1 hybrids and backcross individuals exhibit intermediate, approximately additive, behavior. In the field, adult flies of the two species exhibit opposite behavior in that D. sechellia is attracted to morinda and D. simulans is attracted to banana; hybrids have an intermediate behavior. These differences between the species explain why they do not hybridize in nature although living in sympatry. The various traits have different genetic bases: three or four different genes, or groups of genes, differentiate the ecological niches of the two species. Images PMID:1900368

  7. Linking the lytic and lysogenic bacteriophage cycles to environmental conditions, host physiology and their variability in coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Maurice, C F; Bouvier, C; de Wit, R; Bouvier, T

    2013-09-01

    Changes in environmental conditions and prokaryote physiology can strongly affect the dynamics of both the lysogenic and lytic bacteriophage replication cycles in aquatic systems. However, it remains unclear whether it is the nature, amplitude or frequency of these changes that alter the phage replication cycles. We performed an annual survey of three Mediterranean lagoons with contrasting levels of chlorophyll a concentration and salinity to explore how these cues and their variability influence either replication cycle. The lytic cycle was always detected and showed seasonal patterns, whereas the lysogenic cycle was often undetected and highly variable. The lytic cycle was influenced by environmental and prokaryotic physiological cues, increasing with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll a, and the proportion of respiring cells, and decreasing with the proportion of damaged cells. In contrast, lysogeny was not explained by the magnitude of any environmental or physiological parameter, but increased with the amplitude of change in prokaryote physiology. Our study suggests that both cycles are regulated by distinct factors: the lytic cycle is dependent on environmental parameters and host physiology, while lysogeny is dependent on the variability of prokaryote physiology. This could lead to the contrasting patterns observed between both cycles in aquatic systems.

  8. Behavioral, morphological and physiological correlates of diurnal and nocturnal vision in selected wading bird species.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L M; McNeil, R; Cabana, T; Lachapelle, P

    1999-01-01

    We examined in selected wading bird species if diurnal or nocturnal foraging and the use of visual or tactile feeding strategies could be correlated with retinal structure and function. The selected species were the Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax violaceus), a crepuscular and nocturnal forager, the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), a mainly crepuscular, but also diurnal and nocturnal feeder, the Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), a mainly crepuscular feeder which forages more at night than during the day, the Cattle (Bubulcus ibis) and Tricolored (Egretta tricolor) egrets and the American White Ibis (Eudocimus ruber) which forage only during daytime. Herons and egrets are visual foragers; ibises and spoonbills are tactile feeders. Electroretinograms were obtained from anesthetized birds in photopic and scotopic conditions to a wide range of light intensities, following which the retinae were processed for histological analysis. Based on rod densities and rods:cones ratios, nocturnal vision capability is greater in the Yellow-crowned Night Heron, followed by the Great Blue Heron and the spoonbill, then by the egrets and the ibis. Visual feeders that forage near dawn or dusk or at night have a higher rods:cones ratio, and consequently a greater night vision capability, than visual feeding species which forage only during daytime. Visual nocturnal feeders have a night vision capability greater than tactile diurnal as well as tactile nocturnal feeders. However, based on maximum scotopic b-wave amplitudes, all species studied have roughly comparable night vision capability. The factor that best discriminates between wading bird species appears to be the daytime visual capabilities. Indeed, the diurnal ibis and egrets have similar cone densities, cones:rods ratios, and photopic a-wave amplitudes, values which are greater than those measured in the two nocturnally active heron species.

  9. Seasonal stress physiology and body condition differ among co-occurring tropical finch species.

    PubMed

    Maute, Kimberly L; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal changes in avian hormonal stress responses and condition are well known for common species found at temperate and arctic latitudes, but declining and tropical species are poorly studied. This study compares stress and condition measures of co-occurring declining and non-declining tropical grass finch species in Australia. We monitored declining Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) and non-declining long-tailed and masked finches (Poepila acuticauda and P. personata) during two seasons that are potentially stressful: peak breeding (early dry season when food is plentiful) and moult (late dry to early wet season when food may be scarce). We measured body condition (muscle and fat), haematocrit, and stress response to capture using plasma corticosterone and binding globulin concentrations. All species had higher muscle and lower fat indices during breeding than moult. Haematocrit did not consistently differ between seasons. Long-tailed finches had higher stress responses during breeding than moult, similar to other passerines studied. Masked finches showed no seasonal changes in stress response. Gouldian finches had stress response patterns opposite to those of long-tailed finches, with higher stress responses during moult. However, seasonal trends in Gouldian and long-tailed finch stress responses sometimes differed between years or sites. The differences in stress response patterns between species suggest that the declining Gouldian finch is more sensitive to recent environmental changes which are thought to further reduce grass seed food resources during the late dry to early wet season. Retention of stress responsiveness during a protracted moult could increase the survival potential of Gouldian finches. This study highlights the utility of stress and condition indices to determine the sensitivity of co-occurring species to environmental conditions.

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  12. Genomic architecture of MHC-linked odorant receptor gene repertoires among 16 vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pablo Sandro Carvalho; Kellermann, Thomas; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The recent sequencing and assembly of the genomes of different organisms have shown that almost all vertebrates studied in detail so far have one or more clusters of genes encoding odorant receptors (OR) in close physical linkage to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It has been postulated that MHC-linked OR genes could be involved in MHC-influenced mate choice, comprising both pre- as well as post-copulatory mechanisms. We have therefore carried out a systematic comparison of protein sequences of these receptors from the genomes of man, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, elephant, opossum, frog and zebra fish (amounting to a total of 559 protein sequences) in order to identify OR families exhibiting evolutionarily conserved MHC linkage. In addition, we compared the genomic structure of this region within these 16 species, accounting for presence or absence of OR gene families, gene order, transcriptional orientation and linkage to the MHC or framework genes. The results are presented in the form of gene maps and phylogenetic analyses that reveal largely concordant repertoires of gene families, at least among tetrapods, although each of the eight taxa studied (primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, proboscids, marsupials, amphibians and teleosts) exhibits a typical architecture of MHC (or MHC framework loci)-linked OR genes. Furthermore, the comparison of the genomic organization of this region has implications for phylogenetic relationships between closely related taxa, especially in disputed cases such as the evolutionary history of even- and odd-toed ungulates and carnivores. Finally, the largely conserved linkage between distinct OR genes and the MHC supports the concept that particular alleles within a given haplotype function in a concerted fashion during self-/non-self-discrimination processes in reproduction.

  13. Identification of molecular and physiological responses to chronic environmental challenge in an invasive species: the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S; Amaral, Ana; Vieira, Florbela; Batista, Frederico M; Reis, João; Power, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental responses of an invasive species is critical in predicting how ecosystem composition may be transformed in the future, especially under climate change. In this study, Crassostrea gigas, a species well adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment, was exposed to the chronic environmental challenges of temperature (19 and 24°C) and pH (ambient seawater and a reduction of 0.4 pH units) in an extended 3-month laboratory-based study. Physiological parameters were measured (condition index, shell growth, respiration, excretion rates, O:N ratios, and ability to repair shell damage) alongside molecular analyses. Temperature was by far the most important stressor, as demonstrated by reduced condition indexes and shell growth at 24°C, with relatively little effect detected for pH. Transcriptional profiling using candidate genes and SOLiD sequencing of mantle tissue revealed that classical “stress” genes, previously reported to be upregulated under acute temperature challenges, were not significantly expressed in any of the treatments, emphasizing the different response between acute and longer term chronic stress. The transcriptional profiling also elaborated on the cellular responses underpinning the physiological results, including the identification of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway as a potentially novel marker for chronic environmental challenge. This study represents a first attempt to understand the energetic consequences of cumulative thermal stress on the intertidal C. gigas which could significantly impact on coastal ecosystem biodiversity and function in the future. PMID:24223268

  14. Thermal ecological physiology of native and invasive frog species: do invaders perform better?

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Pablo A.; Puschel, Hans; Acuña, Paz; Bartheld, José L.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are recognized as an important biotic component of global change that threatens the composition, structure and functioning of ecosystems, resulting in loss of biodiversity and displacement of native species. Although ecological characteristics facilitating the establishment and spread of non-native species are widely recognized, little is known about organismal attributes underlying invasion success. In this study, we tested the effect of thermal acclimation on thermal tolerance and locomotor performance in the invasive Xenopus laevis and the Chilean native Calyptocephalella gayi. In particular, the maximal righting performance (μMAX), optimal temperature (TO), lower (CTmin) and upper critical thermal limits (CTmax), thermal breadth (Tbr) and the area under the performance curve (AUC) were studied after 6 weeks acclimation to 10 and 20°C. We observed higher values of μmax and AUC in X. laevis in comparison to C. gayi. On the contrary, the invasive species showed lower values of CTmin in comparison to the native one. In contrast, CTmax, TO and Tbr showed no inter-specific differences. Moreover, we found that both species have the ability to acclimate their locomotor performance and lower thermal tolerance limit at low temperatures. Our results demonstrate that X. laevis is a better performer than C. gayi. Although there were differences in CTmin, the invasive and native frogs did not differ in their thermal tolerance. Interestingly, in both species the lower and upper critical thermal limits are beyond the minimal and maximal temperatures encountered in nature during the coldest and hottest month, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest that both X. laevis and C. gayi would be resilient to climate warming expectations in Chile. PMID:27933168

  15. Production physiology of three fast-growing hardwood species along a soil resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn E; Jose, Shibu

    2005-12-01

    We determined how specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf nitrogen (SLN), leaf area index (LAI), light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax) and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of three commercially important hardwood species, eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var.pagodafolia Ell.), vary across a soil resource gradient. Five treatments were applied in a randomized block design (control, irrigation only (IRR), and irrigation plus fertilization with 56, 112 or 224 kg N ha-1 year-1 (N56, N112 and N224)) with four replications per species. When trees were 6 years old, Amax, SLA, SLN, LAI and ANPP were quantified during peak leaf production within a single growing season. In all species, Amax for sun leaves was significantly higher than for shade leaves (34, 32 and 29 micromol m2 s-1 versus 27, 23 and 23 micromol m2 s-1 for cottonwood, cherrybark oak and sycamore sun and shade leaves, respectively) and tended to plateau in the N112 treatment. The SLA was significantly lower in sun than in shade leaves and reached a plateau in IRR-treated cottonwood and sycamore, and in N56-treated oak. Values of SLN peaked in the N122 treatment for cottonwood sun leaves (1.73 g N m2) and in the N56 treatment for sycamore and oak (1.54 and 1.90 g N m2, respectively). In sun and shade leaves of all species, Amax increased with increasing SLN. Cherrybark oak LAI reached a plateau across the resource gradient in the N56 treatment, whereas cottonwood and sycamore LAI reached a plateau in the IRR treatment. All species exhibited significant curvilinear relationships between canopy Amax and ANPP. These findings indicate that nutrients and water regulate leaf-level traits such as SLA and SLN, which in turn influence LAI and canopy photosynthesis, thereby affecting ANPP at the tree and stand levels.

  16. Thermal ecological physiology of native and invasive frog species: do invaders perform better?

    PubMed

    Cortes, Pablo A; Puschel, Hans; Acuña, Paz; Bartheld, José L; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are recognized as an important biotic component of global change that threatens the composition, structure and functioning of ecosystems, resulting in loss of biodiversity and displacement of native species. Although ecological characteristics facilitating the establishment and spread of non-native species are widely recognized, little is known about organismal attributes underlying invasion success. In this study, we tested the effect of thermal acclimation on thermal tolerance and locomotor performance in the invasive Xenopus laevis and the Chilean native Calyptocephalella gayi. In particular, the maximal righting performance (μMAX), optimal temperature (TO), lower (CTmin) and upper critical thermal limits (CTmax), thermal breadth (Tbr) and the area under the performance curve (AUC) were studied after 6 weeks acclimation to 10 and 20°C. We observed higher values of μmax and AUC in X. laevis in comparison to C. gayi. On the contrary, the invasive species showed lower values of CTmin in comparison to the native one. In contrast, CTmax, TO and Tbr showed no inter-specific differences. Moreover, we found that both species have the ability to acclimate their locomotor performance and lower thermal tolerance limit at low temperatures. Our results demonstrate that X. laevis is a better performer than C. gayi. Although there were differences in CTmin, the invasive and native frogs did not differ in their thermal tolerance. Interestingly, in both species the lower and upper critical thermal limits are beyond the minimal and maximal temperatures encountered in nature during the coldest and hottest month, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest that both X. laevis and C. gayi would be resilient to climate warming expectations in Chile.

  17. Effects of air pollution from road transport on growth and physiology of six transplanted bryophyte species.

    PubMed

    Bignal, Keeley L; Ashmore, Mike R; Headley, Alistair D

    2008-11-01

    Motor vehicles emit a cocktail of pollutants; however, little is known about the effects of these pollutants on bryophytes located in roadside habitats. Six bryophyte species were transplanted to either a woodland or a moorland site adjacent to a motorway, and were monitored over sevenmonths from autumn through to spring. All species showed an increase in one or more of the following near the motorway: growth, membrane leakage, chlorophyll concentration, and nitrogen concentration. The strongest effects were observed in the first 50-100 m from the motorway: this was consistent with the nitrogen dioxide pollution profile, which decreased to background levels at a distance of 100-125 m. It is hypothesised that motor vehicle pollution was responsible for the effects observed, and that nitrogen oxides had a key influence. The observed effects may lead to changes in vegetation composition with significant implications for nature conservation and management of roadside sites.

  18. Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.

    PubMed

    Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

    2012-09-01

    Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and β-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the other metabolic tracers at all postdosing intervals. We conclude that the inability of house sparrows to fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting.

  19. Differential physiological responses of two Salvinia species to hexavalent chromium at a glance.

    PubMed

    Prado, Carolina; Chocobar Ponce, Silvana; Pagano, Eduardo; Prado, Fernando E; Rosa, Mariana

    2016-06-01

    In plants of Salvinia rotundifolia and Salvinia minima the effect of two Cr(VI) concentrations (5 and 20mgL(-1)) applied for 7days was assessed by measuring changes in biomass, photosynthetic pigments, Cr accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA), membrane stability index (MSI), thiols (TT, NPT and PBT), and phenolics (SP and IP). Biomass in S. minima was decreased at highest Cr(VI) concentration, but there were no changes in S. rotundifolia. Metal accumulation was different in both species. S. minima accumulates more metal in fronds, but S. rotundifolia accumulates more metal in lacinias. Results also showed that S. minima translocates more Cr to fronds than S. rotundifolia, but at the whole plant level higher accumulation occurred in this last. Tolerance index (Ti) was higher in S. rotundifolia. Chl b and carotenoids were decreased only upon exposure to high Cr(VI) concentration in both species. Cr(VI) treatment did not enhance MDA accumulation. Cr exposure had no impact on MSI values when comparing with Cr-untreated values. Thiols in fronds and lacinias showed different distribution patterns between species. IP and NPT were higher in S. rotundifolia lacinias that accumulate more Cr than S. minima lacinias. Whilst SP and NPT were higher in S. minima fronds compared with S. rotundifolia ones. This may indicate that these species can cope with Cr(VI) toxicity, either through metal complexation and/or metal reduction or by the scavenging of ROS derived from Cr-induced oxidative stress. Based on Cr accumulation and biomass production, S. rotundifolia seems more suitable to remove Cr(VI) from polluted waters.

  20. Atomic structure of a rhinovirus C, a virus species linked to severe childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Hill, Marchel G; Klose, Thomas; Chen, Zhenguo; Watters, Kelly; Bochkov, Yury A; Jiang, Wen; Palmenberg, Ann C; Rossmann, Michael G

    2016-08-09

    Isolates of rhinovirus C (RV-C), a recently identified Enterovirus (EV) species, are the causative agents of severe respiratory infections among children and are linked to childhood asthma exacerbations. The RV-C have been refractory to structure determination because they are difficult to propagate in vitro. Here, we report the cryo-EM atomic structures of the full virion and native empty particle (NEP) of RV-C15a. The virus has 60 "fingers" on the virus outer surface that probably function as dominant immunogens. Because the NEPs also display these fingers, they may have utility as vaccine candidates. A sequence-conserved surface depression adjacent to each finger forms a likely binding site for the sialic acid on its receptor. The RV-C, unlike other EVs, are resistant to capsid-binding antiviral compounds because the hydrophobic pocket in VP1 is filled with multiple bulky residues. These results define potential molecular determinants for designing antiviral therapeutics and vaccines.

  1. Ectotherms in Variable Thermal Landscapes: A Physiological Evaluation of the Invasive Potential of Fruit Flies Species

    PubMed Central

    Boher, Francisca; Trefault, Nicole; Estay, Sergio A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and biological invasions pose one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance may also impact native and invasive organisms, although differentially. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on the expression of heat shock protein (hsp90) in adults of the invasive fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the native Drosophila gaucha in Mediterranean habitats of central Chile. We observed that, under these experimental conditions, hsp90 mRNA expression was higher in the invasive species but absent in the native one. Apparently, the biogeographic origin and niche conservatisms are playing a role in the heat shock response of these species under different putative scenarios of climate change. We suggest that in order to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impact of climate change and biological invasions, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of climatic variables, as well as the evolutionary original conditions of the native and invasive species. PMID:27486407

  2. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

    PubMed

    Trier, Cassandra N; Hermansen, Jo S; Sætre, Glenn-Peter; Bailey, Richard I

    2014-01-01

    Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97%) and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse") at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome, have spread in

  3. Physiological Potential for Survival of Propagules of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Holthe, Peter A.; Szarek, Stan R.

    1985-01-01

    Terminal stem joints from three opuntias were detached and maintained for 160 days under natural climatic conditions in the winter and summer. Neither Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) nor CAM-idling, as evidenced by a diurnal malate flux, was maintained throughout the two periods; ceasing earlier in the summer period. A 13 to 20% fresh weight loss occurred over the winter period, as opposed to a 30 to 40% loss over the summer period, although tissue water potentials remained above −1.5 megapascals. Chlorophyll and protein contents remained essentially constant in the winter but decreased in the summer. Starch content decreased slightly over the winter but more significantly over the summer. Mucilage content increased slightly in winter and declined slightly in summer. The initiation of rooting was found to be inversely related to spine density and dependent upon orientation and season. Comparison of these data suggest rooting coincided with the cessation of CAM-idling in both climatic periods and was uncoupled from the occurrence of precipitation. The physiological limit for survival of these propagules after detachment was lower than anticipated being of only a few months' duration. PMID:16664374

  4. Differences in the Vulnerability of Waterbird Species to Botulism Outbreaks in Mediterranean Wetlands: an Assessment of Ecological and Physiological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Anza, I.; Vidal, D.; Feliu, J.; Crespo, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian botulism kills thousands of waterbirds every year, including endangered species, but information about the differences between species in vulnerability to botulism outbreaks and the capacity to act as carriers of Clostridium botulinum is still poorly known. Here, we estimated the vulnerability to botulism of 11 waterbird species from Mediterranean wetlands by comparing the number of affected birds with the census of individuals at risk. The capacity of different species to act as carriers was studied by detecting the presence of the C. botulinum type C/D botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) gene in fecal samples and prey items of waterbirds in the wild and by the serial sampling of cloacal swabs of birds affected by botulism. We found differences among species in their vulnerabilities to botulism, probably related to feeding habits, season of arrival, turnover, and, possibly, phylogenetic resilience. The globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) showed mortality rates in the studied outbreaks of 7% and 17% of the maximum census, which highlights botulism as a risk factor for the conservation of the species. Invasive water snails, such as Physa acuta, may be important drivers in botulism epidemiology, because 30% of samples tested positive for the BoNT gene during outbreaks. Finally, our results show that birds may excrete the pathogen for up to 7 days, and some individuals can do it for longer periods. Rails and ducks excreted C. botulinum more often and for longer times than gulls, which could be related to their digestive physiology (i.e., cecum development). IMPORTANCE Botulism is an important cause of mortality in waterbirds, including some endangered species. The global climate change may have consequences in the ecology of wetlands that favor the occurrence of botulism outbreaks. Here, we offer some information to understand the ecology of this disease that can be useful to cope with these global changes in the future. We have found

  5. Impaired Stomatal Control Is Associated with Reduced Photosynthetic Physiology in Crop Species Grown at Elevated [CO2

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Matthew; Killi, Dilek; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops. Despite the large number of CO2-enrichment studies to date, there is relatively little information regarding the effect of elevated [CO2] on stomatal control. Five crop species with active physiological stomatal behavior were grown at ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (2000 ppm) [CO2]. We investigated the relationship between stomatal function, stomatal size, and photosynthetic capacity in the five species, and then assessed the mechanistic effect of elevated [CO2] on photosynthetic physiology, stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] and the effectiveness of stomatal closure to darkness. We observed positive relationships between the speed of stomatal response and the maximum rates of PN and Gs sustained by the plants; indicative of close co-ordination of stomatal behavior and PN. In contrast to previous studies we did not observe a negative relationship between speed of stomatal response and stomatal size. The sensitivity of stomata to [CO2] declined with the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate limited rate of PN at elevated [CO2]. The effectiveness of stomatal closure was also impaired at high [CO2]. Growth at elevated [CO2] did not affect the performance of photosystem II indicating that high [CO2] had not induced damage to the photosynthetic physiology, and suggesting that photosynthetic control of Gs is either directly impaired at high [CO2], sensing/signaling of environmental change is disrupted or elevated [CO2] causes some physical effect that constrains stomatal

  6. Impaired Stomatal Control Is Associated with Reduced Photosynthetic Physiology in Crop Species Grown at Elevated [CO2].

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Killi, Dilek; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops. Despite the large number of CO2-enrichment studies to date, there is relatively little information regarding the effect of elevated [CO2] on stomatal control. Five crop species with active physiological stomatal behavior were grown at ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (2000 ppm) [CO2]. We investigated the relationship between stomatal function, stomatal size, and photosynthetic capacity in the five species, and then assessed the mechanistic effect of elevated [CO2] on photosynthetic physiology, stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] and the effectiveness of stomatal closure to darkness. We observed positive relationships between the speed of stomatal response and the maximum rates of PN and Gs sustained by the plants; indicative of close co-ordination of stomatal behavior and PN. In contrast to previous studies we did not observe a negative relationship between speed of stomatal response and stomatal size. The sensitivity of stomata to [CO2] declined with the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate limited rate of PN at elevated [CO2]. The effectiveness of stomatal closure was also impaired at high [CO2]. Growth at elevated [CO2] did not affect the performance of photosystem II indicating that high [CO2] had not induced damage to the photosynthetic physiology, and suggesting that photosynthetic control of Gs is either directly impaired at high [CO2], sensing/signaling of environmental change is disrupted or elevated [CO2] causes some physical effect that constrains stomatal

  7. Species-specific diversity in the anatomical and physiological organization of the BNST-VTA pathway.

    PubMed

    Kaufling, Jennifer; Girard, Delphine; Maitre, Marlène; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Georges, François

    2017-03-06

    The anteromedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (amBNST) is a limbic structure innervating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that is remarkably constant across species. The amBNST modulates fear and anxiety, and activation of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons by amBNST afferents seems to be the way by which stress controls motivational states associated with reward or aversion. Because fear learning and anxiety states can be expressed differently between rats and mice, we compared the functional connectivity between amBNST and the VTA-DA neurons in both species using consistant methodological approaches. Using a combination of in vivo electrophysiological, neuroanatomical tracing and laser capture approaches we explored the BNST influences on VTA-DA neurons activity. First, we characterized in rats the molecular phenotype of the amBNST neurons projecting to the VTA. We found that this projection is complex, including both GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Then, VTA injections of a conventional retrograde tracer, the β-sub-unit of the cholera toxin (CTB), revealed a stronger BNST-VTA projection in mice than in rats. Finally, electrical stimulations of the BNST during VTA-DA neuron recording demonstrated a more potent excitatory influence of the amBNST on VTA-DA neuron activity in rats than in mice. These data illustrate anatomically, but also functionally, a significant difference between rats and mice in the amBNST-VTA pathway. More generally, together with previous findings, our research highlights the importance of species differences for the interpretation and the generalization of research data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Patterns of Emotional Reactivity to Conflict as Explanatory Mechanisms in Links between Interpartner Aggression and Child Physiological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.; Zale, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Background: This paper examined children's fearful, sad, and angry reactivity to interparental conflict as mediators of associations between their exposure to interparental aggression and physiological functioning. Methods: Participants included 200 toddlers and their mothers. Assessments of interparental aggression and children's emotional…

  9. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhi-Yong; Su, Yi-Ji; Teng, Nian-Jun; Chen, Su-Mei; Sun, Hai-Nan; Li, Chu-Ling; Chen, Fa-Di

    2013-01-01

    Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance. PMID:24235883

  10. Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of excess lead in a roadside pioneer species Sonchus oleraceus L.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z T

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings of Sonchus oleraceus L. were transplanted to soil supplied with lead acetate at dosages of 0, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg(-1) DW. Measures of chlorophyll content, peroxidase (POD) activity, shoot length, biomass and Pb content in the plant tissues were obtained from the experimental plants. With increasing amounts of Pb in the soil, the chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass decreased, while POD activity and Pb content in the plant tissues increased. At 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment, Pb content in the plant leaf, stem and root were 65.67, 149.82 and 1113.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. Only at 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment did chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass significantly increase by 18, 15 and 44%, respectively, while POD decreased by 39% over the control. The potential of applying this species in phytoremediation of Pb contaminated roadside soils and thus restoration of the roadside vegetation are discussed.

  11. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  12. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-03-14

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage  = 30.68 years, SDage  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (Mage  = 3.50 years, SDage  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed.

  13. [Effects of different barnyardgrass species on grain yield of rice and their physiological characteristics under alternate wetting and drying irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-chang; Li, Yong-feng; Yang, Xia; Gu, Tao; Li, Gui

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different barnyardgrass species on rice yield and physiological characteristics of rice, two rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (an indica hybrid cultivar) and Nanjing 9108 (a japonica cultivar) , were employed to co-culture with four barnyardgrass species during the period from transplanting to maturity under alternate wetting and moderate drying ir- rigation condition. The treatments were separately designed as follow: weed free ( control) , rice with Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis (T1), rice with E. crusgalli (T2), rice with E. crusgali var. zelayensis (T3) and rice with E. colonum (T4). The results showed that T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments reduced the Liangyoupeijiu yield by 13.8%, 10.6%, 23.8% and 0.5%, but the corresponding yield loss of Nanjing 9108 could reach up to 45.5%, 36.9%, 60.7% and 15.1%, respectively. The results above showed that T1, T2 and T3 treatments all significantly reduced grain yield, and T4 treatment only reduced grain yield for Nanjing 9108 but not for Liangyoupeijiu. All treatments elevated malondialehyde contents of rice leaf, but the activities of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, dry matter accumulation in maturity stage, root oxidation activities and contents of indole-3-acetic acid as well as zeatin + zeatin riboside in roots during rice grain filling stage were all decreased. The influence degree of four barnyardgrass against physiological indices of rice had the order of T3 > T1 >T2 > T4. It showed that the reductions in enzyme activities of antioxidant system, root oxidation activities, contents of indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin + zeatin riboside during grain filling stage and accumulation of dry matter in maturity as well as increase in contents of malondialehyde of rice during grain filling stage might be important reasons for grain yield reduction when grew with barnyardgrass.

  14. Linking physiological and cellular responses to thermal stress: β-adrenergic blockade reduces the heat shock response in fish.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Nicole M; LeBlanc, Sacha; Perry, Steve F; Currie, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    When faced with stress, animals use physiological and cellular strategies to preserve homeostasis. We were interested in how these high-level stress responses are integrated at the level of the whole animal. Here, we investigated the capacity of the physiological stress response, and specifically the β-adrenergic response, to affect the induction of the cellular heat shock proteins, HSPs, following a thermal stress in vivo. We predicted that blocking β-adrenergic stimulation during an acute heat stress in the whole animal would result in reduced levels of HSPs in red blood cells (RBCs) of rainbow trout compared to animals where adrenergic signaling remained intact. We first determined that a 1 h heat shock at 25 °C in trout acclimated to 13 °C resulted in RBC adrenergic stimulation as determined by a significant increase in cell swelling, a hallmark of the β-adrenergic response. A whole animal injection with the β2-adrenergic antagonist, ICI-118,551, successfully reduced this heat-induced RBC swelling. The acute heat shock caused a significant induction of HSP70 in RBCs of 13 °C-acclimated trout as well as a significant increase in plasma catecholamines. When heat-shocked fish were treated with ICI-118,551, we observed a significant attenuation of the HSP70 response. We conclude that circulating catecholamines influence the cellular heat shock response in rainbow trout RBCs, demonstrating physiological/hormonal control of the cellular stress response.

  15. Physiological responses of three species of Antarctic mixotrophic phytoflagellates to changes in light and dissolved nutrients.

    PubMed

    McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Gast, Rebecca J; Sanders, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    Antarctic phototrophs are challenged by extreme temperatures, ice cover, nutrient limitation, and prolonged periods of darkness. Yet this environment may also provide niche opportunities for phytoplankton utilizing alternative nutritional modes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and particle ingestion, has been proposed as a mechanism for some phytoplankton to contend with the adverse conditions of the Antarctic. We conducted feeding experiments using fluorescent bacteria-sized tracers to compare the effects of light and nutrients on bacterivory rates in three Antarctic marine photosynthetic nanoflagellates representing two evolutionary lineages: Cryptophyceae (Geminigera cryophila) and Prasinophyceae (Pyramimonas tychotreta and Mantoniella antarctica). Only G. cryophila had previously been identified as mixotrophic. We also measured photoautotrophic abilities over a range of light intensities (P vs. I) and used dark survival experiments to assess cell population dynamics in the absence of light. Feeding behavior in these three nanoflagellates was affected by either light, nutrient levels, or a combination of both factors in a species-specific manner that was not conserved by evolutionary lineage. The different responses to environmental factors by these mixotrophs supported the idea of tradeoffs in the use of phagotrophy and phototrophy for growth.

  16. Different Growth and Physiological Responses to Cadmium of the Three Miscanthus Species

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Haipeng; Hong, Chuntao; Chen, Xiaomin; Xu, Yanxia; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Dean; Zheng, Bingsong

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus has been proposed as a promising crop for phytoremediation due to its high biomass yield and remarkable adaptability to different environments. However, little is known about the resistance of Miscanthus spp. to cadmium (Cd). To determine any differences in resistance of Miscanthus to Cd, we examined plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), activities of anti-oxidant and C4 photosynthetic enzymes, concentrations of Cd in leaves and roots, and observed the chloroplast structure in three Miscanthus species treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 μM Cd in solutions. Miscanthus sinensis showed more sensitivity to Cd, including sharp decreases in growth, Pn, PEPC activity and damage to chloroplast structure, and the highest H2O2 and Cd concentrations in leaves and roots after Cd treatments. Miscanthus sacchariflorus showed higher resistance to Cd and better growth, had the highest Pn and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities and integrative chloroplast structure and the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and leaf and root Cd concentrations. The results could play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants and in application of phytoremediation. PMID:27070918

  17. Interspecies physiological variation as a tool for cross-species assessments of global warming-induced endangerment: validation of an intrinsic determinant of macroecological and phylogeographic structure.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Joseph; Ossola, Ryan J; Spotila, James; Crandall, Keith A

    2007-12-22

    Global warming is now recognized as the dominant threat to biodiversity because even protected populations and habitats are susceptible. Nonetheless, current criteria for evaluating species' relative endangerment remain purely ecological, and the accepted conservation strategies of habitat preservation and population management assume that species can mount ecological responses if afforded protection. The insidious threat from climate change is that it will attenuate or preclude ecological responses by species that are physiologically constrained; yet, quantitative, objective criteria for assessing relative susceptibility of diverse taxa to warming-induced stress are wanting. We explored the utility of using interspecies physiological variation for this purpose by relating species' physiological phenotypes to landscape patterns of ecological and genetic exchange. Using a salamander model system in which ecological, genetic and physiological diversity are well characterized, we found strong quantitative relationships of basal metabolic rates (BMRs) to both macroecological and phylogeographic patterns, with decreasing BMR leading to dispersal limitation (small contemporary ranges with marked phylogeographic structure). Measures of intrinsic physiological tolerance, which vary systematically with macroecological and phylogeographic patterns, afford objective criteria for assessing endangerment across a wide range of species and should be incorporated into conservation assessment criteria that currently rely exclusively upon ecological predictors.

  18. Physiological tolerances of juvenile robust redhorse, Moxostoma robustum: Conservation implications for an imperiled species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, S.J.; Haney, D.C.; Timmerman, C.M.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The robust redhorse, Moxostoma robustum (Teleostei: Catostomidae), is an imperiled sucker native to large rivers of the Atlantic slope of the southeastern United States. Juvenile M. robustum were tested for tolerances to temperature, salinity, pH, and hypoxia in order to evaluate basic early life-history requirements. Static (acute) tests resulted in estimates of mean lower temperature tolerances (5.3-19.4 ??C) that varied with prior thermal acclimation and indicated no apparent difference in tolerance among fish 30, 60, and 90 days old. Fish acclimated to 20 ??C and 30 ??C had significantly different mean critical thermal maxima (34.9 ??C and 37.2 ??C, respectively) and exhibited pronounced increased opercular ventilation rates with elevated temperatures. Fish exposed to acute and chronic increases in salinity showed unusual patterns of mortality above the isosmotic point (9 ppt) that reflected possible differences in body mass and prior acclimation conditions (i.e., water ionic composition); small fish and those held in soft water were the least tolerant of increased salinity. Abrupt exposure to extreme pH values resulted in greater than 50% mortality at pH values below 4.3 and above 9.5 within a 96-hour period. Fish exposed to progressive hypoxia utilized aquatic surface respiration at a mean oxygen concentration of 0.72-0.80 mg O2 l-1 (20 ??C and 30 ??C acclimated fish, respectively), and lost equilibrium at 0.54-.57 mg O2 l-1. Juvenile M. robustum are moderately tolerant of a wide range of ambient physicochemical parameters, but further research is needed to determine how both abiotic and biotic factors have contributed to population decline and extirpation of this species.

