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Sample records for linn mimi burbank

  1. Mimi's Moms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilman, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Before Michelle Hatchell and her partner, Liz, sent their child, Mimi, to school for the first time, the family sat down and created a script. "What can you say," Hatchell prompted, "if someone asks if you have two moms?" They sent Mimi's teacher picture books depicting families with two mothers. And they met with the principal, requesting Mimi be…

  2. Luther Burbank's best berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank, the quintessential nurseryman of the early 20th century, remarked that small fruit was the “Cinderella of the pomological family.” He stated that while tree fruits had been improved to the point of an almost uncountable number of cultivars, it was the time and responsibility of his g...

  3. Luther Burbank's berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank, the quintessential nurseryman of the early 20th century, remarked that small fruit was the “Cinderella of the pomological family.” He stated that while tree fruits had been improved to the point of an almost uncountable number of varieties, it was the time and responsibility of his g...

  4. The Voyage of the MIMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Sam; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    The Voyage of MIMI is a major educational project housed at Bank Street College (New York) which is directed toward the development of extensive television, computer software, videodisc, and print materials for use in science and mathematics education in grades 5-7. The first series has been completed, and includes a 13-part dramatic television…

  5. Science, Mathematics, and the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doblmeier, Joyce; Fields, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Students with difficulty in maintaining grade-level performance at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (Washington, DC) are learning mathematics and science skills using "The Voyage of the Mimi," a 13-segment video series and associated educational materials that detail a scientific expedition which is studying humpback whales. Team teaching…

  6. Luther Burbank's contributions to walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank began making controlled crosses between walnut species in the late nineteenth century after hearing about a “supposed natural European hybrid walnut.” He crossed Juglans hindsii (northern California black walnut) × J. regia (Persian walnut) and produced progeny that he named ‘Paradox’...

  7. Luther Burbank's contributions to walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After hearing about a “supposed natural European hybrid walnut,” Luther Burbank began making controlled crosses between walnut species in the late nineteenth century. He first crossed Juglans hindsii (northern California black walnut)× J. regia (Persian walnut) that produced progeny that he named ‘P...

  8. The Second Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank Street Coll. of Education, New York, NY.

    This book includes 12 units that have been adapted from the television series "Voyage of the Mimi." Each unit includes the episode, an activity, and an expedition. The episodes introduce and accompany each episode of the television series. The activity is an extension of that episode which can be done in the classroom. Mapping skills, foreign…

  9. The origin of Russet Burbank (Netted Gem), a sport of Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank was the most successful North American potato cultivar of the past century. It dominated the fresh market for decades and became the foremost French fry processing variety. Russet Burbank set the standard for taste and texture of baked potatoes and French fries and it made an indelibl...

  10. Cassini/MIMI Science Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Between Saturn Orbit Insertion in July 2004 and the present, the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft has measured electrons and ions (energies ~5 keV to over 10 MeV and energetic neutrals (energies ~5 - 200 keV) throughout Saturn's magnetosphere including Saturn's bow shock and magnetopause, plasma sheet, magnetotail, and cis-moon spaces. MIMI observations have included auroral acceleration, magnetotail reconnection, global and local-scale injection events, identifications of charged particle species,, dual and multiple periodicities associated with planetary rotation, and the seasonal variations of many of these phenomena. Most recent MIMI investigations have shown (1) short-period charged-particle oscillations (~1 hour) at high latitude are associated with similar magnetic field, radio, and aurora variations (2) quasi-periodic relativistic electron injection in Saturn's outer magnetosphere, (3) modeling of radiation belt particles to explain their distribution and energy spectrum, and to anticipate the population inside the D-ring, (4) continuing the imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath and beyond, (5) characterizing the interaction of Titan with the un-shocked solar wind, (6) deep tail observations supporting the "bowl model" of plasma sheet curvature, (7) asymmetries in the charged particles that are associated with a still-unexplained noon-midnight electric field, (8) local time variations in the energetic particle periodicities, (9) and signatures of satellite-magnetosphere interactions and their implications for both the body and the whole system. During the final sets of orbits of the Cassini Mission at Saturn (dubbed the Grand Finale, which includes the F-ring—periapsis outside the F-ring—and the Proximal Orbits—periapsis between the innermost D-ring and the atmosphere), MIMI will make the first-ever measurements of the innermost radiation belts of Saturn, detailed ENA imaging of charged

  11. STS-106 Crew Interviews: Daniel Burbank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) video production presents an STS-106 pre-launch interview with Mission Specialist Daniel C. Burbank, Lt. Commander, United States Coast Guard (USCG). Among other topics, Burbank discusses how his Coast Guard career evolved into spaceflight, his experiences flying helicopters for the Coast Guard, and his chief duties on the upcoming spaceflight. STS-106 is International Space Station assembly flight ISS-2A.2b and will utilize the SPACEHAB Double Module and the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to take supplies to the station. The mission will also include 2 spacewalks.

  12. Burbank Transportation Management Organization: Impact Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Aabakken, J.

    2006-11-01

    The Burbank Transportation Management Organization (BTMO), a private, membership-based, nonprofit organization dedicated to traffic reduction and air quality improvement, contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. Department of Energy-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory, to analyze its member programs and their benefits and effects. This report uses trip data collected by the BTMO, and defines and implements a methodology for quantifying non-traffic benefits such as gasoline savings, productivity, and pollution reduction.

  13. 23. A SECTION OF THE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT WHICH CONTAINS BURBANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. A SECTION OF THE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT WHICH CONTAINS BURBANK ORIGINALS - QUINCES - ALONG ROAD. THE EUCALYPTUS TO THE RIGHT IS JUST OUTSIDE THE SOUTHEAST CORNER PROPERTY LINE AND WAS INDICATED ON THE 1912 BURBANK PLAN. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  14. 21st century approach to improving Burbank's 'stoneless' plum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank had a theme running through many of his breeding programs; that of making the plants more tailored to man’s uses. Mr. Burbank thought that in plum fruit the stone was unessential to a tree that was propagated vegetatively, so he chose stoneless plums as a breeding goal. He made two ...

  15. A Curriculum Review: The Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    The curriculum package, "The Voyage of the Mimi," uses computer, videocassette, student text, and workbook for integrated study of the great whales and the impact of social actions on society and the environment. This review suggests that the package also offers many ancillary teaching opportunities. (CB)

  16. STS-106 Mission Specialist Burbank suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During suitup in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-106 Mission Specialist Daniel C. Burbank smiles in anticipation of launch. This is Burbank'''s first space flight. Space Shuttle Atlantis is set to lift off 8:45 a.m. EDT on the fourth flight to the International Space Station. During the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  17. Dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere from MIMI during Cassini's orbital insertion.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Hamilton, D C; Krupp, N; Livi, S; Roelof, E C; Dandouras, J; Armstrong, T P; Mauk, B H; Paranicas, C; Brandt, P C; Bolton, S; Cheng, A F; Choo, T; Gloeckler, G; Hayes, J; Hsieh, K C; Ip, W-H; Jaskulek, S; Keath, E P; Kirsch, E; Kusterer, M; Lagg, A; Lanzerotti, L J; Lavallee, D; Manweiler, J; McEntire, R W; Rasmuss, W; Saur, J; Turner, F S; Williams, D J; Woch, J

    2005-02-25

    The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic neutral atom (ENA) operating mode on 20 February 2004, at approximately 10(3) times Saturn's radius RS (0.43 astronomical units), a weak but persistent signal was observed from the magnetosphere. About 10 days before SOI, the magnetosphere exhibited a day-night asymmetry that varied with an approximately 11-hour periodicity. Once Cassini entered the magnetosphere, in situ measurements showed high concentrations of H+, H2+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ and low concentrations of N+. The radial dependence of ion intensity profiles implies neutral gas densities sufficient to produce high loss rates of trapped ions from the middle and inner magnetosphere. ENA imaging has revealed a radiation belt that resides inward of the D ring and is probably the result of double charge exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn's exosphere.

  18. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) Movies and Other Cool Data from Cassini's Magnetosphere Imaging Instrument (MIMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Having been at Saturn for over a decade, the MIMI instrument on Cassini has created a rich dataset containing many details about Saturn's magnetosphere. In particular, the images of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) taken by the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) offer a global perspective on Saturn's plasma environment. The MIMI team is now regularly making movies (in MP4 format) consisting of consecutive ENA images. The movies correct for spacecraft attitude changes by projecting the images (whose viewing angles can substantially vary from one image to the next) into a fixed inertial frame that makes it easy to view spatial features evolving in time. These movies are now being delivered to the PDS and are also available at the MIMI team web site. Several other higher order products are now also available, including 20-day energy-time spectrograms for the Charge-Energy-Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) sensor, and daily energy-time spectrograms for the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements system (LEMMS) sensor. All spectrograms are available as plots or digital data in ASCII format. For all MIMI sensors, a Data User Guide is also available. This paper presents details and examples covering the specifics of MIMI higher order data products. URL: http://cassini-mimi.jhuapl.edu/

  19. 78 FR 64048 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, California AGENCY... that the noise exposure maps submitted by Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority, for Bob Hope... the noise exposure maps submitted for Bob Hope Airport are in compliance with applicable...

  20. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Curtis J. Bonk, Mimi Miyoung Lee, Thomas C. Reeves, & Thomas H. Reynolds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Mark; Gardner, Ellen; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Curtis J. Bonk, is Professor of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University and President of CourseShare. Mimi Miyoung Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and instruction at the University of Houston. Thomas C. Reeves is Professor Emeritus of Learning, Design, and Technology at the University of Georgia. Thomas H.…

  1. Practicing whole-patient cardiology: An interview with Mimi Guarneri, MD. Interview by Sheldon Lewis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Mimi

    2008-01-01

    Mimi Guarneri, MD, is medical director and co-founder of Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine in San Diego, California. She received her medical degree from SUNY Medical Center in New York and served an internship and residency at Cornell Medical Center, where she later became chief medical resident. Dr Guarneri and Rauni King, RN, in 1997 founded the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine to address the emotional and spiritual needs of patients as well as their physical needs. Dr Guarneri is a member of the American College of Cardiology, Alpha Omega Alpha, and the American Medical Women's Association. She is a diplomate of the American Holistic Medical Association and has keynoted numerous integrative medicine conferences, authored the best-selling book The Heart Speaks, and appeared on NBC's Today show. Dr Guarneri was interviewed earlier this year by Sheldon Lewis, former editor in chief of Advances. PMID:20664142

  2. Overview of Results from the Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) During the First Year of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krupp, N.; Livi, S.; Roelof, E. C.; Dandouras, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Brandt, J. P.; Paranicas, C.

    2005-01-01

    The MIMI investigation comprises three sensors covering the indicated energy ranges: the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) -- 7 keV/nuc 3 Mev) and protons (1.6 < E < 160 Mev) from the back end of the dual field-of-view telescope. The Saturn observation sequences began in January, 2004 and culminated in Saturn Orbit Insertion on July 1, 2004. The MIMI sensors observed substantial activity in interplanetary space for several months prior to SOI, including several interplanetary shocks associated with corotating interaction regions, numerous increases most likely originating from particle streams in the vicinity of the Saturnian bow shock and energetic neutral atoms (ENA) emanating from Saturn s magnetosphere. Results following SOI revealed: a dynamical magnetosphere with a day-night asymmetry and an 11-hour periodicity; several water-product ions (O+, OH+, H2O+), but little N+; inferred quantities of neutral gas sufficient to cause major losses in the trapped ions and electrons in the middle and inner magnetosphere; a Titan exosphere that is a copious source of ENA; INCA imaging through ENA has also revealed a previously unknown radiation belt residing inward of the D-ring that is most likely the result of double charge-exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn s exosphere. Finally, there is ample evidence for the presence of substorm-like injections of plasma that subsequently corotates for a number of days before dissipating on the night-side magnetotail. The observations will be presented and discussed in the context of current theoretical models.

  3. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  4. STS-106 M.S. Burbank arrives at KSC for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 Mission Specialist Daniel C. Burbank smiles on his arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. He and the rest of the crew will be making pre-launch preparations for the fourth flight to the International Space Station. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long- duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  5. Why are we still growing Russet Burbank? Part I. The many weaknesses and great strengths of America’s No. 1 potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank remains the most widely grown potato variety in the United States. Knowing this, one might be tempted to conclude that Russet Burbank is an outstanding variety that is agronomically superior to other germplasm, but nothing could be farther from the truth. In variety trial after variet...

  6. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  7. A defect in inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes in the osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages were activated by administration of an inflammatory lipid metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc), to wild type mice but not murine (microphthalmic) osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mutant mice. In vitro treatment of wild type mouse peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc efficiently activated macrophages whereas lyso-Pc-treatment of mi mutant mouse peritoneal cells resulted in no activation of macrophages. Generation of macrophage activating factor requires a precursor protein, serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and participation of lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes. Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes was found to be defective in mi mutant mice. PMID:8881764

  8. Development of expressed sequence tag resources for Vanda Mimi Palmer and data mining for EST-SSR.

    PubMed

    Teh, Seow-Ling; Chan, Wai-Sun; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2011-08-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP) is a highly sought as fragrant-orchid hybrid in Malaysia. It is economically important in cosmetic and beauty industries and also a famous potted ornamental plant. To date, no work on fragrance-related genes of vandaceous orchids has been reported from other research groups although the analysis of floral fragrance or volatiles have been extensively studied. An expressed sequence tag (EST) resource was developed for VMP principally to mine any potential fragrance-related expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) for future development as markers in the identification of fragrant vandaceous orchids endemic to Malaysia. Clustering, annotation and assembling of the ESTs identified 1,196 unigenes which defined 966 singletons and 230 contigs. The VMP dbEST was functionally classified by gene ontology (GO) into three groups: molecular functions (51.2%), cellular components (16.4%) and biological processes (24.6%) while the remaining 7.8% showed no hits with GO identifier. A total of 112 EST-SSR (9.4%) was mined on which at least five units of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexa-nucleotide repeats were predicted. The di-nucleotide motif repeats appeared to be the most frequent repeats among the detected SSRs with the AT/TA types as the most abundant among the dimerics, while AAG/TTC, AGA/TCT-type were the most frequent trimerics. The mined EST-SSR is believed to be useful in the development of EST-SSR markers that is applicable in the screening and characterization of fragrance-related transcripts in closely related species.

  9. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review

    PubMed Central

    Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known ‘Ballataka’ or ‘Bhilwa’, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

  10. 140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  11. A unified optimization platform comparison of three radiosurgery techniques: Gamma Knife, BrainLAB micro-MLC, and NOMOS MIMiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, Dennis Allen

    The objective of this research is to build a unified optimization treatment planning system in order to accurately compare the three modalities unburdened by underlying assumptions that could alter the outcome of the comparison. The hypothesis for the dissertation is: Three photon radiosurgery delivery mechanisms are utilized for the delivery of necrotic radiation doses to a cranial lesion: the Gamma Knife, micro-MLC intensity modulated radiosurgery, and MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery. Each modality has its own strength and weaknesses in their ability to deliver radiosurgery treatments. We hypothesize the MIMiC based intensity modulated radiosurgery will allow improvements to radiosurgery treatments compared to the conventional Gamma Knife and micro-MLC, as quantified by the following metrics: isodose line display, dose volume histograms, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. The specific aims for the dissertation are: (1) Develop a radiosurgery treatment planning software platform to import image and structure data and to offer evaluation tools. The evaluation tools will include isodose line display, dose volume histogram, Ian Paddick conformality index, homogeneity index, and objective function score. (2) Develop a simulated annealing optimization routine, with an associated objective function, that will determine the optimal treatment plan for the defined solution space. The objective, or cost function will be based on Ian Paddick conformality index. (3) Perform multiple repeat optimizations of each modality for a given lesion in order to gather statistical information about the minimum solution found. This test will quantify the ability of the optimization routine to arrive at a similar local minimum and therefore quantify the reliability of the comparison performed in specific aim five. (4) Investigate the affect of the Gamma Knife's shot limitation on the resulting dose distribution for a given lesion

  12. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  13. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

  14. Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

  15. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Gupta, Ankit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2–3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2–8 cm) long, (1.5–5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569825

  16. Comparative analysis of virus-specific small RNA profiles of three biologically distinct strains of Potato virus Y in infected potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Russet Burbank.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Khalid; Mitter, Neena; Harper, Artemus; Dhingra, Amit; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-10-13

    Deep sequencing technology has enabled the analysis of small RNA profiles of virus-infected plants and could provide insights into virus-host interactions. Potato virus Y is an economically important viral pathogen of potato worldwide. In this study, we investigated the nature and relative levels of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in potato cv. Russet Burbank infected with three biologically distinct and economically important strains of PVY, the ordinary strain (PVY-O), tobacco veinal-necrotic strain (PVY-N) and tuber necrotic strain (PVY-NTN). The analysis showed an overall abundance of vsiRNAs of 20-24nt in PVY-infected plants. Considerable differences were present in the distribution of vsiRNAs as well as total small RNAs. The 21nt class was the most prevalent in PVY-infected plants irrespective of the virus strain, whereas in healthy potato plants, the 24nt class was the most dominant. vsiRNAs were derived from every position in the PVY genome, though certain hotspots were identified for each of the PVY strains. Among the three strains used, the population of vsiRNAs of different size classes was relatively different with PVY-NTN accumulating the highest level of vsiRNAs, while PVY-N infected plants had the least population of vsiRNAs. Unique vsiRNAs mapping to PVY genome in PVY-infected plants amounted to 3.13, 1.93 and 1.70% for NTN, N and O, respectively. There was a bias in the generation of vsiRNAs from the plus strand of the genome in comparison to the negative strand. The highest number of total vsiRNAs was from the cytoplasmic inclusion protein gene (CI) in PVY-O and PVY-NTN strains, whereas from PVY-N, the NIb gene produced maximum total vsiRNAs. These findings indicate that the three PVY strains interact differently in the same host genetic background and provided insights into virus-host interactions in an important food crop. PMID:25036885

  17. Comparative analysis of virus-specific small RNA profiles of three biologically distinct strains of Potato virus Y in infected potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Russet Burbank.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Khalid; Mitter, Neena; Harper, Artemus; Dhingra, Amit; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-10-13

    Deep sequencing technology has enabled the analysis of small RNA profiles of virus-infected plants and could provide insights into virus-host interactions. Potato virus Y is an economically important viral pathogen of potato worldwide. In this study, we investigated the nature and relative levels of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in potato cv. Russet Burbank infected with three biologically distinct and economically important strains of PVY, the ordinary strain (PVY-O), tobacco veinal-necrotic strain (PVY-N) and tuber necrotic strain (PVY-NTN). The analysis showed an overall abundance of vsiRNAs of 20-24nt in PVY-infected plants. Considerable differences were present in the distribution of vsiRNAs as well as total small RNAs. The 21nt class was the most prevalent in PVY-infected plants irrespective of the virus strain, whereas in healthy potato plants, the 24nt class was the most dominant. vsiRNAs were derived from every position in the PVY genome, though certain hotspots were identified for each of the PVY strains. Among the three strains used, the population of vsiRNAs of different size classes was relatively different with PVY-NTN accumulating the highest level of vsiRNAs, while PVY-N infected plants had the least population of vsiRNAs. Unique vsiRNAs mapping to PVY genome in PVY-infected plants amounted to 3.13, 1.93 and 1.70% for NTN, N and O, respectively. There was a bias in the generation of vsiRNAs from the plus strand of the genome in comparison to the negative strand. The highest number of total vsiRNAs was from the cytoplasmic inclusion protein gene (CI) in PVY-O and PVY-NTN strains, whereas from PVY-N, the NIb gene produced maximum total vsiRNAs. These findings indicate that the three PVY strains interact differently in the same host genetic background and provided insights into virus-host interactions in an important food crop.

  18. 138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and underneath of the viaduct. Shape of the piers was designed to provide aesthetic sense of light and shadow. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Cassia tora Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan Kumar; Mandal, Subhash C.; Saha, B.P.; Pal, M.

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556931

  20. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  1. Acorus calamus Linn.: phytoconstituents and bactericidal property.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-10-01

    Acorus calamus Linn. of the family Araceae (Acoraceae), commonly known as Sweet Flag and Vacha. The rhizome of this plant has medicinal properties against bugs, moths, lice and emetic stomach in dyspepsia. Chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of A. calamus was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A. calamus and its major compound β-asarone were tested against five Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration rang of 5.0-0.009 mg/mL. Forty constituents were identified which comprised 98.3 % of the total oil. The major compound β-asarone (80.6 %) was identified and confirm by NMR ((1)H- & (13)C-) in rhizome oil of A. calamus. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found to be more susceptible to the oil with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 0.032 ± 0.004 mg/mL, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Micrococcus flavus with MBC values of 0.104 ± 0.016, 0.117 ± 0.017 and 0.143 ± 0.013 mg/mL, respectively. The compound β-asarone was susceptible to the microorganism A. niger with MBC value 0.416 ± 0.065 mg/mL. The present study revealed that tetraploid variety of A. calamus is growing in this region with substantial amount of β-asarone. The oil showed bactericidal property against tested bacteria and fungi. The β-asarone exhibited poorer bactericidal activity against test microorganisms. PMID:27562598

  2. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  3. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  4. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  5. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Marcia C. Linn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Susan M.; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Susan M. Fulgham and Michael F. Shaughnessy, Contributing Editors for this journal, present their interview with Marcia C. Linn, Professor of Development and Cognition, specializing in education in mathematics, science, and technology, in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. Linn is currently investigating…

  6. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

  7. 256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. 136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  9. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  10. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  11. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

  12. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

    2010-01-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

  13. In Vitro Propagation of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.).

    PubMed

    Soriano, Thelma L; Cangao, Evangelina C

    2016-01-01

    Terminal shoot tips of sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.) are cultured to initiate and regenerate shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA). After 1 month, shoots, usually 4.5 cm long are separated and subcultured for multiplication. Regenerated shoots, about 6 cm long are rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Exposure of shoots to high humidity for the first 2 weeks and equal proportion (1:1:1) of sterile sand, compost, and coir dust as potting mix favors the development of whole sambong plants. Young shoots from in vitro-derived sambong plants could also be used for propagation. PMID:27108320

  14. Standardisation and Quality Evaluation of Centella asiatica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, G.V.R.; Chaturvedi, Sachin; Deokule, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Centella asiatica Linn. Is a well-known medicinal herb used in various types of diseases, it was noticed that the herb is being heavily adulterated with the cheaper substances. A critical stud of the authentic and maker samples (available in powder for) s carried out to study current status of the drug in the local market. Powder analysis of the market samples shoes fragments of sclerenchymatous net, which is a characteristic feature of some umbelliferous fruits. Occurrence of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and large number of starch grains shows that the powdered materials are heavily adulterated with some cheaper substances. Fluorescence analysis of authentic and market samples exhibits 23.28% and 12.34% -18.13% respectively and there is a difference in curde fibre content also. Moreover there is remarkable difference in the quantitative value of Asiatic acid (3.25% - 0.12%) which is one of the chief constituents of C. asiatica. PMID:22557022

  15. Potent Insulin Secretagogue from Scoparia dulcis Linn of Nepalese Origin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Khaga Raj; Adhikari, Achyut; Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Raza, Sayed Ali; Kalauni, Surya Kant; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Ethno-botanical inspired isolation from plant Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Sweet Broomweed) yielded six compounds, coixol (1), glutinol (2), glutinone (3), friedelin (4), betulinic acid (5), and tetratriacontan-1-ol (6). There structures were identified using mass and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their insulin secretory activity on isolated mice islets and MIN-6 pancreatic β-cell line, and compounds 1 and 2 were found to be potent and mildly active, respectively. Compound 1 was further evaluated for insulin secretory activity on MIN-6 cells. Compound 1 was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against MIN-6, 3T3 cell lines, and islet cells, and in vivo acute toxicity test in mice that was found to be non-toxic. The insulin secretory activity of compounds 1 and 2 supported the ethno-botanic uses of S. dulcis as an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:26178652

  16. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  18. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  19. Corchorus Olitorius Linn: A Rich Source of Ω3-Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, AS; Thao, N; Mario, A

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of Corchorus olitorius Linn were identified as their methyl esters using accurate mass gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GCQTOF) in chemical ionization (CI) and electron ionization (EI) modes. The leaves which are the edible part of the plant were found to be very rich in ω3-octadecatriene fatty acid reaching up to more than 49 % of the total fatty acids contents. This is the first report to unequivocally detect ω-3 fatty acid in Corchorus olitorius Linn with a much higher concentration than any other reported vegetable and further investigation into its health effects are clearly warranted. PMID:27722021

  20. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  1. In vitro propagation and rhizome formation in Curcuma longa Linn.

