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  1. Saving the Last Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douban, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    This article features a 76-year-old dance program instructor Annie Lindsay. She has been teaching at Ramsay High School in Birmingham, Alabama, since 1970. Maintaining the dance program has become a personal mission for Lindsay. She could have retired long ago, but is afraid that if she does, Birmingham, Alabama's, last public dance school class…

  2. The Last Big Bang

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Austin D.; Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  3. The last glacial termination.

    PubMed

    Denton, G H; Anderson, R F; Toggweiler, J R; Edwards, R L; Schaefer, J M; Putnam, A E

    2010-06-25

    A major puzzle of paleoclimatology is why, after a long interval of cooling climate, each late Quaternary ice age ended with a relatively short warming leg called a termination. We here offer a comprehensive hypothesis of how Earth emerged from the last global ice age. A prerequisite was the growth of very large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, whose subsequent collapse created stadial conditions that disrupted global patterns of ocean and atmospheric circulation. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies shifted poleward during each northern stadial, producing pulses of ocean upwelling and warming that together accounted for much of the termination in the Southern Ocean and Antarctica. Rising atmospheric CO2 during southern upwelling pulses augmented warming during the last termination in both polar hemispheres.

  4. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOEpatents

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  5. Success that lasts.

    PubMed

    Nash, Laura; Stevenson, Howard

    2004-02-01

    Pursuing success can feel like shooting in a landscape of moving targets: Every time you hit one, five more pop up from another direction. We are under constant pressure to do more, get more, be more. But is that really what success is all about? Laura Nash and Howard Stevenson interviewed and surveyed hundreds of professionals to study the assumptions behind the idea of success. They then built a practical framework for a new way of thinking about success--a way that leads to personal and professional fulfillment instead of feelings of anxiety and stress. The authors' research uncovered four irreducible components of success: happiness (feelings of pleasure or contentment about your life); achievement (accomplishments that compare favorably against similar goals others have strived for); significance (the sense that you've made a positive impact on people you care about); and legacy (a way to establish your values or accomplishments so as to help others find future success). Unless you hit on all four categories with regularity, any one win will fail to satisfy. People who achieve lasting success, the authors learned, tend to rely on a kaleidoscope strategy to structure their aspirations and activities. This article explains how to build your own kaleidoscope framework. The process can help you determine which tasks you should undertake to fulfill the different components of success and uncover areas where there are holes. It can also help you make better choices about what you spend your time on and the level of energy you put into each activity. According to Nash and Stevenson, successful people who experience real satisfaction achieve it through the deliberate imposition of limits. Cultivating your sense of "just enough" can help you set reachable goals, tally up more true wins, and enjoy lasting success.

  6. The Iceman's last weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Konrad

    1994-06-01

    The author presents the archaeological, botanical and anatomical of medical evidence relating to the events of the last few days of the Iceman's life. The unfinished arrows and the half-completed bow indicate that he had lost his weapons and was in the process of re-arming himself. The quiver and the two primed arrows show clear signs of damage that has been proved to originate from before entombment in the ice of Hauslabjoch. An intravital series of fractured ribs and atrophic changes to the humerus on the same side of the body are also indicative of a violent conflict. The presence of threshing and winnowing fragments proves that, shortly before his death, the Iceman spent some time in a human settlement in which the grain crop was threshed. The theory is therefore proposed that shortly before his death the Iceman suffered some personal catastrophe involving damage to his possessions and physical injury. He fled in the direction of the inner Ötz Valley, a region of high alpine pastures he may have been familiar with from summer transhumance. Just beyond the ridge of the main Alpine chain he was caught by a sudden fall in temperature and snowfall, which he did not survive.

  7. The last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  8. Last Interglacial Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, George J.; Bender, Michael L.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Bond, Gerard; Broecker, Wallace S.; Cleveringa, Piet; Gavin, Joyce E.; Herbert, Timothy D.; Imbrie, John; Jouzel, Jean; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; McManus, Jerry F.; Merkt, Josef; Muhs, Daniel R.; Müller, Helmut; Poore, Richard Z.; Porter, Stephen C.; Seret, Guy; Shackleton, Nicholas J.; Turner, Charles; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; Winograd, Isaac J.

    2002-07-01

    The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium-thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago.

  9. Last interglacial climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kukla, G.J.; Bender, M.L.; de Beaulieu, J. -L.; Bond, G.; Broecker, W.S.; Cleveringa, P.; Gavin, J.E.; Herbert, T.D.; Imbrie, J.; Jouzel, J.; Keigwin, L.D.; Knudsen, K.-L.; McManus, J.F.; Merkt, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Muller, H.; Poore, R.Z.; Porter, S.C.; Seret, G.; Shackleton, N.J.; Turner, C.; Tzedakis, P.C.; Winograd, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium-thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  10. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  11. Learning That Lasts: Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This "Learning That Lasts Field Guide" is intended to trigger discussion about ways to integrate and sustain high-quality service-learning, as well as to provide a clearer path to finding and employing the information in the Education Commission of the States' (ECS) 2002 publication "Learning That Lasts: How Service-Learning Can Become an Integral…

  12. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  13. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  14. Trouble Don't Last

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Even as a child, Pearsall questioned social injustice and prejudice. In her own community in Ohio and, as she grew, all over the world, she saw social inequities she could neither understand nor accept. Her novel "Trouble Don't Last," takes place during the era of the Underground Railroad. The chapter included here pulls us in…

  15. How to Create Lasting Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusteeship, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Five members of the Commission on the Academic Presidency (Michael Schwartz, Garrey Caruthers, Mary Maples Dunn, Paul D. Schauer, Donald G. Phelps) reflect on how the commission's recommendations to public and higher education leaders can encourage meaningful, lasting change in college governance. Each speaks from a different policy perspective…

  16. Trouble Don't Last

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Even as a child, Pearsall questioned social injustice and prejudice. In her own community in Ohio and, as she grew, all over the world, she saw social inequities she could neither understand nor accept. Her novel "Trouble Don't Last," takes place during the era of the Underground Railroad. The chapter included here pulls us in…

  17. Teaching Tools: One Last Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Burke's own teacher-research has resulted in solutions for real classroom situations. In this, his last contribution as a column editor for "VM," he offers two more practical ideas for helping students achieve, and sends his readers off with advice to look to their own classrooms for solutions to the ever-present challenges of teaching. (Contains…

  18. [Friedrich Nietzsche's last lucid year].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2007-05-01

    As an outstanding philosopher Nietzsche poses the question whether his creativeness persisted in spite of his deteriorating disease or appeared, among other features, as a consequence of his illness. A thorough psychopathological understanding of his last lucid year is attempted. He had an exaggerated self-esteem and grandiose sense of confidence and achievements. But his lack of insight did not lead him to engage in activities that could harm himself or his loved ones. Between January 1888 and until his ultimate deterioration in January 1889, Nietzsche was exceedingly productive. During this period, polar changes along with moderately overlapping periods appeared.

  19. Deserving the last great gift.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2003-01-01

    If there is part of us that we equate with our "self," it is surely the brain. What feelings and expectations, then, are stirred if we decide to give this part of ourselves--or the brain of a loved one--to be sliced, labeled, frozen, and shipped to a laboratory somewhere in the world to be used for research? The director of one of the world's largest brain banks discusses the ethical challenges, implied obligations, and standards of behavior that brain banks must meet to earn and retain the trust of those who give the last great gift--one now indispensable for progress against illnesses ranging from Alzheimer's disease to schizophrenia.

  20. Dad’s Last Week

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    I had intended to spend our spring break week in Montana with my kids and my dad, going to parks and museums together. Instead, I spent the week in the hospital, helping my dad make end-of-life choices and learning more about the importance of communication in health care settings and the preciousness of close relationships in life. I am a better person and a better physician because my dad trusted me to be there while he was dying. During his last week, I was grateful to have spent years studying medicine and years getting to know my dad. This combination of professional and personal knowledge enabled me to help him choose his own end-of-life path. As someone who does not like hospitals, I have always wondered why I became a doctor; now I know. PMID:27185000

  1. LAST: Laser Array Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madajian, Jonathan A.; Cohen, Alexander; Hwang, Rebecca; Bishman, Chase; Reyes, Rachel; Bautista, Miguel; Tsukamoto, Ryan; Pon, Brandon; Vanmali, Dylan; Xu, Xu; Rommelfanger, Nicholas; Ho, Ian; Lin, Lucas; Prazak, Michael; Ruehl, Patrick; Brashears, Travis; Rupert, Nic; Lubin, Philip

    2016-09-01

    A phased array operates by modulating the phases of several signals, allowing electronic control over the locations that these signals interfere constructively or destructively, allowing the beam to be steered. A space-based laser phased array, called the Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation (DE-STAR) has previously been posited by our group for a number of uses, from planetary defense to relativistic propulsion of small probes. Here we propose using the same basic system topology as a receiver rather than a transmitter. All of the components in the system, excluding the laser, are bidirectional. Rather than each elements transmitting laser light, they would instead receive light, which will then be combined to create an interference pattern that can be imaged onto a focal plane. The Laser Array Space Telescope (LAST) uses most of the same components and metrology as DE-STAR and could thus be integrated into a singular system, allowing both transmit and receive modes. This paper discusses the possible applications of this system from laser communications to astrophysics.

  2. A Last Look at Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    As it glanced around the Saturn system one final time, NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured this view of the planet's giant moon Titan. Interest in mysterious Titan was a major motivating factor to return to Saturn with Cassini-Huygens following the Voyager mission flybys of the early 1980s. Cassini and its Huygens probe, supplied by European Space Agency, revealed the moon to be every bit as fascinating as scientists had hoped. These views were obtained by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Sept. 13, 2017. They are among the last images Cassini sent back to Earth. This natural color view, made from images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters, shows Titan much as Voyager saw it -- a mostly featureless golden orb, swathed in a dense atmospheric haze. An enhanced-color view (Figure 1) adds to this color a separate view taken using a spectral filter (centered at 938 nanometers) that can partially see through the haze. The views were acquired at a distance of 481,000 miles (774,000 kilometers) from Titan. The image scale is about 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21890

  3. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  4. Making New Year's Resolutions That Last

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162820.html Making New Year's Resolutions That Last Think small, manageable goals -- ... Though made with the best of intentions, most New Year's resolutions last about as long as the ...

  5. Sturckow Recaps Last Shuttle Landing at Edwards

    NASA Image and Video Library

    When Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California on Sept. 11, 2009 to conclude mission STS-128, no one foresaw that it would be the last of 54 such landing...

  6. Schizophrenia Research: Indian Scene in Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Singh, Gagandeep

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that not only carries significant morbidity and disability for the sufferer but also a major burden to the society in terms of cost of care. Since its recognition, big strides have been made worldwide in order to understand and treat this disorder. In a developing country such as India, research into the various aspects of this disorder is still not a priority. Despite this scenario, large number of centres across the country have been conducting research in the last four decades. During this time, scope, emphasis and quality of research seem to have undergone a lot of change. In order to examine whether such a change actually exists and the emphasis of research in last decade, a review of research published in Indian Journal of Psychiatry was undertaken. Various studies published on schizophrenia in the last decade (1990-2000) were reviewed. Important landmarks have been highlighted and limitations pointed out. PMID:21408037

  7. "The Last of the Mohicans" Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Identifies in the novel, "The Last of the Mohicans," some of the artistic strategies by which James Fenimore Cooper converted the tale into the novel. Considers why the novel continues to provoke cultural interest in today's milieu. Overviews the historical reception of the work. (HB)

  8. Lasting Impressions: Hannah Arendt's Educational Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Rita A.

    2016-01-01

    Hannah Arendt's work is gaining increasing recognition in educational administration. But less has been written about her as an educator, colleague, and provocateur. Here, I explore the lasting impressions that Arendt had on former students, colleagues, and friends. This exploration is conducted through the lens of Arendtian narrative inquiry. For…

  9. The Professional's Last Will and Testament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a case study illustrates the initial issues arising from the sudden death of key personnel, and then offers an outline for the Professional's Last Will and Testament. This document includes attention to logistical issues and planning for organizational change. It begins with short-term transition issues and continues through other,…

  10. Lasting Impressions: Hannah Arendt's Educational Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Rita A.

    2016-01-01

    Hannah Arendt's work is gaining increasing recognition in educational administration. But less has been written about her as an educator, colleague, and provocateur. Here, I explore the lasting impressions that Arendt had on former students, colleagues, and friends. This exploration is conducted through the lens of Arendtian narrative inquiry. For…

  11. Myth of the "Last-In" Superstar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gary M.; Hartman, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new political landscape, lawmakers in state after state are anxiously sponsoring legislation eliminating "last-in, first-out" policies. News reports would have people believe every untenured teacher, with just a few months of experience, is a "Teacher of the Year" candidate, while every tenured professional is a money-grabbing, lazy and…

  12. "The Last Waltz": Variations on a Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    When the film "The Last Waltz" was released in 1978 the rock music press lost itself in comparisons of the performances of the rock group. The Band's many famous guest artists, while movie critics, for the most part, considered it only a concert film. Few critics saw the film as an integral part of director Martin Scorsese's continuing…

  13. Myth of the "Last-In" Superstar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gary M.; Hartman, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new political landscape, lawmakers in state after state are anxiously sponsoring legislation eliminating "last-in, first-out" policies. News reports would have people believe every untenured teacher, with just a few months of experience, is a "Teacher of the Year" candidate, while every tenured professional is a money-grabbing, lazy and…

  14. The Last Five Years of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickerman, Kathrine D.

    This document presents the history of the last five years (1996-2000) of the Mountain Plains Adult Education Association (MPAEA) through summaries and photos of the yearly conferences held between 1996 and 2000. The MPAEA, which includes adult education leaders from the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming,…

  15. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  16. Acute Gastroenteritis Leaves a Lasting Impression.

    PubMed

    Abt, Michael C

    2016-01-13

    Host immunity shapes intestinal microbiota composition, influencing health and disease. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe,Kamdar et al. (2016) demonstrate that an aberrant acute inflammatory response to Yersinia enterocolitica infection leads to long-lasting shifts in commensal communities and renders the host susceptible to chronic inflammation despite pathogen clearance.

  17. Optical networks, last mile access and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, E.; Gebhart, M.; Birnbacher, U.

    Free Space Optical (FSO) links can be used to setup FSO communication networks or to supplement radio and optical fiber networks. Hence, it is the broadband wireless solution for closing the "last mile" connectivity gap throughout metropolitan networks. Optical wireless fits well into dense urban areas and is ideally suited for urban applications. This paper gives an overview of free-space laser communications. Different network architectures will be described and investigated regarding reliability. The usage of "Optical Repeaters", Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint solutions will be explained for setting up different network architectures. After having explained the different networking topologies and technologies, FSO applications will be discussed in section 2, including terrestrial applications for short and long ranges, and space applications. Terrestrial applications for short ranges cover the links between buildings on campus or different buildings of a company, which can be established with low-cost technology. For using FSO for long-range applications, more sophisticated systems have to be used. Hence, different techniques regarding emitted optical power, beam divergence, number of beams and tracking will be examined. Space applications have to be divided into FSO links through the troposphere, for example up- and downlinks between the Earth and satellites, and FSO links above the troposphere (e.g., optical inter-satellite links). The difference is that links through the troposphere are mainly influenced by weather conditions similar but not equal to terrestrial FSO links. Satellite orbits are above the atmosphere and therefore, optical inter-satellite links are not influenced by weather conditions. In section 3 the use of optical wireless for the last mile will be investigated and described in more detail. Therefore important design criteria for connecting the user to the "backbone" by FSO techniques will be covered, e.g., line of sight, network

  18. Last Glacial loess in the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Muhs, Daniel R.; Roberts, Helen M.; Wintle, Ann G.

    2003-01-01

    The conterminous United States contains an extensive and generally well-studied record of Last Glacial loess. The loess occurs in diverse physiographic provinces, and under a wide range of climatic and ecological conditions. Both glacial and non-glacia lloess sources are present, and many properties of the loess vary systematically with distance from loess sources. United States' mid-continent Last Glacial loess is probably the thickest in the world, and our calculated mass accumulation rates (MARs) are as high as 17,500 g/m2/yr at the Bignell Hill locality in Nebraska, and many near-source localities have MARs greater than 1500 g/m2/yr. These MARs are high relative to rates calculated in other loess provinces around the world. Recent models of LastGlacial dust sources fail to predict the extent and magnitude of dust flux from the mid-continent of the United States. A better understanding of linkages between climate, ice sheet behaviour, routing of glacial meltwater, land surface processes beyond the ice margin, and vegetation is needed to improve the predictive capabilities of models simulating dust flux from this region.

  19. The flickering genes of the last mammoths.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G

    2012-07-01

    Woolly mammoths, Mammuthus primigenius, are arguably the most iconic of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna, and an abundance of large permafrost-embedded bone and ivory material (Fig. 1) means they were also among the first to yield credible DNA sequences (Hagelberg et al. 1994; Hoss et al. 1994). Despite mammoth remains being numerous throughout northern Eurasia and North America, both the earliest and most recent fossils are found in northeast Siberia, with the last known population being confined to Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean from around 10,000 years ago until their extinction around 4,000 years ago. The extent to which these Holocene mammoths were descended from the Pleistocene populations of Wrangel Island and the demographic nature of their terminal decline have, until now, remained something of a mystery. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Nyström et al. (2012) report the first use of autosomal variation to track the decline of the last mammoths and, in doing so, take a significant step towards resolving these questions. The authors genotyped four microsatellite loci in 59 Pleistocene and Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island and Chukotka in mainland northeastern Siberia and showed that while the Pleistocene-to-Holocene transition is associated with a significant reduction in genetic diversity, subsequent levels of variation remain constant until extinction. Such a pattern is somewhat surprising as it indicates that while the last mammoths were confined to only a few Arctic islands, their final extinction on Wrangel Island was not a gradual process resulting from loss of genetic diversity/inbreeding. Instead, it seems they maintained a viable effective population size of around 500 until near their presumably rapid extinction. While the ultimate agent of mammoth extinction remains unknown, the work of Nyström et al. (2012). suggests that we should be looking for something sudden, like a rapid change in climate/ecology or perhaps the arrival of

  20. Extrapolar cold reversal during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Lachniet, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The last deglaciation is characterized by large changes in atmospheric CO2, bi-hemispherical warming, dramatic changes in ocean circulation and hydrologic regimes in the tropics and subtropics. Deciphering the interplay between these changes has remained a challenge, in part, due to the lack of precisely-dated hemispherical-scale records of climate variability. Speleothem records, given their excellent preservation, and in many instances their suitability for precise chronology coupled with multiple climate proxies offer special opportunities, especially if they can be obtained from regions that are sensitive to large-scale climate variability. Here, we present a speleothem-based high precision δ18O record from the western interior of North America, Fort Stanton Cave (AH-1), New Mexico, with a mean 2-σ age uncertainty of about 70 years, linked to Northern Hemisphere atmospheric temperature (NHT) variability. The record matches the Greenland ice core records of the last glacial period, including the timing and relative amplitudes of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, except for part of the last deglaciation. Our data, combined with data from across the globe, show a dramatic cold reversal during the last deglaciation, starting at about 18.65 ka, which we refer to as the Extrapolar Cold Reversal (ECR). This event is not fully expressed in ice core records from either pole, while it is the most prominent feature in high-resolution tropical and subtropical climate proxies. The initiation of the ECR coincides with the beginning of the sudden rise in atmospheric CO2, likely due to upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the near collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We attribute the wide-spread extrapolar cooling to upwelling of cold deep waters from the Southern Ocean. This is supported by a variety of isotopic and elemental proxies from large regions of the Atlantic and North Pacific basins showing the incursion of deep Southern Ocean waters

  1. A Window into Longer Lasting Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    There’s a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Berkeley Lab has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. The real-time images provide a new way to learn how batteries work, and how to improve them. The method was developed at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, by a team of researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and other institutions.

  2. The last months of Andreas Vesalius.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Steeno, Omer

    2010-12-01

    A good deal has already been written about the last months of Andreas Vesalius' life. Most of it has been fairly speculative, because the necessary primary sources have been lacking. Much of what was supposedly known for sure seemed bizarre, and various writers even frankly characterised their own accounts as 'legend'. It is only since the discovery of several letters in the archives of Simancas by Josh Baron in 1962 that various points have become somewhat clearer. Baron presented these letters at the 19th International Congress on the History of Medicine in Basel in September 1964.

  3. Martin Bergmann: The Last 21 Years.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Martin Bergmann has contributed to our understanding of psychoanalysis for more than sixty years. A review of his contributions to psychoanalysis was completed in 1994, when Bergmann was 83 years old. Consideration of his remarkable productivity in the last twenty years clearly demonstrates the need to update this review. In these years, he extended his writing on the history of psychoanalysis, added to his contributions to an understanding of love, advanced ideas about psychoanalytic technique, and wrote two books on Shakespeare, as well as doing work in anthropology, sociology, literature, history, and religious studies. This paper reviews that work.

  4. [The last days of Albert Schweitzer].

    PubMed

    Wjst, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Schweitzer was one of the leading physicians of the last century. He overcame not only the boundaries of humanities and natural sciences, but also the boundaries of Europe and Africa. He has become a symbol of humanity. But the person of Albert Schweitzer was almost in danger of disappearing behind it. "My hair starts to turn gray. My body begins to feel the exertions I have undertaken, and the burden of the years". This is how the 56-year-old Schweitzer ended his autobiography "Out of my life and thought" in 1931. Even 50 years after Schweitzer's death in 1965, there is still no coherent scientific reappraisal of his work. Part of the posthumous manuscripts was published in recent years in a critical edition, including first biographies that are no longer considered as hagiography, as they would have been in the contemporary literature. The legacy, however, is scattered. Much of the correspondence and the library are located in Schweitzer's former house in Gunsbach in Alsace. The manuscripts are mainly stored in the Central Library Zurich, but also in the Syracuse University New York, while the personal bequest is in the hands of his family or collectors. This presentation is part of a biographical approach and depicts the last weeks in the life of Albert Schweitzer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  6. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  7. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  8. Last interglacial beetle fauna from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Maureen J.

    2003-01-01

    Fossil beetles from two last interglacial lake deposits from southern Wairarapa, central New Zealand are provisionally ascribed to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 5a-e. Both assemblages represent ecological successions from lake margins to forest. The lower sample (MIS 5e) is characterized by species found today in northern New Zealand. These species, including Lorelus crassicornis, 'Dasytes' laticeps, Cryptobius nitidius, 'Stenomalium' sulcithorax, Psilocnaeia nana, and Microbrontes lineatus, represent a southward displacement from modern distributions by up to 700 km. Climate reconstruction indicates that temperatures at the time of deposition were 1.6-2.5°C warmer in the summer (January) and 2.3-3.2°C warmer in the winter (July) than at present. These results match local and regional pollen and phytolith findings of warmer, wetter conditions at the thermal maximum of the last interglaciation. In contrast, the upper sample is characterized by species that have widespread modern-day distributions. This indicates that modern conditions were attained later in MIS5, after the MIS 5e thermal maximum.

  9. LASTING BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Jen; Dubos, René

    1968-01-01

    A lasting depression of body weight was consistently produced in SPF mice by infecting them orally 2 days after birth with a nonlethal, bacteria-free filtrate, prepared from the intestine of young SPF mice previously infected with an unidentified agent. Neonatal infection caused a decrease of muscle DNA and of muscle and brain protein in the adults. No other effect was detected in the chemical composition of various organs. Incorporation of 14C-amino acid into the acid precipitable fractions of liver, kidney, muscle, and brain was lower in infected than in control animals. No difference in incorporation was recognized in the thymus and spleen. The free amino acid pool of adults, measured as blood levels of free amino nitrogen, was decreased by neonatal infection. Surprisingly, the food intake of young animals infected neonatally was higher than that of the controls, measured on the basis of body weight. Their fecal excretion of nitrogen was also higher. The comparative responses of infected and control adults to a stressful situation was measured by giving them intravenously the antituberculous vaccine BCG. Under these conditions, the mice infected neonatally excreted some 20% more nitrogen in their urine and 40% more in their feces than did the controls. The mechanisms through which neonatal infection caused a lasting weight depression are discussed in the light of these metabolic findings. PMID:5691984

  10. The Last Element of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazan, Albert

    2010-02-01

    Despite much achievements of the synthesis for super-heavy elements (10 new elements were obtained during the last 25 years), the experts in Mendeleev's Periodic Table have not answered the most fundamental question: where the Table ends? The calculations produced on the basis of Quantum Mechanics (the physical conditions in micro-scales) do not not answer this question till now. In my study of chemical compounds, I focused onto the physical conditions observed in macro-scales (the subjects of the regular physics and chemistry). Thus, the Law of Hyperboles was discovered in the Periodic Table: given any chemical compound, the contents of any element in it (per 1 gram-atom), including the contents of unknown elements, whose atomic masses can be set up arbitrarily, is described by the equation of a equilateral hyperbola Y=K/X. The tops of all the arcs are distributed along a real axis crossing the line Y=1 in the point of abscissa 411.66, which manifests the actual atomic mass of the last (heaviest) element of the Periodic Table: its location is Period 8, Group 1; its atomic mass is 411.66, its number is 155 (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table --- Element No.155. Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009). )

  11. Atlantic gyres variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Juliette; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Khodri, Myriam; Ezat, Ullah; Jacob, Jérémy; Hall, Ian; Servonnat, Jérome; Xuang Truong, Minh

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the low frequency variability of the Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres over the last millennium. First, a compilation of the several recent proxy recontructions (e.g. Sicre et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009 for the subpolar gyre, Mc Gregor et al. 2007 and unpublished data from Sicre et al. in the subtropical gyre) will allow to assess the low frequency hydrographic variability in key areas related to the horizontal circulation in the Atlantic and the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Second, we use a simulation of the IPSL model to explore the link between the gyres circulation and the local hydrography. In a simulation reproducing the climate over the last millennium, we assess the low frequency variability of the gyres circulation over this period and the role of the external forcing and low frequency atmospheric variability in the northern North Atlantic. The aim is to help the interpretation of the data cited above at the basin-scale.

  12. Global climate evolution during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Shakun, Jeremy D; Baker, Paul A; Bartlein, Patrick J; Brewer, Simon; Brook, Ed; Carlson, Anders E; Cheng, Hai; Kaufman, Darrell S; Liu, Zhengyu; Marchitto, Thomas M; Mix, Alan C; Morrill, Carrie; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Pahnke, Katharina; Russell, James M; Whitlock, Cathy; Adkins, Jess F; Blois, Jessica L; Clark, Jorie; Colman, Steven M; Curry, William B; Flower, Ben P; He, Feng; Johnson, Thomas C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Markgraf, Vera; McManus, Jerry; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Moreno, Patricio I; Williams, John W

    2012-05-08

    Deciphering the evolution of global climate from the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 19 ka to the early Holocene 11 ka presents an outstanding opportunity for understanding the transient response of Earth's climate system to external and internal forcings. During this interval of global warming, the decay of ice sheets caused global mean sea level to rise by approximately 80 m; terrestrial and marine ecosystems experienced large disturbances and range shifts; perturbations to the carbon cycle resulted in a net release of the greenhouse gases CO(2) and CH(4) to the atmosphere; and changes in atmosphere and ocean circulation affected the global distribution and fluxes of water and heat. Here we summarize a major effort by the paleoclimate research community to characterize these changes through the development of well-dated, high-resolution records of the deep and intermediate ocean as well as surface climate. Our synthesis indicates that the superposition of two modes explains much of the variability in regional and global climate during the last deglaciation, with a strong association between the first mode and variations in greenhouse gases, and between the second mode and variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  13. Fluorescence imaging in the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the molecular cloning of the gene for the green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, I would like to reflect on the development of new fluorescence imaging technology in the last two decades. As this technology has become increasingly diversified, it has become more and more of a challenge to come up with a comprehensive and exhaustive review of it. Here I will focus on optogenetics and large-scale, three-dimensional reconstruction. Those two technological innovations have been achieved in the neuroscience community owing to the combined efforts of molecular biologists and light microscopists. In addition, modern fluorescence imaging has indeed improved our understanding of the spatiotemporal regulation of fundamental biological functions at cellular level. As an example, I will introduce some findings we made regarding the movement of biomolecules across the nuclear membrane. The above-mentioned imaging approaches are possible today but were impossible two decades ago.

  14. Climate records recovering the last deglaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, T.; Bender, M.

    1995-07-14

    The oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratio of molecular oxygen trapped in ice cores provides a time-stratigraphic marker for transferring the absolute chronology for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP)II ice core to the Vostok and Byrd ice cores in Antarctica. Comparison of the climate records from these cores suggests that, near the beginning of the last deglaciation, warming in Antarctica began approximately 3000 years before the onset of the warm Bolling period in Greenland. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane concentrations began to rise 2000 to 3000 years before the warming began in Greenland and must have contributed to deglaciation and warming of temperate and boreal regions in the Northern Hemisphere. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Hubble's New "Program of Last Resort"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A.; Brown, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Despite the best efforts of the Hubble schedulers to allocate every last orbit, a small but persistent fraction (~2-3%) of the orbits go unused. Salvaging this unused observing time presents an opportunity for the Institute to benefit the astronomical community. The Institute's Hubble Mission Office has initiated a pilot, ultra-low priority SNAP program (14840, PI: Bellini) in Cycle 24, with the goal of taking useful data in Hubble’s orbits that absolutely no other program is able to use.The initial target list is drawn from HST-unobserved, moderately large and bright NGC/IC galaxies that are "uniformly" distributed across the sky. All targets are identically imaged with two dithered 337-second exposures through the F606W filter of the ACS/WFC. The poster describes the target-selection criteria and gives an update of the current status of this ongoing program.

  16. Child psychiatric hospitalization: the last resort.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Kathleen; Jones, Debbie Singleton

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how parents manage the experience of hospitalizing their school-aged child in a psychiatric unit. Grounded theory methodology was used. Thirty-eight parents participated. Data were collected by interviews. Analysis was done using the constant comparative method. The basic social problem identified was the escalating behavior of the child. The child's behavior included self-injurious behavior or violence toward others. The core concept was "hospitalization, the last resort." Parents' management of the experience varied based on many factors including whether this was the child's first psychiatric hospitalization, the distance from the hospital to their home, their trust of staff members, sources of support, and their definition of the situation.

  17. Pre-Planning the 'Last Chance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic is a screenshot from a computer-generated visualization tool used by Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity scientists to find the rover's best position for observing a future target dubbed 'Last Chance.' Team members are determining how to obtain the optimal angle for photographing this layered rock, located on the far east end of the outcrop. The rover drivers must solve very complex geometry calculations to position the cameras at just the right distance from the rock with exactly the right illumination by the Sun. If the rover is parked to the west of the target, and the Sun is setting in the west when the rover is commanded to take the picture, the rover will cast a shadow on the prime location and important features in the image will be lost in the dark.

    The planning of this particular photo of 'Last Chance' is particularly complex because the uneven terrain underneath the rover will cause the camera angle to tilt. All six rover wheels will be sitting on varied levels of rock and soil, creating a more difficult camera-aiming challenge. The rock area itself is at a right angle, which further complicates matters because the science team plans to take pictures from two sides of the rock to better understand how this rock formed.

    The number of pictures the science team plans to take of this site adds yet another layer of necessary forethought: the flash memory must be empty enough to record and store the large images before transmitting the data back to Earth. Three sols in advance of taking the pictures, the longterm planning team is asking the science team to conserve data volume to allow for an onslaught of new panoramic camera images scheduled for sol 36.

    This visualization software was created by the rover visualization team from NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. Its terrain models are built from images taken by the rover's panoramic camera on the surface of Mars. The rover model, based on animations and drawings designed by

  18. Long-lasting memory from evanescent networks

    PubMed Central

    Routtenberg, Aryeh

    2010-01-01

    Current models of memory typically require a protein synthetic step leading to a more or less permanent structural change in synapses of the network that represent the stored information. This instructive role of protein synthesis has recently been called into question [Routtenberg, A., Rekart, J.L. 2005. Post-translational modification of synaptic proteins as the substrate for long-lasting memory. Trends Neurosci. 28, 12–19]. In its place a new theory is proposed in which post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins already synthesized and present within the synapse calibrate synaptic strength. PTM is thus the only mechanism required to sustain long-lasting memories. Activity-induced, PTM-dependent structural modifications within brain synapses then define network formation which is thus a product of the concatenation of cascaded PTMs. This leads to a formulation different from current protein synthesis models in which neural networks initially formed from these individual synaptic PTM-dependent changes is maintained by regulated positive feedback maintains. One such positive feedback mechanism is ‘cryptic rehearsal’ typically referred to as ‘noise’ or ‘spontaneous’ activity. This activity is in fact not random or spontaneous but determined in a stochastic sense by the past history of activation of the nerve cell. To prevent promiscuous network formation, the regulated positive feedback maintains the altered state given specific decay kinetics for the PTM. The up or down state of individual synapses actually exists in an infinite number of intermediate states, never fully ‘up’, nor fully ‘down.’ The networks formed from these uncertain synapses are therefore metastable. A particular memory is also multiply represented by a ‘degenerate code’ so that should loss of a subset of representations occur, erasure can be protected against. This mechanism also solves the flexibility–stability problem by positing that the brain eschews

  19. Last Passage Percolation and Traveling Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comets, Francis; Quastel, Jeremy; Ramírez, Alejandro F.

    2013-08-01

    We consider a system of N particles with a stochastic dynamics introduced by Brunet and Derrida (Phys. Rev. E 70:016106, 2004). The particles can be interpreted as last passage times in directed percolation on {1,…, N} of mean-field type. The particles remain grouped and move like a traveling front, subject to discretization and driven by a random noise. As N increases, we obtain estimates for the speed of the front and its profile, for different laws of the driving noise. As shown in Brunet and Derrida (Phys. Rev. E 70:016106, 2004), the model with Gumbel distributed jumps has a simple structure. We establish that the scaling limit is a Lévy process in this case. We study other jump distributions. We prove a result showing that the limit for large N is stable under small perturbations of the Gumbel. In the opposite case of bounded jumps, a completely different behavior is found, where finite-size corrections are extremely small.

  20. Long-Lasting Effects of Undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vinicius J. B.; Toledo Florêncio, Telma M. M.; Grillo, Luciane P.; Franco, Maria do Carmo P.; Martins, Paula A.; Clemente, Ana Paula G.; Santos, Carla D. L.; Vieira, Maria de Fatima A.; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is one of the most important public health problems, affecting more than 900 million individuals around the World. It is responsible for the highest mortality rate in children and has long-lasting physiologic effects, including an increased susceptibility to fat accumulation mostly in the central region of the body, lower fat oxidation, lower resting and postprandial energy expenditure, insulin resistance in adulthood, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and a reduced capacity for manual work, among other impairments. Marked changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system have been described in undernourished experimental animals. Some of these effects seem to be epigenetic, passing on to the next generation. Undernutrition in children has been linked to poor mental development and school achievement as well as behavioural abnormalities. However, there is still a debate in the literature regarding whether some of these effects are permanent or reversible. Stunted children who had experienced catch-up growth had verbal vocabulary and quantitative test scores that did not differ from children who were not stunted. Children treated before 6 years of age in day-hospitals and who recovered in weight and height have normal body compositions, bone mineral densities and insulin production and sensitivity. PMID:21776204

  1. [Internal medicine in the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Mandema, E

    1997-01-04

    Internal medicine in the last 40 years has known many eminent teachers at universities, such as Hijmans van den Bergh, Van Buchem, Borst, Mulder, Lindeboom, De Langen, Hulst, Jordan, Formijne, Major, Snapper, Groen and Querido, and others outside universities such as Stuyt, Van Hees, Eindhoven, Pannekoek, Schalm, Bruins Slot, Heeres, Stolte and Pompen. The main scientific platform on which the bequeathors assembled in the first few decades after World War II was the Algemene Ziektekundige Vereniging ('General Medical Association'), which met in Utrecht. Important medical steps forward in that period were the virtually complete eradication of tuberculosis in the Netherlands, the developing of vaccines against smallpox and polio, but also against the various types of virus hepatitis, and the progress in intensive care, transplantation and molecular biology. The Nederlandsche Internisten Vereeniging ('Dutch Association of Internists') has had its own scientific journal since 1958. Essentials in modern internal medicine are appropriate care and demonstrated usefulness of a treatment (evidence-based medicine); standards, values and ethics are core issues, as are quality control and cost control. Change is also in progress in the doctor-patient relationship, as manifested in the Wet Geneeskundige Behandelingsovereenkomst ('Medical Treatment Accord Act').

  2. Fermi's Paradox - The Last Challenge For Copernicanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    We review Fermi's paradox (or the "Great Silence" problem), not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI), but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already more than three quarters of century old puzzle -- and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin -- has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built in various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literature on the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of various classes of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhat paradoxically, it seems that the class of (neo)catastrophic hypotheses gives, on the balance, the strongest justification to optimism regarding our current and near-future SETI efforts.

  3. [Trauma in the last trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Swol-Ben, J; Helling, H J; Neuhaus, W; Rehm, K E

    1996-06-01

    Although accidents during pregnancy are fairly rare, besides endangering the mother, they nearly always mean a vital threat to the fetus: lethality rates are up to 8% for the mother and up to 34% for the fetus. Besides depression of the circulatory system in the mother, coupled with fetal hypoxy, injury to the placenta and uterus is also possible. Moreover, the unborn child may be injured by direct trauma. If the fetus sustains a direct injury, the head of the child is affected in the majority of instances. In addition, the risk of an intrauterine death is very high. If the injured baby survives after a section, permanent damage must be taken into account. Pregnant women who are injured in an accident should quickly be checked by sonography and cardiotocography. If no danger is expected for the child, the usual therapeutic rules that apply for traumatology should be followed. If the mother and child are endangered, a cesarean section must be undertaken along with simultaneous accident-related surgery on the mother. Case reports are presented on three cases in our clinic last year, and the current literature is discussed. All three mothers and newborns survived because of the cooperation between surgeons, gynecologists and pediatricians.

  4. Stalin's last years: delusions or dementia?

    PubMed

    Hachinski, V

    1999-03-01

    The sheer scale of Stalin's achievements and institutionalized terror has prompted some authors to label him as a paranoid megalomaniac. Whatever the merits of this diagnosis, his undeniable accomplishments and the rationality of many of his actions cannot be explained by the workings of a disturbed mind. In his last years, however, his life-long suspiciousness became florid paranoia. He eschewed medical advice, listening to a veterinarian and treating his hypertension with iodine drops. Stalin feared his own shadow and trusted no-one, even himself. He increasingly withdrew from official functions and he muttered menacingly to his close associates that it was time for another purge. Stalin suffered at least one stroke prior to his fatal intracerebral haemorrhage in 1953. Given his untreated hypertension and the autopsy report, it is probable that he had a number of lacunar strokes. These tend to predominate in the fronto-basal areas, and disconnect the circuits that underpin cognition and behaviour. The most plausible explanation of Stalin's late behaviour is the dimming of a superior intellect and the unleashing of a paranoid personality by a multi-infarct state. Copyright 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  5. Guerrillero Heroico--a lasting impression.