  19. [A Method for Protein Photo-cross-linking in Living Cells Facilitating Analysis of Physiological Interactions of Proteins].

    PubMed

    Hino, Nobumasa

    2015-01-01

    In living cells, most proteins form complexes with other proteins to exert their functions. Since protein functions are regulated in response to changes in the cellular environment, the components of the complexes can vary; therefore, proteins often interact in a weak and transient manner. To capture such labile protein interactions, we have developed a method for photo-cross-linking of proteins directly interacting in mammalian cells; this method involves expansion of the genetic code and site-specific incorporation of photoreactive amino acids into proteins. Upon cross-linking, protein complexes are stabilized by a covalent bond and can be readily isolated from cell extracts without the problems usually associated with simple affinity purification methods such as co-immunoprecipitation. Photo-cross-linkers have another benefit: they react exclusively with molecules within a range defined by the linker length. This property becomes useful for determining the binding interface of two proteins because the linkers can be introduced in a site-directed manner with our method. In this review, we first describe the expansion of the genetic code of mammalian cells for the incorporation of non-natural amino acids into proteins. Then, we introduce our recent applications and developments of the cross-linking method: identification of intracellular binding partners of the signaling protein growth factor receptor binding protein 2; analysis of the binding between membrane proteins on the cell surface; and a novel photoreactive amino acid that enables wide-ranging photo-cross-linking.

  20. Physiological pace of life: the link between constitutive immunity, developmental period, and metabolic rate in European birds.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Vincze, Orsolya; Osváth, Gergely; Veres-Szászka, Judit; Czirják, Gábor Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive innate immunity is the first lined of defence against infections, but the causes determining its variability among species are poorly understood. The pace of life hypothesis predicts that species with a fast speed of life, characterized by high energy turnover and short developmental time, invest relatively little in defence in favour of growth and early reproduction, whereas 'slow-living' species are predicted to invest more resources into costly defence. We conducted phylogenetic comparative analysis on 105 European bird species and determined that the number of leukocytes, and the levels of natural antibodies (NAbs) and complement, measured on adult birds, increased or tended to positively correlate with the length of incubation period. However, we found that the length of incubation and fledging periods have opposite effects on immune defence (i.e. immune parameters show a negative association with the length of fledging period). Our results suggest that the contrasting effects of the incubation and fledging periods are related to the timing of the development of immune cells and of NAbs and complement, which largely mature during the embryonic phase of development. In support of this hypothesis, we found that species with a long relative incubation period [i.e. whose total pre-fledging developmental time (incubation plus fledging) consists largely of the incubation period] invested more in constitutive innate immunity. Finally, in support of the pace of life hypothesis, for a subsample of 63 species, we found that the basal metabolic rate significantly or tended to negatively correlate with immune measures.

  1. Phylogeny, physiology and distribution of 'Candidatus Microthrix calida', a new Microthrix species isolated from industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Levantesi, Caterina; Rossetti, Simona; Thelen, Karin; Kragelund, Caroline; Krooneman, Janneke; Eikelboom, Dick; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Tandoi, Valter

    2006-09-01

    Twelve strains of filamentous bacteria morphologically identified as 'Microthrix parvicella' were isolated from industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis showed that these strains were all closely related to 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella'. Six of them, however, had a 16S rRNA gene similarity of only 95.7% and 96.7% to 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' suggesting the presence of a new species. The name 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' is proposed for this new microorganism. The physiological properties of these six isolates supported the description of a new taxon. The 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' strains produced thin filaments (0.3-0.7 microm diameter), they did not grow on the media supporting the growth of 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' and could be cultivated at higher temperature (up to 36.5 degrees C). Preliminary data on substrate uptake were obtained by microautoradiography on pure culture. Two new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, Mpa-T1-1260 specific for 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' and Mpa-all-1410 targeting both Microthrix species, were designed. The presence of Microthrix spp. was investigated in 114 activated sludge plants. 'Microthrix parvicella' morphotype was detected in 23% of the analysed samples and FISH analysis revealed that 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' was present in 5% of them. The remaining 'M. parvicella' filaments were positive with probe Mpa-all-1410 but could not all be identified as 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' suggesting the presence of more hitherto undescribed biodiversity within this morphotype.

  2. Behavioral and physiological adjustments to new predators in an endemic island species, the Galápagos marine iguana.

    PubMed

    Berger, Silke; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rödl, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    For the past 5 to 15 million years, marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), endemic to the Galápagos archipelago, experienced relaxed predation pressure and consequently show negligible anti-predator behavior. However, over the past few decades introduced feral cats and dogs started to prey on iguanas on some of the islands. We investigated experimentally whether behavioral and endocrine anti-predator responses changed in response to predator introduction. We hypothesized that flight initiation distances (FID) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations should increase in affected populations to cope with the novel predators. Populations of marine iguanas reacted differentially to simulated predator approach depending on whether or not they were previously naturally exposed to introduced predators. FIDs were larger at sites with predation than at sites without predation. Furthermore, the occurrence of new predators was associated with increased stress-induced CORT levels in marine iguanas. In addition, age was a strong predictor of variation in FID and CORT levels. Juveniles, which are generally more threatened by predators compared to adults, showed larger FIDs and higher CORT baseline levels as well as higher stress-induced levels than adults. The results demonstrate that this naive island species shows behavioral and physiological plasticity associated with actual predation pressure, a trait that is presumably adaptive. However, the adjustments in FID are not sufficient to cope with the novel predators. We suggest that low behavioral plasticity in the face of introduced predators may drive many island species to extinction.

  3. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition.

  4. Linking mycorrhizas to sporocarps: a new species, Geopora cercocarpi, on Cercocarpus ledifolius (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Southworth, Darlene; Frank, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    Mycorrhizal assemblages characterized by molecular data frequently differ from collections of mycorrhizal sporocarps at the same site. Geopora species are frequent mycobionts of ectomycorrhizal roots, but except for G. cooperi they are rarely identified to species by molecular methods. Among the mycobionts of ectomycorrhizas with Cercocarpus ledifolius (Rosaceae) was a fungal species with a 91% BLAST match to G. arenicola. To determine the species of Geopora we surveyed for hypogeous sporocarps under C. ledifolius at sites in southern Oregon where the Geopora mycorrhizas had been collected and identified by DNA sequences of the ITS region. We found sporocarps of a Geopora species with 100% BLAST match to the mycorrhizas. Morphological characters of a white hymenium, inrolled entire margin and large spores, along with a hypogeous habit and a mycorrhizal host of C. ledifolius, distinguished these specimens from previously described species. Here we describe a new species, Geopora cercocarpi.

  5. Phenotypic constraints and community structure: linking trade-offs within and among species.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L; Kimball, Sarah; Peterson, Megan; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, David L

    2014-11-01

    Trade-offs are central to many topics in biology, from the evolution of life histories to ecological mechanisms of species coexistence. Trade-offs observed among species may reflect pervasive constraints on phenotypes that are achievable given biophysical and resource limitations. If so, then among-species trade-offs should be consistent with trade-offs within species. Alternatively, trait variation among co-occurring species may reflect historical contingencies during community assembly rather than within-species constraints. Here, we test whether a key trade-off between relative growth rate (RGR) and water-use efficiency (WUE) among Sonoran Desert winter annual plants is apparent within four species representing different strategies in the system. We grew progeny of maternal families from multiple populations in a greenhouse common garden. One species, Pectocarya recurvata, displayed the expected RGR-WUE trade-off among families within populations. For other species, although RGR and WUE often varied clinally among populations, among-family variation within populations was lacking, implicating a role for past selection on these traits. Our results suggest that a combination of limited genetic variation in single traits and negative trait correlations could pose constraints on the evolution of a high-RGR and high-WUE phenotype within species, providing a microevolutionary explanation for phenotypes that influence community-level patterns of abundance and coexistence.

  6. Physiological responses of three soybean species (Glycine soja, G. gracilis, and G. max cv. Melrose) to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoran; Song, Jinhui; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-04-04

    Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two. Most of the morphological parameters for roots from the W8 plants were also increased, including total length, specific root length, and surface area. However, the average root diameter for W8 was significantly lower than that of either SW18 or 'Melrose' soybeans. In response to salinity, photosynthesis was suppressed to a greater extent in 'Melrose' than in W8. The relatively higher tolerance shown by W8 plants was also associated with lower levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and relative electrical conductivity, but higher activities by superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as more free proline and glycine betaine. In addition, the W8 plants contained less Na(+) and Cl(-), but more K(+), and they had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in their leaves and roots when compared with either SW18 or 'Melrose' plants. Therefore, the W8 genotype performs better in terms of seedling growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological indexes. These findings provide guidance for developing new soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to salt stress. Our data also contribute to the knowledge base for plant salt tolerance as a tool for increasing the yields of other crops in high-salinity soils.

  7. Linking genotoxic responses with cytotoxic and behavioural or physiological consequences: differential sensitivity of echinoderms (Asterias rubens) and marine molluscs (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Canty, Martin N; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Brown, Rebecca J; Jones, Malcolm B; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2009-08-13

    Integrated laboratory studies addressed multiple biomarker responses in the sea star (Asterias rubens) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to a range of concentrations of direct and indirect acting genotoxins: methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and cyclophosphamide (CP; an environmentally relevant anti-cancer pharmaceutical), respectively, in order to determine if the expressed genotoxicity has knock-on effects at the higher levels of biological organisation. The experimental design aimed to concurrently evaluate biomarkers of behavioural and physiological conditions (i.e. 'righting time' and 'clearance rate' for sea stars and mussels, respectively) in addition to cytotoxicity (neutral red retention assay), induction of micronuclei (Mn) and DNA strand breaks (as determined by the Comet assay). The protocol also included the determination of the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC), prior to genotoxic evaluation. The 3d MTC, as determined by the survival of the organisms, showed sea stars to be more sensitive than mussels to MMS (18 and 32 mg L(-1), respectively) and CP (56 and 180 mg L(-1), respectively). For both species and chemicals, cytotoxicity was not found to be significantly different compared to controls. Apart from the MMS exposure to sea stars (which showed 100% mortality at higher concentrations after 5d exposure), clear dose-response relationships were observed for both genotoxicity endpoints in each species. Following exposure to CP, good correlations were also found between the behavioural and physiological responses and genetic damage in each species (sea stars-MN vs. RT: R=0.73; Comet vs. RT: R=0.91; mussels-MN vs. CR: R=0.69; Comet vs. CR: R=0.72). This integrated approach, applying non-invasive assays to simultaneously determine the responses at different levels of biological organisation, indicates the potential value of behavioural and physiological measures in determining the toxicity of chemicals to marine organisms and highlights also

  8. Two distinct interneuron circuits in human motor cortex are linked to different subsets of physiological and behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Masashi; Galea, Joseph M; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Paolo; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothwell, John C

    2014-09-17

    How does a single brain region participate in multiple behaviors? Here we argue that two separate interneuron circuits in the primary motor cortex (M1) contribute differently to two varieties of physiological and behavioral plasticity. To test this in human brain noninvasively, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1 hand area to activate two independent sets of synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons by changing the direction of current induced in the brain: posterior-to-anterior current (PA inputs) and anterior-to-posterior current (AP inputs). We demonstrate that excitability changes produced by repetitive activation of AP inputs depend on cerebellar activity and selectively alter model-based motor learning. In contrast, the changes observed with repetitive stimulation of PA inputs are independent of cerebellar activity and specifically modulate model-free motor learning. The findings are highly suggestive that separate circuits in M1 subserve different forms of motor learning.

  9. Links between tree species, symbiotic fungal diversity and ecosystem functioning in simplified tropical ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Catherine E; Ewel, John J

    2005-07-01

    We studied the relationships among plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity, and their effects on ecosystem function, in a series of replicate tropical forestry plots in the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Forestry plots were 12 yr old and were either monocultures of three tree species, or polycultures of the tree species with two additional understory species. Relationships among the AM fungal spore community, host species, plant community diversity and ecosystem phosphorus-use efficiency (PUE) and net primary productivity (NPP) were assessed. Analysis of the relative abundance of AM fungal spores found that host tree species had a significant effect on the AM fungal community, as did host plant community diversity (monocultures vs polycultures). The Shannon diversity index of the AM fungal spore community differed significantly among the three host tree species, but was not significantly different between monoculture and polyculture plots. Over all the plots, significant positive relationships were found between AM fungal diversity and ecosystem NPP, and between AM fungal community evenness and PUE. Relative abundance of two of the dominant AM fungal species also showed significant correlations with NPP and PUE. We conclude that the AM fungal community composition in tropical forests is sensitive to host species, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that the diversity of AM fungi in tropical forests and ecosystem NPP covaries.

  10. Brood Parasitism Is Linked to Egg Pattern Diversity within and among Species of Australian Passerines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Troscianko, Jolyon; Stevens, Martin; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-03-01

    Bird eggs show striking diversity in color and pattern. One explanation for this is that interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts drive egg phenotype evolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, their hosts. Many hosts defend their nests against parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs, which selects for parasite eggs that mimic those of the host. In theory, this may in turn select for changes in host egg phenotypes over time to facilitate discrimination of parasite eggs. Here, we test for the first time whether parasitism by brood parasites has led to increased divergence in egg phenotype among host species. Using Australian host and nonhost species and objective measures of egg color and pattern, we show that (i) hosts of brood parasites have higher within-species variation in egg pattern than nonhosts, supporting previous findings in other systems, and (ii) host species have diverged more in their egg patterns than nonhost species after controlling for divergence time. Overall, our results suggest that brood parasitism has played a significant role in the evolution of egg diversity and that these effects are evident, not only within species, but also among species.

  11. Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Genet, Nafiisha; Billaud, Marie; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Dubois, Mathilde; Gillibert-Duplantier, Jennifer; Isakson, Brant E.; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Guibert, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion (O2•_) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to O2•_ overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, O2•_ also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Here, we focused on the signaling pathways leading to O2•_ production in response to 5-HT in rat IPA. Using electron paramagnetic resonance on rat IPA, we showed that 5-HT (100 μM)-induced O2•_ production was inhibited by ketanserin (1 μM—an inhibitor of the 5-HT2 receptor), absence of extracellular calcium, two blockers of voltage-independent calcium permeable channels (RHC80267 50 μM and LOE-908 10 μM) and a blocker of the mitochondrial complex I (rotenone—100 nM). Depletion of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or nicardipine (1 μM—an inhibitor of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel) had no effect on the 5-HT-induced O2•_ production. O2•_ levels were also increased by α-methyl-5-HT (10 μM—a 5-HT2 receptors agonist) whereas GR127935 (1 μM—an antagonist of the 5-HT1B/D receptor) and citalopram (1 μM—a 5-HT transporter inhibitor) had no effect on the 5-HT-induced O2•_ production. Peroxynitrites were increased in response to 5-HT (100 μM). In isolated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells loaded with rhod-2 or mitosox probes, we respectively showed that 5-HT increased both mitochondrial calcium and O2•_ levels, which were both abrogated in absence of extracellular calcium. Mitochondrial O2•_ levels were also abolished in the presence of rotenone (100 nM). In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells loaded with TMRM, we showed that 5-HT transiently depolarized the mitochondrial membrane whereas in the absence of extracellular calcium the mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was delayed and sustained in

  12. Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Genet, Nafiisha; Billaud, Marie; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Dubois, Mathilde; Gillibert-Duplantier, Jennifer; Isakson, Brant E; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Guibert, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Here, we focused on the signaling pathways leading to [Formula: see text] production in response to 5-HT in rat IPA. Using electron paramagnetic resonance on rat IPA, we showed that 5-HT (100 μM)-induced [Formula: see text] production was inhibited by ketanserin (1 μM-an inhibitor of the 5-HT2 receptor), absence of extracellular calcium, two blockers of voltage-independent calcium permeable channels (RHC80267 50 μM and LOE-908 10 μM) and a blocker of the mitochondrial complex I (rotenone-100 nM). Depletion of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or nicardipine (1 μM-an inhibitor of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel) had no effect on the 5-HT-induced [Formula: see text] production. [Formula: see text] levels were also increased by α-methyl-5-HT (10 μM-a 5-HT2 receptors agonist) whereas GR127935 (1 μM-an antagonist of the 5-HT1B/D receptor) and citalopram (1 μM-a 5-HT transporter inhibitor) had no effect on the 5-HT-induced [Formula: see text] production. Peroxynitrites were increased in response to 5-HT (100 μM). In isolated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells loaded with rhod-2 or mitosox probes, we respectively showed that 5-HT increased both mitochondrial calcium and [Formula: see text] levels, which were both abrogated in absence of extracellular calcium. Mitochondrial [Formula: see text] levels were also abolished in the presence of rotenone (100 nM). In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells loaded with TMRM, we showed that 5-HT transiently depolarized the mitochondrial membrane whereas

  13. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Brx: A Link between Osmotic Stress, Inflammation and Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige; Segars, James H.; Chrousos, George P.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Dehydration, and consequent intracellular hyperosmolarity, is a major challenge to land organisms, as it is associated with extraction of water from cells and disturbance of global cellular function. Organisms have thus developed a highly conserved regulatory mechanism that transduces the hyperosmolarity signal from the cell surface to the cell nucleus and adjusts the expression of cellular osmolarity-regulating genes. We recently found that the Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor Brx, or AKAP13, is essential for osmotic stress-stimulated expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5), a key transcription factor of intracellular osmolarity. It accomplishes this by first attracting cJun kinase (JNK)-interacting protein (JIP) 4 and then coupling activated Rho-type small G-proteins to cascade components of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, ultimately activating NFAT5. We describe the potential implications of osmotic stress and Brx activation in organ physiology and pathophysiology and connect activation of this system to key human homeostatic states. PMID:21037977

  14. Linking El Niño, local rainfall, and migration timing in a tropical migratory species.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Allison K; Kelly, Kathryn A

    2013-11-01

    Current climate models project changes in both temperature and precipitation patterns across the globe in the coming years. Migratory species, which move to take advantage of seasonal climate patterns, are likely to be affected by these changes, and indeed, a number of studies have shown a relationship between changing climate and the migration timing of various species. However, these studies have almost exclusively focused on the effects of temperature change on species that inhabit temperate zones. Here, we explore the relationship between rainfall and migration timing in a tropical species, Gecarcoidea natalis (Christmas Island red crab). We find that the timing of the annual crab breeding migration is closely related to the amount of rain that falls during a 'migration window' period prior to potential egg release dates, which is in turn related to the Southern Oscillation Index, an atmospheric El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index. As reproduction in this species is conditional on successful migration, major changes in migration patterns could have detrimental consequences for the survival of the species. This study serves to broaden our understanding of the effects of climate change on migratory species and will hopefully inspire future work on rainfall and tropical migrations.

  15. Adhesion to medical device materials and biofilm formation capability of some species of enterococci in different physiological states.

    PubMed

    Lleo, Mar; Bonato, Barbara; Tafi, Maria Carla; Caburlotto, Greta; Benedetti, Dennis; Canepari, Pietro

    2007-09-01

    Enterococci may survive in adverse environments including the human body where bacteriocins, antibiotics, iron-limitation and immune response represent stressing conditions for bacteria that cause division block. In those conditions, bacteria present in the human body would hardly be in an exponentially growing phase but would mostly be in physiological states such as starvation or the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. The possibility that the starved and VBNC bacteria can maintain their ability to adhere to living and inanimate substrates is the first mandatory step for them potentially to cause an infection process. In this study it is shown that starved and stationary enterococcal cells are able to form biofilms on plastic material albeit with reduced efficiency as compared to growing cells. Moreover, although VBNC enterococcal forms are not capable of forming biofilms, Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococcal species of medical interest maintain their ability to synthesize the polymeric matrix for a limited period of time under adverse environmental conditions. The data presented, together with those regarding the maintenance of the division recovery potential already proved in nonculturable bacteria, further support the possibility for the VBNC and other nondividing bacterial forms to have a role as infectious agents and to constitute a risk to human health.

  16. From intracellular signaling networks to cell death: the dual role of reactive oxygen species in seed physiology.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Christophe; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Corbineau, Françoise

    2008-10-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are continuously produced during seed development, from embryogenesis to germination, but also during seed storage. ROS play a dual role in seed physiology behaving, on the one hand, as actors of cellular signaling pathways and, on the other hand, as toxic products that accumulate under stress conditions. ROS, provided that their amount is tightly regulated by the balance between production and scavenging, appear now as being beneficial for germination, and in particular to act as a positive signal for seed dormancy release. Such an effect might result from the interplay between ROS and hormone signaling pathways thus leading to changes in gene expression or in cellular redox status. We also propose that changes in ROS homeostasis would play a role in perception of environmental factors by seeds during their germination, and thus act as a signal controlling the completion of germination. However, uncontrolled accumulation of ROS is likely to occur during seed aging or seed desiccation thus leading to oxidative damage toward a wide range of biomolecules and ultimately to necroses and cell death. We present here the concept of the "oxidative window for germination", which restricts the occurrence of the cellular events associated with germination to a critical range of ROS level, enclosed by lower and higher limits. Above or below the "oxidative window for germination", weak or high amounts of ROS, respectively, would not permit progress toward germination.

  17. Linking Xylem Hydraulic Conductivity and Vulnerability to the Leaf Economics Spectrum—A Cross-Species Study of 39 Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Subtropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance. PMID:25423316

  18. Linking xylem hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to the leaf economics spectrum--a cross-species study of 39 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance.

  19. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific d...

  20. Species turnover (β-diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity.

    PubMed

    Kranabetter, J M; Hawkins, B J; Jones, M D; Robbins, S; Dyer, T; Li, T

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β-diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3- and protons on excised root tips from three contrasting sites using a microelectrode ion flux measurement system. EcM fungal communities were well aligned with soil N availability and pH, with no effect of site proximity (distance-decay curve) on species assemblages. Species turnover was significant (β(1/2) = 1.48) along soil N gradients, with many more Tomentella species on high N than low N soils, in contrast to Cortinarius species. Ammonium uptake was greatest in the spring on the medium and rich sites and averaged over 190 nmol/m(2)/s for Tomentella species. The lowest uptake rates of NH4+ were by nonmycorrhizal roots of axenically grown seedlings (10 nmol/m(2)/s), followed by Cortinarius species (60 nmol/m(2)/s). EcM roots from all sites displayed only marginal uptake of nitrate (8.3 nmol/m(2)/s). These results suggest NH4+ uptake capacity is an important functional trait influencing the assembly of EcM fungal communities. The diversity of EcM fungal species across the region arguably provides critical belowground adaptations to organic and inorganic N supply that are integral to temperate rainforest ecology.

  1. Comparative studies on plant range size: Linking reproductive and regenerative traits in two Ipomoea species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Julia; Funes, Guillermo; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-09-01

    Reproductive and regenerative traits associated with colonization and persistence ability may determine plant range size. However, few comparative studies on plant distribution have assessed these traits simultaneously. Pollinator richness and frequency of visits, autonomous self-pollination ability, reproductive output (i.e., reproductive traits), seed bank strategy and seedling density (i.e., regenerative traits) were compared between the narrowly distributed Ipomoea rubriflora O'Donnell (Convolvulaceae) and its widespread congener Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. The narrowly distributed species showed higher ecological specialization to pollinators and lower autonomous self-pollination ability. Frequency of visits, natural seed/ovule ratio and fruit set, and total fruit production did not differ between species. However, the number of seeds produced per fruit was lower in the narrowly distributed species, translating into lower total seed production per plant. Indeed, I. rubriflora formed smaller transient and persistent seed banks and showed lower seedling density than the widespread I. purpurea. These reproductive and regenerative trait results suggest that the narrowly distributed species may have lower colonization and persistence ability than its widespread congener. They further suggest that the negative effects of lower fecundity in the narrowly distributed species might persist in time through the long-lasting effects of total seed production on seed bank size, reducing the species' ability to buffered environmental stochasticity. However, other regenerative traits, such as seed size, and processes such as pre- and post-dispersal seed predation, might modulate the effects of plant fecundity on plant colonization and persistence ability and thus range size.

  2. Plant Physiological, Morphological and Yield-Related Responses to Night Temperature Changes across Different Species and Plant Functional Types.

    PubMed

    Jing, Panpan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Chunwu; Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT) and low night temperature (LNT) on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs) have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4, and CAM), growth forms (herbaceous, woody), and economic purposes (crop, non-crop). We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are critical for

  3. Plant Physiological, Morphological and Yield-Related Responses to Night Temperature Changes across Different Species and Plant Functional Types

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Panpan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Chunwu; Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT) and low night temperature (LNT) on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs) have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4, and CAM), growth forms (herbaceous, woody), and economic purposes (crop, non-crop). We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are critical for

  4. Linking climate change and karst hydrology to evaluate species vulnerability: The Edwards and Madison aquifers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Long, A. J.; Stamm, J. F.; Poteet, M.; Symstad, A.

    2013-12-01

    Karst aquifers present an extreme case of flow along structurally variable pathways, making them highly dynamic systems and therefore likely to respond rapidly to climate change. In turn, many biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst are sensitive to hydrologic changes. We explored how three sites in the Edwards aquifer (Texas) and two sites in the Madison aquifer (South Dakota) might respond to projected climate change from 2011 to 2050. Ecosystems associated with these karst aquifers support federally listed endangered and threatened species and state-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. The vulnerability of selected species associated with projected climate change was assessed. The Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate projected climate at a 36-km grid spacing for three weather stations near the study sites, using boundary and initial conditions from the global climate model Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) and an A2 emissions scenario. Daily temperature and precipitation projections from the WRF model were used as input for the hydrologic Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow (RRAWFLOW) model and the Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) model. RRAWFLOW is a lumped-parameter model that simulates hydrologic response at a single site, combining the responses of quick and slow flow that commonly characterize karst aquifers. CCVI uses historical and projected climate and hydrologic metrics to determine the vulnerability of selected species on the basis of species exposure to climate change, sensitivity to factors associated with climate change, and capacity to adapt to climate change. An upward trend in temperature was projected for 2011-2050 at all three weather stations; there was a trend (downward) in annual precipitation only for the weather station in Texas. A downward trend in mean annual spring flow or groundwater level was projected for

  5. Linking environmental drivers with amphibian species diversity in ponds from subtropical grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Darlene S; Crivellari, Lucas B; Conte, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Amphibian distribution patterns are known to be influenced by habitat diversity at breeding sites. Thus, breeding sites variability and how such variability influences anuran diversity is important. Here, we examine which characteristics at breeding sites are most influential on anuran diversity in grasslands associated with Araucaria forest, southern Brazil, especially in places at risk due to anthropic activities. We evaluate the associations between habitat heterogeneity and anuran species diversity in nine body of water from September 2008 to March 2010, in 12 field campaigns in which 16 species of anurans were found. Of the seven habitat descriptors we examined, water depth, pond surface area and distance to the nearest forest fragment explained 81% of total species diversity. Water depth, margin vegetation type, surface area and distance to the next body of water explained between 31-74% of the variance in abundance of nine of the 16 species. Thus, maintenance of body of water, of the vegetation along the water edge and natural forest fragments in the grasslands, along with fire control (used to renovation of pasture), are fundamentally important for the maintenance of anuran species diversity through the conservation of their breeding sites.

  6. Linking variability in species composition and MODIS NDVI based on beta diversity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kate S.; Zhang, Jianting; Zhang, Qiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Finding an effective method to quantify species compositional changes in time and space has been an important task for ecologists and biogeographers. Recently, exploring regional floristic patterns using data derived from satellite imagery, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has drawn considerable research interests among ecologists. Studies have shown that NDVI could be a fairly good surrogate for primary productivities. In this study, we used plant distribution data in the North and the South Carolina states to investigate the correlations between species composition and NDVI within defined ecoregions using Mantel test and multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP). Our analytical approach involved generating compositional dissimilarity matrices by computing pairwise beta diversities of the 145 counties in the two states for species distribution data and by computing Euclidian distances for NDVI time series data. We argue that beta diversity measurements take the pairwise dissimilarities into consideration explicitly and could provide more spatial correlation information compared with uni- or multi-dimensional regressions. Our results showed a significant positive correlation between species compositional dissimilarity matrices and NDVI distance matrices. We also found for the first time that the strength of correlation increased at a lower taxonomic rank. Same trends were discovered when incorporating variability in phenological patterns in NDVI. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed NDVI can be viable for monitoring species compositional changes at regional scales.

  7. Linking chlorophyll fluorescence, hyperspectral reflectance and plant physiological responses to detect stress using the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, J. C.; Young, D.; Anderson, J.

    2009-12-01

    The concept of using vegetation as sentinels to indicate natural or anthropogenic stress is not new and could potentially provide an ideal mechanism for large-scale detection. Advances in fluorescence spectroscopy and reflectance-derived fluorescence have made possible earlier detection of stress in plants, especially before changes in chlorophyll content are visible. Our studies have been used to fuse leaf fluorescence and reflectance characteristics to remotely sense and rapidly detect vegetation stress and terrain characteristics. Laboratory studies have indicated that light-adapted fluorescence (ΔF/F‧m) measurements have been successful in all experiments at detecting stress from flooding, salinity, drought, herbicide and TNT contamination prior to visible signs of damage. ΔF/F‧m was related to plant physiological status in natural stress conditions, as seen in the relationships with stomatal conductance and photosynthesis The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and other reflectance ratios were effective at tracking changes in ΔF/F‧m at the leaf and canopy-level scales. At the landscape-level, chlorophyll fluorescence and airborne reflectance imagery were used to evaluate spatial variations in stress in the dominant shrub on a barrier island, Myrica cerifera, during a severe drought and compared to an extremely wet year. Measurements of relative water content and the water band index (WBI970) indicated that water stress did not vary across the island. In contrast, there were significant differences in tissue chlorides across sites. Using PRI we were able to detect salinity stress across the landscape. PRI did not differ between wet and dry years. There was a positive relationship between PRI and ΔF/F‧m for M. cerifera (r2 = 0.79). The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the chlorophyll index (CI) and WBI970 were higher during the wet summer but varied little across the island. PRI was not significantly related to NDVI, suggesting that

  8. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A.; Sardans, Jordi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Kim, Young-Mo; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Guenther, Alex; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  9. Unsuppressed lipolysis in adipocytes is linked with enhanced gluconeogenesis and altered bile acid physiology in InsrP1195L/+ mice fed high-fat-diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Young; Sakurai, Kenichi; Zhang, Xilin; Toda, Chitoku; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Jiang, Meizi; Shirasawa, Takuji; Tachibana, Kaori; Yokote, Koutaro; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Miki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) triggers insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, but their link remains unclear. Characterization of overt hyperglycemia in insulin receptor mutant (InsrP1195L/+) mice exposed to HFD (InsrP1195L/+/HFD mice) revealed increased glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) expression in liver and increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol. Lipolysis in white adipose tissues (WAT) and lipolysis-induced blood glucose rise were increased in InsrP1195L/+/HFD mice, while wild-type WAT transplantation ameliorated the hyperglycemia and the increased G6pc expression. We found that the expressions of genes involved in bile acid (BA) metabolism were altered in InsrP1195L/+/HFD liver. Among these, the expression of Cyp7a1, a BA synthesis enzyme, was insulin-dependent and was markedly decreased in InsrP1195L/+/HFD liver. Reduced Cyp7a1 expression in InsrP1195L/+/HFD liver was rescued by WAT transplantation, and the expression of Cyp7a1 was suppressed by glycerol administration in wild-type liver. These findings suggest that unsuppressed lipolysis in adipocytes elicited by HFD feeding is linked with enhanced gluconeogenesis from glycerol and with alterations in BA physiology in InsrP1195L/+/HFD liver. PMID:26615883

  10. Linking phenology to mating system: exploring the reproductive biology of the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha.

    PubMed

    Nazareno, Alison Gonçalves; Reis, Maurício Sedrez Dos

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the vulnerable palm species Butia eriospatha was studied to provide important information that contributes to our understanding and conservation of the species. In order to determine when and how B. erisopatha reproduces, we combined data from 7 nuclear microsatellite loci with ecological data on flowering and fruiting phenology collected between 2009 and 2011 from a population (N = 515) in the Atlantic Rainforest, Southern Brazil. Periods of flowering and fruit production were seasonal and variable across reproductive events. Mating system analyses indicate that B. eriospatha is a predominantly outcrossing species, ((m) = 0.961), since a certain degree of biparental inbreeding does occur. The species is self-compatible and reproduction may also occur by geitonogamy, indicating the ability of isolated populations to survive and persist. Open-pollinated seeds varied in relatedness, including mainly half-sibs and full-sibs. The effective population size was lower than that expected for panmictic populations. Hence, seeds for conservation programs must be collected from a large number of seed-trees to ensure an adequate effective population in the sample. The collection of germplasm is a high-priority strategy that should be employed to maintain the genetic variability that remains.

  11. A new analytical approach to the characterisation of macro-epibenthic habitats: linking species to the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, S. M.; Rogers, S. I.

    2003-03-01

    A challenge for marine ecologists is to explain distinct and recurrent patterns in the distribution of marine faunas by developing new methods that identify and link environmental processes responsible for these patterns. Methods that describe and predict the distribution of benthic faunas using single factors such as sediment type or water depth are generally inadequate, particularly when applied on a broad scale. When a combination of factors such as near-bed tidal velocity, surface seawater temperature and salinity are evaluated in conjunction with sediment type and depth, however, they more clearly characterise benthic habitats. Using principal component analysis (PCA) patterns in the distribution and abundance of different echinoderm and crustacean species were shown to be predictable and characterised by a suite of physical factors. Characterising benthic habitats using factors from the environment provided a potential mechanism for predicting patterns in their spatial distribution. A new analytical method for characterising a species habitat was constructed using a combination of PCA and a generalised additive model. The method is able to predict the habitat preferences of individual species based on their association with physical factors characterising their habitat. These preferences were then used to describe the probability of a species occurring across a range of different habitats, which is referred to as the habitat-envelope. This method enables one species habitat range to be compared directly to another. The strong correlation between species patchiness and its habitat-envelope was used to develop an index to identify species that are potentially more sensitive to habitat change. Distinct patterns in the habitat preferences of echinoderms were generally stronger than those identified for crustaceans. Thus, crustaceans were found more likely to exploit a wider range of habitats than echinoderms, suggesting that they may be less sensitive to habitat

  12. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  13. Linking species richness curves from non-contiguous sampling to contiguous-nested SAR: An empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarina, Maria; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Pantis, John D.; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.