    PubMed

    Sunitibala, H; Damayanti, M; Sharma, G J

    2001-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) which is cultivated by underground rhizomes is a slow propagating species. Multiplication and callus induction starting from the rhizome buds and shoot tips of C. longa in MS medium was carried out. A combination of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1.0 mg/l) with kinetin (Kn; 1.0 mg/l) or NAA (1.0 mg/l) with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 2.0 mg/l) was optimum for rapid clonal propagation of turmeric. A concentration of 2.5-3.0 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) was found to be optimum for callus induction. Regeneration of plantlets from a callus was successfully conducted in MS medium supplemented with standard growth hormones for multiplication at 25 +/- 2 degrees C under a 16 h photoperiod. These plantlets were successfully transferred to the field. Plantlets (4-month-old) were incubated in a medium containing different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) and Kn (1.0 mg/l) at 27 +/- 2 degrees C under an 8 h photoperiod for induction of rhizomes. In vitro rhizome formation was observed in media containing 6 and 8% sucrose. PMID:11393773

  2. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  3. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area.

  4. Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-09-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far.

  5. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  6. Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Irene M; Canlas, Arlyn P; Pascua, Marcy Paul I; Sabando, May N; Soliven, Leen Aloha P

    2002-03-01

    The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Cussia alata Linn. were tested for their antimutagenic, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. Both the hexane and EtOAc extracts exhibited antiinflammatory activity at a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse with a 65.5% and 68.2% decrease in carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. The chloroform extract was antimutagenic, at a dosage of 2 mg/20 g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. It was also the most active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL but it had no activity against Candida albicans. The hexane and EtOAc extracts showed some activity against both organisms, with the EtOAc extract being more active against C. albicans. The EtOAc extract was hypoglycaemic. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. Pharmacological studies showed that all extracts caused an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhoea. At a dosage of 150 mg/20 g mouse, the EtOAc extract caused paralysis, screen grip loss and enophthalmus accompanied by drooping and closure of the eyelids. PMID:11933153

  7. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  8. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, R.; Prasant, K.; Babu, U. V.

    2012-01-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

  9. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    PubMed

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

  10. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  11. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

  12. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis of different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, H R; Hiremanth, S K

    2009-01-01

    Different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn) were analyzed to screen the genuinity of the samples available in the market in the name of Ashoka. All the samples were subjected for Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis and found that all the samples were derived from the different botanical sources. PMID:22557344

  13. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  14. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  15. Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R

    1991-01-01

    50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment.

  16. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  17. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  18. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  19. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  20. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism.

  1. Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

    2014-09-01

    Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation.

  2. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM.

  3. Extraction and purification of curcain, a protease from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    PubMed

    Nath, L K; Dutta, S K

    1991-02-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, curcain, has been extracted from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn. The enzyme was purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The homogeneity of protein associated with curcain was established by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using a discontinuous buffer system. The molecular weight of curcain was estimated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration using a calibration curve of standard proteins to be around 22,000 daltons.

  4. A study of the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitisLinn

    PubMed Central

    Dheer, Reema; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extract of leaf and root of B. prionitis was tested for their antidiabetic activity. Albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In three groups, diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and all the rats were given different treatments consisting of vehicle, alcoholic extract of leaves, and alcoholic extract roots of B. prionitis Linn (200 mg/kg) for 14 days. The same treatment was given to the other three groups, comprising non-diabetic (normal) animals. Blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glycogen, serum insulin, and body weight were estimated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, before and 2 weeks after administration of drugs. Results: Animals treated with the alcoholic extract of leaves of B. prionitis Linn showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P<0.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P<0.01). A significant increase was observed in serum insulin level (P<0.01) and liver glycogen level (P<0.05), whereas the decrease in the body weight was arrested by administration of leaf extract to the animals. The alcoholic extract of roots showed a moderate but non-significant antidiabetic activity in experimental animals. Conclusion: The study reveals that the alcoholic leaf extract of B. prionitis could be added in the list of herbal preparations beneficial in diabetes mellitus. PMID:20711368

  5. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  6. Of all foods bread is the most noble: Carl von Linné (Carl Linneaus) on bread1

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    Carl von Linné was interested in dietetics, which in his time covered all aspects of a healthy life. As a utilitarian he understood the importance of private economy and paid attention to bread in many of his publications. Two texts, Ceres noverca arctoum and De pane diaetetico, were wholly devoted to bread and bread-making. Linné classified different types of bread, and described their nutritional value and health-related aspects, as well as milling, baking and storing, in detail. While discussing the food habits of social classes Linné accepted as a fact that the peasants and the poor should eat less tasty bread than the rich. The less palatable bread had, however, many nutritional and health advantages. Linné paid much attention to substitutes for grain to be used in times of famine, an important topic in eighteenth century Sweden. He regarded flour made of pine bark or water arum roots as excellent famine food, was enthusiastic about the new plant, maize, but considered potato only as a poor substitute for grain. Linné and his followers praised bread not only as the core component of diet, but also for its versatile role both in health and in disease.

  7. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

  8. Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Sinam, Geetgovind; Behera, Sandip K; Mishra, Rohit K; Sinha, Sarita; Mallick, Shekhar; Khare, P B

    2012-08-01

    Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton.

  9. History and origin of Russet Burbank (Netted Gem) a sport of Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foremost French fry processing cultivar in the world, ‘Russet Burbank’, will soon reach an important milestone. In 2014 it will be 100 years since it was first identified. This review investigated the colorful history of ‘Russet Burbank’, clarified its lineage, used a Multiplex PCR system to con...

  10. Evaluation of In vitro Antiviral Activity of Datura metel Linn. Against Rabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed) extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. Results: The Datura (fruit and seed) extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50). Titer of 10−4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50]) was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50) ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous) extracts. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model. SUMMARY In the present study, Datura metel. Linn showed and in-vitro anti rabies activity in Vero cell line which was determined by RFFIT method and PCR method

  11. Evaluation of In vitro Antiviral Activity of Datura metel Linn. Against Rabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed) extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. Results: The Datura (fruit and seed) extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50). Titer of 10−4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50]) was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50) ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous) extracts. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model. SUMMARY In the present study, Datura metel. Linn showed and in-vitro anti rabies activity in Vero cell line which was determined by RFFIT method and PCR method PMID:27695266

  12. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

  14. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  15. Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Devi, B Parimala; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

    2003-07-01

    The antipyretic activity of a methanol extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (CVME) was investigated for its potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. The CVME, at doses of 200, 300, and 400mg/kg BW p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The effect also extended upto 5h after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of CVME was comparable to that of paracetamol (150mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. PMID:12787948

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mahendra K; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Patel, Tejas K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Tripathi, C B

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan induced paw oedema in Wistar albino rats; analgesic activity with doses of 280 mg/kg and 560 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice; and antipyretic activity with doses of 110 mg/kg and 220 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits by injecting gram -ve lipopolysaccharide obtained from E. coli. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison test. Pedalium murex Linn. showed significant anti-inflammatory activity from 15 min to 180 min as compared to vehicle treated animals. It was comparable to diclofenac sodium at 180 min. The extract did not prolong the reaction time on hot plate method but significantly reduced the number of writhing after acetic acid administration. Also the extract did not show any antipyretic activity on lipopolysaccharide induced pyrexia. It is therefore concluded that the ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits has an anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects.

  17. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

  18. Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Wu, Dun-Hao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-11-24

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma. PMID:21028816

  19. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  20. In vitro and in vivo Antiinflammatory Activity of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeenu; Bindhu, A. R.; Aleykutty, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method) and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model). Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard) treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug. PMID:24082358

  1. Clinical evaluation of Veerataru (Dichrostachys cinerea Linn.) in the management of Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria).

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupesh R; Sharma, P P

    2013-07-01

    Veerataru is quoted to be effective in various conditions of Mootravaha Srotodushti such as Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria), Mootraghata (Anuria), Ashmari (Urinary calculi), Sharkara (Concretions) etc., by various Acharyas. Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) is a disease of Basti (Bladder). It comes under Mootraapravruttijanyavyadhi, where Kruchchhrata (Shoola -Pain and Daha-Burning) during mootra pravrutti is the chief symptom. As per modern view, dysuria is a leading feature of lower or mid urinary tract infection. Antibiotics have their own limitations due to re-infections and recurrence even after long-term therapy, due to development of resistance of the microorganisms to the drugs. By considering all the above facts and to fulfill the lacuna about the absence of scientific data of Veerataru, the present research work had been taken up especially to evaluate its efficacy on Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria). Patients suffering from Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) were selected and divided into two groups, i.e. Group A received Kwatha (decoction) of Veerataru-Dichrostachys cinerea Linn. (Trial drug) and Group B received Kwatha of Punarnava-Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Standard control) respectively. The effects of therapy were assessed by a specially prepared clinical research proforma. The result showed better symptomatic relief in Group A, i.e. trial drug as compared to Group B, i.e. standard control group. PMID:24501517

  2. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  3. Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action.

  4. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 μg/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract and its application as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Heui; Kim, Ki Ho; Han, Chang Sung; Park, Sun Hee; Yang, Hong Chul; Lee, Bang Yong; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Young-Sil; Kim, Jong-Heon; Lee, Nam Ho

    2008-01-01

    Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum has long been used as a rheumatic remedy, as an anti-pyretic and as an anti-ulcer treatment, and for the alleviation of local pain and fever in Korea and Malaysia. In order to investigate the possibility of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract as a cosmetic ingredient, we measured its anti-inflammatory effect by its inhibition of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and the release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. We also measured its anti-allergic effect by its inhibition of beta-hexosamidase release. An HPLC experiment after extraction with 95% EtOH at pH 3.5 showed that Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum was mainly composed of lycorine (up to 1%), a well-known immunosuppressor. The content of lycorine varied, depending on the type of plant tissue analyzed and the extraction method. In an anti-inflammatory assay for inhibition of nitric oxide formation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, the ethanol extract of Crinum asiaticum showed an inhibitory activity of NO production in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 58.5 microg/ml). Additional study by RT-PCR demonstrated that the extract of Crinum asiaticum significantly suppressed the expression of the iNOS gene. Moreover, the extract of Crinum asiaticum did not show any cytotoxicity, but did show a cell proliferation effect against LPS (a 10 approximately 60% increase in cell viability). In an assay to determine inhibition of the H2O2-activated release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human normal fibroblast cell lines, the release of PGE2 and IL-6 was almost completely inhibited above concentrations of 0.05% and 1%, respectively. Moreover, the release of IL-8 was completely inhibited over the entire range of concentration (>0.0025%). In order to investigate the skin-sensitizing potentials of the extract of Crinum asiaticum, a human clinical test was performed after repeated epicutaneous 48-h applications under an occlusive patch (RIPT). The

  6. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn

  7. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts. PMID:26642683

  8. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

  9. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bi-Ling; Zou, Hui-Liang; Qin, Fang-Min; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1) and B (2), and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3), were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 were established to be (2S)-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S)-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher's method.

  10. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  11. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-04-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.

  12. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  13. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  14. A comparative analytical study of Prasarani [Merremia tridentata Hallier. f. and Paederia foetida Linn].

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Vasanth, P; Kumar, D Vijaya

    2012-07-01

    Prasarani is one of the drugs used in Vata Rogas such as Amavata, Avabahuka, etc. Among the different source plants of Prasarani, the plant Merremia tridentata Haller.f. is mostly used in South India and the plant Paderia foetida Linn. in North India, hence taken in the present work for comparative analytical study. It was observed that there is a common constituent (having 350 mm absorbance maxima) present in both the drug samples indicating that both works on a similar disease. It was also found that the whole plant powder sample of P. foetida has more number of constituents than that of M. tridentata which indicates P. foetida may have a better efficacy than M. tridentata. PMID:23723657

  15. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar.

  16. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia Linn on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Olorunfemi Cornelius; Ajanusi, Joseph Ologunja; Adaudi, Ambrose O; Agbede, Rowland I S

    2006-09-01

    Spigelia anthelmia Linn is used as a herb and is a common annual weed of cultivation in open re-growths, on unused land in towns as well as on road sides. The plant can grow to approximately 30 cm in height. The aim of this study was to screen extracts of Spigelia anthelmia for their anthelmintic activity against an experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis infection in rats. Acute oral toxicity occurred at a dose of 1,140 mg/kg, while anthelmintic trials against Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats using the aqueous fraction showed a progressive decrease in worm count with increasing dose (10, 13, 16, 20 and 25 mg per kg body weight) (p < 0.05). At 25 mg per kg body weight, the worm count was significantly lower than that at 10 mg per kg body weight (p < 0.05).

  18. Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Abutilon Indicum Linn.

    PubMed

    Srividya, A R; Dhanabal, S P; Jeevitha, S; Varthan, V J Vishnu; Kumar, R Rajesh

    2012-03-01

    Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC(50) value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC(50) value of LPO (r(2) = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r(2) = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r(2) = 0.2554, P<0.0962. PMID:23325999

  19. Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Abutilon Indicum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Srividya, A. R.; Dhanabal, S. P.; Jeevitha, S.; Varthan, V. J. Vishnu; Kumar, R. Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC50 value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC50 value of LPO (r2 = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.0962. PMID:23325999

  20. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  1. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

  2. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M M; Jain, S K; Tripathi, M

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF AERIAL PARTS of Celsia coromandeliane Vahl AND Mollugo pentaphylla Linn

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Majumder, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pranab Kumar; Jena, Anima; Panday, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    The anthelmintic activities of different extracts of aerial parts of Celsia coromandeliane Vahl and Mollugo pentaphylla Linn were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether (PECC), chloroform (CCC), ethanol (ECC) extract of C. coromandeliane and petroleum ether (PEMP), benzene (BMP), ethyl acetate (EAMP), ethanol (EMP) extract of M. pentaphylla showed anthelmintic activities at the concentration of 5 mg/ml of each. The anthelmintic effects of CCC, PEMP, BMP and EAMP at 5 mg/ml and PECC at 10-mg/ml concentrations are comparable with that of the effects produced by the reference standards albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). PMID:22557204

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, N. Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Dhamodharan, R.; Murugesan, S.; Kumar, S. Damodar

    2013-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V; Dhamodharan, R; Murugesan, S; Kumar, S Damodar

    2013-07-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  6. Protection of swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Goyal, P K; Kumar, Ashok

    2004-07-01

    The radioprotective effects of Mentha oil (Mentha piperita Linn.) against radiation induced haematological alterations in peripheral blood and the survival of Swiss albino mice were studied. Mentha oil 40 micro L/animal/day for 3 consecutive days when fed orally prior to whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) showed protection of the animals in terms of the survival percentage and haematological parameters in mice. Fifty per cent of the animals died within 20 days and 100% mortality was observed up to 30 days post-irradiation in the control irradiated group. Whereas only 17% of the mice died within 30 days in the experimental group (Mentha oil pretreated irradiated). The total RBC count decreased maximally at 24 h (3.45 +/- 0.20 x 10(12)/L, p < 0.001), similar observations were obtained for the WBC count, haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage in the irradiated control animals. However, in irradiated animals pretreated with Mentha oil, although the initial values of haematological components were lower they later showed a remarkable recovery reaching normal at 30 days post-irradiation compared with the irradiated control animals. In general, the recovery of the blood cell number in irradiated animals depends on the survival of stem cells and their derivatives. The results from the present study suggest that the oil of Mentha piperita (Linn.) has a radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the haematopoietic system. Hence, enhanced survival and an increase in the haematological constituents of peripheral blood of mice against lethal gamma radiation was observed.

  7. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  8. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  9. An in silico study on antidiabetic activity of bioactive compounds in Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Vo, T Hoang; Tran, Ngan; Nguyen, Dat; Le, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have become strongly preferred treatment to reduce the negative impacts of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its severe complications due to lesser side effects and low cost. Recently, strong anti-hyperglycemic effect of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. (E. thymifolia) on mice models has reported but the action mechanism of its bioactive compounds has remained unknown. This study aimed to evaluate molecular interactions existing between various bioactive compounds in E. thymifolia and targeted proteins related to Type 2 DM. This process involved the molecular docking of 3D structures of those substances into 4 targeted proteins: 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin-6. In the next step, LigandScout was applied to evaluate the bonds formed between 20 ligands and the binding sites of each targeted proteins. The results identified seven bioactive compounds with high binding affinity (<-8.0 kcal/mol) to all 4 targeted proteins including β-amyrine, taraxerol, 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, corilagin, cosmosiin, quercetin-3-galactoside and quercitrin. The pharmacophore features were also explained in 2D figures which indicated hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrogen bond donors forming between carbonyl oxygen molecules of those ligands and active site residues of 4 targeted protein.Graphical abstract Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. is a small prostrate herbaceous annual weed that can positively impact on reducing hyperglycemic effect. In order to clearly understand about molecular level of the its bioactive compounds, in silico approach is performed. PMID:27588252

  10. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  11. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-07-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  12. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

  13. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control. PMID:23379981

  14. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  15. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain. PMID:25298581

  16. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

  17. Chemopreventive effect of Curcuma longa Linn on liver pathology in HBx transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsun; Ha, Hye-Lin; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-06-01

    Unlike other forms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows a poor prognosis after conventional therapies. HBV induces liver cirrhosis and HCC. Many researchers have made efforts to find new substances that suppress the activity of HBV. Curcuma longa Linn (CLL) has been used for traditional medicine and food in Asia, especially in India, and has shown chemopreventive effects in a HBV-related in vitro model. This in vivo study was designed to seek the chemopreventive effects of CLL and its mechanisms. CLL mixture concentrated with dextrose water by boiling was lyophilized. CLL extracts were administrated to HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic mice aged 4 weeks for 2 to 4 weeks and aged 6 months for 3 months. After administration, histological changes in the liver tissue and expression of HBx-related genes were investigated. CLL-treated mice showed less visceral fat, a smaller liver/body weight ratio and delayed liver pathogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was also increased in CLL-treated HBx transgenic mice, indicating regeneration of damaged liver tissue. CLL treatment decreased expression of HBx and increased p21 and cyclin D1 in livers of HBx transgenic mice. In addition, p-p53 was increased after CLL treatment. These results suggest that CLL can have beneficial effects on the early and late stages of liver pathogenesis, preventing and delaying liver carcinogenesis. This drug should be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent for HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21190953

  18. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  19. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  20. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

  1. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  2. Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2% w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

  3. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies.

    PubMed

    Gautam, M K; Goel, R K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  4. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent. PMID:27072205

  5. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

  6. Preparation of Activated Carbon From Polygonum orientale Linn. to Remove the Phenol in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jia; Shi, Shengli; Pei, Liangyu; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    Phenol components are major industry contaminants of aquatic environment. Among all practical methods for removing phenol substances from polluted water, activated carbon absorption is the most effective way. Here, we have produced low-cost activated carbon using Polygonum orientale Linn, a wide spreading species with large biomass. The phenol adsorption ability of this activated carbon was evaluated at different physico-chemical conditions. Average equilibrium time for adsorption was 120 min. The phenol adsorption ability of the P. orientale activated carbon was increased as the pH increases and reached to the max at pH 9.00. By contrast, the ionic strength had little effect on the phenol absorption. The optimum dose for phenol adsorption by the P. orientale activated carbon was 20.00 g/L. The dominant adsorption mechanism of the P. orientale activated carbon was chemisorption as its phenol adsorption kinetics matched with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In addition, the equilibrium data were fit to the Langmuir model, with the negative standard free energy and the positive enthalpy, suggesting that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. PMID:27741305

  7. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    PubMed

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  10. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per Vĕda it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of Lăksă (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurvĕda literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree.

  11. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  12. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states.

  13. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    PubMed

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes.

  14. Dolichos biflorus Linn. ameliorates diabetic complications in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Yogesh; Purwar, Brijesh; Meena, Harsh; Sarthi, Parth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Horsegram (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) is a known antilithiatic, hypolipedemic and has free radical scavenging activity and increased production of reactive oxygen species play a role in pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger diabetic complications. Aim: To see the effect of daily oral feeding of D.biflorous on nephropathy and retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ) induced-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy rats were randomly grouped into controls, diabetic and diabetic on Dolichos. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg) and animals were given prepared food and water ad libitum. Dolichos was orally given at 300 mg/kg/day to rats in diabetic on Dolichos group for next 30 days. Fasting blood glucose levels was monitored at beginning and at the end of the experiment while assessment of serum creatinine levels and histopathological study of kidney and retina was carried only at the end of the experiment. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by, Bonferroni test as posthoc test. Results: Results indicated improvement in serum creatinine levels and reduced glomerular sclerosing and Bowman's space with interstitial alterations and significantly reduced renal hypertrophy in diabetic rat son Dolichos diabetic rats (P < 0.001). Retinal layers showed inconsistent improvement in the width of the neuronal layers and decreased vacuolization of plexiform layers and retinal vessel density. Conclusion: D. biflorus at doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 30 days resulted in gradual but significant decreased diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26195910

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Bacoside-A, a major constituent of Bacopa monniera Linn.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, T; Nongbri, A

    2008-10-01

    Bacoside-A (B-A) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against d-GalN induced liver injury in rats. B-A is a major constituent isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera Linn. B-A (10mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally once daily for 21 days and then d-GalN (300 mg/kg of body weight) was injected on 21st day after final administration of B-A. B-A reduces the elevated levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'nucleotidase (5'ND). In addition B-A also significantly restored towards normalization of the decreased levels of Vit-C, and Vit-E induced by d-GalN both in liver and plasma. These results suggest that B-A has hepatoprotective effect against d-GalN induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  17. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. extract on murine immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saraphanchotiwitthaya, Aurasorn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Sripalakit, Pattana

    2008-10-01

    The study was to investigate and compare the effects of the Bacopa monniera Linn. extract and bacoside A on the ICR mice immune system in vitro. Splenocyte proliferation without or with mitogen (lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen, phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A) and phagocytic activity were assayed. The results showed that B. monniera extract at 0.001-1 mg/mL slightly suppressed splenocyte proliferation (SI 0.7) and decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation (SI 0.4) at 0.001 and 0.1 mg/mL with concanavalin A. Bacoside A at 0.001 mg/mL gave the highest splenocyte proliferation (SI 1.5) and strongly increased T-lymphocyte proliferation (SI 2.0) at 0.1 mg/mL with concanavalin A. Thus, it is possible to attribute the effect of B. monniera extract on splenocyte proliferation to the presence of bacoside A with other combined components. However, only B. monniera extract at 10 mg/mL produced a slight increase in lysosomal enzyme activity (PI 1.2), indicating a weak effect on phagocytic activation. It might be concluded that B. monniera manifests various effects on the murine immune system depending on the immune cell types, in accordance with its folklore uses. New assays are being carried out to study its mechanisms and to further investigate its applications in the treatment of human immune mediated diseases.

  18. Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. PMID:26884763

  20. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  1. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per Vĕda it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of Lăksă (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurvĕda literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree. PMID:19580111

  2. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  3. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit. PMID:26681883

  4. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  6. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction.

  7. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  8. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-β-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98 ± 7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  9. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats.

  11. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

  12. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. α-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. γ-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was γ-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs.

  13. Protic acid resin enhanced 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride pretreatment of Arundo donax Linn.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Sukun; Xu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    To improve the cellulose digestibility of energy crop Arudo donax Linn. with cost-efficient, a novel pretreatment of protic acid resin Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed inexpensive ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) was developed in this work. The pretreatment was performed at 160°C with [C4mim]Cl for 1.5h, followed by Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed at 90°C for 1h. The IL-Amberlyst pretreatment was demonstrated to be effective, evidenced by the reduction in cellulose crystallinity (31.4%) and increased porosity caused by extensive swelling the undissolved biomass and partial depolymerization of the longer cellulose chain of the dissolved biomass by Amberlyst. Consequently, a higher glucose yield (92.8%) was obtained than for the single [C4mim]Cl pretreatment (42.8%) at an enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. Overall, the enhanced pretreatment was competitive by using inexpensive and recyclable IL-Amberlyst 35DRY pretreated system with shorter processing time and reduced enzyme usage. PMID:25001325

  14. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-04-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

  15. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Atikur Rahman, Md; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  16. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  17. Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

  18. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.

  19. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  20. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  1. Chemopreventive effect of Curcuma longa Linn on liver pathology in HBx transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsun; Ha, Hye-Lin; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-06-01

    Unlike other forms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows a poor prognosis after conventional therapies. HBV induces liver cirrhosis and HCC. Many researchers have made efforts to find new substances that suppress the activity of HBV. Curcuma longa Linn (CLL) has been used for traditional medicine and food in Asia, especially in India, and has shown chemopreventive effects in a HBV-related in vitro model. This in vivo study was designed to seek the chemopreventive effects of CLL and its mechanisms. CLL mixture concentrated with dextrose water by boiling was lyophilized. CLL extracts were administrated to HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic mice aged 4 weeks for 2 to 4 weeks and aged 6 months for 3 months. After administration, histological changes in the liver tissue and expression of HBx-related genes were investigated. CLL-treated mice showed less visceral fat, a smaller liver/body weight ratio and delayed liver pathogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was also increased in CLL-treated HBx transgenic mice, indicating regeneration of damaged liver tissue. CLL treatment decreased expression of HBx and increased p21 and cyclin D1 in livers of HBx transgenic mice. In addition, p-p53 was increased after CLL treatment. These results suggest that CLL can have beneficial effects on the early and late stages of liver pathogenesis, preventing and delaying liver carcinogenesis. This drug should be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent for HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    PubMed

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  3. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  4. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  5. Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

  6. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  8. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    PubMed

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  10. Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, K.; Shyamala, R.; Thirumurugan, V.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K.