    PubMed

    Shah, S H A; Clarke, T; Packer, J

    2011-06-01

    What once was simply a cultural tradition is fast becoming a popular phenomenon amongst Western tourists. Temporary henna tattoo designs performed by street or beach vendors are prevalent throughout the Middle East and Asia, particularly in holiday resorts. The public may be mistaken in thinking that the fashionable trend comes without significant risk. The main ingredient in the temporary tattooing method is henna (Lawsonia inermis), a flowering plant with dyeing properties that takes only several hours to be absorbed but provides an effect lasting around ten to fifteen days on the recipient's skin. The side effects of henna tattoos are well documented in the literature, although it is not clear whether the side effects directly relate to the henna ingredient or the additives used to prolong the designs. The most commonly noted complications include allergic contact dermatitis, infection, hypertrophic and keloid scarring and temporary or permanent hypo- or hyperpigmentation. In very rare cases, type 1 hypersensitivity reactions (angioedema and anaphylaxis) have been reported. The following case report highlights several of these complications and the relevant management. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder degrees of TH disruption on adult neurogenesis following hypothyroidism induced during development, in adulthood, or both. Pregnant dams were administered the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU, 0 or 3ppm in drinking water) from gestational day 6 and pups were weaned to control water on postnatal day (PN)2 I. On PN6O, offspring from control or PTU dams were either re-exposed to PTU (3ppm) for I month or maintained on control. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 50 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) was administered to all animals on the last 5 days of the re-exposure period, and animals sacrificed 28 d later. Animals were perfused intracardially, the brains were removed, embedded in a MultiBrain (NSA) array and freeze sectioned. Every 8th section throughout the hippocampus was stained with an antibody against BrdU to mark actively dividing cells. The volume of the DO and the number of BrdUpositive cells were assessed from images captured on a Nikon microscope (200X) and Nikon Elements software. Preliminary findings indicate that developmental exposure to PTU produced a persistent reduction in the volume of the adult DO. BrdU cell counts were reduced similarly in all P11J-exposed groups. These data

  7. Post-stroke dysphagia: progress at last.

    PubMed

    Rofes, L; Vilardell, N; Clavé, P

    2013-04-01

    Oropharyngeal Dysphagia (OD) is both underestimated and underdiagnosed as a cause of malnutrition and respiratory complications following stroke. OD occurs in more than 50% of stroke patients. Aspiration pneumonia (AP) occurs in up to 20% of acute stroke patients and is a major cause of mortality after discharge. Systematic screening for OD should be performed on every patient with stroke before starting oral feeding, followed, if appropriate by clinical and instrumental (videofluroscopy and/or fiberoptic endoscopy) assessment. Bolus modification with adaptation of texture and viscosity of solids and fluids and postural adjustments should be part of the minimal treatment protocol, but they do not change the impaired swallow physiology nor promote recovery of damaged neural swallow networks in stroke patients. To this purpose, two new neurostimulation approaches are being developed to stimulate cortical neuroplasticity to recover swallowing function: (i) those aimed at stimulating the peripheral oropharyngeal sensory system by chemical, physical or electrical stimulus; and (ii) those aimed at directly stimulating the pharyngeal motor cortex, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The study of Park et al. in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility evaluated the effect of rTMS in dysphagic stroke patients and showed a marked improvement in swallow physiology. Other studies also using rTMS showed plastic changes in pharyngeal motor cortical areas relevant to swallowing function. If further randomized controlled trials confirm these initial results, the neurorehabilitation strategies will be introduced to clinical practice sooner rather than later, improving the recovery of dysphagic stroke patients. Progress at last. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Luca: the last universal common ancestor].

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Brochier, Céline

    2005-10-01

    One of the most important outcomes of modern biology has been the demonstration of the unity of life. All living beings are in fact descendants of a unique ancestor commonly referred to as Luca (the Last universal common ancestor). The discovery - nearly 30 years ago by Carl Woese - that present-day life on our planet can be assigned to only three domains: two of prokaryotic nature (Archaea and Bacteria), and one eukaryoyic (Eucarya), has given birth to a new field of investigation aimed at determining the nature of Luca. Today, thanks to the accumulation of genomic data, we can loop back into the past and infer a few characters of Luca by comparing what present-day organisms have in common. For example, it is now clear that Luca was a cellular organism provided with a cytoplasmic membrane, and that it harboured already a quite sophisticated translation apparatus. However, the inference of other characters of Luca from comparative genomics is less straightforward: for instance, a few key molecular mechanisms for DNA replication are non-homologous across the three domains and their distribution is often puzzling. This evidence has been embraced by proponents of the hypothesis that Luca harboured an RNA genome and that its replacement by DNA and the appearance of the corresponding molecular systems would have occurred independently in the three life domains after their divergence. However, an equally likely scenario would be that of a Luca with a DNA genome and of a subsequent replacement of its DNA-replication systems by non-homologous counterparts either in the bacterial or in the archaeal/eukaroytic branch. Nevertheless, including the viral world into the picture of the tree of life may thus provide us with precious insights into our most distant past since the invention and spread potential of viruses may have played a key role in early evolution.

  9. Arctic Temperature Variability over the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Dmitry V.; Werner, Johannes P.

    2017-04-01

    This study presents two new climate field reconstructions (CFR) of Arctic surface air temperature (SAT) variability over the last 1000 years. The CFR is based on collection of 60 temperature sensitive proxies north of 60 N mainly from the recently updated Pages2K v 2.0.0 global multiproxy database (Pages2K, 2017) of the Common Era supplemented with some new records not yet included in the Pages 2K archive. Using two subsets of annually dated proxy records sensitive to summer temperatures and those representative of both summer and annual mean SAT, we generated seasonal (summer) and annual SAT CFR for the study region. This study provides a substantial extension to the previous Artic CFR reconstruction by Tingley& Huybers (2013) in terms of both the input proxy data density and duration back in time as well as improved reconstruction technique applied. As a major innovation we used a recently developed extension to the BARCAST method of Tingley&Huybers (2010), BARCAST+AMS (Werner&Tingley, 2015) that provides a means to treat climate archives with dating uncertainties via probabilistic constraining the age-depth models of time-uncertain climate proxies within the hierarchical Bayesian framework. Preliminary analysis of the new reconstructions confirms the recent warming to interrupt the millennial scale general cooling trend. The rate of contemporary circum- Arctic warming of 0.04(0.01) C year-1 since AD 1961 is unprecedented on the time scale of at least past 1000 years. Since AD 1990 the circum-Arctic SAT persistently exceeds the two historical warm extremes of AD 1014-1017 and 1028-1033 associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). A previous well-recorded early 20th century Arctic warming is manifested as event with a magnitude and duration comparable to a number of other anomalies detected in past centuries including the MCA. The new reconstructions provide a prospective framework for further analysis of seasonal regional past climate variability on the

  10. Impacts of the Last Glacial Cycle on ground surface temperature reconstructions over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Illanes, Lizett; Tarasov, Lev

    2017-01-01

    Borehole temperature profiles provide robust estimates of past ground surface temperature changes, in agreement with meteorological data. Nevertheless, past climatic changes such as the Last Glacial Cycle (LGC) generated thermal effects in the subsurface that affect estimates of recent climatic change from geothermal data. We use an ensemble of ice sheet simulations spanning the last 120 ka to assess the impact of the Laurentide Ice Sheet on recent ground surface temperature histories reconstructed from borehole temperature profiles over North America. When the thermal remnants of the LGC are removed, we find larger amounts of subsurface heat storage (2.8 times) and an increased warming of the ground surface over North America by 0.75 K, both relative to uncorrected borehole estimates.

  11. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  12. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  13. New prognostic scales LAST-1 and LAST-2: supporting prediction and staging of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lachinski, Andrzej J; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Kobiela, Jarek; Connor, Saxon; Gruca, Zbigniew; Sledzinski, Zbigniew

    2006-03-01

    Epidemiologically, thyroid gland tumors are lesions of the highest importance among endocrine tumors in humans. Although the results of surgical treatment of the highly differentiated (follicular and papillary) tumors seem to be satisfactory, treatment of the poorly differentiated (medullary and anaplastic) tumor still demands clinical and basic investigations. In this study the authors sought to evaluate clinical and molecular factors that could contribute to preoperative detection of more advanced thyroid cancers (i.e., those that exhibit extrathyroid spread and lymph node invasion). A total of 27 patients operated on for thyroid cancer were evaluated according to age, sex, time from the onset of the disease, cytogenetic changes, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 14 microsatellite markers. The output variables were defined according to postoperative findings and the TNM 2002 score. The T1-2 N0 M0 cases were defined as local malignancy (LM); and T3-4 any N any M, any T N1 any M, or any T any N M1 were considered advanced malignancy (AM). The control groups consisted of 25 patients with multinodular goiter (MNG) and 32 patients with follicular adenoma (FA). In all cases, clinical and molecular data similar to those listed above were collected, excluding staging and follow-up information. There was no predominant specific type of chromosomal aberration observed and no marker lost in more than five patients (18%). The logistic regression identified three input variables as contributing significantly to the dichotomized outcome measure (LM vs. AM): LOH in any of the examined loci, age of the patient at the presentation, and the sex of the patient. Furthermore, discriminant analysis revealed four input variables differentiating among TC, FA, and MNG patients. Based on the multivariate analysis results, two numeric prognostic scales were fashioned: LAST-1, a scale applicable to differentiation of thyroid cancers at different degrees of clinical advancement; and LAST-2

  14. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Last resort housing. 777.27 Section 777.27 Postal... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.27 Last resort housing. (a) Basic Determination to Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  15. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Last resort housing. 777.27 Section 777.27 Postal... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.27 Last resort housing. (a) Basic Determination to Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  16. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Last resort housing. 777.27 Section 777.27 Postal... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.27 Last resort housing. (a) Basic Determination to Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  17. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Last resort housing. 777.27 Section 777.27 Postal... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.27 Last resort housing. (a) Basic Determination to Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling...

  18. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs): A Strategy for Making Long-Lasting Nets Last Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Steven A.; Paredes Olórtegui, Maribel; Leontsini, Elli; Ramal Asayag, César; Scott, Kerry; Winch, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is a proven malaria prevention method. Mass distribution has greatly expanded LLIN access in sub-Saharan Africa, but a gap remains between LLIN ownership and use. Furthermore, LLINs wear out more quickly than anticipated. This paper suggests a participatory research strategy—trials of improved practices (TIPs)—that could identify locally appropriate approaches to prolonging net life and increasing effective use. We used TIPs to overcome barriers to optimal net use in the Peruvian Amazon. Working with 15 families in three villages, we tested home treatment of cotton nets, use of an alternative netting fabric, and alternative washing and care instructions. TIPs helped confirm feasibility of these interventions. Although our findings are time- and context-specific, TIPs could help improve consistency and effectiveness of current LLIN use and prolong net lifespan in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere. This would help maximize the value of shrinking donor resources for malaria. PMID:23530074

  19. Legislatures Reconvene with Last Year's Battles Still in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    As state legislatures go to work this year, one of the overriding questions is whether 2012 will bring a reprise of last year's frenzied work on education--much of it shepherded by newly elected Republican majorities and governors--or whether elected officials will take a more deliberate and cautious approach. Last year, many governors and…

  20. 49 CFR 24.404 - Replacement housing of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing of last resort. 24.404 Section 24.404 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement Housing Payments § 24.404 Replacement housing of last resort....

  1. 34 CFR 303.222 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payor of last resort. 303.222 Section 303.222 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Application and Assurances Assurances § 303.222 Payor of last resort. The State must...

  2. 34 CFR 303.222 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payor of last resort. 303.222 Section 303.222 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Application and Assurances Assurances § 303.222 Payor of last resort. The State must...

  3. Vegetation and paleoclimate of the last interglacial period, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Beget, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The last interglacial period is thought to be the last time global climate was significantly warmer than present. New stratigraphic studies at Eva Creek, near Fairbanks, Alaska indicate a complex last interglacial record wherein periods of loess deposition alternated with periods of soil formation. The Eva Forest Bed appears to have formed about the time of or after deposition of the Old Crow tephra (dated to ??? 160 to ??? 120 ka), and is therefore correlated with the last interglacial period. Pollen, macrofossils, and soils from the Eva Forest Bed indicate that boreal forest was the dominant vegetation and precipitation may have been greater than present around Fairbanks during the peak of the last interglacial period. A new compilation of last interglacial localities indicates that boreal forest was extensive over interior Alaska and Yukon Territory. Boreal forest also extended beyond its present range onto the Seward and Baldwin Peninsulas, and probably migrated to higher elevations, now occupied by tundra, in the interior. Comparison of last interglacial pollen and macrofossil data with atmospheric general circulation model results shows both agreement and disagreement. Model results of warmer-than-present summers are in agreement with fossil data. However, numerous localities with boreal forest records are in conflict with model reconstructions of an extensive cool steppe in interior Alaska and much of Yukon Territory during the last interglacial. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Keeping Seniors Engaged During The Last Week Of School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haff, Thomas F.

    2006-12-01

    During the last week of classes at Issaquah High School, the students are pulled in lots of different directions as they get ready for graduation day. Even amid senior teas, yearbook signing, photos, graduation practice and such, the students at I H S are still engaged to the very last day doing meaningful physics with the “Physics Scavenger Hunt”. This time tested activity has been a tradition at I H S and something the students actually look forward to. Last year, about twenty students stayed after school on the final day of classes just to put on their final touches. This activity may be for you.

  5. Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqueline A; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Farber, Daniel L; Rodbell, Donald T; Finkel, Robert C

    2005-04-29

    The local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes was earlier and less extensive than previously thought, based on 106 cosmogenic ages (from beryllium-10 dating) from moraines in Peru and Bolivia. Glaciers reached their greatest extent in the last glacial cycle approximately 34,000 years before the present and were retreating by approximately 21,000 years before the present, implying that tropical controls on ice volumes were asynchronous with those in the Northern Hemisphere. Our estimates of snowline depression reflect about half the temperature change indicated by previous widely cited figures, which helps resolve the discrepancy between estimates of terrestrial and marine temperature depression during the last glacial cycle.

  6. 99. DETAIL OF TYPICAL METER ADJUST PANELS LOCATED IN LAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. DETAIL OF TYPICAL METER ADJUST PANELS LOCATED IN LAST TWO CABINETS ON RIGHT IN CA-133-1-A-97 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 17. Detail view looking south showing elevation of last two ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view looking south showing elevation of last two panels and abutment at west end. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1983 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

  8. View facing northeast of Structure 1034, last numbered structure on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing northeast of Structure 103-4, last numbered structure on northern (Havre) end of Transmission Line - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  9. 11. DETAIL OF CAST IRON DOOR OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF CAST IRON DOOR OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  10. 9. VIEW OF OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  11. 10. DETAIL OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  12. Hip Fracture's Link to Early Death May Last Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163802.html Hip Fracture's Link to Early Death May Last Years People ... HealthDay News) -- Older people who suffer a hip fracture face a much higher risk of death soon ...

  13. Sharply angled view of last truss at W end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sharply angled view of last truss at W end of Train Shed. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter ... by the National Institutes of Health - the Nation's Medical Research Agency. NIH is part of the U.S. ...

  15. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  16. STS135 flight controllers on console during last shuttle mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-08

    PHOTO DATE: 08 July 2011 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 south - WFCR, SMG SUBJECT: STS-135 Flight Controllers on Console during last space shuttle launch WORK ORDER: 01815-BS___07-08-11-STS 135 LAUNCH WFCR PHOTOGRAPHER: Bill Stafford

  17. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  18. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  19. "Last Man on the Moon": Gene and Tracy Cernan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Gene Cernan and his daughter reflect on their lives while he was an astronaut. The Last Man on the Moon is a recent film about astronaut Eugene Cernan’s life, produced by U.K. production company Ma...

  20. 'Chemo Brain' Lasts for Months in Many Breast Cancer Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162990.html 'Chemo Brain' Lasts for Months in Many Breast Cancer Survivors Altered thinking must ... after breast cancer treatment -- can persist for six months, new research shows. The finding comes from one ...

  1. 42 CFR 136.61 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payor of last resort. 136.61 Section 136.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Residual Status § 136.61 Payor of last resort. (a) The Indian Health Service is the payor of...

  2. 42 CFR 136a.61 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payor of last resort. 136a.61 Section 136a.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Residual Status § 136a.61 Payor of last resort. (a) The Indian Health Service is the payor of...

  3. Meltwater pulse recorded in Last Interglacial mollusk shells from Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelstern, Ian Z.; Rowe, Mark P.; Lohmann, Kyger C.; Defliese, William F.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Brewer, Aaron W.

    2017-02-01

    The warm climate of Bermuda today is modulated by the nearby presence of the Gulf Stream current. However, iceberg scours in the Florida Strait and the presence of ice-rafted debris in Bermuda Rise sediments indicate that, during the last deglaciation, icebergs discharged from the Laurentide Ice Sheet traveled as far south as subtropical latitudes. We present evidence that an event of similar magnitude affected the subtropics during the Last Interglacial, potentially due to melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using the clumped isotope paleothermometer, we found temperatures 10°C colder and seawater δ18O values 2‰ lower than modern in Last Interglacial Cittarium pica shells from Grape Bay, Bermuda. In contrast, Last Interglacial shells from Rocky Bay, Bermuda, record temperatures only slightly colder and seawater δ18O values similar to modern, likely representing more typical Last Interglacial conditions in Bermuda outside of a meltwater event. The significantly colder ocean temperatures observed in Grape Bay samples illustrate the extreme sensitivity of Bermudian climate to broad-scale ocean circulation changes. They indicate routine meltwater transport in the North Atlantic to near-equatorial latitudes, which would likely have resulted in disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. These data demonstrate that future melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a potential source of the Last Interglacial meltwater event, could have dramatic climate effects outside of the high latitudes.

  4. Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical Atlantic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, T.; Brocas, W.; Obert, J. C.; Gierz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Scholz, D.; Kölling, M.; Pfeiffer, M.; Scheffers, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructions of last interglacial ( 127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a period partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. However, the seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean are not well known for the last interglacial period. Here we present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire. These corals have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 118 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved Sr/Ca temperature proxy records. Our eight coral records of up to 37 years in length cover a total of 105 years within the last interglacial period. From these coral records, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of 2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late last interglacial (120 - 118 ka). However, within the mid-last interglacial, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations (COSMOS) and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the last interglacial, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this period, e.g. at 118 ka ago. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our last interglacial coral Sr/Ca records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North Atlantic. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-last interglacial is caused primarily by summer warming. Furthermore, a 124 ka old coral documents evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North Atlantic during the last interglacial, akin to that

  5. [Implementing the "last mile" program in new nurse clinical education].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsin; Jane, Sui-Whi; Fan, Jun-Yu; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The shortage of working nurses has made Taiwan's low nursing retention rate a critical issue in domestic healthcare. Main reasons for new nurses leaving their jobs include high pressure, overtime work, heavy workload, interpersonal relationship problems with colleagues, and inadequate support from administrators. In response, nursing educators designed the "last mile" program to improve the hands-on competence of nursing students with the goal of increasing post-graduation retention rates. This article introduces the last mile program in its present form and discusses the challenges faced in transitioning the program from the classroom into the clinical training environment. The authors suggest establishing a challenge test prior to implementing the last mile program, recruiting role-model preceptors, adjusting training program / project budgets, and developing partnerships between nursing educators and clinicians to enhance the clinical competence of new nurses and ultimately increase professional nurse retention rates, competence, and accountability.

  6. Lack of phylogeography in European mammals before the last glaciation

    PubMed Central

    Hofreiter, Michael; Serre, David; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Nagel, Doris; Conard, Nicholas; Münzel, Susanne; Pääbo, Svante

    2004-01-01

    In many extant animal and plant species in Europe and North America a correlation exists between the geographical location of individuals and the genetic relatedness of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences that they carry. Here, we analyze mtDNA sequences from cave bears, brown bears, cave hyenas, and Neandertals in Europe before the last glacial maximum and fail to detect any phylogeographic patterns similar to those observed in extant species. We suggest that at the beginning of the last glacial maximum, little phylogeographic patterns existed in European mammals over most of their geographical ranges and that current phylogeographic patterns are transient relics of the last glaciation. Cycles of retreat of species in refugia during glacial periods followed by incomplete dispersal from one refugium into other refugia during interglacial periods is likely to be responsible for the deep genetic divergences between phylogeographic clusters of mtDNA seen today. PMID:15317936

  7. Ice volume and sea level during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Lambeck, K

    2012-07-13

    During the last interglacial period, ~125,000 years ago, sea level was at least several meters higher than at present, with substantial variability observed for peak sea level at geographically diverse sites. Speculation that the West Antarctic ice sheet collapsed during the last interglacial period has drawn particular interest to understanding climate and ice-sheet dynamics during this time interval. We provide an internally consistent database of coral U-Th ages to assess last interglacial sea-level observations in the context of isostatic modeling and stratigraphic evidence. These data indicate that global (eustatic) sea level peaked 5.5 to 9 meters above present sea level, requiring smaller ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica relative to today and indicating strong sea-level sensitivity to small changes in radiative forcing.

  8. Training alignment parameters for arbitrary sequencers with LAST-TRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yukiteru; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Summary: LAST-TRAIN improves sequence alignment accuracy by inferring substitution and gap scores that fit the frequencies of substitutions, insertions, and deletions in a given dataset. We have applied it to mapping DNA reads from IonTorrent and PacBio RS, and we show that it reduces reference bias for Oxford Nanopore reads. Availability and Implementation: the source code is freely available at http://last.cbrc.jp/ Contact: mhamada@waseda.jp or mcfrith@edu.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28039163

  9. 38. From hilltop, Route 14, last segment of flume before ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. From hilltop, Route 14, last segment of flume before Broughton Lumber Company. Section of flume and broken out section. Columbia River and Oregon in background. West/southwest 240 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  10. Review of "Teacher Layoffs: Rethinking "Last Hired, First Fired "Policies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard; Merrill, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This recent brief from the National Council on Teacher Quality is concerned with the question of what factors should be considered when school districts must decide which teachers to lay off during periods of tight budgets. Most districts, according to the brief, base these decisions primarily on long-standing "Last Hired, First Fired" teacher…

  11. 34 CFR 303.527 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.527 Payor of last... under any other Federal, State, local, or private source. (b) Interim payments—reimbursement. (1) If... of benefits. Nothing in this part may be construed to permit a State to reduce medical or...

  12. Taking Successful Programs to Scale and Creating Lasting Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Math and Science Initiative, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Scaling Effective Programs is a category of giving that is quite unique. Philanthropists have many different interests that guide their giving, but Scaling Effective Programs offers an approach that can produce lasting transformation. This guide speaks to funders who: (1) view their giving as venture capital that stimulates other giving; (2) want…

  13. Past to Present: The Last of the Herd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes artist Henry Farny's oil on canvas painting, "The Last of the Herd." It highlights the most notable historical, cultural, and artistic elements in the painting. The article also describes significant details of the artist's life and provides questions to consider.

  14. 34 CFR 303.126 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payor of last resort. 303.126 Section 303.126 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Application for...

  15. Identifying Asteroidal Parent Bodies of the Meteorites: The Last Lap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spectral studies of asteroids and dynamical models have converged to yield, at last, a clear view of asteroid-meteorite linkages. Plausible parent bodies for most meteorite types have either been identified or it has become evident where to search for them.

  16. Identifying Asteroidal Parent Bodies of the Meteorites: The Last Lap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spectral studies of asteroids and dynamical models have converged to yield, at last, a clear view of asteroid-meteorite linkages. Plausible parent bodies for most meteorite types have either been identified or it has become evident where to search for them.

  17. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  18. Changes in Climate and Variability over the Last 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. D.

    INTRODUCTION THE INSTRUMENTAL PERIOD (1850-) EARLY EUROPEAN INSTRUMENTAL RECORDS THE PRE-INSTRUMENTAL PERIOD (BACK TO 1000) Palaeoclimatic Sources Multiproxy Averages from High-Frequency Sources Low-Frequency Sources DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The Instrumental Period The Last 1000 Years REFERENCES

  19. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  20. "Life after Last Orders": Microbiology as a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verran, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 conference of the International Biodegradation and Biodeterioration Society (www.biodeterioration. org) and the International Biodegradation Research Group (www.ibrg.org), was held last September at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The conference, "Management and Control of Undesirable Microorganisms", followed the usual…

  1. Fermat's Last Theorem for Factional and Irrational Exponents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Fermat's Last Theorem says that for integers n greater than 2, there are no solutions to x[superscript n] + y[superscript n] = z[superscript n] among positive integers. What about rational exponents? Irrational n? Negative n? See what an undergraduate senior seminar discovered.

  2. 34 CFR 303.126 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payor of last resort. 303.126 Section 303.126 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  3. "Life after Last Orders": Microbiology as a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verran, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 conference of the International Biodegradation and Biodeterioration Society (www.biodeterioration. org) and the International Biodegradation Research Group (www.ibrg.org), was held last September at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The conference, "Management and Control of Undesirable Microorganisms", followed the usual…

  4. B. F. Skinner--The Last Few Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Julie S.

    1990-01-01

    The daughter of Burrhus Frederic Skinner writes of her father's activities during the last few days of his life--his speech upon receipt of an award from the American Psychological Association, his work on research papers and books, interviews, and his final admission to the hospital where he died. (JDD)

  5. B. F. Skinner--The Last Few Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Julie S.

    1990-01-01

    The daughter of Burrhus Frederic Skinner writes of her father's activities during the last few days of his life--his speech upon receipt of an award from the American Psychological Association, his work on research papers and books, interviews, and his final admission to the hospital where he died. (JDD)

  6. 34 CFR 303.527 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.527 Payor of last... under any other Federal, State, local, or private source. (b) Interim payments—reimbursement. (1) If... of benefits. Nothing in this part may be construed to permit a State to reduce medical or other...

  7. 60. Jet Lowe, Photographer. July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF LAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Jet Lowe, Photographer. July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF LAST NO. 2 HOIST HOUSE, FROM BENEATH HOISTING DRUM AND OPERATOR'S PLATFORM, SHOWING LILLY OVERRUN PROTECTOR (FOREGROUND), THROTTLE LEAKAGE (UPPER LEFT), HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS FOR BRAKE SYSTEM AND REVERSING GEAR. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  8. The Last Week of School: Holding the Lid On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Henry E.; Beauchemin, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    A survey of 68 suburban middle and junior high schools in New York revealed policies and practices used during the last week of school. Among the practices reported were offering regular classes; conducting testing; presenting awards or "moving up" assemblies; and holding athletic events, picnics, and other special activities. (PGD)

  9. Fermat's Last Theorem for Factional and Irrational Exponents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Fermat's Last Theorem says that for integers n greater than 2, there are no solutions to x[superscript n] + y[superscript n] = z[superscript n] among positive integers. What about rational exponents? Irrational n? Negative n? See what an undergraduate senior seminar discovered.

  10. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Robert E; Simons, Frederik J; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Maloof, Adam C; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-17

    With polar temperatures approximately 3-5 degrees C warmer than today, the last interglacial stage (approximately 125 kyr ago) serves as a partial analogue for 1-2 degrees C global warming scenarios. Geological records from several sites indicate that local sea levels during the last interglacial were higher than today, but because local sea levels differ from global sea level, accurately reconstructing past global sea level requires an integrated analysis of globally distributed data sets. Here we present an extensive compilation of local sea level indicators and a statistical approach for estimating global sea level, local sea levels, ice sheet volumes and their associated uncertainties. We find a 95% probability that global sea level peaked at least 6.6 m higher than today during the last interglacial; it is likely (67% probability) to have exceeded 8.0 m but is unlikely (33% probability) to have exceeded 9.4 m. When global sea level was close to its current level (>or=-10 m), the millennial average rate of global sea level rise is very likely to have exceeded 5.6 m kyr(-1) but is unlikely to have exceeded 9.2 m kyr(-1). Our analysis extends previous last interglacial sea level studies by integrating literature observations within a probabilistic framework that accounts for the physics of sea level change. The results highlight the long-term vulnerability of ice sheets to even relatively low levels of sustained global warming.

  11. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial–interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  12. A last updating evolution model for online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhan; Xia, Zhengyou; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Chengcui

    2013-05-01

    As information technology has advanced, people are turning to electronic media more frequently for communication, and social relationships are increasingly found on online channels. However, there is very limited knowledge about the actual evolution of the online social networks. In this paper, we propose and study a novel evolution network model with the new concept of “last updating time”, which exists in many real-life online social networks. The last updating evolution network model can maintain the robustness of scale-free networks and can improve the network reliance against intentional attacks. What is more, we also found that it has the “small-world effect”, which is the inherent property of most social networks. Simulation experiment based on this model show that the results and the real-life data are consistent, which means that our model is valid.

  13. Mineralogy of the last lunar basalts: Results from Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staid, M.I.; Pieters, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The last major phase of lunar volcanism produced extensive high-titanium mare deposits on the western nearside which remain unsampled by landing missions. The visible and near-infrared reflectance properties of these basalts are examined using Clementine multispectral images to better constrain their mineralogy. A much stronger 1 ??m ferrous absorption was observed for the western high-titanium basalts than within earlier maria, suggesting that these last major mare eruptions also may have been the most iron-rich. These western basalts also have a distinctly long-wavelength, 1 ??m ferrous absorption which was found to be similar for both surface soils and materials excavated from depth, supporting the interpretation of abundant olivine within these deposits. Spectral variation along flows within the Imbrium basin also suggests variations in ilmenite content along previously mapped lava flows as well as increasing olivine content within subsequent eruptions. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Bronchiectasis in the Last Five Years: New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Jun Keng; Venning, Victoria; Wong, Conroy; Jayaram, Lata

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Novel therapies are currently undergoing Phase 1 and 2 trials. This review aims to address the major developments within the field of bronchiectasis over this time. PMID:27941638

  15. Bronchiectasis in the Last Five Years: New Developments.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Jun Keng; Venning, Victoria; Wong, Conroy; Jayaram, Lata

    2016-12-08

    Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Novel therapies are currently undergoing Phase 1 and 2 trials. This review aims to address the major developments within the field of bronchiectasis over this time.

  16. AMPARs and synaptic plasticity: the last 25 years.

    PubMed

    Huganir, Richard L; Nicoll, Roger A

    2013-10-30

    The study of synaptic plasticity and specifically LTP and LTD is one of the most active areas of research in neuroscience. In the last 25 years we have come a long way in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. In 1988, AMPA and NMDA receptors were not even molecularly identified and we only had a simple model of the minimal requirements for the induction of plasticity. It is now clear that the modulation of the AMPA receptor function and membrane trafficking is critical for many forms of synaptic plasticity and a large number of proteins have been identified that regulate this complex process. Here we review the progress over the last two and a half decades and discuss the future challenges in the field.

  17. [Poisoning by chromium and its long lasting detoxication].

    PubMed

    Ryselis, Stanislovas; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Vitkuviene, Birute; Naginiene, Rima

    2002-01-01

    Long lasting influence of cumulated Cr provide irreversible damages of vascular walls, organs and their systems. During long lasting treatment most of Cr is removed during the first 20 days through bileric tract and at the same time through the renal tract the Cr amounts decreases because chromium-d-penicilamin complex in hepatocytes induces synthesis of specific chromium-d-penicilamin binding labile protein and they are removed with bile. The levels of essential microelements (Cu and Zn) are maintained at the level of the physiological tolerance during treatment. Cr removes very slowly (about a year) from human body, and after treatment patients health do not improve because Cr-inducted damages of vascullars, organs and their systems are not recovered. The treatment must be evaluated continuously by controlling concentrations' of Cr, Cu, Zn and other microelements in the blood, plasma and urine by electrothermal atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry methods.

  18. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jacob N W; Piotrowski, Alexander M; Noble, Taryn L; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-03

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ(13)C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  19. Background magnetic fields during last three cycles of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryeyeva, O. A.; Stepanian, N. N.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes our studies of evolution of the solar magnetic field with different sign and field strength in the range from -100 G to 100 G. The structure and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields on the Sun during the last 3 cycles of solar activity is investigated using magnetograph data from the Kitt Peak Solar Observatory. This analysis reveals two groups of the large-scale magnetic fields evolving differently during the cycles. The first group is represented by relatively weak background fields, and is best observed in the range of 3-10 Gauss. The second group is represented by stronger fields of 75-100 Gauss. The spatial and temporal properties of these groups are described and compared with the total magnetic flux. It is shown that the anomalous behaviour of the total flux during the last cycle can be found only in the second group

  20. The last deglaciation event in the eastern central arctic ocean.

    PubMed

    Stein, R; Nam, S I; Schubert, C; Vogt, C; Futterer, D; Heinemeier, J

    1994-04-29

    Oxygen isotope records of cores from the central Arctic Ocean yield evidence for a major influx of meltwater at the beginning of the last deglaciation 15.7 thousand years ago (16,650 calendar years B.C.). The almost parallel trends of the isotope records from the Arctic Ocean, the Fram Strait, and the east Greenland continental margin suggest contemporaneous variations of the Eurasian Arctic and Greenland (Laurentide) ice sheets or increased export of low-saline waters from the Arctic within the East Greenland Current during the last deglaciation. On the basis of isotope and carbon data, the modern surface- and deep-water characteristics and seasonally open-ice conditions with increased surface-water productivity were established in the central Arctic at the end of Termination lb about 7.2 thousand years ago or 6,000 calendar years B.C.).

  1. Statistical inference for extinction rates based on last sightings.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miguel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel; Lluch-Cota, Salvador E

    2013-09-21

    Rates of extinction can be estimated from sighting records and are assumed to be implicitly constant by many data analysis methods. However, historical sightings are scarce. Frequently, the only information available for inferring extinction is the date of the last sighting. In this study, we developed a probabilistic model and a corresponding statistical inference procedure based on last sightings. We applied this procedure to data on recent marine extirpations and extinctions, seeking to test the null hypothesis of a constant extinction rate. We found that over the past 500 years extirpations in the ocean have been increasing but at an uncertain rate, whereas a constant rate of global marine extinctions is statistically plausible. The small sample sizes of marine extinction records generate such high uncertainty that different combinations of model inputs can yield different outputs that fit the observed data equally well. Thus, current marine extinction trends may be idiosyncratic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocean Cooling Pattern at the Last Glacial Maximum

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuang, Kelin; Giardino, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean temperature and ocean heat content change are analyzed based on four PMIP3 model results at the Last Glacial Maximum relative to the prehistorical run. Ocean cooling mostly occurs in the upper 1000 m depth and varies spatially in the tropical and temperate zones. The Atlantic Ocean experiences greater cooling than the rest of the ocean basins. Ocean cooling is closely related to the weakening of meridional overturning circulation and enhanced intrusion of Antarctic Bottom Water into the North Atlantic.

  3. A Reanalysis of Geomagnetic Activity during the Last 100 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, D.; Mursula, K.; Karinen, A.

    2004-12-01

    Long-term geomagnetic activity presented by the aa index has recently been used to show that the heliospheric magnetic field has more than doubled during the last 100 years. However, serious concern has recently been raised on the long-term consistency of the aa index and, thereby, on the centennial rise of solar magnetic activity. Here we reanalyze geomagnetic activity during the last 100 years by calculating the recently suggested IHV index for seven stations. We find that local geomagnetic activity in all stations follows the same qualitative long-term pattern as depicted by the aa index, and has a higher average level during the last two decennia of the 20th century than in the first two decennia. This verifies the result based on the aa index that global geomagnetic activity, and thereby, the open solar magnetic field has indeed increased during the last 100 years. However, quantitatively, the estimated centennial increase varies greatly from one station to another. We find that the relative increase is higher at the high-latitude stations and lower at the low and mid-latitude stations. Moreover, we find a considerably smaller (about 24-35%) centennial increase for global geomagnetic activity than given by the aa index (about 65%). We also show that the IHV index needs to be corrected for the long-term change of the daily curve, and calculate the corrected IHV values. We find that in four out of seven stations this correction further reduces the estimated centennial increase of local geomagnetic activity.

  4. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  5. The last illnesses of Robert and Horace Walpole.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637

  6. Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.

  7. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-02-24

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  8. The futility study—progress over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We review the futility clinical trial design (also known as the non-superiority design) with respect to its emergence and methodologic developments over the last decade, especially in regard to its application to clinical trials for neurological disorders. We discuss the design’s strengths as a programmatic screening device to weed out unpromising new treatments, its limitations and pitfalls, and a recent critique of the logic of the method. PMID:26123873

  9. Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation of the Iberian Central System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, D.; Andrés, N.; Vieira, G.; Marcos, J.; Vázquez-Selem, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Central System runs E-W across the centre of the Iberian Peninsula and is composed mainly of crystalline rocks. A glacial morphology is well preserved on many of its most important summit areas especially towards the Atlantic. Research has recently been carried out in three of the sierras of this mountain system, with the aim of establishing the absolute chronology of the maximum glacial advance and of the deglaciation in the whole system. The method used is cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of moraine boulders and glacially polished outcrops. The selected areas are the Sierra de Guadarrama (Palacios et al. 2012) close to Peñalara Peak (40°51'N, 3°57'W; 2428 m), the Sierra de Gredos (Palacios et al. 2011) close to Almanzor Peak (40°14'N, 5°17'W; 2592 m), and the Sierra de la Estrela (Vieira and Palacios, 2010) close to Alto de la Torre summit (40°20'N, 7°34'W; 1993 m). These areas are representative of the whole Central System from west to east. The results are highly homogeneous. Moraines dating from earlier than the last glaciation were not found in any of the sierras. On the contrary, in all cases the oldest moraines from the last glaciation rest on intensely weathered crystalline surfaces. The oldest moraines date from between 31 and 26 ka. In most cases, the deposition of these moraine ridges was followed by minor advances and retreats which left a sequence of ridges very close together, lasting until 18-16 ka. A fast retreat occurred after 16-15 ka, when glaciers completely abandoned the valleys, disappearing in most cases by 13-14 ka. The ice lasted until 11-10 ka, but only in small cirques found on sheltered rock-walls below the highest peaks.

  10. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak.

  11. ENSO activity during the last climate cycle using IFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Thirumalai, Kaustubh

    2017-04-01

    The El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the principal mode of interannual climate variability and affects key climate parameters such as low-latitude rainfall variability. Anticipating future ENSO variability under anthropogenic forcing is vital due to its profound socioeconomic impact. Fossil corals suggest that 20th century ENSO variance is particularly high as compared to other time periods of the Holocene (Cobb et al., 2013, Science), the Last Glacial Maximum (Ford et al., 2015, Science) and the last glacial period (Tudhope et al., 2001, Science). Yet, recent climate modeling experiments suggest an increase in the frequency of both El Niño (Cai et al., 2014, Nature Climate Change) and La Niña (Cai et al., 2015, Nature Climate Change) events. We have expanded an Individual Foraminifera Analysis (IFA) dataset using the thermocline-dwelling N. dutertrei on a marine core collected in the Panama Basin (Leduc et al., 2009, Paleoceanography), that has proven to be a skillful way to reconstruct the ENSO (Thirumalai et al., 2013, Paleoceanography). Our new IFA dataset comprehensively covers the Holocene, the last deglaciation and Termination II (MIS5/6) time windows. We will also use previously published data from the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3). Our dataset confirms variable ENSO intensity during the Holocene and weaker activity during LGM than during the Holocene. As a next step, ENSO activity will be discussed with respect to the contrasting climatic background of the analysed time windows (millenial-scale variability, Terminations).

  12. Death row nutrition. Curious conclusions of last meals.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Kniffin, Kevin M; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    The growing macabre fascination with "last meals" offers a window into one's true consumption desires when one's value of the future is discounted close to zero. But in contrast to popular anecdotes and individual case studies, we created an empirical catalog of actual last meals - the final food requests of 247 individuals executed in the United States during a recent five-year period. Our content analyses reveal three key findings: (1) the average last meal is calorically rich (2756 calories) and proportionally averages 2.5 times the daily recommended servings of protein and fat, (2) the most frequent requests are also calorie dense: meat (83.9%), fried food (67.9%), desserts (66.3%), and soft drinks (60.0%), and (3) 39.9% requested branded foods or beverages. These findings are respectfully consistent with a model of environmentally contingent temporal discounting, and they are consistent with studies of how food is used to mediate feelings of stress and distress. Given that some people who are warned about the ill effects of obesity might counterintuitively engage in unhealthy overconsumption, the findings also suggest further study relating to the artificial use of mortality salience in campaigns against obesity.

  13. Somma-Vesuvius ground deformation over the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marturano, Aldo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Vertical ground movements at Somma-Vesuvius during the last glacial cycle have been inferred from micropalaeontological and petrochemical analyses of rock samples from boreholes drilled at the archaeological sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii as well as on the apron of the volcano and the adjacent Sebeto and Sarno Valleys. Opposing movements occurred during the periods preceding and following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The uplift began 20 ka ago with marine deposits rising several tens of metres up to 25 m a.s.l., recovering previous subsidence which occurred during the Late glacial period, suggesting a strict connection between volcano-tectonic and glacial cycles. Here we present the analysis of deposits predating the LGM, which confirms subsidence of the Campanian Plain where Mt. Somma-Vesuvius is located, shows variable surface loading effects and highlights the volcano-tectonic stages experienced by the volcano. The self-balancing mechanism of the volcanic system, evolving towards an explosive, subaerial activity 60 ka ago, is testified to by a large ground oscillation in phase with sea level change during the last glacial cycle.

  14. Neck muscle vibration induces lasting recovery in spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, I; Kerkhoff, G; Karnath, H; Keller, I; Goldenberg, G

    2002-01-01

    See Editorial Commentary, page 357 Objectives: To evaluate whether neck muscle vibration is an effective technique for neglect rehabilitation, with lasting beneficial effects. Methods: The effects of differential treatment of visual exploration training alone or in combination with neck muscle vibration were evaluated in a crossover study of two matched groups of 10 patients suffering from left sided neglect. Each group received a sequence of 15 consecutive sessions of exploration training and combined treatment. The effects of treatment were assessed with respect to different aspects of the neglect disorder such as impaired perception of the egocentric midline, exploration deficits in visual and tactile modes, and visual size distortion. The transfer of treatment effects to activities of daily living was examined by a reading test and a questionnaire of neglect related everyday problems. All variables were measured six times: three baseline measurements, two post-treatment measurements, and one follow up after two months. Results: The results showed superior effects of combination treatment. A specific and lasting reduction in the symptoms of neglect was achieved in the visual mode, which transferred to the tactile mode with a concomitant improvement in activities of daily living. The improvement was evident two months after the completion of treatment. In contrast, isolated exploration training resulted in only minor therapeutic benefits in visual exploration without any significant transfer effects to other tasks. Conclusions: Neck muscle vibration is a decisive factor in the rehabilitation of spatial neglect and induces lasting recovery when given as a supplement to conventional exploration training. PMID:12235310

  15. Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

  16. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; Kuhn, G.