    2014-11-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the few generalizations in ecology. However, many different relationships are denoted as SARs. Here, we empirically evaluated the differences between SARs derived from nested-contiguous and non-contiguous sampling designs, using plants, birds and butterflies datasets from Great Britain, Greece, Massachusetts, New York and San Diego. The shape of SAR depends on the sampling scheme, but there is little empirical documentation on the magnitude of the deviation between different types of SARs and the factors affecting it. We implemented a strictly nested sampling design to construct nested-contiguous SAR (SACR), and systematic nested but non-contiguous, and random designs to construct non-contiguous species richness curves (SASRs for systematic and SACs for random designs) per dataset. The SACR lay below any SASR and most of the SACs. The deviation between them was related to the exponent f of the power law relationship between sampled area and extent. The lower the exponent f, the higher was the deviation between the curves. We linked SACR to SASR and SAC through the concept of "effective" area (Ae), i.e. the nested-contiguous area containing equal number of species with the accumulated sampled area (AS) of a non-contiguous sampling. The relationship between effective and sampled area was modeled as log(Ae) = klog(AS). A Generalized Linear Model was used to estimate the values of k from sampling design and dataset properties. The parameter k increased with the average distance between samples and with beta diversity, while k decreased with f. For both systematic and random sampling, the model performed well in predicting effective area in both the training set and in the test set which was totally independent from the training one. Through effective area, we can link different types of species richness curves based on sampling design properties, sampling effort, spatial scale and beta diversity patterns.

  14. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Berin D E; Auld, Tony D; Keith, David A; Hui, Francis K C; Ooi, Mark K J

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  15. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Auld, Tony D.; Keith, David A.; Hui, Francis K. C.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  16. Ambient has become strained. Identification of Acacia dealbata Link volatiles interfering with germination and early growth of native species.

    PubMed

    Souza-Alonso, Pablo; González, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Acacia dealbata Link is a widespread invader in Mediterranean type ecosystems, and traits promoting its invasiveness are currently under investigation. Due to the dense atmosphere below its canopy, we hypothesized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from flowers, leaves, litter, or a mixture of treatments exert inhibitory effects on the natives Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium multiflorum, Medicago sativa, and also on its own seeds. We reported that VOCs from flowers significantly reduced germination in L. multiflorum and A. dealbata; moreover, root length, stem length, aboveground and belowground biomass were also reduced in all species studied. Volatile organic compounds from flowers and the mixture also increased significantly malondialdehyde content in T. subterraneum and L. multiflorum. The effects of VOCs on antioxidant enzymatic activities were species dependent. Flowers enhanced peroxidase but decreased superoxide dismutase activity in T. subterraneum. In contrast, VOCs released from leaves increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in L. multiflorum. GC/MS analyses revealed 27 VOCs in the volatile fraction from flowers, 12 of which were exclusive to this fraction. Within them, heptadecadiene, n-nonadecane, n-tricosane, and octadecene represent 62% of the fraction. We present evidence that the VOCs released from A. dealbata flowers strongly inhibited germination and seedling growth of selected species, and mainly on its own seedlings. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of phytotoxicity induced by VOCs in invasive species belonging to the Acacia genus.

  17. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought is linked to site water availability across a broad range of species and climates

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Chris J.; Gleason, Sean M.; Chang, Yvonne; Cook, Alicia M.; Laws, Claire; Westoby, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Vulnerability of the leaf hydraulic pathway to water-stress-induced dysfunction is a key component of drought tolerance in plants and may be important in defining species' climatic range. However, the generality of the association between leaf hydraulic vulnerability and climate across species and sites remains to be tested. Methods Leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought (P50leaf, the water potential inducing 50 % loss in hydraulic function) was measured in a diverse group of 92 woody, mostly evergreen angiosperms from sites across a wide range of habitats. These new data together with some previously published were tested against key climate indices related to water availability. Differences in within-site variability in P50leaf between sites were also examined. Key Results Values of hydraulic vulnerability to drought in leaves decreased strongly (i.e. became more negative) with decreasing annual rainfall and increasing aridity across sites. The standard deviation in P50leaf values recorded within each site was positively correlated with increasing aridity. P50leaf was also a good indicator of the climatic envelope across each species' distributional range as well as their dry-end distributional limits within Australia, although this relationship was not consistently detectable within sites. Conclusions The findings indicate that species sorting processes have influenced distributional patterns of P50leaf across the rainfall spectrum, but alternative strategies for dealing with water deficit exist within sites. The strong link to aridity suggests leaf hydraulic vulnerability may influence plant distributions under future climates. PMID:25006181

  18. Surface Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Tree Species are Tightly Linked in Northeastern USA Forested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. S.; Juillerat, J.

    2008-12-01

    We measured C and N ratios in 608 surface soil horizons (primarily Oa) from ten small watersheds at seven established research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). In the soil, both the C (50-530 g/kg) and C/N ratio (11.6- 45.3) had a wide distribution. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were positively and linearly related to C content. For these nine watersheds, the average N (g/kg) = 6.9 + 0.030 X C (g/kg), R2 = 0.97. The C/N ratios at Cone were much higher than would be predicted from the other data and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Across all watersheds, C concentration was also positively correlated with forest floor depth (and therefore C pools). Although sugar maple dominance was negatively correlated with C/N ratio and C, better relationships were obtained by combining species. Carbon concentration of the humified surface horizon was negatively related to maple + birch dominance and positively related to conifer + beech dominance. Among nine of these ten watersheds, the average C concentration in the surface soil varied (187-441 g/kg) with a constant C/N ratio of 33. The remarkably tight relationships between C, N, and species suggest predicable patterns in C accumulation.

  19. Link between capacity for current production and syntrophic growth in Geobacter species

    PubMed Central

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Woodard, Trevor L.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes are unnatural electron acceptors, and it is yet unknown how some Geobacter species evolved to use electrodes as terminal electron acceptors. Analysis of different Geobacter species revealed that they varied in their capacity for current production. Geobacter metallireducens and G. hydrogenophilus generated high current densities (ca. 0.2 mA/cm2), comparable to G. sulfurreducens. G. bremensis, G. chapellei, G. humireducens, and G. uraniireducens, produced much lower currents (ca. 0.05 mA/cm2) and G. bemidjiensis was previously found to not produce current. There was no correspondence between the effectiveness of current generation and Fe(III) oxide reduction rates. Some high-current-density strains (G. metallireducens and G. hydrogenophilus) reduced Fe(III)-oxides as fast as some low-current-density strains (G. bremensis, G. humireducens, and G. uraniireducens) whereas other low-current-density strains (G. bemidjiensis and G. chapellei) reduced Fe(III) oxide as slowly as G. sulfurreducens, a high-current-density strain. However, there was a correspondence between the ability to produce higher currents and the ability to grow syntrophically. G. hydrogenophilus was found to grow in co-culture with Methanosarcina barkeri, which is capable of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), but not with Methanospirillum hungatei capable only of H2 or formate transfer. Conductive granular activated carbon (GAC) stimulated metabolism of the G. hydrogenophilus – M. barkeri co-culture, consistent with electron exchange via DIET. These findings, coupled with the previous finding that G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens are also capable of DIET, suggest that evolution to optimize DIET has fortuitously conferred the capability for high-density current production to some Geobacter species. PMID:26284037

  20. Linking density, productivity and trends of an endangered species: The Bonelli's eagle in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascal, Luis M.; Seoane, Javier

    2009-05-01

    Whether regional population density is a good indicator of environmental quality according to demographic variables such as breeding success or short-term population trends is controversial. In this paper we analyze the interrelationships among regional population density, breeding success and recent population trends of an endangered species, Bonelli's eagle in the Iberian Peninsula. We also analyze the different influence of geographical, climatic, landscape structure and human impact variables on regional variation in those demographic variables. Breeding success was higher and population decrease was lower in those areas where the population density of Bonelli's eagle was greater. Breeding success, density and recent population trends of Bonelli's eagle were tightly related, increasing from northern to southern Iberian Peninsula (with highest figures at intermediate latitudes), and as sun radiation increased, and altitude decreased. Breeding success and population density were significantly lower in the periphery of the distribution range than in core areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Population trends between 2000 and 2005 were also more negative (decreasing) in the periphery. Overall, these results suggest that population density in this endangered species of large home-range is a good indicator of environmental quality and reproductive output, and that peripheral populations occupy low-suitability areas with lower breeding success, where negative short-term population trends are more likely.

  1. Eco-Physiological Responses of Dominant Species to Watering in a Natural Grassland Community on the Semi-Arid Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Furong; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Ji; Xiong, Peifeng; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Altered precipitation regimes significantly affect ecosystem structure and function in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to investigate effects of precipitation changes on natural grassland community in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, the current research examined eco-physiological characteristics of two co-dominant species (i.e., Bothriochloa ischaemum and Lespedeza davurica) and community composition following two watering instances (i.e., precipitation pulses, July and August, 2011, respectively) in a natural grassland community. Results showed that the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration rapidly increased on the first to third day following watering in both species, and both months. Under watering treatments, the maximum net photosynthetic rates appeared on the second to third day after watering, which increased 30-80% in B. ischaemum and 40-50% in L. davurica compared with non-watering treatments, respectively. Leaf water use efficiency kept stable or initially decreased in both species under watering treatments. Watering in July produced more promoting effects on grass photosynthesis than in August, particularly in B. ischaemum. Community above-ground biomass at the end of the growing season increased after watering, although no significant changes in species diversity were observed. Our results indicated that timing and magnitude of watering could significantly affect plant eco-physiological processes, and there were species-specific responses in B. ischaemum and L. davurica. Pulsed watering increased community productivity, while did not significantly alter community composition after one growing season. The outcomes of this study highlight eco-physiological traits in dominant species may playing important roles in reshaping community composition under altered precipitation regimes.

  2. Eco-Physiological Responses of Dominant Species to Watering in a Natural Grassland Community on the Semi-Arid Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Furong; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Ji; Xiong, Peifeng; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Altered precipitation regimes significantly affect ecosystem structure and function in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to investigate effects of precipitation changes on natural grassland community in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, the current research examined eco-physiological characteristics of two co-dominant species (i.e., Bothriochloa ischaemum and Lespedeza davurica) and community composition following two watering instances (i.e., precipitation pulses, July and August, 2011, respectively) in a natural grassland community. Results showed that the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration rapidly increased on the first to third day following watering in both species, and both months. Under watering treatments, the maximum net photosynthetic rates appeared on the second to third day after watering, which increased 30–80% in B. ischaemum and 40–50% in L. davurica compared with non-watering treatments, respectively. Leaf water use efficiency kept stable or initially decreased in both species under watering treatments. Watering in July produced more promoting effects on grass photosynthesis than in August, particularly in B. ischaemum. Community above-ground biomass at the end of the growing season increased after watering, although no significant changes in species diversity were observed. Our results indicated that timing and magnitude of watering could significantly affect plant eco-physiological processes, and there were species-specific responses in B. ischaemum and L. davurica. Pulsed watering increased community productivity, while did not significantly alter community composition after one growing season. The outcomes of this study highlight eco-physiological traits in dominant species may playing important roles in reshaping community composition under altered precipitation regimes. PMID:27242864

  3. Prevalence and Dynamics of Ribosomal DNA Micro-heterogeneity Are Linked to Population History in Two Contrasting Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    James, Stephen A.; West, Claire; Davey, Robert P.; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the considerable number and taxonomic breadth of past and current genome sequencing projects, many of which necessarily encompass the ribosomal DNA, detailed information on the prevalence and evolutionary significance of sequence variation in this ubiquitous genomic region are severely lacking. Here, we attempt to address this issue in two closely related yet contrasting yeast species, the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. By drawing on existing datasets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, we identify a rich seam of ribosomal DNA sequence variation, characterising 1,068 and 970 polymorphisms in 34 S. cerevisiae and 26 S. paradoxus strains respectively. We discover the two species sets exhibit distinct mutational profiles. Furthermore, we show for the first time that unresolved rDNA sequence variation resulting from imperfect concerted evolution of the ribosomal DNA region follows a U-shaped allele frequency distribution in each species, similar to loci that evolve under non-concerted mechanisms but arising through rather different evolutionary processes. Finally, we link differences between the shapes of these allele frequency distributions to the two species’ contrasting population histories. PMID:27345953

  4. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Link with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Yan, Bryan P.; Chan, Yin W. F.; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrhythmias represent a significant problem globally, leading to cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. There is increasing evidence to suggest that increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is elevated in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, can lead to arrhythmogenesis. Method: A literature review was undertaken to screen for articles that investigated the effects of ROS on cardiac ion channel function, remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Results: Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress is observed in heart failure, leading to increased production of ROS. Mitochondrial ROS, which is elevated in diabetes and hypertension, can stimulate its own production in a positive feedback loop, termed ROS-induced ROS release. Together with activation of mitochondrial inner membrane anion channels, it leads to mitochondrial depolarization. Abnormal function of these organelles can then activate downstream signaling pathways, ultimately culminating in altered function or expression of cardiac ion channels responsible for generating the cardiac action potential (AP). Vascular and cardiac endothelial cells become dysfunctional, leading to altered paracrine signaling to influence the electrophysiology of adjacent cardiomyocytes. All of these changes can in turn produce abnormalities in AP repolarization or conduction, thereby increasing likelihood of triggered activity and reentry. Conclusion: ROS plays a significant role in producing arrhythmic substrate. Therapeutic strategies targeting upstream events include production of a strong reducing environment or the use of pharmacological agents that target organelle-specific proteins and ion channels. These may relieve oxidative stress and in turn prevent arrhythmic complications in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. PMID:27536244

  6. Genome sequence and global gene expression of Q54, a new phage species linking the 936 and c2 phage species of Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Louis-Charles; Bransi, Ali; Moineau, Sylvain

    2006-09-01

    The lytic lactococcal phage Q54 was previously isolated from a failed sour cream production. Its complete genomic sequence (26,537 bp) is reported here, and the analysis indicated that it represents a new Lactococcus lactis phage species. A striking feature of phage Q54 is the low level of similarity of its proteome (47 open reading frames) with proteins in databases. A global gene expression study confirmed the presence of two early gene modules in Q54. The unusual configuration of these modules, combined with results of comparative analysis with other lactococcal phage genomes, suggests that one of these modules was acquired through recombination events between c2- and 936-like phages. Proteolytic cleavage and cross-linking of the major capsid protein were demonstrated through structural protein analyses. A programmed translational frameshift between the major tail protein (MTP) and the receptor-binding protein (RBP) was also discovered. A "shifty stop" signal followed by putative secondary structures is likely involved in frameshifting. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of translational frameshifting (+1) in double-stranded DNA bacteriophages and the first case of translational coupling between an MTP and an RBP. Thus, phage Q54 represents a fascinating member of a new species with unusual characteristics that brings new insights into lactococcal phage evolution.

  7. Measures of physiological stress: a transparent or opaque window into the status, management and conservation of species?

    PubMed Central

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E.; Boonstra, Rudy; Sheriff, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation physiology proposes that measures of physiological stress (glucocorticoid levels) can be used to assess the status and future fate of natural populations. Increases in glucocorticoids may reflect a more challenging environment, suggesting that the influence of human activities on free-living animals could be quantified by measuring glucocorticoids. Biomedical studies suggest that chronic increases in glucocorticoids can have detrimental effects on survival and reproduction, which could influence the viability of populations. Here, we discuss the use of measurements of glucocorticoids in conservation physiology. We first provide an overview of the different methods to quantify glucocorticoids and their utility in conservation physiology. We then discuss five questions we think are essential for conservation physiologists to address. We highlight how intrinsic (e.g. sex, reproductive status, age, recent experiences) and ecological factors (e.g. predation, food availability, snowfall) can, by themselves or through their interactions with anthropogenic disturbances, affect the physiological stress response and mask any general patterns about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on glucocorticoids. Using a meta-analysis, we show that anthropogenic disturbances are consistently associated with increased glucocorticoids regardless of the type of human disturbance. We also show that males may be more sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances than females and that faecal glucocorticoids, but not baseline plasma glucocorticoids, consistently increase in response to anthropogenic disturbances. Finally, we discuss how increases in glucocorticoids in free-living animals can sometimes enhance survival and reproduction. Unfortunately, our literature analysis indicates that this observation has not yet gained traction, and very few studies have shown that increases in glucocorticoid levels resulting from anthropogenic disturbances decrease survival or reproduction

  8. Cross-chip probe matching tool: A web-based tool for linking microarray probes within and across plant species.

    PubMed

    Ghanekar, Ruchi; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Page, Grier P

    2008-01-01

    The CCPMT is a free, web-based tool that allows plant investigators to rapidly determine if a given gene is present across various microarray platforms, which, of a list of genes, is present on array(s), and which gene a probe or probe set queries and vice versa, and to compare and contrast the gene contents of arrays. The CCPMT also maps a probe or probe sets to a gene or genes within and across species, and permits the mapping of the entire content from one array to another. By using the CCPMT, investigators will have a better understanding of the contents of arrays, a better ability to link data between experiments, ability to conduct meta-analysis and combine datasets, and an increased ability to conduct data mining projects.

  9. Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacific coral species: Understanding the unique host+symbiont response

    PubMed Central

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, D. Tye; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F.; Schoepf, Verena; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H.; Warner, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological response to individual and combined stressors of elevated temperature and pCO2 were measured over a 24-day period in four Pacific corals and their respective symbionts (Acropora millepora/Symbiodinium C21a, Pocillopora damicornis/Symbiodinium C1c-d-t, Montipora monasteriata/Symbiodinium C15, and Turbinaria reniformis/Symbiodinium trenchii). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated temperature played a greater role in altering physiological response, with the greatest degree of change occurring within M. monasteriata and T. reniformis. Algal cellular volume, protein, and lipid content all increased for M. monasteriata. Likewise, S. trenchii volume and protein content in T. reniformis also increased with temperature. Despite decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency, few changes in biochemical composition (i.e. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) or cellular volume occurred at high temperature in the two thermally sensitive symbionts C21a and C1c-d-t. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase transcript abundance increased with temperature in A. millepora but not in P. damicornis, possibly reflecting differences in host mitigated carbon supply during thermal stress. Importantly, our results show that the host and symbiont response to climate change differs considerably across species and that greater physiological plasticity in response to elevated temperature may be an important strategy distinguishing thermally tolerant vs. thermally sensitive species. PMID:26670946

  10. Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacific coral species: Understanding the unique host+symbiont response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, D. Tye; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F.; Schoepf, Verena; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H.; Warner, Mark E.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response to individual and combined stressors of elevated temperature and pCO2 were measured over a 24-day period in four Pacific corals and their respective symbionts (Acropora millepora/Symbiodinium C21a, Pocillopora damicornis/Symbiodinium C1c-d-t, Montipora monasteriata/Symbiodinium C15, and Turbinaria reniformis/Symbiodinium trenchii). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated temperature played a greater role in altering physiological response, with the greatest degree of change occurring within M. monasteriata and T. reniformis. Algal cellular volume, protein, and lipid content all increased for M. monasteriata. Likewise, S. trenchii volume and protein content in T. reniformis also increased with temperature. Despite decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency, few changes in biochemical composition (i.e. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) or cellular volume occurred at high temperature in the two thermally sensitive symbionts C21a and C1c-d-t. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase transcript abundance increased with temperature in A. millepora but not in P. damicornis, possibly reflecting differences in host mitigated carbon supply during thermal stress. Importantly, our results show that the host and symbiont response to climate change differs considerably across species and that greater physiological plasticity in response to elevated temperature may be an important strategy distinguishing thermally tolerant vs. thermally sensitive species.

  11. Plant Survival and Mortality during Drought Can be Mediated by Co-occurring Species' Physiological and Morphological Traits: Results from a Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, X.; Mackay, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions among co-occurring species are mediated by plant physiology, morphology and environment. Without proper mechanisms to account for these factors, it remains difficult to predict plant mortality/survival under changing climate. A plant ecophysiological model, TREES, was extended to incorporate co-occurring species' belowground interaction for water. We used it to examine the interaction between two commonly co-occurring species during drought experiment, pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma), with contrasting physiological traits (vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water potential regulation). TREES was parameterized and validated using field-measured plant physiological traits. The root architecture (depth, profile, and root area to leaf area ratio) of juniper was adjusted to see how root morphology could affect the survival/mortality of its neighboring pine under both ambient and drought conditions. Drought suppressed plant water and carbon uptake, as well increased the average percentage loss of conductivity (PLC). Pine had 59% reduction in water uptake, 48% reduction in carbon uptake, and 38% increase in PLC, while juniper had 56% reduction in water uptake, 50% reduction in carbon and 29% increase in PLC, suggesting different vulnerability to drought as mediated by plant physiological traits. Variations in juniper root architecture further mediated drought stress on pine, from negative to positive. Different juniper root architecture caused variations in response of pine over drought (water uptake reduction ranged 0% ~63%, carbon uptake reduction ranged 0% ~ 70%, and PLC increase ranged 2% ~ 91%). Deeper or more uniformly distributed roots of juniper could effectively mitigate stress experienced by pine. In addition, the total water and carbon uptake tended to increase as the ratio of root area to leaf area increased while PLC showed non-monotonic response, suggesting the potential trade-off between maximizing resource uptake and

  12. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  13. Pro-oxidant copper-binding mode of the Apo form of ALS-linked SOD1 mutant H43R denatured at physiological temperature.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Furi; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2013-08-06

    The mutation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a major antioxidant enzyme, is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a previous study, we showed that the metal-depleted apo form of an ALS-linked mutant, H43R, undergoes denaturation at physiological temperature (37 °C) in 90 min and acquires pro-oxidant activity in the presence of Cu(2+) and H2O2. In this study, we have examined the Cu(2+)-binding mode of denatured apo-H43R by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescent oxidation, UV Raman spectroscopy, and photooxidation. CD spectroscopy indicates that denatured apo-H43R loses native β-barrel structure and the binding of Cu(2+) to the denatured apo form induces local refolding. Fluorescent-oxidation assays in the absence and presence of Cu(2+) chelators show that denatured apo-H43R contains two Cu(2+)-binding sites with higher and lower Cu(2+) affinities and with pro-oxidant activities in the reverse order. UV Raman spectroscopy gives evidence that His residues are bound to Cu(2+) mainly through the imidazole Nτ atom at the higher-affinity site and through the Nπ atom at the lower-affinity site, sharing one His residue with each other. The Cu(2+)-binding mode of denatured apo-H43R is analogous to but different from the Cu,Zn-binding mode of the native holo form. Photooxidation experiments confirm the involvement of His residues in the pro-oxidant activity. Taken together, it is suggested that the binding of Cu(2+) induces the local refolding of denatured apo-H43R to create toxic catalytic centers that convert the enzyme from antioxidant to pro-oxidant, leading to the pathogenesis of ALS. His residues are essential for both Cu(2+)-binding and pro-oxidant activities.

  14. Phylogenetic divergence, morphological and physiological differences distinguish a new Neotyphodium endophyte species in the grass Bromus auleticus from South America.

    PubMed

    Iannone, Leopoldo Javier; Cabral, Daniel; Schardl, Christopher Lewis; Rossi, María Susana

    2009-01-01

    The fungi of genus Neotyphodium are systemic, constitutive, symbionts of grasses of subfamily Pooideae. In the southern hemisphere most of these asexual endophytes are the result of the hybridization between two sexual species, Epichlo" festucae and E. typhina, from the northern hemisphere. However the ancestral sexual species have not been detected in this region. Several grasses from Argentina are infected by Neotyphodium species. These endophytes are in general very similar macro- and micromorphologically and phylogenetically conform to species N. tembladerae. However the Neotyphodium spp. endophytes of some hosts, Bromus auleticus and Poa spicifomis var. spiciformis, have not been included in this species. In this work we studied the incidence and characterized the diversity of Neotyphodium species in populations of the native grass Bromus auleticus from Argentina. The incidence of endophytes was 100% in all populations investigated. Two groups of endophytes were differentiated by their morphologies, growth rates, conidial ontogenies and by relative resistance to the fungicide benomyl. Phylogenetic trees inferred from tefA and tubB intron sequences indicated that both N. tembladerae and the novel morphotype were hybrids of E. festucae and E. typhina, but the ancestral E. typhina genotype distinguished them. Isolates from plants that inhabit coastal dunes, xerophytic forests, savannahs and hills were similar morphologically and phylogenetically to N. tembladerae, whereas the endophytes from the humid pampa plains conformed to the novel group. We propose the endophyte of Bromus auleticus from humid pampas as a new species, Neotyphodium pampeanum.

  15. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops

    PubMed Central

    Yendrek, Craig R.; Koester, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment. PMID:26324463

  16. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops.

    PubMed

    Yendrek, Craig R; Koester, Robert P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment.

  17. Noncompetitive Gametic Isolation between Sibling Species of Cricket: A Hypothesized Link between Within-Population Incompatibility and Reproductive Isolation between Species

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jeremy L.; DiRienzo, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes are a common mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we describe the dynamics of a noncompetitive gametic isolation phenotype (namely, the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs) in a group of recently diverged crickets that are primarily isolated from each other by this phenotype. We not only show that heterospecific males are less able to induce females to lay eggs but that there are male by female incompatibilities in this phenotype that occur within populations. We also identify a protein in the female reproductive tract that correlates with the number of eggs that she was induced to lay. Functional genetic tests using RNAi confirm that the function of this protein is linked to egg-laying induction. Moreover, the dysfunction of this protein appears to underlie both within-population incompatibilities and between-species divergence—thus suggesting a common genetic pathway underlies both. However, this is only correlative evidence and further research is needed to assess whether or not the same mutations in the same genes underlie variation at both levels. PMID:23251826

  18. Plasticity in seedling morphology, biomass allocation and physiology among ten temperate tree species in response to shade is related to shade tolerance and not leaf habit.

    PubMed

    Chmura, D J; Modrzyński, J; Chmielarz, P; Tjoelker, M G

    2017-03-01

    Mechanisms of shade tolerance in tree seedlings, and thus growth in shade, may differ by leaf habit and vary with ontogeny following seed germination. To examine early responses of seedlings to shade in relation to morphological, physiological and biomass allocation traits, we compared seedlings of 10 temperate species, varying in their leaf habit (broadleaved versus needle-leaved) and observed tolerance to shade, when growing in two contrasting light treatments - open (about 20% of full sunlight) and shade (about 5% of full sunlight). We analyzed biomass allocation and its response to shade using allometric relationships. We also measured leaf gas exchange rates and leaf N in the two light treatments. Compared to the open treatment, shading significantly increased traits typically associated with high relative growth rate (RGR) - leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), and allocation of biomass into leaves, and reduced seedling mass and allocation to roots, and net assimilation rate (NAR). Interestingly, RGR was not affected by light treatment, likely because of morphological and physiological adjustments in shaded plants that offset reductions of in situ net assimilation of carbon in shade. Leaf area-based rates of light-saturated leaf gas exchange differed among species groups, but not between light treatments, as leaf N concentration increased in concert with increased SLA in shade. We found little evidence to support the hypothesis of a increased plasticity of broadleaved species compared to needle-leaved conifers in response to shade. However, an expectation of higher plasticity in shade-intolerant species than in shade-tolerant ones, and in leaf and plant morphology than in biomass allocation was supported across species of contrasting leaf habit.

  19. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) Model for Multiple Exposure Routes of Soman in Multiple Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    levels of soman greater than 0.85 for 95% of the intravenous and sub- challenge in three species (rat, guinea pig, marmoset ). cutaneous datasets and 25...more than a single formula was available for male guinea pigs (500 g), and male marmosets estimating a particular parameter, the model averaged the...used for whole blood. Values for rat and diaphragm was used for the richly perfused compart- marmoset plasma and for liver of the three species were

  20. Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S

    2014-02-01

    Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature

  1. Biochemical, genetic and physiological characterization of venom components from two species of scorpions: Centruroides exilicauda Wood and Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Dávila, Sonia; Licea, Alexei; Corona, Miguel; Zamudio, Fernando Z; García-Valdes, Jesús; Boyer, Leslie; Possani, Lourival D

    2004-06-01

    Current literature concerning the taxonomic names of two possibly distinct species of scorpions from the genus Centruroides (sculpturatus and/or exilicauda) is controversial. This communication reports the results of biochemical, genetic and electrophysiological experiments conducted with C. exilicauda Wood of Baja California (Mexico) and C. sculpturatus Ewing of Arizona (USA). The chromatographic profile fractionation of the soluble venom from both species of scorpions is different. The N-terminal amino acid sequence for nine toxins of C. exilicauda was determined and compared with those from C. sculpturatus. Lethality tests conducted in mice support the idea that C. exilicauda venom should be expected to be medically less important than C. sculpturatus. Thirteen genes from the venomous glands of the scorpion C. exilicauda were obtained and compared with previously published sequences from genes of the species C. sculpturatus. Genes coding for cytochrome oxidase I and II of both species were also sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was generated with this information showing important differences between them. Additionally, the results of electrophysiological assays conducted with the venom from both species on the Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)-channels, showed significant differences. These results strongly support the conclusion that C. exilicauda and C. sculpturatus are in fact two distinct species of scorpions.

  2. Cytotoxic bile acids, but not cytoprotective species, inhibit the ordering effect of cholesterol in model membranes at physiologically active concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mello-Vieira, João; Sousa, Tânia; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Lucas, Susana D; Moreira, Rui; Castro, Rui E; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fábio

    2013-09-01

    Submillimolar concentrations of cytotoxic bile acids (BAs) induce cell death via apoptosis. On the other hand, several cytoprotective BAs were shown to prevent apoptosis in the same concentration range. Still, the mechanisms by which BAs trigger these opposite signaling effects remain unclear. This study was aimed to determine if cytotoxic and cytoprotective BAs, at physiologically active concentrations, are able to modulate the biophysical properties of lipid membranes, potentially translating into changes in the apoptotic threshold of cells. Binding of BAs to membranes was assessed through the variation of fluorescence parameters of suitable derivatized BAs. These derivatives partitioned with higher affinity to liquid disordered than to the cholesterol-enriched liquid ordered domains. Unlabeled BAs were also shown to have a superficial location upon interaction with the lipid membrane. Additionally, the interaction of cytotoxic BAs with membranes resulted in membrane expansion, as concluded from FRET data. Moreover, it was shown that cytotoxic BAs were able to significantly disrupt the ordering of the membrane by cholesterol at physiologically active concentrations of the BA, an effect not associated with cholesterol removal. On the other hand, cytoprotective bile acids had no effect on membrane properties. It was concluded that, given the observed effects on membrane rigidity, the apoptotic activity of cytotoxic BAs could be potentially associated with changes in plasma membrane organization (e.g. modulation of lipid domains) or with an increase in mitochondrial membrane affinity for apoptotic proteins.

  3. Temperature, water activity and pH during conidia production affect the physiological state and germination time of Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, Nicolas; Vasseur, Valérie; Coroller, Louis; Dantigny, Philippe; Le Panse, Sophie; Weill, Amélie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rigalma, Karim

    2017-01-16

    Conidial germination and mycelial growth are generally studied with conidia produced under optimal conditions to increase conidial yield. Nonetheless, the physiological state of such conidia most likely differs from those involved in spoilage of naturally contaminated food. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of temperature, pH and water activity (aw) during production of conidia on the germination parameters and compatible solutes of conidia of Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium expansum. Low temperature (5°C) and reduced aw (0.900 aw) during sporulation significantly reduced conidial germination times whereas the pH of the sporulation medium only had a slight effect at the tested values (2.5, 8.0). Conidia of P. roqueforti produced at 5°C germinated up to 45h earlier than those produced at 20°C. Conidia of P. roqueforti and P. expansum produced at 0.900 aw germinated respectively up to 8h and 3h earlier than conidia produced at 0.980 aw. Furthermore, trehalose and mannitol assessments suggested that earlier germination might be related to delayed conidial maturation even though no ultra-structural modifications were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of considering environmental conditions during sporulation in mycological studies. The physiological state of fungal conidia should be taken into account to design challenge tests or predictive mycology studies. This knowledge may also be of interest to improve the germination capacity of fungal cultures commonly used in fermented foods.

  4. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologically resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, Wouter J

    2005-02-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of the D1D2 region of the large subunit (26S) and of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA showed relationship to the Bulleromyces clade of the genus Cryptococcus (order Tremellales) with some Tremella spp. as the closest relatives. A traditional morphological and physiological description of the strain is given. Data on the assimilation of some C2 compounds and polysaccharides are provided and compared with those of other type strains of novel species of the C. laurentii complex.

  5. Assessing Jasminum grandiflorum L. authenticity by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and effects on physiological enzymes and oxidative species.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Grosso, Clara; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-01

    The dried flower buds of Jasminum grandiflorum L. are widely consumed as infusion and used in traditional medicine for psychiatric disorders. It is important to have a well-established method for the chemical characterization of J. grandiflorum since there are resemblances with a toxic species, Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Jaume Saint-Hilaire. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis allowed identifying six phenolic compounds for the first time. Moreover, the evaluation of in vitro activity against central nervous system (CNS) related enzymes was undertaken for the first time, as well as against reactive species in order to support the efficacy towards CNS disorders.

  6. Development of species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Vannuffel, P; Gilot, P; Limbourg, B; Naerhuyzen, B; Dieterich, C; Coene, M; Machtelinckx, L; Cocito, C

    1994-01-01

    The previously described (M. De Kesel, P. Gilot, M.-C. Misonne, M. Coene, and C. Cocito, J. Clin. Microbiol., 31:947-954, 1993) a362 recombinant polypeptide of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was used as reagent for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This ELISA, which is endowed with species specificity with respect to the other mycobacteria, was applied to the analysis of bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), an endemic mycobacteriosis of cattle caused by M. paratuberculosis. The distribution of anti-a362 antibodies in the cattle population was analyzed by a computer program (mixture population model) to determine a cutoff value for the test. The prevalence of a362 seropositivity in the Belgian bovine population was estimated to be 12%. The sensitivity of the a362 assay was 70%, as determined with reference sera from the U.S. National Repository of Paratuberculosis Specimens. Some 40% of the animals in the herds with paratuberculosis analyzed were found to be positive by the a362 assay. The latter proved to be 95% specific with respect to both healthy and tuberculous cattle. PMID:8051246

  7. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  8. Phylogenetic divergence morphological and physiological differences distinguish a new neotyphodium endophyte species in the grass bromus auleticus from South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungi of genus Neotyphodium are systemic, constitutive, symbionts of grasses of subfamily Pooideae. In the southern hemisphere most of these asexual endophytes are the result of the hybridization between two sexual species, Epichloe festucae and E. typhina, from the northern hemisphere. However ...