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22557366

  11. Studies on medically important flies in Thailand. III. Report of species belonging to the genus Musca Linné, including the taxonomic key (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Tumrasvin, W; Shinonaga, S

    1977-09-01

    Twenty species belonging to the genus Musca Linné are reported from Thailand with taxonomic key. This study is based on the specimens available in the authors' collection and 8 species are the new records from this country. The newly recorded species are Musca interrupta pilifacies, M. lucens, M. fasciata, M. pattoni, M. planiceps, M. xanthomelas, M. bezzii and M. convexifrons.

  12. Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

    1987-07-01

    Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45

  13. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  14. [Analysis of chlorogenic acids in Helianthus tuberosus Linn leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Mingzhe; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Hongbin; Tan, Chengyu; Du, Yuguang

    2008-05-01

    To identify chlorogenic acids in Helianthus tuberosus Linn leaves, a method of high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-MS) was developed. HPLC analysis was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase consisted of 1% acetic acid (A) and methanol (B). A gradient program was adopted as follows: 0 - 10 min, 20% B to 35% B; 10 - 25 min, 35% B to 50% B; 25 - 35 min, 50% B to 80% B. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. HPLC chromatogram was extracted at 327 nm. The mass spectrometer used was a TSQ triple quadrupole MS equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. Initially, the mass spectrometer was programmed to perform full scan ranging from m/z 250 - 1 200. For MS/MS, negative ion monitoring mode was used and the collision energy was set at 10 - 45 eV. By analyzing UV characteristics and MS fragmentation patterns, 7 chlorogenic acids were assigned to be three categories, i. e., three caffeoylquinic acids, one feruloylquinic acid and three dicaffeoylquinic acids. As the results of the method development efforts, an effective and fast method for the qualitative identification of the chlorogenic acids in Helianthus tuberosus Linn leaves was established.

  15. Antitumor activity of crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne on U14 cervical carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Qingwang; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Li, Kun; Zhao, Rui; Han, Zengsheng; Gao, Dawei

    2007-09-01

    Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries because of its diuretic and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the effect of the crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL-P) on tumor growth. SNL-P had a significant growth inhibition effect on cervical cancer (U14) of tumor-bearing mice. Further analysis of the tumor inhibition mechanism indicated that the number of apoptotic tumor cells increased significantly, the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 decreased dramatically in cervical cancer sections after oral administration of SNL-P for 12 days. Moreover, SNL-P treatment decreased the level of blood serum TNF-alpha. These results indicated that the tumor growth inhibition of SNL-P administration might correlate with the reduction of TNF-alpha level of blood serum, which resulted in a massive necrosis in tumor tissues and the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 gene expression, which triggered apoptosis in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated that the SNL-P is a potential antitumor agent. PMID:17486683

  16. Potential use of durian fruit (Durio zibenthinus Linn) as an adjunct to treat infertility in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Reshma M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance, the prime factor of PCOS, induces comorbid metabolic syndrome as well. Durian (Durio zibenthinus Linn), a fruit of Southeast Asia, is used as a natural supplement in healthy diets. This paper is a short literature review that examines the fruit's effects against various components of metabolic syndrome and its fertility-enhancing properties in PCOS. Various published literature was reviewed to learn of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anticholesterol, and antihypoglycaemic nature of the fruit. The literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar and library databases. The keywords used were polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, metabolic syndrome and Durian zibenthinus Linn. Reviewed studies showed that the fruit is effective against various components of metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms of action against anovulation and menstrual disturbances in PCOS have yet to be studied. The traditional use of durian as a fertility-enhancing agent needs to be validated scientifically by isolating its various components and ascertaining its fertility enhancing properties. PMID:26778225

  17. Potential use of durian fruit (Durio zibenthinus Linn) as an adjunct to treat infertility in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Reshma M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance, the prime factor of PCOS, induces comorbid metabolic syndrome as well. Durian (Durio zibenthinus Linn), a fruit of Southeast Asia, is used as a natural supplement in healthy diets. This paper is a short literature review that examines the fruit's effects against various components of metabolic syndrome and its fertility-enhancing properties in PCOS. Various published literature was reviewed to learn of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anticholesterol, and antihypoglycaemic nature of the fruit. The literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar and library databases. The keywords used were polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, metabolic syndrome and Durian zibenthinus Linn. Reviewed studies showed that the fruit is effective against various components of metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms of action against anovulation and menstrual disturbances in PCOS have yet to be studied. The traditional use of durian as a fertility-enhancing agent needs to be validated scientifically by isolating its various components and ascertaining its fertility enhancing properties.

  18. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  19. Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

    1996-02-01

    Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

  20. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  2. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH•, DMPD•+ and ABTS•+ assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH• (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD•+ (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS•+ (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity.

  3. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Ruchi; Raut, Rajendra; Tyagi, Poornima; Pareek, Pawan Kumar; Barman, Tarani Kanta; Singhal, Smita; Shirumalla, Raj Kumar; Kanoje, Vijay; Subbarayan, Ramesh; Rajerethinam, Ravisankar; Sharma, Navin; Kanaujia, Anil; Shukla, Gyanesh; Gupta, Y. K.; Katiyar, Chandra K.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Upadhyay, Dilip J.; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs) and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need. Methodology/Principal findings Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract) was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week. Conclusions/Significance Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India. PMID:26709822

  4. Antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of Mogami-benibana (safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne).

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Midori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Komatsu, Makiko; Kido, Toshitaka; Kasahara, Yoshimasa

    2009-04-01

    Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts of petals (bud, early stage, full blooming and ending stage), leaf, stem, root and seeds of Mogami-benibana (safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne), the contents of the major active components of carthamin and polyphenols, and neuroprotective effect of the petal extracts and carthamin in the brain of mice and rats were examined. Water extracts of Mogami-benibana petals scavenged superoxide, hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and singlet oxygen. The scavenging activities of the extract of safflower petals with various colors showed the order of orange, yellow and white from high to low. This order is consistent with the contents of carthamin, which is a pigment of orange color and is found highest in orange petals and lowest in white petals. There was also a relationship between DPPH radical scavenging activity and carthamin content in the petal extracts of safflower. The neuroprotective effects were examined in cellular and animal models. Mogami-benibana petal extract inhibited glutamate-induced C6 glia cell death, significantly decreased the formation of malondialdehyde in mouse cerebrum, and inhibited the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to an injection of FeCl(3) solution into the sensory motor cortex. Carthamin showed similar effects in inhibiting 8-OHdG by the petal extract in rats. These results suggest that the petal extract of Mogami-benibana has free radical scavenging activity and neuroprotective effect and carthamin is one of the major active components.

  5. Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Khalilur; Chowdhury, Md Ashraf Uddin; Islam, Mohammed Taufiqual; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Uddin, Muhammad Erfan; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 ± 0.16 to 1.61 ± 0.12 mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24 h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420 µg/mL. So the highest dose of 400 µg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects. PMID:26346095

  6. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated.

  7. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice.

    PubMed

    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-07-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice. PMID:27437090

  8. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  9. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-01-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice. PMID:27437090

  10. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents.

    PubMed

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH(•), DMPD(•+) and ABTS(•+) assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH(•) (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD(•+) (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS(•+) (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  11. Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Khalilur; Chowdhury, Md. Ashraf Uddin; Islam, Mohammed Taufiqual; Chowdhury, Md. Anisuzzaman; Uddin, Muhammad Erfan; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 ± 0.16 to 1.61 ± 0.12 mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24 h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420 µg/mL. So the highest dose of 400 µg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects. PMID:26346095

  12. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  13. Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2− scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

  14. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH•, DMPD•+ and ABTS•+ assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH• (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD•+ (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS•+ (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  15. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  16. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  17. Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

  18. Determination of field-incurred pyrimethanil residues in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Linn) by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kang, Cheol-Ah

    2007-12-01

    Field trials have been carried out to determine the residues of the fungicide pyrimethanil in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Linn) after field treatment. Three treatments using pyrimethanil (PYR 30% WP) were carried out on persimmon trees at a recommended dose rate: the former was sprayed at two different times at 30 and 21 days prior to harvesting; the second was sprayed three times at 40, 30 and 21 days prior to harvesting; and the third was sprayed four times at 40, 30, 21 and 14 days prior to harvesting. The analysis was based on liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 268 nm. Pyrimethanil was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry HPLC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode. The method was validated with spiked fruit samples at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.4 ppm. Average recoveries (three replicates) ranged from 87.1 to 92.1% with relative standard deviations between 4.5 and 11.98%. The calculated limit of detection was 0.02 ppm and the limit of quantitation was 0.07 ppm. After two, three or four applications, pyrimethanil residues on persimmon averaged 0.44, 0.48 or 0.53 ppm, respectively; all of these values were below the maximum residue level established by the Korean Food and Drug Administration (5.0 ppm). This indicates that pyrimethanil residues declined to a level well below the maximum residue level within the 14 day period between the last application and harvesting.

  19. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  20. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). Objective: To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. Materials and Methods: OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. Results: We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50–500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16–84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. SUMMARY OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; RT-PCR: Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. PMID:27563220

  1. Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico- and Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Spinosus Linn. Root

    PubMed Central

    Jhade, D; Ahirwar, D; Jain, R; Sharma, NK; Gupta, S

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs. PMID:21897662

  2. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h. PMID:19579717

  3. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  4. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular

  5. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline

  6. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  7. Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Kamran; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Amir, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant. PMID:25838167

  8. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-01

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

  9. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower.

    PubMed

    Habib, M Rowshanul; Karim, M Rezaul

    2009-03-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

  10. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower

    PubMed Central

    Habib, M. Rowshanul

    2009-01-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

  11. Neuroprotection of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by anti-inflammatory effect in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Jong-Dai; Hong, Seongkweon; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we tried to verify the neuroprotective effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIL) extract, which has been used as a botanical drug in East Asia, against ischemic damage and to explore the underlying mechanism involving the anti-inflammatory approach. A gerbil was given CIL extract for 7 consecutive days followed by bilateral carotid artery occlusion to make a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Then, we found that CIL extracts protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) from ischemic damage using neuronal nucleus immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence. Accordingly, interleukin-13 immunoreactivities in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of CIL-pretreated animals were maintained or increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. These findings indicate that the pre-treatment of CIL can attenuate neuronal damage/death in the brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via an anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:27073380

  12. Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Kamran; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Amir, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant.

  13. Neuroprotection of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by anti-inflammatory effect in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Jong-Dai; Hong, Seongkweon; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tried to verify the neuroprotective effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIL) extract, which has been used as a botanical drug in East Asia, against ischemic damage and to explore the underlying mechanism involving the anti-inflammatory approach. A gerbil was given CIL extract for 7 consecutive days followed by bilateral carotid artery occlusion to make a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Then, we found that CIL extracts protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) from ischemic damage using neuronal nucleus immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence. Accordingly, interleukin-13 immunoreactivities in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of CIL-pretreated animals were maintained or increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. These findings indicate that the pre-treatment of CIL can attenuate neuronal damage/death in the brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via an anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:27073380

  14. Isolation and structure elucidaton of polyphenols from Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis with antiinflammatory property

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Okoye, Festus Basden Chied; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenols isolated from the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated on the basis of their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumuor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Semi-preparative HPLC separation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (n-BuOH) fractions of the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis led to the isolation of four polyphenols: 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-epicatechin (TMECG) (1); (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (ECG3″Me) (2); rutin (3) and peltatoside (4). Compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant while 1 was isolated for the first time in nature. These compounds (1-4) were readily identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and cytokine (TNF-α) levels in the culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, the study showed that the quercetin diglycosides showed stronger inhibition of proinflammatory mediators than the epicatechin derivates. These data provide evidence that polyphenolic compounds isolated from the mistletoe parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α. PMID:26417309

  15. Generating correlation matrices with model error for simulation studies in factor analysis: a combination of the Tucker-Koopman-Linn model and Wijsman's algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hong, S

    1999-11-01

    Most simulation studies in factor analysis follow a process of constructing population correlation matrices from the common-factor model and generating sample correlation matrices from the population matrices. In the common-factor model, the population correlation matrix is perfectly fit by the model's containing common and unique factors. However, since no mathematical model accounts exactly for the real-world phenomena that it is intended to represent, the Tucker-Koopman-Linn model (1969) is more realistic for generating correlation matrices than the conventional common-factor model because the former incorporates model error. In this paper, a procedure for generating population and sample correlation matrices with model error by combining the Tucker-Koopman-Linn model and Wijsman's algorithm (1959) is presented. The SAS/IML program for generating correlation matrices is described, and an example is also provided.

  16. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs.

  17. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

  18. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  19. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  20. Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway.

  1. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  2. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  3. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-07-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

  4. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones. PMID:20096323

  5. Development and validation of UPLC method for quality control of Curcuma longa Linn.: Fast simultaneous quantitation of three curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Weijun, Kong; Yun, Luo; Jiabo, Wang; Haitao, Wang; Qingmiao, Li; Xiaohe, Xiao

    2010-09-21

    A new reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for the rapid quantification of three curcuminoids (curcumin (C), desmethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdesmethoxycurcumin (BDMC)) in Curcuma longa Linn. (C. longa) using a Waters BEH Shield RP C(18), 2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm column. The runtime was 2 min. The influence of column temperature and mobile phase on resolution was investigated. The method was validated according to the ICH guideline for validation of analytical procedures with respect to precision, accuracy, and linearity. The limits of detection were 40.66, 49.38 and 29.28 pg for C, DMC and BDMC, respectively. Limits of quantitation for C, DMC and BDMC, were 134.18, 164.44 and 97.50 pg, respectively. Linear range was from 3.28 to 46.08 microg/ml. The mean+/-SD percent recoveries of curcuminoids were 99.47+/-1.66, 99.50+/-1.99 and 97.77+/-2.37 of C, DMC and BDMC, respectively. Comparison of system performance with conventional HPLC was made with respect to analysis time, efficiency and sensitivity. The proposed method was found to be reproducible and convenient for quantitative analysis of three curcuminoids in C. longa. This work provided some references for quality control of C. longa. PMID:20395103

  6. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  7. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

  8. Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; John, Febi; Indira, M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital role in the development of MI. The Indian basil or Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), owing to its antioxidant potential, is used in the traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders. We evaluated methanolic extract of O. sanctum (Tulsi) leaves on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced MI in rats. ISP-induced MI increased the levels of cardiac markers, phospholipases and phospholipid content. However, the same were reduced on pre-treatment with methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The activities of 5-lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase-2 and levels of leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were also elevated in ISP-treated rats, which were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in extract pre-treated rats. The enhanced mRNA expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein and receptor for leukotriene B4 on MI induction, were considerably reduced (P < 0.001) on extract pre-treatment. Histopathological analysis also confirmed the findings. The results also revealed the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Tulsi leaves can decrease inflammation in the cardiac tissue of ISP-induced MI in rats and its effect may be through downregulation of oxidative stress and arachidonic acid pathway. This cardioprotective effect may be due to the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. PMID:26665293

  9. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

    2013-01-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  11. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Linn County landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Falwell, R.; Bigsby, P.R.; Myers, N.C. )

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the hydrogeology and groundwater quality conditions near the Linn County Landfill, eastern Kansas was conducted from July 1988 through June 1989. The landfill is located in an unreclaimed coal strip-mine area near Prescott. Analysis of water levels from nine temporary wells and from strip-mine ponds indicated that groundwater flows southwest through the present landfill. A county road west of the landfill acts as a barrier to shallow westerly groundwater flow. Seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow may occur. Water samples from monitoring wells and a strip-mine pond were analyzed for inorganic and organic compounds. Iron, manganese, and dissolved-organic-carbon concentrations were good indicators of the presence of landfill leachate in the groundwater. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were also detected. None of the inorganic or organic compounds detected exceeded Kansas primary drinking-water standards. Chemical concentrations and water levels in some nested wells indicate there is a hydraulic connection between the strip-mine spoil material and the underlying limestone. Leachate-contaminated groundwater has the potential to migrate southwest corner of the landfill through either strip-mine spoil material or through the underlying Pawnee Limestone.

  12. Study on the release routes of allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., and its anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Ye, Jinyun; Zhong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Allelochemicals in Pistia stratiotes Linn. have a strong anti-cyanobacteria effect on Microcystis aeruginosa. To further determine the release routes of allelochemicals in P. stratiotes and understand their anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms, we aimed to systematically investigate the allelopathic effects of leaf leachates, leaf volatilization, root exudates, and residue decomposition of P. stratiotes on M. aeruginosa. The influences of P. stratiotes allelochemicals on the physiological properties of M. aeruginosa were also studied. Root exudates of P. stratiotes exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. The residue decomposition and leaf leachates exhibited a relatively strong inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. By contrast, the leaf volatilization stimulated M. aeruginosa growth. Therefore, root exudation was determined to be the main release route of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes. The mixed culture experiment of P. stratiotes root exudates and M. aeruginosa showed that the allelochemicals released from root exudation had no effect on the electron transfer of M. aeruginosa photosynthetic system II. However, it reduced the phycocyanin (PC) content and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin (PC/APC) ratio in the photosynthetic system. As the root exudates concentration increased, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical (O2(*-)) values in the M. aeruginosa culture fluid increased significantly, indicating that the allelochemicals released from the root of P. stratiotes inhibited algae growth by affecting the PC and PC/APC levels in photosynthesis, destroying the cell membrane, and increasing O2(*-) content to result in oxidative damage of M. aeruginosa.

  13. Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.

    PubMed

    Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

    2015-01-01

    The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water.

  14. Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga Linn. aerial parts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Mishra, Garima; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, Keshri K.; Khosa, Ratan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alpinia galanga Linn. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae has been used as a traditional medicine in China for relieving stomach ache, treating cold, invigorating the circulatory systems, diabetes, and reducing swelling. Aim: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of A. galanga aerial parts on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg bodyweight. Test drug methanolic extract of A. galanga (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.w.) as standard drug was administered orally for 21 consecutive days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profiles, as well as initial and final changes in body weight were assessed along with histopathology. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test. Results: Experimental findings showed significant dose dependent antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract in terms of reduction of fasting blood glucose level and various biochemical parameters in diabetic rats when compared with that of the diabetic control group, which might be due to the stimulatory effect of methanolic extracts on the regenerating β-cells and also on the surviving β-cells. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. galanga was effective in controlling blood glucose level and improve lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:26730146

  15. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  16. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment.

  17. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p < 0.05). Long-term administration of guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, diabetic rats treated with the ethanol extract raised the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) only. The experiments provided evidence to support the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes.

  18. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree from South East Asia and its fruit pericarp is a well-known traditional medicine. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of three xanthone compounds (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin) from mangosteen pericarp was investigated using the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. Significant dose-dependent reduction in % cell viability was induced. γ-Mangostin and 8-deoxygartanine at 5 μg/ml increased the cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase (90% and 92%) compared with untreated cells (78%). All compounds induced apoptosis, of the highest being α-mangostin at 7.5 μg/ml that induced 59.6% early apoptosis, compared to 1.7% in untreated cells. The apoptotic effect of α-mangostin was via caspase activation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane pathways as evidenced by 25-fold increased caspase-3 activity and 9-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, these xanthones, especially α-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents.

  19. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones.

  20. Study on the release routes of allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., and its anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Ye, Jinyun; Zhong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Allelochemicals in Pistia stratiotes Linn. have a strong anti-cyanobacteria effect on Microcystis aeruginosa. To further determine the release routes of allelochemicals in P. stratiotes and understand their anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms, we aimed to systematically investigate the allelopathic effects of leaf leachates, leaf volatilization, root exudates, and residue decomposition of P. stratiotes on M. aeruginosa. The influences of P. stratiotes allelochemicals on the physiological properties of M. aeruginosa were also studied. Root exudates of P. stratiotes exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. The residue decomposition and leaf leachates exhibited a relatively strong inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. By contrast, the leaf volatilization stimulated M. aeruginosa growth. Therefore, root exudation was determined to be the main release route of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes. The mixed culture experiment of P. stratiotes root exudates and M. aeruginosa showed that the allelochemicals released from root exudation had no effect on the electron transfer of M. aeruginosa photosynthetic system II. However, it reduced the phycocyanin (PC) content and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin (PC/APC) ratio in the photosynthetic system. As the root exudates concentration increased, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical (O2(*-)) values in the M. aeruginosa culture fluid increased significantly, indicating that the allelochemicals released from the root of P. stratiotes inhibited algae growth by affecting the PC and PC/APC levels in photosynthesis, destroying the cell membrane, and increasing O2(*-) content to result in oxidative damage of M. aeruginosa. PMID:26233747

  1. The role of Aster amellus Linn. in the degradation of a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red: a phytoremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-02-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of pollutants. This study did explore the potential of Aster amellus Linn. to decolorize a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red (RR), a mixture of dyes and a textile effluent. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and riboflavin reductase was observed during RR decolorization, suggesting their involvement in the metabolism of RR. UV-Visible absorption spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of RR. Four metabolites after the degradation of the dye were identified as 2-[(3-diazenylphenyl) sulfonyl] ethanesulfonate, 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate and 3-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate by using GC/MS. Textile effluent and mixture of dyes showed 47% and 62% decrease respectively in American Dye Manufacturers Institute value. BOD of textile effluent and mixture of dyes were reduced by 75% and 48% respectively, COD of industrial effluent and mixture of dyes was reduced by 60% and 75% and TOC was reduced by 54% and 69% respectively after the treatment by A. amellus for 60 h; this indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluents. Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products.

  2. Efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure--effect on water quality and growth of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Vaneet Inder; Ansal, Meera D

    2010-08-01

    Experiment was conducted in (0.002 ha) cemented tanks for 120 days to assess the efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure at a dose of 10,000 kg/ha/year (VC(10)), 15,000 kg/ha/year (VC(15)) and 20,000 (VC(20)) kg/ha/year) in comparison to semi-digested cow dung (8-10 days old), which was utilized at a dose of 20,000 kg/ha/year (CD(20)). One fourth of the doze was applied 15 days prior to fish stocking and rest in equal weekly installments. Twenty fingerlings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) were stocked (10,000/ha) and fed with supplementary diet @ 2% of their body weight daily. Water quality parameters were found to be within the optimum limits for carp culture in all the treatments. Zooplankton production in all the treatments did not differ significantly. Fish growth in terms of weight gain, percent weight gain, specific growth rate and yield was maximum in VC(15) followed by VC(20), VC(10) and CD(20).

  3. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  4. Therapeutic Effect of Saponin Rich Fraction of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kothavade, Pankaj S.; Bulani, Vipin D.; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M.; Deshpande, Padmini S.; Gawali, Nitin B.; Juvekar, Archana R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (AA) is used in folklore for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments and arthritis like conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponin rich (SR) fraction of AA has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess the antiarthritic effect of SR fraction of Achyranthes aspera in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Methods. Arthritis was assessed by arthritis score, paw volume, changes in tibiotarsal joint thickness, hyperalgesic parameters, and spleen and thymus index. Haematological, serum, biochemical, and inflammatory cytokine and in vivo antioxidant parameters were measured on the last day of the study. Results. SR fraction significantly suppressed paw swelling and arthritic score and improved the pain threshold in motility and stair climbing tests. There was a reversal in the levels of altered parameters, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. SR fraction significantly decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Moreover, histopathology revealed a significant reduction in synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bone destruction in the joints. Conclusion. These observations explain the therapeutic benefit of SR fraction of AA in suppressing the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. PMID:26273477

  5. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent. PMID:26590603

  6. Field note: phytoremediation of petroleum sludge contaminated field using sedge species, Cyperus rotundus (Linn.) and Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    PubMed

    Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Das, Hamendra Chandra; Bordoloi, Sabitry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in a petroleum sludge contaminated site (initial TPH concentration of 65,000-75,000 mg kg(-1)) with two native sedge species namely Cyperus rotundus (Linn.) and Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. Fertilized and unfertilized treatments were maintained separately to record the influence of fertilizer in TPH degradation. The average biomass production (twenty plants from each treatment) of C. rotundus was 345.5 g and that of C. brevifolius was 250.6 g in fertilized soil during 360 days. Decrease in soil TPH concentration was higher in fertilized soil (75% for C. rotundus and 64% for C. brevifolius) than in unfertilized soil (36% for C. rotundus and 32% for C. brevifolius). In unvegetated treatments, decrease in soil TPH concentration in fertilized (12%) and unfertilized soil (8%) can be attributed to natural attenuation and microbial degradation. TPH accumulation in roots and shoots was significantly higher in fertilized soil in comparison to unfertilized soils (p < 0.05). Most probable number (MPN) in planted treatments was significantly higher than in unplanted treatments (p < 0.05). PMID:23819282

  7. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  8. Unraveling the Structural Modifications in Lignin of Arundo donax Linn. during Acid-Enhanced Ionic Liquid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Guo, Siqin; Shao, Lupeng; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-23

    Solid acid-enhanced ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is of paramount importance for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmentally friendly. To unravel the chemical and supramolecular structural changes of lignin after pretreatment, IL-acid lignin (ILAL) and subsequent residual cellulolytic enzyme lignin (RCEL) were isolated from Arundo donax Linn. The structural features were compared with those of the corresponding milled wood lignin (MWL). Results indicated that the pretreatment caused loss of β-O-4', β-β', β-1' linkages and formation of condensed structures in lignin. A preferential breakdown of G-type lignin may have occurred, evidenced by an increased S/G ratio revealed by 2D HSQC NMR analysis. It was determined that the depolymerization of β-O-4' linkage, lignin recondensation, and cleavage of ferulate-lignin ether linkages took place. Moreover, a simulation module was first developed to define morphological changes in lignin based on AFM and TEM analyses. Briefly, tree branch like aggregates was destroyed to monodisperse particles. PMID:26621450

  9. Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.