    2012-04-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to their maximum extent at 29 -28 ka, and retreat from their maximum extent at 19 ka was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (Weber, M.E., Clark, P. U., Ricken, W., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., and Kuhn, G. (2011): Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum. - Science, 334, 1265-1269, doi: 10.1126:science.1209299). As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Using the results of an atmospheric general circulation we conclude that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice mass balance would likely cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Furthermore, our new data support teleconnections involving a sea-level fingerprint forced from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets as indicated by gravitational modeling. Also, changes in North Atlantic Deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines may have contributed to synchronizing the hemispheric ice sheets.

  17. Modelling last glacial cycle ice dynamics in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguinot, Julien; Jouvet, Guillaume; Huss, Matthias; Funk, Martin; Preusser, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The European Alps, cradle of pioneer glacial studies, are one of the regions where geological markers of past glaciations are most abundant and well-studied. Such conditions make the region ideal for testing numerical glacier models based on approximated ice flow physics against field-based reconstructions, and vice-versa. Here, we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to model the entire last glacial cycle (120-0 ka) in the Alps, with a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Climate forcing is derived using present-day climate data from WorldClim and the ERA-Interim reanalysis, and time-dependent temperature offsets from multiple paleo-climate proxies, among which only the EPICA ice core record yields glacial extent during marine oxygen isotope stages 4 (69-62 ka) and 2 (34-18 ka) in agreement to geological reconstructions. Despite the low variability of this Antarctic-based climate forcing, our simulation depicts a highly dynamic ice cap, showing that alpine glaciers may have advanced many times over the foreland during the last glacial cycle. Cumulative basal sliding, a proxy for glacial erosion, is modelled to be highest in the deep valleys of the western Alps. Finally, the Last Glacial Maximum advance, often considered synchronous, is here modelled as a time-transgressive event, with some glacier lobes reaching their maximum as early as 27 ka, and some as late as 21 ka. Modelled ice thickness is about 900 m higher than observed trimline elevations, yet our simulation predicts little erosion at high elevation due to cold ice conditions.

  18. Long-lasting subjective effects of LSD in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-09-16

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other serotonergic hallucinogens can induce profound alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences, with reportedly long-lasting effects on subjective well-being and personality. We investigated the lasting effects of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) that was administered in a laboratory setting in 16 healthy participants. The following outcome measures were assessed before and 1 and 12 months after LSD administration: Persisting Effects Questionnaire (PEQ), Mysticism Scale (MS), Death Transcendence Scale (DTS), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). On the PEQ, positive attitudes about life and/or self, positive mood changes, altruistic/positive social effects, positive behavioral changes, and well-being/life satisfaction significantly increased at 1 and 12 months and were subjectively attributed by the subjects to the LSD experience. Five-Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) total scores, reflecting acutely induced alterations in consciousness, and Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ30) total scores correlated with changes in well-being/life satisfaction 12 months after LSD administration. No changes in negative attitudes, negative mood, antisocial/negative social effects, or negative behavior were attributed to the LSD experience. After 12 months, 10 of 14 participants rated their LSD experience as among the top 10 most meaningful experiences in their lives. Five participants rated the LSD experience among the five most spiritually meaningful experiences in their lives. On the MS and DTS, ratings of mystical experiences significantly increased 1 and 12 months after LSD administration compared with the pre-LSD screening. No relevant changes in personality measures were found. In healthy research subjects, the administration of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) in a safe setting was subjectively considered a personally meaningful experience that had

  19. Comparative biomorphologic analysis about three dentinal adhesives of last generations.

    PubMed

    Carini, F; Varia, P; Valenza, V

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work consists in a comparative biomorphological analysis of the properties of infiltration and of adhesion to dental tissues of three among the more used enamel dentinal adhesives of the last generation known with the commercial name of Syntac, Excite and Prompt. The results have given evidence that Syntac has got short adhesion, Excite has got good capacity of infiltration and moderate adhesion, Prompt seems to possess a capacity of infiltration equal to Excite's one, but a better adhesion besides an easier modality of use.

  20. Last Glacial vegetation and climate change in the southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Andrea; Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions is a key task for understanding the history of modern mankind. The interaction between environmental change and migration processes of the modern Homo sapiens from its source area in Africa into Europe is still poorly understood. The principal corridor of the first human dispersal into Europe and also later migration dynamics crossed the Middle East. Therefore, the southern Levant is a key area to investigate the paleoenvironment during times of human migration. In this sense, the Last Glacial (MIS 4-2) is particularly interesting to investigate for two reasons. Firstly, secondary expansions of the modern Homo sapiens are expected to occur during this period. Secondly, there are ongoing discussions on the environmental conditions causing the prominent lake level high stand of Lake Lisan, the precursor of the Dead Sea. This high stand even culminated in the merging of Lake Lisan and Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee). To provide an independent proxy for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the southern Levant during the Last Glacial, we investigated pollen assemblages of the Dead Sea/Lake Lisan and Lake Kinneret. Located at the Dead Sea Transform, the freshwater Lake Kinneret is nowadays connected via the Jordan with the hypersaline Dead Sea, which occupies Earth's lowest elevation on land. The southern Levant is a transition area of three different vegetation types. Therefore, also small changes in the climate conditions effect the vegetation and can be registered in the pollen assemblage. In contrast to the Holocene, our preliminary results suggest another vegetation pattern during the Last Glacial. The vegetation belt of the fragile Mediterranean biome did no longer exist in the vicinity of Lake Kinneret. Moreover, the vegetation was rather similar in the whole study area. A steppe vegetation with dwarf shrubs, herbs, and grasses predominated. Thermophilous elements like oaks occurred in limited amounts. The

  1. [Pacemaker implantation in dogs: results of the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    François, L; Chetboul, V; Nicolle, A; Carlos, C; Borenstein, N; Pouchelon, J L

    2004-07-01

    Pacemaker implantation in veterinary practice is still not well known and remains uncommon. However, this technique is the only possible way to cure animals suffering from symptomatic bradycardia whose state does not improve with a medical treatment. In most cases, the use of pacemakers in veterinary medicine leads to the disappearance of the clinical and electrocardiographic signs. This retrospective study concerning the last 30 years draws up an evaluation of the improvements, advantages and drawbacks of this method. Moreover, this study allows the understanding of the evolution of pacemakers' use in veterinary cardiology.

  2. The last glacial-Holocene transition in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Bennett, K D; Haberle, S G; Lumley, S H

    2000-10-13

    Warming at the last glacial termination in the North Atlantic region was interrupted by a period of renewed glacial activity during the Younger Dryas chronozone (YDC). The underlying mechanism of this cooling remains elusive, but hypotheses turn on whether it was a global or a North Atlantic phenomenon. Chronological, sedimentological, and palaeoecological records from sediments of small lakes in oceanic southern Chile demonstrate that there was no YDC cooling in southern Chile. It is therefore likely that there was little or no cooling in southern Pacific surface waters and hence that YDC cooling in the North Atlantic was a regional, rather than global, phenomenon.

  3. Changes in Space Food over the Last 45 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The space food system has improved over the last 45 years. With the advances for a Moon base, there is a potential that foods in space will be more like home cooked foods. However, until that happens, there will continue to be dehydrated and thermostablized foods providing the bulk of the astronauts food. In order for the astronauts to have adequate macronutrients, a food system must be developed including raising plants and food preparation, both a major challenge given the limited water, volume, and power. The lunar kitchens will be very different, but good food is essential to maintain good health.

  4. Alfred Lee Loomis - last great amateur of science

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarex, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alfred Loomis may well be remembered as the last of the great amateurs of science. He had distinguished careers as a lawyer, as an Army officer and as an investment banker before he turned his full energies to the pursuit of scientific knowledge, first in the field of physics and later as a biologist. By any measure that can be employed, he was one of the most influential physical scientists of this century: he was elected to the National Academy when he was 53 years old; he received many honorary degrees from prestigious universities; and he played a crucial role as director of all NDRC-OSRD radar research in World War II.

  5. New York State after last recession. Dentists and dental establishments.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Segal, Aaron G

    2013-11-01

    Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the New York State Office of the Professions indicate an increase in emigration and immigration, resulting in slowing in the overall growth of New York State's population, with accompanying modifications in the numbers of dentists and dental establishments in state counties. In addition, ADA data suggest that per capita dental spending has not rebounded since the end of the last recession. While there have been many changes at the county level, there does not seem to have been dramatic changes in the overall state numbers of dental practitioners and establishments through the early years of the current decade.

  6. Neosporosis in animals--the last five years.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2011-08-04

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 in dogs and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. Abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. This review is focused on current status of neosporosis in animals based on papers published in the last five years. Worldwide seroprevalences are tabulated. Strategies for control and prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene content of LUCA, the last universal common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Mushegian, Arcady

    2008-05-01

    Comparative genomics and modern phylogenetic approaches allow us to infer the gene content of LUCA, the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all known currently living cellular organisms. Most of the estimates produce a putative LUCA with 500-1000 protein-coding genes and biochemically coherent metabolism, if the average rates of gene gains (gene emergence plus horizontal gene transfer) and gene losses per family are allowed to be close to each other. This estimate is not strongly sensitive to the topology of the Tree of Life, but the identity of the genes that are placed in LUCA may depend on the position of the deep branches and the root of the tree.

  8. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C.; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies. PMID:26927105

  9. Historiography of psychology in Spain: the last decade.

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Helio; Lafuente, Enrique; Quintana, José; Ruiz, Gabriel; Sáiz, Dolors; Sáiz, Milagros; Sánchez, Natividad

    2010-08-01

    History of psychology has been an extremely active field for many years in Spain. Both the great expansion of psychological studies and the inclusion of history as a compulsory subject in the psychology curriculum are crucial factors helping to understand the current state of affairs. The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of the work done in this area over the last decade, covering research, teaching, and institutional developments. The study includes consideration of aspects such as main research lines, major theoretical and methodological trends, teaching materials, relevant archives and exhibits, and significant websites.

  10. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  11. Developments in the Field of Myeloma in the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Tapan K

    2017-03-01

    The plasma cell disorders constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases. Accumulation of knowledge in the field has helped us to understand these diseases better, stage them more precisely, prognosticate more accurately and manage them more effectively. The paradigm shift in the management of multiple myeloma over the last one-and-a-half decades shows no signs of slackening. In addition to novel therapies, better supportive care and high-dose melphalan with autologous hematopoietic stem cells have contributed to this positive outcome. This review summarizes the developments in this sphere in the recent past.

  12. Cannabinoids and Reproduction: A Lasting and Intriguing History

    PubMed Central

    Cacciola, Giovanna; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda

    2010-01-01

    Starting from an historical overview of lasting Cannabis use over the centuries, we will focus on a description of the cannabinergic system, with a comprehensive analysis of chemical and pharmacological properties of endogenous and synthetic cannabimimetic analogues. The metabolic pathways and the signal transduction mechanisms, activated by cannabinoid receptors stimulation, will also be discussed. In particular, we will point out the action of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids on the different neuronal networks involved in reproductive axis, and locally, on male and female reproductive tracts, by emphasizing the pivotal role played by this system in the control of fertility.

  13. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet for the last 420kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Javier; Álvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa

    2017-04-01

    Proxy data reveal that in the last glacial-interglacial cycles the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has experienced changes of its ice volume contributing to past sea-level variations. The AIS is nowadays the largest ice sheet in the world and potentially the largest contributor to a future long term sea-level rise. Because it suffers no significant ablation, it loses mass via basal melting and calving, driven by oceanic forcing. Therefore understanding ice-ocean interactions is crucial to study its past and future. In particular the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is specially sensitive to changes in oceanic temperatures since it rests in its major part below sea level. It also contains the two largest ice shelves of the world, the Ross Ice Shelf and the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf whose collapse is believed could accelerate inland ice flow, due to the loss of their buttressing effect, and enhance sea-level rise. The aim of this work is to simulate the AIS for the last 420kyr under varying orbital forcing using a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model. In particular, we will analyze the effect of past oceanic temperatures by including a parametrization for the basal melting of the ice shelves and grounding line dependent on observations and oceanic temperature anomalies. These experiments will shed light into the mechanisms involved in the interactions between ocean and cryosphere relevant for the assessment of the AIS stability in the future.

  14. Laurentide ice-sheet instability during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Anslow, Faron S.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2015-07-01

    Changes in the amount of summer incoming solar radiation (insolation) reaching the Northern Hemisphere are the underlying pacemaker of glacial cycles. However, not all rises in boreal summer insolation over the past 800,000 years resulted in deglaciation to present-day ice volumes, suggesting that there may be a climatic threshold for the disappearance of land-based ice. Here we assess the surface mass balance stability of the Laurentide ice sheet--the largest glacial ice mass in the Northern Hemisphere--during the last deglaciation (24,000 to 9,000 years ago). We run a surface energy balance model with climate data from simulations with a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model for key time slices during the last deglaciation. We find that the surface mass balance of the Laurentide ice sheet was positive throughout much of the deglaciation, and suggest that dynamic discharge was mainly responsible for mass loss during this time. Total surface mass balance became negative only in the early Holocene, indicating the transition to a new state where ice loss occurred primarily by surface ablation. We conclude that the Laurentide ice sheet remained a viable ice sheet before the Holocene and began to fully deglaciate only once summer temperatures and radiative forcing over the ice sheet increased by 6-7 °C and 16-20 W m-2, respectively, relative to full glacial conditions.

  15. Separating forced from chaotic climate variability over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurer, A. P.; Hegerl, G. C.; Mann, M. E.; Tett, S. F.; Phipps, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Reconstructions of past climate show substantial temperature variability over the last millennium, with relatively warm conditions during the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' (MCA) and a cold 'Little Ice Age' (LIA). Here we use multi-model simulations of the last millennium run with general circulation models (GCMs) together with a wide range of available reconstructions of annual northern hemispheric temperature to attribute causes to the temperature variability from 850 to 1950. Our results show that external forcing contributed significantly to the long-term temperature variability irrespective of reconstruction used. The residual, unexplained variability provides a new estimate of internal climate variability that is independent from climate model control simulations. The recent 50-year trend is far outside the range of variability estimated from all reconstructions used, confirming the highly unusual nature of the recent warming. Many reconstructions show a smaller forced response than the models. This mismatch may be explained by non-linearities in the response of tree-ring proxies. The response to variations in solar input and explosive volcanism is the main driver of pre-industrial climate change from 1400-1900. For the first time we also detect the response to greenhouse gas variations over this period, which significantly contributed to the cold conditions during the period 1600-1800.

  16. Medicaid's lasting impressions: Population health and insurance at birth.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Heeju

    2017-03-01

    This article examines lasting mortality improvements associated with availability of Medicaid at time and place of birth. Using the US Vital Statistics (1959-2010), I exploit the variation in when each of the 50 states adopted Medicaid to estimate overall infant mortality improvements that coincided with Medicaid participation. 0.23 less infant deaths per 1000 live births was associated with states' Medicaid implementation. Second, I find lasting associations between Medicaid and mortality improvements across the life-course. I build state-specific cohort life-tables and regress age-specific mortality on availability of Medicaid in their states at time of birth. Cohorts born after Medicaid adoption had lower mortality rates throughout childhood and into adulthood. Being born after Medicaid was associated with between 2.03 and 3.64 less deaths per 100,000 person-years in childhood and between 1.35 and 3.86 less deaths per 100,000 person-years in the thirties. The association between Medicaid at birth and mortality was the strongest in the oldest age group (36-40) in this study.

  17. A Beautician's Dystonia: Long-Lasting Effect of Botulinum Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Siria; Dalise, Stefania; Lamola, Giuseppe; Venturi, Martina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders). Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin) into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U), flexor carpi radialis (35 U), and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U) muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment). In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for focal dystonia that can have long-lasting effects and can improve patients' ability to work and quality of life. PMID:25143844

  18. The Last Descendant of Tycho Brahe Lives in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    On 24 October 1601 passed away, in the 55th year of his life, the great astronomer Tycho Brahe. Now, four centuries since his death, his last descendant is living in Romania: Lydia Baroness Løvendal-Papae. An encyclopedic culture and training as hers can rarely be found today; she also is an excellent specialist in genealogy and heraldry. She has not only the merit of studying the cosmic symbols in heraldry, but especially that of establishing the genealogical tree of the famous Danish astronomer. She also holds a genealogical record: as the last descendant of the old Danish dynasty, she descends from all European dynasties, including the founders of the Romanian countries. We shall dwell here neither upon the great personality of Tycho Brahe, nor on his role in the modern astronomy. We shall not refer to the Tycho catalogue resulted from the space mission Hipparcos. We shall dwell upon the ancient aristocratic family Brahe. The oldest firm mention goes as far back as in 1364, but there are data enough on the existence of some members of this family in the 13th century. The Brahe family was related to a no less famous family, that of the Barons Løvendal. One of the ancestors of Lydia Baroness Løvendal is the renowned Ulrik Frederik Voldemar, Baron, then Count Lovendal, marshal of France (1700-1755), whose name was assigned to one of the most important boulevards of Paris.

  19. Neural Consequences of Chronic Short Sleep: Reversible or Lasting?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhengqing; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately one-third of adolescents and adults in developed countries regularly experience insufficient sleep across the school and/or work week interspersed with weekend catch up sleep. This common practice of weekend recovery sleep reduces subjective sleepiness, yet recent studies demonstrate that one weekend of recovery sleep may not be sufficient in all persons to fully reverse all neurobehavioral impairments observed with chronic sleep loss, particularly vigilance. Moreover, recent studies in animal models demonstrate persistent injury to and loss of specific neuron types in response to chronic short sleep (CSS) with lasting effects on sleep/wake patterns. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the effects of chronic sleep disruption on neurobehavioral performance and injury to neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes and discuss what is known and what is not yet established for reversibility of neural injury. Recent neurobehavioral findings in humans are integrated with animal model research examining long-term consequences of sleep loss on neurobehavioral performance, brain development, neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, and connectivity. While it is now clear that recovery of vigilance following short sleep requires longer than one weekend, less is known of the impact of CSS on cognitive function, mood, and brain health long term. From work performed in animal models, CSS in the young adult and short-term sleep loss in critical developmental windows can have lasting detrimental effects on neurobehavioral performance. PMID:28620347

  20. Sudden death in epilepsy: Insights from the last 25 years.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lliwen A; Thomas, Rhys H

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with refractory epilepsy, and as such has been a major research focus over the last 25 years. The earliest SUDEP research papers were published in Seizure, as have scores of SUDEP papers since. In this review we discuss the efforts to try and describe the pathophysiological basis of SUDEP, the drive to discover the clinical risk factors that increase the likelihood of SUDEP, and the motivation to increase awareness of SUDEP. These three areas are the prime factors that, when answered, will allow us to better mitigate against SUDEP and help individuals monitor their personal risk. The field has benefited from strong definitions, multinational collaboration, the use of cutting edge genetic analysis, and ensuring that bereaved families are able to take part in research when this is appropriate. Clearly there is much that we do not know and yet, has any area of epilepsy research come so far in the last 25 years?

  1. Western Arctic Ocean temperature variability during the last 8000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Cronin, Thomas M.; De Vernal, Anne; Dwyer, Gary S.; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Thunell, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    We reconstructed subsurface (∼200–400 m) ocean temperature and sea-ice cover in the Canada Basin, western Arctic Ocean from foraminiferal δ18O, ostracode Mg/Ca ratios, and dinocyst assemblages from two sediment core records covering the last 8000 years. Results show mean temperature varied from −1 to 0.5°C and −0.5 to 1.5°C at 203 and 369 m water depths, respectively. Centennial-scale warm periods in subsurface temperature records correspond to reductions in summer sea-ice cover inferred from dinocyst assemblages around 6.5 ka, 3.5 ka, 1.8 ka and during the 15th century Common Era. These changes may reflect centennial changes in the temperature and/or strength of inflowing Atlantic Layer water originating in the eastern Arctic Ocean. By comparison, the 0.5 to 0.7°C warm temperature anomaly identified in oceanographic records from the Atlantic Layer of the Canada Basin exceeded reconstructed Atlantic Layer temperatures for the last 1200 years by about 0.5°C.

  2. Global Groundwater Flushing Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. M.; Jasechko, S.; Luijendijk, E.; Gleeson, T. P.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's groundwater systems have responded to changing climate and ice sheet prevalence since the last glacial maximum (LGM) 20 thousand years ago. While it is intuitive that the deglacial upheaval to the terrestrial hydrosphere impacted global groundwater systems, the spatiotemporal distribution of these climate impacts on groundwater and their lasting effects remain unknown. Understanding deglacial impacts on groundwater systems is important in order to assess the resiliency of groundwater resources and interactions within the hydrosphere under significant climate change. How has this climate change affected turnover timescales of groundwater systems? What proportion of groundwater systems have received sufficient recharge to "turnover" since the LGM? Here, we use a transient climate model (TraCE-21ka) and global porosity data to calculate transient groundwater turnover times globally from the LGM to present day discretized by surface watersheds. We found that half of the watersheds on Earth have had at least one groundwater "turnover" since the LGM, and sufficient groundwater flushed, if integrated globally, to turn over the global volume of groundwater up to 20 times.

  3. Anaesthesia Techniques for Caesarean Operations: Retrospective Analysis of Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Mehmet; Aksoy, Ayşe Nur; Dostbil, Ayşenur; Çelik, Mine Gürsaç; Ahıskalıoğlu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective The technique of anaesthesia in caesarean sections is selected according to the patient’s clinical presentation, experience of the anaesthesist and the patient’s wishes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaesthesia methods employed in our clinic in the last decade (2003–2012). Methods Records of caesarean operations performed between 2003–2012 in the Anaesthesia department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty and stored in the hospital computer system were examined. The annual distribution of methods of anaesthesia in operations was analysed. Results During 2003–2012, 9049 caesarean operations were performed in our clinic. General anaesthesia was used in 45% of operations and regional anaesthesia in 54%. Whereas the rate of regional anaesthesia in 2003 was 34%, this increased to 69% in 2012. The most commonly used method of regional anaesthesia was spinal anaesthesia (34%) in 2003, and spinal anaesthesia (41%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia (27%) in 2012. Conclusion The most commonly used anaesthesia technique for caesarean operations in our clinic between 2003–2012 was spinal anaesthesia. The most widely used regional anaesthetic method in our clinic was spinal anaesthesia. A significant increase in the use of the combined spinal-epidural anaesthetic technique occurred in the last two years of the study period. PMID:27366406

  4. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Smith, R. S.; Singarayer, J. S.; Marchant, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Allen, J. R. M.; Anderson, R. S.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Behling, H.; Borisova, O.; Bush, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; de Vernal, A.; Finch, J. M.; Fréchette, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Gosling, W. D.; Granoszewski, W.; Grimm, E. C.; Grüger, E.; Hanselman, J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hill, T. R.; Huntley, B.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Kershaw, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Magri, D.; McKenzie, M.; Müller, U.; Nakagawa, T.; Novenko, E.; Penny, D.; Sadori, L.; Scott, L.; Stevenson, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Vandergoes, M.; Velichko, A.; Whitlock, C.; Tzedakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new global synthesis and biomization of long (> 40 kyr) pollen-data records is presented and used with simulations from the HadCM3 and FAMOUS climate models and the BIOME4 vegetation model to analyse the dynamics of the global terrestrial biosphere and carbon storage over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Simulated biome distributions using BIOME4 driven by HadCM3 and FAMOUS at the global scale over time generally agree well with those inferred from pollen data. Global average areas of grassland and dry shrubland, desert, and tundra biomes show large-scale increases during the Last Glacial Maximum, between ca. 64 and 74 ka BP and cool substages of Marine Isotope Stage 5, at the expense of the tropical forest, warm-temperate forest, and temperate forest biomes. These changes are reflected in BIOME4 simulations of global net primary productivity, showing good agreement between the two models. Such changes are likely to affect terrestrial carbon storage, which in turn influences the stable carbon isotopic composition of seawater as terrestrial carbon is depleted in 13C.

  5. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  6. Anaesthesia Techniques for Caesarean Operations: Retrospective Analysis of Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Mehmet; Aksoy, Ayşe Nur; Dostbil, Ayşenur; Çelik, Mine Gürsaç; Ahıskalıoğlu, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The technique of anaesthesia in caesarean sections is selected according to the patient's clinical presentation, experience of the anaesthesist and the patient's wishes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaesthesia methods employed in our clinic in the last decade (2003-2012). Records of caesarean operations performed between 2003-2012 in the Anaesthesia department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty and stored in the hospital computer system were examined. The annual distribution of methods of anaesthesia in operations was analysed. During 2003-2012, 9049 caesarean operations were performed in our clinic. General anaesthesia was used in 45% of operations and regional anaesthesia in 54%. Whereas the rate of regional anaesthesia in 2003 was 34%, this increased to 69% in 2012. The most commonly used method of regional anaesthesia was spinal anaesthesia (34%) in 2003, and spinal anaesthesia (41%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia (27%) in 2012. The most commonly used anaesthesia technique for caesarean operations in our clinic between 2003-2012 was spinal anaesthesia. The most widely used regional anaesthetic method in our clinic was spinal anaesthesia. A significant increase in the use of the combined spinal-epidural anaesthetic technique occurred in the last two years of the study period.

  7. Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine.

    PubMed

    Chepkova, A N; Doreulee, N; Yanovsky, Y; Mukhopadhyay, D; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2002-10-01

    Taurine occurs at high concentrations in the forebrain and its distribution varies with (patho)physiological conditions; however, its role in neural function is poorly understood. We have now characterized its effects on corticostriatal synaptic transmission. Bath application of taurine (10 mm) to slices obtained from mice and rats exerted a biphasic action on corticostriatal field potentials. The fast and reversible inhibition by taurine was accompanied by a depolarization and conductance increase in medium spiny neurons and was sensitive to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and glycine receptor (GlyR) antagonists. A long-lasting enhancement (LLETAU) of field potentials was recorded after taurine withdrawal. The LLETAU was not prevented by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)- or by GABAA receptor-antagonists, but was sensitive to the GlyR-antagonist strychnine and blocked by the competitive taurine uptake inhibitor guanidinoethylsulphonate (GES, 1 mm). GES at 10 mm evoked an enhancement of field potentials similar to LLETAU. LLETAU depended on protein kinase C activation as it was blocked by chelerythrine, but was unaffected by trifluoperazine, and thus independent of calmodulin. LLETAU was significantly smaller in juvenile than in mature rodents. Activation of GlyRs and the specific taurine transporter by taurine evoke a long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal transmission.

  8. Cross-latitudinal climate teleconnections during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, H. A.; Kandiano, E.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    A series of climate interruptions have been noted around the last warm period (MIS5e). Some of these are particularly conspicuous and occurred during both the deglacial as well as the glacial onset. These events are often associated with iceberg/meltwater charges into the subpolar/polar North Atlantic. A new multiproxy analysis using planktic foraminiferal abundances and SSTs, abundances of alkenone compounds and alkenone SSTs, and stable O/C isotope measurements was performed for Site 975 (Balearic Basin; Western Mediterranean). Samples covered the time from late MIS 6 to early MIS 5d with emphasis on the climate progression of the last interglacial period. A number of abrupt climate changes related to alternating influence of northern nutrient rich and southern oligotrophic water masses was revealed. Among the climate fluctuations, North Atlantic events Heinrich 11 as well as cooling events C27 - C23 could all be identified. However, in comparison to the eastern North Atlantic mid-latitude region, at Site 975 events C27 and C26 seem to be significantly more pronounced. This fact, along with evidence of a two-phase climate optimum with the SST maximum reached during its later phase, implies close similarity in climate dynamics between the Western Mediterranean and the polar Nordic Seas. It is therefore proposed that the postglacial marine development in the Nordic Seas - for instance, due to presence of winter sea ice - had a strong impact on the western Mediterranean climate via meridional atmospheric circulation patterns and temperature gradients.

  9. Global hydroclimate reconstructions over the last millennium using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, N. J.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Data assimilation (DA)-based reconstructions provide a means of optimally combining proxy data with the statistical-dynamical constraints of a climate model. DA offers the potential of reconstructing any climate variable of interest, from surface temperature to atmospheric or oceanic circulation. For the first time, DA is applied to reconstruct global hydroclimate variables over the last millennium on seasonal and annual timescales using the PAGES 2k proxy network. Through a series of pseudo and real proxy experiments primarily based on tree rings, we show that hydroclimate variables like soil moisture and the Palmer-drought severity index can be skillfully reconstructed using DA, particularly when the reconstructions incorporate a process-based model of tree ring growth. These reconstructions show skill during the boreal and austral growing seasons as well as at annual averages. Some dynamically-relevant drivers of hydroclimate included in the DA-based reconstructions, such as ENSO and subtropical jet variability, are also skillfully reconstructed. We then use these driving variables to understand the mechanisms behind specific drought events over the last millennium in the American Southwest and in Europe.

  10. How much have California winters warmed over the last century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. J.; Williams, A. P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2017-09-01

    Extraordinarily warm 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter temperatures in California accompanied by drought conditions contributed to low snow accumulations and stressed water resources, giving rise to the question: how much has California's climate warmed over the last century? We examine long-term trends in maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) daily temperatures in winter estimated from five gridded data sets. Resulting trends show some consistent features, such as higher trends in Tmin than Tmax; however, substantial differences exist in the trend magnitudes and spatial patterns due mostly to the nature of spatial interpolation employed in the different data sets. Averaged across California over 1920-2015, Tmax trends vary from -0.30 to 1.2°C/century, while Tmin trends range from 1.2 to 1.9°C/century. The differences in temperature strongly impact modeled changes in snow water equivalent over the last century (from -5.0 to -7.6 km3/century).

  11. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Williams, Martin A. J.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Fifield, L. Keith; Haberlah, David; Tims, Stephen G.; Williams, Frances M.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert of Africa is one of the most climatically sensitive areas on Earth, varying from lake-studded savannah woodland to hyperarid desert over the course of a glacial-interglacial cycle. In currently semiarid Sudan there is widespread evidence that a very large freshwater lake once filled the White Nile River valley (Barrows et al., 2014). Here we present the first quantitative estimate for the dimensions of the lake and a direct age for the emplacement of its shoreline. Using a profile dating approach with the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, we estimate an exposure age of 109 ± 8 ka for this megalake, indicating that it probably formed during the last interglacial period. This age is supported by optically stimulated luminescence dating of Blue Nile paleochannels associated with the lake. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model, we estimate that the lake was more than 45,000 km2 in area, making it comparable to the largest freshwater lakes on Earth today. We attribute the lake's existence to seasonal flood pulses as a result of local damming of the White Nile by a more southern position of the Blue Nile and greatly increased precipitation associated with an enhanced monsoon. References Barrows, T.T., Williams, M.A.J., Mills, S.C., Duller, G.A.T., Fifield, L.K., Haberlah, D., Tims, S.G., Williams, F.M., 2014. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period. Geology. 10.1130/g35238.1

  12. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

  13. Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    This is a presentation of results from a recently released report written by a committee established by the National Research Council and chaired by the speaker. The report was titled the same as the title of this talk. It focused on the methods of reconstructing the large scales of such surface temperature fields, since there has been considerable discussion in the scientific literature, assessments such as the IPCC, the popular press, blogs and even Congressional Hearings. The so-called `hockey stick' curve indicating a gradual cooling from the beginning of the record at about 1000AD to roughly 150 years ago when the curve take a steep upward trend (the so-called global warming). The original publications by Mann, Bradley and Hughes were careful to present and emphasize error margins that have been ignored by many in the controversy. The Committee found that numerous subsequent publications have reported reconstructions that utilized different data and different statistical assumptions. These all fall within the error margins of the original studies. While the committee has some reservations about the period prior to the year 1600AD, it still concludes that it is plausible that surface temperatures averaged over the Northern Hemisphere over the last three decades are plausibly the warmest for any such comparable period in the last 1000 years.

  14. Extensive glaciation in Transbaikalia, Siberia, at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Gurinov, Artem L.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David; Preusser, Frank; Reznichenko, Natalya V.; Mifsud, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Successively smaller glacial extents have been proposed for continental Eurasia during the stadials of the last glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). At the same time the large mountainous region east of Lake Baikal, Transbaikalia, has remained unexplored in terms of glacial chronology despite clear geomorphological evidence of substantial past glaciations. We have applied cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating and optically stimulated luminescence to establish the first quantitative glacial chronology for this region. Based on eighteen exposure ages from five moraine complexes, we propose that large mountain ice fields existed in the Kodar and Udokan mountains during Oxygen Isotope Stage 2, commensurate with the global LGM. These ice fields fed valley glaciers (>100 km in length) reaching down to the Chara Depression between the Kodar and Udokan mountains and to the valley of the Vitim River northwest of the Kodar Mountains. Two of the investigated moraines date to the Late Glacial, but indications of incomplete exposure among some of the sampled boulders obscure the specific details of the post-LGM glacial history. In addition to the LGM ice fields in the highest mountains of Transbaikalia, we report geomorphological evidence of a much more extensive, ice-cap type glaciation at a time that is yet to be firmly resolved.

  15. Last moments of life: can telemedicine play a role?

    PubMed

    Low, James A; Beins, Gillian; Lee, Kok Keng; Koh, Ethel

    2013-08-01

    We describe the experience of managing the dying moments of a nursing home patient via telemedicine. Ms. C was a 92-year-old frail woman with multiple medical problems, living in a nursing home. She spent her final days in the nursing home, choosing not to be transferred to an acute hospital should she turn ill. On the last day of her life, she complained of acute-onset breathlessness and agreed to a teleconsultation with the hospital physicians involved in acute care. During the telemedicine consultations (tele-consultation) process, Ms. C's condition deteriorated rapidly as she entered the dying phase of life. She died peacefully soon after, in the presence of the nurse, the pastoral care worker, and the physician who was conducting the tele-consultation session 30 km away. The family was not present at the patient's bedside when she died. They were, however, relieved to know and were appreciative of the fact that a physician had been "present" during the patient's death. Telemedicine could act as an effective communication tool in end-of-life care, between the patient and carers, up to the last moment of life.

  16. Obliquity Control On Southern Hemisphere Climate During The Last Glacial.

    PubMed

    Fogwill, C J; Turney, C S M; Hutchinson, D K; Taschetto, A S; England, M H

    2015-06-26

    Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have challenged the traditional view that Northern Hemisphere insolation and associated feedbacks drove synchronous global climate and ice-sheet volume during the last glacial cycle. Here we focus on the response of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, and demonstrate that its maximum expansion culminated at 28,400 ± 500 years before present (28.4 ± 0.5 ka), more than 5,000 years before the minima in 65 °N summer insolation and the formally-defined Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 21,000 ± 2,000 years before present. To investigate the potential drivers of this early LGM (eLGM), we simulate the effects of orbital changes using a suite of climate models incorporating prescribed and evolving sea-ice anomalies. Our analyses suggest that Antarctic sea-ice expansion at 28.5 ka altered the location and intensity of the Southern Hemisphere storm track, triggering regional cooling over Patagonia of 5 °C that extends across the wider mid-southern latitudes. In contrast, at the LGM, continued sea-ice expansion reduced regional temperature and precipitation further, effectively starving the ice sheet and resulting in reduced glacial expansion. Our findings highlight the dominant role that orbital changes can play in driving Southern Hemisphere glacial climate via the sensitivity of mid-latitude regions to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent.

  17. Obliquity Control On Southern Hemisphere Climate During The Last Glacial

    PubMed Central

    Fogwill, C.J.; Turney, C.S.M.; Hutchinson, D.K.; Taschetto, A.S.; England, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have challenged the traditional view that Northern Hemisphere insolation and associated feedbacks drove synchronous global climate and ice-sheet volume during the last glacial cycle. Here we focus on the response of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, and demonstrate that its maximum expansion culminated at 28,400 ± 500 years before present (28.4 ± 0.5 ka), more than 5,000 years before the minima in 65°N summer insolation and the formally-defined Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 21,000 ± 2,000 years before present. To investigate the potential drivers of this early LGM (eLGM), we simulate the effects of orbital changes using a suite of climate models incorporating prescribed and evolving sea-ice anomalies. Our analyses suggest that Antarctic sea-ice expansion at 28.5 ka altered the location and intensity of the Southern Hemisphere storm track, triggering regional cooling over Patagonia of 5°C that extends across the wider mid-southern latitudes. In contrast, at the LGM, continued sea-ice expansion reduced regional temperature and precipitation further, effectively starving the ice sheet and resulting in reduced glacial expansion. Our findings highlight the dominant role that orbital changes can play in driving Southern Hemisphere glacial climate via the sensitivity of mid-latitude regions to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. PMID:26115344

  18. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

    2014-04-15

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.

  19. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, C.; Gkinis, V.; Severinghaus, J. P.; He, F.; Lecavalier, B.; Kindler, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Carlson, A. E.; Vinther, B.; White, J. W.; Liu, Z.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Brook, E.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the regional and global climate variability during the last glacial termination (19-11 ka BP) can be explained as the superposition of two distinct modes (1, 2); a spatially uniform increase in global temperature correlated with greenhouse gas forcing, and a redistribution of heat associated with variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength. The latter mode is expressed most clearly in the abrupt climate shifts recorded in the precipitation isotopic composition (δ18O) of Greenland ice cores, which are now widely used as a template for abrupt change in the northern hemisphere. Greenland δ18O is influenced by many factors, including source temperature, moisture transport and origin, and precipitation seasonality, complicating reconstruction of past temperatures. Here we use three non-δ18O temperature reconstructions from three ice cores and a general circulation model (GCM) to elucidate the (often abrupt) Greenland surface temperature response to external (insolation) and internal (CO2, AMOC, ice topography) climate forcings during the last termination. Our reconstructions are based on δ15N (NEEM, GISP2) and water isotope diffusion (NGRIP), both of which depend on physical processes in the firn column. The GCM and our reconstructions show excellent agreement on several key features. First, we find that the Younger Dryas (YD) period was 4-6oC warmer than the Oldest Dryas (OD) period in response to increased summer insolation and CO2 forcing. By contrast, δ18O-based reconstrucions from Greenland summit suggest the YD to be the colder of the two periods. Our finding is consistent with non-ice core NH proxy reconstructions, as well as with East Greenland deglacial moraine sequences that suggest only a modest glacial re-advance during the YD. Second, the YD-OD temperature difference shows a polar amplification signal, with warming being greatest at the northernmost NEEM site. By isolating different forcings in the GCM, we

  20. Hydroclimate variability in NE Brazil over the last 2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giselle, Utida; Ioanna, Bouloubassi; Francisco, Cruz; Enno, Schefuβ; Abdel, Sifeddine; Vincent, Klein; Johan, Etourneau; Renata, Zocatelli; André, Zular; Hai, Cheng; Laurence, Edwards R.