  9. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species.

  10. A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Camacho, Agustín; De Sena, Marco Aurélio; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-02-19

    A new species of Bachia of the bresslaui group, Bachia geralista sp. nov., is described from Planalto dos Gerais, an old and partially dissected plateau extending along the Cerrados of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Tocantins states, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to B. bresslaui, with which it has been confused; however head scalation resembles other species from sandy spots within the Cerrado (B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina). Like in B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina, the shovel-shaped snout of the new species is highly prominent, a typical trait of psammophilous habits in other gymnophthalmids. The examination of specimens of B. bresslaui from several populations within the Cerrado revealed great variation among localities, leading to the reidentification of a specimen from Utiariti, Mato Grosso, previously referred to in the literature as the second record of B. bresslaui, as the recently described B. didactyla, suggesting that cryptic diversity might remain still undiscovered within this genus in the Cerrado. Despite occurring in a relatively open Cerrado, thermal physiology of Bachia geralista sp. nov. restricts its occurrence to shaded microhabitats within this habitat.

  11. Distribution of Pholeter gastrophilus (Digenea) within the stomach of four odontocete species: the role of the diet and digestive physiology of hosts.

    PubMed

    Aznar, F J; Fognani, P; Balbuena, J A; Pietrobelli, M; Raga, J A

    2006-09-01

    We compared the distribution of the digenean Pholeter gastrophilus in the stomach of 27 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, 27 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and 100 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas. The stomach of these species is composed of 4 chambers of different size, structure and function. In all species, P. gastrophilus was largely restricted to the glandular region of the stomach, but the parasite tended to favour the fundic chamber in bottlenose dolphins and harbour porpoises, the pyloric chamber in pilot whales, and none in striped dolphins. However, predictability at infrapopulation level was generally low, suggesting a weak preference of P. gastrophilus for any of the chambers. Three hypotheses were tested to investigate a common cause for the distribution of P. gastrophilus in all host species, namely, colonization of chambers was (1) sequential, (2) dependent on chamber size, or (3) dependent on the passage time of food through the whole stomach. The latter hypothesis was indirectly tested by assuming, based on previous evidence from other vertebrates, that the greater the size of the stomach and/or the energy content of prey, the greater the delay of food passage. We found no compelling evidence that chamber colonization was sequential, or related to chamber size in any species. However, the distribution of P. gastrophilus was significantly more anteriad when the host species had larger stomachs and, particularly, when hosts fed on prey with higher caloric content. Accordingly, the stomach distribution of P. gastrophilus at this scale seems to be passively driven by features of the diet and digestive physiology of each host species. This study provides a general framework to formulate null hypotheses in future studies on microhabitat choice by parasites.

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Neuroprotection in Cetaceans: Are Some Marine Mammal Species Safeguarded From Emboli Formation and Barotrauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    beluga whales . 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to... whales , are more susceptible to non-auditory tissue damage as may occur in conjunction with navy and oil exploration sound operations. We will take...2 recent work provides a comparative dimension by conducting similar tests on a deep diving species, the beluga whale . A second set of tests

  13. Effects of UV-B radiation on phenolic composition and deposition patterns and leaf physiology in three Eastern tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph H.; Gitz, Dennis C.; Peek, Michael S.; McElrone, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative changes in foliar chemistry in response to UVB radiation are frequently reported but less is known about the qualitative changes in putative UV-screening compounds. It has also not been conclusively shown whether qualitative differences in screening compounds or differences in localization patterns influences the sensitivity of plants to damage from UVB radiation. In this study we evaluated the chemical composition and deposition patterns of UV-absorbing compounds in three tree species and assayed these species for possible effects on gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Branches of mature trees of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and red maple (Acer rubrum) were exposed to supplemental levels of UVB radiation over three growing seasons. Controls for UVA were also measured by exposing branches to supplemental UVA only, and additional branches not irradiated were also used for controls. These species demonstrated contrasting chemical composition and deposition patterns with poplar being the most responsive in terms of epidermal accumulation of phenolics including flavonols and chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamates. Sweetgum and red maple showed increases primarily in hydroxycinnamates, particularly in the mesophyll in red maple. Leaf area was marginally influenced by UV exposure level. Assimilation was generally not reduced by UVB radiation in these species and was enhanced in red maple by both UVB and UVA and by UVA in sweetgum. These finding are consistent with a hypothesis that epidermal attenuation of UVB would only be reduced in poplar, which accumulated the additional epidermal screening compounds. It is possible that photosynthetic efficiency was enhanced in red maple by the increased absorption of blue light within the mesophyll. Stomatal conductance was generally reduced, and this led to an increase in water use efficiency in red maple and poplar.

  14. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth, and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens.

    PubMed

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Street, Nathaniel R; Robinson, Kathryn M; Silim, Salim N; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Jansson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both Populus tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A), whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06). Stomatal conductance (g s) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ(13)C) were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED), which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. We highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects.

  15. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth, and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens

    PubMed Central

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y.; Guy, Robert D.; Street, Nathaniel R.; Robinson, Kathryn M.; Silim, Salim N.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Jansson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both Populus tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A), whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06). Stomatal conductance (gs) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ13C) were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED), which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. We highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects. PMID:26236324

  16. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms.

  17. Characterization of novel long-chain 1,2-diols in Thermus species and demonstration that Thermus strains contain both glycerol-linked and diol-linked glycolipids.

    PubMed Central

    Wait, R; Carreto, L; Nobre, M F; Ferreira, A M; da Costa, M S

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we purified and characterized tetra- and triglycosyl glycolipids (GL-1 and GL-2, respectively) from two different colonial forms of Thermus scotoductus X-1, from T. filiformis Tok4 A2, and from T. oshimai SPS-11. Acid hydrolysis of the purified glycolipids liberated, in addition to the expected long-chain fatty acids, two components which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as 16-methylheptadecane-1,2-diol and 15-methylheptadecane-1,2-diol. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the intact glycolipids indicated that a major proportion consisted of components with glycan head groups linked to long-chain 1,2-diols rather than to glycerol, although in all cases glycerol-linked compounds containing similar glycan head groups were also present. As in other Thermus strains, the polar head group of GL-1 from T. filiformis Tok4 A2 and from T. scotoductus X-1 colony type t2 was a glucosylgalactosyl-(N-acyl)glucosaminylglucosyl moiety. However, GL-2 from T. scotoductus X-1 colony type t1 and from T. oshimai SPS-11 was a truncated analog which lacked the nonreducing terminal glucose. Long-chain 1,2-diols have been previously reported in the polar lipids of Thermomicrobium roseum and (possibly) Chloroflexus aurantiacus, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of their detection in other bacteria and the first account of the structural determination of long-chain diol-linked glycolipids. PMID:9324266

  18. Extensive gene acquisition in the extremely psychrophilic bacterial species Psychroflexus torquis and the link to sea-ice ecosystem specialism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi; Powell, Shane M; Wilson, Richard; Bowman, John P

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a highly dynamic and productive environment that includes a diverse array of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic taxa distinct from the underlying water column. Because sea ice has only been extensive on Earth since the mid-Eocene, it has been hypothesized that bacteria highly adapted to inhabit sea ice have traits that have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we compared the genomes of the psychrophilic bacterium Psychroflexus torquis ATCC 700755(T), associated with both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, and its closely related nonpsychrophilic sister species, P. gondwanensis ACAM 44(T). Results show that HGT has occurred much more extensively in P. torquis in comparison to P. gondwanensis. Genetic features that can be linked to the psychrophilic and sea ice-specific lifestyle of P. torquis include genes for exopolysaccharide (EPS) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis, numerous specific modes of nutrient acquisition, and proteins putatively associated with ice-binding, light-sensing (bacteriophytochromes), and programmed cell death (metacaspases). Proteomic analysis showed that several genes associated with these traits are highly translated, especially those involved with EPS and PUFA production. Because most of the genes relating to the ability of P. torquis to dwell in sea-ice ecosystems occur on genomic islands that are absent in closely related P. gondwanensis, its adaptation to the sea-ice environment appears driven mainly by HGT. The genomic islands are rich in pseudogenes, insertional elements, and addiction modules, suggesting that gene acquisition is being followed by a process of genome reduction potentially indicative of evolving ecosystem specialism.

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis to measure immune response to Brucella species.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, S B; Bibb, W F; Shih, C N; Kaufmann, A F; Mitchell, J R; McKinney, R M

    1986-01-01

    We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to measure human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM response to the major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis. The ELISA was more sensitive in detecting antibody than a standard microagglutination (MA) test with B. abortus antigen. Of 101 sera from persons with suspected brucellosis, 79 (78.2%) gave ELISA IgM titers greater than or equal to the B. abortus MA titer without 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), which measures both IgM and IgG. Of the 101 sera, 97% gave ELISA IgG titers greater than or equal to the MA with 2ME titer. A total of 58 sera, drawn from 11 human patients from 1 to 29 weeks after onset of brucellosis, gave higher geometric mean titers for the ELISA IgG test than for the MA with 2ME test. These 58 sera also gave ELISA IgM geometric mean titers that were greater than or within one doubling dilution of the geometric mean titers of MA without 2ME. In addition to detecting antibody response to B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, the ELISA was sensitive to antibody response to human and canine infections with B. canis. The B. canis antibody response is not detected by the MA test with B. abortus antigen. The ELISA, with a standard preparation of major outer membrane proteins of B. melitensis as antigen, appears to be useful in measuring antibody response in humans to infections by all species of Brucella known to infect humans. PMID:3095364

  20. Human cell toxicogenomic analysis linking reactive oxygen species to the toxicity of monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    Pals, Justin; Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Xia, Menghang; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts has been linked to adverse health risks. The monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are generated as byproducts during the disinfection of drinking water and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Iodoacetic acid toxicity was mitigated by antioxidants, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Other monoHAAs may share a similar mode of action. Each monoHAA generated a significant concentration-response increase in the expression of a β-lactamase reporter under the control of the antioxidant response element (ARE). The monoHAAs generated oxidative stress with a rank order of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) ≫ chloroacetic acid (CAA); this rank order was observed with other toxicological end points. Toxicogenomic analysis was conducted with a nontransformed human intestinal epithelial cell line (FHs 74 Int). Exposure to the monoHAAs altered the transcription levels of multiple oxidative stress responsive genes, indicating that each exposure generated oxidative stress. The transcriptome profiles showed an increase in thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and sulfiredoxin (SRXN1), suggesting peroxiredoxin proteins had been oxidized during monoHAA exposures. Three possible sources of reactive oxygen species were identified, the hypohalous acid generating peroxidase enzymes lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase 5 (NOX5), and PTGS2 (COX-2) mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Each monoHAA exposure caused an increase in COX-2 mRNA levels. These data provide a functional association between monoHAA exposure and adverse health outcomes such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer.

  1. Evaluation of four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the serologic survey of avian influenza in wild bird species.

    PubMed

    Claes, Gerwin; Vangeluwe, Didier; Van der Stede, Yves; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Marché, Sylvie

    2012-12-01

    Wild birds that reside in aquatic environments are the major reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Since this reservoir of AIVs forms a constant threat for poultry, many countries have engaged in AIV surveillance. More and more commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are available for serologic surveillance, but these tests are often developed and validated for use in domestic poultry. However, for a correct interpretation of ELISA test results from wild bird sera, more information is needed. In the present study, four ELISA test kits (ID-Vet IDScreen, IDEXX FlockChek AI MultiS-Screen Ab Test Kit, Synbiotics FluDETECTBE, and BioChek AIMSp) were compared for the serologic analysis of 172 serum samples from mallard, mute swan, and Canada goose. Samples were selected based on ID-Vet IDScreen results to obtain an approximately equal number of positive and negative samples. In addition, 92 serum samples from experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and Pekin ducks were included in the tests for validation purposes. Cohen's kappa statistics and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for each combination of two tests and for each bird species. Test agreement for mallard sera varied from poor to moderate, while test results for Canada goose and swan sera agreed from fair to almost perfect. The best agreement was obtained with sera from experimentally infected SPF chickens and Pekin ducks. This study shows that some care must be taken before using nucleoprotein ELISAs for the testing of sera from wild birds and that more reliable validation studies should be considered before their use in the serologic surveillance of wild birds.

  2. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species

    PubMed Central

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A.; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M.; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator–prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect

  3. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  4. Behavioural and Physiological Implications of a Burrow-dwelling Lifestyle for Two Species of Upogebiid Mud-shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astall, C. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.

    1997-02-01

    Upogebia stellataand U. deltaura(Crustacea: Thalassinidea) construct burrows in nearshore sediments in U.K. waters. Burrow structure is similar in both species; the basic burrow consisting of a two-opening, U-shaped section with a vertical shaft descending from the mid-point of the U. This structure may be variously elaborated. Burrow cross-section is circular, dilations allow turning by somersaulting and surface openings are often constricted. Conditions within the burrows are usually hypoxic and hypercapnic. Burrow water PO 2in the parts normally occupied by the mud-shrimp was between 80-110 Torr, but was much lower (10-45 Torr) in the deepest, poorly-irrigated parts. Both species irrigate their burrows by episodes of pleopod beating of variable duration (mean=8·5±3·5 min and 2·8±0·5 min for U. deltauraand U. stellata, respectively), which draws oxygenated water into the burrow and also particulate food for suspension feeding. When exposed to hypoxia, U. deltauraand U. stellatawere able to maintain their rates of oxygen consumption approximately constant over a wide range of PO 2( Pc=30-50 Torr). Under these conditions, there was a pronounced increase in scaphognathite beat rate but heart rate remained relatively constant. Below the Pc, however, both rates declined.

  5. Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-12-15

    Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 μg/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 μg/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 μg/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 μg/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 μg/g extracts) and all-trans-β-carotene (4-6 μg/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry.

  6. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  7. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  8. Physiology-based prognostic modeling of the influence of changes in precipitation on a keystone dryland plant species.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Sparks, Jed P

    2014-12-01

    Fluctuations in mean annual precipitation (MAP) will strongly influence the ecology of dryland ecosystems in the future, yet, because individual precipitation events drive growth and resource availability for many dryland organisms, changes in intra-annual precipitation may disproportionately influence future dryland processes. This work examines the hypothesis that intra-annual precipitation changes will drive dryland productivity to a greater extent than changes to MAP. To test this hypothesis, we created a physiology-based model to predict the effects of precipitation change on a widespread biocrust moss that regulates soil structure, water retention, and nutrient cycling in drylands. First, we used the model to examine moss productivity over the next 100 years driven by alterations in MAP by ± 10, 20 and 30%, and changes in intra-annual precipitation (event size and frequency). Productivity increased as a function of MAP, but differed among simulations where intra-annual precipitation was manipulated under constant MAP. Supporting our hypothesis, this demonstrates that, even if MAP does not change, changes in the features of individual precipitation events can strongly influence long-term performance. Second, we used the model to examine 100-year productivity based on projected dryland precipitation from published global and regional models. These simulations predicted 25-63% reductions in productivity and increased moss mortality rates, declines that will likely alter water and nutrient cycling in dryland ecosystems. Intra-annual precipitation in model-based simulations was a stronger predictor of productivity compared to MAP, further supporting our hypothesis, and illustrating that intra-annual precipitation patterns may dominate dryland responses to altered precipitation in a future climate.

  9. Molecular Scanning and Morpho-Physiological Dissection of Component Mechanism in Lens Species in Response to Aluminium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Pal, Madan; Singh, Chandan Kumar; Taunk, Jyoti; Jain, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Ashish Kumar; Maurya, Sadhana; Karwa, Sourabh; Singh, Rajendra; Tomar, Ram Sewak Singh; Nongthombam, Rita; Chongtham, Nandini; Singh, Moirangthem Premjit

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress was imposed on 285 lentil genotypes at seedling stage under hydroponics to study its effects on morpho-physiological traits where resistant cultigens and wilds showed minimum reduction in root and shoot length and maximum root re-growth (RRG) after staining. Molecular assortment based on 46 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers clustered the genotypes into 11 groups, where wilds were separated from the cultigens. Genetic diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC) varied between 0.148–0.775 and 0.140–0.739, respectively. Breeding lines which were found to be most resistant (L-7903, L-4602); sensitive cultivars (BM-4, L-4147) and wilds ILWL-185 (resistant), ILWL-436 (sensitive) were grouped into different clusters. These genotypes were also separated on the basis of population structure and Jaccard’s similarity index and analysed to study Al resistance mechanism through determination of different attributes like localization of Al and callose, lipid peroxidation, secretion of organic acids and production of antioxidant enzymes. In contrast to sensitive genotypes, in resistant ones most of the Al was localized in the epidermal cells, where its movement to apoplastic region was restricted due to release of citrate and malate. Under acidic field conditions, resistant genotypes produced maximum seed yield/plant as compared to sensitive genotypes at two different locations i.e. Imphal, Manipur, India and Basar, Arunanchal Pradesh, India during 2012–13, 2013–14 and 2014–15. These findings suggest that Al stress adaptation in lentil is through exclusion mechanism and hybridization between the contrasting genotypes from distinct clusters can help in development of resistant varieties. PMID:27467074

  10. Comparative physiology and fermentation performance of Saaz and Frohberg lager yeast strains and the parental species Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brian R; Storgårds, Erna; Krogerus, Kristoffer; Vidgren, Virve

    2013-07-01

    Two distinct genetic groups (Saaz and Frohberg) exist within the hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus (S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus) taxon. However, physiological/technological differences that exist between the two groups are not known. Fermentative capability of the parental S. eubayanus has likewise never been studied. Here, 58 lager strains were screened to determine which hybrid group they belonged to, and selected strains were characterized to determine salient characteristics. In 15 °P all-malt wort fermentations at 22 °C, Frohberg strains showed greater growth and superior fermentation (80% apparent attenuation, 6.5% alcohol by volume in 3-4 days) compared to all other strains and maintained highest viability values (>93%). Fermentation with S. eubayanus was poor at the same temperature (33% apparent attenuation, 2.7% alcohol by volume at 6 days and viability reduced to 75%). Saaz strains and S. eubayanus were the least sensitive to cold (10 °C), though this did not translate to greater fermentation performance. Fermentation with S. eubayanus was poor at 10 °C but equal to or greater than that of the Saaz strains. Performance of Saaz yeast/S. eubayanus was limited by an inability to use wort maltotriose. [(14)C]-Maltotriose transport assays also showed negligible activity in these strains (≤0.5 µmol min(-1) g(-1) dry yeast). Beers from Saaz fermentations were characterized by two- to sixfold lower production of the flavour compounds methyl butanol, ethyl acetate and 3-methylbutyl acetate compared to Frohberg strains. Higher alcohol and ester production by S. eubayanus was similar to that of Frohberg strains.

  11. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Uptake and Disposition of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Fish Using a Multispecies Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic Model Framework.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Schlechtriem, Christian; Reininghaus, Mathias; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-02-16

    The potential to bioconcentrate is generally considered to be an unwanted property of a substance. Consequently, chemical legislation, including the European REACH regulations, requires the chemical industry to provide bioconcentration data for chemicals that are produced or imported at volumes exceeding 100 tons per annum or if there is a concern that a substance is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. For the filling of the existing data gap for chemicals produced or imported at levels that are below this stipulated volume, without the need for additional animal experiments, physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models can be used to predict whole-body and tissue concentrations of neutral organic chemicals in fish. PBTK models have been developed for many different fish species with promising results. In this study, we developed PBTK models for zebrafish (Danio rerio) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) and combined them with existing models for rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The resulting multispecies model framework allows for cross-species extrapolation of the bioaccumulative potential of neutral organic compounds. Predictions were compared with experimental data and were accurate for most substances. Our model can be used for probabilistic risk assessment of chemical bioaccumulation, with particular emphasis on cross-species evaluations.

  12. The effect of lichen-dominated biological soil crusts on growth and physiological characteristics of three plant species in a temperate desert of northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, W W; Serpe, M; Zhang, Y M

    2015-11-01

    Biocrusts (biological soil crusts) cover open spaces between vascular plants in most arid and semi-arid areas. Information on effects of biocrusts on seedling growth is controversial, and there is little information on their effects on plant growth and physiology. We examined impacts of biocrusts on growth and physiological characteristics of three habitat-typical plants, Erodium oxyrhynchum, Alyssum linifolium and Hyalea pulchella, growing in the Gurbantunggut Desert, northwest China. The influence of biocrusts on plant biomass, leaf area, leaf relative water content, photosynthesis, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), chlorophyll, osmotic solutes (soluble sugars, protein, proline) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) was investigated on sites with or without biocrust cover. Biomass, leaf area, leaf water content, photosynthesis, F(v)/F(m) and chlorophyll content in crusted soils were higher than in uncrusted soils during early growth and lower later in the growth period. Soluble sugars, proline and antioxidant enzyme activity were always higher in crusted than in uncrusted soils, while soluble protein content was always lower. These findings indicate that biocrusts have different effects on these three ephemeral species during growth in this desert, primarily via effects on soil moisture, and possibly on soil nutrients. The influence of biocrusts changes during plant development: in early plant growth, biocrusts had either positive or no effect on growth and physiological parameters. However, biocrusts tended to negatively influence plants during later growth. Our results provide insights to explain why previous studies have found different effects of biocrusts on vascular plant growth.

  13. N-fertilization has different effects on the growth, carbon and nitrogen physiology, and wood properties of slow- and fast-growing Populus species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Li, Mengchun; Luo, Jie; Cao, Xu; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Liu, Tongxian; Bai, Hua; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate how N-fertilization affects the growth, carbon and nitrogen (N) physiology, and wood properties of poplars with contrasting growth characteristics, slow-growing (Populus popularis, Pp) and fast-growing (P. alba×P. glandulosa, Pg) poplar saplings were exposed to different N levels. Above-ground biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rates (A), instantaneous photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE (i)), chlorophyll and foliar sugar concentrations were higher in Pg than in Pp. Foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activities and root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were higher in Pg than in Pp as were the N amount and NUE of new shoots. Lignin contents and calorific values of Pg wood were less than that of Pp wood. N-fertilization reduced root biomass of Pg more than of Pp, but increased leaf biomass, leaf area, A, and PNUE(i) of Pg more than of Pp. Among 13 genes involved in the transport of ammonium or nitrate or in N assimilation, transcripts showed more pronounced changes to N-fertilization in Pg than in Pp. Increases in NR activities and N contents due to N-fertilization were larger in Pg than in Pp. In both species, N-fertilization resulted in lower calorific values as well as shorter and wider vessel elements/fibres. These results suggest that growth, carbon and N physiology, and wood properties are more sensitive to increasing N availability in fast-growing poplars than in slow-growing ones, which is probably due to prioritized resource allocation to the leaves and accelerated N physiological processes in fast-growing poplars under higher N levels.

  14. Physiological and genetic differences amongst Rhodococcus species for using glycerol as a source for growth and triacylglycerol production.

    PubMed

    Herrero, O Marisa; Moncalián, Gabriel; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2016-02-01

    We analysed the ability of five different rhodococcal species to grow and produce triacylglycerols (TAGs) from glycerol, the main byproduct of biodiesel production. Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus erythropolis grew fast on glycerol, whereas Rhodococcus opacus and Rhodococcus jostii exhibited a prolonged lag phase of several days before growing. Rhodococcus equi only exhibited poor growth on glycerol. R. erythropolis DSMZ 43060 and R. fascians F7 produced 3.9-4.3 g cell biomass l(-1) and 28.4-44.6% cellular dry weight (CDW) of TAGs after 6 days of incubation; whereas R. opacus PD630 and R. jostii RHA1 produced 2.5-3.8 g cell biomass l(-1) and 28.3-38.4% CDW of TAGs after 17 days of growth on glycerol. Genomic analyses revealed two different sets of genes for glycerol uptake and degradation (here named clusters 1 and 2) amongst rhodococci. Those species that possessed cluster 1 (glpFK1D1) (R. fascians and R. erythropolis) exhibited fast growth and lipid accumulation, whereas those that possessed cluster 2 (glpK2D2) (R. opacus, R. jostii and R. equi) exhibited delayed growth and lipid accumulation during cultivation on glycerol. Three glycerol-negative strains were complemented for their ability to grow and produce TAGs by heterologous expression of glpK2 from R. opacus PD630. In addition, we significantly reduced the extension of the lag phase and improved glycerol assimilation and oil production of R. opacus PD630 when expressing glpK1D1 from R. fascians. The results demonstrated that rhodococci are a flexible and amenable biological system for further biotechnological applications based on the reutilization of glycerol.

  15. Kinetics of xylem loading, membrane potential maintenance, and sensitivity of K(+) -permeable channels to reactive oxygen species: physiological traits that differentiate salinity tolerance between pea and barley.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Pottosin, Igor; Zeng, Fanrong; Velarde-Buendía, Ana-Maria; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Hariadi, Yuda; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Salt sensitive (pea) and salt tolerant (barley) species were used to understand the physiological basis of differential salinity tolerance in crops. Pea plants were much more efficient in restoring otherwise depolarized membrane potential thereby effectively decreasing K(+) efflux through depolarization-activated outward rectifying potassium channels. At the same time, pea root apex was 10-fold more sensitive to physiologically relevant H2 O2 concentration and accumulated larger amounts of H2 O2 under saline conditions. This resulted in a rapid loss of cell viability in the pea root apex. Barley plants rapidly loaded Na(+) into the xylem; this increase was only transient, and xylem and leaf Na(+) concentration remained at a steady level for weeks. On the contrary, pea plants restricted xylem Na(+) loading during the first few days of treatment but failed to prevent shoot Na(+) elevation in the long term. It is concluded that superior salinity tolerance of barley plants compared with pea is conferred by at least three different mechanisms: (1) efficient control of xylem Na(+) loading; (2) efficient control of H2 O2 accumulation and reduced sensitivity of non-selective cation channels to H2 O2 in the root apex; and (3) higher energy saving efficiency, with less ATP spent to maintain membrane potential under saline conditions.

  16. Linking science and policy to prevent the spread of invasive species from the ballast water discharge of ships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Huamn activites are causing the global redistribution of species at a historically unprecedented rates. In marine environments, a major vector of nonindigenous species introduction is commercial shipping, including the ballast water of ocean going vessels. The introduction of n...

  17. Small rolling circle plasmids in Bacillus subtilis and related species: organization, distribution, and their possible role in host physiology.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, S; Mora, D; Parini, C

    2007-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis and related species (Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus mojavensis) represent a group of bacteria largely studied and widely employed by industry. Small rolling circle replicating plasmids of this group of bacteria have been intensively studied as they represent a convenient model for genetic research and for the construction of molecular tools for the genetic modification of their hosts. Through the computational analysis of the available plasmid sequences to date, the first part of this review focuses on the main stages that the present model for rolling circle replication involves, citing the research data which helped to elucidate the mechanism by which these molecules replicate. Analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of the small RC plasmids inside the Bacillus genus is then considered, emphasizing the low level of diversity observed among these plasmids through the in silico analysis of their organization and the sequence divergence of their replication module. Finally, the parasitic vs. mutualistic nature of small rolling circle plasmids is briefly discussed.

  18. A quantitative method to monitor reactive oxygen species production by electron paramagnetic resonance in physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the "instantaneous" presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with "a posteriori" assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R (2) = 0.95), plasma (R (2) = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R (2) = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001-0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials.

  19. Can respiratory physiology predict thermal niches?

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Marshall, David J; Pörtner, Hans-O; Terblanche, John S; White, Craig R; Giomi, Folco

    2016-02-01

    Predicting species responses to global warming is the holy grail of climate change science. As temperature directly affects physiological rates, it is clear that a mechanistic understanding of species vulnerability should be grounded in organismal physiology. Here, we review what respiratory physiology can offer the field of thermal ecology, showcasing different perspectives on how respiratory physiology can help explain thermal niches. In water, maintaining adequate oxygen delivery to fuel the higher metabolic rates under warming conditions can become the weakest link, setting thermal tolerance limits. This has repercussions for growth and scaling of metabolic rate. On land, water loss is more likely to become problematic as long as O2 delivery and pH balance can be maintained, potentially constraining species in their normal activity. Therefore, high temperatures need not be lethal, but can still affect the energy intake of an animal, with concomitant consequences for long-term fitness. While respiratory challenges and adaptive responses are diverse, there are clear recurring elements such as oxygen uptake, CO2 excretion, and water homeostasis. We show that respiratory physiology has much to offer the field of thermal ecology and call for an integrative, multivariate view incorporating respiratory challenges, thermal responses, and energetic consequences. Fruitful areas for future research are highlighted.

  20. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  1. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  2. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  3. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  4. Assessing the effect of copper on growth, copper accumulation and physiological responses of grazing species Atriplex halimus: ecotoxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Naranjo, E; Andrades-Moreno, L; Cambrollé, J; Perez-Martin, A

    2013-04-01

    Tolerance of plants to elevated concentrations of heavy metals in growth media and in its tissues leads to high degrees of metal bioaccumulation, which may pose a risk for humans and animals alike. Therefore, bio-accumulating plants need thorough evaluation from an environmental health point of view. A glasshouse experiment concerning the xerohalophyte Atriplex halimus was carried out to determine its tolerance and capacity to accumulate copper. We investigated the effect of Cu from 0 to 30 mmol l(-1) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus and nutrient uptake of A. halimus by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photoinhibition. We also determined total Cu, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and nitrogen content in the plant. Our results indicated that A. halimus presented a high resistance to Cu-induced stress, since the plants were able to survive at concentrations higher than 15 mmol l(-1) Cu. However, this capacity was not reflected in its ability to accumulate and tolerate greater amounts of Cu in its tissues, since clear phytotoxicity symptoms were detected at tissue concentrations greater than 38 mg kg(-1) Cu. Thus, Cu increment caused a reduction in A. halimus growth, which was related to a decrease in net photosynthetic rate. This reduction was associated with the adverse effect of Cu on the photochemical apparatus and the reduction in the absorption of essential nutrients. The high resistance of A. halimus was largely related with the capacity of this species to avoid the absorption of great amounts of Cu. For all the above reasons, A. halimus could have the characteristics of a Cu-exclusion plant.

  5. Use of physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling to study interindividual human variation and species differences in plasma concentrations of quercetin and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Boonpawa, Rungnapa; Moradi, Nooshin; Spenkelink, Albertus; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2015-12-15

    Biological activities of flavonoids in vivo ultimately depend on the systemic bioavailability of the aglycones and their metabolites. We aimed to develop physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models to predict plasma concentrations of the flavonoid quercetin and its metabolites in individual human subjects and to define species differences compared with male rat. The human models were developed based on in vitro metabolic parameters derived from incubations with pooled and 20 individual human tissue fractions and by fitting kinetic parameters to available in vivo data. The outcomes obtained were compared to a previously developed model for quercetin and its metabolites formation in male rat. Quercetin-3'-O-glucuronide was predicted to be the major circulating metabolite in 19 out of 20 individuals, while in male rat di- and tri-conjugates of quercetin containing a glucuronic acid, sulfate and/or methyl moieties are the major metabolites. Significant species differences occur in major circulating metabolites of quercetin suggesting that rat is not an adequate model to study effects of quercetin in man. The defined PBK models can be used to guide the experimental design of in vitro experiments with flavonoids, especially to better take into account the relevance of metabolism and the contribution of metabolites to the biological activity in humans.

  6. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  7. The glia/neuron ratio: how it varies uniformly across brain structures and species and what that means for brain physiology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-09-01

    It is a widespread notion that the proportion of glial to neuronal cells in the brain increases with brain size, to the point that glial cells represent "about 90% of all cells in the human brain." This notion, however, is wrong on both counts: neither does the glia/neuron ratio increase uniformly with brain size, nor do glial cells represent the majority of cells in the human brain. This review examines the origin of interest in the glia/neuron ratio; the original evidence that led to the notion that it increases with brain size; the extent to which this concept can be applied to white matter and whole brains and the recent supporting evidence that the glia/neuron ratio does not increase with brain size, but rather, and in surprisingly uniform fashion, with decreasing neuronal density due to increasing average neuronal cell size, across brain structures and species. Variations in the glia/neuron ratio are proposed to be related not to the supposed larger metabolic cost of larger neurons (given that this cost is not found to vary with neuronal density), but simply to the large variation in neuronal sizes across brain structures and species in the face of less overall variation in glial cell sizes, with interesting implications for brain physiology. The emerging evidence that the glia/neuron ratio varies uniformly across the different brain structures of mammalian species that diverged as early as 90 million years ago in evolution highlights how fundamental for brain function must be the interaction between glial cells and neurons.

  8. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'--one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.--are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates.

  9. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.)

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    ‘White oaks’—one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.—are represented in western Eurasia by the ‘roburoid oaks’, a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:26496958

  10. Gamma-irradiation produces active chlorine species (ACS) in physiological solutions: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) scavenges ACS - A novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Om P.; Popov, Anatoliy V.; Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2017-01-01

    Background Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. Methods The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3′-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3′-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF). Dopamine, an SDG structural analog, was used for proton 1H NMR studies to trap primary ACS radicals. Taurine N-chlorination was determined to demonstrate radiation-induced generation of hypochlorite, a secondary ACS. DNA protection was assessed by determining the extent of DNA fragmentation and plasmid DNA relaxation following exposure to ClO− and radiation. Purine base chlorination by ClO− and γ-radiation was determined by using 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of 6-aminopurine. Results: Chloride anions (Cl−) consumed >90% of hydroxyl radicals in physiological solutions produced by γ-radiation resulting in ACS formation, which was detected by 1H NMR. Importantly, SDG scavenged hypochlorite- and γ-radiation-induced ACS. In addition, SDG blunted ACS-induced fragmentation of calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA relaxation. SDG treatment before or after ACS exposure decreased the ClO− or γ-radiation-induced chlorination of 2-AP. Exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increased taurine chlorination, indicative of ClO− generation. NMR studies revealed formation of primary ACS radicals (chlorine atoms (Cl•) and dichloro radical anions (Cl2−•)), which were trapped by SDG and its structural analog dopamine. Conclusion We demonstrate that γ-radiation induces the generation of ACS in

  11. Recombination changes at the boundaries of fully and partially sex-linked regions between closely related Silene species pairs.