    PubMed

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum.

  11. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  12. Study of anti-inflammatory activity in the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn.--an Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R S; Gupta, B; Saxena, K K; Singh, R C; Prasad, D N

    1984-08-01

    Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn. (Harsingar) is widely used as a decoction in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of sciatica and arthritis, but it has not yet been screened scientifically. In the present study, the water soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (NAT) was screened for the presence of anti-inflammatory activity. NAT inhibited the acute inflammatory oedema produced by different phlogistic agents, viz. carrageenin, formalin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and hyaluronidase in the hindpaw of rats. The acute inflammatory swelling in the knee joint of rats induced by turpentine oil was also significantly reduced. In subacute models, NAT was found to check granulation tissue formation significantly in the granuloma pouch and cotton pellet test. Acute and chronic phases of formaldehyde induced arthritis were significantly inhibited. NAT was also found to inhibit the inflammation produced by immunological methods, viz. Freund's adjuvant arthritis and PPD induced tuberculin reaction. Thus anti-inflammatory activity in leaves of Harsingar supports its use in various inflammatory conditions by the followers of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. PMID:6482481

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, FS; Sousa, EO; Campos, AR; Costa, JGM; Rodrigues, FFG

    2010-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as “camará” or “chumbinho.” In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 μg/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 μg/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

  14. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil. PMID:19343365

  15. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  16. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  17. Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver

  18. Flavonoid rich fraction of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (Yam) enhances mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant status and thereby protects heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, K S; Vasanthi, Hannah R; Rajamanickama, G V

    2010-12-01

    With recent advances in nutrition sciences, natural products and health-promoting foods have received extensive attention from both health professionals and the common population. The flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. has a strong free radical scavenging activity. FRF (150 mg/kg) when intervened for a period of 35 days prior to isoproterenol (ISO) challenge to rats maintained the creatine kinase - MB (CK-MB) activity in serum without elevation. Alterations in the antioxidant status in the mitochondria were recognized in the heart tissue of ISO induced rats. ISO induced rats pretreated with FRF (150 mg/kg) ameliorated the lipid peroxidation and thereby enhanced the antioxidant status as evidenced by the increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes such isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), which were found decreased in the ISO induced rats showed an enhanced activity in FRF (150 mg/kg) pretreated rats. The activity of NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome-C-oxidase the enzymes, which transfer the electron in the electron transport chain (ETC) was also increased significantly (p<0.05) in FRF (150 mg/kg) pretreated rats, when compared with ISO induced rats. These results suggest the cardioprotective effect of FRF of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. in ISO induced MI by attenuating the lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and modulating the energy producing mitochondrial enzymes. PMID:20874686

  19. Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.

    PubMed

    Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 βg/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

  20. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action. PMID:23590827

  1. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. PMID:25440530

  2. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models. PMID:22654226

  3. Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M

    2007-11-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Mice were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg b.wt./day) once a day for three consecutive days, and after 30 min of treatments on the third day were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 12, 24, 48 hrs and 5, 10 and 20 days post-irradiation to evaluate the percentage of bone marrow cells, frequency of micronuclei and erythropoietin level in serum. An exposure to gamma radiation resulted in a significant decline in the number of bone marrow cells such as leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure resulted in significant increases in the numbers of leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes in bone marrow as compared to the control group. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure also resulted in significant decreases in micronucleus frequencies in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. A significant increase in erythropoietin level was observed at all the studied intervals in leaf extract of M. piperita pretreated irradiated animals as compared to control animals (radiation alone). The results of the present investigation suggest the protective effects of leaf extract of M. piperita against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow may be attributed to the maintenance of EPO level in Swiss albino mice.

  4. Radical intermediate generation and cell cycle arrest by an aqueous extract of Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. In human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Charoen, Savapong; Martin, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. (TL) is one of the most familiar plants in Thai traditional medicine that is used to treat various conditions, including cancer. However, the antitumor activity of TL or its constituents has never been reported at the molecular level to support the folklore claim. The present study was designed to investigate the antitumor effect of an aqueous extract of TL in human breast cancer cells and the possible mechanism(s) of action. An aqueous crude extract was prepared from dried leaves of TL. Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assays were used to determine the total phenolic content. Antiproliferative and cell cycle effects were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells by MTT reduction assay, cell growth inhibition, clonogenic cell survival, and flow cytometric analysis. Free radical generation by the extracts was detected using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The exposure of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells to a TL aqueous extract resulted in decreases in cell growth, clonogenic cell survival, and cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 843 μg/ml. Treatments with extract for 24 h at 250 μg/ml or higher induced cell cycle arrest as indicated by a significant increase of cell population in the G1 phase and a significant decrease in the S phase of the cell cycle. The capability of the aqueous extract to generate radical intermediates was observed at both high pH and near-neutral pH conditions. The findings suggest the antitumor bioactivities of TL against selected breast cancer cells may be due to induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbation that are associated with a high concentration of the extract could be in part explained by the total phenolic contents in the extract and the capacity to generate radical intermediates to modulate cellular proliferative signals. PMID:26028099

  5. Plant regeneration from organogenic callus and assessment of clonal fidelity in Elephantopus scaber Linn., an ethnomedicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2015-04-01

    An efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system has been standardized for an ethnomedicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber Linn. Two explants i. e. seeds and leaf segments were used for callus induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.5 μM kinetin (Kn) gave the optimum frequency (89 %) of callus induction from seed explant. The results showed that the highest response in terms of percent callus regenerating (91 %) and number of shoots (56) per culture was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 6.0 μM N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1.5 μM α naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The best rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on half strength MS medium supplemented with 6.0 μM indole-3- butyric acid (IBA). On this medium, 100 % of the shoots produced roots with a mean number of 3.2 roots per shoot. The positive role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) along with potting mix has been well established in the present study. Of the various potting mix employed for plant acclimatization, the highest response of 100 % plant survival was noticed when autoclaved garden soil, sand (2:1) and VAM was utilized as potting mix. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used to establish the clonal fidelity of regenerated plantlets and the banding profiles from callus derived plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant, thus ascertaining the true-to-type nature of these plants.

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s).

  7. Plant regeneration from organogenic callus and assessment of clonal fidelity in Elephantopus scaber Linn., an ethnomedicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2015-04-01

    An efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system has been standardized for an ethnomedicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber Linn. Two explants i. e. seeds and leaf segments were used for callus induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.5 μM kinetin (Kn) gave the optimum frequency (89 %) of callus induction from seed explant. The results showed that the highest response in terms of percent callus regenerating (91 %) and number of shoots (56) per culture was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 6.0 μM N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1.5 μM α naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The best rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on half strength MS medium supplemented with 6.0 μM indole-3- butyric acid (IBA). On this medium, 100 % of the shoots produced roots with a mean number of 3.2 roots per shoot. The positive role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) along with potting mix has been well established in the present study. Of the various potting mix employed for plant acclimatization, the highest response of 100 % plant survival was noticed when autoclaved garden soil, sand (2:1) and VAM was utilized as potting mix. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used to establish the clonal fidelity of regenerated plantlets and the banding profiles from callus derived plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant, thus ascertaining the true-to-type nature of these plants. PMID:25964719

  8. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramamurthy, Perumal; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Mentha extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Four solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) of ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder of M. spicata were analyzed for total antioxidant activity (TAA) and relative antioxidant activity (RAA) and compared with standard antioxidants such as Quercetin, beta-carotene, L-ascorbic acid and glutathione using ABTS*+ decolorization assay (ABTS/Potassium persulphate). The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract. Total phenolics are found to be highest in ethyl acetate fraction (54 mg/g) and least in hexane fraction (13 mg/g) and more or less similar in water and chloroform fractions (30-32 mg/g). TAA is found to be less in hexane and chloroform fractions (<53% at 50 microg/ml) and highest in ethyl acetate (95% at 20 microg/ml) and water (84% at 30 microg/ml) fractions. The RAA of ethyl acetate fraction is 1.1 compared to quercetin (at 5 microM/ml), but greater when compared to beta-carotene (15 microM/ml), L-ascorbic acid (15 microM/ml) and glutathione (15 microM/ml). The RAAs with these antioxidants are in the range of 1.31 -1.6. The values of RAAs for water fraction also show similar trend and are in the range of 1.0-1.4. The antioxidant activities of the solvent factions are closely related to the content of total phenolics present in them.

  9. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action.

  10. Proapoptotic and Antimetastatic Properties of Supercritical CO2 Extract of Nigella sativa Linn. Against Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baharetha, Hussein M.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R.; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abd; Ismail, Zhari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (∼17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 μg/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

  11. Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Malarkodi, Velraj; Nirmala, S; Jayakumari, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 µg/mL). Conclusions From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity. PMID:23569912

  12. In vitro anti-cancer activities of Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn.) extracts on human colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Sainakham, Mathukorn; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2016-03-01

    The whole seed (W), endosperm (E) and hull (H) of five cultivars of Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. var. ma-yuen Stapf) including Thai Black Phayao, Thai Black Loei, Laos Black Loei, Laos White Loei and Laos Black Luang Phra Bang were processed before solvent extraction by non-cooking, roasting, boiling and steaming Each part of the Job's tears was extracted by the cold and hot process by refluxing with methanol and hexane. The total of 330 extracts included 150 methanol extracts and 180 hexane extracts were investigated for anti-proliferative activity on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The extracts which gave high anti-proliferative activity were tested for apoptotic activity by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining and anti-oxidative activities including free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The extract from the hull of Thai Black Loei roasted before extracting by hot methanol (M-HTBL-R2) showed the highest anti-proliferative activity on HT-29 with the IC50 values of 11.61 ± 0.95 μg/ml, while the extract from the non-cooked hull of Thai Black Loei by cold methanol extraction (M-HTBL-N1) gave the highest apoptosis (8.17 ± 1.18%) with no necrosis. In addition, M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 indicated free radical scavenging activity at the SC50 values of 0.48 ± 0.12 and 2.47 ± 1.15 mg/ml, respectively. This study has demonstrated the anti-colorectal cancer potential of the M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 extracts. PMID:26981007

  13. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Saba; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Dhasmana, Anupam; Safia; Haque, Ejazul; Kamil, Mohammed; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arshad, Mohammad; Mir, Snober Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) commonly known as Hadjod (Family: Vitaceae) is usually distributed in India and Sri Lanka and contains several bioactive compounds responsible for various metabolic and physiologic effects. Objective: In this study, the biological effects of CQ ethanolic extract were evaluated by in vitro and supported by in silico analysis on KB oral epidermoid cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Anti-cancer potential of ethanolic extract of CQ stem against KB oral epidermoid cancer cells was evaluated in terms of morphological analysis, nuclei staining, liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression which reveal the induction of apoptosis along with supporting in silico analysis. Results: Ethanolic extract of CQ stem contains various bioactive compounds responsible for cancer cell morphological alterations, liberation of ROS, G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased MMP along with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. By employing in silico approach, we have also postulated that the CQ extract active constituents sequester Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53, which may be the reason for induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in KB cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the CQ extract has a remarkable apoptotic effect that suggests that it could be a viable treatment option for specific types of cancers. SUMMARY Cissus quadrangularis stem ethanolic extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phaseIt liberates (ROS) and mitochondria mediated apoptosisIt upregulates p53 and down-regulates Bcl-2 protein expressionIn silico studies indicates that the active constituents of CQ binds Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53. PMID:26929569

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 μg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 μg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 μg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

  15. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy. The amount of active principle in rhizome isolated active fraction of plant was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Later, the standardized rhizome extract of plant and its active principle were tested for in vivo anthelmintic efficacy against experimentally induced Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, infections in rats. Results: The study revealed that b-asarone is the active principle of plant. The HPLC analysis of local variety of A. calamus revealed that active fraction contains 83.54% (w/w) of b-asarone. The in vivo study revealed that treatment of H. diminuta infected rats by a single 800 mg/kg dose of rhizome extract for 5 days results into 62.30% reduction in eggs per gram of feces counts and 83.25% reduction in worm counts of animals. These findings compared well with the efficacy of a reference drug, praziquantel. The active principle b-asarone showed slightly better anthelmintic effects than crude extract. In acute toxicity assay, a single oral 2000 mg/kg dose of extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in mice, and the LD50 of the extract was noted to be >2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this study indicate that rhizomes of A. calamus bear significant dose-dependent effects against intestinal helminths. Further, the Indian variety of A. calamus contains high b-asarone content. Therefore, there exists a great potential to develop some

  16. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  17. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  18. Digestive physiology, metabolism and methane production of captive Linné's two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus).

    PubMed

    Vendl, C; Frei, S; Dittmann, M T; Furrer, S; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Munn, A; Kreuzer, M; Clauss, M

    2016-06-01

    Sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. We investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± SD 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, Linné's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. Dry matter intake, defecation frequency and particle mean retention time (MRT) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were 12 ± 3 g/(kg(0.75)  day), once every 5 days and >140 h in three individuals, but 53 g/(kg(0.75)  day), daily and 82 h in one individual that was apparently compensating for a period of weight loss prior to the experiment. In all animals, solute marker was eliminated at a faster rate than the particle marker, indicating 'digesta washing' in the sloths' GIT. The overall metabolic rate calculated from oxygen consumption matched the metabolisable energy intake in three individuals [173 ± 22 vs. 168 ± 44 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)] but not in the fourth one [225 vs. 698 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)], supporting the interpretation that this animal was replenishing body stores. In spite of the low food intake and the low-fibre diet (209 ± 26 g neutral detergent fibre/kg dry matter), methane production was rather high accounting for 9.4 ± 0.8% of gross energy intake (2.7% in the fourth individual), which exceeded literature data for ruminants on forage-only diets. These results corroborate literature reports on low intake, low defecation frequency, low metabolic rate and long MRT in other sloth species. The long MRT is probably responsible for the comparatively high methane production, providing more opportunity for methanogenic archaea than in other non-ruminant mammals to produce significant amounts of methane.

  19. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  20. Digestive physiology, metabolism and methane production of captive Linné's two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus).

    PubMed

    Vendl, C; Frei, S; Dittmann, M T; Furrer, S; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Munn, A; Kreuzer, M; Clauss, M

    2016-06-01

    Sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. We investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± SD 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, Linné's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. Dry matter intake, defecation frequency and particle mean retention time (MRT) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were 12 ± 3 g/(kg(0.75)  day), once every 5 days and >140 h in three individuals, but 53 g/(kg(0.75)  day), daily and 82 h in one individual that was apparently compensating for a period of weight loss prior to the experiment. In all animals, solute marker was eliminated at a faster rate than the particle marker, indicating 'digesta washing' in the sloths' GIT. The overall metabolic rate calculated from oxygen consumption matched the metabolisable energy intake in three individuals [173 ± 22 vs. 168 ± 44 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)] but not in the fourth one [225 vs. 698 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)], supporting the interpretation that this animal was replenishing body stores. In spite of the low food intake and the low-fibre diet (209 ± 26 g neutral detergent fibre/kg dry matter), methane production was rather high accounting for 9.4 ± 0.8% of gross energy intake (2.7% in the fourth individual), which exceeded literature data for ruminants on forage-only diets. These results corroborate literature reports on low intake, low defecation frequency, low metabolic rate and long MRT in other sloth species. The long MRT is probably responsible for the comparatively high methane production, providing more opportunity for methanogenic archaea than in other non-ruminant mammals to produce significant amounts of methane. PMID:26122705

  1. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

  2. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:8575807

  3. Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptiform activity in F1 neurones of Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Janahmadi, Mahyar; Niazi, Farshad; Danyali, Samira; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    The effect of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) (syn. Cuminum odorum Salisb) on the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was evaluated, using intracellular technique. The results demonstrated that extracellular application of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum (1% and 3%) dramatically decreased the frequency of spontaneous activity induced by PTZ in a time and concentration dependent manner. In addition it showed protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic activity by increasing the duration, decreasing the amplitude of after hyperpolarization potential (AHP) following the action potential, the peak of action potential, and inhibition of the firing rate. These membrane effects suggest cellular mechanisms by which the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum can inhibit the PTZ-induced epileptic activity.

  4. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations.

  5. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  6. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. PMID:27618564

  7. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  8. Rapid and efficient purification of chrysophanol in Rheum Palmatum LINN by supercritical fluid extraction coupled with preparative liquid chromatography in tandem.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tiffany Chien-Ting; Nian, Hung-Chi; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Wang, Ai-Yih; Wu, Ben-Zen

    2012-04-15

    Chrysophanol has high pharmaceutical values. However, it was difficult to use the traditional extraction method to extract high-concentration chrysophanol. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to purify and separate chrysophanol in traditional herb, Rheum Palmatum LINN, by using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC) for rapid and large-scale isolation. The method is efficient for selective extraction of chrysophanol from the herbs, which have complex compositions. The extraction efficiency of chrysophanol with SFE is 25 × higher than that of boiled water extraction under the same extraction time. The optimal conditions for SFE were 210 atm and 85 °C for 30 min; for P-HPLC, a C18 column was used with a gradient elution of methanol and 1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. According to (1)H NMR and LC-MS analyses, the purity of the isolated chrysophanol was as high as 99%. The recovery for chrysophanol in Rheum after SPE/PHPLC processing was in the range of 88-91.5%. Compared with other extraction and purification methods, the sequential system (SFE/P-HPLC) achieved the highest amount of extracted chrysophanol from Rheum Palmatum LINN (0.38 mg/g) and the shortest run time (3h). Hence, this rapid and environmentally friendly method can separate compounds based on polarity with high efficiencies and, coupled with P-HPLC, it may be applicable in the large-scale production of foods and medicines in the future.

  9. Impact of low dose of organophosphate, monocrotophos on the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn.--SEM study.

    PubMed

    Johal, M S; Sharma, M L; Ravneet

    2007-07-01

    The paper deals with the deleterious changes at ultrastructural level of the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. upon exposure to 1/10th of LC50 of monocrotophos which is considered to be insignificant concentration from toxicological point of view. The gills of the fish are the primary corridor formolecularexchange between the internal milieu of a fish and its environment. Gills perform numerous functions such as oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion, osmoregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Hazardous chemicals present in water may alter the morphology of the epithelial cells of gills of the fish, which may affect the process of diffusion of gases and ultimately the overall health of the fish. To prove this fact Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. was kept in water for 30 days having low concentration of 0.038 ppm (1\\10th of LC50) of monocrotophos and an attempt was made to study the different types of degenerations produced in the epithelial cells of gills as compared to the normal epithelial cells of gills of this culturable fish using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique. The ultrastructural changes due to the toxic exposure at finer scale were thinning of microridges, upliftment of epithelial cells, development of hyperplasia, decrease in the density of mucous cells which are considered to be the first line of defence and total dystrophy of epithelial tissue. Thus, it is opined that a low concentration of monocrotophos has the potential to bring different type of degenerations at finer scale hence affecting the fish's health drastically and altering the fitness of the fish in water even having insignificant amount of this toxicant in the ambient water PMID:18380092

  10. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  11. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  12. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    PubMed

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  13. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    PubMed

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  14. A Clinico-analytical Study on Seed of Wrightia antidysenterica Linn. as a Therapeutic Emetic Agent (Vamaka Yoga) in the Management of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Nirupam; Pujar, Muralidhar P.; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Kumar, M. Ashvini; Lohith, B. A.; Kumar, K. N. Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Wrightia antidysenterica Linn. (WA) is male variety Kutaja stated to be potent therapeutic emetic agent in skin disorders. Expulsion of doshas through oral route is termed as Vamana Karma (VK) (therapeutic emesis). However, so far, its utility for Vamana is not explored in detail, therefore there is a need to revalidate the utility of WA for Vamana. Hence, the above study was conducted to ascertain the efficacy as a therapeutic emetic agent (vamaka yoga) in the management of psoriasis along with quality control and standardization of this herb. Materials and Methods: The drug was standardized as per analytical procedures in Pharmacopeias. Thirty patients of psoriasis fulfilling inclusion criteria were taken for the study and Vamana with WA was conducted. Criteria were prepared to assess the signs and Symptoms of psoriasis. VK was assessed using the classical Lakshanas (features) such as Anthiki shudhi (Ending symptoms of emesis), Vaigiki shudhi (features of vomiting bouts), Maniki shudhi (Quantitative and qualitative purification), complications. Result: VK with WA showed significant relief in parameters of psoriasis such as scaling, itching, candle grease sign (P < 0.001), and psoriasis area and severity index score (P = 0.001). In VK with WA, mean number of Vegas (vomiting bouts) was 6.91. 66% patients showing quantitative purification between 301 and 600 ml. 73.33% showed all Symptoms of purification. 73.33% patients showed Kaphanta vamana (Moderate expulsion of desire humor). In the level of biopurification, 66.66% patients showed moderated purification. No complication was noted with moderate drug palatability. Conclusion: Pharmacopeial analytical study showed its standardized values for testing the drug used for the study. It is proved as potent therapeutic emetic agent with no complication showed its clinical benefits over skin disorder like psoriasis. SUMMARY Seeds of Wrightia antidysenterica (WA) Linn. free from any foreign matter were selected

  15. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sahana, Chinthapatla; Zehra, Amtul; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek) raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb)-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs) were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2’- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs) and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  16. Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09  μm² to 35.66 ± 0.10  μm² and 142.90 ± 0.59  μm² to 165.05 ± 0.58  μm², respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  17. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

  18. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Avinash; Muddeshwar, Manohar; Biswas, Saibal

    2004-11-12

    The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis, and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC), and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. Hippocampal slices were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and divided into three groups, control, OGD, and OGD+drug treated. Cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide [NO, measured as nitrite (NO2)]. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC, and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O*2-), hydroxyl radicals (*OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO, and Sin-1, respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three herbs to assess their effect on the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), iNOS, and GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels and expression of the GCLC. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, diminishing the expression of iNOS gene. RC, FC, and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression levels and may be effective therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage. PMID:15474468

  19. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  20. Lupeol Is One of Active Components in the Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne That Inhibits LMP1-Induced NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability. PMID:24303085

  1. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  2. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  3. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09 μm2 to 35.66 ± 0.10 μm2 and 142.90 ± 0.59 μm2 to 165.05 ± 0.58 μm2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

  4. Isolation of beta-mannanase from Cocos nucifera Linn haustorium and its application in the depolymerization of beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannans.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Rema S; Abraham, Emilia T

    2010-05-01

    Beta-mannanase was extracted from coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) haustorium and purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and sepharose 6B-lectin affinity chromatography. Coconut beta-mannanase is an acidic protein with a pI of 3.75. The molecular mass of coconut beta-mannanase (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was found to be 44 kDa and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity was 70 degrees C and 5.2. The enzyme was used for the preparation of neutraceutical dietary supplement from galactomannans of guar gum and tender coconut kernel having a beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannose backbone. Depolymerized guar gum has 92% of oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 3 and 7. Tender coconut kernel has a degree of polymerization of 9-39 oligosaccharides along with disaccharides and trisaccharides. Hence this mannanase will be useful to depolymerize beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannose polysaccharides from most plant sources to produce prebiotics in a cost-effective technique.

  5. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R.; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M.; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P.; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC < 1 mg/ml) except the water extract against E. coli which showed moderate activity. In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone (aq.) extracts which had good activity against some of the tested organisms. UHPLC-MS/MS revealed variation in the levels of some functional phenolic compounds, with rutin, chlorogenic acid and genistein not being detected in the extracts from Ukulinga. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  6. Inhibitory effects of 16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid (Corchorifatty acid B) isolated from Melissa officinalis Linné on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideaki; Hongo, Maya; Mochizuki, Mayu; Yokoyama, Kouji; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2011-05-01

    16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid, also known as Corchorifatty acid B (CFAB), is isolated from the ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of Melissa officinalis Linné (Labiatae) and exhibits inhibitory effects on cellular pigmentation in both human melanocytes and mouse melanoma B16 cells. CFAB specifically decreases cellular melanin by most likely inducing rapid degradation of tyrosinase in B16 cells. Interestingly, unlike other reagents that promote degradation of tyrosinase in proteasomes or lysosomes, neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors can halt CFAB-induced tyrosinase degradation. Only brefeldin A, which specifically inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, can effectively impede CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease. These results suggest that CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease occurs in post-Golgi compartments but not in proteasomal or lysosomal compartments. Taken together, CFAB is a unique reagent that primarily accelerates tyrosinase decrease by a mechanism that differs from those considered for other hypopigmentation reagents currently reported.

  7. Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril.