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) supplies more than 70% of tropical South America's annual precipitation and is fundamental in sustaining the water regime for regional socioeconomic activities. Motivated by the fact that the greatest uncertainty in model projections of future precipitation trends lies in the tropics, and particularly in South America, a number of recent proxy and modeling studies have aimed at understanding SASM spatiotemporal variability regarding its dynamics, driving mechanisms and teleconnections. Exact reconstructions of past meridional ITCZ displacements (timing, sign, amplitude), however, are currently lacking, mainly because of the paucity of suited high-resolution archives. This restricts our ability to assess regional rainfall variability at decadal to centennial timescales, especially in the hydroclimatic-sensitive semi-arid Nordeste, needed to understand the interactions between SASM and ITCZ and to evaluate the impact of Pacific-Atlantic climate interactions on the regional rainfall variability at decadal/multi-decadal scale. Here we present two new and complementary high-resolution records of past precipitation over the last 2K from the north area of Nordeste, an area ideally located to track fluctuations in the southernmost edge of ITCZ movement. We present a new δO18 record from a local speleothem and combine it, for the first time, with δD analyses of wax lipids in well-dated sediments from a nearby lake. The two independent records show a remarkable similarity and are characterized by strong decadal to multidecadal variability as well as century-scale changes. The period 250-450 yrs CE appears as the wettest phase over the last 2K, while the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is characterized by extremely dry conditions. Following the MCA, the Little Ice Age (LIA) is a relatively wetter phase. The data document fluctuations of southern meridional

  1. Deciphering the evolution of the last Eurasian ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John Inge

    2016-04-01

    Glacial geologists need ice sheet-scale chronological reconstructions of former ice extent to set individual records in a wider context and compare interpretations of ice sheet response to records of past environmental changes. Ice sheet modellers require empirical reconstructions on size and volume of past ice sheets that are fully documented, specified in time and include uncertainty estimates for model validation or constraints. Motivated by these demands, in 2005 we started a project (Database of the Eurasian Deglaciation, DATED) to compile and archive all published dates relevant to constraining the build-up and retreat of the last Eurasian ice sheets, including the British-Irish, Scandinavian and Svalbard-Barents-Kara Seas ice sheets (BIIS, SIS and SBKIS respectively). Over 5000 dates were assessed for reliability and used together with published ice-sheet margin positions to reconstruct time-slice maps of the ice sheets' extent, with uncertainty bounds, every 1000 years between 25-10 kyr ago and at four additional periods back to 40 kyr ago. Ten years after the idea for a database was conceived, the first version of results (DATED-1) has now been released (Hughes et al. 2016). We observe that: i) both the BIIS and SBKIS achieve maximum extent, and commence retreat earlier than the larger SIS; ii) the eastern terrestrial margin of the SIS reached its maximum extent up to 7000 years later than the westernmost marine margin; iii) the combined maximum ice volume (~24 m sea-level equivalent) was reached c. 21 ka; iv) large uncertainties exist; predominantly across marine sectors (e.g. the timing of coalescence and separation of the SIS and BKIS) but also in well-studied areas due to conflicting yet equally robust data. In just three years since the DATED-1 census (1 January 2013), the volume of new information (from both dates and mapped glacial geomorphology) has grown significantly (~1000 new dates). Here, we present the DATED-1 results in the context of the

  2. Reconstructing the last Newfoundland Ice Sheet,Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Maureen; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Newfoundland Ice Sheet which formed part of the North American Ice Sheet Complex was situated on the margins of the northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Wisconsinan glaciation (~80ka BP to 10ka BP). This complex consisted of the Laurentide, the Cordilleran and Innuitian Ice Sheets, the Canadian Maritime Provinces Ice Cover and the Newfoundland Ice Sheet (NIS). Although all were confluent at the last glacial maximum, the NIS is known to have supported independent ice centres with advances from the Laurentide Ice Sheet being restricted to Newfoundland's northern and western margins. Given its distinctive position, it is likely the evolution of the NIS through the last glacial cycle was influenced by a number of external and internal drivers including configuration changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet, ice stream initiation and shutdown, changes in oceanic circulation and fluctuating sea levels and climate signals from the wider Amphi-North Atlantic. As such Newfoundland is a key location for investigating ice sheet response to a number of internal and external forcing mechanisms during glacial cycles. An established technique for reconstructing former ice sheet behaviour is the mapping and spatial analysis of glacial landforms. This provides a valuable record of former ice sheet extent and behaviour through time as well as ice sheet retreat during deglaciation. Here we present new mapping based on our interpretation of SPOT satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models of the entire Island of Newfoundland as well as swath bathymetric imagery from several locations offshore. Our new database consisting of ~150,000 individually mapped subglacial bedforms that includes drumlins, crag and tails, glacially moulded bedrock lineations and ribbed moraines significantly increases the known landform record in this region. The new database shows Newfoundland has a complex palimpsest landscape that records multiple ice sheet events across the island. Here we report our

  3. Food transitions in last 50 years and related environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, P.; Reusser, D. E.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Food production is an important driver for global change processes such as land use change and green-house-gas emissions. We analyzed a global, long term data set on food consumption per country to identify typical patterns of diets for the last 50 years. From changes in these patterns, we derived food transitions on a global scale. Subsequently we assessed the environmental consequences from green-house-gas (GHG) emission and anthropogenic inputs. More specifically, we applied Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to identify the dietary patterns based on supply of 12 food groups from FAOSTAT dataset for a period 1961-2007. Using the data on energy output/input ratio for crop production and agricultural emission, we estimated fossil energy and GHG emission associated with the diets. We found 16 typical consumption patterns consisting of high, moderate, low and lowest calorie supply with varied food compositions. The high calorie diets are associated with a higher supply of cereals, animal-products, vegetable-oils and sugar-sweeteners featuring a total supply greater than 2800 kcal/cap/day. During the last 50 years, we observed food transitions from lower calories diets to higher calories diets. On the one hand, food transition towards affluent diet, sometime with shortcuts, occurred in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Some of the developing countries are also stagnated in the low consumption level during the last 50 years. The high calorie diets also embed higher fossil energy (1800-3500 kcal/cap/day) and are associated with higher GHG emissions (3.7-6.1 kg CO2 eq/cap/day). However, their non-CO2 GHG emission intensities per kilo calorie of food are relatively low. Changes in dietary patterns are a part of the global change processes. Identification of past transitions is way to predict possible future transitions. This in turn supports policy processes and negotiations in the fields of climate

  4. Evanescent wave fluorescence biosensors: Advances of the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Anderson, George P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosensor development has been a highly dynamic field of research and has progressed rapidly over the past two decades. The advances have accompanied the breakthroughs in molecular biology, nanomaterial sciences, and most importantly computers and electronics. The subfield of evanescent wave fluorescence biosensors has also matured dramatically during this time. Fundamentally, this review builds on our earlier 2005 review. While a brief mention of seminal early work will be included, this current review will focus on new technological developments as well as technology commercialized in just the last decade. Evanescent wave biosensors have found a wide array applications ranging from clinical diagnostics to biodefense to food testing; advances in those applications and more are described herein. PMID:26232145

  5. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, M.E.; Clark, P.U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; Kuhn, G.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  6. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present.

  7. Is choice-induced preference change long lasting?

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Fleming, Stephen M; Yu, Xiaoyu; Koster, Raphael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2012-10-01

    The idea that decisions alter preferences has had a considerable influence on the field of psychology and underpins cognitive dissonance theory. Yet it is unknown whether choice-induced changes in preferences are long lasting or are transient manifestations seen in the immediate aftermath of decisions. In the research reported here, we investigated whether these changes in preferences are fleeting or stable. Participants rated vacation destinations before making hypothetical choices between destinations, immediately afterward, and 2.5 to 3 years later. We found that choices altered preferences both immediately after being made and after the delay. These changes could not be accounted for by participants' preexisting preferences, and they occurred only when participants made the choices themselves. Our findings provide evidence that making a decision can lead to enduring change in preferences.

  8. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

  9. Microelements for bone boost: the last but not the least

    PubMed Central

    Pepa, Giuseppe Della; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a major public health problem affects many millions of people around the world. It is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. Several lifestyle factors are considered to be important determinants of it and nutrition can potentially have a positive impact on bone health, in the development and maintenance of bone mass and in the prevention of osteoporosis. There are potentially numerous nutrients and dietary components that can influence bone health, and these range from the macronutrients to micronutrients. In the last decade, epidemiological studies and clinical trials showed micronutrients can potentially have a positive impact on bone health, preventing bone loss and fractures, decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. Consequently, optimizing micronutrients intake might represent an effective and low-cost preventive measure against osteoporosis. PMID:28228778

  10. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A.

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted. PMID:28138544

  11. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Gkinis, Vasileios; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; He, Feng; Lecavalier, Benoit S; Kindler, Philippe; Leuenberger, Markus; Carlson, Anders E; Vinther, Bo; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; White, James W C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Brook, Edward J

    2014-09-05

    Greenland ice core water isotopic composition (δ(18)O) provides detailed evidence for abrupt climate changes but is by itself insufficient for quantitative reconstruction of past temperatures and their spatial patterns. We investigate Greenland temperature evolution during the last deglaciation using independent reconstructions from three ice cores and simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model. Contrary to the traditional δ(18)O interpretation, the Younger Dryas period was 4.5° ± 2°C warmer than the Oldest Dryas, due to increased carbon dioxide forcing and summer insolation. The magnitude of abrupt temperature changes is larger in central Greenland (9° to 14°C) than in the northwest (5° to 9°C), fingerprinting a North Atlantic origin. Simulated changes in temperature seasonality closely track changes in the Atlantic overturning strength and support the hypothesis that abrupt climate change is mostly a winter phenomenon.

  12. OFS research over the last 10 years at CQU & UESTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yunjiang

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews my new optical fiber sensing (OFS) research activities in China for the last ten years at Chongqing University and University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, since I returned from UK in 1999. The research progress in long period fiber gratings (LPFGs), distributed fiber sensing systems and microfiber sensors is introduced. For LPFGs, the processing method with high-frequency CO2 laser pulses types of LPFGs fabricated and the related applications for both optical sensing and optical communication are described. For distributed fiber sensing systems, the fiber-optic polarization optical time domain reflectometer (POTDR), fiber-optic phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) are developed, respectively. For microfiber sensors, we mainly focus on the knot resonator and its application for sensing of the refractive index and acceleration, etc.

  13. The budget of methane over the last several hundred years

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Shearer, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentrations of methane have increased for about a hundred years. These trends have not been steady, however. In addition to an upward trend, the concentrations and trends have varied over shorter periods. Climatic events, global economic conditions, and trends in specific energy industries appear to have contributed to measurable changes in the global concentrations and trends. At present, there is a general agreement between the measured concentrations, which are known quite precisely, and the less certain knowledge about changes in its sources and sinks. In this paper the authors will discuss how well they understand the trends over the last 100 years, based on the existing records from which emissions can be deduced. In particular, the authors will discuss the possible reasons for the current slowdown in the global rate of increase of methane in the atmosphere.

  14. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael E; Clark, Peter U; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-12-02

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  15. How long will the surplus of electricity last

    SciTech Connect

    Aos, S.

    1985-01-01

    Several new power plants have given the Pacific Northwest a surplus of power at a time when the demand growth has declined in response to high electricity rates, economic recession, and conservation. Forecasts to determine how long this surplus will last project a deficit by 1990 on the basis of a 2% demand growth. The margin of error in these forecasts is less than in former projections that assumed a four to seven percent growth. A question about the continued demand for electricity by aluminum companies and three questions on the supply side involving completion of two nuclear projects now in mothballs, the sale of power to utilities in other regions, and the development of new energy resources could determine the accuracy of the forecasts. 2 figures.

  16. Long lasting blindness, availability of resources, and early aging.

    PubMed

    Bachar, E; Shanan, J

    1997-04-01

    The present paper studied the influence of long lasting blindness on processes of aging. It addressed the broader issue of the effects of familiarity with and earlier experience of stress on the capacity of individuals to deal successfully with similar stressful situations at a later point of development. 75 chronically blind men and women, aged 45 to 65, were compared with 75 sighted individuals (matched by age, sex, and cultural origin) on scores on the Shanan Sentence Completion Technique, an interview designed to assess perception of change in various areas of everyday living, and on scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. Blind subjects showed less psychological and less social engagement with the outer world. Availability of resources, education, and assistance considerably reduced differences between the nonsighted and sighted subjects. These findings were interpreted as pointing to a potentially preventable process of premature aging.

  17. Is Choice-Induced Preference Change Long Lasting?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Koster, Raphael; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The idea that decisions alter preferences has had a considerable influence on the field of psychology and underpins cognitive dissonance theory. Yet it is unknown whether choice-induced changes in preferences are long lasting or are transient manifestations seen in the immediate aftermath of decisions. In the research reported here, we investigated whether these changes in preferences are fleeting or stable. Participants rated vacation destinations immediately after making hypothetical choices between destinations and 2.5 to 3 years later. We found that choices altered preferences both immediately and after the delay. These changes could not be accounted for by participants’ preexisting preferences, and they occurred only when participants made the choices themselves. Our findings provide evidence that making a decision can lead to enduring change in preferences. PMID:22933456

  18. Milankovitch forcing of the last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Crowley, T J; Kim, K Y

    1994-09-09

    During the last interglacial, sea level was as high as present, 4000 to 6000 years before peak Northern Hemisphere insolation receipt 126,000 years ago. The sea-level results are shown to be consistent with climate models, which simulate a 3 degrees to 4 degrees C July temperature increase from 140,000 to 130,000 years ago in high latitudes, with all Northern Hemisphere land areas being warmer than present by 130,000 years ago. The early warming occurs because obliquity peaked earlier than precession and because precession values were greater than present before peak precessional forcing occurred. These results indicate that a fuller understanding of the Milankovitch-climate connection requires consideration of fields other than just insolation forcing at 65 degrees N.

  19. Progress in neuro-otology research in the last year.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Straumann, Dominik

    2012-11-01

    Herein, we summarize articles in the field of neuro-otology published in the Journal of Neurology over the last year. Topics included acute and chronic vertigo as well as auditory and ocular motor disorders. Characteristic lesion locations in Pusher syndrome are reported and the usefulness of bedside ocular motor tests in vertebrobasilar stroke is revisited. Probing the vestibular system and its value in predicting the outcome in vegetative state is discussed. Several articles address new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in different disorders associated with chronic vestibular, auditory or gait deficits. In a series of case reports, we focus on different eye movement disorders in the vertical plane, which are often difficult to assess.

  20. Does income inequality have lasting effects on health and trust?

    PubMed

    Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Volker, Beate

    2016-01-01

    According to the income inequality hypothesis, income inequality is associated with poorer health. One important proposed mechanism for this effect is reduced trust. In this study, we argue that income inequality during a person's formative years (i.e., around age 16) may have lasting consequences for trust and health. Multilevel analyses of data from the combined World Values Survey and European Values Study that were collected between 1981 and 2014 support our prediction and show that income inequality is associated with ill health in young adults, in part because it reduces their social trust. The negative consequences of income inequality remain stable for a substantial period of life but eventually fade away and have no effect after age 36. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The last occurrence of Pleistocene megafauna in the Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltorti, M.; Ficcarelli, G.; Jahren, H.; Espinosa, M. Moreno; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    1998-12-01

    The latest Pleistocene—Holocene megafauna extinction is a global event, particularly dramatic in the Americas. In a previous paper the authors hypothesised a scenario for this extinction event in South America, where mastodonts first suffered from the changing climate environment, followed by the mylodonts and equids. These different latest Pleistocene—Holocene megafauna extinction "waves" in Ecuadorian Andes have been dated using 14C methods on material from selected sites in north and central Ecuadorian Interandean Depression. An outline of the physiographic evolution of the Interandean Depression in Ecuador is offered and the stratigraphic setting of the fossiliferous sites is discussed. The present results confirm the author's hypothesis on the megafauna extinction pattern, previously published in terms of relative age. The importance of climatic changes during Last Glacial Maximum at low latitudes is discussed.

  2. Solar Total and Spectral Irradiance Reconstruction over Last 9000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. J.; Krivova, N.; Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2016-12-01

    Although the mechanisms of solar influence on Earth climate system are not yet fully understood, solar total and spectral irradiance are considered to be among the main determinants. Solar total irradiance is the total flux of solar radiative energy entering Earth's climate system, whereas the spectral irradiance describes this energy is distributed over the spectrum. Solar irradiance in the UV band is of special importance since it governs chemical processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. On timescales of the 11-year solar cycle and shorter, solar irradiance is measured by space-based instruments while models are needed to reconstruct solar irradiance on longer timescale. The SATIRE-M model (Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction over millennia) is employed in this study to reconstruct solar irradiance from decadal radionuclide isotope data such as 14C and 10Be stored in tree rings and ice cores, respectively. A reconstruction over the last 9000 years will be presented.

  3. Looking for the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA).

    PubMed

    Koskela, Minna; Annila, Arto

    2012-01-09

    Genomic sequences across diverse species seem to align towards a common ancestry, eventually implying that eons ago some universal antecedent organism would have lived on the face of Earth. However, when evolution is understood not only as a biological process but as a general thermodynamic process, it becomes apparent that the quest for the last universal common ancestor is unattainable. Ambiguities in alignments are unavoidable because the driving forces and paths of evolution cannot be separated from each other. Thus tracking down life's origin is by its nature a non-computable task. The thermodynamic tenet clarifies that evolution is a path-dependent process of least-time consumption of free energy. The natural process is without a demarcation line between animate and inanimate.

  4. For the first fracture to be the last

    PubMed Central

    Stolnicki, Bernardo; Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity has made progression in the number of fractures increasingly significant. Because hip fractures give rise to high morbidity and mortality rates and have high treatment costs, their occurrence is the most important marker of effectiveness in relation to osteoporosis treatment. In countries and systems that, especially over the last decade, have been investing in the prevention of osteoporosis and its consequences, the number of hip fractures has been decreasing. What these countries have in common is secondary prevention of fractures, i.e. to avoid subsequent fractures. Given that half of the patients who present hip fractures have had a previous fracture and that the treatments available have proven to be extremely efficient for decreasing subsequent fractures, a good proportion of hip fractures are preventable. It is within this scenario that orthopedists play a leading role. PMID:27069877

  5. The LAST Project and its Implications for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Nuño, Tomas; García, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Despite the histologically identical nature of lesions, multiple complex terminologies and historically meaningful eponyms have been developed to describe this pathologic and clinical spectrum of disease for the purpose of patient management. Based on a growing recognition of a need for unified terminology the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center jointly convened a process to tackle this challenge. The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project was designed to reassess and harmonize the terminology used to describe human papillomavirus-associated squamous lesions of the lower anogenital tract as manifested in a variety of end organs including the cervix, the vagina, the vulva, the perianus, the anus, the penis, and the scrotum. The clear unambiguous distinction between cancer precursors and those without malignant potential inevitably leads to greater consistency in the interpretation of management guidelines, and the therapeutic options offered to patients. PMID:23732027

  6. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of cannabis on various cognitive functions. There has been a plethora of research regarding the treatment for cannabis use disorders. But the new and most interesting area of research is concentrated on the endocannabinoid system and its contribution in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:26124519

  7. Climate in West Antarctica over the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steig, E. J.; White, J. W.; Ding, Q.

    2011-12-01

    There have been significant changes in atmospheric circulation over West Antarctica in the last few decades. These changes have been linked to ozone depletion in the stratosphere, greenhouse gases in the troposphere, and rising temperatures in the equatorial Pacific. The circulation changes have resulted in sea ice declines and increased temperatures on the West Antarctic ice sheet, and may also explain recent oceanographic changes linked to ice shelf thinning (Steig et al, 2011). It remains an open question whether these are exceptional changes to Antarctic climate, or fall within the range of unforced variability. Instrumental climate records are too short and too sparse in the Antarctic to address this question. Ice core records obtained from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and Antarctic Peninsula provide an opportunity to extend the observational record of West Antarctic climate into the past. We present δ18O records from the WAIS Divide site in central West Antarctica, along with both new and previously published data from shallow records from the U.S. "ITASE" program in West Antarctica (Steig et al., 2005; Schneider et al., 2006) and British Antarctic Survey records from the Peninsula (Thomas et al., 2009). The West Antarctic δ18O records are highly correlated with temperature -- explaining about 80% of the decadal variance -- and capture unequivocally the warming trend of the last few decades across most of West Antarctica. Centennial variations are also captured, with the same scaling (about 0.8%/°C) (Fegyveresi et al., 2011). The covariance of δ18O and temperature occurs because both are increased under conditions of anomalously strong meridional flow. The δ18O signal is further amplified by the presence of open water near the Antarctic coastline, due to reduced sea ice divergence from the same northerly flow. Extremes in δ18O are frequently associated with strong El Niño events. The response is particularly strong when warming occurs in the

  8. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Krugers, Harm J; Arp, J Marit; Xiong, Hui; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Korosi, Aniko; Joels, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life -at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  9. A last interglacial fauna from the Eastern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Kazimierz; Neer, Wim van; Bocheński, Zygmunt; Młynarski, Marian; Rzebik-Kowalska, Barbara; Szyndlar, Zbigniew; Gautier, Achilles; Schild, Romuald; Close, Angela E.; Wendorf, Fred

    1989-11-01

    Recent work on the middle Paleolithic at Bir Tarfawi, in the hyperarid Eastern Sahara (<1 mm of rain per annum), has yielded a rich faunal assemblage, including several thousand remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. They are derived from the sediments of two consecutive lakes dated by several techniques to about 135,000 yr B.P. Fifty-nine taxa have been identified and indicate that at times during the Last Interglaciation the area received at least 500 mm of rainfall as a result of the northward shift of the monsoon belt, and that, on several occasions, there may have been water connections between Bir Tarfawi and unidentified but permanent bodies of water elsewhere.

  10. A Global Ocean State Estimate at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrhein, D. E.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Many features of Earth's climate at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 20,000 years ago) remain a mystery, including the role of the ocean circulation in transporting thermal energy, salinity, and other tracers. Most efforts at reconstructing the ocean state during the LGM have relied either upon integrations of general circulation models under prescribed LGM boundary conditions or the interpretation of climate proxy records without explicit physical constraints. Here we describe a global, primitive equation simulation of the LGM ocean with boundary conditions (wind, surface air temperature, and other atmospheric variables) and mixing parameters derived by a least-squares fit of an ocean general circulation model to observations of deep ocean stable isotopes and sea surface temperatures at the LGM.

  11. Last stable orbit around rapidly rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolletta, F.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.

    2017-07-01

    We compute the binding energy and angular momentum of a test particle at the last stable circular orbit (LSO) on the equatorial plane around a general relativistic, rotating neutron star (NS). We present simple, analytic, but accurate formulas for these quantities that fit the numerical results and which can be used in several astrophysical applications. We demonstrate the accuracy of these formulas for three different equations of state (EOS) based on nuclear relativistic mean-field theory models and argue that they should remain still valid for any NS EOS that satisfy current astrophysical constraints. We compare and contrast our numerical results with the corresponding ones for the Kerr metric characterized by the same mass and angular momentum.

  12. 1. Remnants of the last lock on the George Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Remnants of the last lock on the George Washington 'Potowmack Canal, just before the barge entered the Potomac River. The latter can be seen through the foliage of the tree which has grown up in the old canal bed. On the left hand side of the photograph, not shown here in its entirety, are the old iron studdings which held the gates, to permit the barges to pass easily into the river. On the right hand side of the photograph is shown the crumbling remains of the lock with their receased oval space clearly shown, into which the lock gate retrieved when the barge was lowered to the next level. The depth from the spot where the individual is shown pointing to the top of the lock, is about 24 or 25 ft., and the canal has been filled up with broken ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Locks No. 3, 4, 5, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  13. Unusual magnetopause crossings during long-lasting radial IMF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygorov, Kostiantyn; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Prech, Lubomir; Pi, Gilbert; Shue, Jih-Hong

    2016-04-01

    One of the factors which affect the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The very rarely observed radial IMF results in magnetopause locations up to several radii farther away from the Earth than predicted and causes a specific magnetopause shape. We present a case study of magnetopause crossings which were observed by the THEMIS spacecraft and analyze the difference between observed magnetopause positions and those which are predicted by an empirical magnetopause model. We use both the data (if available) from the L1 point and from near-Earth solar wind monitors as a model input. We discuss a role of the long-lasting radial IMF orientation on the magnetopause position and the influences of other parameters such as the dynamic pressure and IMF BZ component at different local times.

  14. Characterizing Interplanetary Structures of Long-Lasting Ionospheric Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandoi, C.; Dong, Y.; Ngwira, C. M.; Damas, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic storms can result in periods of heightened TEC (Total Electron Content) in Earth's ionosphere. These periods of change in TEC (dTEC) can have adverse impacts on a technological society, such as scintillation of radio signals used by communication and navigation satellites. However, it is unknown which exact properties of a given storm cause dTEC. We are comparing different solar wind properties that result in a significant long-lasting dTEC to see if there are any patterns that remain constant in these storms. These properties, among others, include the interplanetary magnetic field By and Bz components, the proton density, and the flow speed. As a preliminary investigation, we have studied 15 solar storms. Preliminary results will be presented. In the future, we hope to increase our sample size and analyze over 80 different solar storms, which result in significant dTEC.

  15. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  16. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Alfonso F.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present.

  17. The Last of the Finite Loop Amplitudes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.

    2005-05-31

    We use on-shell recursion relations to determine the one-loop QCD scattering amplitudes with a massless external quark pair and an arbitrary number (n - 2) of positive-helicity gluons. These amplitudes are the last of the unknown infrared- and ultraviolet-finite loop amplitudes of QCD. The recursion relations are similar to ones applied at tree level, but contain new non-trivial features corresponding to poles present for complex momentum arguments but absent for real momenta. We present the relations and the compact solutions to them, valid for all n. We also present compact forms for the previously-computed one-loop n-gluon amplitudes with a single negative helicity and the rest positive helicity.

  18. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects.

  19. Pyro-chemistry assessment at CEA - Last experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Lacquement, J.; Bourg, S.; Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Laplace, A.; Baron, P.

    2007-07-01

    Initially assessed in the frame of the first French act on radioactive waste management (Dec. 91), the pyro-technology is now perceived by the Nuclear Energy Directorate of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) as a potential alternative to hydrometallurgy in two applications: (i) reprocessing of irradiated targets or dedicated fuels used for the minor actinides transmutation, (ii) reprocessing of Generation IV spent nuclear fuels (e.g. carbide fuel proposed for Gas cooled Fast Reactor or oxide fuel proposed for Sodium Fast Reactor). The R and D program is now mainly focused on the latter application. This paper gives the last experimental results on actinides/fission products separation assessment in molten fluorides either by chemical reductive extraction or electrolysis. (authors)

  20. Evidence from the Seychelles of Last Interglacial Sea Level Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dutton, A.; Dechnik, B.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies indicate that sea level oscillated during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, but the details of these scenarios, including the number of sea level oscillations, are still debated. We lack a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of the large polar ice sheets to changes in temperature that could result in eustatic sea level oscillations. Because the Seychelles are located far from the margins of the Last Glacial Maximum northern hemisphere ice sheets, they have not been subjected to glacial isostatic adjustment, and have been tectonically stable since the Last Interglacial period; therefore, they provide a robust record of eustatic sea level during MIS 5e. All of the outcrops we examined contain unconformities and/or sharp transitions between facies, though the nature of these boundaries varies between sites. In some outcrops we observed a hardground comprising fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer between distinct generations of in situ coralgal framework. In one outcrop, this succession was observed twice, where two generations of reef growth were each capped by a strongly indurated fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer. At the site with the greatest vertical extent of outcrop, there is a marked difference in the taxonomic composition of the coral community above and below an unconformable surface, but the indurated fine-grained, sediment layer observed elsewhere was absent. Most of the other outcrops we studied contained a common succession of facies from in situ reef units overlain by cemented coral rubble. In two dated outcrops, the age of corals above and below the rubble layer are the same age. The hardgrounds and rubble layers may represent ephemeral exposure of the reef units during two drops in sea level. The inference of multiple meter-scale oscillations during the MIS 5e highstand indicates a more dynamic cryosphere than the present interglacial, although the climatic threshold for more volatile polar ice sheets is not yet clear.

  1. Climate and carbon-cycle variability over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Lorenz, S. J.; Timmreck, C.; Reick, C. H.; Brovkin, V.; Six, K.; Segschneider, J.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Crowley, T. J.; Pongratz, J.; Krivova, N. A.; Vieira, L. E.; Solanki, S. K.; Klocke, D.; Botzet, M.; Esch, M.; Gayler, V.; Haak, H.; Raddatz, T. J.; Roeckner, E.; Schnur, R.; Widmann, H.; Claussen, M.; Stevens, B.; Marotzke, J.

    2010-05-01

    A long-standing task in climate research has been to distinguish between anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability. A prerequisite for fulfilling this task is the understanding of the relative roles of external drivers and internal variability of climate and the carbon cycle. Here, we present the first ensemble simulations over the last 1200 years with a comprehensive Earth system model including a fully interactive carbon cycle. Applying up-to-date reconstructions of external forcing including the recent low-amplitude estimates of solar variations, the ensemble simulations reproduce temperature evolutions consistent with the range of reconstructions. The 20th-century warming trend stands out against all pre-industrial trends within the ensemble. Volcanic eruptions are necessary to explain variations in pre-industrial climate such as the Little Ice Age; yet only the strongest, repeated eruptions lead to cooling trends that stand out against the internal variability across all ensemble members. The simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations exhibit a stable carbon cycle over the pre-industrial era with multi-centennial variations somewhat smaller than in the observational records. Early land-cover changes have modulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations only slightly. We provide a model-based quantification of the sensitivity (termed γ) of the global carbon cycle to temperature for a variety of climate and forcing conditions. The magnitude of γ agrees with a recent statistical assessment based on reconstruction data. We diagnose a distinct dependence of γ on the forcing strength and time-scales involved, thus providing an explanation for the systematic difference in the observational estimates for different segments of the last millennium.

  2. Climate and carbon-cycle variability over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Lorenz, S. J.; Timmreck, C.; Reick, C. H.; Brovkin, V.; Six, K.; Segschneider, J.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Crowley, T. J.; Pongratz, J.; Krivova, N. A.; Vieira, L. E.; Solanki, S. K.; Klocke, D.; Botzet, M.; Esch, M.; Gayler, V.; Haak, H.; Raddatz, T. J.; Roeckner, E.; Schnur, R.; Widmann, H.; Claussen, M.; Stevens, B.; Marotzke, J.

    2010-10-01

    A long-standing task in climate research has been to distinguish between anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability. A prerequisite for fulfilling this task is the understanding of the relative roles of external drivers and internal variability of climate and the carbon cycle. Here, we present the first ensemble simulations over the last 1200 years with a comprehensive Earth system model including a fully interactive carbon cycle. Applying up-to-date reconstructions of external forcing including the recent low-amplitude estimates of solar variations, the ensemble simulations reproduce temperature evolutions consistent with the range of reconstructions. The 20th-century warming trend stands out against all pre-industrial trends within the ensemble. Volcanic eruptions are necessary to explain variations in pre-industrial climate such as the Little Ice Age; yet only the strongest, repeated eruptions lead to cooling trends that differ significantly from the internal variability across all ensemble members. The simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations exhibit a stable carbon cycle over the pre-industrial era with multi-centennial variations somewhat smaller than in the observational records. Early land-cover changes have modulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations only slightly. We provide a model-based quantification of the sensitivity (termed γ) of the global carbon cycle to temperature for a variety of climate and forcing conditions. We diagnose a distinct dependence of γ on the forcing strength and time-scales involved, thus providing a possible explanation for the systematic difference in the observational estimates for different segments of the last millennium.

  3. The UNOS Renal Transplant Registry: Review of the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Andre, Mark; Huang, Edmund; Everly, Matthew; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation has become a preferred treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as transplant recipients enjoy freedom from dialysis and improvement in both quality and quantity of life. More patients are being placed on the transplant waiting list, although the waiting list patients still only represent a very small fraction of ESRD patients. The characteristics of both waitlisted and transplanted patients have changed considerably in the last decade, as the ESRD population has aged and waiting list times have increased. Over the last 10 years, we have witnessed an increasingly severe shortage of kidney donors. Even with increasing efforts of the transplant community to expand the donor pool by including larger numbers of high risk deceased donor transplants, the overall number of kidney transplants has remained relatively stable. Those who do receive transplants, however, benefit from excellent transplant outcomes. The use of paired exchange/chain transplant donors has increased the living donor pool significantly and with outstanding results. Belatacept, a costimulation blockage drug, represents a new class of transplant immunosuppression. It has been used sparingly in the first few years of its approval. Most kidney transplant patients are still maintained on immunosuppressive agents that were approved almost two decades ago. In the next decade, we will certainly continue to deal with an organ shortage as the number of eligible and waitlisted patients is likely to increase. Effective and efficient organ allocation policies will be increasingly necessary to address this scarcity. Optimizing the transplant candidate work-up, improving maintenance of waitlisted patients, and providing optimal post-transplant medical care will be vital to the continued success of kidney transplantation.

  4. Last generation triazoles for imported eumycetoma in eleven consecutive adults.

    PubMed

    Crabol, Yoann; Poiree, Sylvain; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Maunoury, Christophe; Barete, Stéphane; Zeller, Valérie; Arvieux, Cédric; Pineau, Samuel; Amazzough, Karima; Lecuit, Marc; Lanternier, Fanny; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Optimal management of eumycetoma, a severely debilitating chronic progressive fungal infection of skin, disseminating to bone and viscera, remains challenging. Especially, optimal antifungal treatment and duration are ill defined. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 11 imported cases of eumycetoma treated by voriconazole or posaconazole for at least 6 months. Response to treatment was assessed through evolution of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (1→3) ß-D-glucan (BG) and positron emission tomography using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (PET/CT) results were also assessed. Identified species were Fusarium solani complex (n = 3); Madurella mycetomatis, (n = 3), and Exophiala jeanselmei, (n = 1). Moreover, two coelomycetes and one phaeohyphomycetes strains without species identification were retrieved. Serum BG and PET/CT were abnormal in 7/8 and 6/6 patients tested, respectively. Patients received last generation azoles for a mean duration of 25.9±18 months. Complete response (major clinical and MRI improvement) was observed in 5/11 patients, partial response (minor MRI improvement or stable MRI findings) in 5 and failure (MRI evidence of disease progression) in one, with a 73±39 [6-132] months mean follow-up. Relapse occurred in 2 patients after treatment discontinuation. Optimal outcome was associated with fungal species, initiation of last generation triazole therapy (<65 months since first symptoms), negative serum BG and PET/CT normalization. MRI, PET/CT and serum BG appear as promising tools to assess optimal time of antifungal treatment for eumycetoma.

  5. Last Generation Triazoles for Imported Eumycetoma in Eleven Consecutive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crabol, Yoann; Poiree, Sylvain; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Maunoury, Christophe; Barete, Stéphane; Zeller, Valérie; Arvieux, Cédric; Pineau, Samuel; Amazzough, Karima; Lecuit, Marc; Lanternier, Fanny; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal management of eumycetoma, a severely debilitating chronic progressive fungal infection of skin, disseminating to bone and viscera, remains challenging. Especially, optimal antifungal treatment and duration are ill defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 11 imported cases of eumycetoma treated by voriconazole or posaconazole for at least 6 months. Response to treatment was assessed through evolution of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (1→3) ß-D-glucan (BG) and positron emission tomography using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (PET/CT) results were also assessed. Identified species were Fusarium solani complex (n = 3); Madurella mycetomatis, (n = 3), and Exophiala jeanselmei, (n = 1). Moreover, two coelomycetes and one phaeohyphomycetes strains without species identification were retrieved. Serum BG and PET/CT were abnormal in 7/8 and 6/6 patients tested, respectively. Patients received last generation azoles for a mean duration of 25.9±18 months. Complete response (major clinical and MRI improvement) was observed in 5/11 patients, partial response (minor MRI improvement or stable MRI findings) in 5 and failure (MRI evidence of disease progression) in one, with a 73±39 [6–132] months mean follow-up. Relapse occurred in 2 patients after treatment discontinuation. Optimal outcome was associated with fungal species, initiation of last generation triazole therapy (<65 months since first symptoms), negative serum BG and PET/CT normalization. Conclusions/Significance MRI, PET/CT and serum BG appear as promising tools to assess optimal time of antifungal treatment for eumycetoma. PMID:25299610

  6. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation.

  7. Interglacials of the last 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Past Interglacials Working Group Of Pages

    2016-03-01

    Interglacials, including the present (Holocene) period, are warm, low land ice extent (high sea level), end-members of glacial cycles. Based on a sea level definition, we identify eleven interglacials in the last 800,000 years, a result that is robust to alternative definitions. Data compilations suggest that despite spatial heterogeneity, Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e (last interglacial) and 11c (~400 ka ago) were globally strong (warm), while MIS 13a (~500 ka ago) was cool at many locations. A step change in strength of interglacials at 450 ka is apparent only in atmospheric CO2 and in Antarctic and deep ocean temperature. The onset of an interglacial (glacial termination) seems to require a reducing precession parameter (increasing Northern Hemisphere summer insolation), but this condition alone is insufficient. Terminations involve rapid, nonlinear, reactions of ice volume, CO2, and temperature to external astronomical forcing. The precise timing of events may be modulated by millennial-scale climate change that can lead to a contrasting timing of maximum interglacial intensity in each hemisphere. A variety of temporal trends is observed, such that maxima in the main records are observed either early or late in different interglacials. The end of an interglacial (glacial inception) is a slower process involving a global sequence of changes. Interglacials have been typically 10-30 ka long. The combination of minimal reduction in northern summer insolation over the next few orbital cycles, owing to low eccentricity, and high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations implies that the next glacial inception is many tens of millennia in the future.

  8. Progressive Cenozoic cooling and the demise of Antarctica's last refugium.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John B; Warny, Sophie; Askin, Rosemary A; Wellner, Julia S; Bohaty, Steven M; Kirshner, Alexandra E; Livsey, Daniel N; Simms, Alexander R; Smith, Tyler R; Ehrmann, Werner; Lawver, Lawrence A; Barbeau, David; Wise, Sherwood W; Kulhanek, Denise K; Kulhenek, Denise K; Weaver, Fred M; Majewski, Wojciech

    2011-07-12

    The Antarctic Peninsula is considered to be the last region of Antarctica to have been fully glaciated as a result of Cenozoic climatic cooling. As such, it was likely the last refugium for plants and animals that had inhabited the continent since it separated from the Gondwana supercontinent. Drill cores and seismic data acquired during two cruises (SHALDRIL I and II) in the northernmost Peninsula region yield a record that, when combined with existing data, indicates progressive cooling and associated changes in terrestrial vegetation over the course of the past 37 million years. Mountain glaciation began in the latest Eocene (approximately 37-34 Ma), contemporaneous with glaciation elsewhere on the continent and a reduction in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This climate cooling was accompanied by a decrease in diversity of the angiosperm-dominated vegetation that inhabited the northern peninsula during the Eocene. A mosaic of southern beech and conifer-dominated woodlands and tundra continued to occupy the region during the Oligocene (approximately 34-23 Ma). By the middle Miocene (approximately 16-11.6 Ma), localized pockets of limited tundra still existed at least until 12.8 Ma. The transition from temperate, alpine glaciation to a dynamic, polythermal ice sheet took place during the middle Miocene. The northernmost Peninsula was overridden by an ice sheet in the early Pliocene (approximately 5.3-3.6 Ma). The long cooling history of the peninsula is consistent with the extended timescales of tectonic evolution of the Antarctic margin, involving the opening of ocean passageways and associated establishment of circumpolar circulation.

  9. Intermediate Water Radiocarbon Anomalies During the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, S. P.; Lehman, S. J.; Marchitto, T. M.; Ninnemann, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Several recent reconstructions of intermediate water radiocarbon activities (Δ14C) have revealed intervals of very low Δ14C during the last deglaciation [Bryan et al., 2010; Marchitto et al., 2007; Thornalley et al., 2011]. Anomalously low Δ14C values coincided with increases in atmospheric CO2 and decreases in atmospheric Δ14C. As such, these Δ14C anomalies have been interpreted as the transfer of 14C-depleted carbon from the deep ocean to the upper ocean and atmosphere. An important component of this interpretation is the transport of low-Δ14C waters from the Southern Ocean, where they presumably upwelled from the deep ocean, northward to the core sites via intermediate waters. However, contrary to expectations, anomalously low Δ14C values have not been found at intermediate water sites closer to the Southern Ocean [e.g., De Pol-Holz et al., 2009; Rose et al., 2010]. In this talk, we will present new intermediate water Δ14C measurements from ~53°S along the Chile Margin, reconstructed using sediment core MD07-3128. Consistent with other intermediate water records from the Southern Hemisphere, these measurements do not show anomalously low Δ14C during the deglaciation. Instead, these results indicate lower Δ14C values during the Last Glacial Maximum and a rapid increase in Δ14C at the start of the deglaciation. We interpret this change as a shift in the boundary between Circumpolar Deep Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water. These results along with the previously published records provide strong evidence that low-Δ14C waters were not transported by an intermediate water mass analogous to modern Antarctic Intermediate Water. We synthesize the currently available deglacial intermediate water Δ14C records and discuss possible changes to Southern Ocean intermediate water formation, which could reconcile the available data.

  10. Antarctic climate change during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Colwell, Steve R.; Marshall, Gareth J.; Lachlan-Cope, Tom A.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Jones, Phil D.; Lagun, Victor; Reid, Phil A.; Iagovkina, Svetlana

    2005-03-01

    The Reference Antarctic Data for Environmental Research (READER) project data set of monthly mean Antarctic near-surface temperature, mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) and wind speed has been used to investigate trends in these quantities over the last 50 years for 19 stations with long records. Eleven of these had warming trends and seven had cooling trends in their annual data (one station had too little data to allow an annual trend to be computed), indicating the spatial complexity of change that has occurred across the Antarctic in recent decades. The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a major warming over the last 50 years, with temperatures at Faraday/Vernadsky station having increased at a rate of 0.56 °C decade-1 over the year and 1.09 °C decade-1 during the winter; both figures are statistically significant at less than the 5% level. Overlapping 30 year trends of annual mean temperatures indicate that, at all but two of the 10 coastal stations for which trends could be computed back to 1961, the warming trend was greater (or the cooling trend less) during the 1961-90 period compared with 1971-2000. All the continental stations for which MSLP data were available show negative trends in the annual mean pressures over the full length of their records, which we attribute to the trend in recent decades towards the Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM) being in its high-index state. Except for Halley, where the trends are constant, the MSLP trends for all stations on the Antarctic continent for 1971-2000 were more negative than for 1961-90. All but two of the coastal stations have recorded increasing mean wind speeds over recent decades, which is also consistent with the change in the nature of the SAM.