    PubMed

    Campos, J L; Qiu, S; Guirao-Rico, S; Bergero, R; Charlesworth, D

    2017-04-01

    The establishment of a region of suppressed recombination is a critical change during sex chromosome evolution, leading to such properties as Y (and W) chromosome genetic degeneration, accumulation of repetitive sequences and heteromorphism. Although chromosome inversions can cause large regions to have suppressed recombination, and inversions are sometimes involved in sex chromosome evolution, gradual expansion of the non-recombining region could potentially sometimes occur. We here test whether closer linkage has recently evolved between the sex-determining region and several genes that are partially sex-linked in Silene latifolia, using Silene dioica, a closely related dioecious plants whose XY sex chromosome system is inherited from a common ancestor. The S. latifolia pseudoautosomal region (PAR) includes several genes extremely closely linked to the fully Y-linked region. These genes were added to an ancestral PAR of the sex chromosome pair in two distinct events probably involving translocations of autosomal genome regions causing multiple genes to become partially sex-linked. Close linkage with the PAR boundary must have evolved since these additions, because some genes added in both events now show almost complete sex linkage in S. latifolia. We compared diversity patterns of five such S. latifolia PAR boundary genes with their orthologues in S. dioica, including all three regions of the PAR (one gene that was in the ancestral PAR and two from each of the added regions). The results suggest recent recombination suppression in S. latifolia, since its split from S. dioica.

  12. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of photosynthesis in two C4 subspecies of Tecticornia indica and the C3 species Tecticornia pergranulata (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Akhani, Hossein; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Chuong, Simon D X; Roalson, Eric H; Kiirats, Olavi; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    Among dicotyledon families, Chenopodiaceae has the most C(4) species and the greatest diversity in structural forms of C(4). In subfamily Salicornioideae, C(4) photosynthesis has, so far, only been found in the genus Halosarcia which is now included in the broadly circumscribed Tecticornia. Comparative anatomical, cytochemical, and physiological studies on these taxa, which have near-aphyllous photosynthetic shoots, show that T. pergranulata is C(3), and that two subspecies of T. indica (bidens and indica) are C(4) (Kranz-tecticornoid type). In T. pergranulata, the stems have two layers of chlorenchyma cells surrounding the centrally located water storage tissue. The two subspecies of T. indica have Kranz anatomy in reduced leaves and in the fleshy stem cortex. They are NAD-malic enzyme-type C(4) species, with mesophyll chloroplasts having reduced grana, characteristic of this subtype. The Kranz-tecticornoid-type anatomy is unique among C(4) types in the family in having groups of chlorenchymatous cells separated by a network of large colourless cells (which may provide mechanical support or optimize the distribution of radiation in the tissue), and in having peripheral vascular bundles with the phloem side facing the bundle sheath cells. Also, the bundle sheath cells have chloroplasts in a centrifugal position, which is atypical for C(4) dicots. Fluorescence analyses in fresh sections indicate that all non-lignified cell walls have ferulic acid, a cell wall cross-linker. Structural-functional relationships of C(4) photosynthesis in T. indica are discussed. Recent molecular studies show that the C(4) taxa in Tecticornia form a monophyletic group, with incorporation of the Australian endemic genera of Salicornioideae, including Halosarcia, Pachycornia, Sclerostegia, and Tegicornia, into Tecticornia.

  13. Physiological performance and differential expression profiling of genes associated with drought tolerance in root tissue of four contrasting varieties of two Gossypium species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Pandey, Neha; Kumar, Anil; Shirke, Pramod A

    2016-01-01

    Root growth in drying soil is generally limited by a combination of mechanical impedance and water stress. As the major function of root tissue is water and nutrient uptake, so it imparts an important role in plant growth and stress management. Previously, we have studied physiological performance and expression profiling of gene associated with drought tolerance in leaf tissue of four cotton varieties. Here, we have further continued our studies with the root tissue of these varieties. The Gossypium hirsutum species JKC-770 is drought-tolerant and KC-2 is drought-sensitive, while Gossypium herbaceum species JKC-717 is drought-tolerant and RAHS-187 is drought-sensitive. JKC-770 and JKC-717 the drought-tolerant varieties showed a comparatively high glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, proline along with their gene expression, and low malondialdehyde content indicating low membrane damage and better antioxidative defense under drought condition. The expression levels of cellulose synthase, xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase, and glycosyl hydrolases suggest modulation in cell wall structure and partitioning of sugars towards osmoprotectants instead of cell wall biosynthesis in tolerant varieties. Heat shock proteins and serine/threonine protein phosphotases show upregulation under drought condition, which are responsible for temperature tolerance and protein phosphorylation, respectively. These effects many metabolic processes and may be playing a key role in drought tolerance and adaptability of JKC-770 towards drought tolerance. The long-term water use efficiency (WUE) estimated in terms of carbon isotope discrimination (∆(13)C) in the root tissues showed maximum depletion in the ∆(13)C values in JKC-770 variety, while minimum in RAHS-187 under drought stress with reference to their respective control, suggesting a high WUE in JKC-770 variety.

  14. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants.

  15. Flow regime in a restored wetland determines trophic links and species composition in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, E; Walton, M E M; Moghaddam, B; Vilas, C; Prieto, A; Kennedy, H A; Pedro Cañavate, J; Le Vay, L

    2015-01-15

    In a restored wetland (South of Spain), where different flow regimes control water exchange with the adjacent Guadalquivir estuary, the native Palaemon varians coexists with an exotic counterpart species Palaemon macrodactylus. This controlled m\\acrocosm offers an excellent opportunity to investigate how the effects of water management, through different flow regimes, and the presence of a non-native species affect the aquatic community and the trophic niche (by gut contents and C-N isotopic composition) of the native shrimp Palaemon varians. We found that increased water exchange rate (5% day(-1) in mixed ponds vs. 0.1% day(-1) in extensive ponds) modified the aquatic community of this wetland; while extensive ponds are dominated by isopods and amphipods with low presence of P. macrodactylus, mixed ponds presented high biomass of mysids, corixids, copepods and both shrimp species. An estuarine origin of nutrients and primary production might explain seasonal and spatial differences found among ponds of this wetland. A combined analysis of gut contents and isotopic composition of the native and the exotic species showed that: (1) native P. varians is mainly omnivorous (2) while the non-native P. macrodactylus is more zooplanktivorous and (3) a dietary overlap occurred when both species coexist at mixed ponds where a higher water exchange and high abundance of mysids and copepods diversifies the native species' diet. Thus differences in the trophic ecology of both species are clearly explained by water management. This experimental study is a valuable tool for integrated management between river basin and wetlands since it allows quantification of wetland community changes in response to the flow regime.

  16. The Effect of Simulating Different Intermediate Host Snail Species on the Link between Water Temperature and Schistosomiasis Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have attempted to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis risk. The importance of considering different species of intermediate host snails separately has never previously been explored. Methods An agent-based model of water temperature and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics and Schistosoma mansoni transmission was parameterised to two additional species of snail: B. glabrata and B. alexandrina. Results Simulated B. alexandrina populations had lower minimum and maximum temperatures for survival than B. pfeifferi populations (12.5–29.5°C vs. 14.0–31.5°C). B. glabrata populations survived over a smaller range of temperatures than either B. pfeifferi or B. alexandrina (17.0°C–29.5°C). Infection risk peaked at 16.5°C, 25.0°C and 19.0°C respectively when B. pfeifferi, B. glabrata and B. alexandrina were simulated. For all species, infection risk increased sharply once a minimum temperature was reached. Conclusions The results from all three species suggest that infection risk may increase dramatically with small increases in temperature in areas at or near the currents limits of schistosome transmission. The effect of small increases in temperature in areas where schistosomiasis is currently found will depend both on current temperatures and on the species of snail acting as intermediate host(s) in the area. In most areas where B. pfeifferi is the host, infection risk is likely to decrease. In cooler areas where B. glabrata is the host, infection risk may increase slightly. In cooler areas where B. alexandrina is the host, infection risk may more than double with only 2°C increase in temperature. Our results show that it is crucial to consider the species of intermediate host when attempting to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis. PMID:24988377

  17. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maria S; Fridley, Jason D; Goebel, Marc; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2014-01-01

    Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  18. Links between Belowground and Aboveground Resource-Related Traits Reveal Species Growth Strategies that Promote Invasive Advantages

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maria S.; Fridley, Jason D.; Goebel, Marc; Bauerle, Taryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited. PMID:25105975

  19. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  20. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-01-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  1. Local site variation in stopover physiology of migrating songbirds near the south shore of Lake Ontario is linked to fruit availability and quality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan B.; Miller, Allyson C.; Merchant, Charmaine R.; Sankoh, Amie F.

    2015-01-01

    Birds that migrate long distances between breeding and wintering grounds are challenged to find adequate stopover sites that can provide a high-quality source of nutrition in order to refuel quickly and continue on their migratory journeys. Wild fruits are a well-documented component in the diets of many passerines during autumn migration. Thus, fruit availability and the proliferation of shrubs that bear low-quality fruits at important stopover sites may dictate the quality of food resources available for refuelling birds and present a conservation concern. We profiled plasma metabolites of two migratory passerine species at two different stopover sites near the south shore of Lake Ontario during the peak of autumn migration. We also measured diversity, availability and nutritional quality of fruits present at these sites. Site explained most of the variation in plasma triglyceride for both bird species, but was less important than other confounding variables for explaining concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma uric acid concentrations. Site differences in fat deposition, as indicated by plasma triglyceride, may in part be explained by the large differences in diversity and availability of high-quality fruits between the two sites. Our results suggest that abundant, lipid-rich native fruits with high-energy density are associated with increased fat deposition during autumn stopovers for some species, although other factors, such as proximity to the Lake Ontario shoreline and the opportunities to refuel in the surrounding landscape, are likely to play a role in stopover site use by birds. It is possible that local site characteristics that influence growing conditions may impact the quality of fruits produced by a plant species, altering the availability of critical nutrients for avian consumers. PMID:27293721

  2. Few Ant Species Play a Central Role Linking Different Plant Resources in a Network in Rupestrian Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Guerra, Tadeu J.; Muylaert, Renata L.; Leite, Alice C.; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Ant-plant associations are an outstanding model to study the entangled ecological interactions that structure communities. However, most studies of plant-animal networks focus on only one type of resource that mediates these interactions (e.g, nectar or fruits), leading to a biased understanding of community structure. New approaches, however, have made possible to study several interaction types simultaneously through multilayer networks models. Here, we use this approach to ask whether the structural patterns described to date for ant-plant networks hold when multiple interactions with plant-derived food rewards are considered. We tested whether networks characterized by different resource types differ in specialization and resource partitioning among ants, and whether the identity of the core ant species is similar among resource types. We monitored ant interactions with extrafloral nectaries, flowers, and fruits, as well as trophobiont hemipterans feeding on plants, for one year, in seven rupestrian grassland (campo rupestre) sites in southeastern Brazil. We found a highly tangled ant-plant network in which plants offering different resource types are connected by a few central ant species. The multilayer network had low modularity and specialization, but ant specialization and niche overlap differed according to the type of resource used. Beyond detecting structural differences across networks, our study demonstrates empirically that the core of most central ant species is similar across them. We suggest that foraging strategies of ant species, such as massive recruitment, may determine specialization and resource partitioning in ant-plant interactions. As this core of ant species is involved in multiple ecosystem functions, it may drive the diversity and evolution of the entire campo rupestre community. PMID:27911919

  3. Design and synthesis of curcumin analogues for in vivo fluorescence imaging and inhibiting copper-induced cross-linking of amyloid beta species in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Li, Zeng; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sun, Hongbin; Liu, Hong; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2013-11-06

    In this article, we first designed and synthesized curcumin-based near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging probes for detecting both soluble and insoluble amyloid beta (Aβ) species and then an inhibitor that could attenuate cross-linking of Aβ induced by copper. According to our previous results and the possible structural stereohindrance compatibility of the Aβ peptide and the hydrophobic/hydrophilic property of the Aβ13-20 (HHQKLVFF) fragment, NIR imaging probe CRANAD-58 was designed and synthesized. As expected CRANAD-58 showed significant fluorescence property changes upon mixing with both soluble and insoluble Aβ species in vitro. In vivo NIR imaging revealed that CRANAD-58 was capable of differentiating transgenic and wild-type mice as young as 4 months old, the age that lacks apparently visible Aβ plaques and Aβ is likely in its soluble forms. According to our limited studies on the interaction mechanism between CRANAD-58 and Aβ, we also designed CRANAD-17 to attenuate the cross-linking of Aβ42 induced by copper. It is well-known that the coordination of copper with imidazoles on Histidine-13 and 14 (H13, H14) of Aβ peptides could initialize covalent cross-linking of Aβ. In CRANAD-17, a curcumin scaffold was used as an anchoring moiety to usher the designed compound to the vicinity of H13 and H14 of Aβ, and imidazole rings were incorporated to compete with H13/H14 for copper binding. The results of SDS-PAGE gel and Western blot indicated that CRANAD-17 was capable of inhibiting Aβ42 cross-linking induced by copper. This raises a potential for CRANAD-17 to be considered for AD therapy.

  4. Phylogeographic Evidence for a Link of Species Divergence of Ephedra in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Adjacent Regions to the Miocene Asian Aridification

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ai-Li; Wang, Ming-Ming; Cun, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ran, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) has become one of the hotspots for phylogeographical studies due to its high species diversity. However, most previous studies have focused on the effects of the Quaternary glaciations on phylogeographical structures and the locations of glacial refugia, and little is known about the effects of the aridization of interior Asia on plant population structure and speciation. Here the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) trnT-trnF and trnS-trnfM sequences were used to investigate the differentiation and phylogeographical history of 14 Ephedra species from the QTP and northern China, based on a sampling of 107 populations. The phylogeographical analysis, together with phylogenetic reconstruction based on combined four cpDNA fragments (rbcL, rpl16, rps4, and trnS-trnfM), supports three main lineages (eastern QTP, southern QTP, and northern China) of these Ephedra species. Divergence of each lineage could be dated to the Middle or Late Miocene, and was very likely linked to the uplift of the QTP and the Asian aridification, given the high drought and/or cold tolerance of Ephedra. Most of the Ephedra species had low intraspecific variation and lacked a strong phylogeographical structure, which could be partially attributed to clonal reproduction and a relatively recent origin. In addition, ten of the detected 25 cpDNA haplotypes are shared among species, suggesting that a wide sampling of species is helpful to investigate the origin of observed haplotypes and make reliable phylogeographical inference. Moreover, the systematic positions of some Ephedra species are discussed. PMID:23418542

  5. Linking physiological processes with mangrove forest structure: phosphorus deficiency limits canopy development, hydraulic conductivity and photosynthetic carbon gain in dwarf Rhizophora mangle.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Catherine E; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Holbrook, N Michelle; Feller, Ilka C

    2006-05-01

    Spatial gradients in mangrove tree height in barrier islands of Belize are associated with nutrient deficiency and sustained flooding in the absence of a salinity gradient. While nutrient deficiency is likely to affect many parameters, here we show that addition of phosphorus (P) to dwarf mangroves stimulated increases in diameters of xylem vessels, area of conductive xylem tissue and leaf area index (LAI) of the canopy. These changes in structure were consistent with related changes in function, as addition of P also increased hydraulic conductivity (Ks), stomatal conductance and photosynthetic assimilation rates to the same levels measured in taller trees fringing the seaward margin of the mangrove. Increased xylem vessel size and corresponding enhancements in stem hydraulic conductivity in P fertilized dwarf trees came at the cost of enhanced mid-day loss of hydraulic conductivity and was associated with decreased assimilation rates in the afternoon. Analysis of trait plasticity identifies hydraulic properties of trees as more plastic than those of leaf structural and physiological characteristics, implying that hydraulic properties are key in controlling growth in mangroves. Alleviation of P deficiency, which released trees from hydraulic limitations, reduced the structural and functional distinctions between dwarf and taller fringing tree forms of Rhizophora mangle.

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Inducible DNA Cross-Linking Agents and Their Effect on Cancer Cells and Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reducing host toxicity is one of the main challenges of cancer chemotherapy. Many tumor cells contain high levels of ROS that make them distinctively different from normal cells. We report a series of ROS-activated aromatic nitrogen mustards that selectively kill chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) over normal lymphocytes. These agents showed powerful DNA cross-linking abilities when coupled with H2O2, one of the most common ROS in cancer cells, whereas little DNA cross-linking was detected without H2O2. Consistent with chemistry observation, in vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that these agents induced 40–80% apoptosis in primary leukemic lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients but less than 25% cell death to normal lymphocytes from healthy donors. The IC50 for the most potent compound (2) was ∼5 μM in CLL cells, while the IC50 was not achieved in normal lymphocytes. Collectively, these data provide utility and selectivity of these agents that will inspire further and effective applications. PMID:24801734

  7. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of spore coat proteins in two Bacillus species groups are linked to a difference in cellular structure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Bacillus subtilis-group and the Bacillus cereus-group are two well-studied groups of species in the genus Bacillus. Bacteria in this genus can produce a highly resistant cell type, the spore, which is encased in a complex protective protein shell called the coat. Spores in the B. cereus-group contain an additional outer layer, the exosporium, which encircles the coat. The coat in B. subtilis spores possesses inner and outer layers. The aim of this study is to investigate whether differences in the spore structures influenced the divergence of the coat protein genes during the evolution of these two Bacillus species groups. Results We designed and implemented a computational framework to compare the evolutionary histories of coat proteins. We curated a list of B. subtilis coat proteins and identified their orthologs in 11 Bacillus species based on phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic profiles of these coat proteins show that they can be divided into conserved and labile ones. Coat proteins comprising the B. subtilis inner coat are significantly more conserved than those comprising the outer coat. We then performed genome-wide comparisons of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratio, dN/dS, and found contrasting patterns: Coat proteins have significantly higher dN/dS in the B. subtilis-group genomes, but not in the B. cereus-group genomes. We further corroborated this contrast by examining changes of dN/dS within gene trees, and found that some coat protein gene trees have significantly different dN/dS between the B subtilis-clade and the B. cereus-clade. Conclusions Coat proteins in the B. subtilis- and B. cereus-group species are under contrasting selective pressures. We speculate that the absence of the exosporium in the B. subtilis spore coat effectively lifted a structural constraint that has led to relaxed negative selection pressure on the outer coat. PMID:24283940

  8. Linking dominant Hawaiian tree species to understory development in recovering pastures via impacts on soils and litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Large areas of tropical forest have been cleared and planted with exotic grass species for use as cattle pasture. These often remain persistent grasslands after grazer removal, which is problematic for restoring native forest communities. It is often hoped that remnant and/or planted trees can jump-start forest succession; however, there is little mechanistic information on how different canopy species affect community trajectories. To investigate this, I surveyed understory communities, exotic grass biomass, standing litter pools, and soil properties under two dominant canopy trees—Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a) and Acacia koa (koa)—in recovering Hawaiian forests. I then used structural equation models (SEMs) to elucidate direct and indirect effects of trees on native understory. Native understory communities developed under ‘ōhi‘a, which had larger standing litter pools, lower soil nitrogen, and lower exotic grass biomass than koa. This pattern was variable, potentially due to historical site differences and/or distance to intact forest. Koa, in contrast, showed little understory development. Instead, data suggest that increased soil nitrogen under koa leads to high grass biomass that stalls native recruitment. SEMs suggested that indirect effects of trees via litter and soils were as or more important than direct effects for determining native cover. It is suggested that diverse plantings which incorporate species that have high carbon to nitrogen ratios may help ameliorate the negative indirect effects of koa on natural understory regeneration.

  9. Strengthening the link between climate, hydrological and species distribution modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Tisseuil, C; Vrac, M; Grenouillet, G; Wade, A J; Gevrey, M; Oberdorff, T; Grodwohl, J-B; Lek, S

    2012-05-01

    To understand the resilience of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change, it is important to determine how multiple, related environmental factors, such as near-surface air temperature and river flow, will change during the next century. This study develops a novel methodology that combines statistical downscaling and fish species distribution modeling, to enhance the understanding of how global climate changes (modeled by global climate models at coarse-resolution) may affect local riverine fish diversity. The novelty of this work is the downscaling framework developed to provide suitable future projections of fish habitat descriptors, focusing particularly on the hydrology which has been rarely considered in previous studies. The proposed modeling framework was developed and tested in a major European system, the Adour-Garonne river basin (SW France, 116,000 km(2)), which covers distinct hydrological and thermal regions from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic coast. The simulations suggest that, by 2100, the mean annual stream flow is projected to decrease by approximately 15% and temperature to increase by approximately 1.2 °C, on average. As consequence, the majority of cool- and warm-water fish species is projected to expand their geographical range within the basin while the few cold-water species will experience a reduction in their distribution. The limitations and potential benefits of the proposed modeling approach are discussed.

  10. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    PubMed

    Levas, Stephen J; Grottoli, Andréa G; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13)C of the skeletal, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13)C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of

  11. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    PubMed Central

    Levas, Stephen J.; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L.; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ13C of the skeletal, δ13C, and δ15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via 13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of fixed carbon

  12. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical.

  13. Exploring mechanisms linked to differentiation and function of dimorphic chloroplasts in the single cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the model single-cell C4 plant Bienertia sinuspersici, chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded photosynthetic enzymes, characteristically confined to either bundle sheath or mesophyll cells in Kranz-type C4 leaves, all occur together within individual leaf chlorenchyma cells. Intracellular separation of dimorphic chloroplasts and key enzymes within central and peripheral compartments allow for C4 carbon fixation analogous to NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) Kranz type species. Several methods were used to investigate dimorphic chloroplast differentiation in B. sinuspersici. Results Confocal analysis revealed that Rubisco-containing chloroplasts in the central compartment chloroplasts (CCC) contained more photosystem II proteins than the peripheral compartment chloroplasts (PCC) which contain pyruvate,Pi dikinase (PPDK), a pattern analogous to the cell type-specific chloroplasts of many Kranz type NAD-ME species. Transient expression analysis using GFP fusion constructs containing various lengths of a B. sinuspersici Rubisco small subunit (RbcS) gene and the transit peptide of PPDK revealed that their import was not specific to either chloroplast type. Immunolocalization showed the rbcL-specific mRNA binding protein RLSB to be selectively localized to the CCC in B. sinuspersici, and to Rubisco-containing BS chloroplasts in the closely related Kranz species Suaeda taxifolia. Comparative fluorescence analyses were made using redox-sensitive and insensitive GFP forms, as well comparative staining using the peroxidase indicator 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB), which demonstrated differences in stromal redox potential, with the CCC having a more negative potential than the PCC. Conclusions Both CCC RLSB localization and the differential chloroplast redox state are suggested to have a role in post-transcriptional rbcL expression. PMID:24443986

  14. Links between soil microbial communities and plant traits in a species-rich grassland under long-term climate change.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Emma J; Oliver, Anna E; Fridley, Jason D; Askew, Andrew P; Mills, Robert T E; Grime, J Philip

    2017-02-01

    Climate change can influence soil microorganisms directly by altering their growth and activity but also indirectly via effects on the vegetation, which modifies the availability of resources. Direct impacts of climate change on soil microorganisms can occur rapidly, whereas indirect effects mediated by shifts in plant community composition are not immediately apparent and likely to increase over time. We used molecular fingerprinting of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil to investigate the effects of 17 years of temperature and rainfall manipulations in a species-rich grassland near Buxton, UK. We compared shifts in microbial community structure to changes in plant species composition and key plant traits across 78 microsites within plots subjected to winter heating, rainfall supplementation, or summer drought. We observed marked shifts in soil fungal and bacterial community structure in response to chronic summer drought. Importantly, although dominant microbial taxa were largely unaffected by drought, there were substantial changes in the abundances of subordinate fungal and bacterial taxa. In contrast to short-term studies that report high resistance of soil fungi to drought, we observed substantial losses of fungal taxa in the summer drought treatments. There was moderate concordance between soil microbial communities and plant species composition within microsites. Vector fitting of community-weighted mean plant traits to ordinations of soil bacterial and fungal communities showed that shifts in soil microbial community structure were related to plant traits representing the quality of resources available to soil microorganisms: the construction cost of leaf material, foliar carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, and leaf dry matter content. Thus, our study provides evidence that climate change could affect soil microbial communities indirectly via changes in plant inputs and highlights the importance of considering long-term climate change effects, especially

  15. Exploiting the Genetic Diversity of Maize using a Combined Metabolomic, Enzyme Activity Profiling, and Metabolic Modelling Approach to Link Leaf Physiology to Kernel Yield.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Rafael A; Yesbergenova-Cuny, Zhazira; Simons, Margaret; Chardon, Fabien; Armengaud, Patrick; Quilleré, Isabelle; Cukier, Caroline; Gibon, Yves; Limami, Anis M; Nicolas, Stéphane D; Brulé, Lénaïg; Lea, Peter J; Maranas, Costas D; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-04-10

    A combined metabolomic, biochemical, fluxomic, and metabolic modelling approach was developed using nineteen genetically distant maize (Zea mays L.) lines from Europe and America. Considerable differences were detected between the lines when leaf metabolic profiles and activities of the main enzymes involved in primary metabolism were compared. During grain filling, the leaf metabolic composition appeared to be a reliable marker, allowing a classification matching the genetic diversity of the lines. During the same period, there was a significant correlation between the genetic distance of the lines and the activities of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, notably glycolysis. Although large differences were observed in terms of leaf metabolic fluxes, these variations were not tightly linked to the genome structure of the lines. Both correlation studies and metabolic network analyses allowed the description of a maize ideotype with a high grain yield potential. Such an ideotype is characterized by low accumulation of soluble amino acids and carbohydrates in the leaves and high activity of enzymes involved in the C4 photosynthetic pathway and in the biosynthesis of amino acids derived from glutamate. Chlorogenates appear to be important markers that can be used to select for maize lines that produce larger kernels.

  16. Physiology of B cells in mice with X-linked immunodeficiency. II. Influence of the thymus and mature T cells on B cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sprent, J.; Bruce, J.

    1984-07-01

    Evidence is presented that the in vivo differentiation of B cells expressing X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) is controlled by mature T cells. Normal (C57BL/6 X CBA/J)F1 mice were thymectomized (ATx), heavily irradiated, and reconstituted with CBA/N (xid) or CBA/Ca (nondefective) marrow. In contrast to sham-operated mice, ATx recipients of xid marrow showed an almost total absence of Ig+ B cells in lymph nodes (LN) and thoracic duct lymph at 2 mo post-reconstitution; B cells were markedly reduced in the spleen in some mice but only moderately in others. Addition of mature T cells soon after marrow reconstitution substantially abrogated the B cell depletion. In control experiments with nondefective B cells, the number of B cells developing in ATx irradiated recipients of normal (xid-) marrow cells was not detectably lower than in sham-operated recipients. These data imply that a subset of T-dependent B cells is either missing in normal mice or present in only very small numbers.

  17. Linking above- and belowground traits to soil and climate variables: an integrated database on China's grassland species.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Ma, Wenhong; Wang, Liang; Baumann, Frank; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-02-27

    Knowledge of plant functional traits and trait-environment interactions is important for characterizing species strategies and understanding ecological processes. However, comprehensive field data on both above- and belowground traits, together with their environmental variables are scarce. Biome-scale studies are particularly lacking. Here we present two large-scale datasets that include functional traits of leaves and fine roots and their corresponding soil and climatic variables in China's grasslands. Leaf, fine root and soil samples were collected in three biogeographic regions: temperate grassland on the Inner Mongolia Plateau, alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau, and mountain grassland in the Xinjiang mountain areas. Field data were collected over two periods. The first dataset collected between 2003 and 2004 includes thirteen foliar traits (leaf mass per area, LMA; photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, PNUE; water use efficiency, WUE; stomatal conductance for water vapor, Gs; transpiration rate, TR; mass and area based photosynthetic capacity, Amass and Aarea; mass and area based carbon concentrations, Cmass and Carea; nitrogen concentrations, Nmass and Narea; and phosphorus concentrations, Pmass and Parea) for 170 species at 173 sites. The second dataset collected between 2006 and 2007 includes six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots (C, N and P concentrations; leaf thickness/root diameter; specific leaf area, SLA/specific root length, SRL; and tissue density) for 139 species at 82 sites, along with soil attributes (soil total and organic carbon, STC and SOC; total and available N, STN and SAN; total and available P, STP and SAP; pH, bulk density and moisture). Moreover, associated information was also gathered, including geographical location (latitude, longitude and altitude), climate (mean annual temperature, MAT; mean annual precipitation, MAP; growing season temperature, GST; growing season precipitation, GSP; potential

  18. Cytonuclear Theory for Haplodiploid Species and X-Linked Genes. I. Hardy-Weinberg Dynamics and Continent-Island, Hybrid Zone Models

    PubMed Central

    Goodisman, MAD.; Asmussen, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    We develop models that describe the cytonuclear structure for either a cytoplasmic and nuclear marker in a haplodiploid species or a cytoplasmic and X-linked marker in a diploid species. Sex-specific disequilibrium statistics that summarize nonrandom cytonuclear associations in such systems are defined, and their basic Hardy-Weinberg dynamics and admixture formulae are delimited. We focus on the context of hybrid zones and develop continent-island models whereby individuals from two genetically differentiated source populations migrate into and mate within a single zone of admixture. We examine the effects of differential migration of the sexes, assortative mating by pure type females, and census time (relative to mating and migration), as well as special cases of random mating and migration subsumed under the general models. We show that pure type individuals and nonzero cytonuclear disequilibria can be maintained within a hybrid zone if there is continued migration from both source populations, and that females generally have a greater influence over these cytonuclear variables than males. The resulting theoretical framework can be used to estimate the rates of assortative mating and sex-specific gene flow in hybrid zones and other zones of admixture involving haplodiploid or sex-linked cytonuclear data. PMID:9286692

  19. Acquisition of species-specific O-linked carbohydrate chains from oviducal mucins in Rana arvalis. A case study.

    PubMed

    Coppin, A; Maes, E; Flahaut, C; Coddeville, B; Strecker, G

    1999-12-01

    The extracellular matrix surrounding amphibian eggs is composed of mucin-type glycoproteins, highly O-glycosylated and plays an important role in the fertilization process. Oligosaccharide-alditols were released from the oviducal mucins of the anuran Rana arvalis by alkali-borohydride treatment in reduced conditions. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatographies and purified by HPLC. Each compound was identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS) and permethylation analyses. This paper reports on the structures of 19 oligosaccharide-alditols, 12 of which have novel structures. These structures range in size from disaccharide to octasaccharide. Some of them are acidic, containing either a glucuronic acid or, more frequently, a sulfate group, located either at the 6 position of GlcNAc or the 3 or 4 positions of Gal. This latter sulfation is novel and has only been characterized in the species R. arvalis. This structural analysis led to the establishment of several novel carbohydrate structures, demonstrating the structural diversity and species-specificity of amphibian glycoconjugates.

  20. Physiology of B cells in mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid). III. Disappearance of xid B cells in double bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Sprent, J.; Bruce, J.

    1984-09-01

    Evidence is presented that B cells from mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) differentiate at a slower rate than normal B cells. This conclusion stems from studies in which (B6 X CBA/J)F1 mice were heavily irradiated (1,000 rads) and reconstituted with a mixture of T-depleted marrow cells taken from (a) nondefective B6 mice (H-2b) and (b) xid CBA/N or nondefective CBA/Ca mice (both H-2k). With transfer of CBA/Ca plus B6 marrow cells, the irradiated recipients become repopulated with B cells derived from both parental marrow sources; except for an early imbalance (probably reflecting Hh resistance), the degree of chimerism remained relatively stable over a period of more than 6 months. Very different results occurred with transfer of a mixture of xid CBA/N and normal B6 marrow. Within the first 2 months after marrow reconstitution, a low but significant proportion of the B cells in both spleen and lymph nodes were of CBA/N origin. Thereafter the proportion of these cells fell progressively, and by 6-9 months virtually all of the B cells were of B6 origin. This gradual decline in CBA/N-derived cells did not apply to other cell types, i.e., T cells or pluripotential stem cells. Analogous results were obtained with transfer of CBA/N vs. CBA/Ca marrow cells into sublethally irradiated (750 rads) (CBA/N X DBA/2)F1 male vs. female mice. For example, CBA/N-marrow derived B cells differentiated effectively and survived for long periods in F1 male mice (xid----xid) but not in F1 female mice (xid----normal). The finding that xid B cells eventually disappear in the presence of normal B cells strengthens the view that xid B cells are an abnormal population not represented in normal mice.