  8. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  9. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  10. Differential fate of metabolism of a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Orange 3R by plants Aster amellus Linn., Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc. and their consortium.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Akhil N; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-15

    Plant consortium-AG of Aster amellus Linn. and Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc. showed complete decolorization of a dye Remazol Orange 3R in 36 h, while individually A. amellus and G. pulchella took 72 and 96 h respectively. Individually A. amellus showed induction in the activities of enzymes veratryl alcohol oxidase and DCIP reductase after degradation of the dye while G. pulchella showed induction of laccase and tyrosinase, indicating their involvement in the dye metabolism. Consortium-AG showed induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase. Two different sets of induced enzymes from A. amellus and G. pulchella work together in consortium-AG resulting in faster degradation of the dye. The degradation of the dye into different metabolites was confirmed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy analysis identified four metabolites of dye degradation by A. amellus as acetamide, benzene, naphthalene and 3-diazenylnaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, four metabolites by G. pulchella as acetamide, 3-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, naphthalen-1-ol and (ethylsulfonyl)benzene, while two metabolites by consortium-AG as 2-(phenylsulfonyl)ethanol and N-(naphthalen-2-yl)acetamide. The non-toxic nature of the metabolites of Remazol Orange 3R degradation was revealed by phytotoxicity studies.

  11. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200 mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100 mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

  12. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia. PMID:23284207

  13. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  14. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. PMID:25466050

  15. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART.

  16. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank Potatoes in Relation to Degree-day Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, J. N.; Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi were studied for 2 years in a commercial potato field and microplots. Annual second-stage juvenile (J2) densities peaked at harvest in mid-fall, declined through the winter, and were lowest in early summer. In the field and in one microplot study, population increase displayed trimodal patterns during the 1984 and 1985 seasons. Overwintering nematodes produced egg masses on roots by 600-800 degree-days base 5 C (DD₅) after planting. Second-generation and third-generation eggs hatched by 950-1,100 DD₅ and 1,500-1,600 DD₅, respectively, and J2 densities rapidly increased in the soil. A fourth generation was observed at 2,150 DD₅ in 1985 microplot studies. Tubers were initiated by 450-500 DD₅, but J2 were not observed in the tubers until after the second generation hatched at 988-1,166 DD₅. A second period of tuber invasion was observed when third generation J2 hatched. The regional variation in M. chitwoodi damage on potato may be explained by degree-day accumulation in different potato production regions of the western United States. PMID:19283128

  17. System Identification of Burbank Six-Story Building Using Earthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, Enzo; Amaddeo, Carmen; Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    This paper examines the problem of identifying the dynamic characteristics of an instrumented building using an input-output system identification method. The building studied was a six-story steel moment-resisting frame (SMRF) instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). The building was shaken by several earthquakes and strong motion data of the building response was recorded during these earthquakes and were made available through SMIP. In particular the Whittier Narrows (October, 1987), the Sierra Madre (June, 1991) and the Northridge (January, 1994) earthquakes were considered in the studies reported here. The seismic performance of steel moment-framed buildings has been of particular interest after the 1994 Northridge earthquake because brittle fractures were discovered at the beam-column connection. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm with Data Correlation (ERA/DC) and Observer/Kalman filter Identification (OKID) were used in these studies for system identification purposes. The identified modal properties of the structure were compared and verified with the spectral analysis of the response of the structure excited by three different earthquakes.

  18. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  19. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats.

  20. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies.

  1. The protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via upregulation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Seon; Li, Li; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Bilehal, Dinesh; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ho

    2010-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract (CLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50 or 100mg/kg of CLE or 100mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for 14 days before CCl4 administration. In addition, the CLE control group was pretreated with 100mg/kg CLE for only 14 days. Three hours after the final treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (20mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally to each group. After the completion of this phase of the experiment, food and water were removed 12 h prior to the next step. The rats were then anesthetized by urethane and their blood and liver were collected. It was observed that the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities of the serum, and the hepatic malondialdehyde levels had significantly decreased in the CLE group when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The antioxidant activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, in addition to glutathione content, had increased considerably in the CLE group compared with the CCl4-treated group. Phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, were found to have significantly increased in the CLE group as opposed to the CCl4-treated group. The content of Nrf2 was determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreated CLE increased the level of nuclear translocated Nrf2, and the Nrf2 then increased the activity of the antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. These results indicate that CLE has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, via activities of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes, and through the activation of nuclear translocated Nrf2. PMID:20890099

  2. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  3. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

    2008-06-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 μg ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 μg ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth.

  4. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  5. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes.

  6. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

  7. Chemical composition of Solanum nigrum linn extract and induction of autophagy by leaf water extract and its major flavonoids in AU565 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2010-08-11

    Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) belongs to the Solanaceae family, is a plant growing widely in south Asia, and has been used in traditional folk medicine. It is believed to have antipyretic, diuretic, anticancer, and hepatoprotective effects. During the summertime, this plant has been heavily used to supplement beverages to quench thirst on hot days in Taiwan and several southern Asian countries. In this study, the polyphenols and anthocyanidin in various parts of the SN plant were analyzed by HPLC. The leaves were found to be richer in polyphenols than stem and fruit. SN leaves contained the highest concentration of gentisic acid, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, and m-coumaric acid. However, the anthocyanidin existed only in the purple fruits. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leaf, stem, or fruit extract was evaluated against cancer cell lines and normal cells. The results showed that AU565 breast cancer cells were more sensitive to the extract. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a significant cytotoxic effect of SN leaf extract on AU565 cells that was mediated via two different mechanisms depending on the exposure concentrations. A low dose of SN leaf extract induced autophagy but not apoptosis. Higher doses (>100 microg/mL) of SN leaf extract could inhibit the level of p-Akt and cause cell death due to the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. However, these findings indicate that SN leaf extract induced cell death in breast cells via two distinct antineoplastic activities, the abilities to induce apoptosis and autophagy, therefore suggesting that it may provide a useful remedy to treat breast cancer. PMID:20681660

  8. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B.K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints. Aim: To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats. Materials and Methods: For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group. Results: Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group. Conclusion: M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia. PMID:26195908

  9. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  10. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  11. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. PMID:27328771

  12. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  13. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

    2008-06-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 μg ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 μg ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

  14. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks. PMID:27625769

  15. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (p<0.05) CAT, GSH, SOD, GSH-Px activities, and HDL levels. AME-treated Groups C and D rats showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in elevated blood glucose, ROS, TBARS, TC, TG and LDL. Furthermore, AME treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) antioxidant enzymes' activities, as well as serum insulin levels. The findings of this laboratory animal study

  16. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves Extract on Anxiety- and Depressive-like Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Mice after Acute Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Saxena, Rahul; Dashore, Jagrati; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Rathore, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as “beet root” possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE) of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6) were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o.) for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05) with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg). Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. SUMMARY Stress plays major role in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressionARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior through oxidative damage in miceBVEE pretreatment reversed ARS-induced behavioral changes

  17. Rhus javanica Linn protects against hydrogen peroxide‑induced toxicity in human Chang liver cells via attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chanjin; Koppula, Sushruta; Yoo, Seunghoon; Yum, Munjeong; Kim, Jinseoub; Lee, Jaedong; Song, Mindong

    2016-01-01

    Rhus javanica Linn, a traditional medicinal herb from the family Anacardiaceae, has been used in the treatment of liver diseases, cancer, parasitic infections, malaria and respiratory diseases in China, Korea and other Asian countries for centuries. In the present study, the protective effects of R. javanica ethanolic extract (RJE) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human Chang liver cells was investigated. The cell cytotoxicity and viability were assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured using respective enzymatic kits. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometric analysis. The protein expression levels of p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were assessed by western blotting. Human Chang liver cells were treated with different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/ml) of RJE, and were subsequently exposed to H2O2 (30 µM). Treatment with H2O2 (30 µM) significantly induced cytotoxicity (P<0.05) and reduced the viability of the Chang liver cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with RJE (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/ml) significantly increased the cell viability (P<0.001 at 0.5 mg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner following H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with RJE increased the enzyme activities of SOD and CAT, and decreased the sub-G1 growth phase of the cell cycle in response to H2O2-induced oxidative stress (P<0.001 at 0.3 and 0.5 mg/ml H2O2). RJE also regulated the protein expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2. These results suggested that RJE may protect human Chang liver cells against oxidative damage by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and regulating antiapoptotic oxidative stress mechanisms, thereby providing insights into the mechanism which underpins the traditional claims made for RJE in the treatment of liver diseases.

  18. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks.

  19. Ion energetics at Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini/MIMI measurements: A simple model for the energetic ion integral moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dialynas, K.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kane, M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present a composite analysis (H+ and O+) of energetic ion spectra and kappa distribution fits, using combined ion measurements from Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS, 3 to 236 keV/e), Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements System (LEMMS, 0.024 < E < 18 MeV), and the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA, ~5.2 to >220 keV for H+). The modeled expressions of these energetic ion distributions are then used to obtain the four integral particle moments (from zeroth to 3rd moment: n, In, P, IE, i.e. Density, Integral number intensity, Pressure, Integral energy intensity) as well as the characteristic energy (EC=IE/In) of these ions as a function of Local Time and L-Shell. We find that a) protons dominate the energetic ion (>30 keV) integral number and energy intensity at all radial distances (L>5 Rs) and local times, while the H+ and O+ partial pressures and densities are comparable; b) the 12

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  1. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  2. Protective Effect of Super-Critical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén Against Ultraviolet-Induced Photo-Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xie; Xie, You-Liang; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Su, Zu-Qing; Yuan, Jie; Li, Yu-Cui; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation to human skin causes photo-aging, including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. UV radiation induces damage to skin mainly by superfluous reactive oxygen species and chronic low-grade inflammation, which eventually up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, the super-critical carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén (CISCFE), which has been reported to possess free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties, was investigated for its photo-protective effect by topical application on the skin of mice. Moreover, CISCFE effectively suppressed the UV-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner, which was correlated with the inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal thickening. Furthermore, we observed that CISCFE could obviously decrease UV-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α), alleviate the abnormal changes of anti-oxidative indicators (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and down-regulate the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. The results indicated that CISCFE was a novel photo-protective agent from natural resources against UV irradiation. PMID:25849065

  3. Protective Effect of Super-Critical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén Against Ultraviolet-Induced Photo-Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xie; Xie, You-Liang; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Su, Zu-Qing; Yuan, Jie; Li, Yu-Cui; Su, Zi-Ren; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    It is known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation to human skin causes photo-aging, including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. UV radiation induces damage to skin mainly by superfluous reactive oxygen species and chronic low-grade inflammation, which eventually up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, the super-critical carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén (CISCFE), which has been reported to possess free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties, was investigated for its photo-protective effect by topical application on the skin of mice. Moreover, CISCFE effectively suppressed the UV-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner, which was correlated with the inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal thickening. Furthermore, we observed that CISCFE could obviously decrease UV-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α), alleviate the abnormal changes of anti-oxidative indicators (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and down-regulate the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. The results indicated that CISCFE was a novel photo-protective agent from natural resources against UV irradiation.

  4. Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Russet Burbank Potato by Applying Metham Sodium through Center Pivot Irrigation Systems.

    PubMed

    Santo, G S; Qualls, M

    1984-04-01

    Metham sodium applied in October through center pivot irrigation systems was evaluated for control of Meloidogyne hapla at 374, 468, and 701 liters/ha and for control of M. chitwoodi at 468 liters/ha on potato. Metham sodium at the high rates effectively controlled M. hapla. No females were detected in the tubers at the high rates of nematicide application, whereas a mean of 19 and 69% of the tubers were infected at the low rate and in the nontreated controls, respectively. In the M. chitwoodi trial only 1.5% of the tubers in the treated plots were infected compared with 82% in the nontreated plots. Metham sodium effectively controlled M. chitwoodi to soil depths of 30, 61, and 91 cm. PMID:19295894

  5. Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Russet Burbank Potato by Applying Metham Sodium through Center Pivot Irrigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Santo, G. S.; Qualls, M.

    1984-01-01

    Metham sodium applied in October through center pivot irrigation systems was evaluated for control of Meloidogyne hapla at 374, 468, and 701 liters/ha and for control of M. chitwoodi at 468 liters/ha on potato. Metham sodium at the high rates effectively controlled M. hapla. No females were detected in the tubers at the high rates of nematicide application, whereas a mean of 19 and 69% of the tubers were infected at the low rate and in the nontreated controls, respectively. In the M. chitwoodi trial only 1.5% of the tubers in the treated plots were infected compared with 82% in the nontreated plots. Metham sodium effectively controlled M. chitwoodi to soil depths of 30, 61, and 91 cm. PMID:19295894

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of aromatic turmerone from Curcuma longa Linn. induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-triggered intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Wu, Li-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2012-09-26

    The mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of aromatic turmerone (ar-turmerone), a volatile turmeric oil isolated from Curcuma longa Linn., have been largely unknown. In this study, 86% pure ar-turmerone was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid-solid chromatography and its potential effects and molecular mechanisms on cell proliferation studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Ar-turmerone exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 64.8 ± 7.1, 102.5 ± 11.5, and 122.2 ± 7.6 μg/mL against HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B cells, respectively. Ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis, confirmed by increased annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation, was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, increased Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) levels, Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) augmentation, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation. Exposure to caspase inhibitors, Fas-antagonistic antibody, DR4 antagonist, and furosemide (a blocker of Bax translocation) effectively abolished ar-turmerone-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, ar-turmerone stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and activation; treatment with JNK and ERK inhibitors markedly reduced PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 levels and reduced apoptosis but not ROS generation. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated ar-turmerone-mediated ROS production; mitochondrial dysfunction; JNK and ERK activation; PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 expression; and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is through ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK kinases and triggers both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase activation, leading to apoptosis. On the basis of these observations, ar-turmerone deserves further investigation

  7. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  8. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED.

  9. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of aromatic turmerone from Curcuma longa Linn. induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-triggered intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Wu, Li-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2012-09-26

    The mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of aromatic turmerone (ar-turmerone), a volatile turmeric oil isolated from Curcuma longa Linn., have been largely unknown. In this study, 86% pure ar-turmerone was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid-solid chromatography and its potential effects and molecular mechanisms on cell proliferation studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Ar-turmerone exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 64.8 ± 7.1, 102.5 ± 11.5, and 122.2 ± 7.6 μg/mL against HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B cells, respectively. Ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis, confirmed by increased annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation, was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, increased Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) levels, Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) augmentation, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation. Exposure to caspase inhibitors, Fas-antagonistic antibody, DR4 antagonist, and furosemide (a blocker of Bax translocation) effectively abolished ar-turmerone-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, ar-turmerone stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and activation; treatment with JNK and ERK inhibitors markedly reduced PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 levels and reduced apoptosis but not ROS generation. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated ar-turmerone-mediated ROS production; mitochondrial dysfunction; JNK and ERK activation; PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 expression; and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is through ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK kinases and triggers both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase activation, leading to apoptosis. On the basis of these observations, ar-turmerone deserves further investigation

  11. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-10-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 μL L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  12. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    PubMed

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  13. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    PubMed

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples. PMID:23929988

  14. Psoralea corylifolia Linn.—“Kushtanashini”

    PubMed Central

    Khushboo, P. S.; Jadhav, V. M.; Kadam, V. J.; Sathe, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi, is a popular herb, which has since long been used in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its magical effects to cure various skin diseases. This plant is also pharmacologically studied for its chemoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory properties. This review attempts to highlight the available literature on P. corylifolia with respect to its ethnobotany, pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and summary of its various pharmacologic activities and clinical effects. Other aspects, such as toxicology and precautions are also discussed. This will be helpful to create interest toward babchi and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value. PMID:22228944

  15. Antileishmanial phenylpropanoids from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Ranvir; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar; Sharma, Shyam Sundar; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Singh, Inder Pal

    2010-03-01

    Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts (100 microg/ml) of Alpinia galanga rhizomes exhibited significant activity in vitro against promastigotes of L. donovani. Twelve compounds namely, methyleugenol (1), p-coumaryl diacetate (2), 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (3), 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (4), trans-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol (5), trans-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (6), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7), p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (8), trans-p-coumaryl alcohol (9), galangin (10), trans-p-coumaric acid (11) and galanganol B (12) were isolated from these extracts. Of these, compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 were found most active in vitro against promastigotes of L. donovani with IC50 values of 39.3, 32.9, 18.9 and 79.9 microM respectively. This is the first report of antileishmanial activity of the extracts and isolated constituents of A. galanga.

  16. SOME PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, N. R.; Vijayamma, N.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiospermum halicacabum used in Ayurveda has been investigated for various pharmacological actions in a number of experimental animal models. On central nervous system the decoction of the plant showed sedative effect. It exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The drug also showed vasadepressant activity which is considered to be transcient in nature. In vitro studies also revealed its antispasmodic effect. These findigns are in support of its use in Ayurvedic medicine. PMID:22557496

  17. 76 FR 35939 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Restoration at Bob Hope Airport, Burbank- Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority, Burbank, CA; (5) Downtown... Restoration at Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, CA. Project sponsor: Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority... Project at Bob Hope Airport. The proposed FTA action is the partial funding of the local and...

  18. Molluscicidal activity of Piper cubeba Linn., Piper longum Linn. and Tribulus terrestris Linn. and their combinations against snail Indoplanorbis exustus Desh.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jitendra K; Singh, D K

    2009-08-01

    The toxic effect of dried berries powder of P. cubeba, dried fruit powder of P. longum and T. terrestris singly as well as in combination [binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1)] were studied against snail L. exustus. Toxicity of these plant products were time and concentration dependent. Ethanol extracts of these plants were more effective than that of other organic solvents. 96 h LC50 value of column purified fraction of T. terrestris against I. exustus was 9.57 mg/l, where as 96 h LC50 values of column purified fractions of P. longum and P. cubeba were 11.57 mg/l and 10.93 mg/l, respectively. Binary (1:1) combination of P. cubeba (PC) + P. longum (PL) (41.78 mg/l) was more effective than P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) (42.17 mg/l) and P. longum (PL) + T. terrestris (TT) (55.84 mg/l) respectively; while tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) + T. foenum-graecum (TF) (10.67 mg/l) was more effective than rest of the combinations. These plants can be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail I. exustus.

  19. Station Commander Captures Unprecedented View of Comet

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Commander Dan Burbank captured spectacular imagery of Comet Lovejoy as seen from about 240 miles above the Earth’s horizon on Wednesday, Dec. 21. Burbank described se...

  20. Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn

    PubMed Central

    Jarald, E. Edwin; Joshi, S.B.; Jain, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude aqueous, of the flower buds of Michelia champaca, and to identify the antidiabetic activity of active antihyperglycemic extract. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. To confirm its utility in the higher model, the effective extract of M. champaca was subjected to antidiabetic study in alloxan induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: The ethanolic extract of M. champaca exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Apart from this extract, the crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were found active only at the end of the first hour. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanolic extract of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) (P<0.01) and the activity was found dose dependent. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional claim and the ethanolic extract of this plant could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of various diabetes-associated complications. PMID:21279181

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    PubMed

    Padma, P; Chansouria, J P; Khosa, R L

    1999-07-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats.

  2. A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant

    PubMed Central

    Priyashree, S.; Jha, S.; Pattanayak, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions such as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica. PMID:22228956

  3. Effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya Linn on hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundaram; Kavimani, Subramanian; Murugesh, Narayanan

    2002-12-01

    Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya has been evaluated for its anti hepatotoxic activity. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The activity was evaluated by using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP). The histopathological changes of liver sample was compared with respect to control.

  4. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases. PMID:25631395

  5. Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Nikkon, Farjana; Habib, M Rowshanul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate mosquitocidal effects of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods The fresh flowers of T. erecta were extracted in cold with ethanol (5.0 L) and after concentration, the ethanol extract was fractionated with chloroform and petroleum ether to afford a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extract (50.0 g), petroleum ether soluble fraction (18.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (23.8 g). The larvicidal effect of ethanol extract and their solvent fractions were determined by the standard procedure of WHO against different instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Among the tested samples the chloroform soluble fractions showed the highest toxicity and consequently, the lowest LC50 values (14.14 µg/mL, 17.06 µg/mL, 36.88 µg/mL and 75.48 µg/mL) for all the instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The larvae showed comparative tolerance in the course of increasing age and time. Conclusions It can be concluded that the flowers of T. erecta are very effective natural larvicide and could be useful against Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:23569756

  6. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    PubMed Central

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  7. Nutritional quality of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans Linn.).

    PubMed

    Fowomola, M A; Akindahunsi, A A

    2007-03-01

    Antinutrient, proximate, mineral, fatty acid, vitamin, and amino acid analyses of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) seeds were carried out. The results of antinutrient analysis showed that H. crepitans seed contains alkaloid (5.0 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g), tannins (5.0 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g), phytate (53.0 +/- 6.0 mg/100 g), cardiac glycoside (1890.0 +/- 1.5 mg/100 g), and saponin (2.2 +/- 0.1 mg/100 g). Its trypsin inhibitor activity was found to be 30.27 +/- 1.86 TIU/mg of protein. The results of proximate analysis showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in crude protein (25.16 +/- 0.22%), crude oil (51.43 +/- 0.22%), and energy content (2,621.891 +/- 6.357 kJ/100 g). H. crepitans seed also contains 1.85 ppm Na, 3.4 ppm K, 0.088 ppm Ca, and trace amounts of Mg, Fe, and Zn. The results also showed that H. crepitans oil contains 20.12% oleic acid, followed by stearic acid (3.0%), while linoleic acid is present at the lowest level (0.03%) among the other acids. The Hura oil has a high saponification value (127.16 +/- 0.18 mg/g) and low acid value (3.56 +/- 0.16 mg/g). The results also showed that the average molecular weight of glycerides is higher in the oil as reflected by the ester value (123.6 +/- 0.73 mg/g). The iodine value of Hura oil was found to be 65.62 +/- 0.73%. A low peroxide value (6.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g) was observed in Hura oil. The results showed that H. crepitans seed contains 328.1 IU of vitamin A/100 g, 0.398 mg of vitamin E/100 g, and 0.26 mg of vitamin K/100 g. The results also showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in glutamate (14.41 g/100 g of protein) and deficient in cysteine (0.78 g/100 g of protein). Among the essential amino acids, arginine has the highest value (5.97 g/100 g of protein). This is followed by leucine, at 4.16 g/100 g of protein. Therefore, H. crepitans seed is a nutritionally promising seed.

  8. Clinical toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f.

    PubMed

    Murty, G K

    1974-09-01

    Semecarpus anacardium was administered to 266 cases in 3 formulations: Amrit Bhallatak (186 cases), RB 3 (48 cases), and Garsin (32 cases). The Amrit Bhallatak is a compound formulation containing extract of both the cotyledons and the pericarp of the fruit of Semecarpus anacardium. RB3 is composed of the whole cotyledon (300 mg); the daily dose of cotyledons was 3.6 g. Garsin contained 200 g of cotyledons. The extract is derived by separating the oil by a physical process. The daily dosage of Amrit Bhallatak was 10 g/day, that of Garsin, 2.4 g/day. No toxicity or side effects were observed. The therapeutic value of Semecarpus anacardium in arthropathies, atopic dermatitis, leucoderma, leprosy, hypothyroidism, oligospermia, and azoospermia and its value as an oral contraceptive have been studied. The most significant effect was on the ovaries and testes. The drug probably acts via the hypophysics. Out of 266 patients, 189 were men, 77 women between 30-45 years of age. The treatment was restricted to internal medication by mouth. No external contact or application of the drug was applied. Of the 77 women treated with the drug, 41 were followed up after treatment. 12 had become pregnant and none showed any teratogenecity.

  9. Elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmed, Rizwan; Shereen, Saima

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to study elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum collected from Swat in 2010. The elemental analysis showed that Ca was highest (5600 μg/g) in leaves and lowest (2500 μg/g) in flowers. The potassium was highest (840 μg/g) in fruit and lowest (80 μg/g) in leaves. Magnesium was highest (260 μg/g) in stem and lowest (200 μg/g) in flowers. Sodium was highest (4900 μg/g) in stem and lowest (4700 μg/g) in leaves and flowers. Copper was highest (26 μg/g) in stem and lowest (10 μg/g) in leaves. Iron was highest (5000 μg/g) in flowers lowest (1200 μg/g) in stem. Zinc was highest (80 μg/g) in flowers and lowest (46 μg/g) in stem. Nickle, cadmium and Cobalt were <5 μg/g for all plant parts. The nutritional analysis showed that the dry matter was in the range of (97.61%) in stem and (96.38%) in leaf, ash (5.43%) in flowers and (1.90%) in stem, crude protein (12.63%) in leaf and (6.15%) in stem, crude fibre (64.74%) in flowers and (13.0%) in leaf, ether extract (10.98%) in fruit and (1.88%) in stem and nitrogen free extract was (65.80%) in leaf and (10.98%) in flower, respectively. Hypericum perforatum did not show cytotoxic, insecticidal and antibacterial activity in vitro at different doses. The % activity was zero% in cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. However, H. perforatum plant parts revealed phytotoxic activity. The phytotoxic activity of leaf and fruit remained same (44.0%) at highest dose (500 μg/ml). The phytochemical screening showed the presence of mucilage, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, fats and oils and proteins in all parts of the plant. Calcium oxalate was found in all parts except the fruit. Lignin and catechin was found in all parts except the leaf. Cutin was found only in stem and flower while chlorophyll was found only in stem and leaf. In various localities (Shartangaar, Panj Pali and Sharanko) of Swat fresh leaves were used while in Barani and Jaba fresh as well as dried leaves were used as stimulant, in fever, cough, diphtheria and as an anthelmintic only in Shartangaar. PMID:27087099

  10. Potential antiamoebic property of the roots of Piper longum Linn.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sheela; Lakshmi, V

    2002-11-01

    In an earlier study we reported the effect of ethanol extracts of Piper longum fruit against caecal amoebiasis in rats. A follow-up study to determine whether the roots possess similar antiamoebic activity was carried out. The ethanolic extract of roots was amoebicidal at 1,000 microg/mL in vitro and cured 88% of caecal amoebiasis cases, suggesting that both the root and fruit of P. longum possess antiamoebic activity to approximately the same extent.