  11. Atmospheric Oxygen Variation Over the Last 100 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A. J.; Mills, B.; Daines, S. J.; Lenton, T. M.; Belcher, C.

    2014-12-01

    There is no agreement over how atmospheric oxygen has varied over recent Earth history. Our knowledge of past O2 concentrations relies on biogeochemical modelling, constrained by geochemical data and proxies. There are however few direct indicators of oxygen concentrations, though the presence of fossil charcoal indicates that levels have not strayed outside the "fire window", say below 16% or above 35%, during the last hundred million years. Different model predictions encompass both decreasing and increasing trends over this period however. These predictions are sensitive to weathering of continental rocks, which provide a sink for O2, but also a supply of phosphorus and sediment to the ocean, both of which increase carbon burial and thereby provide an oxygen source. Here we update our COPSE model with a more detailed treatment than hitherto, incorporating new input data, seafloor weathering processes, and different compositions and weatherability of granites and basalts. Our model suggests a broadly declining O2 trend over the late Mesozoic to present. An alternative forcing uses the phosphorus deposition curve of Follmi (1995), which is constructed from P measurements in ocean cores, and indicates P fluxes to the oceans that have varied over time by two orders of magnitude. Used to drive the model this also results in a declining long-term trend for atmospheric O2 over the last hundred million years, but with dramatic shorter-term variations superposed on the trend. These however stay (just) within the "fire window" for oxygen concentrations, and can be tentatively related to the evolution of fire adaptations in plants.

  12. The Last Interglacial History of the Antarctic Ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Siddall, Mark; Milne, Glenn A.; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Wolff, Eric; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the work which was conducted as part of the 'PAST4FUTURE -WP4.1: Sea Level and Ice sheets' project. The overall aim of this study was to understand the response of the Antarctic Ice sheet (AIS) to climate forcing during the Last interglacial (LIG) and its contribution to the observed higher than present sea level during this period. The study involved the application and development of a novel technique which combined East Antarctic stable isotope ice core data with the output from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model [Bradley et al., 2012]. We investigated if the stable isotope ice core data are sensitive to detecting isostatically driven changes in the surface elevation driven by changes in the ice-loading history of the AIS and if so, could we address some key questions relating to the LIG history of the AIS. Although it is believed that the West Antarctic Ice sheet (WAIS) reduced in size during the LIG compared to the Holocene, major uncertainties and unknowns remain unresolved: Did the WAIS collapse? What would the contribution of such a collapse be the higher than present LIG eustatic sea level (ESL)? We will show that a simulated collapse of the WAIS does not generate a significant elevation driven signal at the EAIS LIG ice core sites, and as such, these ice core records cannot be used to assess WAIS stability over this period. However, we will present 'treasure maps' [Bradley et al., 2012] to identify regions of the AIS where results from geological studies and/or new paleoclimate data may be sensitive to detecting a WAIS collapse. These maps can act as a useful tool for the wider science community/field scientists as a guide to highlight sites suitable to constrain the evolution of the WAIS during the LIG. Studies have proposed that the surface temperature across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) was significantly warmer, 2-5°C during the LIG compared to present [Lang and Wolff, 2011]. These higher

  13. Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Spero, H. J.; Lea, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north Atlantic, thereby influencing glacial-interglacial oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Here, we combine Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) and δ 18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber s.s. (white var.) from the western Caribbean Colombian Basin at ODP Site 999A (2827m; 4cm/ka sed. rate) and VM28-122 (3623m; 4-10cm/ka sed. rate) to produce the first continuous record of western tropical Atlantic δ 18OSEAWATER (δ 18OSW) during the last 130ka. In order to generate a record for sea surface salinity (SSS) due to regional hydrological change, we removed the δ 18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation and normalized the residual to the modern δ 18OSW value for the Colombian Basin (0.8‰ ). The resulting ice volume-free (Δ δ 18OIVF-SW) record shows that Caribbean Δ δ 18OIVF-SW increased by ˜0.5‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 4. Using a modern western Caribbean δ 18OSW:SSS relationship, these enriched δ 18OSW values suggest glacial Caribbean salinities were 2.3 - 2.8‰ higher than modern after removing the influence of ice-volume. Our data supports the hypothesis that the tropics might have been in a state more similar to the modern El Nino mode, characterized by a more southerly position of the ITCZ, during cold phases of the last glacial cycle. Within the resolution of our Δ δ 18OIVF-SW record from VM28-122, elevated glacial Caribbean salinity decreased to modern levels at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (B

  14. Ancient horizontal gene transfer and the last common ancestors.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Gregory P; Andam, Cheryl P; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2015-04-22

    The genomic history of prokaryotic organismal lineages is marked by extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between groups of organisms at all taxonomic levels. These HGT events have played an essential role in the origin and distribution of biological innovations. Analyses of ancient gene families show that HGT existed in the distant past, even at the time of the organismal last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Most gene transfers originated in lineages that have since gone extinct. Therefore, one cannot assume that the last common ancestors of each gene were all present in the same cell representing the cellular ancestor of all extant life. Organisms existing as part of a diverse ecosystem at the time of LUCA likely shared genetic material between lineages. If these other lineages persisted for some time, HGT with the descendants of LUCA could have continued into the bacterial and archaeal lineages. Phylogenetic analyses of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase protein families support the hypothesis that the molecular common ancestors of the most ancient gene families did not all coincide in space and time. This is most apparent in the evolutionary histories of seryl-tRNA synthetase and threonyl-tRNA synthetase protein families, each containing highly divergent "rare" forms, as well as the sparse phylogenetic distributions of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase, and the bacterial heterodimeric form of glycyl-tRNA synthetase. These topologies and phyletic distributions are consistent with horizontal transfers from ancient, likely extinct branches of the tree of life. Of all the organisms that may have existed at the time of LUCA, by definition only one lineage is survived by known progeny; however, this lineage retains a genomic record of heterogeneous genetic origins. The evolutionary histories of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are especially informative in detecting this signal, as they perform primordial biological functions, have undergone several ancient HGT events, and

  15. Comparative carbon cycle dynamics of the present and last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Brücher, Tim; Kleinen, Thomas; Zaehle, Sönke; Joos, Fortunat; Roth, Raphael; Spahni, Renato; Schmitt, Jochen; Fischer, Hubertus; Leuenberger, Markus; Stone, Emma J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Kehrwald, Natalie; Barbante, Carlo; Blunier, Thomas; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    Changes in temperature and carbon dioxide during glacial cycles recorded in Antarctic ice cores are tightly coupled. However, this relationship does not hold for interglacials. While climate cooled towards the end of both the last (Eemian) and present (Holocene) interglacials, CO2 remained stable during the Eemian while rising in the Holocene. We identify and review twelve biogeochemical mechanisms of terrestrial (vegetation dynamics and CO2 fertilization, land use, wildfire, accumulation of peat, changes in permafrost carbon, subaerial volcanic outgassing) and marine origin (changes in sea surface temperature, carbonate compensation to deglaciation and terrestrial biosphere regrowth, shallow-water carbonate sedimentation, changes in the soft tissue pump, and methane hydrates), which potentially may have contributed to the CO2 dynamics during interglacials but which remain not well quantified. We use three Earth System Models (ESMs) of intermediate complexity to compare effects of selected mechanisms on the interglacial CO2 and δ13CO2 changes, focusing on those with substantial potential impacts: namely carbonate sedimentation in shallow waters, peat growth, and (in the case of the Holocene) human land use. A set of specified carbon cycle forcings could qualitatively explain atmospheric CO2 dynamics from 8 ka BP to the pre-industrial. However, when applied to Eemian boundary conditions from 126 to 115 ka BP, the same set of forcings led to disagreement with the observed direction of CO2 changes after 122 ka BP. This failure to simulate late-Eemian CO2 dynamics could be a result of the imposed forcings such as prescribed CaCO3 accumulation and/or an incorrect response of simulated terrestrial carbon to the surface cooling at the end of the interglacial. These experiments also reveal that key natural processes of interglacial CO2 dynamics - shallow water CaCO3 accumulation, peat and permafrost carbon dynamics - are not well represented in the current ESMs. Global

  16. Setting up a model intercomparison project for the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovic, R. F.; Gregoire, L. J.; Valdes, P. J.; Roche, D. M.; Kageyama, M.

    2014-12-01

    The last deglaciation (~ 21-9 ka) presents a series of opportunities to study the underlying mechanisms of abrupt climate changes and long-term trends in the Earth System. Most of the forcings are relatively well constrained and geological archives record responses over a range of timescales. Despite this, large uncertainties remain over the feedback loops that culminated in the collapse of the great Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and a consensus has yet to be reached on the chains of events that led to rapid surface warming and cooling during this period.Climate models are powerful tools for quantitatively assessing these outstanding issues through their ability to temporally resolve cause and effect, as well as break down the contributions from different forcings. This is well demonstrated by pioneering work; for example by Liu et al. (2009), Roche et al. (2011), Gregoire et al. (2012) and Menviel et al. (2011). However, such work is not without challenges; model-geological data mismatches remain unsolved and it is difficult to compare results from different models with unique experiment designs. Therefore, we have established a multidisciplinary Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project working group to coordinate transient climate model simulations and geological archive compilations of the last deglaciation. Here, we present the plans and progress of the working group in its first phase of activity; the investigation of Heinrich Stadial 1 and the lead into the Bolling warming event. We describe the set-up of the core deglacial experiment, explain our approach for dealing with uncertain climate forcings and outline our solutions to challenges posed by this research. By defining a common experiment design, we have built a framework to include models of different speeds, complexities and resolution, maximising the reward of this varied approach. One of the next challenges is to compile transient proxy records and develop a methodology for dealing with

  17. The climate of the last two millennia off Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, Fatima; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rufino, Marta; Naughton, Filipa; Gil, Isabelle; Salgueiro, Emilia; Stroynowski, Zuzia; Santos, Celia; Oliveira, Dulce; Domingues, Sandra; Drago, Teresa; Mil-Homens, Mario

    2017-04-01

    More than global or hemispheric variability, regional scale climate conditions are the ones that are highly relevant to ecosystems and societies. The Iberian Peninsula, at mid-latitude and the western extreme of the European continent, is a key point for climate reconstructions. In this study we combine a multi-proxy analyses of six inner-shelf high-sedimentation sites covering the last 2 millennia, that span along the Iberian margin from 41° N to 36 °N. This approach provides a latitudinal perspective of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) evolution as well as information on the continental conditions (mainly precipitation) and marine primary production at multi-decadal scale. Furthermore, a regional stack was constructed and compared to North Hemisphere (NH) and global climatological series in order to investigate the role of external forcing on regional climate. Results show a temporal SST variability comparable with the NH and European mean atmospheric temperature records for the last 2 millennia, over a long-term cooling trend that ends at the beginning of the 20th century. Reconstructed cold conditions, with an average of 0.5 °C colder SST in the north and 1.2°C in the south, encompassing most of the 15th to the 19th century, characterizes the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the 20th century SSTs are equivalent to pre-LIA, but marked by higher amplitude decadal oscillations, in particular after 1970, within the Great Solar Maximum. Precipitation is high in the northern sites at the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period and during the LIA in all records. Strong precipitation/ flood events occur in good agreement with the Tagus basin terrace ages and historical documentation and at times of major shifts in solar activity. Primary production shows a southward decrease specially clear for the Algarve site and an important shift at AD 1800, when the opposing trend in the southern and north sites points to a general weakening in upwelling intensity in the north

  18. Flow-pattern evolution of the last British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. C.; Clark, Chris D.; Jordan, Colm J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-flow patterns of the last British Ice Sheet from build-up to demise derived from geomorphological evidence. 100 flowsets identified in the subglacial bedform record (drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and ribbed moraine) are combined with ancillary evidence (erratic-transport paths, absolute dates and a semi-independently reconstructed retreat pattern) to define flow patterns, ice divides and ice-sheet margins during build-up, maximum glaciation and retreat. Overprinting and cross-cutting of landform assemblages are used to define the relative chronology of flow patterns and a tentative absolute chronology is presented based on a collation of available dates for ice advance and retreat. The ice-flow configuration of the last British Ice Sheet was not static. Some ice divides were remarkably stable, persisting through multiple stages of the ice-sheet evolution, whereas others were transient features existing for a short time and/or shifting in position 10s km. The 10 reconstructed stages of ice-sheet geometry capture two main modes of operation; first as an integrated ice sheet with a broadly N-S orientated ice divide, and second as a multi-domed ice sheet orientated parallel with the shelf edge. A thick integrated ice sheet developed as ice expanded out of source areas in Scotland to envelop southerly ice caps in northern England and Wales, and connect with the Irish Ice Sheet to the west and the Scandinavian Ice Sheet across the North Sea. Following break-up of ice over the North Sea, ice streaming probably drove mass loss and ice-sheet thinning to create a more complex divide structure, where ice-flow patterns were largely controlled by the form of the underlying topography. Ice surface lowering occurred before separation of, and retreat to, multiple ice centres centred over high ground. We consider this 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-sheet configuration to be the simplest palaeo

  19. The CMIP6/PMIP4 Last Millennium Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Climate has varied considerably during the late Holocene and these changes left their traces in history (Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age). However, the relative magnitude of natural fluctuations due to internal variability of the Earth's climate system and to variations in the external forcing and the present global warming, attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is still under debate. Investigating the response to (mainly) natural forcing under climatic background conditions not too different from today is crucial for an improved understanding of climate variability, circulation, and regional connectivity. Simulations over the last millennium (LM) allow assessing climate variability on decadal and longer scales and provide information on predictability under forced and unforced conditions. In providing in-depth model evaluation with respect to observations and paleoclimatic reconstructions, LM simulations serve to understand origins and consequences of systematic model biases. PMIP4 Tier-1 includes the standard LM simulation covering 850 to 1849 CE and a subsequent "historical" (1850 - 2010 CE) experiment as a minimum requirement. In addition to changes in Earth's orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations, the models are forced by variations in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosol load, and anthropogenic land-cover. As part of Tier-2, the modeling groups are asked to provide additional simulations in the form of ensembles, single forcing experiments, as well as sensitivity runs using alternative forcing combinations. The extension of the simulations to cover the complete last two millennia (0 CE to present) is also part of Tier-2. We describe the experimental design of the LM simulations and discuss the protocol on new forcing and boundary conditions. We discuss recent advances in the reconstruction of solar, volcanic, and land-cover changes and their implementation in the CMIP6 models. PMIP4 aims to provide forcing datasets that are consistent with

  20. Western North Pacific Monsoon Variability since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C. C.; Okumura, Y.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Erb, M. P.; Hori, M.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Thirumalai, K.; Banner, J.; Jackson, C. S.; Lin, K.; WU, C. C.; Hu, H. M.; Taylor, F. W.

    2016-12-01

    Our study analyzes the response of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM), a division of the Asian-Australian monsoon system, to internal climate variability, to abrupt climate change, and/or to changes in external forcing. Here, we combine new hydroclimate reconstructions based on the d18O composition of stalagmites that were collected from sites across the Philippines with published proxy data and compare the compilations with climate model output to understand the mechanisms that drive changes in the monsoon system from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present. Over the last millennium, stalagmite d18O in the WNPSM exhibits a gradual trend towards drier conditions. While nearby proxy data agree on the hydroclimate trend in the region, output from transient climate model runs forced by solar and volcanic changes do not agree with the data - suggesting that the hydroclimate trends might be reflecting internal climate variability. During the abrupt climate change event known as the Younger Dryas (YD) a direct relationship between the East Asian Summer Monsoon, as recorded in Chinese stalagmites, is also observed in the WNPSM: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. However, the tropical hydroclimate response occurs more gradually than the abrupt change in the Greenland ice cores, and climate models suggest that the difference in the timing is most likely due to sea ice feedbacks around Greenland. Over the Holocene, we expected Philippine stalagmite d18O records to have a similar response to changing summer insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite d18O records is opposite to that expected: inferred rainfall increases in the WNPSM over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. Climate models suggest that the rainfall anomalies are due to the land-ocean thermal response over the Holocene, which drives the

  1. Equatorial decline of reef corals during the last Pleistocene interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Simpson, Carl; Beck, Brian; Mewis, Heike; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-12-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG; ca. 125,000 y ago) resulted from rapid global warming and reached global mean temperatures exceeding those of today. The LIG thus offers the opportunity to study how life may respond to future global warming. Using global occurrence databases and applying sampling-standardization, we compared reef coral diversity and distributions between the LIG and modern. Latitudinal diversity patterns are characterized by a tropical plateau today but were characterized by a pronounced equatorial trough during the LIG. This trough is governed by substantial range shifts away from the equator. Range shifts affected both leading and trailing edges of species range limits and were much more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere than south of the equator. We argue that interglacial warming was responsible for the loss of equatorial diversity. Hemispheric differences in insolation during the LIG may explain the asymmetrical response. The equatorial retractions are surprisingly strong given that only small temperature changes have been reported in the LIG tropics. Our results suggest that the poleward range expansions of reef corals occurring with intensified global warming today may soon be followed by equatorial range retractions.

  2. Organization of the tectonic plates in the last 200 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, Gabriele; Seton, Maria; Quevedo, Leonardo; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2013-07-01

    The present tessellation of the Earth's surface into tectonic plates displays a remarkably regular plate size distribution, described by either one (Sornette and Pisarenko, 2003) or two (Bird, 2003) statistically distinct groups, characterised by large and small plate size. A unique distribution implies a hierarchical structure from the largest to the smallest plate. Alternatively, two distributions indicate distinct evolutionary laws for large and small plates, the first tied to mantle flow, the second determined by a hierarchical fragmentation process. We analyse detailed reconstructions of plate boundaries during the last 200 Myr and find that (i) large and small plates display distinct statistical distributions, (ii) the small plates display little organisational change since 60 Ma and (iii) the large plates oscillate between heterogeneous (200-170 Myr and 65-50 Ma) and homogeneous (120-100 Ma) plate tessellations on a timescale of about 100 Myr. Heterogeneous states are reached more rapidly, while the plate configuration decays into homogeneous states following a slower asymptotic curve, suggesting that heterogeneous configurations are excited states while homogeneous tessellations are equilibrium states. We explain this evolution by proposing a model that alternates between bottom- and top-driven Earth dynamics, physically described by fluid-dynamic analogies, the Rayleigh-Benard and Bénard-Marangoni convection, respectively. We discuss the implications for true polar wander (TPW), global kinematic reorganisations (50 and 100 Ma) and the Earth's magnetic field inversion frequency.

  3. Has Adult Sleep Duration Declined Over the Last 50+ Years?

    PubMed Central

    Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Goff, Eric E.; Reynolds, Alex M.; Kripke, Daniel F.; Irwin, Michael R.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Khan, Nidha; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2015-01-01

    Summary The common assumption that population sleep duration has declined in the past few decades has not been supported by recent reviews, which have been limited to self-reported data. The aim of this review was to assess whether there has been a reduction in objectively recorded sleep duration over the last 50+ years. The literature was searched for studies published from 1960–2013, which assessed objective sleep duration (TST) in healthy normal-sleeping adults. The search found 168 studies that met inclusion criteria, with 257 data points representing 6,052 individuals ages 18–88 years. Data were assessed by comparing the regression lines of age vs. TST in studies conducted between 1960–1989 vs. 1990–2013. Weighted regression analyses assessed the association of year of study with age-adjusted TST across all data points. Regression analyses also assessed the association of year of study with TST separately for 10-year age categories (e.g., ages 18–27 years), and separately for polysomnographic and actigraphic data, and for studies involving a fixed sleep schedule and participants’ customary sleep schedules. Analyses revealed no significant association of sleep duration with study year. The results are consistent with recent reviews of subjective data, which have challenged the notion of a modern epidemic of insufficient sleep. PMID:26478985

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope "Program of Last Resort"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Hathi, N.; Brown, T. M.

    2017-09-01

    Every year, the Space Telescope Science Institute allocates over 3000 orbits of Hubble time to approved Guest Observer, Snapshot, and Director's Discretionary programs. The many targets among all these programs are not distributed uniformly around the celestial sphere, and most targets have observational constraints that limit their schedulability to something less than the entire year. Despite the best efforts of the Hubble schedulers to allocate every last orbit, a small but persistent fraction ( 2 - 3%) of the orbits go unused. Salvaging this unused observing time presents an opportunity for the Institute to benefit the astronomy community. The Institute's Hubble Mission Office has initiated a pilot, ultra-low priority SNAP program (14840, PI: Bellini) in Cycle 24, with the goal of taking useful data in Hubble orbits that absolutely no other program is able to use. The initial target list comprises 500 moderately large, bright NGC/IC galaxies that were not previously imaged by HST in V -like filters. As of September 2017, over 100 galaxies have been observed as part of this program (≥ 2 galaxies per week). This document focuses on the data quality of the first 10 months of observations. All data taken through the SNAP-14840 program are intended for legacy science only, and STScI strongly encourage the astronomical community to use these data for science purposes.

  5. Tribal casinos in California: the last vestige of indoor smoking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos. Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke while visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban. Methods Predictors of visiting an Indian casino were assessed among participants of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (n = 10, 397). Exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke were subsequently analyzed among a subset of participants who had visited a casino in the year prior to the survey (n = 3, 361). Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino. Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections. The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited. Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino. PMID:22364487

  6. New OSL ages from last glacial loess in Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Pierre, Antoine; Zdzislaw, Jary; Piotr, Moska

    2017-04-01

    Loess from the last glaciation (Weichselian) in Silesia, southwest Poland, was deposited relatively close to the maximum ice advance. Therefore, periglacial features such as ice wedging, thermokarst, and gelifluction are well present in several exposures, but also interstadial soil formations or soil complexes. Our present research focusses on the transition from the Middle Pleniglacial to the Upper Pleniglacial. We present first OSL dating results from the loess sections Zapreczyn and Bialy Kosciol north and south from Wroclaw bracketing the interstadial L1S1 (Gi/LMd) soil complex. The different distance of these two sections from the maximum ice advance apparently caused some regional differences in the stratigraphy and the typology of the L1S1 soil complex which spans a considerable time due to repeated reworking and/or erosion of soil material under periglacial conditions. Whereas no ice-wedging is recorded from the "lower younger loess" at Bialy Kosciol, at Zapreczyn the loess containing a buried ice-wedge network is now evidently coeval with the lower younger loess and the upper younger loess is represented in a small "greda" containing sand stripes.

  7. Transient Climate Simulation of the last deglaciation in CCSM3

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Erickson III, David J; Jacob, Robert L.

    2009-12-01

    We conducted the first synchronously coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulation of global climate evolution of the last deglaciation (21,000-10,000 years ago) using the NCAR CCSM3. With realistic climate forcings associated with greenhouse gasses, orbital forcing and continental ice sheet, as well as a reasonable melting water forcing, our model reproduces some major deglacial climate features, such as the H1 event, the BA warming and the YD event. A preliminary model-data comparison shows a global climate evolution largely consistent with the reconstruction. The magnitude of our model climate responses are largely consistent with the reconstruction, suggesting a good agreement between observed and modeled climate sensitivity. In contrast to previous simulations of intermediate climate models, our model AMOC has little hysteresis. As a result, the model simulates the abrupt onset of the BA warming and the abrupt termination of the YD cooling as transient responses of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to abrupt terminations of freshwater discharges. Further implications to transient model-data comparison will also be discussed.

  8. Death Valley research revises age of last deep lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Slate, Janet L.; Heise, Bruce

    The last deep lake in Death Valley probably existed during marine isotope stage VI, more than 100,000 years earlier than previously thought, according to a paper presented this past spring at a conference on geologic research in Death Valley. The long accepted paradigm of a deep lake, known as Lake Manley in the very late Pleistocene appears to have fallen in light of recent U-series dating of high shorelines.This and other new research were the topics of an interdisciplinary meeting on the “Status of Geologic Research and Mapping in Death Valley National Park.” As its title indicates, the conference was organized to compile up-to-date information on the status of geologic research and mapping in Death Valley National Park and surrounding areas. It also was intended to establish a network of active researchers to create synergy for cooperative, interdisciplinary research endeavors and to present recent and current research results in an informal setting, thus encouraging dialogue.

  9. Global solar wind variations over the last four centuries.

    PubMed

    Owens, M J; Lockwood, M; Riley, P

    2017-01-31

    The most recent "grand minimum" of solar activity, the Maunder minimum (MM, 1650-1710), is of great interest both for understanding the solar dynamo and providing insight into possible future heliospheric conditions. Here, we use nearly 30 years of output from a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona to calibrate heliospheric reconstructions based solely on sunspot observations. Using these empirical relations, we produce the first quantitative estimate of global solar wind variations over the last 400 years. Relative to the modern era, the MM shows a factor 2 reduction in near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength and solar wind speed, and up to a factor 4 increase in solar wind Mach number. Thus solar wind energy input into the Earth's magnetosphere was reduced, resulting in a more Jupiter-like system, in agreement with the dearth of auroral reports from the time. The global heliosphere was both smaller and more symmetric under MM conditions, which has implications for the interpretation of cosmogenic radionuclide data and resulting total solar irradiance estimates during grand minima.

  10. Human population dynamics in Europe over the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Tallavaara, Miikka; Luoto, Miska; Korhonen, Natalia; Järvinen, Heikki; Seppä, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    The severe cooling and the expansion of the ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 27,000–19,000 y ago (27–19 ky ago) had a major impact on plant and animal populations, including humans. Changes in human population size and range have affected our genetic evolution, and recent modeling efforts have reaffirmed the importance of population dynamics in cultural and linguistic evolution, as well. However, in the absence of historical records, estimating past population levels has remained difficult. Here we show that it is possible to model spatially explicit human population dynamics from the pre-LGM at 30 ky ago through the LGM to the Late Glacial in Europe by using climate envelope modeling tools and modern ethnographic datasets to construct a population calibration model. The simulated range and size of the human population correspond significantly with spatiotemporal patterns in the archaeological data, suggesting that climate was a major driver of population dynamics 30–13 ky ago. The simulated population size declined from about 330,000 people at 30 ky ago to a minimum of 130,000 people at 23 ky ago. The Late Glacial population growth was fastest during Greenland interstadial 1, and by 13 ky ago, there were almost 410,000 people in Europe. Even during the coldest part of the LGM, the climatically suitable area for human habitation remained unfragmented and covered 36% of Europe. PMID:26100880

  11. Cholera in Mexico: the paradoxical benefits of the last pandemic.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Jaime; Valdespino, José Luis; García-García, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    To describe the impact of preventive and control measures in Mexico prior to, and during, the cholera epidemic of 1991-2001. When cholera appeared in Latin America in January 1991, the Mexican government considered that it represented a national security problem. Therefore, actions were implemented within the health sector (e.g. epidemiological surveillance, laboratory network and patient care) and other sectors (public education and basic sanitation). The first case occurred in Mexico in June 1991. The incidence rate remained below 17.9 per 100,000 inhabitants and affected mainly rural areas. The last cholera report occurred in 2001. The disease never became endemic. The population benefited not only from acquisition of knowledge about preventive measures, but also from modification of risky practices and from reinforcement of city and municipal drinking water supplies. Control strategies had an overall impact in decreasing diarrheal mortality among children under five years of age. Additionally the country did not suffer from a decrease in tourism or economic consequences. This experience can be considered as the operationalization of a new public health system spanning multisectorial activities, involving community participation, political will and with impact on public health and economic issues.

  12. Producing lasting amphiphobic building surfaces with self-cleaning properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facio, Dario S.; Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Mosquera, María J.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, producing building surfaces that prevent water and oil uptake and which present self-cleaning activity is still a challenge. In this study, amphiphobic (superhydrophobic and oleophobic) building surfaces were successfully produced. A simple and low-cost process was developed, which is applicable to large-scale building surfaces, according the following procedure: (1) by spraying a SiO2 nanocomposite which produces a closely-packed nanoparticle uniform topography; (2) by functionalizing the previous coating with a fluorinated alkoxysilane, producing high hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. The formation of a Cassie-Baxter regime, in which air pockets could be trapped between the aggregates of particles, was confirmed by topographic study. The building surface demonstrated an excellent self-cleaning performance. Finally, the surface presented lasting superhydrophobicity with high stability against successive attachment/detachment force cycles. This high durability can be explained by the effective grafting of the silica nanocomposite coating skeleton with the substrate, and with the additional fluorinated coating produced by condensation reactions.

  13. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Indian population since last decade.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Anuja; Yadav, Om Prakash; Narula, Sugandha; Dutta, Angel

    2016-01-01

    India suffers lot of disparities in terms of oral health care and 95% of the Indian population suffers from periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the risk factors responsible for periodontal diseases as well as prevalence for the same in the last decade to make an attempt to develop a strategy to improve formulation of an effective oral health care policy in India. Keywords such as "prevalence of periodontal diseases," "epidemiology," "periodontitis in India," and "oral hygiene status in India" were searched for appropriate studies to obtain a bibliographic database. The references of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications that included studies conducted in India estimating periodontal diseases with adequate sample size. Clinical parameters, sample size, and findings for each study were tabulated from 2006 to 2015 (till September 15, 2015) in chronological order to observe the prevalence as well as epidemiology of periodontal disease in India. The projection of periodontal disease is disturbing. In addition, the majority of studies done have used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) as its epidemiological tool that can grossly underestimate the presence of deep pockets. Current knowledge has shown that periodontitis does not present a linear progression and is not age-dependent. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. A structured all-inclusive survey of all districts of the states is a prerequisite for the constitution of an apt and cogent health care policy in our country.

  14. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D J; Scourse, J D; Halloran, P R; Nederbragt, A J; Wanamaker, A D; Butler, P G; Richardson, C A; Heinemeier, J; Eiríksson, J; Knudsen, K L; Hall, I R

    2016-12-06

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ(18)O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ(18)O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.

  15. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000–1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing. PMID:27922004

  16. Global solar wind variations over the last four centuries

    PubMed Central

    Owens, M. J.; Lockwood, M.; Riley, P.

    2017-01-01

    The most recent “grand minimum” of solar activity, the Maunder minimum (MM, 1650–1710), is of great interest both for understanding the solar dynamo and providing insight into possible future heliospheric conditions. Here, we use nearly 30 years of output from a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona to calibrate heliospheric reconstructions based solely on sunspot observations. Using these empirical relations, we produce the first quantitative estimate of global solar wind variations over the last 400 years. Relative to the modern era, the MM shows a factor 2 reduction in near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength and solar wind speed, and up to a factor 4 increase in solar wind Mach number. Thus solar wind energy input into the Earth’s magnetosphere was reduced, resulting in a more Jupiter-like system, in agreement with the dearth of auroral reports from the time. The global heliosphere was both smaller and more symmetric under MM conditions, which has implications for the interpretation of cosmogenic radionuclide data and resulting total solar irradiance estimates during grand minima. PMID:28139769

  17. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance.

  18. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Ito, T.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation and climate of the modern Southern Ocean is dominated by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and associated frontal structures that separate the cold, nutrient-rich Antarctic water masses from the subantarctic and subtropical waters of northern basins. The structure in seawater density across the ACC puts strong constraints on the intensity of the eastward flow. Here we investigate the density structure across the ACC during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We explore the relationship between the lateral density contrast across the ACC and the vertical density stratification north of the ACC in General Circulation Models (GCMs). We employ a compilation of paleoceanographic constraints from the literature, including the oxygen isotopic composition of benthic foraminifera and the chlorinity and oxygen isotopic composition of pore waters in order to reconstruct these vertical and lateral density contrasts south of Australia during the LGM. We infer that the density contrast across the ACC is slightly reduced relative today's. While some model simulations produce a density stratification and ACC much stronger than today's during the LGM, we find the bulk of the paleoceanographic data do not support such a scenario.

  19. Modelling the marine advance of the last Cordilleran ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguinot, Julien; Rogozhina, Irina

    2014-05-01

    Marine advance of the last Cordilleran ice sheet onto the north-eastern Pacific continental shelf may have caused rapid fluctuations of sea level and potentially impacted upon human migration into North America. However the position of the former ice front was critically controlled by a process that remains poorly understood: glacier calving. Geomorphological reconstructions show that part of the presently oceanic areas were ice-covered, allowing for downstream formation of the well-studied Puget and Juan de Fuca lobes. Here we use a numerical glacier model (PISM) to reconstruct the former marine front of the Cordilleran ice sheet and its impact on upstream ice dynamics. Our simulations show that the use of a thickness-based calving law leads to a strong deficit of marine ice cover in the areas where existing reconstructions suggest its advance. In contrast, a physically-based parametrization of glacier calving using the main components of the strain rate tensor (eigencalving; A. Levermann, T. Albrecht, R. Winkelmann, M. A. Martin, M. Haseloff, and I. Joughin, The Cryosphere, 6, 273-286, 2012) reproduces the geomorphologically inferred ice extent.

  20. Sea-level fluctuations during the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddall, M.; Rohling, E. J.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Hemleben, Ch.; Meischner, D.; Schmelzer, I.; Smeed, D. A.

    2003-06-01

    The last glacial cycle was characterized by substantial millennial-scale climate fluctuations, but the extent of any associated changes in global sea level (or, equivalently, ice volume) remains elusive. Highstands of sea level can be reconstructed from dated fossil coral reef terraces, and these data are complemented by a compilation of global sea-level estimates based on deep-sea oxygen isotope ratios at millennial-scale resolution or higher. Records based on oxygen isotopes, however, contain uncertainties in the range of +/-30m, or +/-1°C in deep sea temperature. Here we analyse oxygen isotope records from Red Sea sediment cores to reconstruct the history of water residence times in the Red Sea. We then use a hydraulic model of the water exchange between the Red Sea and the world ocean to derive the sill depth-and hence global sea level-over the past 470,000 years (470kyr). Our reconstruction is accurate to within +/-12m, and gives a centennial-scale resolution from 70 to 25kyr before present. We find that sea-level changes of up to 35m, at rates of up to 2cmyr-1, occurred, coincident with abrupt changes in climate.

  1. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.

  2. Hypothesized climate forcing time series for the last 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A.; Overpeck, J.; Rind, D.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Zielinski, G.; Lean, J.; Koch, D.; Penner, J.; Tegen, I.; Healy, R.

    2001-07-01

    A new compilation of annually resolved time series of atmospheric trace gas concentrations, solar irradiance, tropospheric aerosol optical depth, and stratospheric (volcanic) aerosol optical depth is presented for use in climate modeling studies of the period 1500 to 1999 A.D. Atmospheric CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations over this period are well established on the basis of fossil air trapped in ice cores and instrumental measurements over the last few decades. Estimates of solar irradiance, ranging between 1364.2 and 1368.2 W/m2, are presented using calibrated historical observations of the Sun back to 1610, along with cosmogenic isotope variations extending back to 1500. Tropospheric aerosol distributions are calculated by scaling the modern distribution of sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol optical depths back to 1860 using reconstructed regional CO2 emissions; prior to 1860 the anthropogenic tropospheric aerosol optical depths are assumed to be zero. Finally, the first continuous, annually dated record of zonally averaged stratospheric (volcanic) optical depths back to 1500 is constructed using sulfate flux data from multiple ice cores from both Greenland and Antarctica, in conjunction with historical and instrumental (satellite and pyrheliometric) observations. The climate forcings generated here are currently being used as input to a suite of transient (time dependent) paleoclimate model simulations of the past 500 years. These forcings are also available for comparison with instrumental and proxy paleoclimate data of the same period.

  3. Tribulations of the Last Mile: Sides from a Regional Program.

    PubMed

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Freire de Carvalho, Mary J; Vigilato, Marco A N; Rocha, Felipe; Vokaty, Alexandra; Pompei, Julio A; Molina Flores, Baldomero; Fenelon, Natael; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2017-01-01

    In Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries, the number of cases of dog-mediated human rabies is at its lowest since the onset of the Regional Program for Rabies Elimination in 1983, a commitment from LAC countries to eliminate dog-mediated rabies coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. Despite minor setbacks, the decline in the number of human cases has been constant since 1983. While many LAC countries have significantly reduced rabies to a level where it is no longer significant public health concern, elimination has proven elusive and pockets of the disease remain across the region. In the 33-year period since 1983, the region has set and committed to four dates for elimination (1990, 2000, 2012, and 2015). In this paper, we ponder on the multiple causes behind the elusive goal of rabies elimination, such as blanket regional goals oblivious to the large heterogeneity in national rabies capacities. Looking ahead to the elimination of dog-mediated rabies in the region, now established for 2022, we also review the many challenges and questions that the region faces in the last mile of the epidemic. Given the advanced position of the Americas in the race toward elimination, our considerations could provide valuable knowledge to other regions pursuing elimination goals.

  4. Liquor legislation, last drinks, and lockouts: the Newcastle (Australia) solution.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, G R; Palazzi, K; Oteng Boateng, B K; Oldmeadow, C

    2017-02-18

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the regional implementation of prohibitive liquor legislation, introduced in order to limit the sale of and access to alcohol, can lead to a sustained reduction in the incidence of assault occasioning facial injury, as seen in patients presenting to a level 1 trauma hospital. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to document patients who were identified as an acute hospital presentation of assault occasioning facial injury. The period of study was 2003-2015; this ensured a similar period of time before and after the implementation of the legislation in 2008. A statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the rates of change in oral and maxillofacial (OMF) assault admissions pre and post legislation. The study found that pre-legislation numbers of OMF assaults increased at a rate of 14% per annum and then decreased at a rate of 21% per annum post legislation (31% relative rate ratio reduction). Similar trends were seen for all males, males aged 18-35 years, and males where alcohol was recorded at clinical presentation. The introduction of 'last drinks' and 'lock out' legislation has led to a significant and sustained reduction in assaultive alcohol-related facial injury in Newcastle.

  5. Remagnetization of lava flows spanning the last geomagnetic reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Jérôme; Carlut, Julie; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Goff, Maxime Le; Soler, Vicente; Lopes, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Large directional changes of remanent magnetization within lava flows that cooled during geomagnetic reversals have been reported in several studies. A geomagnetic scenario implies extremely rapid geomagnetic changes of several degrees per day, thus difficult to reconcile with the rate of the earth's core liquid motions. So far, no complete rock magnetic model provides a clear explanation. We revisited lava flows sandwiched between an underlying reverse and an overlying normal polarity flow marking the last reversal in three distinct volcanic sequences of the La Palma Island (Canary archipelago, Spain) that are characterized by a gradual evolution of the direction of their remanent magnetization from bottom to top. Cleaning efficiency of thermal demagnetization was not improved by very rapid heating and cooling rates as well as by continuous demagnetization using a Triaxe magnetometer. We did not observe partial self-reversals and minor changes in magnetic grain sizes are not related to the within-flow directional changes. Microscopic observations indicate poor exsolution, which suggests post-cooling thermochemical remagnetization processes. This scenario is strongly reinforced by laboratory experiments that show large resistance to thermal demagnetization when thermoremanence was acquired over a long time period. We speculate that in the present situation exsolution was reactivated during in field reheating and yielded formation of new magnetite, yet magnetic domain state rearrangements could also play a role. Initial reheating when the overlying flow took place, albeit moderate (less than 200-300 °C), was enough to produce overlying components with significantly higher unblocking temperatures.

  6. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications.

  7. Tribulations of the Last Mile: Sides from a Regional Program

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J.; Freire de Carvalho, Mary J.; Vigilato, Marco A. N.; Rocha, Felipe; Vokaty, Alexandra; Pompei, Julio A.; Molina Flores, Baldomero; Fenelon, Natael; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2017-01-01

    In Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries, the number of cases of dog-mediated human rabies is at its lowest since the onset of the Regional Program for Rabies Elimination in 1983, a commitment from LAC countries to eliminate dog-mediated rabies coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. Despite minor setbacks, the decline in the number of human cases has been constant since 1983. While many LAC countries have significantly reduced rabies to a level where it is no longer significant public health concern, elimination has proven elusive and pockets of the disease remain across the region. In the 33-year period since 1983, the region has set and committed to four dates for elimination (1990, 2000, 2012, and 2015). In this paper, we ponder on the multiple causes behind the elusive goal of rabies elimination, such as blanket regional goals oblivious to the large heterogeneity in national rabies capacities. Looking ahead to the elimination of dog-mediated rabies in the region, now established for 2022, we also review the many challenges and questions that the region faces in the last mile of the epidemic. Given the advanced position of the Americas in the race toward elimination, our considerations could provide valuable knowledge to other regions pursuing elimination goals. PMID:28197407

  8. Greenland ice sheet melting during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, Petra M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.