  1. Linking the Response of Annual Grasslands to Warming and Altered Rainfall Across Scales of Gene Expression, Species, and Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Bernard, S. M.; Castanha, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Hopkins, F. M.; Placella, S. A.; St. Clair, S. B.; Salve, R.; Sudderth, E.; Herman, D.; Ackerly, D.; Firestone, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change can influence terrestrial ecosystems at multiple biological levels: gene expression, species, and ecosystem. We are studying California grassland mesocosms with seven annual species (five grasses, two forbs) that were started in 2005. In the 2006-2007 growing season, they were exposed to three rainfall treatments (297, 552, and 867 mm y-1) and soil and air temperature (ambient and elevated +4oC) in replicated greenhouses. This presentation will combine plant and ecosystem level results with transcript level analyses associated with key enzymes, such as rubisco and glutamine synthetase (GS). Because rainfall is the dominant climate variable for most processes in this Mediterranean ecosystem, the effect of warming was strongly mediated by rainfall. In fact, we saw significant interactions between temperature and rainfall treatments at all three biological levels. For example, at the ecosystem level, warming led to a decrease in aboveground and total NPP under low rainfall, and an increase under high rainfall. For the dominant species, Avena barbata, warming had no effect under high rainfall, but suppressed Avena NPP in low rainfall. At the same time, warmer, wetter conditions accelerated Avena flowering by almost 15 days. This shift in phenology was presaged by observations at the transcript level. Specifically, in the high temperature, high rainfall treatment, the levels of mRNAs for RbcS and GS2 (encoding the small subunit of rubisco and the chloroplastic isoform of GS, respectively) declined while GS1 (encoding the cytosolic isoform of GS) was upregulated several weeks before heading. The transcript level response (along with soil and plant nitrogen data) indicated the leaf had switched from a carbon and nitrogen sink to a source - consistent with more mature plant function and earlier flowering. Soil CO2 respiration also showed strong rain-by-temperature interactions that were due mainly to changes in root response (respiration and/or exudates

  2. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  3. Sex-linked mitochondrial behavior during early embryo development in Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae) a species with the Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Milani, Liliana; Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Passamonti, Marco

    2012-05-01

    In most metazoans mitochondria are inherited maternally. However, in some bivalve molluscs, two mitochondrial lineages are present: one transmitted through females (F-type), the other through males (M-type). This unique system is called Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria. In DUI species, M-type mitochondria have to invade the germ line of male embryos during development, otherwise sperm would transmit F-type mtDNA and DUI would fail. The mechanisms by which sperm mitochondria enter the germ line are still unknown. To address this question, we traced the movement of spermatozoon mitochondria (M-type) in embryos of the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum by fertilizing eggs with sperm stained with the mitochondrial-specific vital dye MitoTracker Green. As in Mytilus DUI species, in R. philippinarum the distribution of sperm mitochondria follows two different patterns: an aggregated one in which these organelles locate near the first cleavage furrow, and a dispersed one in which sperm mitochondria are scattered. The presence of the two mitochondrial patterns in these taxa, together with their absence in species with Strictly Maternal Inheritance (SMI), confirms that their occurrence is related to DUI. Moreover, a Real-Time qPCR analysis showed that neither M-type nor F-type mitochondria undergo replication boosts in the earliest embryo development. This is the first study on sex-linked mtDNA copy number carried out by qPCR analysis on embryos of a DUI species and the first time the segregation patterns of sperm mitochondria are described in a DUI system other than Mytilus.

  4. What is the link of the abundances of volatile species in the coma with the ones in the nucleus ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marboeuf, U.; Schmitt, B.

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of comets is frequently assumed to be directly provided by the observations of the abundances of volatile molecules in the coma. The present work aims to determine the relationship between the chemical composition of the coma, the outgassing profile of volatile molecules and the physicochemical composition of the nucleus. To do this, we have developed a quasi 3D model of a cometary nucleus which takes into account all phase changes and water ice structures and applied this model to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta mission. We find that the outgassing profile of volatile molecules is a strong indicator of the physical and thermal properties of the solid nucleus. The relative abundance (to H2O) of volatile molecules released from the nucleus interior varies by some orders of magnitude as a function of the distance to the sun, the volatility of species, their abundance and distribution between the 'trapped' and 'condensed' states, the structure of water ice, and the thermal inertia and other physical assumptions (dust mantle, ...) on the nucleus.

  5. Movement Patterns for a Critically Endangered Species, the Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), Linked to Foraging Success and Population Status

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Helen; Fossette, Sabrina; Bograd, Steven J.; Shillinger, George L.; Swithenbank, Alan M.; Georges, Jean-Yves; Gaspar, Philippe; Strömberg, K. H. Patrik; Paladino, Frank V.; Spotila, James R.; Block, Barbara A.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2012-01-01

    Foraging success for pelagic vertebrates may be revealed by horizontal and vertical movement patterns. We show markedly different patterns for leatherback turtles in the North Atlantic versus Eastern Pacific, which feed on gelatinous zooplankton that are only occasionally found in high densities. In the Atlantic, travel speed was characterized by two modes, indicative of high foraging success at low speeds (<15 km d−1) and transit at high speeds (20–45 km d−1). Only a single mode was evident in the Pacific, which occurred at speeds of 21 km d−1 indicative of transit. The mean dive depth was more variable in relation to latitude but closer to the mean annual depth of the thermocline and nutricline for North Atlantic than Eastern Pacific turtles. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that Eastern Pacific turtles rarely achieve high foraging success. This is the first support for foraging behaviour differences between populations of this critically endangered species and suggests that longer periods searching for prey may be hindering population recovery in the Pacific while aiding population maintenance in the Atlantic. PMID:22615767

  6. Early replication dynamics of sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs in the doubly uniparental inheritance species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae)

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, D; Ghiselli, F; Milani, L; Breton, S; Passamonti, M

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy, which is maintained by strictly maternal inheritance and a series of bottlenecks, is thought to be an adaptive condition for metazoans. Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission found in bivalve species, in which two distinct mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) lines are present, one inherited through eggs (F) and one through sperm (M). During development, the two lines segregate in a sex- and tissue-specific manner: females lose M during embryogenesis, whereas males actively segregate it in the germ line. These two pivotal events are still poorly characterized. Here we investigated mtDNA replication dynamics during embryogenesis and pre-adulthood of the venerid Ruditapes philippinarum using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that both mtDNAs do not detectably replicate during early embryogenesis, and that the M line might be lost from females around 24 h of age. A rise in mtDNA copy number was observed before the first reproductive season in both sexes, with the M mitochondrial genome replicating more than the F in males, and we associate these boosts to the early phase of gonad production. As evidence indicates that DUI relies on the same molecular machine of mitochondrial maternal inheritance that is common in most animals, our data are relevant not only to DUI but also to shed light on how differential segregations of mtDNA variants, in the same nuclear background, may be controlled during development. PMID:26626575

  7. A common mechanism links differently acting complex II inhibitors to cardioprotection: modulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Bleier, Lea; Brandt, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the effect of different cardioprotective complex II inhibitors on the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because ROS seem to be essential for signaling during preconditioning to prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Despite different binding sites and concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition-ranging from nanomolar for the Q site inhibitor atpenin A5 to millimolar for the succinate analog malonate-all inhibitors modulated ROS production in the same ambivalent fashion: they promoted the generation of superoxide at the Q(o) site of complex III under conditions of "oxidant-induced reduction" but attenuated ROS generated at complex I due to reverse electron transfer. All inhibitors showed these ambivalent effects independent of the presence of K(+). These findings suggest a direct modulation of mitochondrial ROS generation during cardioprotection via complex II inhibition and question the recently proposed role of complex II as a regulatory component of the putative mitochondrial K(ATP) channel.

  8. Movement patterns for a critically endangered species, the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), linked to foraging success and population status.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Fossette, Sabrina; Bograd, Steven J; Shillinger, George L; Swithenbank, Alan M; Georges, Jean-Yves; Gaspar, Philippe; Strömberg, K H Patrik; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Block, Barbara A; Hays, Graeme C

    2012-01-01

    Foraging success for pelagic vertebrates may be revealed by horizontal and vertical movement patterns. We show markedly different patterns for leatherback turtles in the North Atlantic versus Eastern Pacific, which feed on gelatinous zooplankton that are only occasionally found in high densities. In the Atlantic, travel speed was characterized by two modes, indicative of high foraging success at low speeds (<15 km d(-1)) and transit at high speeds (20-45 km d(-1)). Only a single mode was evident in the Pacific, which occurred at speeds of 21 km d(-1) indicative of transit. The mean dive depth was more variable in relation to latitude but closer to the mean annual depth of the thermocline and nutricline for North Atlantic than Eastern Pacific turtles. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that Eastern Pacific turtles rarely achieve high foraging success. This is the first support for foraging behaviour differences between populations of this critically endangered species and suggests that longer periods searching for prey may be hindering population recovery in the Pacific while aiding population maintenance in the Atlantic.

  9. Early replication dynamics of sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs in the doubly uniparental inheritance species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae).

    PubMed

    Guerra, D; Ghiselli, F; Milani, L; Breton, S; Passamonti, M

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy, which is maintained by strictly maternal inheritance and a series of bottlenecks, is thought to be an adaptive condition for metazoans. Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission found in bivalve species, in which two distinct mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) lines are present, one inherited through eggs (F) and one through sperm (M). During development, the two lines segregate in a sex- and tissue-specific manner: females lose M during embryogenesis, whereas males actively segregate it in the germ line. These two pivotal events are still poorly characterized. Here we investigated mtDNA replication dynamics during embryogenesis and pre-adulthood of the venerid Ruditapes philippinarum using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that both mtDNAs do not detectably replicate during early embryogenesis, and that the M line might be lost from females around 24 h of age. A rise in mtDNA copy number was observed before the first reproductive season in both sexes, with the M mitochondrial genome replicating more than the F in males, and we associate these boosts to the early phase of gonad production. As evidence indicates that DUI relies on the same molecular machine of mitochondrial maternal inheritance that is common in most animals, our data are relevant not only to DUI but also to shed light on how differential segregations of mtDNA variants, in the same nuclear background, may be controlled during development.

  10. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  11. Between-species variation in the kinetic stability of TIM proteins linked to solvation-barrier free energies.

    PubMed

    Costas, Miguel; Rodríguez-Larrea, David; De Maria, Leonardo; Borchert, Torben V; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2009-01-23

    Theoretical, computational, and experimental studies have suggested the existence of solvation barriers in protein unfolding and denaturation processes. These barriers are related to the finite size of water molecules and can be envisioned as arising from the asynchrony between water penetration and breakup of internal interactions. Solvation barriers have been proposed to play roles in protein cooperativity and kinetic stability; therefore, they may be expected to be subject to natural selection. We study the thermal denaturation, in the presence and in the absence of chemical denaturants, of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) from three different species: Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania mexicana. In all cases, denaturation was irreversible and kinetically controlled. Surprisingly, however, we found large differences between the kinetic denaturation parameters, with T. cruzi TIM showing a much larger activation energy value (and, consequently, much lower room-temperature, extrapolated denaturation rates). This disparity cannot be accounted for by variations in the degree of exposure to solvent in transition states (as measured by kinetic urea m values) and is, therefore, to be attributed mainly to differences in solvation-barrier contributions. This was supported by structure-energetics analyses of the transition states and by application of a novel procedure to estimate from experimental data the solvation-barrier impact at the entropy and free-energy levels. These analyses were actually performed with an extended protein set (including six small proteins plus seven variants of lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and spanning a wide range of activation parameters), allowing us to delineate the general trends of the solvation-barrier contributions. Overall, this work supports that proteins sharing the same structure and function but belonging to different organisms may show widely different solvation barriers, possibly as a result of different

  12. Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  13. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  14. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  15. Self-assembled complexes of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species: highly active and reusable solid-phase polymeric catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2005-07-01

    I present herein the development of highly active and reusable polymeric catalysts produced by self-assembly process of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species. Thus, PWAA 1 prepared from H3PW12O40 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylamide with ammonium salt)] is suitable for oxidation of alcohols, amines, and sulfides in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. PdAS 2 produced by self-organization of (NH4)2PdCl4 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)10-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene] is an excellent recyclable catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in water, water-organic solvent, and organic solvent. It is commercially available from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (TCI). PdAS-V 3 assembled from (NH4)2PdCl4 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)5-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene] provides recycling system of itself for Mizorogi-Heck reaction. TiSS 4 made from Ti(O-i-Pr)4 and poly(styryl-linked binaphtholate-co-styrene) promotes an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction as a recyclable catalyst.

  16. Novel IgG-Degrading Enzymes of the IgdE Protease Family Link Substrate Specificity to Host Tropism of Streptococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Spoerry, Christian; Hessle, Pontus; Lewis, Melanie J; Paton, Lois; Woof, Jenny M; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors. Recombinant proteins of all four IgdE family proteases were proteolytically active against IgG of the respective Streptococcus species hosts, but not against IgG from other tested species or other classes of immunoglobulins, thereby linking the substrate specificity to the known host tropism. The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from S. agalactiae and S. pseudoporcinus cleaved human IgG1, while IgdE from S. equi was subtype specific for equine IgG7. Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. Cleavage of porcine IgG by IgdE of S. pseudoporcinus is suggested to be an evolutionary remaining activity reflecting ancestry of the human pathogen to the porcine pathogen S. porcinus. The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting infection or colonization and opportunistic streptococci neutralize such antibodies through expression of IgdE family proteases as putative immune evasion factors. We suggest that IgdE family proteases might be valid vaccine targets against streptococci of both human and veterinary medical concerns and could also be of therapeutic as well as biotechnological use.

  17. The Emergence of Physiology and Form: Natural Selection Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural Selection describes how species have evolved differentially, but it is descriptive, non-mechanistic. What mechanisms does Nature use to accomplish this feat? One known way in which ancient natural forces affect development, phylogeny and physiology is through gravitational effects that have evolved as mechanotransduction, seen in the lung, kidney and bone, linking as molecular homologies to skin and brain. Tracing the ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes that have facilitated mechanotransduction identifies specific homologous cell-types and functional molecular markers for lung homeostasis that reveal how and why complex physiologic traits have evolved from the unicellular to the multicellular state. Such data are reinforced by their reverse-evolutionary patterns in chronic degenerative diseases. The physiologic responses of model organisms like Dictyostelium and yeast to gravity provide deep comparative molecular phenotypic homologies, revealing mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as the final common pathway for vertical integration of vertebrate physiologic evolution; mTOR integrates calcium/lipid epistatic balance as both the proximate and ultimate positive selection pressure for vertebrate physiologic evolution. The commonality of all vertebrate structure-function relationships can be reduced to calcium/lipid homeostatic regulation as the fractal unit of vertebrate physiology, demonstrating the primacy of the unicellular state as the fundament of physiologic evolution. PMID:27534726

  18. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2012-06-19

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable.

  19. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable. PMID:22566670

  20. Sublethal mitochondrial stress with an attendant stoichiometric augmentation of reactive oxygen species may precipitate many of the beneficial alterations in cellular physiology produced by caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, exercise and dietary phytonutrients: "Mitohormesis" for health and vitality.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Patrick C

    2006-01-01

    The precise mechanistic sequence producing the beneficial effects on health and lifespan seen with interventions as diverse as caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, exercise, and consumption of dietary phytonutrients is still under active characterization, with large swaths of the research community kept in relative isolation from one another. Among the explanatory models capable of assisting in the identification of precipitating elements responsible for beneficial influences on physiology seen in these states, the hormesis perspective on biological systems under stress has yielded considerable insight into likely evolutionarily consistent organizing principles functioning in all four conditions. Recent experimental findings provide the tantalizing initial lodestones for an entirely new research front examining molecular substrates of stress resistance. In this novel body of research, a surprising new twist has emerged: Reactive oxygen species, derived from the mitochondrial electron transport system, may be necessary triggering elements for a sequence of events that result in benefits ranging from the transiently cytoprotective to organismal-level longevity. With the recent appreciation that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species function as signaling elements in a interconnected matrix of signal transduction, the entire basis of many widely accepted theories of aging that predominated in the past may need to be reconsidered to facilitate the formulation of an new perspective more correctly informed by the most contemporaneous experimental findings. This perspective, the mitohormesis theory, can be used in many disparate domains of inquiry to potentially explain previous findings, as well as point to new targets of research. The utility of this perspective for research on aging is significant, but beyond that this perspective emphasizes the pressing need to rigorously characterize the specific contribution of the stoichiometry of reactive

  1. Are Cranial Biomechanical Simulation Data Linked to Known Diets in Extant Taxa? A Method for Applying Diet-Biomechanics Linkage Models to Infer Feeding Capability of Extinct Species

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of “many-to-one” association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences. PMID:25923776

  2. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  3. Genome size differences in Hyalella cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Vergilino, Roland; Dionne, Kaven; Nozais, Christian; Dufresne, France; Belzile, Claude

    2012-02-01

    The Hyalella azteca (Saussure) complex includes numerous amphipod cryptic species in freshwater habitats in America as revealed by DNA barcoding surveys. Two ecomorphs (small and large) have evolved numerous times in this complex. Few phenotypic criteria have been found to differentiate between the numerous species of this complex. The present study aims to explore genome size differences between some species of the H. azteca complex co-occurring in a Canadian boreal lake using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content was estimated for 50 individuals belonging to six COI haplotypes corresponding to four provisional species of the H. azteca complex. Species from the large ecomorph had C-values significantly larger than species from the small ecomorph, whereas slight differences were found among species of the small ecomorph. These differences in genome sizes might be linked to ecological and physiological differences among species of the H. azteca complex.

  4. Physiological and isotopic (delta(13)C and delta(18)O) responses of three tropical tree species to water and nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2009-10-01

    Water-use efficiency and stable isotope composition were studied in three tropical tree species. Seedlings of Tectona grandis, Swietenia macrophylla and Platymiscium pinnatum were grown at either high or low water supply, and with or without added fertilizer. These three species previously exhibited low, intermediate and high whole-plant water-use efficiency (TE) when grown at high water supply in unfertilized soil. Responses of TE to water and nutrient availability varied among species. The TE was calculated as experiment-long dry matter production divided by cumulative water use. Species-specific offsets were observed in relationships between TE and whole-plant (13)C discrimination (Delta(13)C(p)). These offsets could be attributed to a breakdown in the relationship between Delta(13)C(p) and the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) partial pressures (c(i)/c(a)) in P. pinnatum, and to variation among species in the leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (v). Thus, a plot of v.TE against c(i)/c(a) showed a general relationship among species. Relationships between delta(18)O of stem dry matter and stomatal conductance ranged from strongly negative for S. macrophylla to no relationship for T. grandis. Results suggest inter-specific variation among tropical tree species in relationships between stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(18)O) and the gas exchange processes thought to affect them.

  5. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Conserved Immunoreactive Glycoproteins gp36 and gp19 Has Enhanced Sensitivity and Provides Species-Specific Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Ana Maria; Doyle, C. Kuyler; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Nethery, Kimberly; Corstvet, Richard E.; Walker, David H.; McBride, Jere W.

    2007-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, a globally distributed and potentially fatal disease of dogs. We previously reported on the identification of two conserved major immunoreactive antigens, gp36 and gp19, which are the first proteins to elicit an E. canis-specific antibody response, and gp200 and p28, which elicit strong antibody responses later in the acute phase of the infection. In this report, the sensitivities and specificities of five recombinant E. canis proteins for the immunodiagnosis of E. canis infection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were evaluated. Recombinant polypeptides gp36, gp19, and gp200 (N and C termini) exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity for immunodiagnosis by the recombinant glycoprotein ELISA compared with the results obtained by an indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) for the detection of antibodies in dogs that were naturally infected with E. canis. Moreover, the enhanced sensitivities of gp36 and gp19 for immunodiagnosis by the recombinant glycoprotein ELISA compared to those obtained by IFA were demonstrated with dogs experimentally infected with E. canis, in which antibodies were detected as much as 2 weeks earlier, on day 14 postinoculation. gp36 and gp19 were not cross-reactive with antibodies in sera from E. chaffeensis-infected dogs and thus provided species-specific serologic discrimination between E. canis and E. chaffeensis infections. This is the first demonstration of the improved detection capability of the recombinant protein technology compared to the capability of the “gold standard” IFA and may eliminate the remaining obstacles associated with the immunodiagnosis of E. canis infections, including species-specific identification and the lack of sensitivity associated with low antibody titers early in the acute phase of the infection. PMID:17151186

  6. Design and synthesis of curcumin analogues for in vivo fluorescence imaging and inhibiting copper-induced cross-linking of amyloid beta species in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Li, Zeng; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sun, Hongbin; Liu, Hong; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first designed and synthesized curcumin-based near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging probes for detecting both soluble and insoluble amyloid beta (Aβ) species, and then an inhibitor that could attenuate crosslinking of Aβ induced by copper. According to our previous results and the possible structural stereo-hindrance compatibility of the Aβ peptide and the hydrophobic/hydrophilic property of the Aβ13–20 (HHQKLVFF) fragment, NIR imaging probe CRANAD-58 was designed and synthesized. As expected CRANAD-58 showed significant fluorescence property changes upon mixing with both soluble and insoluble Aβ species in vitro. In vivo NIR imaging revealed that CRANAD-58 was capable of differentiating transgenic and wild type mice as young as 4-months old, the age that lacks apparently visible Aβ plaques and Aβ is likely in its soluble forms. In this report, according to our limited studies on the interaction mechanism between CRANAD-58 and Aβ, we also designed CRANAD-17 to attenuate the crosslinking of Aβ42 induced by copper. It is well known that the coordination of copper with imidazoles on Histidine-13 and 14 (H13, H14) of Aβ peptides could initialize covalent crosslinking of Aβ. In CRANAD-17, a curcumin scaffold was used as an anchoring moiety to usher the designed compound to the vicinity of H13 and H14 of Aβ, and imidazole rings were incorporated to compete with H13/H14 for copper binding. The results of SDS-PAGE gel and Western blot indicated that CRANAD-17 was capable of inhibiting Aβ42 cross-linking induced by copper. This raises a potential for CRANAD-17 to be considered for AD therapy. PMID:24116384

  7. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  8. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  9. A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Oyama, R K; Volz, S M; Renner, S S

    2009-01-01

    Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex-determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced it for individuals representing the full geographic range of the species from Scotland to North Africa. For comparison, we also sequenced this marker for representatives of the dioecious B. cretica, B. multiflora and B. syriaca, and monoecious B. alba. In no case did any individual, male or female, yield more than two haplotypes. In northern Europe, we found strong linkage between our marker and sex, with all Y-sequences being identical to each other. In southern Europe, however, the linkage between our marker and sex was weak, with recombination detected within both the X- and the Y-homologues. Population genetic analyses suggest that the SCAR marker experienced different evolutionary pressures in northern and southern Europe. These findings fit with phylogenetic evidence that the XY system in Bryonia is labile and suggest that the genus may be a good system in which to study the early steps of sex chromosome evolution.

  10. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not...Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America Introduction Coral reefs are...coming decades [4,6,7], and are already causing mass coral reef decline worldwide [8]. Coral bleaching suscepti- bility has been directly linked to the

  11. Interaction of carbon dioxide and ozone on growth and physiology of C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] species

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, J.C.; Reich, P.B. Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul )

    1993-06-01

    Six native tree and grass species from the forests and prairies of the Midwestern US, differing in stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway, were exposed to both ambient and elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and ozone (O[sub 3]). Treatments consisted of all combinations of 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] and 650 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] CO[sub 2], and < 10 nL L[sup [minus]1] and 100 nL L[sup [minus]1] O[sub 3]. At ambient CO[sub 2], elevated O[sub 3] decreased whole-plant growth in three of the six species after 100 days of exposure. However, this decrease was only significant (P < 0.05) for the C[sub 3] grass species, Agropyron smithii and the tree species Populus tremuloides. Growth losses also occurred for the C[sub 3] grass, Koeleria cristata (P = 0.07) in elevated O[sub 3]. For these three species the deleterious effects of elevated O[sub 3] on whole-plant growth were ameliorated by elevated CO[sub 2]. There were no significant treatment effects on whole-plant growth for the two C[sub 4] grasses, Bouteloua curtipendula, and Schizachyrium scoparium and the tree species Quercus rubra. Photosynthesis measured in high-light for Agrpyron smithii, Koeleria cristata, Populus tremuloides and Schizachyrium scoparium, was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by elevated O[sub 3] at ambient but not elevated levels of CO[sub 2].

  12. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  13. Water use and physiology of the riparian tree species Eucalyptus victrix in the semi-arid Pilbara region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfautsch, S.; Keitel, C.; Adams, M. A.; Turnbull, T.

    2009-04-01

    We examined the water use and physiology of trees growing in a riparian community within the seasonally arid Pilbara region of north-western Australia. This region is arid during the winter months, but monsoonal during summer (November to April). Maximum monthly mean temperatures in summer exceed 40 °C and are c. 25 °C during the winter months. The Millstream study site is located on a section of the Fortescue River system along the base of the Chichester Range c. 100km south of Karratha. This system creates a unique landscape in the Pilbara as it forms several large permanent pools. These pools are maintained by springs from an aquifer beneath the alluvial plain. The groundwater from this aquifer is used as a public water supply for towns in the west Pilbara but industrial development and a growing population will place greater demand on this aquifer. Changes to the local hydrology may have dramatic effects on the local plant community, dominated variously by stands of Eucalyptus victrix (Coolibah) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum). This study seeks to understand the dependence of the Millstream riparian ecosystem on the height of the aquifer and to characterise the water use and physiology of Eucalyptus victrix. We used a number of techniques to determine the hydraulic and photosynthetic status of the tree canopy, including isotope, sap flow, water-potential and gas exchange measurements. Initial results from this study show: a) Soil water d18O and d2H is strongly enriched towards the surface, which coincides with a strong increase in salinity. The water source accessed by these trees has been identified by d18O and d2H analysis of xylem water. d18O and d2H were additionally analysed in atmospheric and leaf water pools. b) Sap flow in Coolibah trees shows a unique pattern of sharp early morning rise to a plateau maintained throughout the hottest part of the day, followed by a sharp decline in flow late in the afternoon. c) Leaf water potential

  14. Assessment of species richness in Lake Dal, Kashmir, based on classical approach, physiological approach and rDNA ITS sequences from isolates.

    PubMed

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2017-03-01

    As a first description to document the species richness in Dal Lake, a freshwater lake ecosystem in Kashmir valley, an extensive network of sixteen sampling stations with distinguishing features was sampled seasonally for two years. The identification process yielded fifty-one species probably first and new records for this area to date. The taxonomic groups observed were those with species from Ascomycetes (inclusive of yeasts), Basidiomycetes, Blastocladiomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Peronosporomycetes. Each phylum was represented by a single Order, with the exception of the Peronosporomycetes, which was represented by two Orders- Saprolegniales and Pythiales. In the filamentous fungal group, family Trichocomaceae was dominant followed by Saccharomycetaceae, Mucoraceae, Nectriaceae, Tremellaceae and Hypocreaceae. However, in the group of zoosporic & fungal like eukaryotes, family Saprolegniaceae was most dominant followed by Blastocladiaceae and Pythiaceae. A dramatic decrease in fungal load was observed in different seasons with highest colonial load in the summer season and lowest in the winter season. The observed distribution was statistically significant for both the filamentous fungal species (p < 0.01) as well as zoosporic fungi & fungal like eukaryotes (p < 0.05). In order to assess biodiversity patterns of fungi more accurately, it is necessary to repeat such investigations in other areas and to improve the tools for taxonomic identification of these highly diverse but mostly microscopic organisms.

  15. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-linked neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species play an important role in physiological functions. Overproduction of reactive species, notably reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species along with the failure of balance by the body's antioxidant enzyme systems results in destruction of cellular structures, lipids, proteins, and genetic materials such as DNA and RNA. Moreover, the effects of reactive species on mitochondria and their metabolic processes eventually cause a rise in ROS/RNS levels, leading to oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress has been considered to be linked to the etiology of many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer diseases, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia, Huntington's disease, Multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's diseases. In addition, oxidative stress causing protein misfold may turn to other NDDs include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and Fatal Familial Insomnia. An overview of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-linked NDDs has been summarized in this review.

  16. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, E V; Chuong, S D X; Koteyeva, N K; Franceschi, V R; Freitag, H; Edwards, G E

    2007-11-01

    C (4) species of family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae have two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda, sections Salsina and Schoberia, both of which have an outer (palisade mesophyll) and an inner (Kranz) layer of chlorenchyma cells in usually semi-terete leaves. Features of Salsina (S. AEGYPTIACA, S. arcuata, S. taxifolia) and Schoberia type (S. acuminata, S. Eltonica, S. cochlearifoliA) were compared to C (3) type S. Heterophylla. In Salsina type, two layers of chlorenchyma at the leaf periphery surround water-storage tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. In leaves of the Schoberia type, enlarged water-storage hypodermal cells surround two layers of chlorenchyma tissue, with the latter surrounding the vascular bundles. The chloroplasts in Kranz cells are located in the centripetal position in Salsina type and in the centrifugal position in the Schoberia type. Western blots on C (4) acid decarboxylases show that both Kranz forms are NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C (4) species. Transmission electron microscopy shows that mesophyll cells have chloroplasts with reduced grana, while Kranz cells have chloroplasts with well-developed grana and large, specialized mitochondria, characteristic of NAD-ME type C (4) chenopods. In both C (4) types, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is localized in the palisade mesophyll, and Rubisco and mitochondrial NAD-ME are localized in Kranz cells, where starch is mainly stored. The C (3) species S. heterophylla has Brezia type isolateral leaf structure, with several layers of Rubisco-containing chlorenchyma. Photosynthetic response curves to varying CO (2) and light in the Schoberia Type and Salsina type species were similar, and typical of C (4) plants. The results indicate that two structural forms of Kranz anatomy evolved in parallel in species of subfamily Suaedoideae having NAD-ME type C (4) photosynthesis.

  17. Are native naiads more tolerant to pollution than exotic freshwater bivalve species? An hypothesis tested using physiological responses of three species transplanted to mercury contaminated sites in the Ebro River (NE, Spain).

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; López, Miguel Angel; Díez, Sergi; Barata, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    In the lower Ebro River exist the paradoxical convergence of relatively well preserved river dynamics with the historical presence of a chloralkali plant with a long history of mercury discharges and the recent invasion of foreign bivalves species. Here we performed a comparative study on two alien bivalves, the Zebra mussel and the Asian clam (Dreissena polymorpha and Corbicula fluminea), and one protected species of naiads (Psilunio littoralis), which is the most common species of the freshwater mussel assemblages in this river. Individuals of the three species were transplanted to three sites that included a clean unpolluted upstream site, a contaminated location next to the mercury source and a downstream one. The study focused on digestive gland antioxidant and oxidative stress responses such as antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S transferase, glutathione levels, metallothionein proteins, DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation levels. Results evidenced interspecies differences on accumulation levels of mercury, antioxidant defensive systems and oxidative tissue damage. The naiad species, despite of accumulating more mercury showed the greatest antioxidant defensive potential, which was characterized by having high constitutive activities of glutathione S transferase and inducible activities and levels of key antioxidant enzymes and glutathione. Exposed individuals of C. fluminea had moderate levels of metal accumulation, the highest activities of antioxidant enzymes but also high levels of lipid peroxidation. D. polymorpha mussels showed the lowest levels of mercury but the lowest antioxidant responses and consequently the highest levels of oxidative injuries in the DNA and of mortality. Our results support the hypothesis that naiad species might be more tolerant to pollution than exotic species.

  18. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  19. Cadmium-Induced Upregulation of Lipid Peroxidation and Reactive Oxygen Species Caused Physiological, Biochemical, and Ultrastructural Changes in Upland Cotton Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lei; Chen, Yue; Cheng, Xin; Zhu, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was investigated in cotton cultivar (ZMS-49) using physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical parameters. Biomass-based tolerance index decreased, and water contents increased at 500 μM Cd. Photosynthetic efficiency determined by chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments declined under Cd stress. Cd contents were more in roots than shoots. A significant decrease in nutrient levels was found in roots and stem. A significant decrease in nutrient levels was found in roots and stems. In response to Cd stress, more MDA and ROS contents were produced in leaves than in other parts of the seedlings. Total soluble proteins were reduced in all parts except in roots at 500 μM Cd. Oxidative metabolism was higher in leaves than aerial parts of the plant. There were insignificant alterations in roots and leaves ultrastructures such as a little increase in nucleoli, vacuoles, starch granules, and plastoglobuli in Cd-imposed stressful conditions. Scanning micrographs at 500 μM Cd showed a reduced number of stomata as well as near absence of closed stomata. Cd depositions were located in cell wall, vacuoles, and intracellular spaces using TEM-EDX technology. Upregulation of oxidative metabolism, less ultrastructural modification, and Cd deposition in dead parts of cells show that ZMS-49 has genetic potential to resist Cd stress, which need to be explored. PMID:24459668

  20. Eye spectral sensitivity in fresh- and brackish-water populations of three glacial-relict Mysis species (Crustacea): physiology and genetics of differential tuning.

    PubMed

    Donner, Kristian; Zak, Pavel; Viljanen, Martta; Lindström, Magnus; Feldman, Tatiana; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Absorbance spectra of single rhabdoms were studied by microspectrophotometry (MSP) and spectral sensitivities of whole eyes by electroretinography (ERG) in three glacial-relict species of opossum shrimps (Mysis). Among eight populations from Fennoscandian fresh-water lakes (L) and seven populations from the brackish-water Baltic Sea (S), L spectra were systematically red-shifted by 20-30 nm compared with S spectra, save for one L and one S population. The difference holds across species and bears no consistent adaptive relation to the current light environments. In the most extensively studied L-S pair, two populations of M. relicta (L(p) and S(p)) separated for less than 10,000 years, no differences translating into amino acid substitutions have been found in the opsin genes, and the chromophore of the visual pigments as analyzed by HPLC is pure A1. However, MSP experiments with spectrally selective bleaching show the presence of two rhodopsins (λ(max) ≈ 525-530 nm, MWS, and 565-570 nm, LWS) expressed in different proportions. ERG recordings of responses to "red" and "blue" light linearly polarized at orthogonal angles indicate segregation of the pigments into different cells differing in polarization sensitivity. We propose that the pattern of development of LWS and MWS photoreceptors is governed by an ontogenetic switch responsive to some environmental signal(s) other than light that generally differ(s) between lakes and sea, and that this reaction norm is conserved from a common ancestor of all three species.

  1. Functional evidence for physiological mechanisms to circumvent neurotoxicity of cardenolides in an adapted and a non-adapted hawk-moth species

    PubMed Central

    Petschenka, Georg; Pick, Christian; Wagschal, Vera; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Because cardenolides specifically inhibit the Na+K+-ATPase, insects feeding on cardenolide-containing plants need to circumvent this toxic effect. Some insects such as the monarch butterfly rely on target site insensitivity, yet other cardenolide-adapted lepidopterans such as the oleander hawk-moth, Daphnis nerii, possess highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. Nevertheless, larvae of this species and the related Manduca sexta are insensitive to injected cardenolides. By radioactive-binding assays with nerve cords of both species, we demonstrate that the perineurium surrounding the nervous tissue functions as a diffusion barrier for a polar cardenolide (ouabain). By contrast, for non-polar cardenolides such as digoxin an active efflux carrier limits the access to the nerve cord. This barrier can be abolished by metabolic inhibitors and by verapamil, a specific inhibitor of P-glycoproteins (PGPs). This supports that a PGP-like transporter is involved in the active cardenolide-barrier of the perineurium. Tissue specific RT-PCR demonstrated expression of three PGP-like genes in hornworm nerve cords, and immunohistochemistry further corroborated PGP expression in the perineurium. Our results thus suggest that the lepidopteran perineurium serves as a diffusion barrier for polar cardenolides and provides an active barrier for non-polar cardenolides. This may explain the high in vivo resistance to cardenolides observed in some lepidopteran larvae, despite their highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. PMID:23516239

  2. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions.