  11. Elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmed, Rizwan; Shereen, Saima

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to study elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum collected from Swat in 2010. The elemental analysis showed that Ca was highest (5600 μg/g) in leaves and lowest (2500 μg/g) in flowers. The potassium was highest (840 μg/g) in fruit and lowest (80 μg/g) in leaves. Magnesium was highest (260 μg/g) in stem and lowest (200 μg/g) in flowers. Sodium was highest (4900 μg/g) in stem and lowest (4700 μg/g) in leaves and flowers. Copper was highest (26 μg/g) in stem and lowest (10 μg/g) in leaves. Iron was highest (5000 μg/g) in flowers lowest (1200 μg/g) in stem. Zinc was highest (80 μg/g) in flowers and lowest (46 μg/g) in stem. Nickle, cadmium and Cobalt were <5 μg/g for all plant parts. The nutritional analysis showed that the dry matter was in the range of (97.61%) in stem and (96.38%) in leaf, ash (5.43%) in flowers and (1.90%) in stem, crude protein (12.63%) in leaf and (6.15%) in stem, crude fibre (64.74%) in flowers and (13.0%) in leaf, ether extract (10.98%) in fruit and (1.88%) in stem and nitrogen free extract was (65.80%) in leaf and (10.98%) in flower, respectively. Hypericum perforatum did not show cytotoxic, insecticidal and antibacterial activity in vitro at different doses. The % activity was zero% in cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. However, H. perforatum plant parts revealed phytotoxic activity. The phytotoxic activity of leaf and fruit remained same (44.0%) at highest dose (500 μg/ml). The phytochemical screening showed the presence of mucilage, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, fats and oils and proteins in all parts of the plant. Calcium oxalate was found in all parts except the fruit. Lignin and catechin was found in all parts except the leaf. Cutin was found only in stem and flower while chlorophyll was found only in stem and leaf. In various localities (Shartangaar, Panj Pali and Sharanko) of Swat fresh leaves were used while in Barani and Jaba fresh as well as dried leaves were used as stimulant, in fever, cough, diphtheria and as an anthelmintic only in Shartangaar.

  12. Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. Results At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL). Conclusions It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L). PMID:23569803

  13. A newly found manganese hyperaccumulator--Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Yu, Fangming; Chen, Menglin; Zhou, Zhenming; Chen, Chaoshu; Li, Ming Shun; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, both field investigation and laboratory experiment were carried out to testify whether Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a potential manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulator. Results from field investigation showed that P. lapathifolium had great tolerance and accumulation to Mn. Mn concentrations in leaves were the highest, varied from 6889.2 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) to 18841.7 mg kg(-1) DW with the average of 12180.6 mg kg(-1). The values of translocation factor (the concentrations of Mn in leaf to that in root) ranged from 5.72 to 9.53. Results from laboratory experiment illuminated that P. lapathifolium could grow well and show no toxic symptoms even under high Mn stress (16 mmol L(-1)). Although the changes of antioxidant enzymes activities were triggered under Mn stress, the alterations of pigments were not significant (P > 0.05) as compared with control. Total plant biomass and plant height increased with increasing Mn supply. Mn concentrations in leaves and stems were constantly greater than those in roots, the ratio of concentrations in leaves to that in roots were 2.58-6.72 and the corresponding values in stems to that in roots were 1.45-3.18. The results showed that P. lapathifolium is a Mn-hyperaccumulator. PMID:26514228

  14. Remedial Prospective of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (Sea Buckthorn)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag A.; Divakar, Kalyani; Santani, Devdas; Solanki, Himanshu K.; Thakkar, Jalaram H.

    2012-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily valued for its very rich vitamins A, B1, B12, C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180, P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive effect in part by blocking angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis. PMID:22530142

  15. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  16. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb. PMID:27068721

  17. Chenopodium album Linn: review of nutritive value and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Amrita; Upadhayay, Ashutosh

    2015-07-01

    Green leafy vegetables have generated interest worldwide as they exhibit multiple benefits for health of human beings. Vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres and essential amino acids particularly. In most of the developing countries where the daily diet is dominated by starchy staple foods, vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres and essential amino acids. Across the globe there are several local and wild vegetables which are under-exploited because of inadequate scientific information on knowledge of their nutritional potentials. A resurgence of interest has developed in wild vegetables for their possible medicinal values in diets. C. album is under exploited vegetable which has high functional potential apart from basic nutritional benefits. The plant is used in diet not only to provide minerals, fibre, vitamins and essential fatty acids but also enhance sensory and functional value of the food. The plant has been traditionally used as a bloodpurifier, diuretic, sedative, hepatoprotective, antiscorbutic laxative and as an anthelmentic against round and hookworms. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the plant possesses anthelmentic, sperm immobilizing and contraceptive properties. It is also claimed to be antipruritic and antinociceptive in action. Therefore C. album holds a great potential for in depth biological evaluation. No significant work has ever been carried out for processing parameters for this potentially useful plant. Significance and future scope of C. album for public and dietary awareness of its nutritional status has been discussed in this review. PMID:26139865

  18. Identification of alpha amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Linn seeds.

    PubMed

    Karthic, K; Kirthiram, K S; Sadasivam, S; Thayumanavan, B

    2008-09-01

    The aqueous extract of S. cumini or Eugenia jambolana seeds and Psidium guajava leaves showed higher inhibition against the porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase among the medicinal plants studied. The alpha-amylase inhibitors from S. cumini seeds were separated from the extract by preparative thin layer chromatography into fractions with different Rf values. The fraction with Rf value between 0.285 and 0.43, which showed maximum inhibitory activity, was eluted and analyzed through LC-MS. The compounds identified from the seed extract ofS. cumini were betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone, which were reported earlier from S. formosanum and other plants. Dixon plot showed that the inhibition was noncompetitive in nature. PMID:18949899

  19. Nutritional quality of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans Linn.).

    PubMed

    Fowomola, M A; Akindahunsi, A A

    2007-03-01

    Antinutrient, proximate, mineral, fatty acid, vitamin, and amino acid analyses of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) seeds were carried out. The results of antinutrient analysis showed that H. crepitans seed contains alkaloid (5.0 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g), tannins (5.0 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g), phytate (53.0 +/- 6.0 mg/100 g), cardiac glycoside (1890.0 +/- 1.5 mg/100 g), and saponin (2.2 +/- 0.1 mg/100 g). Its trypsin inhibitor activity was found to be 30.27 +/- 1.86 TIU/mg of protein. The results of proximate analysis showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in crude protein (25.16 +/- 0.22%), crude oil (51.43 +/- 0.22%), and energy content (2,621.891 +/- 6.357 kJ/100 g). H. crepitans seed also contains 1.85 ppm Na, 3.4 ppm K, 0.088 ppm Ca, and trace amounts of Mg, Fe, and Zn. The results also showed that H. crepitans oil contains 20.12% oleic acid, followed by stearic acid (3.0%), while linoleic acid is present at the lowest level (0.03%) among the other acids. The Hura oil has a high saponification value (127.16 +/- 0.18 mg/g) and low acid value (3.56 +/- 0.16 mg/g). The results also showed that the average molecular weight of glycerides is higher in the oil as reflected by the ester value (123.6 +/- 0.73 mg/g). The iodine value of Hura oil was found to be 65.62 +/- 0.73%. A low peroxide value (6.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g) was observed in Hura oil. The results showed that H. crepitans seed contains 328.1 IU of vitamin A/100 g, 0.398 mg of vitamin E/100 g, and 0.26 mg of vitamin K/100 g. The results also showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in glutamate (14.41 g/100 g of protein) and deficient in cysteine (0.78 g/100 g of protein). Among the essential amino acids, arginine has the highest value (5.97 g/100 g of protein). This is followed by leucine, at 4.16 g/100 g of protein. Therefore, H. crepitans seed is a nutritionally promising seed. PMID:17472481

  20. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases.

  1. A new triterpenoid saponin from Abrus precatorius Linn.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Fa-Zuo; Sun, Ai-Jun; Li, Chuan-Rong; Huang, Cai-Guo; Zhang, Si

    2012-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl subprogenin D (1), together with six known triterpenoids: subprogenin D (2), abrusgenic acid (3), triptotriterpenic acid B (4), abruslactone A (5), abrusogenin (6) and abrusoside C (7) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Abrus precatorius. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical and NMR analysis, respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, SW1990, Hela, and Du-145 cell lines. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  2. A newly found manganese hyperaccumulator--Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Yu, Fangming; Chen, Menglin; Zhou, Zhenming; Chen, Chaoshu; Li, Ming Shun; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, both field investigation and laboratory experiment were carried out to testify whether Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a potential manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulator. Results from field investigation showed that P. lapathifolium had great tolerance and accumulation to Mn. Mn concentrations in leaves were the highest, varied from 6889.2 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) to 18841.7 mg kg(-1) DW with the average of 12180.6 mg kg(-1). The values of translocation factor (the concentrations of Mn in leaf to that in root) ranged from 5.72 to 9.53. Results from laboratory experiment illuminated that P. lapathifolium could grow well and show no toxic symptoms even under high Mn stress (16 mmol L(-1)). Although the changes of antioxidant enzymes activities were triggered under Mn stress, the alterations of pigments were not significant (P > 0.05) as compared with control. Total plant biomass and plant height increased with increasing Mn supply. Mn concentrations in leaves and stems were constantly greater than those in roots, the ratio of concentrations in leaves to that in roots were 2.58-6.72 and the corresponding values in stems to that in roots were 1.45-3.18. The results showed that P. lapathifolium is a Mn-hyperaccumulator.

  3. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.

  4. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Datura metel Linn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. Materials and Methods: The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Results: We found that the highest amount of TPC and TFC in methanolic extracts of seed (268.6 μg of gallic acid equivalence/mg of dry plant material) and fruit pulp (8.84 μg of quercetin equivalence/mg dry plant material) of D. metel, respectively prepared by Soxhlet method. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon prepared using soxhlation has shown potent free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 100 μg/ml. The IC50 of a methanolic cold extract of datura fruit was found to be 3 mg/ml against vero cell line. Conclusion: We observed that plant parts of C. dactylon and D. metel have a high antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts. SUMMARY In the present study we observed a positive correlation was between the phenolic and flavanoid content of the Datura metel and cynodon doctylon (durva) extracts with the free radical scavenging activities. Both were found to have a high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, CC50: 50% cell cytotoxic concentration, CNS: Central nervous system, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), TFC: Total flavonoid content, TPC: Total phenolic content. PMID:27034603

  5. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  6. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination ofCurcumin fromCurcuma longa, Linn, and partially purified product fromAbroma augusta, Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ali Hussain, Halim Eshrat M

    2002-07-01

    Dietary spice components ofCurcuma longa andAbroma augusta have been screened for their protective effect against reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation. They have been found to be efficient antioxidant when administered in combination. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral administration (300mg/Kg) of the aqueous extract of turmeric whose active ingredient isCurcumin andAbromine powder as a hypoglycemic agent mixed with diet. The effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system in rat tissues like liver, lung, kidney and brain was studied for 8 weeks in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The administration of an aqueous extract of turmeric and abromine powder resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in total haemoglobin. The aqueous extract also resulted in decreased free radical formation in the tissues studied.The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) clearly showed the antioxidant property of the mixture. It is suggested that these changes initially counteract the oxidative stress in diabetes however, a gradual decrease in the antioxidative process may be one of the factors which results in chronic diabetes. These results indicate that the mixture of the two plants have shown antidiabetic activity and also reduced oxidative stress in diabetes. A combination ofAbroma augusta and Curcuma longa also restored the other general parameters in diabetic animals. The results were statistically analyzed and indicated that combination of herbal extracts showed better efficacy as compared to individual herbal plant extracts used. PMID:23105348

  7. Antioxidant role of oils isolated from garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and onion (Allium cepa Linn) on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Helen, A; Rajasree, C R; Krishnakumar, K; Augusti, K T; Vijayammal, P L

    1999-10-01

    Nicotine, a major component of tobacco, is partly responsible for the development of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that antioxidant nutrients are protective against degenerative diseases. So we have studied the antioxidant effect of oils isolated from onion and garlic on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissues. The lipid peroxidation products and scavenging enzymes were assessed in liver, lungs, heart and kidney. The rats were treated with 0.6 mg nicotine/kg bw and simultaneously given 100 mg garlic or onion oils/kg bw for 21 d. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides concentrations were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine-treated rats. Both the garlic oil and onion oil supplementation to nicotine-treated rats increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in nicotine-treated rats, but there was a trend to increased glutathione content. With garlic oil or onion oil supplementation, nicotine-treated rats had increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of glutathione. These results indicate that oils of garlic and onion are effective antioxidants against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine. PMID:10509436

  8. Observations on the effects of barite on the gill tissues of the suspension feeder Cerastoderma edule (Linné) and the deposit feeder Macoma balthica (Linné).

    PubMed

    Barlow, M J; Kingston, P F

    2001-01-01

    Barite, an important component of offshore drilling muds, is shown to adversely affect the ctenidia of the suspension feeding bivalve, Cerastoderma edule and the deposit feeder, Macoma balthica. SEM observations showed that exposure to barite caused cilia to shorten and coagulate, and, in some extreme cases, cause the disintegration of the gill structure itself. Using a simple ciliary condition index (CCI) the impact of the barite was quantified and damage rates expressed. The bivalves were treated with daily doses of 1, 2, and 3-mm depth equivalents of barite. In all treatments significant damage to the gills was recorded although, in the case of the 1-mm dose rate, this did not occur for 4 days. In the other two treatments, damage was apparent within a day of exposure with 100% mortality occurring within 12 days. Macoma balthica appeared slightly more tolerant of exposure to barite than C. edule. PMID:11382987

  9. Carbonic anhydrase isozymes of osteoclasts and erythrocytes of osteopetrotic microphthalmic mice.

    PubMed

    Jilka, R L; Rogers, J I; Khalifah, R G; Vaananen, H K

    1985-01-01

    The content of carbonic anhydrase isozymes I (CA I) and II (CA II) in red blood cells and bone of osteopetrotic microphthalmic (mi/mi) mice was analyzed. Monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibodies against purified rat carbonic anhydrase I or II detected both isozymes in hemolysates of both normal and mi/mi mice. Total carbonic anhydrase activity measurements of hemolysates from normal or mi/mi mice were identical. A procedure based on bromopyruvate inactivation was devised to measure the relative contributions of CA I and II isozymes to the carbon dioxide hydration activity of hemolyzates. CA II dominates the observed activity of hemolysates of normal and mi/mi mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed that CA II was present in osteoclasts of tibial and calvarial bones of both normal and mi/mi mice. Thus, in contrast to the several cases of inherited osteopetrosis in humans, there is no lack of active CA II in erythrocytes of mi/mi mice. The absence of CA II, therefore, does not appear to play a role in the etiology of osteopetrosis in the mi/mi mouse.

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a CC chemokine gene from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Sun, Yuena; Shi, Ge; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2012-12-01

    Chemokines are a family of structurally related chemotactic cytokines that regulate the migration of leukocytes, under both physiological and inflammatory conditions. A partial cDNA of CC chemokine gene designed as Mimi-CC3 was isolated from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) spleen cDNA library. Unknown 3' part of the cDNA was amplified by 3'-RACE. The complete cDNA of Mimi-CC3 contains an 89-nt 5'-UTR, a 303-nt open reading frame and a 441-nt 3'-UTR. Three exons and two introns were identified in Mimi-CC3. The deduced Mimi-CC3 protein sequences contain a 22 amino acids signal peptide and a 78 amino acids mature polypeptide, which possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines. It shares low amino acid sequence identities with most other fish and mammalian CC chemokines (less than 54.1 %), but shares very high identities with large yellow croaker CC chemokine (94.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene may have an orthologous relationship with mammalian/amphibian CCL25 gene. Tissue expression distributed analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene was constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined, although at different levels. Upon stimulated with Vibrio anguillarum, the time-course analysis using a real-time PCR showed that Mimi-CC3 transcript in kidney and liver was obviously up-regulated and reached the peak levels, followed by a recovery. Mimi-CC3 expression in kidney was more strongly increased than in liver. However, down-regulation was observed in spleen. These results indicated that Mimi-CC3 plays important roles in miiuy croaker immune response as well as in homeostatic mechanisms.

  11. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  12. The spermatogenesis and oogenesis of the springtail Podura aquatica Linné, 1758 (Hexapoda: Collembola).

    PubMed

    Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo; Gottardo, Marco; Dallai, Romano

    2013-06-01

    Podura aquatica is a springtail of uncertain systematic position. Our study dealing with the ultrastructure of the spermatogenesis and oogenesis of this species is a contribution to a better knowledge of both the reproduction and the systematics of the taxon. In the male, the spermatogenesis proceeds in a similar way to that of other Collembola. Primary spermatocytes do not show synaptonemal complexes which, instead, are found in primary oocytes. Thus a genomic recombination seems to be present only in females, as it occurs in other springtails. Degeneration of secondary spermatocytes, as reported in some families of the Symphypleona, was not observed in P. aquatica. At the end of spermiogenesis, a rolled up sperm cell provided with an anterior long appendage adhering to the acrosome is produced. In the female, the oogenesis also proceeds in a conventional way with the production of eggs rich in yolk. A branched spermatheca is present at the end of the common oviduct, close to the genital opening. It contains many sperm in its lumen. Contrary to the globular appearance of sperm cells in the male genital ducts, in the spermatheca they are straight, elongated, and lack the long anterior appendage. P. aquatica shows a spermatogenesis, sperm structure, and oogenesis similar to those of other Collembola. In agreement with the results of recent phylogenetic studies, we confirm that P. aquatica is a member of Poduridae, and it does not belong to a group close to the Symphypleona. PMID:23515073

  13. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    PubMed

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap.

  14. Floral Nectary Morphology and Proteomic Analysis of Nectar of Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanwei; Li, Meiping; Zhao, Fangfang; Zha, Hongguang; Yang, Liming; Lu, Ye; Wang, Guangping; Shi, Jisen; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Nectar is a primary nutrient reward for a variety of pollinators. Recent studies have demonstrated that nectar also has defensive functions against microbial invasion. In this study, the Liriodendron tulipifera nectary was first examined by scanning electron microscopy, and then the nectar was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which led to identification of 42 nectar proteins involved in various biological functions. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed on an identified novel rubber elongation factor (REF) protein in L. tulipifera nectar. The protein was particularly abundant, representing ∼60% of the major bands of 31 to 43 kDa, and showed high, stage-specific expression in nectary tissue. The REF family proteins are the major allergens in latex. We propose that REF in L. tulipifera nectar has defensive characteristics against microorganisms. PMID:27379122

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    PubMed Central

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids. PMID:27756958

  16. Antidiabetic Effect of GII Compound Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn) Seeds in Diabetic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2012-01-01

    Aim is to study the antidiabetic effect of a compound GII purified earlier from the water extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds by Murthy and his colleagues (patented in India and USA) in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by injecting 80 mg/kg bw of alloxan intravenously into rabiits. Rabbits were subdivided into subdiabetic [fasting blood sugar (FBG) up to 120 mg/dl with abnormal glucose tolerance in glucose tolerance test (GTT)], moderately diabetic (FBG below 250 mg/dl) and severely diabetic (FBG above 250 mg/dl). Blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were estimated by procedures in the kits of Stangen Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai using, respectively, glucose oxidase method and absorbance at 415 nm. Serum insulin was estimated by the ELISA method as described in the kit of Boehringer Mannheim Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai, India. GII was found to improve blood glucose utilization in GTT and reduced FBG and HbA1C. In the present communication detailed studies were carried out with GII in the subdiabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw per day brought down the elevated FBG levels in the untreated subdiabetic (FBG 96.6 ± 7 mg/dl), moderately diabetic (150.1 ± 14 mg/dl) and severely diabetic rabbits (427 ± 46 mg/dl) to normal in 12, 15 and 28 days of treatment. It improved serum HbA1C and insulin levels also in these rabbits. Intermittent therapy once a week for 6 weeks with GII at the same dose brought down the FBG values to normal in the subdiabetic (FBG 96.0 ± 2 mg/dl) and in the moderately diabetic rabbits to 133.0 ± 12 mg/dl. After stopping therapy of the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits whose FBG values came to normal after treatment with GII 50 mg/kg bw, the values remained normal for 1 week and showed a tendency to increase only after 15 days. If these animal studies are applicable to humans these results indicate that a diabetic person need not take GII daily when once the FBG value comes to normal or near to normal. Patients might be able to take GII only when the FBG value shows tendency to increase. So, intermittent therapy is possible with the potent product GII of the fenugreek seeds which is of a great advantage. PMID:23277708

  17. Mustard seeds (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haifeng; Zhu, Minggu; Guo, Wen; Jin, Ling; Chen, Weihong; Brunk, Ulf T; Zhao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Mustard seeds (MS), which are consumed in considerable amounts by the Japanese people that, interestingly, have the longest life expectancy in the world, are known to contain a number of yet not fully defined but quite powerful anti-oxidants. A suspension of extracted MS was found to suppress oxidized-LDL-induced macrophage respiratory burst in vitro, to prevent growth, and to induce apoptotic death of SW480 cells (a human colon cancer cell line), while no such effects were found for normal 3T3 cells. A diet enriched with MS decreased plasma levels of the lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde in mice exposed to the colon cancer-inducer azoxymethane (AOM). Such a diet also dose-dependently enhanced the activity of several anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and GSH-peroxidase and, moreover, reduced AOM-mediated formation of colon adenomas by about 50%. Further studies are required to detail and explore the beneficial effects of MS and their rich content of powerful anti-oxidants. PMID:21605497

  18. Natural male contraceptive: phytochemical investigation and anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Dubey, Bidhyut Kumar; Tripathi, Avinash C; Singh, Ajeet Pal; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2014-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explore the anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes and to investigate it as a male contraceptive. The prepared extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compounds. To assess the anti-spermatogenic activity, mice were orally administered with the various extracts of P. stratiotes (dose: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days) and the most active, ethanolic extract was subjected to the isolation of phytoconstituent responsible for the activity. Diethyl ether fraction of ethanolic extract was taken to isolate a saponin, sitosterol-3-O-[2,4-di-O-acetyl-6-O-stearyl-β-D-glucopyranoside]. Anti-spermatogenic activity of the isolated saponin was evaluated at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days. The treatment caused significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of reproductive organs (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle). The sperm count, sperm viability and serum testosterone levels were significantly lowered compared with that of the control group.

  19. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  20. Clinical efficacy of Shilajatu (Asphaltum) processed with Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.) in Sthaulya (obesity).

    PubMed

    Pattonder, Ranjan K; Chandola, H M; Vyas, S N

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which excessive amount of fat is accumulated in the body. Classical Ayurvedic texts describe eight types of despicable designated as 'Nindita purusha' including atisthaulya. Corpulent people are characterized by short in longevity, slow movement, difficult to indulge in sex, weak, emission of bad body odor, profuse perspiration, excessive hunger and excessive thirst. Sixty to seventy percent of cardiac patients die of obesity and contribute to develop coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, 66 patients of obesity were treated with Shilajatu processed with Agnimantha. After complition of therapy, 5.09 ± 0.24 kg and 2.06 ± 0.10 kg/m(2) reduction of body weight and body mass index, respectively were noted. The result was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001). No adverse effects were observed in any of the treated patients. PMID:22661848

  1. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  2. Concentration of heavy metals in water and chub, Leuciscus cephalus (Linn.) from the river Yildiz, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agtas, Semsettin; Gey, Huseyin; Gul, Suleyman

    2007-10-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Fe and Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the river water and the edible muscle tissues of chub, Leuciscus cephalus, from river Yildiz, Turkey, and in the waste water The following results were found in the water of the river Yildiz: Cu 0.03-0.53, Fe 0.91-1.96 and Zn, 053-1.49 microgl(-1), in the waste water Cu 0.20-0.52, Fe 1.22-2.29 and Zn 0.92-1.46 microgl(-1) and in the edible muscle of chub: Cu 1.00-3.79, Fe 7.21-17.04 and Zn 4.12-18.33 microg g(-1) wet weight respectively. Among the heavy metals studied Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Mn were not detected in the river water, waste water and chub samples. Heavy metal contents in these samples were evaluated and the highest concentrations of Cu, Fe and Zn were found in the muscle tissue. The levels of the heavy metals were detected in decreasing order as iron> zinc> copper. All the samples contained comparatively lower amounts of metals as suggested by international and national regulatory bodies. Thus, we recommend periodic monitoring of these metals in the fish consumed by local people.