    2016-04-01

    During the last interglacial period (LIG) peak temperatures over Greenland were several degrees warmer than today. The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) retreated causing a global sea-level rise in the order of several meters. Large uncertainties still exist in the exact amount of melt and on the source location of this melt. Here we examine the GIS response to LIG temperature and precipitation patterns using the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. The LIG climate was simulated by forcing the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) with the appropriate greenhouse gases and orbital settings. The resulting LIG ice volume evolution strongly depends on the chosen value of uncertain model parameters for the ice sheet (e.g. basal sliding parameter, PDD factors, and atmospheric temperature lapse rate). We reduce the uncertainty by evaluating an ensemble of model results against present-day observations of ice sheet size, elevation and stability, together with paleo information from deep ice cores. We find a maximum GIS reduction equivalent to 0.8 to 2.2m of global sea-level rise. In this model set-up most of the melting occurs in southwestern Greenland.

  9. The 'last mile' of data handling: Fermilab's IFDH tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Adam L.; Mengel, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    IFDH (Intensity Frontier Data Handling), is a suite of tools for data movement tasks for Fermilab experiments and is an important part of the FIFE[2] (Fabric for Intensity Frontier [1] Experiments) initiative described at this conference. IFDH encompasses moving input data from caches or storage elements to compute nodes (the 'last mile' of data movement) and moving output data potentially to those caches as part of the journey back to the user. IFDH also involves throttling and locking to ensure that large numbers of jobs do not cause data movement bottlenecks. IFDH is realized as an easy to use layer that users call in their job scripts (e.g. 'ifdh cp'), hiding the low level data movement tools. One advantage of this layer is that the underlying low level tools can be selected or changed without the need for the user to alter their scripts. Logging and performance monitoring can also be added easily. This system will be presented in detail as well as its impact on the ease of data handling at Fermilab experiments.

  10. [Declaration of Helsinki: its vicissitudes during the last five years].

    PubMed

    Klimovsky, Ezequiel; Saidon, Patricia; Nudelman, Luis; Bignone, Inés

    2002-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki is one of the major ethical guidelines for conducting clinical research. Along its existence it has been modified on diverse occasions, the latest one in October 2000. The objective of this article is to carry out a revision of the discussions that were taken up at this latest modification and the debates raised since its promulgation which still continue, fundamentally in relation to the use of placebo in pharmacological clinical investigation. This includes a revision of the most outstanding articles and of the opinions of the participants in the discussions that have been published in the last five years. The scientists' arguments in favor or against the use of placebo are pointed out. We consider that it is difficult to find simple answers to the questions raised by the use of placebo in clinical trials both in developed countries and in countries under development and that the Declaration of Helsinki continues to constitute a guide of ethical ideal which all those involved in clinical research should try to take into consideration.

  11. How long do routine dental restorations last? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Downer, M C; Azli, N A; Bedi, R; Moles, D R; Setchell, D J

    1999-10-23

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the longevity of routine dental restorations in permanent posterior teeth, and to identify and examine factors influencing its variability. Accepted guidelines were followed. An advisory group oversaw the project. Simple Class I and Class II amalgam, composite resin, glass ionomer and cast gold restorations were covered. Comprehensive searching of electronic databases, hand-searching, and location of 'grey' literature, generated 124 research reports. Those considered relevant were assessed for validity and quality according to agreed criteria. The analysis was descriptive. Eight of 58 relevant research reports were categorised, according to agreed criteria, as being of satisfactory validity and quality. They suggested that 50% of all restorations last 10 to 20 years, although both higher and lower median survival times were reported. The findings were supported by the totality of studies reviewed. However, variability was substantial. Restoration type, materials, the patient, the operator, the practice environment and type of care system appeared to influence longevity. Many studies were imperfect in design. Those considered to be the most appropriate for analysis were too limited to undertake a formal statistical exploration. Therefore there remains a need for definitive randomised controlled trials of restoration longevity, of sound design and adequate power, employing standardised assessments and appropriate methods of analysis.

  12. Global Connections for Lasting Impressions: Experiential Learning about TCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Colin; Miller, Alan; Oliver, Iain; Sturgeon, Thomas

    “Tell me and I forget, Show me and I remember, Involve me and I understand”. This paper discusses the motivation for, and design of, a learning resource which allows students to explore the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP is responsible for transporting over 80% of the traffic on the Internet - all web and e-mail for example - and in addition is the primary means of achieving Internet congestion control. TCP is therefore core to modern life. It is a protocol under constant study with a view to evolution, and it is incumbent on all ICT curricula to provide education at appropriate levels about its dynamics, strengths and weaknesses. There are no shortages of good textbooks which provide information on TCP, but these are no substitute for experiential learning in order to provide a lasting understanding. The TCP Live learning resource allows students to explore the behavior of TCP on the global Internet, and see the wide variety of conditions that the protocol has to cope with, thereby extending their viewpoint outwith the limited scope of their own institutional firewalls.

  13. Long-lasting antifog plasma modification of transparent plastics.

    PubMed

    Di Mundo, Rosa; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Palumbo, Fabio

    2014-10-08

    Antifog surfaces are necessary for any application requiring optical efficiency of transparent materials. Surface modification methods aimed toward increasing solid surface energy, even when supposed to be permanent, in fact result in a nondurable effect due to the instability in air of highly hydrophilic surfaces. We propose the strategy of combining a hydrophilic chemistry with a nanotextured topography, to tailor a long-lasting antifog modification on commercial transparent plastics. In particular, we investigated a two-step process consisting of self-masked plasma etching followed by plasma deposition of a silicon-based film. We show that the deposition of the silicon-based coatings on the flat (pristine) substrates allows a continuous variation of wettability from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic, due to a continuous reduction of carbon-containing groups, as assessed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. By depositing these different coatings on previously nanotextured substrates, the surface wettability behavior is changed consistently, as well as the condensation phenomenon in terms of microdroplets/liquid film appearance. This variation is correlated with advancing and receding water contact angle features of the surfaces. More importantly, in the case of the superhydrophilic coating, though its surface energy decreases with time, when a nanotextured surface underlies it, the wetting behavior is maintained durably superhydrophilic, thus durably antifog.

  14. Cosmic ray particles behavior during last solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenbach, Marlos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Takao; Bieber, John; Schuch, Nelson; Duldig, Marc; Humble, John; Jassar, Hala Al; Sharma, Madan; Sabbah, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    The work presents the Heliosphere characterization during the minimum solar activity. It is possible to identify phenomena caused by the Corrotating Interaction Regions - CIRs, during this solar activity phase. CIRs can be visualized in satellite data for each 27 days, approximately, and it is frequently accompanied by the Earth crossing through the Heliospheric Current Sheath - HCS. These crossing occur in a period of time lower than a day, and it is possible to study the behavior of cosmic rays particles in two different regions with opposite magnetic field polarities. The last solar minimum was special because their long duration and it was the first that the Global Muon Detector Network - GMDN operated in its full capacity. This cosmic ray detectors network is composed by muon scintillators installed in Nagoya - Japan, Hobart - Australia, São Martinho da Serra - Brazil and Kuwait City - Kuwait. Analyzing the GMDN data together with data from SOHO and/or ACE satellites it is possible to study the behavior of the cosmic ray particles and presents a Heliosphere characterization during the minimum solar activity, giving a better understanding of the cosmic ray particles modulation.

  15. Ground movement at Somma-Vesuvius from Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marturano, Aldo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Fedele, Lorenzo; Morra, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Detailed micropalaeontological and petrochemical analyses of rock samples from two boreholes drilled at the archaeological excavations of Herculaneum, ~ 7 km west of the Somma -Vesuvius crater, allowed reconstruction of the Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental evolution of the site. The data provide clear evidence for ground uplift movements involving the studied area. The Holocenic sedimentary sequence on which the archaeological remains of Herculaneum rest has risen several meters at an average rate of ~ 4 mm/yr. The uplift has involved the western apron of the volcano and the Sebeto-Volla Plain, a populous area including the eastern suburbs of Naples. This is consistent with earlier evidence for similar uplift for the areas of Pompeii and Sarno valley (SE of the volcano) and the Somma -Vesuvius eastern apron. An axisimmetric deep source of strain is considered responsible for the long-term uplift affecting the whole Somma -Vesuvius edifice. The deformation pattern can be modeled as a single pressure source, sited in the lower crust and surrounded by a shell of Maxwell viscoelastic medium, which experienced a pressure pulse that began at the Last Glacial Maximum.

  16. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  17. NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program - Accomplishments In Last Cycle Ending 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Summerlin, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program is now into a new triennial cycle of funded research, with new research awards beginning in 2011. The theory program was established by the (former) Solar Terrestrial Division in 1980 to redress a weakness of support in the theory area. It has been a successful, evolving scientific program with long-term funding of relatively large "critical mass groups" pursuing theory and modeling on a scale larger than that available within the limits of traditional NASA Supporting Research and Technology awards. The results of the last 3 year funding cycle, just ended, contributed to ever more cutting edge theoretical understanding of all parts of the Sun-Earth Connection chain. Advances ranged from the core of the Sun out into the corona, through the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere and down to the ionosphere and lower atmosphere, also contributing to understanding the environments of other solar system bodies. The HTP contributions were not isolated findings but continued to contribute to the planning and implementation of NASA spacecraft missions and to the development of the predictive computer models that have become the workhorses for analyzing satellite and ground-based measurements.

  18. NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program - Accomplishments in its Last Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program (HTP) is now into a new triennial cycle of funded research, with new research awards beginning in 2008. The theory program was established by the (former) Solar Terrestrial Division in 1980 to redress a weakness of support in the theory area. It has been a successful, evolving scientific program with long-term funding of relatively large "critical mass groups" pursuing theory and modeling on a scale larger than that available within the limits of traditional NASA Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) awards. The results of the last 3 year funding cycle, just ended, contributed to ever more cutting edge theoretical understanding of all parts of the Sun-Earth Connection chain. Advances ranged from the core of the Sun out into the corona, through the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere and down to the ionosphere and lower atmosphere, also contributing to understanding the environments of other solar system bodies. The HTP contributions were not isolated findings but continued to contribute to the planning and implementation of NASA spacecraft missions and to the development of the predictive computer models that have become the workhorses for analyzing satellite and ground-based measurements.

  19. Variability of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, N.; Gagan, M. K.; Dixon, B.; Hantoro, W. S.; Shen, C.; WU, C.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) climate mode interacts with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Asian monsoon systems to drive climatic extremes around the Indian Ocean region. Coral reconstructions of the interannual variability of the IOD since the 1850s show an intensification in the frequency and strength of the positive phase of the IOD in recent decades, as well as strengthening of the interconnection between the IOD and Asian monsoon systems. Reconstructions of the mean climate state across the tropical Indian Ocean since the mid-Holocene also demonstrate the dynamic nature of the mean configuration of tropical Indian Ocean climate, suggesting that the IOD variability and interactions observed on interannual time scales may also persist over century to millennial scales. Here we present new oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from modern Porites corals collected on a transect along Java-Sumatra coasts. These corals, located within the IOD upwelling zone, are used to identify the location where optimum information about the occurrence and magnitude of positive IOD events can be gained from single corals. Precisely-dated fossil corals from this location of optimum IOD variability are then used to reconstruct highly resolved windows of IOD variability during the last millennium, including intervals corresponding to the northern hemisphere Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.

  20. About ozone depletion in stratosphere over Brazil in last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Inácio M.; Imai, Takeshi; Seguchi, Tomio

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone, resulting from the emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has become a major issue since 1980. The decrease in stratospheric ozone over the polar regions has been pronounced at the South Pole than at the North Pole. In mid-latitude and equatorial regions, ozone depletion becomes less important; it depends on seasonal effects and on the characteristics of a particular region. The detailed mechanism by which the polar ozone holes form is different from that for the mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both trends is the catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine and bromine. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photodissociation of CFC compounds, commonly called freons, and of bromofluorocarbon compounds known as halons. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Both ozone depletion mechanisms strengthened as emissions of CFCs and halons increased [1]. Measurements of stratospheric ozone carried out on several locations in Brazil and on the South Pole in the last decade (1996-2005), using detectors placed on ground, stratospheric balloons and Earth Probe TOMS satellites, are presented here. Detailed series analysis from 1980 up to the present describes a mean ozone depletion of 4[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone/depletion.

  1. The Last Glacial Maximum experiment in PMIP4-CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Masa; Braconnot, Pascale; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Harrison, Sandy; Lambert, Fabrice; Peltier, W. Richard; Tarasov, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), around 21,000 years ago, is a cold climate extreme. As such, it has been the focus of many studies on modelling and climate reconstruction, which have brought knowledge on the mechanisms explaining this climate, in terms of climate on the continents and of the ocean state, and in terms relationships between climate changes over land, ice sheets and oceans. It is still a challenge for climate or Earth System models to represent the amplitude of climate changes for this period, under the following forcings: - Ice sheets, which represent perturbations in land surface type, altitude and land/ocean distribution - Atmospheric composition - Astronomical parameters Feedbacks from the vegetation and dust are also known to have played a role in setting up the LGM climate but have not been accounted for in previous PMIP experiments. In this poster, we will present the experimental set-up of the PMIP4 LGM experiment, which is presently being discussed and will be finalized for March 2016. For more information and discussion of the PMIP4-CMIP6 experimental design, please visit: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/pmip3/doku.php/pmip3:cmip6:design:index

  2. The physiology and habitat of the last universal common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Madeline C; Sousa, Filipa L; Mrnjavac, Natalia; Neukirchen, Sinje; Roettger, Mayo; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Martin, William F

    2016-07-25

    The concept of a last universal common ancestor of all cells (LUCA, or the progenote) is central to the study of early evolution and life's origin, yet information about how and where LUCA lived is lacking. We investigated all clusters and phylogenetic trees for 6.1 million protein coding genes from sequenced prokaryotic genomes in order to reconstruct the microbial ecology of LUCA. Among 286,514 protein clusters, we identified 355 protein families (∼0.1%) that trace to LUCA by phylogenetic criteria. Because these proteins are not universally distributed, they can shed light on LUCA's physiology. Their functions, properties and prosthetic groups depict LUCA as anaerobic, CO2-fixing, H2-dependent with a Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, N2-fixing and thermophilic. LUCA's biochemistry was replete with FeS clusters and radical reaction mechanisms. Its cofactors reveal dependence upon transition metals, flavins, S-adenosyl methionine, coenzyme A, ferredoxin, molybdopterin, corrins and selenium. Its genetic code required nucleoside modifications and S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methylations. The 355 phylogenies identify clostridia and methanogens, whose modern lifestyles resemble that of LUCA, as basal among their respective domains. LUCA inhabited a geochemically active environment rich in H2, CO2 and iron. The data support the theory of an autotrophic origin of life involving the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in a hydrothermal setting.

  3. Protein superfamily evolution and the last universal common ancestor (LUCA).

    PubMed

    Ranea, Juan A G; Sillero, Antonio; Thornton, Janet M; Orengo, Christine A

    2006-10-01

    By exploiting three-dimensional structure comparison, which is more sensitive than conventional sequence-based methods for detecting remote homology, we have identified a set of 140 ancestral protein domains using very restrictive criteria to minimize the potential error introduced by horizontal gene transfer. These domains are highly likely to have been present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) based on their universality in almost all of 114 completed prokaryotic (Bacteria and Archaea) and eukaryotic genomes. Functional analysis of these ancestral domains reveals a genetically complex LUCA with practically all the essential functional systems present in extant organisms, supporting the theory that life achieved its modern cellular status much before the main kingdom separation (Doolittle 2000). In addition, we have calculated different estimations of the genetic and functional versatility of all the superfamilies and functional groups in the prokaryote subsample. These estimations reveal that some ancestral superfamilies have been more versatile than others during evolution allowing more genetic and functional variation. Furthermore, the differences in genetic versatility between protein families are more attributable to their functional nature rather than the time that they have been evolving. These differences in tolerance to mutation suggest that some protein families have eroded their phylogenetic signal faster than others, hiding in many cases, their ancestral origin and suggesting that the calculation of 140 ancestral domains is probably an underestimate.

  4. Long lasting consequences of cannabis exposure in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

    2008-04-16

    Despite the increasing use of cannabis among adolescents, there are little and often contradictory studies on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabis consumption in juveniles. Adolescence is a critical phase for cerebral development, where the endocannabinoid system plays an important role influencing the release and action of different neurotransmitters. Therefore, a strong stimulation by the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour. The literature here summarized by use of experimental animal models, puts forward that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle changes in the adult brain circuits ending in altered emotional and cognitive performance, enhanced vulnerability for the use of more harmful drugs of abuse in selected individuals, and may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Therefore, the potential problems arising in relation to marijuana consumption in adolescence suggest that this developmental phase is a vulnerable period for persistent adverse effects of cannabinoids.

  5. Integrative oncology: the last ten years--a personal retrospectve.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D Barry

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been dramatic changes in all areas of integrative patient care. None has been more dramatic than those in the field of cancer care, which has gone from alternative and complementary treatments delivered outside the conventional setting to the integration of many of these approaches into the care of the cancer patient. In many cases, these changes have been driven by patient demand and supported by private funding and out-of-pocket payments by patients themselves. Virtually all major medical centers have departments devoted to integrative patient care--whether true stand-alone centers or departments with a research interest in this area. This is particularly true of the major cancer centers, many of which-including Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md; Duke University, Durham, NC; and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass--have developed integrative cancer programs. In addition, programs such as the Cancer Treatment Centers of America have inpatient and outpatient programs with teams of practitioners, including medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, as well as credentialed naturopathic doctors, nutritionists, mind-body specialists and other integrative practitioners. Despite the increased interest in developing integrative approaches to cancer, many medical oncologists remain skeptical about the value of these modalities.

  6. Human population dynamics in Europe over the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Tallavaara, Miikka; Luoto, Miska; Korhonen, Natalia; Järvinen, Heikki; Seppä, Heikki

    2015-07-07

    The severe cooling and the expansion of the ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 27,000-19,000 y ago (27-19 ky ago) had a major impact on plant and animal populations, including humans. Changes in human population size and range have affected our genetic evolution, and recent modeling efforts have reaffirmed the importance of population dynamics in cultural and linguistic evolution, as well. However, in the absence of historical records, estimating past population levels has remained difficult. Here we show that it is possible to model spatially explicit human population dynamics from the pre-LGM at 30 ky ago through the LGM to the Late Glacial in Europe by using climate envelope modeling tools and modern ethnographic datasets to construct a population calibration model. The simulated range and size of the human population correspond significantly with spatiotemporal patterns in the archaeological data, suggesting that climate was a major driver of population dynamics 30-13 ky ago. The simulated population size declined from about 330,000 people at 30 ky ago to a minimum of 130,000 people at 23 ky ago. The Late Glacial population growth was fastest during Greenland interstadial 1, and by 13 ky ago, there were almost 410,000 people in Europe. Even during the coldest part of the LGM, the climatically suitable area for human habitation remained unfragmented and covered 36% of Europe.

  7. African hydroclimatic variability during the last 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, David J.; De Cort, Gijs; Chase, Brian M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Asrat, Asfawossen; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Grab, Stefan W.

    2016-12-01

    The African continent is characterised by a wide range of hydroclimate regimes, ranging from humid equatorial West Africa to the arid deserts in the northern and southern subtropics. The livelihoods of much of its population are also vulnerable to future climate change, mainly through variability in rainfall affecting water resource availability. A growing number of data sources indicate that such hydroclimatic variability is an intrinsic component of Africa's natural environment. This paper, co-authored by members of the PAGES Africa 2k Working Group, presents an extensive assessment and discussion of proxy, historical and instrumental evidence for hydroclimatic variability across the African continent, spanning the last two millennia. While the African palaeoenvironmental record is characterised by spatially disjunctive datasets, with often less-than-optimal temporal resolution and chronological control, the available evidence allows the assessment of prominent spatial patterns of palaeomoisture variability through time. In this study, we focus sequentially on data for six major time windows: the first millennium CE, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (900-1250 CE), the Little Ice Age (1250-1750 CE), the end of the LIA (1750-1850 CE), the Early Modern Period (1850-1950), and the period of recent warming (1950 onwards). This results in a continent-wide synthesis of regional moisture-balance trends through history, allowing consideration of possible driving mechanisms, and suggestions for future research.

  8. Asian summer monsoon variability during the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawchai, Sakonvan; Chabangborn, Akkaneewut; Fritz, Sherilyn; Blaauw, Maarten; Löwemark, Ludvig; Reimer, Paula J.; Krusic, Paul J.; Väliranta, Minna; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The Southeast Asian mainland is located in the central path of the Asian summer monsoon, a region where paleoclimatic data are still sparse. Here we report a new detailed reconstruction of monsoon variability during the past 2000 years from a multi-proxy sediment record (TOC, C/N, δ13C, δ15N, Si, K, Ti elemental data, biogenic silica and fossil plant remains) from Lake Pa Kho in northeast Thailand. We infer a stronger summer monsoon between BC 200 - AD 400 and AD 800 - 1350, a weaker summer monsoon AD 400 - 800, and fluctuating moisture availability AD 1350 - 1550. Increased run-off after AD 1750 can be linked to agricultural intensification in the region. Placed in a wider context our high-resolution data set contributes important information regarding abrupt shifts in hydroclimatic conditions, spatial patterns of monsoon variability, and variations in the position of the ITCZ across SE Asia during the last two millennia. These paleoclimatic shifts may have contributed to the rise and fall of Iron Age and Khmer societies.

  9. Polar Magnetic Fields Observed During the Last Four Solar Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The Sun's polar fields during the current minimum are the weakest in at least four solar cycles. The field strengths are fairly symmetric, unlike at least the two previous minima. We compare data from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) to follow the polar field changes since 1976. The polar field is never observed well from Earth because the ecliptic lies near the Sun's equator, and each year the view of the north (south) is completely hidden for several months around March 7 (September 7). Analysis of the most favorably oriented MDI synoptic maps each year allows us to derive the fairly slowly evolving large-scale polar magnetic field pattern from 1996 to the present. We account for differential rotation and other geometric effects. The analysis allows us to provide a useful interpolated or extrapolated correction that can be smoothly incorporated into the global synoptic or synchronic maps above about 70 degrees latitude. The polar field is important in modeling the large-scale coronal and heliospheric field, particularly at minimum. Even though there has been extremely little solar activity over the last several months, at the current solar minimum the structure of the corona is much less equatorial than usual, in part because the polar fields are relatively weak.

  10. Global solar wind variations over the last four centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. J.; Lockwood, M.; Riley, P.

    2017-01-01

    The most recent “grand minimum” of solar activity, the Maunder minimum (MM, 1650–1710), is of great interest both for understanding the solar dynamo and providing insight into possible future heliospheric conditions. Here, we use nearly 30 years of output from a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona to calibrate heliospheric reconstructions based solely on sunspot observations. Using these empirical relations, we produce the first quantitative estimate of global solar wind variations over the last 400 years. Relative to the modern era, the MM shows a factor 2 reduction in near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength and solar wind speed, and up to a factor 4 increase in solar wind Mach number. Thus solar wind energy input into the Earth’s magnetosphere was reduced, resulting in a more Jupiter-like system, in agreement with the dearth of auroral reports from the time. The global heliosphere was both smaller and more symmetric under MM conditions, which has implications for the interpretation of cosmogenic radionuclide data and resulting total solar irradiance estimates during grand minima.

  11. The last total Eclipse of teh Millenium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguch, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1998-09-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millenium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two components and has been the cradle of so many past civilisations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificient event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of hystorical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible , Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and the Earthquake Research Institute has arranged field work on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey form south-east at 14:42 L.T. Official observational sites are given in the following table. These sites will have catering, toilet, and guidance facilities. Osmanchik 40.98D North 34.82D East Turhal 40.40D North 36.10D East Sivas 39.75D North 37.03D East Elazig 38.68D North 39.23D East Diyarbakir 37.92D North 40.23D East Batman 37.87 North 41.12D East

  12. Global peatland dynamics since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zicheng; Loisel, Julie; Brosseau, Daniel P.; Beilman, David W.; Hunt, Stephanie J.

    2010-07-01

    Here we present a new data synthesis of global peatland ages, area changes, and carbon (C) pool changes since the Last Glacial Maximum, along with a new peatland map and total C pool estimates. The data show different controls of peatland expansion and C accumulation in different regions. We estimate that northern peatlands have accumulated 547 (473-621) GtC, showing maximum accumulation in the early Holocene in response to high summer insolation and strong summer - winter climate seasonality. Tropical peatlands have accumulated 50 (44-55) GtC, with rapid rates about 8000-4000 years ago affected by a high and more stable sea level, a strong summer monsoon, and before the intensification of El Niño. Southern peatlands, mostly in Patagonia, South America, have accumulated 15 (13-18) GtC, with rapid accumulation during the Antarctic Thermal Maximum in the late glacial, and during the mid-Holocene thermal maximum. This is the first comparison of peatland dynamics among these global regions. Our analysis shows that a diversity of drivers at different times have significantly impacted the global C cycle, through the contribution of peatlands to atmospheric CH4 budgets and the history of peatland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere.

  13. How warm was Greenland during the last interglacial period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Capron, Emilie; Langenbroeck, Petra; Bakker, Pepijn; Stone, Emma; Fischer, Hubertus; Vinther, Bo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    The last interglacial period (LIG, ~129-116 thousand years ago) provides the most recent evidence for the response of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to polar warming above pre-industrial level, and a valuable test bed for ice sheet models. Key constraints on past changes in both ice sheet topography and surface temperature are derived from Greenland ice cores. The large warming estimated from the recent NEEM ice core drilled in northwest Greenland (8 ±4°C above pre-industrial) together with the evidence for limited local ice thinning have led to the "NEEM paradox", suggesting more stability of the ice sheet than simulated by ice flow models in response to such large warming. Here, we provide a new assessment of the LIG warming using ice core air isotopic composition (d15N) together with available relationships for Greenland between accumulation rate and temperature. The temperature at the upstream NEEM deposition site is estimated to be between -20°C to -24°C which is consistent with the 8±4°C warming relative to pre-industrial previously determined from water isotopic records measured on the NEEM ice, although we feel the lower end of this range to be more likely. Moreover, we show that under such warm temperature, melting of snow probably led to a significant firn shrinking by 15 m. We show that confirmation of this high temperature range for the LIG in Greenland is difficult to reconcile with climate modeling experiments

  14. [The last twenty years of hygiene in research and teaching].

    PubMed

    Fara, G M

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the research topics in the last twenty years made it clear that Italian research in the field of hygiene and public health has moved from the traditional fields of infectious diseases and environmental pollution to include also chronic diseases, organization and evaluation of health services, genomics in epidemiology, health technology assessment and health impact evaluation. In the same period, teaching of hygiene and public health has been profoundly innovated. Degrees for non-medical health operators, many of whom strictly connected with the field of public health such as nurses, health visitors, public health laboratory technicians, are now granted by medical schools; the MD degree has also been innovated with strong addition of humanities and preventive disciplines; and the post-graduate School of Preventive Medicine has been brought to 5 years, transformed into a fully professional specialization and regulated by requisites and standards granted by both Ministries of University and Health and surveilled by National and Regional Control Bodies. Beginning 1999, a strong age renovation took place for hygiene professors, with the advancement of many young people. But this process has been interrupted after 2007, and the economic crisis now under way, together with the recent modification of the age limits for retirement of professors, now reduced from 75 to 70 years, will probably bring their number below a safety limit for many years to come. Only a revision of teaching procedures will allow the "survivors" to respond to the teaching needs of the future.

  15. The relative importance of methane sources and sinks over the Last Interglacial period and into the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiquet, A.; Archibald, A. T.; Friend, A. D.; Chappellaz, J.; Levine, J. G.; Stone, E. J.; Telford, P. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    All recent climatic projections for the next century suggest that we are heading towards a warmer climate than today (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report), driven by increasing atmospheric burdens of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In particular, the volume mixing ratio of methane, the second-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, has increased by a factor of ˜2.5 from the beginning of the European Industrial Revolution. Due to their complex responses to climatic factors, understanding of the dynamics of future global methane emissions and sinks is crucial for the next generation of climate projections. Of relevance to this problem, the Earth likely experienced warmer average temperatures than today during the Last Interglacial (LIG) period (130-115 kaBP). Interestingly, ice cores do not indicate a different methane mixing ratio from the Pre-Industrial Holocene (PIH), in other words the current interglacial period prior to anthropogenic influence. This is surprising as warmer temperatures might be expected to increase methane emissions. The present study aims to improve our understanding of the changes in the global methane budget through quantifying the relative importance of sources and sinks of methane during the last full glacial-interglacial cycle. A fairly limited number of studies have investigated this cycle at the millenium time scale with most of them examining the doubling in CH4 from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the PIH. Though it is still a matter of debate, a general consensus suggests a predominant role to the change in methane emissions from wetlands and only a limited change in the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere. In the present study we provide an estimate of the relative importance of sources and sinks during the LIG period, using a complex climate-chemistry model to quantify the sinks, and a methane emissions model included in a global land surface model, for the sources. We are not aware of any

  16. Variations in the methane budget over the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapart, C. J.

    2012-06-01

    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas and even though its atmospheric abundance is lower than carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 has a global warming potential twenty-five times larger than CO2 and its atmospheric abundance has drastically increased since 1800. Understanding the evolution of the CH4 atmospheric abundance is complex, because it is controlled by multiple sources (e.g. wetlands, biomass burning, ruminants, rice paddies and fossil fuel) and sinks, and large uncertainties exist on how sensitive those sources and sinks are to climate variability. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of climate variability and anthropogenic activity on the CH4 budget, i.e. the balance between the different sources and sinks, during the last two millennia. For this purpose a technique was developed to analyze the CH4 isotopic composition of air in ice cores. Analysis of the isotopic composition of CH4 preserved in ice cores provides evidence for the environmental drivers of variations in CH4 mixing ratios, because different sources and sinks affect the isotopic composition of CH4 uniquely. Our main results from air trapped in Greenland ice cores shows that the carbon isotopic composition (d13C) of CH4 underwent pronounced centennial-scale variations between 200 BC and 1600 AD without clear corresponding changes in CH4 mixing ratios. Two-box model calculations suggest that those centennial-scale variations in isotope ratios are due to changes in biomass burning and biogenic sources (e.g. wetlands, agriculture), which are correlated with both natural climate variability, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly and with changes in human population, land-use and important events in history as the expansion of the Roman Empire, the fall of the Han dynasty and the Medieval period. This shows that human activity had an impact on the methane budget already two thousand years ago and is likely responsible for the atmospheric methane increase in the atmosphere during

  17. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  18. Danube Delta Coastline Dynamics in the Last 160 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tătui, Florin; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred; Constantinescu, Ştefan; Zăinescu, Florin

    2017-04-01

    Wave-dominated deltaic coasts depend on the balance between wave climate and sediment supply, which controls the medium and long-term shoreline evolution. Interestingly, the common plan shapes of the wave-dominated lobes impose different wave exposures and longshore sediment transport magnitudes on the lobe flanks, characterized by ever changing aspects which make these sandy coasts some of the most mobile world coastlines. The Danube Delta coast consists of approximately 220 km (both Romanian and Ukrainian sectors) of tideless, medium-energy low-lying sandy beaches interrupted by multiple river mouths and, sometimes, by engineering structures (Sulina jetties and Midia harbour). The objective of this study is to examine and explain the factors which have driven the Danube Delta coastline dynamics at multi-annual to multi-decadal and centennial time-scales. Our analysis is based on multiple shorelines extracted from historical and modern maps (since mid-19th century), recent medium to high resolution satellite images (since 1984), aerial photos (since 1969), GPS surveys (available after 1990) and LIDAR data (2011), which were comparatively analysed by means of GIS techniques. Nowadays, more than half ( 55%) of the Romanian Danube Delta shoreline (disposed in five littoral cells) is affected by erosion. The present coastline configuration is the result of the long-term evolution of this deltaic coast. Depending on the temporal and spatial scales taken into consideration, different driving forces changed the leading role in the dynamics of Danube Delta shoreline in the last 160 years. At centennial time-scale, the threefold decrease of Danube sediment discharge in the last century (especially after 1950, as a result of dams` construction in the Danube watershed) explains the significantly higher shoreline migration rates and area changes between 1856 and 1961/1979 in comparison with the subsequent period, especially along the accumulative sectors. For the Chilia

  19. The unstable geomagnetic field during the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowaczyk, Norbert; Frank, Ute; Kind, Jessica; Plessen, Birgit; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analyses of a sediment composite record from three different sites in the southeastern Black Sea yielded a high-resolution, well-dated paleomagnetic record of the past 14 to 68 ka. Age constraints are provided by 16 AMS 14C ages, identification of the Campanian Ignimbrite tephra (39.28±0.11 ka), and by detailed tuning of sedimentologic parameters of the Black Sea sediments to the oxygen isotope record from the Greenland NGRIP ice core. Dansgaard-Oeschger events 3 through 18 are very well expressed in the Black Sea sedimentary records of Ca-content, oxygen isotopes as well as in records of ice-rafted detritus. Though hampered by some larger hiatusses at one site, and patchy contaminations by diagenetically formed greigite, the paleomagnetic composite record obtained from the preserved primary detrital magnetite phase reflects a highly dynamic geomagnetic field during the last glacial period. Relative variations of paleointensity inferred from the sediments' magnetisations were converted into a record of the virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Thus, the Black Sea paleomagnetic record comprises evidence for the Norwegian-Greenland-Sea excursion at 64.5 ka (VADM = 1.5×1022 Am2), a full reversal of the geomagnetic field during the Laschamp excursion at 41 ka and several subsequent excursions with low northern virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) latitudes, including the Mono Lake excursion at 34.5 ka (VADM = 3.0×1022 Am2). According to the derived age model, VGP positions during the Laschamp excursion persisted at high southern latitudes in Antarctica for an estimated 440 years, making the Laschamp excursion a short-lived event with fully reversed polarity directions. Recorded field reversals of the Laschamp excursion, lasting only an estimated ~250 years, are characterized by very low paleointensities with VADMs as low as 0.50×1022 Am2. The reversed phase of the Laschamp excursion is associated with a significant field recovery with a VADM of 2.0

  20. Mediterranean Ocean Climate for the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    To correctly reproduce past climate changes is one of the prerequistes for reliably predicting anthropogenic climate change. Here, results from an attempt to simulate the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21.000 years ago) for the Mediterranean Sea are pesented. For this time slice, precompiled proxy data sets exist. One key problem in regional ocean modelling for past time slices is to obtain atmospheric forcing data. A multi-step approach is used. A coarse resolution earth system model consisting of coupled atmospheric-oceanic general circulation models (ECHAM5_T31/MPIOM_GR3) with a dynamical vegetation model (LPJ) was integrated for several thousand years to steady state. The surface conditions derived from these model simulations (sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice and vegetation) were used as lower boundary conditions for a short (20 years plus 9 years of spinup) simulation with a high resolution stand-alone atmosphere model (ECHAM5_T106). The continental runoff was calculated using a hydrological discharge model. This procedure was performed both for the Last Glacial Maximum as well as for a preindustrial control simulation. Atmospheric composition, earth orbital parameters, topography and ice sheet distribution were prescribed following the protocol for the PMIP2 project. The simulations of the Mediterranean ocean climate were performed with a regional version of MPIOM. The model has a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km and 29 levels. The surface heat fluxes are calculated with bulk fomulas using the model SST. Freshwater forcing consists of evaporation (calculated from the latent heat flux), precipitation and river runoff. The model uses daily forcing for the atmospheric input derived from the high resolution atmosphere model. In the Atlantic box a restoring to observed hydrography is applied. For the LGM the anomalies from the coupled model are added to observations. This model has been integrated in each of the cases for more than

  1. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hentall, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts) are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 mA-h were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm) but taller (6 mm) were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat's raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-min (50% duty cycle) trains of 30 μA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n = 128). Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n = 16) were achieved with larger batteries (44 mA-h) in longer (18 mm), taller (6 mm) capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat's sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation. PMID:24130527

  2. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Indian population since last decade

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Anuja; Yadav, Om Prakash; Narula, Sugandha; Dutta, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: India suffers lot of disparities in terms of oral health care and 95% of the Indian population suffers from periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the risk factors responsible for periodontal diseases as well as prevalence for the same in the last decade to make an attempt to develop a strategy to improve formulation of an effective oral health care policy in India. Materials and Methods: Keywords such as “prevalence of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology,” “periodontitis in India,” and “oral hygiene status in India” were searched for appropriate studies to obtain a bibliographic database. The references of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications that included studies conducted in India estimating periodontal diseases with adequate sample size. Clinical parameters, sample size, and findings for each study were tabulated from 2006 to 2015 (till September 15, 2015) in chronological order to observe the prevalence as well as epidemiology of periodontal disease in India. Results: The projection of periodontal disease is disturbing. In addition, the majority of studies done have used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) as its epidemiological tool that can grossly underestimate the presence of deep pockets. Conclusion: Current knowledge has shown that periodontitis does not present a linear progression and is not age-dependent. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. A structured all-inclusive survey of all districts of the states is a prerequisite for the constitution of an apt and cogent health care policy in our country. PMID:27114945

  3. [Bacterial enteric pathogens' resistance to fluoroquinolones and last generation cephalosporines].

    PubMed

    Damian, Maria; Usein, Codruţa-Romanita; Palade, Andi Marian; Băltoiu, Mădălina; Condei, Maria; Ciontea, Simona; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    The increase of incidence of resistance to the antibiotics became the most worrisome subject within the clinical and research communities in the medical fields. Intrinsic resistance genetic mutations, horizontal transfer of mobile structures carrying genes coding for resistance to the antibiotics within the pan-microbial genome are representing the bacterial resistome which is bearing the genetic information regarding the defensive mechanisms developed by micro-organisms to protect themselves against antibiotics. Rice in the resistance of enteric bacteria, pathogens involved in a large number of human infections, to the cephalosporin of last generation and to the fluoroquinolones is a very actual subject in the medical area. Production of beta-lactamases with extended spectrum is the most important enzymatic defence system, developed by micro-organisms, consisting in the inactivation of beta-lactam antibiotics by destroying the beta-lactam ring. Enterobacteria are able to produce beta-lactamases of type TEM, SHV and/or CTX-M. Punctual mutations in nucleotide structure of bla genes, coding for beta-lactamases synthesis, are leading on production of a large diversity of enzymes with enlarged spectrum of activity (ESBL). At the beginning of 90's the first beta-lactamases resistance to clavulanic acid were detected and in our days more then 170 TEM, 120 SVH and 90 CTX-MESBLs are known. Escherichia coli strains are producing, firstly, TEM ESBLs, Klebsiella pneumoniae SHV ESBLs. and both are producing CTX-M type ESBLs, are resistant to the fluoroquinolones due to punctual mutations in nucleotide structure of gyr gene coding for gyrases production, enzymes involved in nucleic acids replication. Resistance to the antibiotics with extended activity is a public health threat due to their capacity of large spreading within bacterial population, when the coding structures are located on mobile genetic structures. The menace increase when genes coding for fluoroquinolones

  4. The last generation of bacterial growth in limiting nutrient.

    PubMed

    Bren, Anat; Hart, Yuval; Dekel, Erez; Koster, Daniel; Alon, Uri

    2013-03-25

    Bacterial growth as a function of nutrients has been studied for decades, but is still not fully understood. In particular, the growth laws under dynamically changing environments have been difficult to explore, because of the rapidly changing conditions. Here, we address this challenge by means of a robotic assay and measure bacterial growth rate, promoter activity and substrate level at high temporal resolution across the entire growth curve in batch culture. As a model system, we study E. coli growing under nitrogen or carbon limitation, and explore the dynamics in the last generation of growth where nutrient levels can drop rapidly. We find that growth stops abruptly under limiting nitrogen or carbon, but slows gradually when nutrients are not limiting. By measuring growth rate at a 3 min time resolution, and inferring the instantaneous substrate level, s, we find that the reduction in growth rate μ under nutrient limitation follows Monod's law, μ=μ0(s/(k(s)+s)). By following promoter activity of different genes we found that the abrupt stop of growth under nitrogen or carbon limitation is accompanied by a pulse-like up-regulation of the expression of genes in the relevant nutrient assimilation pathways. We further find that sharp stop of growth is conditional on the presence of regulatory proteins in the assimilation pathway. The observed sharp stop of growth accompanied by a pulsed expression of assimilation genes allows bacteria to compensate for the drop in nutrients, suggesting a strategy used by the cells to prolong exponential growth under limiting substrate.

  5. Long-lasting virtual motorcycle-riding trainer effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Vidotto, Giulio; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Tira, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group 1 year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training-1 year before-is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well.