  3. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts—Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  4. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  5. Physiological bases of mosquito ecology.

    PubMed

    Briegel, Hans

    2003-06-01

    The research carried out during more than 30 years in the author's laboratory is briefly reviewed. Quantitative analyses of basic physiological processes, such as growth and development, digestion and excretion, oogenesis and fecundity, reserve synthesis and resulting flight-potentials of Aedes aegypti were summarized and compared with several other mosquito species, particularly with Anopheles. These studies led to the recognition of distinctly different physiological strategies, for which the term "physiotype" has been coined, providing a basis for understanding the different ecotypes.

  6. The link in Linking

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  7. The link in Linking.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block.

  8. Physiological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  9. A missing geographic link in the distribution of the genus Echinotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) with description of a new species from southern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mian; Wu, Yunke; Yang, Kelin; Zheng, Sheng; Yuan, Zhiyong; Li, Pipeng

    2014-12-12

    Disjunct geographic distribution of a species or a group of species is the product of long-term interaction between organisms and the environment. Filling the distributional gap by discovery of a new population or a species has significant biogeographic implications, because it suggests a much wider past distribution and provides evidence for the route of range expansion/contraction. The salamandrid genus Echinotriton (commonly known as spiny salamanders, spiny newts, or crocodile newts) has two species that are restricted to two widely separated areas, one in eastern Zhejiang province, China and the other in the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. It has been hypothesized that Echinotriton was once continuously distributed between the two areas through a historical land bridge that connected mainland China, Taiwan, and the archipelago. Finding fossils or relic populations along the postulated distribution are strong evidence for the hypothesis. Hundred-twenty-two years after the description of E. andersoni and eight-one years after that of E. chinhaiensis, we discover a third species of Echinotriton in southern China, which fills the distributional gap of the former two species. Species status of the new species is confirmed through molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphological comparison. Mitochondrial DNA indicates that the new species is sister to E. chinhaiensis, while nuclear DNA does not support this relationship. The new species has a very large quadrate projection, a single line of lateral warts pierced by distal rib extremities, normally developed 5th toes, and conical skin tubercles. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that there was a continuous distribution of Echinotriton from eastern coastal China to the Ryukyu Archipelago. We suggest that other species of this genus may also be found in Taiwan. Due to the rarity of this new species, we urge all hobbyists to refrain themselves from collecting this salamander or leaking locality information if

  10. The role of thermal physiology in recent declines of birds in a biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Robyn; Cunningham, Susan J.; Lee, Alan T. K.; Smit, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether observed avian range contractions and population declines in the Fynbos biome of South Africa were mechanistically linked to recent climate warming. We aimed to determine whether there were correlations between preferred temperature envelope, or changes in temperature within species' ranges, and recent changes in range and population size, for 12 Fynbos-resident bird species, including six that are endemic to the biome. We then measured the physiological responses of each species at air temperatures ranging from 24 to 42°C to determine whether physiological thermal thresholds could provide a mechanistic explanation for observed population trends. Our data show that Fynbos-endemic species occupying the coolest regions experienced the greatest recent reductions in range and population size (>30% range reduction between 1991 and the present). In addition, species experiencing the largest increases in air temperature within their ranges showed the greatest declines. However, evidence for a physiological mechanistic link between warming and population declines was equivocal, with only the larger species showing low thermal thresholds for their body mass, compared with other birds globally. In addition, some species appear more vulnerable than others to air temperatures in their ranges above physiological thermal thresholds. Of these, the high-altitude specialist Cape rockjumper (Chaetops frenatus) seems most at risk from climate warming. This species showed: (i) the lowest threshold for increasing evaporative water loss at high temperatures; and (ii) population declines specifically in those regions of its range recording significant warming trends. Our findings suggest that caution must be taken when attributing causality explicitly to thermal stress, even when population trends are clearly correlated with rates of warming. Studies explicitly investigating the mechanisms underlying such correlations will be key to appropriate conservation

  11. Relationship between the monosomy X phenotype and Y-linked ribosomal protein S4 (Rps4) in several species of mammals: A molecular evolutionary analysis of Rps4 homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Omoe, Katsuhiko; Endo, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Two isoforms of the human ribosomal protein S4 gene, RPS4X and RPS4Y, are located on the X and Y chromsomes. It has been postulated and haploinsufficiency of these genes may contribute to Turner syndrome. We show here that several animal species that show the Turner-like phenotype on monosomy X have no Y-linked Rps4 homolog. There may be another gene(s) that contributes to abnormal phenotypes of monosomy X. Molecular evolutionary analysis shows that the Y-linked and RPS4X-related homologs diverged prior to the radiation of placental mammals and evolved independently. Furthermore, the functional constraints against the RPS4X-related homologs are much stronger than those against the Y-linked homologs. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  13. Potassium physiology.

    PubMed

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  14. Link direction for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-03-01

    Almost all previous studies on link prediction have focused on using the properties of the network to predict the existence of links between pairs of nodes. Unfortunately, previous methods rarely consider the role of link direction for link prediction. In fact, many real-world complex networks are directed and ignoring the link direction will mean overlooking important information. In this study, we propose a phase-dynamic algorithm of the directed network nodes to analyse the role of link directions and demonstrate that the bi-directional links and the one-directional links have different roles in link prediction and network structure formation. From this, we propose new directional prediction methods and use six real networks to test our algorithms. In real networks, we find that compared to a pair of nodes which are connected by a one-directional link, a pair of nodes which are connected by a bi-directional link always have higher probabilities to connect to the common neighbours with only bi-directional links (or conversely by one-directional links). We suggest that, in the real networks, the bi-directional links will generally be more informative for link prediction and network structure formation. In addition, we propose a new directional randomized algorithm to demonstrate that the direction of the links plays a significant role in link prediction and network structure formation.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate the antibody responses of animals infected with Brucella species from those of animals infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9.

    PubMed

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-07-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  16. Bacterial species diversity in cigarettes linked to an investigation of severe pneumonitis in U.S. Military personnel deployed in operation iraqi freedom.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Swezey, James L; Wicklow, Donald T; McAtee, Matthew J

    2005-07-01

    This report presents results from a study on the bacterial diversity of cigarette brands collected from military personnel during the U.S. Army's investigation of a series of cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonitis in military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Eight species of Bacillus, including five new species, and one new species of Kurthia were isolated from the cigarettes. Some of these species have been identified elsewhere as causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory syndromes. All of the isolates were facultative anaerobes, and many displayed mucoid growth under anaerobic conditions. In addition, many isolates also displayed the ability to form surface biofilms under liquid culture. Although biofilm formation and mucoid growth were not correlated, the former was found to be much more pronounced under anaerobic conditions as opposed to aerobic ones. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 (Trematoda: Strigeidae) from New Zealand: linking and characterising life cycle stages with morphology and molecules.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Presswell, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 are reported from New Zealand for the first time, and their life cycles are resolved using molecular sequence data (28S and ITS rDNA regions and mitochondrial COI). The metacercaria of Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' ex Gobiomorphus cotidianus and its cercaria ex Potamopyrgus antipodarum are described in detail. Its adult, found in Anas platyrhynchos and Phalacrocorax punctatus, is identified by molecular sequence data. Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' uses a different species of snail host, exhibits consistent differences in the genetic markers examined and its single described adult differs from known species so as to be considered distinct, but its formal description awaits additional adult specimens. Australapatemon niewiadomski n. sp. is described from Anas platyrhynchos. It is distinguished morphologically by the absence of a ringnapf and its overall smaller size compared to most other Australapatemon spp. except Au. magnacetabulum and Au. minor, which are smaller in nearly all features than the new species. Au. niewiadomski n. sp. metacercaria and its intermediate host (Barbronia weberi) are identified via matching of molecular sequence data. The status of Apatemon and Australapatemon as distinct genera is confirmed based on their respective monophyly, and genetic divergence between them is comparable to other well-established genera in the Strigeidae. The diagnosis of Australapatemon is emended. Life history data, accurate patterns of host specialisation and distribution, alongside concurrent molecular and morphological evidence would be useful for an integrative taxonomical approach towards the elucidation of species diversity in this group.

  18. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David J; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J; Corner, Richard A; De Boeck, Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E; Peck, Myron A; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Shiels, Holly A; Steffensen, John F; Svendsen, Jon C; Svendsen, Morten B S; Teal, Lorna R; van der Meer, Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M; Wilson, Rod W; Metcalfe, Julian D

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status. The 'Fry paradigm' could have broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however, that the paradigm is not universal, so further research is required on a wide diversity of species. Fish physiologists should interact closely with researchers developing ecological models, in order to investigate how integrating physiological information improves confidence in projecting effects of global change; for example, with mechanistic models that define habitat suitability based upon potential for aerobic scope or outputs of a dynamic energy budget. One major challenge to upscaling from physiology of individuals to the level of species and communities is incorporating intraspecific variation, which could be a crucial component of species' resilience to global change. Understanding what fishes do in the wild is also a challenge, but techniques of biotelemetry and biologging are providing novel information towards effective conservation. Overall, fish physiologists must strive to render research outputs more applicable to management and decision-making. There are various potential avenues for information flow, in the shorter term directly through biomarker studies and in the longer

  19. [Human physiology: kidney].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  20. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  1. Linking biogeographic and life history information for nonindigenous marine and estuarine species in the North Pacific: An introduction to the Pacific Coast Ecological Information System (PCEIS) November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) are a pervasive problem throughout the world. To help address this threat the EPA and USGS have developed a hierarchical database (PCEIS) that synthesizes existing biogeographic, life history, and invasion history information for near-coastal and estu...

  2. Linking biogeographic and life history information for nonindigenous marine and estuarine species in the North Pacific: An introduction to the Pacific Coast Ecological Information System (PCEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) are a pervasive problem throughout the world. To help address this threat the EPA and USGS have developed a hierarchical database (PCEIS) that synthesizes existing biogeographic, life history, and invasion history information for near-coastal and estu...

  3. Forging Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    Blacksmiths and their craft have changed with the times, and as times change for teachers, they too should be forgers of links. Teacher-to-teacher links should extend beyond the faculty lounge to support systems and active groups of individuals concerned about each other. Another personal link can be made by developing a grade level, system-wide…

  4. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  5. Variation in rDNA locus number and position among legume species and detection of 2 linked rDNA loci in the model Medicago truncatula by FISH.

    PubMed

    Abirached-Darmency, Mona; Prado-Vivant, Emilce; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Pouthier, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Within Fabaceae, legume species have a variable genome size, chromosome number, and ploidy level. The genome distribution of ribosomal genes, easily detectable by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), is a good tool for anchoring physical and genetic comparative maps. The organisation of 45S rDNA and 5S loci was analysed by FISH in the 4 closely related species: Pisum sativum, Medicago truncatula, Medicago sativa (2 diploid taxa), and Lathyrus sativus. The 2 types of rDNA arrays displayed interspecific variation in locus number and location, but little intraspecific variation was detected. In the model legume, M. truncatula, the presence of 2 adjacent 45S rDNA loci was demonstrated, and the location of the rDNA loci was independent of the general evolution of the genome DNA. The different parameters relative to clustering of the rDNA loci in specific chromosome regions and the possible basis of rDNA instability are discussed.

  6. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    PubMed

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  7. Energetics of stress: linking plasma cortisol levels to metabolic rate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Haase, Catherine G; Long, Andrea K; Gillooly, James F

    2016-01-01

    Physiological stress may result in short-term benefits to organismal performance, but also long-term costs to health or longevity. Yet, we lack an understanding of the variation in stress hormone levels (i.e. glucocorticoids) that exist within and across species. Here, we present comparative analyses that link the primary stress hormone in most mammals (i.e. cortisol) to metabolic rate. We show that baseline concentrations of plasma cortisol vary with mass-specific metabolic rate among cortisol-dominant mammals, and both baseline and elevated concentrations scale predictably with body mass. The results quantitatively link a classical measure of physiological stress to whole-organism energetics, providing a point of departure for cross-species comparisons of stress levels among mammals.

  8. Is there a missing link? Effects of root herbivory on plant-pollinator interactions and reproductive output in a monocarpic species.

    PubMed

    Ghyselen, C; Bonte, D; Brys, R

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can have a major influence on plant fitness. The direct impact of herbivory on plant reproductive output has long been studied, and recently also indirect effects of herbivory on plant traits and pollinator attraction have received increasing attention. However, the link between these direct and indirect effects has seldom been studied. In this study, we investigated effects of root herbivory on plant and floral traits, pollination success and reproductive outcome in the monocarpic perennial Cynoglossum officinale. We exposed 119 C. officinale plants to a range of root herbivore damage by its specialist herbivore Mogulones cruciger. We assessed the effect of herbivory on several plant traits, pollinator foraging behaviour and reproductive output, and to elucidate the link between these last two we also quantified pollen deposition and pollen tube growth and applied a pollination experiment to test whether seed set was pollen-limited. Larval root herbivory induced significant changes in plant traits and had a negative impact on pollinator visitation. Infested plants were reduced in size, had fewer flowers and received fewer pollinator visits at plant and flower level than non-infested plants. Also, seed set was negatively affected by root herbivory, but this could not be attributed to pollen limitation since neither stigmatic pollen loads and pollen tube growth nor the results of the hand-pollination experiment differed between infested and non-infested plants. Our observations demonstrate that although herbivory may induce significant changes in flowering behaviour and resulting plant-pollinator interactions, it does not necessarily translate into higher rates of pollen limitation. The observed reductions in reproductive output following infection can mainly be attributed to higher resource limitation compared to non-infested plants.

  9. Ecophysiological responses of some maquis (Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffm. & Link, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera L.) plant species to drought in the east Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Munir; Dogan, Yunus; Sakcali, M Serdal; Doulis, Andreas; Karam, Fadi

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to examine the adaptation strategies of four maquis species to drought prone environments; typical of the east Mediterranean area in degraded and healthy sites in Turkey. A comparison made between sites for Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shows higher net daily photosynthesis in the degraded site, when compared with the healthy site; but Ceratonia siliqua and Olea oleaster exhibited no difference in their photosynthetic activity in environmentally contrasting conditions. The pattern of daily transpiration shows higher values in the degraded site in the case of P. lentiscus and Q. coccifera, while no site effect was observed for C. siliqua and O. oleaster. In the case of Q. coccifera, a behavior similar to C. siliqua was observed. A comparison made between C. siliqua and O. oleaster to observe seasonal differences in daily patterns of net photosynthesis and transpiration reveals that Q. coccifera had the highest water use efficiency (slope= 2.88; r2 = 0.61), followed by C. siliqua (slope = 2.74; r2 = 0.7), P. lentiscus (slope = 2.56; r2 = 0.52) and O. oleaster (slope = 2.40; r2 = 0.78). Olea oleaster and P. lentiscus performed as a drought tolerant species, being more resistant to aridity and thus indicative of the degradation state of the site. Ceratonia siliqua and Q. coccifera were found avoiding drought by adopting first a water-spending strategy, and then a water-saving strategy.

  10. JWA is required for arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis in HeLa and MCF-7 cells via reactive oxygen species and mitochondria linked signal pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jinhong; Ye Jian; Zhao Xiaojia; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei

    2008-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide, emerging as a standard therapy for refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia, induces apoptosis in a variety of malignant cell lines. JWA, a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene, is known to be involved in apoptosis induced by various agents, for example, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, N-4-hydroxy-phenyl-retinamide and arsenic trioxide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying how JWA gene is functionally involved in apoptosis remain largely unknown. Herein, our studies demonstrated that treatment of arsenic trioxide produced apoptosis in HeLa and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner and paralleled with increased JWA expression. JWA expression was dependent upon generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species induced by arsenic trioxide. Knockdown of JWA attenuated arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis, and was accompanied by significantly reduced activity of caspase-9, enhanced Bad phosphorylation and inhibited MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylations. Arsenic trioxide induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was JWA-dependent. These findings suggest that JWA may serve as a pro-apoptotic molecule to mediate arsenic trioxide triggered apoptosis via a reactive oxygen species and mitochondria-associated signal pathway.

  11. Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from 3D orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in three cichlid species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    D context in studies of inner ear morphology and physiology. PMID:24645675

  12. A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Heshan; Duffield, Michael D.; Fadista, Joao; Kashmir, Vinder; Genders, Amanda J.; McGee, Sean L.; Martin, Alyce M.; Saiedi, Madiha; Morton, Nicholas; Carter, Roderick; Cousin, Michael A.; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Volkov, Petr; Hough, Tertius A.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Busciglio, Jorge; Coskun, Pinar E.; Becker, Ann; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.; Ryan, Michael T.; Chan, Jeng Yie; Laybutt, D. Ross; Coates, P. Toby; Yang, Sijun; Ling, Charlotte; Groop, Leif; Pritchard, Melanie A.; Keating, Damien J.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21). To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D

  13. Characterization of the 5'-to-5'linked adult alpha- and beta-globin genes from three sciaenid fish species (Pseudosciaena crocea, Sciaenops ocellatus, Nibea miichthioides).

    PubMed

    Chu, Wuying; Wei, Yongwei; Qian, Ronghua; Yu, Xiameng; Yu, Lian

    2006-09-01

    Recently, we cloned the adult alpha-globin genes from large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea, cuneate drum Nibea miichthioides and red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. All these alpha-globins have a unique Gly insertion at the 47th residue. In this paper, the three sciaenid globin complexes were identified and compared in detail. Linkage analysis indicated that the sciaenid alpha- and beta-globin genes were oriented head-to-head relative to each other. The sciaenid intergenic regions between the linked alpha- and beta-globin genes were the smallest in reported fish globin gene complexes to date. Classical promoter elements were condensed and the CCAAT box unstable duplication was found in these regions. The promoter function of the intergenic region from large yellow croaker was tested by transient expression of EGFP in Vero cells. We also described a method for studying luciferase reporter gene transient expression in primary fish erythrocytes. We used the method to assess the promoter strength of the three intergenic regions between the sciaenid alpha- and beta-globin genes.

  14. δ44/40Ca From Coccolithophores May Reveal a Link Between the Ca and C Systems Upon Regulating the Physiological Adaptations of Calcification and Photosynthesis to Varying CO2 Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia Ramirez, L. M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bolton, C. T.; Kolevica, A.; Stoll, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    The sedimentation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the largest carbon (C) sink in the combined biosphere, atmosphere and ocean systems, and therefore influences the global C cycle. Coccolithophores are important contributors to CaCO3 sediment production, with contributions varying from 95% of the total marine CaCO3in the Cenozoic to 50% in the modern ocean. Consequently, physiological adaptations of coccolithophores' calcification and photosynthesis to varying ambient conditions have implications for the C cycle. It has been recently shown that under low CO2 concentrations (CO2 threshold of ~20 μM), coccolithophores reallocate HCO3- from the calcification vesicle to the chloroplast to cope with the decrease in CO2 available for photosynthesis. This adaptation was first observed in the late Miocene, as δ13C of the more sensitive larger coccoliths (with lower surface to volume ratios) became lighter due to the diminished use of HCO3- and increased use of CO2 as C source for calcification (Bolton and Stoll, 2013). Without further physiological adaptations to maintain calcification, reduced HCO3-availability for calcification may result in less calcified coccoliths (e.g. thinner and lighter). Here we report δ44/40Ca and δ13C measurements of cultured Emiliana huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Gephyrocapsa oceanica grown under varying CO2 concentrations. We test the hypothesis whether Ca transport is influenced by coccolithophores to maintain calcification at low CO2 concentrations. It is possible that as the reallocation of HCO3- from the calcification vesicle to the chloroplast is increasing in response to low CO2 availability for photosynthesis, Ca transport and concentration would also increase to maintain high saturation at the site of calcification. We also present δ44/40Ca and δ13C from two coccolith size fractions from site 925 in the Western Equatorial Atlantic from the last ~11 Myr, to access how the Ca system of coccolithophores of different sizes may

  15. Linking regional variation of epibiotic bacterial diversity and trophic ecology in a new species of Kiwaidae (Decapoda, Anomura) from East Scotia Ridge (Antarctica) hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Heywood, Jane; Sweeting, Christopher J; Wigham, Benjamin D; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Hawkes, Jeff A; Connelly, Douglas P; Pearce, David; Linse, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed the diversity of bacterial epibionts and trophic ecology of a new species of Kiwa yeti crab discovered at two hydrothermal vent fields (E2 and E9) on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and stable isotope analysis. The Kiwa epibiont communities were dominated by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria. About 454 sequencing of the epibionts on 15 individual Kiwa specimen revealed large regional differences between the two hydrothermal vent fields: at E2, the bacterial community on the Kiwa ventral setae was dominated (up to 75%) by Gammaproteobacteria, whereas at E9 Epsilonproteobacteria dominated (up to 98%). Carbon stable isotope analysis of both Kiwa and the bacterial epibionts also showed distinct differences between E2 and E9 in mean and variability. Both stable isotope and sequence data suggest a dominance of different carbon fixation pathways of the epibiont communities at the two vent fields. At E2, epibionts were putatively fixing carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham and reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, while at E9 the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle dominated. Co-varying epibiont diversity and isotope values at E2 and E9 also present further support for the hypothesis that epibionts serve as a food source for Kiwa.

  16. Linking regional variation of epibiotic bacterial diversity and trophic ecology in a new species of Kiwaidae (Decapoda, Anomura) from East Scotia Ridge (Antarctica) hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Heywood, Jane; Sweeting, Christopher J; Wigham, Benjamin D; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Hawkes, Jeff A; Connelly, Douglas P; Pearce, David; Linse, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity of bacterial epibionts and trophic ecology of a new species of Kiwa yeti crab discovered at two hydrothermal vent fields (E2 and E9) on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and stable isotope analysis. The Kiwa epibiont communities were dominated by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria. About 454 sequencing of the epibionts on 15 individual Kiwa specimen revealed large regional differences between the two hydrothermal vent fields: at E2, the bacterial community on the Kiwa ventral setae was dominated (up to 75%) by Gammaproteobacteria, whereas at E9 Epsilonproteobacteria dominated (up to 98%). Carbon stable isotope analysis of both Kiwa and the bacterial epibionts also showed distinct differences between E2 and E9 in mean and variability. Both stable isotope and sequence data suggest a dominance of different carbon fixation pathways of the epibiont communities at the two vent fields. At E2, epibionts were putatively fixing carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham and reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, while at E9 the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle dominated. Co-varying epibiont diversity and isotope values at E2 and E9 also present further support for the hypothesis that epibionts serve as a food source for Kiwa. PMID:25515351

  17. Space physiology within an exercise physiology curriculum.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason R; West, John B

    2013-09-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of chronic terrestrial exercise (TEx) and microgravity (μG). We used a series of peer-reviewed publications to demonstrate that many of the physiological adaptations to TEx and μG are opposite. For example, TEx typically improves cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance, whereas μG can lead to declines in both. TEx leads to muscle hypertrophy, and μG elicits muscle atrophy. TEx increases bone mineral density and red blood cell mass, whereas μG decreases bone mineral density and red blood cell mass. Importantly, exercise during spaceflight remains a crucial countermeasure to limit some of these adverse physiological adaptations to μG. This curriculum develops critical thinking skills by dissecting peer-reviewed articles and discussing the strengths and weaknesses associated with simulated and actual μG studies. Moreover, the curriculum includes studies on both animals and humans, providing a strong translational component to the curriculum. In summary, we have developed a novel space physiology curriculum delivered during the final weeks of an exercise physiology course in which students gain critical new knowledge that reinforces key concepts presented throughout the semester.

  18. Two Ganoderma species: profiling of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD, antioxidant, antimicrobial and inhibitory activities on key enzymes linked to diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Gokhan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Gunes, Erdogan; Uysal, Ahmet; Ceylan, Ramazan; Uysal, Sengul; Gungor, Halil; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2015-08-01

    This work reports the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibitory effects of methanol and water extracts from Ganoderma applanatum (GAM: methanol extract and GAW: water extract) and G. resinaceum (GRM: methanol extract and GRW: water extract) against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The total phenolics, flavonoids contents, and HPLC profile of phenolic components present in the extracts, were also determined. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using different assays, including DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Antimicrobial activity of the tested Ganoderma extracts was also studied by the broth microdilution method. Generally, the highest antioxidant (59.24 mg TEs per g extract for DPPH, 41.32 mg TEs per g extract for ABTS, 41.35 mg TEs per g extract for CUPRAC, 49.68 mg TEs per g extract for FRAP, 130.57 mg AAEs per g extract for phosphomolybdenum and 26.92 mg EDTAEs per g extract) and enzyme inhibitory effects (1.47 mg GALAEs per g extract for AChE, 1.51 mg GALAEs per g extract for BChE, 13.40 mg KAEs per g extract for tyrosinase, 1.13 mmol ACEs per g extract for α-amylase and 2.20 mmol ACEs per g extract for α-glucosidase) were observed in GRM, which had the highest concentrations of phenolics (37.32 mg GAEs g(-1) extract). Again, Ganoderma extracts possess weak antibacterial and antifungal activities. Apigenin and protocatechuic acid were determined as the main components in GRM (1761 μg per g extract) and GAM (165 μg per g extract), respectively. The results suggest that the Ganoderma species may be considered as a candidate for preparing new food supplements and can represent a good model for the development of new drug formulations.

  19. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  20. Link Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  1. Physiological stress in koala populations near the arid edge of their distribution.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicole Ashley; Gramotnev, Galina; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the ecology of stress has hitherto been neglected, but it is in fact an important influence on the distribution and numbers of wild vertebrates. Environmental changes have the potential to cause physiological stress that can affect population dynamics. Detailed information on the influence of environmental variables on glucocorticoid levels (a measure of stress) at the trailing edge of a species' distribution can highlight stressors that potentially threaten species and thereby help explain how environmental challenges, such as climate change, will affect the survival of these populations. Rainfall determines leaf moisture and/or nutritional content, which in turn impacts on cortisol concentrations. We show that higher faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in koala populations at the trailing arid edge of their range in southwestern Queensland are associated with lower rainfall levels (especially rainfall from the previous two months), indicating an increase in physiological stress when moisture levels are low. These results show that koalas at the semi-arid, inland edge of their geographic range, will fail to cope with increasing aridity from climate change. The results demonstrate the importance of integrating physiological assessments into ecological studies to identify stressors that have the potential to compromise the long-term survival of threatened species. This finding points to the need for research to link these stressors to demographic decline to ensure a more comprehensive understanding of species' responses to climate change.

  2. Bridging different perspectives of the physiological and mathematical disciplines.

    PubMed

    Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Kappel, Franz; Schneditz, Daniel; Kenner, Thomas; Goswami, Nandu

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this report is to discuss educational approaches for bridging the different perspectives of the physiological and mathematical disciplines. These approaches can enhance the learning experience for physiology, medical, and mathematics students and simultaneously act to stimulate mathematical/physiological/clinical interdisciplinary research. While physiology education incorporates mathematics, via equations and formulas, it does not typically provide a foundation for interdisciplinary research linking mathematics and physiology. Here, we provide insights and ideas derived from interdisciplinary seminars involving mathematicians and physiologists that have been conducted over the last decade. The approaches described here can be used as templates for giving physiology and medical students insights into how sophisticated tools from mathematics can be applied and how the disciplines of mathematics and physiology can be integrated in research, thereby fostering a foundation for interdisciplinary collaboration. These templates are equally applicable to linking mathematical methods with other life and health sciences in the educational process.

  3. Physiology of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gregory M.; Berney, Michael; Gebhard, Susanne; Heinemann, Matthias; Cox, Robert A.; Danilchanka, Olga; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a prototrophic, metabolically flexible bacterium that has achieved a spread in the human population that is unmatched by any other bacterial pathogen. The success of M. tuberculosis as a pathogen can be attributed to its extraordinary stealth and capacity to adapt to environmental changes throughout the course of infection. These changes include: nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, various exogenous stress conditions and, in the case of the pathogenic species, the intraphagosomal environment. Knowledge of the physiology of M. tuberculosis during this process has been limited by the slow growth of the bacterium in the laboratory and other technical problems such as cell aggregation. Advances in genomics and molecular methods to analyse the M. tuberculosis genome have revealed that adaptive changes are mediated by complex regulatory networks and signals, resulting in temporal gene expression coupled to metabolic and energetic changes. An important goal for bacterial physiologists will be to elucidate the physiology of M. tuberculosis during the transition between the diverse conditions encountered by M. tuberculosis. This review covers the growth of the mycobacterial cell and how environmental stimuli are sensed by this bacterium. Adaptation to different environments is described from the viewpoint of nutrient acquisition, energy generation and regulation. To gain quantitative understanding of mycobacterial physiology will require a systems biology approach and recent efforts in this area are discussed. “It is now 100 years since the first mycobacterium was isolated by Hansen (1874). Somewhat ironically, this was the leprosy bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae, which even today is still resisting all attempts to cultivate it in the laboratory. The tubercle bacillus, M. tuberculosis was not discovered until eight years later (Koch, 1882) and this has remained an object of intensive investigation ever since. The widespread interest in the

  4. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  5. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  6. Linking environmental heavy metal concentrations and salinity gradients with metal accumulation and their effects: A case study in 3 mussel species of Vitória estuary and Espírito Santo bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rodrigues, Paulo Pinheiro; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to link the heavy metal load in three species of mussels (Perna perna, Mytella falcata and Mytella guyanensis) from the estuaries and bays around Vitória island, south-east of Brazil, with the salinity gradient and the heavy metal levels in the abiotic environment (including water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment). Primarily based on the salinity gradient, a total of 26 sites around Vitória Island were selected for sampling of water, SPM, sediments and organisms. Besides tissue metal levels, the condition index and energy stores (glycogen, lipid and protein) were quantified as an indicator of fitness in response to metal pollution. Dissolved metals in water indicate that Cd and Mn content was higher along Espírito Santo Bay, while Al, Co, Cu, Cr and Fe were elevated in the sites with low salinity such as river mouths, estuarine and sewage canals. Likewise, suspended matter sampled from low salinity sites showed a higher heavy metal load compared to moderate and high salinity sites. Though mussels were sampled from different sites, the contamination for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn was higher in mussels inhabiting low salinity sites (M. guyanensis and M. falcata) compared to P. perna, a high saline water inhabitant. However, a higher Zn body burden was observed for P. perna compared to Mytella species. Tissue Fe accumulation (but not Mn and Zn) correlated with heavy metal levels in suspended material for all three species, and for M. falcata this correlation also existed for Cd and Cu. Energy store and condition index in all mussels varied depending on the sampling sites and correlated with salinity gradient rather than tissue metal concentration. Overall, metal concentration in mussels did not exceed the safe levels as per the international standards for metals, and would be of no risk for human consumption.

  7. Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Boyd V.

    This monograph on the anatomical and physiological aspects of the speech mechanism stresses the importance of a general understanding of the process of verbal communication. Contents include "Positions of the Body,""Basic Concepts Linked with the Speech Mechanism,""The Nervous System,""The Respiratory System--Sound-Power Source,""The…

  8. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  9. Contrasting environments shape thermal physiology across the spatial range of the sandhopper Talorchestia capensis.

    PubMed

    Baldanzi, Simone; Weidberg, Nicolas F; Fusi, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; McQuaid, Christopher D; Porri, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Integrating thermal physiology and species range extent can contribute to a better understanding of the likely effects of climate change on natural populations. Generally, broadly distributed species show variation in thermal physiology between populations. Within their distributional ranges, populations at the edges are assumed to experience more challenging environments than central populations (fundamental niche breadth hypothesis). We have investigated differences in thermal tolerance and thermal sensitivity under increasing/decreasing temperatures among geographically separated populations of the sandhopper Talorchestia capensis along the South African coasts. We tested whether the thermal tolerance and thermal sensitivity of T. capensis differ between central and marginal populations using a non-parametric constraint space analysis. We linked thermal sensitivity to environmental history by using historical climatic data to evaluate whether individual responses to temperature could be related to natural long-term fluctuations in air temperatures. Our results demonstrate that there were significant differences in the thermal response of T. capensis populations to both increasing/decreasing temperatures. Thermal sensitivity (for increasing temperatures only) was negatively related to temperature variability and positively related to temperature predictability. Two different models fitted the geographical distribution of thermal sensitivity and thermal tolerance. Our results confirm that widespread species show differences in physiology among populations by providing evidence of contrasting thermal responses in individuals subject to different environmental conditions at the limits of the species' spatial range. When considering the complex interactions between individual physiology and species ranges, it is not sufficient to consider mean environmental temperatures, or even temperature variability; the predictability of that variability may be critical.

  10. Brown adipose tissue: physiological function and evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Oelkrug, R; Polymeropoulos, E T; Jastroch, M

    2015-08-01

    In modern eutherian (placental) mammals, brown adipose tissue (BAT) evolved as a specialized thermogenic organ that is responsible for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). For NST, energy metabolism of BAT mitochondria is increased by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which dissipates the proton motive force as heat. Despite the presence of UCP1 orthologues prior to the divergence of teleost fish and mammalian lineages, UCP1's significance for thermogenic adipose tissue emerged at later evolutionary stages. Recent studies on the presence of BAT in metatherians (marsupials) and eutherians of the afrotherian clade provide novel insights into the evolution of adaptive NST in mammals. In particular studies on the 'protoendothermic' lesser hedgehog tenrec (Afrotheria) suggest an evolutionary scenario linking BAT to the onset of eutherian endothermy. Here, we review the physiological function and distribution of BAT in an evolutionary context by focusing on the latest research on phylogenetically distinct species.

  11. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level.