  3. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Parkinsonia aculeata Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonia; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Butanol and hexane leaves extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae) were assessed for its antioxidant potential by in vitro methods. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of plant extracts were studied using different in vitro assays. UPLC analysis of extracts was carried out for the identification of chemical constituents. The total phenolic contents of the butanol and hexane leaf extract were 42 mgGAE/g and 34 mgGAE/g whereas flavonoid contents of these extracts were found to be 0.044 mgRE/g and 0.005 mgRE/g, respectively. Among both extracts, butanol extract shows maximum inhibition (%) of 93.88%, 80.02%, 52.06%, 94.68%, and 69.37% in DPPH, non-site-specific and site-specific, FTC, and TBA assays and absorbance of 0.852 and 0.522 in reducing power and CUPRAC assay at the highest concentration tested. The FRAP and TAC values of butanol extract were found to be 678 μM Fe(II)/g and 36 mgAAE/100 mg. UPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of various polyphenols. The tested plant extracts were found to possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. PMID:24822217

  4. Two triterpenes lupanone and lupeol isolated and identified from Tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Imam, Shehla; Azhar, Iqbal; Hasan, M Mohtaseemul; Ali, M S; Ahmed, S Waseemuddin

    2007-04-01

    Tamarindus indica, a useful medicinal plant was subjected to phytochemical investigation. Two triterpenes (lupanone and lupeol) have been isolated from the leaves of this plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of physico-chemical methods and spectroscopic techniques. The lupanone and lupeol from this plant are being reported for the first time.

  5. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by plant extract Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Kumar, Ashok

    2003-06-01

    The oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) before exposure to gamma radiation was found to be effective in increasing the frequency of radiation-induced endogenous spleen colonies. A significant increase in the weight of the spleen was observed in animals of the Mentha and radiation combined group in comparison to the irradiation-alone group on day 10 of postirradiation. Furthermore, a significant increase in the body weight of animals in the Mentha and radiation combined group was observed in all the radiation doses studied. A regression analysis of survival data yielded LD50/30 as 6.48 +/- 0.07 and 11.59 +/- 0.21 Gy for the irradiation-alone and the Mentha and radiation combined group, respectively, and produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 1.78. Significant increases in total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values were observed in the animals of the Mentha and radiation combined group in comparison to the hematological values observed in the irradiation-alone group at all radiation doses studied (6, 8, and 10 Gy). A dose-dependent decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were observed in control animals. However, the animals of the Mentha and radiation combined group exhibited a significant increase in GSH content and a decrease in LPO level, but the values remained below normal. A significant increase in the serum alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in the animals of the Mentha and radiation combined group during the entire period of study, and normal range was evident at 24 h (6 Gy) and day 5 (8 Gy). However, this level could not be restored even at day 30 in 10 Gy exposed animals. Measured acid phosphatase activity in the animals of the Mentha and radiation combined group was found to be significantly lower than the respective controls and attained normal value at day 5 (6 and 8 Gy) and day 20 (10 Gy).

  6. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  7. Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification

    PubMed Central

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Ranganath Pai, K. Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delayed fetal skeletal ossification is one of the known complications of maternal diabetes. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) on diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, intraperitonial) before mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and diabetic + CQ group. The diabetic + CQ group pregnant rats were treated with PECQ (500 mg/kg body weight) throughout their gestation period. Immediately after delivery, pups were collected from all three groups and processed for alizarin red S–alcian blue staining in order to examine the pattern of skeletal ossification. Results: Fewer ossification centers and decreased extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones were observed in the neonatal pups of diabetic control group as compared to those in the normal control group. PECQ pretreatment significantly restored the ossification centers and improved the extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones in the neonatal pups of diabetic + CQ group as compared to those in the diabetic control group. Conclusions: The results suggested that PECQ treatment is effective against diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. However, further studies on the isolation and characterization of active constituents of PECQ, which can cross the placental barrier and are responsible for the bone anabolic activity are warranted. PMID:24812472

  8. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load.

  9. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites.

  10. A flavonol triglycoside and investigation of the antioxidant and cell stimulating activities of Annona muricata Linn.

    PubMed

    Nawwar, Mahmoud; Ayoub, Nahla; Hussein, Sahar; Hashim, Amani; El-Sharawy, Reham; Wende, Kristian; Harms, Manuela; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    Chemical investigation on leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of the flavonol triglycoside, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnosyl-(1″″ → 6″)-β-sophoroside, together with twelve known phenolics. The structures of these compounds were established by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry data. The in vitro antioxidant studies of the investigated aqueous ethanol extract and its column fractions were accomplished using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A stimulating effect on HaCaT human keratinocytes by the leaf extract was also assessed. Il-6 production after UV irradiation was not influenced by A. muricata leaf extract.

  11. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  12. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal. Linn.) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, Prasad; Thakar, A B

    2011-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. By 2025, men with ED will be approximately 322 million, an increase of nearly 170 million men from 1995. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. In this study, a total of 95 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected, out of them 86 patients completed the course of treatment. In Trial Group, Ashwagandha root powder and in Control group, Placebo (Wheat powder) were given for 60 days. Treatment selection and its allocation were done by following computerized randomization plan. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Scale. Paired and Unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. In Trial group (n=41), 12.6% and in Control group (n=45), 19.11% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) found in between the two groups. Both Ashwagandha and Placebo provided no relief (<25% improvement on IIEF) in psychogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:22529644

  13. Protein mediated cholesterol absorption in locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal) and Locusta migratoria (Linn).

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant; Agarwal, H C; Dhar, Ravi

    2002-02-01

    Absorption and transport of 3H cholesterol from the midgut to hemolymph and other tissues was studied in the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. S. gregaria are able to absorb dietary cholesterol in the midgut and release into the hemolymph in vivo and into the incubation medium in virto. Certain proteins of midgut origin are involved in the absorption and release of cholesterol. The proteins designated as cholesterol binding proteins (CBP's) were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography using Sepharose CL-6B-200 column. Presence of a protein and its binding with cholesterol is confirmed by TCA precipitation after subsequent incubation of midgut in the incubation medium. Cholesterol binding with the proteins was also confirmed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biosynthesis of this protein takes place in the midgut which is inhibited by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. It also inhibits absorption and release of cholesterol from the midgut. The cholesterol binding activity was associated with a peak containing proteins ranging from molecular weights of 17-32 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. Treatment of midgut with cycloheximide resulted in reduced cholesterol binding activity. Dilipidation of mucin and transport in presence of bile salts yielded a higher cholesterol binding activity. Although the absorption and release of cholesterol was observed in the hemolymph of both sexes, the ovary exhibited higher cholesterol binding as compared to testis. PMID:12622177

  14. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time. PMID:26529087

  15. Protective activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. on nicotine-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Viji; Helen, A

    2007-04-01

    Nicotine, a pharmacologically active component of cigarettes smoke causes devastating effects in important biomolecules of the cell through generation of free radicals leading to genomic instability. Bacopa monniera is a reputed drug in Ayurveda known for its hepatoprotective and DNA protective effects. In this study, an aqueous extract of Bacopa monniera (BAE, 50 mg/kg i.p.) was investigated for its ability to reduce nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and confer genoprotection in Swiss mice. Genoprotective effect was assayed using micronucleus (MN) assay. LPO status was studied by evaluating MDA levels and antioxidant status. Nicotine altered hepatic function as evident by increased ALP and GST levels and decreased SOD, catalase and GPx activities. BAE treatment restored antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase and GPx in liver. BAE treatment also significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei induced by nicotine by decreasing the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE). Hepatic GSH, ALP and GST levels were brought to normal values indicating protection. The results of the present study suggest that BAE exerts protective effects by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:17236174

  16. Cytotoxic activity of a flavanone from the stem of Bauhinia variegata Linn.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Murugesh, Narayanan; Rama Krishna, Devarakonda

    2009-01-01

    A flavanone has been isolated first time from the stem of Bauhinia variegata, and its structure was identified by colour reactions and spectral analysis. In a search for novel anticancer compounds from medicinal plants, the isolated flavanone was tested for cytotoxic activity against 57 human tumour lines, representing leukaemia, non-small cell lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate and breast cancers. The results showed that the flavanone has cytotoxic activity against human tumour cell lines.

  17. Antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities of methylpheophorbide a, isolated from wheat grass (Triticum aestivum Linn.).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mandal, Suvra; Gangopadhyay, Sudeshna; Das, Kalipada; Mitra, Arpita Ghosh; Dasgupta, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    Methylphophorbide a (MPa) has been isolated from the ethanol extract of the wheat grass plant. Its antioxidative efficacy is evaluated by hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and reducing capacity which are significantly up regulated in comparison with aqueous extract of the plant. The compound shows iron-binding capacity where the Fe(2+) binds with MPa by two types of binding patterns with dissociation constants 157.17 and 27.89. It has antioxidative and cytotoxic effects on HeLa and Hep G2 cells. The cancerous cell survivability decreases with increasing concentration of MPa. These findings have provided evidence for the traditional use of the wheat grass plant in the treatment of cancers, oxidative stress and iron overloaded disorders.

  18. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats.

  19. Antisnake venom activity of ethanolic seed extract of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    The whole seed extract of S. nux vomica (in low doses) effectively neutralized Daboia russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhage, defibrinogenating, PLA2 enzyme activity and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA2 enzyme activity. The seed extract potentiated polyvalent snake venom antiserum action in experimental animals. An active compound (SNVNF) was isolated and purified by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography, which effectively antagonised D. russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, oedema, PLA2 enzyme activity and N. kaouthia induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA, enzyme activity. Polyvalent snake venom antiserum action was significantly potentiated by the active compound. Spectral studies revealed it to be a small, straight chain compound containing methyl and amide radicals. Detailed structure elucidation of the compound (SNVNF) is warranted before its clinical trials as a snake venom antagonist.

  20. Inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2 and antivenin activity of melanin extracted from Thea sinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Sava, Vasyl; Hong, Meng-Yen; Huang, G Steven

    2004-03-01

    Antivenin activity of melanin extracted from black tea (MEBT) was reported for the first time. The antagonistic effect of MEBT was evaluated for Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broadbanded copperhead), Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) snake venoms administered i.p. to ICR mice. MEBT was injected i.p. immediately after the venom administration in dose of 3 mg per mouse in the same place of venom injection. MEBT demonstrated neutralization effect against all venoms tested. The greatest antivenin effect of MEBT was found against Japanese mamushi snake venom. In this case, half the mice died within 2.5 +/- 0.7 h after injection of 0.9 mg/kg of venom. An immediate injection of MEBT substantially reduced the toxic effect of venom and extended time at the 50% level of survival up to 52.3 +/- 2.3 h. The antivenin activity of MEBT is due to chelating of Ca++ and non-specific binding of phospholipase A2. The inhibitory effect of MEBT on phospholipase A2 assessed for different venoms was similar to that obtained with pure enzyme. Low toxicity of MEBT in combination with its antagonistic activity against different venoms may allow effective life-saving treatment against snakebites. Such application of MEBT is important when identification of the snake is impossible or if specific treatment is unavailable.

  1. Selected hydrologic data from the Cedar Rapids area, Linn County, Iowa, April 1996 through March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, R.A.; Kuzniar, R.L.; Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields along the Cedar River. The wells are completed at depths of about 60 to 80 feet in a shallow alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have conducted a cooperative study of the groundwater flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. The purpose of this report is to document selected hydrologic data collected from April 1996 through March 1999. Data include the results of water-quality analyses, ground-waterlevels continuously measured with pressure transducers and data recorders, and physical properties continuously monitored using multiprobe instruments. Water-quality samples were collected from selected wells and the Cedar River to conduct periodic monitoring, to evaluate ground-water geochemistry, to assess the occurrence of pesticides and herbicide degradates in the alluvial aquifer, and to characterize water quality in shallow ground water near a wetland area in the Seminole Well Field. Types of water-quality analyses included common ions (calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), trace elements (boron, bromide, and fluoride), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides and herbicide degradates. Ground-water levels in selected observation wells were continuously measured to assess temporal trends in groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer and bedrock aquifer, to help calibrate a ground-water flow model being constructed to simulate local groundwater flow under transient conditions near the well fields, and to assess hydrologic conditions near a wetland area in the Seminole Well Field. Physical properties (specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature) were continuously monitored to assess temporal variation and to help evaluate the interaction between the Cedar River and ground water in the alluvial aquifer.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  3. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.

  4. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yougen; Girmay, Sisay; da Silva, Vitor Martins; Perry, Brian; Hu, Xinwen; Tan, Ghee T

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C), in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), and MCF-7 (breast) with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL. PMID:26783408

  5. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yougen; Girmay, Sisay; da Silva, Vitor Martins; Perry, Brian; Hu, Xinwen; Tan, Ghee T

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C), in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), and MCF-7 (breast) with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL.

  6. A novel role of ethephon in controlling the noxious weed Ipomoea cairica (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Tai-Jie; Su, Jin-Quan; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Jia-Qin; Chen, Li-Ling; Li, Wei-Hua; Peng, Shao-Lin; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Several auxin herbicides, such as 2, 4-D and dicamba, have been used to eradicate an exotic invasive weed Ipomoea cairica in subtropical China, but restraining the re-explosion of this weed is still a challenge. Since ethylene is one of the major intermediate functioning products during the eradication process, we explored the possibility, mechanism and efficiency of using ethephon which can release ethylene to control Ipomoea cairica. The results of the pot experiment showed that 7.2 g /L ethephon could totally kill Ipomoea cairica including the stems and roots. The water culture experiment indicated that ethephon released an abundance of ethylene directly in leaves and caused increases in electrolyte leakage, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 and decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity, finally leading to the death of Ipomoea cairica. The field experiment showed that the theoretical effective concentration of ethephon for controlling Ipomoea cairica (weed control efficacy, WCE = 98%) was 4.06 g/L and the half inhibitory concentration (I50) was 0.56 g/L. More than 50% of the accompanying species were insensitive to the phytotoxicity of ethephon. Therefore, ethephon is an excellent alternative herbicide for controlling Ipomoea cairica. PMID:26087386

  7. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties of Cocos nucifera Linn. water.

    PubMed

    Mantena, Sudheer Kumar; Jagadish; Badduri, Sridhar Reddy; Siripurapu, Kiran Babu; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan

    2003-04-01

    Tender Cocos nucifera L. (Palmacea) water (CW), variety Chandrasankara, was tested for its ability to scavenge free radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation and protect hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation. Fresh sample of CW scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and superoxide radicals but promoted the production of hydroxyl radicals and increased lipid peroxidation. The activity was most significant for fresh samples of CW and diminished significantly upon heat, acid or alkali treatment or dialysis. Maturity of coconut drastically decreased the scavenging ability of CW against DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radicals. CW protected hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation to methemoglobin when added before the autocatalytic stage of the oxidation. Acid, alkali or heat treated or dialyzed CW showed a decreased ability in protecting hemoglobin from oxidation. The scavenging ability and protection of hemoglobin from oxidation may be partly attributed to the ascorbic acid, which is an important constituent of CW. As CW is a rich source of vitamins, amino acids and enzymes, etc., more than one active principle maybe involved.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of the Medicinal Plant Aegle Marmelos (Linn.) Correa: Insight.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Kant; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Various plant species are used globally for therapeutic purposes and have been authenticated by the World Health Organization. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., one of only three species in the genus Aegle, is a subtropical, fruit-bearing, deciduous tree that grows throughout the hills and plains of sub-Himalayan countries. Plants with medicinal importance have been used in almost every culture since ancient times. Various studies are underway to understand more about the qualities and components of medicinal plants, including drug preparation, phytochemical analysis, cultivation, toxicology, and pharmacology. According to the Indian conventional system of medicine, A. marmelos can successfully treat many diseases and conditions; for example, its extracts have been found to reduce the intensities of hepatic lipid peroxidation and augment the levels of hepatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. The essential oils present in the foliage (leaves), fruits, and bark of A. marmelos provide strong antifungal action. A. marmelos is thus cytoprotective, works against ulcers and diarhea, promotes skin and bone healing, and acts as a hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and anticancer agent. Such qualities have been well documented with scientific evidence. PMID:27279580

  9. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  10. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. (Apiaceae) seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Efficacies of the Ammi visnaga seeds extract and a majority of substances on larval Culex quinquefasciatus mortality in various development stages including pupae were studied. The effect of exposure time on larval mortality was also studied. The effect of sublethal concentrations or short exposure times on further larval development and subsequent fecundity in adults were studied as well. Lethal doses of the extract were estimated for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar of C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 for 18, 23 and 180 mg L(-1), respectively). The majority of furanochromenes, khellin and visnagin, were identified by analysing the extract. Khellin was significantly more effective compared to visnagin, whose LC50 was estimated at 8, 10 and 41 mg L(-1) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae. Khellin showed very fast efficacy on mortality for the 3rd instar larvae in a concentration of 100 mg L(-1). Fifty percent mortality was determined 30 min after application, a time which was considerably shorter compared to the extract (113 min) or visnagin (169 min). The effect of the application of lethal concentrations on C. quinquefasciatus larval mortality was studied. The least number of adults were hatched after application of the extract and khellin (41.8% and 37.9%, respectively), less than after visnagin application (46.7%) or in the control (94.2%). LC50 application caused lower fecundity in the hatched adults, lower hatchability of the eggs, and also very low natality, more than 77% lower for khellin compared to the control. A short exposure, corresponding to our estimated LT30, caused no significant acute toxicity in the larvae (until 24 h) for the extract or visnagin (4.3% and 11.5%, respectively); however, 18 min of action from khellin caused a 54.3% mortality rate of the larvae within 24 h.

  11. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  12. Therapeutic Efficacy of Nigella Sativa Linn. against Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatic Injury in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Amita; Sharma, Monika; Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Sharma, Samta; Reshi, Mohd Salim; Uthra, Chhavi; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Antituberculosis drug (ATD)-induced hepatotoxicity is a major impediment for the effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB). All first-line anti-TB medications have adverse effects that interrupt the successful completion of TB treatment. This investigation focuses on the evaluation of the protective role of Nigella sativa (NS) against liver injury caused by ATDs. Female rats were treated with ATDs for 8 weeks (3 d/wk) followed by NS for 8 weeks (3 d/wk). The antioxidant activity of NS was estimated with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by analyzing total phenolic contents. Qualitative characterization of active compounds of the plant was done by high-performance liquid chromotography (HPLC). ATD-induced adverse effects were associated with sharp elevation in levels of serum transaminases, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). ATDs significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase], and glucose-6-phosphatase [G6Pase]) in liver, indicating oxidative stress. Conjoint treatment with NS could reverse the serological biochemistry and inhibit oxidative stress by suppressing LPO and augmenting antioxidant enzyme activity toward that of the control. Histological studies support the above biochemical findings. Results indicate that NS exerts excellent hepatoprotective abilities and can be used as a supplement to improve patient adherence and reduce interruptions in treatment due to ATD-related liver injury. PMID:27279584

  13. Postprandial Antihyperglycemic And Antioxidant Activities of Acalypha indica Linn Stem Extract: An In-vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Charles Lekhya; Bhaskara Rao, K V

    2016-01-01

    Background: α-glucosidase inhibitors controls postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by lowering sharp rise in blood glucose levels after ingestion of carbohydrate rich meal in type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals. Acalypha indica commonly known as Indian copper leaf is used in traditional medicinal system to treat various diseases. In our previous in-vitro investigation, methanolic extract of A. indica stems (AIS) proved to be an effective a-glucosidase inhibitor, antioxidant, and well tolerated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies in albino wistar rats Objective: In this perspective, this study was designed to evaluate postprandial antihyperglycemic potential of AIS in maltose, sucrose, and glucose loaded streptozotocin (STZ)-induced normal and diabetic rats. As, the acute hyperglycemia at postprandial period has more triggering effect on oxidative stress, study was also aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of AIS on STZ-induced Albino–Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with AIS (300–600 mg/kg b.w.) to investigate effect of AIS in controling PPHG after carbohydrate loading. Hepatoprotective activity of AIS is evaluated in diabetic rats by treating them at the dosages 300–600 mg/kg b.w. Results: Studies revealed 69.10 and 80.35% blood glucose-lowering effect of AIS in maltose and sucrose loaded diabetic rats in comparison with the diabetic control group. AIS recovered the liver damage caused by streptozotocin Conclusion: The present study confirmed high potential of AIS in controling PPHG by inhibiting a-glucosidase enzyme in maltose and sucrose loaded diabetic rats. AIS also exhibited hepatoprotective activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, AIS could be used as a nutraceutical supplement to treat T2D effectively. SUMMARY AIS extract is effective in suppressing maltose and sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic spikes in ratsAIS treat ment showed a 69.10 and80.35% blood glucose-lowering effect in maltose and sucrose loaded diabetic rats in comparison with the diabetic control group.AIS also improved the antioxidant status in diabetic rats and also has recovered the liver damage caused by streptozotocin.The α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from AIS is a good supplement to control postprandial blood glucose level in the management of type 2 diabetes. Abbreviations used: AIS: Acalypha indica Stems, ALP: Alkaline Phosphatase, b/w: Body Weight, PPHG: Postprandial hyperglycemia, SE: Standard Error, SGOT: Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, SGPT: Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, STZ: Streptozotocin, TB: Total Bilirubin, T2D: Type 2 diabetes PMID:27761078

  14. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India’s Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time. PMID:26529087

  15. A new natural product and insecticidal amides from seeds of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Begum, Sabira; Afshan, Farhana; Sultana, Razia

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the petroleum ether soluble and insoluble fraction of ethanol extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of 1 new and 11 known compounds which include 3 hitherto unreported constituents, namely, cinnamylideneacetone, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropiophenone and 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone from this plant.

  16. A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Niranjan; Dave, Mansi; Padh, Harish; Rajani, Mandapati

    2008-07-01

    A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  17. Timber industry waste-teak ( Tectona grandis Linn.) leaf extract mediated synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty, K. Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    The current research article emphasizes efficacious use of teak leaves, an agro -biowaste from world's premier hardwood timber industry, for "green" synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Bioactive compounds of the leaves act as prolific reducing and stabilizing agents in AgNP synthesis. The characterization of the AgNPs synthesized using teak leaves revealed that the particles are spherical with an average size of 28 nm and the presence of bioactive compounds present in teak leaf extract as capping agents on the nanoparticles. A prominent decrease in the content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and flavonoids after the biosynthesis of AgNPs signifies that these class of compounds act as reductants and stabilizers during biosynthesis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were also successfully evaluated for their antibacterial characteristics against waterborne pathogens, E. coli and S. aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration of 25.6 μg/mL. Exploitation of agrowaste resources for synthesis of AgNPs curtails indiscriminate usage of food and commercial plant materials, rather contributing a sustainable way for effective plant waste biomass utilization and management. The biosynthesized AgNps have potential application in water purifiers, antibacterial fabrics, sports wear and in cosmetics as antibacterial agent and the process used for its synthesis being greener is highly beneficial from environmental, energy consumption and economic perspectives.

  18. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  19. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing.

  20. In vitro larvicidal effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn. on Haemonchus larval stage

    PubMed Central

    Nasai, Norisal Binti; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Mohammed, Konto; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Omar, Mohammed Ariff Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL) as a biological nematicide against third stage Haemonchus larvae (L3) isolated from sheep. Materials and Methods: Haemonchus L3 were cultured and harvested from the feces of naturally infected sheep. EECL was prepared and three concentrations; 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL were tested for their efficacies on Haemonchus L3. Levamisole at concentration 1.5 and 3 mg/mL were used as positive controls. Results: EECL showed anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner with 78% worm mortality within 24 h of exposure at the highest dose rate of 200 mg/mL. There was a 100% worm mortality rate after 2 h of levamisole (3 mg/mL) admisntration. However, there was a comparable larvicidal effect between when levamisole (1.5 mg/mL) and EECL (200 mg) were administered. Conclusion: The study shows that EECL does exhibit good anthelmintic properties at 200 mg/mL which is comparable with levamisole at 1.5 mg/mL. PMID:27182139

  1. Investigation of wound healing activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Jain, U K

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops elengi was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on mice: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug Betadine ointment in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, tensile strength and dry granuloma weight. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that Mimusops elengi bark extract exhibits significant wound healing.