  6. Long-lasting virtual motorcycle-riding trainer effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vidotto, Giulio; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Tira, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group 1 year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training—1 year before—is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well. PMID:26579036

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls: New evidence from the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Faroon, Obaid; Ruiz, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Millions of pounds of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds have been produced in multiple countries for industrial applications over the last several decades. PCB exposure induces various adverse health effects in animals and humans. Environmental and occupational exposures to PCBs have been associated with liver, kidney, endocrine, and neurodevelopmental adverse effects. We have collected and reviewed animal and human data cited in the U.S. National Library of Medicine from 2000–2010. In brief, our review shows new evidence that demonstrates: In animal studies, exposure to one of the PCBs, A1221, induces a significant alteration of serum luteinizing hormone. The effects were more profound in the F2 generation, particularly with respect to fluctuations in hormones and reproductive tract tissues across the estrous cycle. Morphological analyses of brain tissue from rats exposed to A1254 confirmed earlier work that showed the relative size of the intra- and infra-pyramidal (II-P) mossy fibers was smaller than in controls, and reduction in growth was selective for the II-P mossy fibers. PCB exposure increased anogenital distance and prostate size but decreased epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, and motile epididymal sperm count. No effects were observed on testicular weight or size. The epidemiological data showed an association between diabetes mellitus prevalence and elevated concentrations of PCB-153. Additionally, prenatal PCB exposure studies were associated with a smaller thymic index at birth and could adversely affect immune responses to childhood vaccinations and resistance to respiratory infections. PCB exposure was also reported to adversely affect enamel development in children in a dose-dependent manner. Because PCBs and their metabolites are potential health hazards, understanding the risk factors associated with individual PCBs, PCB mixtures, and PCB metabolites is important. PCB exposures of vulnerable populations (pregnant women, fetuses

  8. Laurentide ice sheet dynamics during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, M.; Alvarez-Solas, J.; Robinson, A.; Banderas, R.

    2016-12-01

    Heinrich events (HEs) are interpreted as the result of massive large-scale ice discharges from the Laurentice ice sheet (LIS) into the North Atlantic that occurred during the Last Glacial Period (LGP). Classically they have been attributed to internal oscillations of the LIS, a mechanism that has been mimicked using three-dimensional ice-sheet models within the Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA) together with a modified basal sliding parameterisation accounting for enhanced ice-flow over a melting ice bed. However, recent studies using hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf models with more comprehensive dynamics combining the SIA and the Shallow Shelf Approximation (SSA) have proposed an alternative explanation involving the effects of oceanic circulation changes on the ice shelves. Up to now the plausibility of internal LIS instabilities in a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model combining SSA and SIA has seldom been investigated. Here we address this issue in the framework of the LGP by modifying the dynamics in a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model to mimick two different levels of complexity. We firstly suppress the binary mode mixture of sheet and stream ice in order to mimick the SIA, and include a basal sliding parameterisation. Under constant external climate forcing, quasi-periodic LIS instabilities are simulated in response to internal basal temperature oscillations. We then consider a more realistic dynamical formulation by incorporating the treatment of ice flow under the SSA. Internal basal temperature oscillations, and thereby LIS instabilities, are found to vanish under constant external forcing. Our results demonstrate how accounting for the longitudinal stresses of the ice streams, which is not possible within the pure SIA, is critical to stabilize ice flow and prevents the occurrence of the binge-purge oscillations.

  9. Tropical Cyclones in Simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, R. A.; Korty, R. L.; Camargo, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    How tropical cyclones respond to large-scale changes in climate is an important and complex question. Here we study the question using the response to the climate forcing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Utilizing two detecting and tracking algorithms of tropical cyclones (TC), we assess the sensitivity of the genesis and frequency of TCs in a 1° x 1° simulation of a global climate model (CCSM), a limited-area simulation (western north Pacific; WNP) of the higher resolution WRF model (36 km horizontal resolution), and the statistical downscaling approach developed by Emanuel. We assess how changes between the LGM and 20th century climatology of TCs are related to changes in the large-scale environmental variables known to be important to TCs (e.g. vorticity, wind shear, and available moisture). Several facets of the TC climatology at the LGM are similar across all three modeling techniques: regions that spawn TCs and their seasonal cycle at the LGM is similar to the present-day distribution, while the total counts are slightly reduced at the LGM. The average intensity in the WRF model (which features resolution high enough to resolve strong storms) is similar between the two climates, though the distribution of intensity is more concentrated at the LGM (there are fewer weak events and fewer of the strongest events at the LGM). Conditions are similarly favorable in much of the deep tropics at the LGM compared to the 20th century, particularly in the central and western Pacific, but conditions become more hostile at the subtropical margins. We compare the resulting climatology with the underlying changes in environmental factors, and empirically derive a genesis index to identify the best fit between changes in the factors and climatology of events.

  10. Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical Atlantic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocas, William M.; Felis, Thomas; Obert, J. Christina; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Denis; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructions of last interglacial (LIG, MIS 5e, ∼127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a period partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. We present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). These have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 120 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) temperature proxy records. In conjunction with a previously published 118 ka coral record, our eight records of up to 37 years in length, cover a total of 105 years within the LIG period. From these, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality and variability in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of ∼2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late LIG (120-118 ka). However, within the mid-LIG, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the LIG, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this period. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our LIG coral Sr/Ca records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North Atlantic. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-LIG is caused primarily by summer warming. A 124 ka old coral documents, for the first time, evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North Atlantic during the LIG, akin to that observed in modern instrumental records.

  11. Rheumatic fever & rheumatic heart disease: the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Krishna; Tandon, R

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continue to be a major health hazard in most developing countries as well as sporadically in developed economies. Despite reservations about the utility, echocardiographic and Doppler (E&D) studies have identified a massive burden of RHD suggesting the inadequacy of the Jones' criteria updated by the American Heart Association in 1992. Subclinical carditis has been recognized by E&D in patients with acute RF without clinical carditis as well as by follow up of RHD patients presenting as isolated chorea or those without clinical evidence of carditis. Over the years, the medical management of RF has not changed. Paediatric and juvenile mitral stenosis (MS), upto the age of 12 and 20 yr respectively, severe enough to require operative treatement was documented. These negate the belief that patients of RHD become symptomatic ≥20 years after RF as well as the fact that congestive cardiac failure in childhood indicates active carditis and RF. Non-surgical balloon mitral valvotomy for MS has been initiated. Mitral and/or aortic valve replacement during active RF in patients not responding to medical treatment has been found to be life saving as well as confirming that congestive heart failure in acute RF is due to an acute haemodynamic overload. Pathogenesis as well as susceptibility to RF continue to be elusive. Prevention of RF morbidity depends on secondary prophylaxis which cannot reduce the burden of diseases. Primary prophylaxis is not feasible in the absence of a suitable vaccine. Attempts to design an antistreptococcal vaccine utilizing the M-protein has not succeeded in the last 40 years. Besides pathogenesis many other questions remain unanswered.

  12. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-08-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk mitigation, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can suffer also from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We present also the results of an experiment conducted in Fogo island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the setup of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  13. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk management, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can also suffer from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of the FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on Fogo Island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the set-up of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  14. Lasting depression in corticomotor excitability associated with local scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, François; Remaud, Anthony; Mekonnen, Abeye; Gholami-Boroujeny, Shiva; Racine, Karl-Édouard; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we investigated the effect of local scalp cooling on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS). Participants (healthy male adults, n=12) were first assessed with TMS to derive baseline measure of excitability from motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using the right first dorsal interosseous as the target muscle. Then, local cooling was induced on the right hemi-scalp (upper frontal region ∼ 15 cm(2)) by means of a cold wrap. The cooling was maintained for 10-15 min to get a decrease of at least 10°C from baseline temperature. In the post-cooling period, both scalp temperature and MEPs were reassessed at specific time intervals (i.e., T0, T10, T20 and T30 min). Scalp surface temperatures dropped on average by 12.5°C from baseline at T0 (p<0.001) with partial recovery at T10 (p<0.05) and full recovery at T20. Parallel analysis of post-cooling variations in MEP amplitude revealed significant reductions relative to baseline at T0, T10 and T20. No concurrent change in MEP latency was observed. A secondary control experiment was performed in a subset of participants (n=5) to account for the mild discomfort associated with the wrapping procedure without the cooling agent. Results showed no effect on any of the dependent variables (temperature, MEP amplitude and latency). To our knowledge, this report provides the first neurophysiological evidence linking changes in scalp temperature with lasting changes in corticomotor excitability.

  15. [Alone at last: Brazil on the road to Beijing].

    PubMed

    Saffioti, H I

    1995-01-01

    In 1975, when the first World Conference on Women was held in Mexico City, the United Nations embarked on a long process to draw attention to the female condition in the international arena and draft an international convention for the elimination of discrimination against women. In 1980 the second World Conference on Women in Copenhagen ascertained that despite these efforts the situation of women had deteriorated. This finding played an important role in launching the drive to empower women by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) through affirmative actions. In 1985 the 3rd Conference was held in Nairobi with an NGO Forum. At this time a recently formed council on the condition and the rights of Brazilian women started its activities in defense of women, as Brazil had signed international conventions aimed at the development of affirmative actions in gender relations. In August 1985 the first Delegation of Women was established in Sao Paulo. In the last decade [present: 1995] feminist organizations and NGOs have proliferated. Social movements strove to reduce social and racial inequalities evidenced by the fact that White men earned wages four times higher than did Black women in Brazil. The situation in the 1990s was varied as the government did not curtail the activities of the NGOs, but wanted to exercise control over them. In contrast to the previous conferences, in preparation for the fourth Conference the government drafted discussion papers for seminars on gender and power relations; economic policies, poverty, and work; violence against women; the health and education of women; prostitution and traffic in women; and public policies on the ethics of gender. By presidential decree in 1993 the National Committee for participation in the 4th Conference was also created. The National Council on the Rights of Women also became active in preparing papers and helping to organize seminars.

  16. An Atlantic-Pacific ventilation seesaw across the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Tisserand, A.; Dokken, T.; Timmermann, A.; Menviel, L.; Friedrich, T.

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 across the last deglaciation was driven by the release of carbon from an extremely radiocarbon-depleted abyssal ocean reservoir that was 'vented' to the atmosphere primarily via the deep- and intermediate overturning loops in the Southern Ocean. While some radiocarbon observations from the intermediate ocean appear to confirm this hypothesis, others appear to refute it. Here we use radiocarbon measurements in paired benthic- and planktonic foraminifera to reconstruct the benthic-planktonic 14C age offset (i.e. 'ventilation age') of intermediate waters in the western equatorial Atlantic. Our results show clear increases in local radiocarbon-based ventilation ages during Heinrich-Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These are found to coincide with opposite changes of similar magnitude observed in the Pacific, demonstrating a 'seesaw' in the ventilation of the intermediate Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that numerical model simulations of North Atlantic overturning collapse indicate was primarily driven by North Pacific overturning. We propose that this Atlantic-Pacific ventilation seesaw would have combined with a previously identified North Atlantic-Southern Ocean ventilation seesaw to enhance ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange during a 'collapse' of the North Atlantic deep overturning limb. Whereas previous work has emphasized a more passive role for intermediate waters in deglacial climate change (merely conveying changes originating in the Southern Ocean) we suggest instead that the intermediate water seesaw played a more active role via relatively subtle but globally coordinated changes in ocean dynamics that may have further influenced ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  17. How warm was Greenland during the last interglacial period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Capron, Emilie; Langebroek, Petra M.; Bakker, Pepijn; Stone, Emma J.; Merz, Niklaus; Raible, Christoph C.; Fischer, Hubertus; Orsi, Anaïs; Prié, Frédéric; Vinther, Bo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    The last interglacial period (LIG, ˜ 129-116 thousand years ago) provides the most recent case study of multimillennial polar warming above the preindustrial level and a response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to this warming, as well as a test bed for climate and ice sheet models. Past changes in Greenland ice sheet thickness and surface temperature during this period were recently derived from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core records, northwest Greenland. The NEEM paradox has emerged from an estimated large local warming above the preindustrial level (7.5 ± 1.8 °C at the deposition site 126 kyr ago without correction for any overall ice sheet altitude changes between the LIG and the preindustrial period) based on water isotopes, together with limited local ice thinning, suggesting more resilience of the real Greenland ice sheet than shown in some ice sheet models. Here, we provide an independent assessment of the average LIG Greenland surface warming using ice core air isotopic composition (δ15N) and relationships between accumulation rate and temperature. The LIG surface temperature at the upstream NEEM deposition site without ice sheet altitude correction is estimated to be warmer by +8.5 ± 2.5 °C compared to the preindustrial period. This temperature estimate is consistent with the 7.5 ± 1.8 °C warming initially determined from NEEM water isotopes but at the upper end of the preindustrial period to LIG temperature difference of +5.2 ± 2.3 °C obtained at the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) site by the same method. Climate simulations performed with present-day ice sheet topography lead in general to a warming smaller than reconstructed, but sensitivity tests show that larger amplitudes (up to 5 °C) are produced in response to prescribed changes in sea ice extent and ice sheet topography.

  18. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals.

    PubMed

    Hentall, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts) are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 mA-h were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm) but taller (6 mm) were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat's raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-min (50% duty cycle) trains of 30 μA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n = 128). Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n = 16) were achieved with larger batteries (44 mA-h) in longer (18 mm), taller (6 mm) capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat's sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  19. Southern ocean nitrogen and silicon dynamics during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Matthew G.; Beucher, Charlotte P.; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    2011-10-01

    The reinvigoration of overturning in the Southern Ocean is hypothesized to have returned CO 2 from the deep ocean to the atmosphere at the end of the last ice age. Large peaks in opal accumulation have been put forward as evidence for an increase in wind driven upwelling between 10 and 15 ka. Here, we use coupled nitrogen and silicon isotope records alongside opal accumulation rates to provide quasi-quantitative estimates of Southern Ocean nutrient supply, by upwelling, and nutrient utilization across this interval. Significant changes in the consumption of N and Si across the two opal accumulation peaks indicate major changes in both upwelling and nutrient demand. We find N and Si consumption to be relatively incomplete during peak opal accumulation at the onset of the deglaciation. This indicates that nutrient supply was significantly enhanced. The second deglacial peak in opal accumulation is associated with more complete Si consumption and variable N consumption. We suggest that this peak represents strong upwelling and more complete utilization of the available silicic acid pool. Differences between the Si and N responses during opal peaks may stem from decreasing iron availability across the glacial termination. The nutrient isotope evidence for excess nutrients during the deglaciation indicates that the high export productivity was insufficient to overcome the evasion of CO 2 to the atmosphere as a result of physical circulation changes. Previous work has demonstrated that the reinvigoration of overturning circulation during the deglaciation causes a transient peak in nutrient supply to the low latitudes. This is supported by our data, which indicate that relatively high macronutrient concentrations were maintained in the Southern Ocean surface waters that are incorporated into mode waters despite high demand.

  20. Microcapsules: Reverse Sonoporation and Long-lasting, Safe Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, Steven; Dicker, Stephen; Small, Eleanor; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mleczko, Michał; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg

    We present a novel vehicle designed to serve the dual roles of enhanced ultrasound contrast and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. The vehicle is comprised of a microcapsule that is filled with water in whose aqueous core a population of freely floating, phospholipid-coated microbubbles is suspended. At ultrasound intensities below the inertial cavitation threshold of the microbubbles, the microbubbles provide enhanced ultrasound contrast. The measured contrast is comparable in strength with SonoVue®. Encapsulation of microbubbles within microcapsules putatively eliminates - or at least significantly slows - dissolution of gas in the bulk aqueous medium, thereby avoiding disappearance of microbubbles that would otherwise occur due to pressure-induced gas diffusion across the surfactant monolayer coating the microbubble-water interface. Results suggest that our vehicle might provide longer lasting contrast in a clinical setting. We demonstrate that encapsulation of the microbubbles within microcapsules causes at least a doubling of the ultrasound intensity necessary to induce inertial cavitation. Moreover, no cell death was observed when cells were insonified in the presence of microbubble-containing microcapsules, whereas appreciable cell death occurs with unencapsulated microbubbles. These results point toward a potential safety benefit during ultrasound contrast imaging by using encapsulated microbubbles. Studies are underway to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound-triggered release of drug from the microcapsules, owing to inertial- or stable-cavitation, or both. Whereas leakage from polymeric microcapsule shells, such as poly(lactic acid), seemingly requires shell rupture and is exceedingly difficult to achieve, leakage across a lipid bilayer microcapsule shells appears feasible. Leakage across a bilayer shell has the additional benefit that the leakage mechanism can be tuned via phase behavior (liquid-ordered versus liquid-disordered) and cavitation

  1. Perennial plate tectonics with lasting mantle lithosphere scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, P.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Stephenson, R.

    2015-12-01

    Although the conventional theory of plate tectonics can explain non-rigid behaviour at plate boundaries, it cannot adequately explain the processes involved in deformation and seismicity within plate interiors. Here, we consider that the pre-existing deformation or "scarring" within the mantle lithosphere may have a very long lived presence that could incorporate deformation of the plate interior and plate boundary. Mantle lithosphere scars from continent-continent collisions could generate virtual plate boundaries that remain over long timescales, producing "perennial" plate tectonics. Local geophysical studies can map the crustal environment well, and global whole mantle tomography models are rapidly improving, yet high-resolution images of the mantle lithosphere are often not available in regions where scarring may be present. Where mantle lithosphere heterogeneities have been observed (usually interpreted simply as subduction scars), the same attention has not been afforded to them as, for example, re-activation of faults within the Earth's crust. In idealized numerical simulations, we compare how relic scarring at varying depths in the lithosphere affects patterns of deformation. High-resolution thermal-mechanical numerical experiments explore continental lithospheric deformation featuring a weakened crust and mantle lithosphere scars. Our models show that deep lithospheric scars can control the tectonic evolution of a region over shallow geological features, indicating the importance of mantle lithosphere heterogeneities. The Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) in central China is an example of an ancient continental collision zone that undergoes periodic deformation during times of regional compression. We suggest that the ATF may be a locale where a long-lasting mantle lithosphere scar can control the subsequent crustal evolution and deformation, with ancient plate boundaries having a "perennial" plate tectonic presence.

  2. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  3. Model Thermohaline Trends in the Mediterranean Sea during the Last Years: A Change with Respect to the Last Decades?

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Navarro, F. Javier; Criado-Aldeanueva, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and salinity outputs from ECCO (years 93–09) and GLORYS (years 03–09) models have been used to compute the thermohaline and steric sea level trends in the surface (0–150 m), intermediate (150 m–600 m), and deep (600 m–bottom) layers of the Mediterranean Sea. Some changes with respect to the second half of the 20th century have been observed: the cooling of the upper waters of the entire eastern basin since 1950 seems to have vanished; the warming of WMDW historically reported for the second half of the last century could have reversed, although there is no agreement between both models at this point (trends of different sign are predicted); the salinification of WMDW reported for the previous decades is not observed in the south-westernmost area in the period 93–09, and a clear change from positive to negative in the steric sea level trend with respect to the period 93–05 is detected due to the sharp decreasing steric sea level of years 02–06. PMID:22654595

  4. Model thermohaline trends in the Mediterranean Sea during the last years: a change with respect to the last decades?

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, F Javier; Criado-Aldeanueva, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and salinity outputs from ECCO (years 93-09) and GLORYS (years 03-09) models have been used to compute the thermohaline and steric sea level trends in the surface (0-150 m), intermediate (150 m-600 m), and deep (600 m-bottom) layers of the Mediterranean Sea. Some changes with respect to the second half of the 20th century have been observed: the cooling of the upper waters of the entire eastern basin since 1950 seems to have vanished; the warming of WMDW historically reported for the second half of the last century could have reversed, although there is no agreement between both models at this point (trends of different sign are predicted); the salinification of WMDW reported for the previous decades is not observed in the south-westernmost area in the period 93-09, and a clear change from positive to negative in the steric sea level trend with respect to the period 93-05 is detected due to the sharp decreasing steric sea level of years 02-06.

  5. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  6. [The success of hygiene in the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Thofern, E

    1989-04-01

    In Germany, the last period of the Second World War and the following years were characterized by deficiencies of hygiene which had not occurred previously in Middle Europe during the 20th century. There were focuses of typhus, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, and meningitis. Insufficiencies in the removal of faeces caused high incidences of shigellosis, hepatitis A, and ascariasis. As a result of insufficient body care, many people were infested with fleas, lice and scabies. The migration of large proportions of the population resulted in an increasing prevalence of syphilis an gonorrhea. As the population resettled, the first steps towards reorganization of public health could be done. The spread of typhoid fever was controlled by drinking-water disinfection with chlorine, repair of sewage systems, and patient isolation. The application of DDT helped to reduce scabies and pediculosis, resulting in decreasing typhus risks. During the first two decades after the war, there was a steady decrease of the incidence of infectious diseases. The reconstruction of the towns resulted in improved housing conditions and a decreasing number of persons per housing area, reducing the intensity of physical contacts of the inhabitants with each other. The nutrition and clothing situation of the population improved, which, in addition to a general rise of the standards of hygiene, brought about an increase of the individual resistance to infection. A further reduction of sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases was achieved by the introduction of chemotherapy and antibiotics. Increasing prosperity was accompanied by new problems of hygiene. Infectious diseases almost eradicated in West Germany, were imported by air travellers. Ten imported cases of smallpox were reported between 1957 and 1972, eight of which originated from Southeast Asia. Malaria, imported by German and foreign soldiers, had not been uncommon after the end of the war but had

  7. North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

    2014-05-01

    multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.

  8. FIELD TOPOLOGY ANALYSIS OF A LONG-LASTING CORONAL SIGMOID

    SciTech Connect

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  9. Development of wildfires in Australia over the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieradzik, Lars Peter; Haverd, Vanessa; Briggs, Peter; Canadell, Josep G.; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires and their emissions are key biospheric processes in the modeling of the carbon cycle that still are insufficiently understood. In Australia, fire emissions constitute a large flux of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 times larger than the annual fossil fuel emissions. In addition, fire plays a big role in determining the composition of vegetation which in turn affects land-atmosphere fluxes. Annualy, up to 4% of the vegetated land-surface area is burned which amounts to up to 3% of global NPP and results in the reslease of about 2 Pg carbon into the atmosphere. There are indications that burned area has decreased globally over recent decades but so far there is not a clear trend in the development in fire-intensity and fuel availability. Net emissions from wildfires are not generally included in global and regional carbon budgets, because it is assumed that gross fire emissions are in balance with post-fire carbon uptake by recovering vegetation. This is a valid assumption as long as climate and fire regimes are in equilibrium, but not when the climate and other drivers are changing. We present a study on the behaviour of wildfires on the Australian continent over the last century (1911 - 2012) introducing the novel fire model BLAZE (BLAZe induced biosphere-atmosphere flux Estimator) that has been designed to address the feedbacks between climate, fuel loads, and fires. BLAZE is used within the Australian land-surface model CABLE (Community Atmophere-Biosphere-Land Exchange model). The study shows two significant outcomes: A regional shift in fire patterns shift during this century due to fire suppression and greening effects as well as an increase of potential fire-line intensity (the risk that a fire becomes more intense), especially in regions where most of Australia's population resides. This strongly emphasises the need to further investigate fire dynamics under future climate scenarios. The fire model BLAZE has been

  10. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that

  11. Field Topology Analysis of a Long-lasting Coronal Sigmoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, A. S.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  12. First Results from The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, G. J.; Steig, E. J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Noone, D. C.; Anderson, D. M.; Tardif, R.; Steiger, N. J.; Perkins, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate proxies provide the only measured record of Earth's climate history, but they are noisy and sparse in space and time. Climate model simulations provide dynamically consistent spatial fields, but lack a direct connection to specific climate states prior to the instrumental record. Paleoclimate data assimilation (PDA) provides an optimally weighted estimate of the climate state from these two sources of information based on their error characteristics. The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project (LMR) uses an ensemble-based PDA method and annually-resolved proxy records to reconstruct Earth's climate for the past 1000 years on a regular latitude--longitude grid. First results of the LMR project are reported here. Proxy records used in the first LMR reconstructions include: trees (ring width and wood density), corals (d18O and luminescence), ice cores (d18O), and a small number of sediment and speleothem records. A component of the data assimilation approach that distinguishes it from other techniques concerns the use of proxy system models to estimate the proxy from climate variables from a model simulation. Proxies are linearly related to 2-meter air temperature in a calibration dataset. Given a prior estimate of the climate from a model (here, a randomly sampled 1000-year control integration of CCSM4), we estimate the proxy value from the linear relationship (derived independently from the model). LMR analyses are compared against both existing gridded reanalysis records and withheld proxy records. Results show a cooling trend in global-mean air temperature during 1000-1900 CE, which derives primarily from cooling of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, offset by weak tropical warming. There is no evidence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. During the 20th century, the LMR estimate of the global-mean air temperature compares very closely with other reanalysis products. Skill appears insensitive to the calibration dataset used to derive the proxy system

  13. Hydrological changes over Papua New Guinea during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Rostek, Frauke; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Today the Fly River in Papua New Guinea is a major sediment contributor to the global ocean (the first in PNG and the 13st globally according to Milliman & Fansworth 2011 CUP). In order to reconstruct hydrological changes during the glacial period, we studied a deep-sea core located in the Gulf of Papua, just in front of the Fly River mouth. The history of detrital input in core MD97-2134 was reconstructed at high resolution by measuring various inorganic and organic proxies. In particular, we present Fe, Ti, Ca profiles measured with an ITRAX XRF scanner. We also measured molecular proxies such as n-alkanes by GC and tetraethers by LC-MS to derive BIT index values. These independent proxies provide a coherent picture for the period covering the last 30 thousands of years. The riverine input was much stronger during the glacial period with n-alkanes, BIT and Ti/Ca values several times higher than during the Holocene (factor 2 for n-alkanes, 2-3 for the BIT and 6-7 for Ti/Ca). This systematic increase is the likely signature of stronger precipitations superimposed on physiographical changes. The latter are linked to lower sea levels during the glacial period, which led to a shorter distance from the coast and probably to a widening of the drainage basin. In addition to these expected changes, we also observe prominent maxima of the riverine input during specific millennium-scale periods corresponding chronologically to Heinrich events # 1, 2, 3 and the Younger Dryas event. These precipitation maxima are in phase with those observed in Indonesia (Muller et al. 2012 Geology, Ayliffe et al. Nat. Geo. 2013), but in antiphase with the drought periods reconstructed farther north, notably in China (Wang et al. 2001 Science). The spatial distribution of precipitation changes constitutes the clear signature of wide latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ during H events. The resolution of our Papua record allows studying further important details, providing evidence for two phases

  14. Last interglacial semi-desert expansions in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, D. H.; Sanchez Goni, M.; Lechevrel, S.; Daniau, A.

    2013-05-01

    While our understanding of the effects of orbital-scale variability on the vegetation has grown during the past decades, empirical data from some climatically important periods and regions are still lacking. Scarce data exist for instance for deep-time glacial-interglacial cycles that could provide suitable analogs for current climate change. Recent global-scale syntheses of vegetation responses to rapid events during the last glacial have been useful, however, these global compilations clearly show that some regions, namely the southern tropics and subtropics, remain understudied. We use pollen analysis of marine sediments from core MD96-2098 to produce a paleoenvironmental record from southern Africa spanning MIS 6 to 3. Our interpretations are supported by an analysis of present-day pollen-vegetation-climate relationships for the region. We applied canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) on pollen spectra from terrestrial surface samples to investigate these relationships and to identify pollen taxa that are suitable bioclimatic indicators for the different South African biomes. Semi-desert vegetation dominated southern Africa during the MIS 5 interglacial. Expansion of the semi-desert biome into the Namib desert likely resulted from the reduction of the Benguela upwelling and a relative decrease in aridity. In its eastern boundary, the semi-desert likely expanded at the expense of grasslands as a result of increased subtropical high pressure and reduced summer precipitation. Semi-desert expansion in its southern boundary probably resulted from reduced influence of the southern westerlies and decreased winter precipitation. This atmospheric configuration was probably exacerbated during the three warm substages of MIS 5. During glacial isotopic stages MIS 6, 4 and 3 grasslands gained area over the semi-desert as summer precipitation increased. The area occupied by Fynbos vegetation was particularly large at the

  15. High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2008-01-01

    The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation associated with the role of topography. The LGM simulations were forced with modified CLIMAP sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures (SST) reduced by 1 C, ice sheet topography, reduced CO{sub 2}, and 21,000 BP orbital parameters. The high-resolution model captures modern climate reasonably well, in particular the distribution of heavy precipitation in the tropical Pacific. For the ice age case, surface temperature simulated by the high-resolution model agrees better with those of proxy estimates than does the low-resolution model. Despite the fact that tropical SSTs were only 2.1 C less than the control run, there are many lowland tropical land areas 4-6 C colder than present. Comparison of T170 model results with the best constrained proxy temperature estimates (noble gas concentrations in groundwater) now yield no significant differences between model and observations. There are also significant upland temperature changes in the best resolved tropical mountain belt (the Andes). We provisionally attribute this result in part as resulting from decreased lateral mixing between ocean and land in a model with more model grid cells. A longstanding model-data discrepancy therefore appears to be resolved without invoking any unusual model physics. The response of the Asian summer monsoon can also be more clearly linked to local geography in the high-resolution model than in the low-resolution model; this distinction should enable more confident validation of climate proxy data with the high-resolution model. Elsewhere, an inferred salinity increase in the subtropical North Atlantic may have

  16. Mertz Ice Shelf Dynamics in the Last Twenty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Cheng, X.; Shum, C.

    2013-12-01

    . These parameters extracted from remote sensing and altimetry data will provide additional information for studies of the evolution of iceberg, especially in iceberg tracking system. Mertz Ice Shelf Dynamics in the last 20 years

  17. Urban Geocaching: what Happened in Lisbon during the Last Decade?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Mendes, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Created in 2000 in the United States of America, Geocaching has become a major phenomenon all around the world, counting actually with millions of Geocaches (or caches) that work as a recreational motivation for millions of users, called Geocachers. During the last 30 days over 5,000,000 new logs have been submitted worldwide, disseminating individual experiences, motivations, emotions and photos through the official Geocaching website (www.geocaching.com), and several official or informal national web forums. The activity itself can be compared with modern treasure hunting that uses handheld GPS, Smartphones or Tablets, WEB 2.0, wiki features and technologies to keep Geocachers engaged with their activity, in a strong social-network. All these characteristics make Geocaching an activity with a strong geographic component that deals closely with the surrounding environment where each cache has been hidden. From previous work, significance correlation has been found regarding hides and natural/rural environments, but metropolitan and urban areas like Lisbon municipality (that holds 3.23% of the total 27534 Portuguese caches), still registers the higher density of Geocaches, and logs numbers. Lacking "natural/rural" environment, Geocaching in cities tend to happen in symbolic areas, like public parks and places, sightseeing spots and historical neighborhoods. The present study looks to Geocaching within the city of Lisbon, in order to understand how it works, and if this activity reflects the city itself, promoting its image and cultural heritage. From a freely available dataset that includes all Geocaches that have been placed in Lisbon since February 2001, spatial analysis has been conducted, showing the informal preferences of this activity. Results show a non-random distribution of caches within the study area, similar to the land use distribution. Preferable locations tend to be in iconic places of the city, usually close to the

  18. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  19. Ionospheric seismology: The last step before true contributions to seismology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Rakoto, V.; Khelfi, K.; Rolland, L.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Coisson, P.; Drilleau, M.; Makela, J. J.; Walwer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric seismology, which was at most seen as an exotic way to record doubtful signals in the early 2000 has gain maturity, especially after the worldwide observations made during the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami. The last steps for important contributions in seismology will request however these data to be modeled and inverted in a way precise enough for new and original constraints on the seismic sources, amplitude of tsunamis and atmospheric/interior seismic/acoustic velocities profiles. Ionospheric observations are now able to provide time depending maps of the ionospheric waves, enabling the location of the sources, measurement of the wave speed and amplitude, for both acoustic waves above or close the epicenter or remotely observed Rayleigh and Tsunami waves. Are these data good enough for inversions? Are the modelling techniques good enought for inversions? We therefore first compare and illustrate the different observation techniques: ground, air-based and space-based GPS and airglow, focusing on the Tohoku 2011 and Haida Gwai earthquake and tsunamis, discuss the physics enabling the conversion of seismic waves into electron perturbation (for GPS data) and light emission (for airglow) and signal to noise issues. Comparison between data and waveforms modelling are then shown by using either Normal Mode summations for remote detections or Spectral Element techniques for local detections, with an emphasis in the later case on non-linear effects and TEC post-seismic depletions. A special attention is made on the sensitivity of the waveforms to the various parameters of the models, including the sensitivity of the conversion of the seismic to atmospheric signals with the atmosphere structure, the crust subsurface and the ocean thickness and the sensitivity of the conversion of the atmospheric to ionospheric signal with respect to local time, ionospheric state and magnetic latitude. We then present the perspectives in term of inversion for both the

  20. The Last Interglacial to Glacial Transition, Togiak Bay, Southwestern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Manley, William F.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Preece, Shari J.; Westgate, John A.; Forman, Steve L.

    2001-03-01

    An 18-m-high coastal bluff at Togiak Bay (northwestern Bristol Bay, southwestern Alaska) exposes marine, lacustrine, fluvial, glacial, volcanic, and organic deposits that record the ∼50,000-year-long transition from the peak of the last interglaciation to the early Wisconsin glaciation. The base of the section is dominated by stratified sand and silt extending up to 4.3 m above sea level; marine diatoms are present, and pollen assemblages are characterized by relatively high percentages of Picea, Alnus, and Betula and low percentages of Poaceae and Cyperaceae. The marine sediment was probably deposited during the peak of marine oxygen-isotope stage (OIS) 5e. An infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) age of 151,000±13,000 yr from near the base of the exposure is permissive of this correlation. The marine sand and silt are overlain by 0.8 m of peaty silt with diatoms that record a transition from marine to lacustrine conditions. During this interval, Poaceae and Cyperaceae dominate the pollen assemblages, and Picea and shrubs are nearly absent, suggesting that herb tundra occupied the landscape. This interval probably encompasses OIS 5d on the basis of the herb tundra and an IRSL age of 119,000±10,000 yr from 60 cm below the marine/lacustrine transition. The organic mud is overlain by 3.1 m of stratified sand and organic silt that apparently record shallowing of the lake; reappearance of spruce and shrubs (=OIS 5c?); and subsequent deepening of the lake (=OIS 5b?); followed by aggradation of a floodplain (=OIS 5a?), which was dry at the time basaltic lava buried the site. Thermoluminescence analyses on lava-baked sediment indicate that the eruption occurred 70,000±10,000 yr ago. Sometime thereafter, but prior to 53,600 14C yr B.P. an outlet of the Ahklun Mountains ice cap advanced over the site and deposited ∼7 m of bouldery ice-contact drift. The sedimentary sequence contains at least four tephra beds. Major- and trace-element chemistry provide a basis for

  1. Indonesian Throughflow variability over the last glacial cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Regenberg, M.; Xu, J.; Hendrizan, M.; Schröder, J.

    2013-12-01

    over the Australian continent. However, the development of the monsoon was asynchronous over the region, which we relate to changes in landmass exposure during deglacial sea-level rise. Thus, we find that sea-level exerted a major control on ITF properties through the last glacial termination by altering gateway configuration and precipitation-evaporation budgets over the Indonesian archipelago.

  2. Long-lasting but Dim Brethren of Cosmic Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    Astronomers, using ESO's Very Large Telescope, have for the first time made the link between an X-ray flash and a supernova. Such flashes are the little siblings of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and this discovery suggests the existence of a population of events less luminous than 'classical' GRBs, but possibly much more numerous. "This extends the GRB-supernova connection to X-ray flashes and fainter supernovae, implying a common origin," said Elena Pian, (INAF, Italy), lead-author of one of the four papers related to this event appearing in the 31 August issue of Nature. The event began on 18 February 2006: the NASA/PPARC/ASI Swift satellite detected an unusual gamma-ray burst, about 25 times closer and 100 times longer than the typical gamma-ray burst. GRBs release in a few seconds more energy than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are thus the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe. ESO PR Photo 33/06 ESO PR Photo 33/06 The Field around SN2006aj The explosion, called GRB 060218 after the date it was discovered, originated in a star-forming galaxy about 440 million light-years away toward the constellation Aries. This is the second-closest gamma-ray burst ever detected. Moreover, the burst of gamma rays lasted for nearly 2,000 seconds; most bursts last a few milliseconds to tens of seconds. The explosion was surprisingly dim, however. A team of astronomers has found hints of a budding supernova. Using, among others, ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile, the scientists have watched the afterglow of this burst grow brighter in optical light. This brightening, along with other telltale spectral characteristics in the light, strongly suggests that a supernova was unfolding. Within days, the supernova became apparent. The observations with the VLT started on 21 February 2006, just three days after the discovery. Spectroscopy was then performed nearly daily for seventeen days, providing the

  3. Climatic indicators over Catalonia during the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, M.; Prohom, M.

    2010-09-01

    The Meteorological Service of Catalonia releases a yearly bulletin whose main objective is to try to detect climate trends over Catalonia during the last decades. Climate indicators are obtained from the analysis of historical daily air temperature, sea temperature and rainfall series. Those series have been first completed, analyzed for quality control and homogenized to ensure its final reliability. Regarding homogenization, monthly air temperature series have been tested and corrected according to the methodology proposed by Caussinus and Mestre (2004). For the two longest air temperature series, the calculated correction factors have been transferred to the daily values following Vincent et al. (2002) recommendations, while no significant inhomogeneities have been detected for precipitation series. The analysis of temperature trends, for the period 1950-2010, of 17 selected climatic series spread across the territory shows a common temperature increase between +0.19 to +0.24 °C/decade. This warming trend is uniform and no specific sub-regional trends are detected. Furthermore, the seasonal approach reveals that mean maximum temperature increases at a higher rate than mean minimum temperature. The summer temperature rise is the most significant, between +0.32 and +0.44 °C/decade, while autumn is the only season showing no significant positive trend. The summer maximum temperature shows the highest increase, exceeding +0.39 °C/decade in all the 17 series. The climatic extremes analysis of the longest Catalan series (Ebre Observatory in Roquetes, Tarragona, since 1905 and Fabra Observatory in Barcelona since 1913) reveals an increase in the number of summer days, tropical nights, minimum of maximum temperature, warm days and warm nights, and a decrease in the number of frost days, cold nights, cold days and cold spell duration indicator. Concerning precipitation, the only significant trend is the reduction of snow days. These trends were calculated according to

  4. Absolute Paleointensity Techniques: Developments in the Last 10 Years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J. A.; Brown, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to determine variations in absolute intensity of the Earth’s paleomagnetic field has greatly enhanced our understanding of geodynamo processes, including secular variation and field reversals. Igneous rocks and baked clay artifacts that carry a thermal remanence (TRM) have allowed us to study field variations over timescales ranging from decades to billions of years. All absolute paleointensity techniques are fundamentally based on repeating the natural process by which the sample acquired its magnetization, i.e. a laboratory TRM is acquired in a controlled field, and the ratio of the natural TRM to that acquired in the laboratory is directly proportional to the ancient field. Techniques for recovering paleointensity have evolved since the 1930s from relatively unsophisticated (but revolutionary for their time) single step remagnetizations to the various complicated, multi-step procedures in use today. These procedures can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1) “Thellier-type” experiments that step-wise heat samples at a series of temperatures up to the maximum unblocking temperature of the sample, progressively removing the natural remanence (NRM) and acquiring a laboratory-induced TRM; and 2) “Shaw-type” experiments that combine alternating field demagnetization of the NRM and laboratory TRM with a single heating to a temperature above the sample’s Curie temperature, acquiring a total TRM in one step. Many modifications to these techniques have been developed over the years with the goal of identifying and/or accommodating non-ideal behavior, such as alteration and multi-domain (MD) remanence, which may lead to inaccurate paleofield estimates. From a technological standpoint, perhaps the most significant development in the last decade is the use of microwave (de)magnetization in both Thellier-type and Shaw-type experiments. By using microwaves to directly generate spin waves within the magnetic grains (rather than using phonons

  5. Solar Variability and Climate Change in the Last 2000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K.; Yau, K.

    2002-12-01

    Studying past climatic data can help us better understand present natural variations and predict future trends. Identification of cycles can be useful to forecasting. However, various reconstructions of the climate of the last 1000 years have given only broad similarities, with large variances in time and space [Briffa JGR 106, 2929, 2001]. For example, during the Little Ice Age (ca. 1600-1800) severe winters were frequent in Europe and China, but not over Greenland [Sci. Amer., 2/1992, 21]. The differences in modeling results are partly due to uncertainties in the past radiative forcing [Mann, Eos 82 (46), 2001]. Another outstanding question is whether we are in a time similar to Medieval Warm Period. From the frequencies of sunspot and aurora sightings, abundance of carbon-14 in the rings of long-lived trees, and beryllium-10 in the annual layers of polar ice cores, we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of changes in brightness. While these long-term changes account for less than one percent of the total irradiance, there is a clear evidence that they affect the climate. During the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) few sunspots were seen--about 1 in 10 yr from China or Europe--indicative of a weak Sun. Eddy [Science 192, 1189, 1976] used historical aurora, C-14 and climate data to confirm its reality, and link it to the Little Ice Age. Using new historical sunspot catalogues [Yau, Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc., 29, 175, 1988], we have identified or confirmed earlier solar minima at 200-300, 400-500, 580-820, 980-1070, 1280-1350, 1410-1590; and maxima at 1080-1280, 1350-1400, etc. All these features are coincident with respective minima or maxima in the frequency of aurora sightings from Europe or Asia. Both time series are in turn consistent with radioisotope data [Pang, Eos. 9/2002]. Carbon-14 and beryllium-10 are made by cosmic rays high in the atmosphere. When the Sun is active the solar

  6. Paleoclimate of northern Guatemala during the Last Glacial Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Anselmetti, F.; Ariztegui, D.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J.; Gilli, A.; Mueller, A.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Peten Itza (zmax = 165 m) in northern Guatemala is the deepest lake in the lowlands of Central America. Annual rainfall averages ~1600 mm and is highly seasonal with over 90% occurring in the months from May to October. As part of an ICDP project, we recovered 1327 m of lake sediment at seven sites using the GLAD800 superbarge. Preliminary research has focused on Site PI-6 at a water depth of 71 m. Three holes were drilled and recovered a complete stratigraphic section to a maximum depth of 75.9 mblf. Radiocarbon dates on terrestrial organic matter display a regular increase in age with depth, and indicate a mean sedimentation rate of ~100 cm per 1000 yrs (1mm/yr). The top 10.8 mcd were deposited during the Holocene and consist primarily of gray carbonate clay with abundant charcoal. The Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 10.8 mcd is marked by a transition to Holocene clay from underlying, interbedded dense gypsum sand and clay deposited during the Late Glacial period from ~17 to 9.3 kyrs. This transition represents a switch to moist climate during the early Holocene from more arid conditions during the Late Glacial. Arid conditions during the Late Glacial period may coincide with episodic delivery of seasonal meltwater to the Gulf of Mexico (Aharon, 2003, Paleoceanography, 18, 1079). In contrast to the Late Glacial period, the earlier Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), from 23 to 17 kyrs, consists of gray carbonate clay that is very similar to Holocene deposits, suggesting high detrital input and high lake level. This finding contradicts previous results suggesting that the LGM was dry in the Peten lowlands. We speculate that a cold, wet LGM may have been caused by increased winter precipitation when the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was at its southernmost extent. The mechanism may have been related to increased frequency of polar outbreaks and "Norte" winds, which occasionally bring rain to the Peten today during the dry season. Similar increases in winter

  7. What Did You Try Last Semester? How Did It Work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-02-01

    to use, and to evaluate, the many excellent ideas, materials, and pedagogical tools they have created. But we should not confine our experimentation to just the results of the systemic projects, nor should we let it lapse when their funding has ended. Every issue of this Journal contains new ideas, suggestions, and pedagogical tools that can be incorporated into our teaching and evaluated for effectiveness across a broad range of students and institutions. And these pages are open to those who want to report the results of such experimentation, particularly when clear, down-to-earth suggestions are given for how to use the new tools. It is my intention that JCE can serve as a catalyst to increase the rate of experimentation and incremental change. All of us should add to our list of New Year's resolutions one that involves applying the experimental approach to what happens in our classrooms and laboratories. If each of us would identify the one change that would be most effective in improving our students' learning environment, figure out how that change can be implemented without undue burden on our time and energy, and try it out in the upcoming semester, we could garner a tremendous amount of information-and even perhaps some collective wisdom. If that process continued long term there would be very little need for special projects and systemic programs of reform. We would all be carrying out reform, slowly but surely, all the time. What did you try last semester? How did it work? What are you going to try this semester? Literature Cited 1. NSTA Reports December 1997/January 1998, p. 2.