  12. Teaching Acid/Base Physiology in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Ulla G.; Plovsing, Ronni; Hansen, Klaus; Laursen, Bent G.; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    Acid/base homeostasis is one of the most difficult subdisciplines of physiology for medical students to master. A different approach, where theory and practice are linked, might help students develop a deeper understanding of acid/base homeostasis. We therefore set out to develop a laboratory exercise in acid/base physiology that would provide…

  13. The physiology of invasive plants in low-resource environments

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    While invasive plant species primarily occur in disturbed, high-resource environments, many species have invaded ecosystems characterized by low nutrient, water, and light availability. Species adapted to low-resource systems often display traits associated with resource conservation, such as slow growth, high tissue longevity, and resource-use efficiency. This contrasts with our general understanding of invasive species physiology derived primarily from studies in high-resource environments. These studies suggest that invasive species succeed through high resource acquisition. This review examines physiological and morphological traits of native and invasive species in low-resource environments. Existing data support the idea that species invading low-resource environments possess traits associated with resource acquisition, resource conservation or both. Disturbance and climate change are affecting resource availability in many ecosystems, and understanding physiological differences between native and invasive species may suggest ways to restore invaded ecosystems. PMID:27293610

  14. The physiology of invasive plants in low-resource environments.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    While invasive plant species primarily occur in disturbed, high-resource environments, many species have invaded ecosystems characterized by low nutrient, water, and light availability. Species adapted to low-resource systems often display traits associated with resource conservation, such as slow growth, high tissue longevity, and resource-use efficiency. This contrasts with our general understanding of invasive species physiology derived primarily from studies in high-resource environments. These studies suggest that invasive species succeed through high resource acquisition. This review examines physiological and morphological traits of native and invasive species in low-resource environments. Existing data support the idea that species invading low-resource environments possess traits associated with resource acquisition, resource conservation or both. Disturbance and climate change are affecting resource availability in many ecosystems, and understanding physiological differences between native and invasive species may suggest ways to restore invaded ecosystems.

  15. Impact of microbial inoculation on biomass accumulation by Sulla carnosa provenances, and in regulating nutrition, physiological and antioxidant activities of this species under non-saline and saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Hidri, R; Barea, J M; Mahmoud, O Metoui-Ben; Abdelly, C; Azcón, Rosario

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp.) and/or the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus intraradices were able to improve growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of four Sulla carnosa Desf. provenances (Sidi khlif, Thelja, Kalbia and Kerker) from Tunisia under both saline and non-saline conditions. S. carnosa is a salt-tolerant legume plant, native from North Africa. The intrinsic bacterial characteristics evidenced the fitness of these bacteria to support salt stress and to stimulate plant growth. Bacillus sp. produced more indol acetic acid (IAA) than Pseudomonas sp. and showed a great surviving capacity under salt conditions supporting its capacity to improve plant growth under stress conditions. The microorganisms applied also have a different potential to increase the nutritional and related plant growth parameters. It is noticeable that some provenances reached the highest level of growth when inoculated with Bacillus sp. in Sidi khlif or by Bacillus plus AMF in Kalbia, which increased shoot by 318% and root by 774%. In contrast, in Thelja and Kerker the impact of the test microorganisms was mainly evidenced at increasing nutritional and physiological functions. Salinity reduced some growth and physiological variables as stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic efficiency and increased electrolyte leakage. However, the microbial inoculants compensated these detrimental effects in a degree depending on the S. carnosa provenance. These microorganisms also orchestrate antioxidant activities involved in adaptative responses in S. carnosa provenances. The intrinsic ability of inoculants allow us to select the provenance/microorganism combination which maximizes S. carnosa growth, nutrition and physiological/biochemical responses under salt and non-salt conditions. The results obtained support that the target microbial inocula are beneficial for the ecological stability if this Mediterranean legume.

  16. Physiology of sport.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  17. Space physiology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Parker J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The state of knowledge in space physiology and medicine are reviewed. Overviews of manned space flight, the space environment, spaceflight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crew members, and medical problems of space flight are presented.

  18. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  19. Microbial physiology vol. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.H. ); Tempest, D.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Hydrogen metabolism in Rhizobium: energetics, regulation, enzymology and genetics; The physiology and biochemistry of pili; Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; Archaebacteria: the comparative enzymology of their central metabolic pathways; and Physiology of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.

  20. Progress in physiological optics.

    PubMed

    Boynton, R M

    1967-08-01

    A survey is made of the current state of physiological optics, broadly defined as equated with visual science. After a survey of some historical and definitional matters, recent progress in a number of areas is critically reviewed. Finally, seven examples of important recent discoveries in physiological optics are given.

  1. Membrane lipid unsaturation as physiological adaptation to animal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Naudí, Alba; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victòria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere represented an important selective pressure for ancestral living organisms and contributed toward setting up the pace of evolutionary changes in structural and functional systems. The evolution of using oxygen for efficient energy production served as a driving force for the evolution of complex organisms. The redox reactions associated with its use were, however, responsible for the production of reactive species (derived from oxygen and lipids) with damaging effects due to oxidative chemical modifications of essential cellular components. Consequently, aerobic life required the emergence and selection of antioxidant defense systems. As a result, a high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses evolved. In the following paragraphs, we analyze the adaptation of biological membranes as a dynamic structural defense against reactive species evolved by animals. In particular, our goal is to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the structural adaptation of cellular membranes to oxidative stress and to explain the meaning of this adaptive mechanism, and to review the state of the art about the link between membrane composition and longevity of animal species. PMID:24381560

  2. Linking physiology and gene expression: peanut response to abiotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future of crop production in the U.S., as well as in other areas of the world, will rely upon the crop’s ability to yield under decreased water availability and oftentimes critical heat stress. Our group has initiated research in the west Texas peanut production region investigating the effects ...

  3. Stress response physiology of thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Preeti; Rawat, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles. The production of DNA-binding proteins, activation of reactive oxygen species detoxification system, compatible solute accumulation, expression of heat shock proteins and alterations in morphology are a few examples of physiological changes demonstrated by these microscopic lifeforms in stress. These microorganisms exhibit complex genetic and physiological changes to minimize, adapt to and repair damage caused by extreme environmental disturbances. These changes are termed as 'stress responses' which enable them to stabilize their homeostasis. The exploration of important thermophilic factors would pave the way in engineering the microbial strains for various biotechnological applications. This review article presents a picture of physiological responses of thermophiles against various stress conditions as their mechanisms to respond to stress make them model organisms to further explore them for basic and applied biology purposes.

  4. Transatlantic link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  5. Cross-linking of B7-H1 on EBV-transformed B cells induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production, JNK signaling activation, and fasL expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong Seok; Park, Ga Bin; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Song, Hyunkeun; Choi, In-Hak; Lee, Wang Jae; Hur, Dae Young

    2008-11-01

    B7-H1 is a newly identified member of the B7 family with important regulatory functions in cell-mediated immune responses, and it is expressed in human immune cells and several tumors. We first observed that expression of surface B7-H1 on B cells was increased during the immortalization process by EBV, which is strongly related to both inflammation and tumorigenesis. Cross-linking of B7-H1 on EBV-transformed B cells using anti-B7-H1 Ab (clone 130002) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial disruption, release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, and subsequent apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases and ROS generation recovered B7-H1-mediated apoptosis and proteolytic activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We observed that B7-H1 stimulation induced both transcription and translation of fasL. ZB4, an antagonistic anti-fas Ab, and NOK-1, an antagonistic anti-fasL Ab, effectively blocked apoptosis without exerting any influence on ROS generation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely blocked the induction of fasL mRNA and protein. We found that B7-H1 stimulation activated the phosphorylation of JNK and c-jun and down-regulated ERK1/2 and p-Akt. NAC blocked the activation of JNK and down-regulation of ERK, but both z-VAD-fmk (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone) and ZB4 did not inhibit JNK activation of B7-H1 stimulation. SP600125 blocked fasL induction and apoptosis but did not affect ROS generation after B7-H1 stimulation. Taken together, we concluded that B7-H1-mediated apoptosis on EBV-transformed B cells may be involved in the induction of fasL, which is evoked by ROS generation and JNK activation after cross-linking of B7-H1. These results provide a new concept for understanding reverse signaling through B7-H1 and another mechanism of tumor immunotherapy using anti-B7-H1.

  6. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  7. Mechanosignaling in the vasculature: emerging concepts in sensing, transduction and physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Keigi; Pérez, Néstor Gustavo; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Fisher, Aron B.

    2015-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to mechanical forces that play a role in modulating cellular structure and function. The cardiovascular system experiences physical forces in the form of shear stress and stretch associated with blood flow and contraction, respectively. These forces are sensed by endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and lead to responses that control vascular and cardiac homeostasis. This was highlighted at the Pan American Physiological Society meeting at Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in a symposium titled “Mechanosignaling in the Vasculature.” This symposium presented recent research that showed the existence of a vital link between mechanosensing and downstream redox sensitive signaling cascades. This link helps to transduce and transmit the physical force into an observable physiological response. The speakers showcased how mechanosensors such as ion channels, membrane receptor kinases, adhesion molecules, and other cellular components transduce the force via redox signals (such as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide) to receptors (transcription factors, growth factors, etc.). Receptor activated pathways then lead to cellular responses including cellular proliferation, contraction, and remodeling. These responses have major relevance to the physiology and pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases. Thus an understanding of the complex series of events, from the initial sensing through the final response, is essential for progress in this field. Overall, this symposium addressed some important emerging concepts in the field of mechanosignaling and the eventual pathophysiological responses. PMID:25862828

  8. [Immune response genes products in human physiology].

    PubMed

    Khaitov, R M; Alekseev, L P

    2012-09-01

    Current data on physiological role of human immune response genes' proteomic products (antigens) are discussed. The antigens are specified by a very high level of diversity that mediates a wide specter ofphysiological functions. They actually provide integrity and biological stability of human as species. These data reveal new ideas on many pathological processes as well as drafts new approaches for prophylaxis and treatment.

  9. Assessing physiological tipping points in response to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S. T.; Dorey, N.; Lançon, P.; Thorndyke, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    rate is decreased. However, the intensity of the impact on the growth rate is depending on the tested pH. When pH is 7.3 or higher, only a small delay in development is observed with no effect on larval morphology (phenotypic plasticity). When the pH is lower than 7.3, the impact is more severe together with major developmental abnormalities. At pH 6.5, the development is totally arrested. The link between a species physiological tipping point and environmental variability will be discussed.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells by cross-linking of CD70 is dependent upon generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of p38 MAPK and JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Bin; Kim, Yeong Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Song, Hyunkeun; Cho, Dae-Ho; Lee, Wang Jae; Hur, Dae Young

    2010-12-15

    CD70 is expressed in normal activated immune cells as well as in several types of tumors. It has been established that anti-CD70 mAb induces complement-dependent death of CD70(+) tumor cells, but how anti-CD70 mAb affects the intrinsic signaling is poorly defined. In this report, we show that ligation of CD70 expressed on EBV-transformed B cells using anti-CD70 mAb induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis. We observed an early expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes that preceded the release of apoptotic molecules from the mitochondria and the cleavage of caspases. CD70-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal, ROS quencher N-acetylcysteine, and Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA. We supposed that ROS generation might be the first event of CD70-induced apoptosis because N-acetylcysteine blocked increases of ROS and Ca(2+), but BAPTA did not block ROS generation. We also found that CD70 stimulation activated JNK and p38 MAPK. JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 effectively blocked upregulation of ER stress-related genes and cleavage of caspases. Inhibition of ROS generation completely blocked phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK and induction of ER stress-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that cross-linking of CD70 on EBV-transformed B cells triggered ER stress-mediated apoptosis via ROS generation and JNK and p38 MAPK pathway activation. Our report reveals alternate mechanisms of direct apoptosis through CD70 signaling and provides data supporting CD70 as a viable target for an Ab-based therapy against EBV-related tumors.

  11. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  12. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  13. Physiological and behavioral variation in estivation among mud turtles (Kinosternon spp.).

    PubMed

    Ligon, Day B; Peterson, Charles C

    2002-01-01

    Kinosternid mud turtles, a primarily aquatic group, exhibit variable degrees of terrestrial activity in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. We compared behavioral and physiological responses to dry conditions in four populations representing three species, Kinosternon sonoriense, Kinosternon flavescens, and Kinosternon hirtipes. All four groups were subjected to simulated dry season conditions in the laboratory, during which activity was monitored and physiological responses (blood chemistry and rates of resting metabolism and evaporative water loss) were measured. Kinosternon flavescens and K. hirtipes represented extremes in apparent ability to estivate, based on activity and rate of increase of plasma osmolality. Two populations of K. sonoriense exhibited intraspecific differences in behavioral and physiological measures that were related to extant environmental conditions. Large numbers of K. sonoriense from Arizona and K. hirtipes, the poorest estivators, had to be rehydrated after only 30 d out of water. Kinosteron flavescens had the lowest metabolic rates, but no evidence of metabolic depression during dehydration was found for any of the four populations. We conclude that the differences in capacity for estivation among populations are primarily linked to variable behavioral responses to dry conditions, though high rates of evaporative water loss in K. hirtipes represent a probable physiological constraint.

  14. Physiological ecology meets climate change.

    PubMed

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms.

  15. Physiological Stress in Koala Populations near the Arid Edge of Their Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Nicole Ashley; Gramotnev, Galina; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the ecology of stress has hitherto been neglected, but it is in fact an important influence on the distribution and numbers of wild vertebrates. Environmental changes have the potential to cause physiological stress that can affect population dynamics. Detailed information on the influence of environmental variables on glucocorticoid levels (a measure of stress) at the trailing edge of a species’ distribution can highlight stressors that potentially threaten species and thereby help explain how environmental challenges, such as climate change, will affect the survival of these populations. Rainfall determines leaf moisture and/or nutritional content, which in turn impacts on cortisol concentrations. We show that higher faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in koala populations at the trailing arid edge of their range in southwestern Queensland are associated with lower rainfall levels (especially rainfall from the previous two months), indicating an increase in physiological stress when moisture levels are low. These results show that koalas at the semi-arid, inland edge of their geographic range, will fail to cope with increasing aridity from climate change. The results demonstrate the importance of integrating physiological assessments into ecological studies to identify stressors that have the potential to compromise the long-term survival of threatened species. This finding points to the need for research to link these stressors to demographic decline to ensure a more comprehensive understanding of species’ responses to climate change. PMID:24265749

  16. The use of haemoglobin concentrations to assess physiological condition in birds: a review

    PubMed Central

    Minias, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Total blood haemoglobin concentration is increasingly being used to assess physiological condition in wild birds, although it has not been explicitly recognized how reliably this parameter reflects different components of individual quality. Thus, I reviewed over 120 published studies linking variation in haemoglobin concentrations to different measures of condition and other phenotypic or ecological traits. In most of the studied avian species, haemoglobin concentrations were positively correlated with other commonly used indices of condition, such as body mass and fat loads, as well as with quality of the diet. Also, chick haemoglobin concentrations reliably reflected the intensity of nest infestation by parasitic arthropods, and haemoglobin was suggested to reflect parasitism by haematophagous ectoparasites much more precisely than haematocrit. There was also some evidence for the negative effect of helminths on haemoglobin levels in adult birds. Finally, haemoglobin concentrations were found to correlate with such fitness-related traits as timing of arrival at breeding grounds, timing of breeding, egg size, developmental stability and habitat quality, although these relationships were not always consistent between species. In consequence, I recommend the total blood haemoglobin concentration as a relatively robust indicator of physiological condition in birds, although this parameter is also strongly affected by age, season and the process of moult. Thus, researchers are advised to control fully for these confounding effects while using haemoglobin concentrations as a proxy of physiological condition in both experimental and field studies on birds. PMID:27293692

  17. Cassava biology and physiology.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  18. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  19. Good vibrations: "sirens," soundscapes, and physiology.

    PubMed

    Plock, Vike Martina

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes Joyce's ongoing interest in psychoacoustics and illustrates how much he drew, in the writing of the "Sirens" episode, on nineteenth-century sound experiments that were developed by the German physician Hermann von Helmholtz. It argues that Joyce consciously referenced nineteenth-century sound theories to explore the link between the emotional and sensory experience of music and the physical and physiological components of sound perception.

  20. Physiological ecology of overwintering in hatchling turtles.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E; Ultsch, Gordon R

    2008-07-01

    Temperate species of turtles hatch from eggs in late summer. The hatchlings of some species leave their natal nest to hibernate elsewhere on land or under water, whereas others usually remain inside the nest until spring; thus, post-hatching behavior strongly influences the hibernation ecology and physiology of this age class. Little is known about the habitats of and environmental conditions affecting aquatic hibernators, although laboratory studies suggest that chronically hypoxic sites are inhospitable to hatchlings. Field biologists have long been intrigued by the environmental conditions survived by hatchlings using terrestrial hibernacula, especially nests that ultimately serve as winter refugia. Hatchlings are unable to feed, although as metabolism is greatly reduced in hibernation, they are not at risk of starvation. Dehydration and injury from cold are more formidable challenges. Differential tolerances to these stressors may explain variation in hatchling overwintering habits among turtle taxa. Much study has been devoted to the cold-hardiness adaptations exhibited by terrestrial hibernators. All tolerate a degree of chilling, but survival of frost exposure depends on either freeze avoidance through supercooling or freeze tolerance. Freeze avoidance is promoted by behavioral, anatomical, and physiological features that minimize risk of inoculation by ice and ice-nucleating agents. Freeze tolerance is promoted by a complex suite of molecular, biochemical, and physiological responses enabling certain organisms to survive the freezing and thawing of extracellular fluids. Some species apparently can switch between freeze avoidance or freeze tolerance, the mode utilized in a particular instance of chilling depending on prevailing physiological and environmental conditions.

  1. Genetics and the physiological ecology of conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitton, J.B.

    1995-07-01

    Natural selection acts on the diversity of genotypes, adapting populations to their specific environments and driving evolution in response to changes in climate. Genetically based differences in physiology and demography adapt species to alternate environments and produce, along with historical accidents, the present distribution of species. The sorting of conifer species by elevation is so marked that conifers help to define plant communities arranged in elevational bands in the Rocky Mountains. For these reasons, a genetic perspective is necessary to appreciate the evolution of ecophysiological patterns in the coniferous forests of the Rocky Mountains. The fascinating natural history and the economic importance of western conifers have stimulated numerous studies of their ecology, ecological genetics, and geographic variation. These studies yield some generalizations, and present some puzzling contradictions. This chapter focuses on the genetic variability associated with the physiological differences among genotypes in Rocky Mountain conifers. Variation among genotypes in survival, growth, and resistance to herbivores is used to illustrate genetically based differences in physiology, and to suggest the mechanistic studies needed to understand the relationships between genetic and physiological variation.

  2. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  3. Assessing physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Burggren, W W; Monticino, M G

    2005-09-01

    Physiologists both admire and fear complexity, but we have made relatively few attempts to understand it. Inherently complex systems are more difficult to study and less predictable. However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. We begin this essay with a tour of some mathematical views of complexity. After briefly exploring chaotic systems, information theory and emergent behavior, we reluctantly conclude that, while a mathematical view of complexity provides useful perspectives and some narrowly focused tools, there are too few generally practical take-home messages for physiologists studying complex systems. Consequently, we attempt to provide guidelines as to how complex systems might be best approached by physiologists. After describing complexity based on the sum of a physiological system's structures and processes, we highlight increasingly refined approaches based on the pattern of interactions between structures and processes. We then provide a series of examples illustrating how appreciating physiological complexity can improve physiological research, including choosing experimental models, guiding data collection, improving data interpretations and constructing more rigorous system models. Finally, we conclude with an invitation for physiologists, applied mathematicians and physicists to collaborate on describing, studying and learning from studies of physiological complexity.

  4. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  5. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  6. Pavlov's physiology factory.

    PubMed

    Todes, D P

    1997-06-01

    The author examines the forces and relations of production in Pavlov's laboratory at the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine during the first phase of its operation (1891-1904). As in any production site, the forces of production included its physical plant and technologies, its workforce (with its skills), and management's ideas about what constituted good products and how best to produce them. In Pavlov's laboratory, these included a physical plant adapted for physiological surgery and "chronic experiments," dog-technologies and experimental practices created in accordance with Pavlov's Bernardian vision of physiology, and a workforce dominated by physicians untrained in physiology who were seeking quick doctoral degrees. The relations of production featured an authoritarian structure and cooperative ethos that allowed Pavlov to use coworkers as extensions of his sensory reach, while enabling him constantly to monitor the work process, to control the "interpretive moments" in experiments, to incorporate results into his developing ideas, and to convert them efficiently into marketable products.

  7. Human physiology in space.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J

    1996-12-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  8. Genetic approaches in comparative and evolutionary physiology.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Bridgham, Jamie T; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-08-01

    Whole animal physiological performance is highly polygenic and highly plastic, and the same is generally true for the many subordinate traits that underlie performance capacities. Quantitative genetics, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for the analysis of physiological phenotypes and can be used to infer the microevolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of trait variation within and among species. In cases where specific genes are known to contribute to variation in physiological traits, analyses of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence can reveal molecular mechanisms of functional evolution and can provide insights into the possible adaptive significance of observed sequence changes. In this review, we explain how the tools and theory of quantitative genetics, population genetics, and molecular evolution can inform our understanding of mechanism and process in physiological evolution. For example, lab-based studies of polygenic inheritance can be integrated with field-based studies of trait variation and survivorship to measure selection in the wild, thereby providing direct insights into the adaptive significance of physiological variation. Analyses of quantitative genetic variation in selection experiments can be used to probe interrelationships among traits and the genetic basis of physiological trade-offs and constraints. We review approaches for characterizing the genetic architecture of physiological traits, including linkage mapping and association mapping, and systems approaches for dissecting intermediary steps in the chain of causation between genotype and phenotype. We also discuss the promise and limitations of population genomic approaches for inferring adaptation at specific loci. We end by highlighting the role of organismal physiology in the functional synthesis of evolutionary biology.

  9. Generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species via the autoxidation of hydrogen sulfide under physiologically relevant conditions: chemistry relevant to both the genotoxic and cell signaling properties of H(2)S.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Marjorie; Rajapakse, Anuruddha; Shen, Xiulong; Gates, Kent S

    2012-08-20

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has long been known for its toxic properties; however, in recent years, evidence has emerged that this small, gaseous molecule may serve as an endogenous cell-signaling agent. Though perhaps surprising in light of its potential role as an endogenous signaling agent, a number of studies have provided evidence that H(2)S is a DNA-damaging mutagen. In the work reported here, the chemical mechanisms of DNA damage by H(2)S were examined. Using a plasmid-based DNA strand cleavage assay, we found that micromolar concentrations of H(2)S generated single-strand DNA cleavage. Mechanistic studies indicate that this process involved autoxidation of H(2)S to generate superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and, ultimately, the well-known DNA-damaging agent hydroxyl radical via a trace metal-mediated Fenton-type reaction. Strand cleavage by H(2)S proceeded in the presence of physiological thiol concentrations, and the known byproducts of H(2)S oxidation such as thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate do not contribute to the strand cleavage process. However, initially generated oxidation products such as persulfide (S(2)(2-)) likely undergo rapid autoxidation reactions that contribute to the generation of superoxide. The potential relevance of autoxidation processes to the genotoxic and cell signaling properties of H(2)S is discussed.

  10. Physiological Signal Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a Physiological Signal Conditioner (PSC) for monitoring of astronauts in the ISS Human Research Facility. The PSC is battery powered and worn by the crew. The Engineering Development Unit (PSC EDU) and the form-and-fit PSC Tooling Model will be displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. Results of a recent advanced PSC-2 feasibility study will be presented. The presentation will stimulate discussion of the functional capabilities of a wireless, crew worn Physiological Signal Conditioner. Application of advanced technology to meet the conflicting demands of size, power, and functional capability will be of interest.

  11. Specifications Physiological Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The operation of a physiological monitoring system (PMS) is described. Specifications were established for performance, design, interface, and test requirements. The PMS is a compact, microprocessor-based system, which can be worn in a pack on the body or may be mounted on a Spacelab rack or other appropriate structure. It consists of two modules, the Data Control Unit (DCU) and the Remote Control/Display Unit (RCDU). Its purpose is to collect and distribute data from physiological experiments in the Spacelab and in the Orbiter.

  12. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  13. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  14. The Virtual Physiological Human

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

  15. Physiology of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  16. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  17. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  18. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  19. Renal physiology of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Katharine L; Lafayette, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient.

  20. Research on gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

  1. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  2. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  3. Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-del-Real, Javier; Lairón-Peris, María; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation

  4. Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Del-Real, Javier; Lairón-Peris, María; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation

  5. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  6. Amelioration of the effects of ozone on C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] perennial species by elevated carbon dioxide: Physiology, leaf chemistry and whole-plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future tropospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and ozone (O[sub 3]) will likely continue to increase above preindustrial levels. In two experiments six common grass and tree species of central North America were grown under all combinations of two levels each of ambient and elevated CO[sub 2] and O[sub 3]. When grown under ambient CO[sub 2], elevated O[sub 3] caused reductions in growth, while under elevated CO[sub 2], these adverse effects of O[sub 3] were substantially reduced or completely eliminated. The detrimental effects of O[sub 3] on growth were primarily due to decreased photosynthesis and increased respiration, which were also ameliorated in elevated CO[sub 2]. This interaction between CO[sub 2] and O[sub 3] may largely be explained by a CO[sub 2]-induced decrease in stomatal conductance, which reduces O[sub 3] uptake and therefore lessens its impact. These results suggest that predicting future ecological responses will require better understanding of the complicated interactions which may occur between the myriad elements of a changing global environment.

  7. [Physiologic effects of hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Eniko; Jenei, Zsigmond; Horváth, Anikó; Gellér, László; Szilágyi, Szabolcs; Király, Akos; Molnár, Levente; Sótonyi, Péter; Merkely, Béla; Zima, Endre

    2011-01-30

    Therapeutic use of hypothermia has come to the frontline in the past decade again in the prevention and in mitigation of neurologic impairment. The application of hypothermia is considered as a successful therapeutic measure not just in neuro- or cardiac surgery, but also in states causing brain injury or damage. According to our present knowledge this is the only proven therapeutic tool, which improves the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, decreasing the oxygen demand of the brain. Besides influencing the nervous system, hypothermia influences the function of the whole organ system. Beside its beneficial effects, it has many side-effects, which may be harmful to the patient. Before using it for a therapeutic purpose, it is very important to be familiar with the physiology and complications of hypothermia, to know, how to prevent and treat its side-effects. The purpose of this article is to summarize the physiologic and pathophysiologic effects of hypothermia.

  8. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  9. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations.

  10. Physiology of skin.

    PubMed

    Greaves, M W

    1976-07-01

    One of Montagna's greatest contributions to study of the biology of the skin has been his demolition of the artificial walls that traditionally separated the histologist from the physiologist. He has shown that only by relating function with structure can we shed light on the workings of the skin. He has stressed the fallacy of studying a single structural or functional unit in isolation from others. The skin represents an organization of many different functional units, and physiology of skin is the study of this organization. My purpose is to make a personal commentary on the achievements, failures, and prospects of understanding some aspects of the organization of the functional units. Twenty-five years ago, the importance of relating skin to internal organs and systems received much attention. We have long been aware that skin sometimes reacts to internal disease, but only recently has the impact of skin disorders on the circulatory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems been recognized. As a result, our patients are now less likely to suffer from neglect of the whole which follows narrow over-specialized attention to the part. Increased interest in endocrine effects on the skin has revealed that several important physiologic activities of the skin are either partly or wholly regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine glands. Nevertheless, some physiologic activities in skin seems to be independent, their regulation being carried out by local mediating hormones. Other activities involve both central and local regulation. The nature and roles of these two control mechanisms and their interrelation constitute by far the most promising physiologic research in skin.

  11. Tuna comparative physiology.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  12. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  13. Integrin-linked kinase: a new member of the kinases involved in hypertensive end-organ damage?

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Eguchi, Satoru

    2014-07-01

    Integrin-linked kinase predominantly localizes at focal adhesions to regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics, including cell migration and matrix remodelling. Although recent studies have suggested both physiological and pathophysiological roles of integrin-linked kinase in the cardiovascular and renal system, its involvement in hypertensive organ dysfunctions, such as those that occur in kidney, has not been investigated. In the present issue of Clinical Science, Alique and co-workers have demonstrated that angiotensin II-induced renal inflammatory responses were attenuated in mice with conditional deficiency of integrin-linked kinase, which were associated with suppression of nuclear factor κB activation and reactive oxygen species generation but not hypertension. The significance, potential mechanisms and future direction are presented and discussed in this Commentary.

  14. Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Colley, Rachel Christine; Saunders, Travis John; Healy, Genevieve Nissa; Owen, Neville

    2010-12-01

    Sedentary behaviour is associated with deleterious health outcomes, which differ from those that can be attributed to a lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity. This has led to the field of "sedentary physiology", which may be considered as separate and distinct from exercise physiology. This paper gives an overview of this emerging area of research and highlights the ways that it differs from traditional exercise physiology. Definitions of key terms associated with the field of sedentary physiology and a review of the self-report and objective methods for assessing sedentary behaviour are provided. Proposed mechanisms of sedentary physiology are examined, and how they differ from those linking physical activity and health are highlighted. Evidence relating to associations of sedentary behaviours with major health outcomes and the population prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviours are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are proposed.

  15. Molecular biology in physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, S.; Gargus, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this symposium on molecular biology in physiology was to introduce molecular biology to physiologists who had relatively little exposure to the new developments in this field, so that they can become conversant on this topic and contribute to the advancement of physiology by incorporating molecular biological approaches as a part of their research arsenal. This report is a review of the symposium, which consisted of two four-part sessions. Each session had four papers. After the discussion of the basic concepts, terminology, and methodology used in molecular biology, it was shown how these basic principles have been applied to the study of the genes encoding two membrane proteins that have important transport functions (band 3 and ATPase). The second half of the symposium consisted of papers on the state-of-the-art developments in the application of molecular biology to the studies of the atrial natriuretic factor and renin genes, adenylate cyclase-coupled adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine receptors and sodium channel, and long-term and short-term memories. The ultimate goal is that these examples will provide an impetus for the opening of new frontiers of research in physiology by taking advantage of the tools developed from recent advances in molecular biology.

  16. Emerging technologies for non-invasive quantification of physiological oxygen transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Taguchi, M; Burrs, S L; Hauser, B A; Salim, W W A W; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2013-09-01

    Oxygen plays a critical role in plant metabolism, stress response/signaling, and adaptation to environmental changes (Lambers and Colmer, Plant Soil 274:7-15, 2005; Pitzschke et al., Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1757-1764, 2006; Van Breusegem et al., Plant Sci 161:405-414, 2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of various metabolic pathways in which oxygen is a key molecule, are produced during adaptation responses to environmental stress. While much is known about plant adaptation to stress (e.g., detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant production), the link between ROS metabolism, O2 transport, and stress response mechanisms is unknown. Thus, non-invasive technologies for measuring O2 are critical for understanding the link between physiological O2 transport and ROS signaling. New non-invasive technologies allow real-time measurement of O2 at the single cell and even organelle levels. This review briefly summarizes currently available (i.e., mainstream) technologies for measuring O2 and then introduces emerging technologies for measuring O2. Advanced techniques that provide the ability to non-invasively (i.e., non-destructively) measure O2 are highlighted. In the near future, these non-invasive sensors will facilitate novel experimentation that will allow plant physiologists to ask new hypothesis-driven research questions aimed at improving our understanding of physiological O2 transport.

  17. The regulative effect of galanin family members on link of energy metabolism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Shi, Mingyi; Kong, Guimei; Dong, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2015-09-01

    It is essential for the species survival that an efficient coordination between energy storage and reproduction through endocrine regulation. The neuropeptide galanin, one of the endocrine hormones, can potently coordinate energy metabolism and the activities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis to adjust synthesis and release of metabolic and reproductive hormones in animals and humans. However, few papers have summarized the regulative effect of the galanin family members on the link of energy storage and reproduction as yet. To address this issue, this review attempts to summarize the current information available about the regulative effect of galanin, galanin-like peptide and alarin on the metabolic and reproductive events, with special emphasis on the interactions between galanin and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone and ovarian hormones. This research line will further deepen our understanding of the physiological roles of the galanin family in regulating the link of energy metabolism and reproduction.

  18. Amphibians as animal models for laboratory research in physiology.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Warburton, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The concept of animal models is well honored, and amphibians have played a prominent part in the success of using key species to discover new information about all animals. As animal models, amphibians offer several advantages that include a well-understood basic physiology, a taxonomic diversity well suited to comparative studies, tolerance to temperature and oxygen variation, and a greater similarity to humans than many other currently popular animal models. Amphibians now account for approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of lower vertebrate and invertebrate research, and this proportion is especially true in physiological research, as evident from the high profile of amphibians as animal models in Nobel Prize research. Currently, amphibians play prominent roles in research in the physiology of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and sensory systems. Amphibians are also used extensively in physiological studies aimed at generating new insights in evolutionary biology, especially in the investigation of the evolution of air breathing and terrestriality. Environmental physiology also utilizes amphibians, ranging from studies of cryoprotectants for tissue preservation to physiological reactions to hypergravity and space exploration. Amphibians are also playing a key role in studies of environmental endocrine disruptors that are having disproportionately large effects on amphibian populations and where specific species can serve as sentinel species for environmental pollution. Finally, amphibian genera such as Xenopus, a genus relatively well understood metabolically and physiologically, will continue to contribute increasingly in this new era of systems biology and "X-omics."

  19. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  20. The role of hydroxo-bridged dinuclear species and the influence of "innocent" buffers in the reactivity of cis-[Co(III)(cyclen)(H₂O)₂]³⁺ and [Co(III)(tren)(H₂O)₂]³⁺ complexes with biologically relevant ligands at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Basallote, Manuel G; Martínez, Manuel; Vázquez, Marta

    2014-07-28

    In view of the relevance of the reactivity of inert tetraamine Co(III) complexes having two substitutionally active cis positions capable of interact with biologically relevant ligands, the study of the reaction of c