  2. Evaluation of anti-fertility activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn) R.Br. leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Jain, Avijeet; Deb, Lokesh; Dutt, K R; Jain, Deepak Kumar

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD) leaves in oestrogenic activity models in immature female rats. Mature green leaves of TD were collected and authenticated. Extractions of the dried leaves were carried out with ethanol in a Soxhlet's apparatus. For oestrogenic activity, the extracts were administered orally once daily at a dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1), and the activity was compared with the standard drug ethinyl oestradiol (0.02 mg). The extracts caused significant increase in uterine weight compared to the control. The ethanolic extract exhibited oestrogenic activity. The histological study of epithelium tissues with the 400 mg of TD extract-treated animals showed increases in the height of the luminal epithelium and loose edematous stroma when compared with the 200 mg of TD extract-treated group of animals. However, this was better than the control group of animals. Enhanced uterine weight and increase in the height of luminal epithelium and histological characteristics suggest that TD extract may be useful in anti-fertility therapy. PMID:20306358

  3. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Kamal; Singh, Manjeet

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the effect of bacosides (alcoholic extract of brahmi) on scopolamine (3 mg kg(-1), ip), sodium nitrite (75 mg kg(-1), ip) and BN52021 (15 mg kg(-1), ip) induced experimental amnesia in mice, using Morris water maze test, all the agents were administered 30 min before the acquisition trials on each day and repeated for 4 consecutive days, and on 5th day during the retrieval trials. Bacosides on anterograde administration (before training) in mice, significantly decreased the escape latency time (ELT) during the acquisition trials for 4 consecutive days and increased the time spent (TS) in target quadrant during the retrieval trials on 5th day, and on retrograde administration (after training) bacosides were found not to affect TS significantly. Bacosides also significantly decreased the ELT and increased the TS in mice treated anterogradely with scopolamine and sodium nitrite. Bacosides did not exhibit any significant effect on TS of mice treated retrogradely with sodium nitrite. On the other hand, bacosides significantly increased the TS of mice treated retrogradely with BN52021. On the basis of the present results it can be concluded that bacosides facilitate anterograde memory and attenuate anterograde experimental amnesia induced by scopolamine and sodium nitrite possibly by improving acetylcholine level and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Beside this bacosides also reversed BN52021 induced retrograde amnesia, probably due to increase in platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis by enhancing cerebral glutamate level.

  4. Pharmacological studies on the venomous spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus Linn) sting extract on experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Muhuri, D; Karmakar, S; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A sting of the fish S. argus, a venomous edible spotted butterfish, produces tremendous local pain, severe swelling, rise of body temperature, throbbing sensation etc. To establish the pharmacological activities of S. argus sting extract, the present investigation, was carried out on experimental animals. The LD50 of extract was found to be 9.3 mg/kg (iv) in male albino mice. The extract showed loss of sensation, urination and salivation in mice. It potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Extract produced a fall of cat and guinea pig blood pressure, which was completely abolished by mepyramine. It produced a transient reduction of respiratory rate in rat, but decreased respiratory amplitude in cat, which was abolished after vagotomy. On isolated toad heart, the extract increased both the amplitude and rate of contraction. On isolated guinea pig heart, the sting extract decreased both the rate and amplitude of contraction leading to cardiac arrest, but it had no effect on isolated guinea pig auricle. The extract produced a reversible blockade of electrically induced twitch response of isolated chick biventer cervices preparation, but it had no effect on the isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. It produced a slow contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum, rat uterus and rat fundal strip preparations but produced slow relaxation on isolated rat duodenum preparation. The contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum and rat fundal strip was antagonised by SC19220. It did not produce any significant cutaneous haemorrhage in mice and did not produce any haemolysis on saline washed erythrocytes. The sting extract significantly increased capillary permeability of guinea pig dorsal flank and produced oedema in mice hind paw. PMID:15233469

  5. Organic Tracers from Asphalt in Propolis Produced by Urban Honey Bees, Apis mellifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Rushdi, Ahmed I; Owayss, Ayman A; Raweh, Hael S; El-Mubarak, Aarif H; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a gummy material produced by honey bees to protect their hives and currently has drawn the attention of researchers due to its broad clinical use. It has been reported, based only on observations, that honey bees also collect other non-vegetation substances such as paint or asphalt/tar to make propolis. Therefore, propolis samples were collected from bee hives in Riyadh and Al-Bahah, a natural area, Saudi Arabia to determine their compositional characteristics and possible sources of the neutral organic compounds. The samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the major compounds were n-alkanes, n-alkenes, methyl n-alkanoates, long chain wax esters, triterpenoids and hopanes. The n-alkanes (ranging from C17 to C40) were significant with relative concentrations varying from 23.8 to 56.8% (mean = 44.9+9.4%) of the total extracts. Their odd carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 3.6 to 7.7, with a maximum concentration at heptacosane indicating inputs from higher plant vegetation wax. The relative concentrations of the n-alkenes varied from 23.8 to 41.19% (mean = 35.6+5.1%), with CPI = 12.4-31.4, range from C25 to C35 and maximum at tritriacontane. Methyl n-alkanoates, ranged from C12 to C26 as acids, with concentrations from 3.11 to 33.2% (mean = 9.6+9.5%). Long chain wax esters and triterpenoids were minor. The main triterpenoids were α- and β-amyrins, amyrones and amyryl acetates. The presence of hopanes in some total extracts (up to 12.5%) indicated that the bees also collected petroleum derivatives from vicinal asphalt and used that as an additional ingredient to make propolis. Therefore, caution should be taken when considering the chemical compositions of propolis as potential sources of natural products for biological and pharmacological applications. Moreover, beekeepers should be aware of the proper source of propolis in the flight range of their bee colonies.

  6. A novel role of ethephon in controlling the noxious weed Ipomoea cairica (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Tai-Jie; Su, Jin-Quan; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Jia-Qin; Chen, Li-Ling; Li, Wei-Hua; Peng, Shao-Lin; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2015-06-18

    Several auxin herbicides, such as 2, 4-D and dicamba, have been used to eradicate an exotic invasive weed Ipomoea cairica in subtropical China, but restraining the re-explosion of this weed is still a challenge. Since ethylene is one of the major intermediate functioning products during the eradication process, we explored the possibility, mechanism and efficiency of using ethephon which can release ethylene to control Ipomoea cairica. The results of the pot experiment showed that 7.2 g /L ethephon could totally kill Ipomoea cairica including the stems and roots. The water culture experiment indicated that ethephon released an abundance of ethylene directly in leaves and caused increases in electrolyte leakage, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 and decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity, finally leading to the death of Ipomoea cairica. The field experiment showed that the theoretical effective concentration of ethephon for controlling Ipomoea cairica (weed control efficacy, WCE = 98%) was 4.06 g/L and the half inhibitory concentration (I50) was 0.56 g/L. More than 50% of the accompanying species were insensitive to the phytotoxicity of ethephon. Therefore, ethephon is an excellent alternative herbicide for controlling Ipomoea cairica.

  7. Microbial community variation in phytoremediation of triazophos by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huiping; Cheng, Shuiping; Wu, Zhenbin

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation of triazophos (O,O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) pollution by Canna indica Lim. in a hydroponic system has been well studied, whereas the microbial mechanism on TAP degradation is still unknown. The variation in microbial community compositions was investigated by analyzing phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) profiles in microbes under TAP exposure. The TAP exposure resulted in an increase in proportions of fatty acid 16:0 and decrease in fatty acid 18:2omega9,12c, indicating that TAP may stimulate the reproduction of microorganisms and inhibit the growth of fungi to some degree. Significant correlation was found between the ratio of fungi to bacteria and TAP removal (r2 = 0.840, p < 0.01). In addition, the microbial community in the phytoremediation system with C. indica was dominated by Gram negative bacteria, which possibly contributed to the degradation of TAP. These results indicated that TAP might induce the colonization of bacteria in the hydroponic system planted with C. indica, and lead to a discrimination of microbial community, which might be one of the mechanisms on TAP dissipation in phytoremediation system.

  8. RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  9. Mosquito larvicidal properties of essential oil of an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thekkevilayil George; Rao, Sunder; Lal, Shiv

    2004-08-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica, commonly known as 'Railway creeper', was carried out against the larvae of four vector species of mosquitoes in order to evaluate its mosquito larvicidal effect. Bioassay test revealed that the essential oil of the plant possess remarkable larvicidal properties as it could induce 100% mortality in the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (100 ppm), Aedes aegypti (120 ppm), Anopheles stephensi (120 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus (170 ppm) mosquitoes at concentrations rangeing from 100 to 170 ppm. The LC(50) and LC(90) values estimated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 14.8 and 78.3, 22.3 and 92.7, 14.9 and 109.9, and 58.9 and 161.6 ppm, respectively. The essential oil was found to be most highly toxic to the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus followed by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. PMID:15329451

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi. PMID:22139403

  11. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi.

  12. Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2015-08-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 °C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC90 and LC99 values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.

  13. HPTLC analysis of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) and its larvicidal potential against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the larvicidal activity of Scoparia dulcis aqueous extract against dengue vector and determines its major chemical components. The extract was tested at various concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL against Aedes aegypti larvae. The extracts displayed significant larvicidal efficacy against Ae. aegypt species after 24 h exposure revealing LC50 of 3.3835 (mg/mL) and LC90 of 5.7578 (mg/mL). Finger printing profile carried out by CAMAG automatic TLC sample applicator programmed through WIN CATS software revealed peaks with different Rf values for three different volumes injected: 16, 15 and 18 peaks were spotted for 3, 6 and 9 μL, respectively. Ascending order of Rf values was also ascertained for each peak recorded. This study clearly signifies that S. dulcis extract contains numerous compounds that are known to have larvicidal properties which clearly substantiates its efficacy on Ae. aegypti larvae.

  14. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) extract rich in eugenol and eugenol derivatives shows bone-preserving efficacy.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhra; Choudhury, Monalisa; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Maiti, Anasuya; Majumdar, Sangita; Mitra, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p < 0.01), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; 63.48%, p < 0.01), urinary calcium (14.70%, p < 0.01), urinary phosphate (50.30%, p < 0.01) and urinary creatinine (122.44%, p < 0.01) were significantly altered in OVX rats. All these altered responses were significantly restored (AP: 27.53%, p < 0.01; TRAP: 33.51%, p < 0.01; calcium: 53.15%, p < 0.01; phosphate: 27.49%, p < 0.01; creatinine: 46.40%, p < 0.01) by supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds. Results of bone density, bone mineral content, bone tensile strength and histological analysis also showed similar trend of results, which supported initial observations of this study. It is proposed that hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds has bone-preserving efficacy against hypogonadal osteoporosis.

  15. Studies on nest construction and nest microclimate of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Asokan, S; Ali, A Mohamed Samsoor; Nagarajan, R

    2008-05-01

    The nest construction pattern at different stages of nest and variations in the nest microclimate, i.e., temperature and light intensity were assessed in different nests of Baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) between November 2002 and March 2003 in Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu, India. The Baya weaver constructed nests in palm (Borassus flabellifer), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and date palm trees (Phoneix psuilla) and majority of the nests were found in the solitary palm. The male bird only involved in the construction and took 18 days to construct a single nest. The birds spent different amount of working hours (in terms of days) for completing various stages of nests viz., wad, ring and helmet stage and in which the 'helmet stage took a maximum of eight days. Furthermore, totally eight active nests were selected and once in a week the variations in the nest microclimate was investigated with reference to atmospheric temperature and light intensity (two active nests) across day throughout the study period. The mean temperature of the nests ranged from 25 degrees C to 29 degrees C and light intensity varied between 25 Lux and 625 Lux. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and ANCOVA) indicated that the nest microclimate varied among the nests in different hr of a day PMID:18972698

  16. EVALUATION OF SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF Ipomoea cairica LINN. EXTRACT ON LIFE HISTORY TRAITS OF DENGUE VECTORS

    PubMed Central

    ZUHARAH, Wan Fatma; AHBIRAMI, Rattanam; DIENG, Hamady; THIAGALETCHUMI, Maniam; FADZLY, Nik

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity) and eggs hatchability (fertility) in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors. PMID:27253746

  17. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) extract rich in eugenol and eugenol derivatives shows bone-preserving efficacy.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhra; Choudhury, Monalisa; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Maiti, Anasuya; Majumdar, Sangita; Mitra, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p < 0.01), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; 63.48%, p < 0.01), urinary calcium (14.70%, p < 0.01), urinary phosphate (50.30%, p < 0.01) and urinary creatinine (122.44%, p < 0.01) were significantly altered in OVX rats. All these altered responses were significantly restored (AP: 27.53%, p < 0.01; TRAP: 33.51%, p < 0.01; calcium: 53.15%, p < 0.01; phosphate: 27.49%, p < 0.01; creatinine: 46.40%, p < 0.01) by supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds. Results of bone density, bone mineral content, bone tensile strength and histological analysis also showed similar trend of results, which supported initial observations of this study. It is proposed that hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds has bone-preserving efficacy against hypogonadal osteoporosis. PMID:21711176

  18. Isolation and characterization of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans from marine mollusc Amussium pleuronectus (linne) using chromatography.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Shanmugam, A

    2010-03-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is a polyanionic sulfated polysaccharide most recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In the present study, the GAGs were extracted from bivalve mollusc Amussium pleuronectus. The crude GAGs were fractionated by ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose and Amberlite IRA-900 & 120) chromatography. The recovered active fractions (as determined by metachromatic assay) were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the active fractions were purified in Sephadex G-100 column. Fractionated and purified GAG molecular weight was determined through gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The structural characterization of low molecular weight GAG was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activated partial thromboplastin time of purified GAG is 95 IU/mg and has molecular weight 6,500-7,500 Da. The disaccharide compositional analysis on the GAG sample was sulfated like porcine intestinal mucosal heparan sulfate, and it contains equivalent amount of uronic acid and hexosamine. The results of this study suggest that the GAG from A. pleuronectus could be an alternative source of heparin.

  19. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity. PMID:24031791

  20. Hypoglycemic Effect of Calotropis gigantea Linn. Leaves and Flowers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Nanu R; Chitme, Havagiray R; Irchhaiya, Raghuveer; Chandra, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activity of chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers in normal rats and streptozotocin induced diabetes. Methods The hypoglycemic activity in normal rats was carried out by treatment using chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea leaf and flower 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, orally. The oral glucose tolerance test was carried out by administering glucose (2 g/kg, p.o), to non-diabetic rats treated with leaf and flowers extracts at oral doses 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, p.o and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg. The serum glucose was then measured at 0, 1.5, 3 and 5 hr after administration of extracts/drug. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administered the same doses of leaf and flower extracts, and standard drugs glibenclamide was given to the normal rats or 0.5 ml of 5% Tween-80, for 27 days. The blood sample from all groups collected by retro-orbital puncture on 7, 14, 21 and 27th days after administration of the extracts/drug and used for the estimation of serum glucose levels using the glucose kit. Results The Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers extracts were effective in lowering serum glucose levels in normal rats. Improvement in oral glucose tolerance was also registered by treatment with Calotropis gigantean. The administration of leaf and flower extracts to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in serum glucose levels. Conclusion It is concluded that chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers have significant anti-diabetic activity. PMID:22043394

  1. Organic Tracers from Asphalt in Propolis Produced by Urban Honey Bees, Apis mellifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Raweh, Hael S.; El-Mubarak, Aarif H.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a gummy material produced by honey bees to protect their hives and currently has drawn the attention of researchers due to its broad clinical use. It has been reported, based only on observations, that honey bees also collect other non-vegetation substances such as paint or asphalt/tar to make propolis. Therefore, propolis samples were collected from bee hives in Riyadh and Al-Bahah, a natural area, Saudi Arabia to determine their compositional characteristics and possible sources of the neutral organic compounds. The samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the major compounds were n-alkanes, n-alkenes, methyl n-alkanoates, long chain wax esters, triterpenoids and hopanes. The n-alkanes (ranging from C17 to C40) were significant with relative concentrations varying from 23.8 to 56.8% (mean = 44.9+9.4%) of the total extracts. Their odd carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 3.6 to 7.7, with a maximum concentration at heptacosane indicating inputs from higher plant vegetation wax. The relative concentrations of the n-alkenes varied from 23.8 to 41.19% (mean = 35.6+5.1%), with CPI = 12.4-31.4, range from C25 to C35 and maximum at tritriacontane. Methyl n-alkanoates, ranged from C12 to C26 as acids, with concentrations from 3.11 to 33.2% (mean = 9.6+9.5%). Long chain wax esters and triterpenoids were minor. The main triterpenoids were α- and β-amyrins, amyrones and amyryl acetates. The presence of hopanes in some total extracts (up to 12.5%) indicated that the bees also collected petroleum derivatives from vicinal asphalt and used that as an additional ingredient to make propolis. Therefore, caution should be taken when considering the chemical compositions of propolis as potential sources of natural products for biological and pharmacological applications. Moreover, beekeepers should be aware of the proper source of propolis in the flight range of their bee colonies. PMID:26075382

  2. Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu; Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Jachak, Sanjay M.

    2014-01-01

    Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties. PMID:24949473

  3. Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil, and its risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide of semicarbazone class. It provides good to excellent control of most of the economically important lepidopterous pests and certain pests in the orders Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, and Siphonaptera. Although metaflumizone has been marketed globally for several years and got registered in India in the year 2009, specifically for the control of DBM on cabbage, to our knowledge, no food safety aspects of metaflumizone residue on cabbage have ever been reported in the literature in India or elsewhere. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and soil, vis-a-vis its risk assessment, following two spray applications of metaflumizone 220 SC (Verismo®), each at recommended and double dose of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) respectively. Initial residue deposits of metaflumizone on cabbage were 0.46 and 0.51 mg kg(-1) at recommended and 0.76 and 0.85 mg kg(-1) at double the recommended dose following the first spray and second spray application. The residues persisted beyond 5 days from both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life ranging from 1.7-2.1 days. Initial deposits of metaflumizone on soil ranged from 0.23-0.37 mg kg(-1) and degraded with a half life ranging from 4.0-4.8 days. No degradation product of metaflumizone was detected in cabbage and soil at any point of time. Soil samples collected from the treated field after 7 days were free from any residue of metaflumizone or its metabolites. A pre-harvest waiting period of 3 days after application was suggested based on calculation of theoretical maximum daily intake.

  4. Anti microbial activity of the various leaf extracts of Vitex negundo Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. Renuka; Kokilavani, R.; Poongothai, S. Gnana

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the leaves of Vitex negundo was tested against three types of bacteria Viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae. The fresh, aqueous, heated aqueous extract, chloroform and methanolic extract of leaves were used for screening their antibacterial potential. The fresh and aqueous extracts of leaves in various dilutions were found to have antibacterial activity against the three bacteria. PMID:22557282

  5. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Digvijaya; Garg, Arun; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive disorders in mankind are not uncommon. Apart from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), various stresses also affect cognitive functions. Plants are known to be potential source of compounds that ameliorate several diseases including cognitive impairment. Here, we evaluated effect of aqueous extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) buds on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats using two different oral doses i.e. 10 (pre-treatment) and 30 mg/rat(post-treatment) through assessment of behavioural (Morris Water maze test and Y maze test), biochemical (Cholinesterase assay) and histopathological (H&E staining) parameters. Lipopolysaccharide (from E. coli) administration resulted in an increased neurodegeneration and time taken to reach the platform (in Morris water maze). The increased neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus was significantly reduced in animals which received caper bud extract; they showed marked reduction in time taken to reach the platform at both the dose levels. The experiment demonstrated that caper bud extract exhibits potential protective effect against learning and memory damage induced by chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide (175 μg/kg) for 7 days. The results suggest that the caper bud extract could be explored for its use in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  6. Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on acute and subacute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vetrichelvan, T; Jegadeesan, M

    2003-01-01

    The antiinflammatory activity of an alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera was tested on carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models in albino male rats. The paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h. In the subacute model cotton pellet granuloma was produced by implantation of 50 +/- 1 mg sterile cotton in the axilla under ether anaesthesia. The animals were fed with an alcohol extract at various dose levels (125, 250, 375 and 500 mg/kg). Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. The alcohol extract (375 and 500 mg/kg) showed the maximum inhibition of oedema of 65.38% and 72.37% at the end of 3 h with carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, respectively. Using a chronic test, the extract exhibited a 40.03% and 45.32% reduction in granuloma weight.

  7. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Uzunuigbe, Olohirere E.; Oyedemi, Sunday O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. PMID:21686161

  8. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  9. Antioxidant, cyclooxygenase and topoisomerase inhibitory compounds from Apium graveolens Linn. seeds.

    PubMed

    Momin, R A; Nair, M G

    2002-05-01

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant bioassay-directed extraction and purification of celery seeds yielded sedanolide (1), senkyunolide-N (2), senkyunolide-J (3), 3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-ol (4), L-tryptophan (6), and 7-[3-(3,4-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-yloxy)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy]-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one (7). The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined using spectroscopic methods. Compound 4 is reported here for the first time. At 250 pg ml(-1), compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 displayed prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-I (COX-I) and prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-II (COX-II) inhibitory activities at pH 7. The acetylated product (5) of compound 4 also inhibited COX-I and COX-II enzymes when tested at 250 microg ml(-1). Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited good antioxidant activity at concentrations of 125 and 250 microg ml(-1). Only compounds 1-3 exhibited topoisomerase-I and -II enzyme inhibitory activity at concentrations of 100, 200 and 200 microg ml(-1), respectively.

  10. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family: Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569979

  11. 78 FR 65040 - Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Linn County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... subsidiary of CNR. CCP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for at least two years; (2) there is no overhead traffic on the Line to be rerouted over other lines; (3) no formal... the two-year period; and (4) the requirements at 49 CFR 1105.7(c) (environmental report), 49 CFR...

  12. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of the Adathoda vasica Linn extract mediated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Priyanka, M; Rajasekar, P; Manikandan, R; Prabhu, N M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility and anti-Vibrio efficacy of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Adathoda vasica (A. vasica). The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). A. vasica AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in agar bioassay and well diffusion method. Further, nanoparticles interactions with bacteria and its antibacterial activity were confirmed by CLSM analysis. In vivo evaluation results confirmed that synthesized A. vasica AgNPs had good antibacterial efficacy and also nontoxic to the Artemia nauplii. PMID:26802519

  13. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

  14. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  15. HPTLC analysis of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) and its larvicidal potential against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the larvicidal activity of Scoparia dulcis aqueous extract against dengue vector and determines its major chemical components. The extract was tested at various concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL against Aedes aegypti larvae. The extracts displayed significant larvicidal efficacy against Ae. aegypt species after 24 h exposure revealing LC50 of 3.3835 (mg/mL) and LC90 of 5.7578 (mg/mL). Finger printing profile carried out by CAMAG automatic TLC sample applicator programmed through WIN CATS software revealed peaks with different Rf values for three different volumes injected: 16, 15 and 18 peaks were spotted for 3, 6 and 9 μL, respectively. Ascending order of Rf values was also ascertained for each peak recorded. This study clearly signifies that S. dulcis extract contains numerous compounds that are known to have larvicidal properties which clearly substantiates its efficacy on Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:25573588

  16. Modification of mercury-induced biochemical alterations by Triticum Aestivum Linn in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Nireesha, G

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate role of Wheat grass extract in modifying mercury-induced biochemical alterations in albino rats. Mercuric chloride 5 mg/kg body weight i.p. was given on 11, 13 & 15th day of the experiment. Wheat grass extract (400 mg/kg) and Quercetin (10 mg/kg) were administered 10 days before mercuric chloride administration and continued up to 30 days after mercuric chloride administration. The animals were sacrificed on 1, 15 and 30 days, the activity of serum alkaline and acid phosphatase and the iron, calcium, BUN, creatinine, SGPT, SGOT, total bilirubin, total protein levels were measured. Tissue lipid peroxidation content, glutathione (GSH) level, anti-oxidant enzymes- CAT and GR were measured. Hematological indices were also estimated. Mercury intoxication causes significant increase (P < 0.001) in calcium level, acid phosphatase, BUN, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation content and significant decrease in iron level, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and CAT, GR and glutathione level. Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment ameliorated mercury-induced alterations in terms of biochemical and hematological parameters. Concomitant treatment of Wheatgrass extract with Mercury showed prominent recovery and normal architecture with mild residual degeneration in the tissues. Thus from present investigation, it can be concluded that Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment with HgCl2 significantly modulate or modify mercury-induced biochemical alteration in albino rats. PMID:26215012

  17. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

  18. Floral Nectary Morphology and Proteomic Analysis of Nectar of Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanwei; Li, Meiping; Zhao, Fangfang; Zha, Hongguang; Yang, Liming; Lu, Ye; Wang, Guangping; Shi, Jisen; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Nectar is a primary nutrient reward for a variety of pollinators. Recent studies have demonstrated that nectar also has defensive functions against microbial invasion. In this study, the Liriodendron tulipifera nectary was first examined by scanning electron microscopy, and then the nectar was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, which led to identification of 42 nectar proteins involved in various biological functions. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed on an identified novel rubber elongation factor (REF) protein in L. tulipifera nectar. The protein was particularly abundant, representing ∼60% of the major bands of 31 to 43 kDa, and showed high, stage-specific expression in nectary tissue. The REF family proteins are the major allergens in latex. We propose that REF in L. tulipifera nectar has defensive characteristics against microorganisms. PMID:27379122

  19. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dougnon, Tamègnon Victorien; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Klotoé, Jean Robert; Sènou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

  20. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kirana, H; Agrawal, S S; Srinivasan, B P

    2009-10-01

    One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20112810