  8. 25 CFR 700.213 - Methods of providing last resort replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. 700.213 Section 700.213 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Last Resort Replacement Housing § 700.213 Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. (a) General. The methods...

  9. 26 CFR 1.563-3 - Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dividends considered as paid on last day of... Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year. (a) General rule. Where a distribution made after... section 562(a) the distribution shall be considered as made on the last day of such taxable year....

  10. 26 CFR 1.563-3 - Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dividends considered as paid on last day of... Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year. (a) General rule. Where a distribution made after... section 562(a) the distribution shall be considered as made on the last day of such taxable year....

  11. 26 CFR 1.563-3 - Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Dividends considered as paid on last day of... Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year. (a) General rule. Where a distribution made after... section 562(a) the distribution shall be considered as made on the last day of such taxable year....

  12. 26 CFR 1.563-3 - Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Dividends considered as paid on last day of... Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year. (a) General rule. Where a distribution made after... section 562(a) the distribution shall be considered as made on the last day of such taxable year....

  13. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  14. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Last railroad employment in the base year. 330... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  15. Lasting Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the matter of civil rights, and in particular the treatment of black people at the hands of white people, was conveyed to him most powerfully by three men of Harvard. The first was his high school headmaster, Herbert W. Smith, who introduced their class to the horrors of apartheid through the writings of…

  16. Lasting Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the matter of civil rights, and in particular the treatment of black people at the hands of white people, was conveyed to him most powerfully by three men of Harvard. The first was his high school headmaster, Herbert W. Smith, who introduced their class to the horrors of apartheid through the writings of…

  17. Last Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    From the bleached blond hair with black tips to the intentionally torn clothes to the tattoo on her arm, Annie looked and acted like a rebel from the first day she set foot in the author's literature classroom. In this article, the author describes how the journal for literature class had been instrumental in finding out about Annie's life and how…

  18. Lasting Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolicoeur, Mark; Kahl, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years ago, the U.S. Department of Education estimated that the average age of American school facilities was 40 years. With the slowing education construction market, one can assume that this age is continuing to rise. And this system of aging school facilities begs the question: Renovate or replace? When schools are looking at their…

  19. Last Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    From the bleached blond hair with black tips to the intentionally torn clothes to the tattoo on her arm, Annie looked and acted like a rebel from the first day she set foot in the author's literature classroom. In this article, the author describes how the journal for literature class had been instrumental in finding out about Annie's life and how…

  20. Lasting Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolicoeur, Mark; Kahl, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years ago, the U.S. Department of Education estimated that the average age of American school facilities was 40 years. With the slowing education construction market, one can assume that this age is continuing to rise. And this system of aging school facilities begs the question: Renovate or replace? When schools are looking at their…

  1. Lasting Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Many schools and universities thought they were getting a good deal when they were building education facilities in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the K-12 and higher-education spaces constructed to accommodate the millions of baby-boomer students no longer look like the quick-fix bargain they did years ago. Low-quality materials and construction,…

  2. Last Sanctuary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Alan Thein

    1992-01-01

    Report on Philippine tribal people's struggle to protect their homelands against loggers, miners, and the global industrial economy. Links the issues surrounding tribal homelands and environmental degradation to world trade, foreign debt, and expansion of the industrial economy. (MCO)

  3. Lasting Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Many schools and universities thought they were getting a good deal when they were building education facilities in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the K-12 and higher-education spaces constructed to accommodate the millions of baby-boomer students no longer look like the quick-fix bargain they did years ago. Low-quality materials and construction,…

  4. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  6. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  10. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft last previously registered in the United States. 47.35 Section 47.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.35 Aircraft last previously registered in the...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1006.760 Section 1006.760 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1006.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at the time of, or during...

  12. 30 CFR 250.170 - How long does a suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long does a suspension last? 250.170 Section 250.170 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Suspensions § 250.170 How long does a suspension last? (a) MMS may...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1471.760 Section 1471.760 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1471.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  14. 22 CFR 1508.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1508.760 Section 1508.760 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1508.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at the time of, or...

  15. 20 CFR 416.909 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 416.909 Section 416.909 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 416.909 How long the impairment must last. Unless...

  16. 20 CFR 220.28 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 220.28 Section 220.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Any Regular Employment § 220.28 How long the impairment must last....

  17. 22 CFR 208.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 208.865 Section 208.865 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period of...

  18. 5 CFR 919.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 919.760 Section 919.760 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 919.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal...

  19. 33 CFR 148.310 - How long does a license last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long does a license last? 148.310 Section 148.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Licenses § 148.310 How long does a license last? Each license remains in effect...

  20. 22 CFR 1508.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1508.865 Section 1508.865 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period of debarment...

  1. 22 CFR 1006.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1006.865 Section 1006.865 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period of debarment will...

  2. 29 CFR 98.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How long may my suspension last? 98.760 Section 98.760 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at the time of, or during your suspension,...

  3. 31 CFR 19.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 19.760 Section 19.760 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 19.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated...

  4. 5 CFR 919.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 919.865 Section 919.865 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the...

  5. 29 CFR 1471.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1471.865 Section 1471.865 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar...

  6. 31 CFR 19.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 19.865 Section 19.865 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you,...

  7. 7 CFR 3017.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 3017.865 Section 3017.865 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 3017.865 How long may my debarment last?...

  8. 22 CFR 208.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 208.760 Section 208.760 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 208.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at the time of,...

  9. 78 FR 13751 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME AROUND; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME... the applicant the intended service of the vessel LAST TIME AROUND is: Intended Commercial Use Of...

  10. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  11. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year. 330.4 Section 330.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the...

  12. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year. 330.4 Section 330.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the...

  13. 46 CFR 280.9 - Special rules for last year of ODS agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) of this section, if on a cumulative basis for each quarter of the calendar year: (1) Less than 50... ODS payable for the preceding calendar year as required by paragraph (b) (3) of § 280.4. (b) Amount..., the amount payable on the ODS voucher for the last month of any quarter of the last calendar year...

  14. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Last railroad employment in the base year. 330.4 Section 330.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base...

  15. Singular Lagrangian, Hamiltonization and Jacobi last multiplier for certain biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Partha; Ghose Choudhury, Anindya

    2013-07-01

    We study the construction of singular Lagrangians using Jacobi's last multiplier (JLM). We also demonstrate the significance of the last multiplier in Hamiltonian theory by explicitly constructing the Hamiltonian of the Host-Parasite model and a Lotka-Volterra mutualistic system, both of which are well known first-order systems of differential equations arising in biology.

  16. Last offices: nurses' experiences of the process and their views about involving significant others.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan; Bristowe, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Last offices are the procedures carried out shortly after a person dies. The National End of Life Care Programme UK guidelines recognise the potential impact of last offices on nurses and advocate the involvement of significant others, but offer no guidance on how to facilitate this. To explore nurses' experiences of carrying out last offices, in hospice inpatient and community settings, and their views on involving the person's significant others in the process. Semi-structured interviews with 10 nurses/health-care assistants (held in June to August 2012). Interviews were analysed using interpretative, thematic analysis. Four main themes emerged from the data. Last offices were described as: a range of care activities, a learning and coping challenge, a time of transition, and a demonstration of respect and support. Last offices are a range of care activities, shaped by the environment, time and help available. Further research into the potential benefits and harms of involving significant others is required.

  17. An interactive computer graphics system for the design of molded and orthopedic shoe lasts.

    PubMed

    McAllister, D F; Carver, D; Devarajan, R; Harrison, L; Pietenpol, J L; Yang, S H

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Computer Science at North Carolina State University, with support from the Department of Veterans Affairs and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center, has developed an interactive graphics program for the development of shoe lasts from digitized images of feet or digitized images of commercial shoe lasts. The program runs on a Sun 3/260 computer with a TAAC-1 graphics accelerator. The program contains operations for region addition and deletion, techniques for narrowing the ankle area, methods for toe extension, operations to allow for shoe inserts, etc. Once the operations by the user are complete, the program will resample the resulting last in a 512 x 512 array. The user is then allowed to select an error tolerance which will guide a data reduction program to represent the last as Coons patches. These patches are then transmitted to a milling machine which will cut the last.

  18. Physical symptoms of children receiving pediatric hospice care at home during the last week of life.

    PubMed

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna

    2008-11-01

    To identify symptoms of greatest parental concern on the last day and during the last week of their children's lives, the five most common symptoms of parental concern, and symptom-management strategies used during the last week of the children's lives. Descriptive, exploratory, and retrospective. A pediatric hospice program in St. Louis, MO. Convenience sampling of 28 bereaved parents. The Krippendorff method for semantical content analysis of data collected from semistructured telephone interviews with parents. Parents' perceptions of their children's symptoms and symptom-management strategies. On the last day of life, change in the children's breathing was the most frequent symptom of concern. During the last week of life, loss of motor function was the most frequent symptom of concern. Physical comfort actions and use of pharmaceutical agents were the strategies perceived as most helpful in managing symptoms. The study is the first to document parents' perceptions of their children's symptoms and of symptom-management strategies during the last week of life while receiving care in the home from staff of the pediatric hospice program. Symptoms experienced by dying children during the last week of life and symptom-management strategies used by pediatric hospice programs to support dying children and their families have not been well described. Additional research is warranted to further identify pediatric symptoms at the end of life and effective symptom-management strategies.

  19. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hua; Chang, Shan; Hu, Jian-ping; Tian, Xu-hong

    2016-01-01

    TAL effectors (TALEs) contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE. PMID:27803930

  20. Initial and last manifest dream reports of patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2012-12-01

    The initial and last manifest dream reports (MDRs) of 30 patients who had either successfully terminated, or continued to make satisfactory progress at an advanced stage of psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy, were rated according to the following variables: Affect and Affect Valence; Affect Valence of Associations and Direction of Association Themes; Dream Narrative; Psychodynamic Formulation; Transference; and Dream Theme. Similar to previous studies, the initial MDRs contained more negative than positive affect. Conversely, the last MDRs contained more positive than negative affect. Associations to initial MDRs contained more negative affect; on the other hand, associations to last MDRs contained more positive affect. Direction of association themes were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Dream narratives were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Psychodynamic formulations were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Transference was more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Relational and injury dream themes occurred more frequently than others in both initial and last MDRs. Initial MDRs contained more injury dream themes than last MDRs. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is a correlation between MDR variables and clinical improvement during treatment. The patients in this study were selected by MG, the treating therapist, on the basis of satisfactory progress. The MDRs of patients who failed to progress or did poorly were not discussed in this report. The findings, therefore, must be taken as preliminary and indicate the need for further research on manifest dreams during psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

  1. [Reimbursed health expenditures during the last year of life, in France, in the year 2008].

    PubMed

    Ricci, P; Mezzarobba, M; Blotière, P O; Polton, D

    2013-02-01

    To measure the reimbursed health expenditures in the last year of life and the proportion it represents in total reimbursement costs in 2008, to analyse the structure of such expenditures and to identify costs by cause of death. Data were obtained from the French national insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Data from the national hospital discharge database were linked to the outpatient reimbursement database for patients covered by the general health insurance scheme (n=49 million persons). The cost of the last year of life was calculated for the exhaustive population (361,328 deaths in 2008). The supposed cause of death was mainly derived from the primary diagnosis of the last hospital stay during which the patient died. The average reimbursed expenses during the last year of life were estimated at 22,000 € per person in 2008, with 12,500 € accounting for public hospital costs. Reimbursed health expenditures varied according to different medical causes of death: 52,300 € for HIV disease and about 40,000 € for tumors. A negative effect of age on the expenditure during the last year of life was observed. Health care spending increased with shorter time before death, the last month of life corresponding to 28% of reimbursed expenditures during the last year of life. Health care use in the last year of life represented 10.5% of the total health expenditures in 2008. This study found results similar to those observed in the past or in other countries. Our results show in particular that the weight of health expenditures during the last year of life on total health expenditures remains stable over the years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the last glacial maximum in mid-latitudes.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter W; Andersen, Bjorn G; Phillips, Fred M; Lowell, Thomas V; Schlüchter, Christian

    2006-06-09

    Isotopic records from polar ice cores imply globally asynchronous warming at the end of the last glaciation. However, 10Be exposure dates show that large-scale retreat of mid-latitude Last Glacial Maximum glaciers commenced at about the same time in both hemispheres. The timing of retreat is consistent with the onset of temperature and atmospheric CO2 increases in Antarctic ice cores. We suggest that a global trend of rising summer temperatures at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum was obscured in North Atlantic regions by hypercold winters associated with unusually extensive winter sea ice.

  3. Direct evidence of central European forest refugia during the last glacial period based on mollusc fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juřičková, Lucie; Horáčková, Jitka; Ložek, Vojen

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence from molecular studies for the existence of central European last glacial refugia for temperate species, there is still a great lack of direct fossil records to confirm this theory. Here we bring such evidence in the form of fossil shells from twenty strictly forest land snail species, which were recorded in radiocarbon-dated late glacial or older mollusc assemblages of nine non-interrupted mollusc successions situated in the Western Carpathians, and one in the Bohemian Massif. We proposed that molluscs survived the last glacial period in central Europe in isolated small patches of broadleaf forest, which we unequivocally demonstrate for two sites of last glacial maximum age.

  4. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, P. A.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Barnikol, U. B.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-07-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  5. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents. PMID:23153259

  6. The Last Will and Testament: A Neglected Document in Sociological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Clifton D.; Snizek, William A.

    1975-01-01

    While numerous sociologists have long recognized the importance and utility of employing secondary sources in sociological research, the last will and testament appears to be the single most neglected document in sociological research. (Author/JC)

  7. 2 Out of 3 Depressed Teens Gain Lasting Benefits from Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162313.html 2 Out of 3 Depressed Teens Gain Lasting Benefits ... 03/02/2017) By Randy Dotinga Friday, December 2, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For ...

  8. An in situ SEM experimental study of the thermal stability of a LAST thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Howe, Jane Y; Walker, Larry R; Case, Eldon D; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability is a key factor affecting the deployment of thermoelectric (TE) materials in the application of power generation. LAST (Lead-Antimony-Silver-Tellurium) is an emerging material with promising TE properties. The current study focused on the thermal stability of a LAST composition Ag0.86Pb19SbTe20 fabricated from a cast ingot. Using a customized heating stage, the morphology of LAST particles was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in situ, between room temperature and 575oC. The LAST material included in this study was stable below 550oC. The inclusion phase, which was antimony-rich, has a lower thermal stability than the PbTe-rich matrix. The SEM finding was also consistent with a thermogravimetrtic analysis.

  9. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  10. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-07-15

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  11. 29 CFR 98.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How long may my debarment last? 98.865 Section 98.865 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period of debarment will be based on the...

  12. Identification of last interglacial deposits in eastern Beringia: a cautionary note from the Palisades, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Zazula, Grant D.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Ager, Thomas A.; Froese, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Last interglacial sediments in unglaciated Alaska and Yukon (eastern Beringia) are commonly identified by palaeoecological indicators and stratigraphic position ~2-5m above the regionally prominent Old Crow tephra (124 + or - 10ka). We demonstrate that this approach can yield erroneous age assignments using data from a new exposure at the Palisades, a site in interior Alaska with numerous exposures of last interglacial sediments. Tephrochronology, stratigraphy, plant macrofossils, pollen and fossil insects from a prominent wood-rich organic silt unit are all consistent with a last interglacial age assignment. However, six 14C dates on plant and insect macrofossils from the organic silt range from non-finite to 4.0 14C ka BP, indicating that the organic silt instead represents a Holocene deposit with a mixed-age assemblage of organic material. In contrast, wood samples from presumed last interglacial organic-rich sediments elsewhere at the Palisades, in a similar stratigraphic position with respect to Old Crow tephra, yield non-finite 14C ages. Given that local permafrost thaw since the last interglaciation may facilitate reworking of older sediments into new stratigraphic positions, minimum constraining ages based on 14C dating or other methods should supplement age assignments for last interglacial sediments in eastern Beringia that are based on palaeoecology and stratigraphic association with Old Crow tephra.

  13. Evolution of the biological productivity during the last deglaciations using the triple isotopic composition of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Violaine; Extier, Thomas; Landais, Amaelle; Kageyama, Masa; Bopp, Laurent; Blunier, Thomas; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2017-04-01

    The last deglaciation is probably the best documented large climatic changes of the Quaternary. It is associated with global temperature increases of 4-5°C, significant increase of the sea level by 120 m and an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by 80 ppm. Understanding the combination of biochemical and physical factors responsible for this 80 ppm increase and the link with climate change is essential in the current evolution of greenhouse gases concentration. Biological productivity plays a role in the change of CO2 concentration during the last deglaciation. However, the lack of direct and global tracers of biological productivity makes it difficult to quantify and date the global change of productivity over the last deglaciation. Here, we use the triple isotopic composition of oxygen (δ17O of O2) over the last deglaciation obtained with a 300 years resolution on the NEEM ice core to depict the change of global productivity on this period. δ17O of O2 is indeed responding to the variations of O2 flux from the biosphere albeit in a complex manner. To help its interpretation, we thus combine these measurements with O2 fluxes obtained from the coupled climate model of IPSL over the last deglaciation. Finally, we compare the dynamic and amplitude of the δ17O of O2 change over the last deglaciation with variations obtained on previous deglaciations using new δ17O of O2 data obtained from the Dome C ice core.

  14. Auditory cortical field coding long-lasting tonal offsets in mice

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hironori; Tsukano, Hiroaki; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Horii, Arata; Takahashi, Sugata; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2016-01-01

    Although temporal information processing is important in auditory perception, the mechanisms for coding tonal offsets are unknown. We investigated cortical responses elicited at the offset of tonal stimuli using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging in mice. Off-responses were clearly observed at the offset of tonal stimuli lasting for 7 s, but not after stimuli lasting for 1 s. Off-responses to the short stimuli appeared in a similar cortical region, when conditioning tonal stimuli lasting for 5–20 s preceded the stimuli. MK-801, an inhibitor of NMDA receptors, suppressed the two types of off-responses, suggesting that disinhibition produced by NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression might be involved in the off-responses. The peak off-responses were localized in a small region adjacent to the primary auditory cortex, and no frequency-dependent shift of the response peaks was found. Frequency matching of preceding tonal stimuli with short test stimuli was not required for inducing off-responses to short stimuli. Two-photon calcium imaging demonstrated significantly larger neuronal off-responses to stimuli lasting for 7 s in this field, compared with off-responses to stimuli lasting for 1 s. The present results indicate the presence of an auditory cortical field responding to long-lasting tonal offsets, possibly for temporal information processing. PMID:27687766

  15. Batting last as a home advantage factor in men's NCAA tournament baseball.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Obara, Jeff; Kwan, Matt

    2005-07-01

    In baseball and softball, there is a rule that allows the home team to have the last at-bat and thus the final opportunity to win the game. However, in tournament play, this rule is often set aside and, instead, batting order is decided by other means (e.g. tournament rules, the flip of a coin). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the batting last rule on game outcome in NCAA men's regional tournament baseball. It was hypothesized that host (i.e. home) teams would win a greater percentage of the games in which they batted last compared with when they batted first. This hypothesis was not supported. Closer examination of the last inning of play showed home teams were no more likely to have won the game during their last bat than visitors playing other visitors. The results suggest that the batting last rule contributes minimally, if at all, to home advantage in NCAA tournament baseball.

  16. Long-Lasting Sparks: Multi-Metastability and Release Competition in the Calcium Release Unit Network

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Karma, Alain; Weiss, James N.; Qu, Zhilin

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) sparks are elementary events of biological Ca signaling. A normal Ca spark has a brief duration in the range of 10 to 100 ms, but long-lasting sparks with durations of several hundred milliseconds to seconds are also widely observed. Experiments have shown that the transition from normal to long-lasting sparks can occur when ryanodine receptor (RyR) open probability is either increased or decreased. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and computationally that long-lasting sparks emerge as a collective dynamical behavior of the network of diffusively coupled Ca release units (CRUs). We show that normal sparks occur when the CRU network is monostable and excitable, while long-lasting sparks occur when the network dynamics possesses multiple metastable attractors, each attractor corresponding to a different spatial firing pattern of sparks. We further highlight the mechanisms and conditions that produce long-lasting sparks, demonstrating the existence of an optimal range of RyR open probability favoring long-lasting sparks. We find that when CRU firings are sparse and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load is high, increasing RyR open probability promotes long-lasting sparks by potentiating Ca-induced Ca release (CICR). In contrast, when CICR is already strong enough to produce frequent firings, decreasing RyR open probability counter-intuitively promotes long-lasting sparks by decreasing spark frequency. The decrease in spark frequency promotes intra-SR Ca diffusion from neighboring non-firing CRUs to the firing CRUs, which helps to maintain the local SR Ca concentration of the firing CRUs above a critical level to sustain firing. In this setting, decreasing RyR open probability further suppresses long-lasting sparks by weakening CICR. Since a long-lasting spark terminates via the Kramers’ escape process over a potential barrier, its duration exhibits an exponential distribution determined by the barrier height and noise strength, which is modulated

  17. Long-Lasting Sparks: Multi-Metastability and Release Competition in the Calcium Release Unit Network.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Karma, Alain; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) sparks are elementary events of biological Ca signaling. A normal Ca spark has a brief duration in the range of 10 to 100 ms, but long-lasting sparks with durations of several hundred milliseconds to seconds are also widely observed. Experiments have shown that the transition from normal to long-lasting sparks can occur when ryanodine receptor (RyR) open probability is either increased or decreased. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and computationally that long-lasting sparks emerge as a collective dynamical behavior of the network of diffusively coupled Ca release units (CRUs). We show that normal sparks occur when the CRU network is monostable and excitable, while long-lasting sparks occur when the network dynamics possesses multiple metastable attractors, each attractor corresponding to a different spatial firing pattern of sparks. We further highlight the mechanisms and conditions that produce long-lasting sparks, demonstrating the existence of an optimal range of RyR open probability favoring long-lasting sparks. We find that when CRU firings are sparse and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load is high, increasing RyR open probability promotes long-lasting sparks by potentiating Ca-induced Ca release (CICR). In contrast, when CICR is already strong enough to produce frequent firings, decreasing RyR open probability counter-intuitively promotes long-lasting sparks by decreasing spark frequency. The decrease in spark frequency promotes intra-SR Ca diffusion from neighboring non-firing CRUs to the firing CRUs, which helps to maintain the local SR Ca concentration of the firing CRUs above a critical level to sustain firing. In this setting, decreasing RyR open probability further suppresses long-lasting sparks by weakening CICR. Since a long-lasting spark terminates via the Kramers' escape process over a potential barrier, its duration exhibits an exponential distribution determined by the barrier height and noise strength, which is modulated

  18. Efficacy of topical mosquito repellent (picaridin) plus long-lasting insecticidal nets versus long-lasting insecticidal nets alone for control of malaria: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Heng, Somony; Gryseels, Charlotte; Canier, Lydie; Kim, Saorin; Van Roey, Karel; Kerkhof, Karen; Khim, Nimol; Mao, Sokny; Uk, Sambunny; Sovannaroth, Siv; Grietens, Koen Peeters; Sochantha, Tho; Menard, Didier; Coosemans, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Although effective topical repellents provide personal protection against malaria, whether mass use of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets can contribute to a further decline of malaria is not known, particularly in areas where outdoor transmission occurs. We aimed to assess the epidemiological efficacy of a highly effective topical repellent in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets in reducing malaria prevalence in this setting. A cluster randomised controlled trial was done in the 117 most endemic villages in Ratanakiri province, Cambodia, to assess the efficacy of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets in controlling malaria in a low-endemic setting. We did a pre-trial assessment of village accessibility and excluded four villages because of their inaccessibility during the rainy season. Another 25 villages were grouped because of their proximity to each other, resulting in 98 study clusters (comprising either a single village or multiple neighbouring villages). Clusters were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a control (long-lasting insecticidal nets) or intervention (long-lasting insecticidal nets plus topical repellent) study group after a restricted randomisation. All clusters received one long-lasting insecticidal net per individual, whereas those in the intervention group also received safe and effective topical repellents (picaridin KBR3023, SC Johnson, Racine, WI, USA), along with instruction and promotion of its daily use. Cross-sectional surveys of 65 randomly selected individuals per cluster were done at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season in 2012 and 2013. The primary outcome was Plasmodium species-specific prevalence in participants obtained by real-time PCR, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Complete safety analysis data will be published seperately; any ad-hoc adverse events are reported here. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT

  19. The Last Interglacial represented in the glaciochemical record from Mount Moulton Blue Ice Area, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkikh, E.; Mayewski, P. A.; Handley, M.; Sneed, S. B.; Introne, D.; Kurbatov, A.

    2010-12-01

    The last interglacial is the most recent analog for the present (Holocene) interglacial. Here we present the first high-resolution ice core record of the last interglacial and transition to the subsequent glacial period from Antarctica and the first glaciochemical record for this period from West Antarctica. Rather than using a standard vertical ice core we used samples collected from a horizontal trench in the Mt. Moulton Blue Ice Area (BIA) in West Antarctica. Samples were analyzed for their soluble major ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), trace elements (Na, Ca, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, V, Mn, As, Al, Fe, Sr, Cs, Ba, Bi, S, Ti, Co, Mg and REEs) and water hydrogen isotopes (δD). A Mt. Moulton BIA timescale was developed invoking a simple linear age model based on 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dates from the 3 englacial tephra layers, yielding an age of 107.2 to 135.6 ka B.P. for the sampled section, thus overlapping onset and termination of the last interglacial. On the basis of this dating temporal sample resolution is about 6-8 years, notably higher than other published ice core records. According to the BIA record, the last interglacial began ~134.3 ka B.P., marked by a major decrease in sea salts and nssSO42-concentrations likely indicating weakening of atmospheric circulation and decrease of sea ice extent. The warmest part of the last interglacial in the BIA record is characterized by maximum δD values (-187‰) that lasted for about 4,500 years between ~129 - 133.5 ka B.P. with temperature reaching its maximum value ~132 ka B.P. At this time increase in seasalt concentration and a low level of nssSO42- indicate minimum sea ice extent and proximity of open water to the Moulton site. The end of the last interglacial occurred sometime between 113 - 123.8 ka B.P. depending on whether defined by change in temperature (δD), atmospheric circulation intensity (dusts and seasalts), or sea ice extent and marine productivity (Na, nssSO42-). Whether the last interglacial lasted ~10,500 or

  20. Age of the last major scabland flood of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullineaux, D.R.; Wilcox, R.E.; Ebaugh, W.F.; Fryxell, R.; Rubin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Pumice layers of set S from Mount St. Helens can be correlated with certain ash beds associated with young flood deposits of the channeled scabland. The correlation points to an age of about 13,000 14C yr B.P. for the last major flood to have crossed the scabland. Until recently, the last major episode of flooding was thought to be closer to 20,000 yr B.P., an age inferred chiefly from the relation of the flood to glacial events of the northern Rocky Mountains. Several investigations within the last few years have suggested that the last major flood occurred well after 20,000 yr B.P. Tentative correlations of ash beds of the scabland with set S pumice layers, the relations of flood and glacial events along the northwestern margin of the Columbia Plateau, and a radiocarbon date from the Snake River drainage southeast of the plateau all indicate an age much younger than 20,000 yr. The postulated age of about 13,000 yr B.P. is further supported by a radiocarbon date in the Columbia River valley downstream from the scabland tract. Basal peat from a bog on the Portland delta of Bretz, which is a downvalley deposit of the last major scabland flood, has been dated as 13,080 ?? 300 yr B.P. (W-3404). ?? 1978.

  1. Sea-level oscillations during the last interglacial highstand recorded by Bahamas corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, William G.; Allen Curran, H.; Wilson, Mark A.; White, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Rapid sea-level changes during the last interglacial highstand have been inferred from distinct stratigraphic units, which suggest multiple episodes of reef growth. However, it is difficult to resolve the age differences between fossil reef units, and results from conventional U-Th geochronology instead suggest a prolonged, stable sea-level highstand during the last interglacial. Here we present U-Th ages from last interglacial coral reef sequences in the Bahamas that reflect the timing of sea-level highstands. We use a method that corrects the ages for diagenetic disturbance of the U-Th isotope ratios. Our dated Bahamas stratigraphy confirms that at least one sea-level oscillation interrupted the last interglacial highstand. Further oscillations, as suggested by reconstructions from the Red Sea, would also be consistent with our data. We estimate that the minimum rate of sea-level change across the first oscillation was 2.6m per 1,000 years, slightly lower than previous estimates. In contrast, during the past 6,000 years of the Holocene interglacial, sea level was relatively stable. We therefore suggest that ice sheets during the last interglacial, which was warmer than today and has been proposed as an analogue for future warming, were less stable than during the mid-to-late Holocene.

  2. Arctic Ocean sea ice cover during the penultimate glacial and the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Gierz, Paul; Niessen, Frank; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-08-29

    Coinciding with global warming, Arctic sea ice has rapidly decreased during the last four decades and climate scenarios suggest that sea ice may completely disappear during summer within the next about 50-100 years. Here we produce Arctic sea ice biomarker proxy records for the penultimate glacial (Marine Isotope Stage 6) and the subsequent last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 5e). The latter is a time interval when the high latitudes were significantly warmer than today. We document that even under such warmer climate conditions, sea ice existed in the central Arctic Ocean during summer, whereas sea ice was significantly reduced along the Barents Sea continental margin influenced by Atlantic Water inflow. Our proxy reconstruction of the last interglacial sea ice cover is supported by climate simulations, although some proxy data/model inconsistencies still exist. During late Marine Isotope Stage 6, polynya-type conditions occurred off the major ice sheets along the northern Barents and East Siberian continental margins, contradicting a giant Marine Isotope Stage 6 ice shelf that covered the entire Arctic Ocean.Coinciding with global warming, Arctic sea ice has rapidly decreased during the last four decades. Here, using biomarker records, the authors show that permanent sea ice was still present in the central Arctic Ocean during the last interglacial, when high latitudes were warmer than present.

  3. A regional overview of the last glacial period in the temperate NE Atlantic: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle

    2015-04-01

    Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical Atlantic to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North Atlantic. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial period to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34

  4. Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sarin, M.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Various paleoceanographic studies have indicated that the deep ocean was probably depleted in dissolved oxygen during the last glacial period ([approximately]18 kyr B.P.; [delta][sup 18]O, stage 2) compared to present time. However, direct evidence of low oxygen content in the deep waters has been lacking. Here, the authors report geochemical evidence of near anoxic conditions in the deep Arabian Sea during the entire last glacial cycle ([delta][sup 18]O; stages 2, 3, and 4). Anoxia is inferred from the concomitant enrichment of organic carbon and authigenic uranium in the glacial sections of a core from the deep eastern Arabian Sea. The anoxic conditions during the last glacial period, probably caused by a change in deep water circulation, evidently enhanced preservation of organic matter and simultaneous removal of uranium from seawater. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

    2013-10-08

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age.

  6. Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet–ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age. PMID:24062437

  7. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. U-series evidence for two high Last Interglacial sea levels in southeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedoui, Younes; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Kallel, Nejib; Montacer, Mabrouk; Ismaı̈l, Hedi Ben; Davaud, Eric

    2003-02-01

    Pleistocene raised marine deposits in southeastern Tunisia consist of a siliciclastic unit that culminates at +3 m asl, overlain by a carbonate-rich unit with Strombus bubonius that culminates at +5 m asl. 234U/ 238U ratios on fossil Ostraea shells from both units are compatible with a marine origin from the uranium incorporated into the shells and show narrowly clustered 230Th-ages, respectively, between 147 and 110 ka and 141 and 100 ka. The two units were therefore developed during Marine Isotopic Substage 5e (MISs 5e, Last Interglacial). Their heights are comparable to those of contemporaneous marine deposits found in many tectonically stable areas of the world such as in the Bahamas and in Bermuda and can therefore be used as indicators of eustatic changes during the Last Interglacial. It is argued that on the basis of this evidence, the Last Interglacial was characterised by two eustatic maxima.

  9. How long do the short-term violent video game effects last?

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher; Branch, Omar; Rodeheffer, Christopher; Harris, Richard

    2009-01-01

    How long do the effects of the initial short-term increase in aggression and physiological arousal last after violent video game play? Study 1 (N=91) had participants complete pre- and postvideo game measures of aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and heart rate. Then, participants completed Time 3 measures after 4 min or 9 min of delay. Study 2 employed a similar procedure, but had participants (N=91) complete the hot sauce paradigm to assess aggressive behavior after a 0, 5, or 10 min delay. First, results indicated that aggressive feelings, aggressive thoughts, aggressive behavior, and heart rate initially increased after violent video game play. Second, results of the delay condition revealed that the increase in aggressive feelings and aggressive thoughts lasted less than 4 min, whereas heart rate and aggressive behavior lasted 4-9 min.

  10. Millennial climatic fluctuations are key to the structure of last glacial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Brian; Allen, Judy R M; Collingham, Yvonne C; Hickler, Thomas; Lister, Adrian M; Singarayer, Joy; Stuart, Anthony J; Sykes, Martin T; Valdes, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Whereas fossil evidence indicates extensive treeless vegetation and diverse grazing megafauna in Europe and northern Asia during the last glacial, experiments combining vegetation models and climate models have to-date simulated widespread persistence of trees. Resolving this conflict is key to understanding both last glacial ecosystems and extinction of most of the mega-herbivores. Using a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) we explored the implications of the differing climatic conditions generated by a general circulation model (GCM) in "normal" and "hosing" experiments. Whilst the former approximate interstadial conditions, the latter, designed to mimic Heinrich Events, approximate stadial conditions. The "hosing" experiments gave simulated European vegetation much closer in composition to that inferred from fossil evidence than did the "normal" experiments. Given the short duration of interstadials, and the rate at which forest cover expanded during the late-glacial and early Holocene, our results demonstrate the importance of millennial variability in determining the character of last glacial ecosystems.

  11. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Max D.; Sime, Louise C.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Tindall, Julia C.; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming. PMID:27526639

  12. [Last will and testament: decision-making at the end of one's life].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ortega, J C; Martinez Ortega, R M; Quintana Oter, C; Rubiales Paredes, D

    2007-03-01

    Current medical practice has made great progress over the past century which permits people to live longer and better than before. But this improvement has not been transferred to the field of death. To die with dignity today is a privilege only a few have. Those close to death claim their right to a death with dignity. Their petition usually goes unheard by the medical profession. The patients' autonomous law, which regulates last will and testaments or anticipated final wishes, is a step in this direction. The objective of this article is to publicize the current legal regulations related to last wills and testaments or last wishes by means of a critical review of the existing legislation.

  13. Role of seasonality in the evolution of climate during the last 100 million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, T. J.; Short, D. A.; North, G. R.; Mengel, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A simple climate model has been used to calculate the effect of past changes in the land-sea distribution on the seasonal cycle of temperatures during the last 100 million years. Modeled summer temperature decreased over Greenland by more than 10 C and over Antarctica by 5 to 8 C. For the last 80 million years, this thermal response is comparable in magnitude to estimated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects. Analysis of paleontological data provides some support for the proposed hypothesis that large changes due to seasonality may have sometimes resulted in an ice-free state due to high summer temperatures rather than year-round warmth. Such 'cool' nonglacials may have prevailed for as much as one-third of the last 100 million years.

  14. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export.

  16. An enigmatic long-lasting gamma-ray burst not accompanied by a bright supernova.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, M; Chincarini, G; Panagia, N; Tagliaferri, G; Malesani, D; Testa, V; Fugazza, D; Campana, S; Covino, S; Mangano, V; Antonelli, L A; D'Avanzo, P; Hurley, K; Mirabel, I F; Pellizza, L J; Piranomonte, S; Stella, L

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense flashes of soft gamma-rays coming from the distant Universe. Long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s) are believed to originate from the deaths of massive stars, mainly on the basis of a handful of solid associations between GRBs and supernovae. GRB 060614, one of the closest GRBs discovered, consisted of a 5-s hard spike followed by softer, brighter emission that lasted for approximately 100 s (refs 8, 9). Here we report deep optical observations of GRB 060614 showing no emerging supernova with absolute visual magnitude brighter than M(V) = -13.7. Any supernova associated with GRB 060614 was therefore at least 100 times fainter, at optical wavelengths, than the other supernovae associated with GRBs. This demonstrates that some long-lasting GRBs can either be associated with a very faint supernova or produced by different phenomena.

  17. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Max D; Sime, Louise C; Singarayer, Joy S; Tindall, Julia C; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J

    2016-08-16

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming.

  18. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export. PMID:27346723

  19. Pink light emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Sm 3+-doped CdSiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Liu, Jie; Ye, Zeren; Shi, Chunshan

    2004-04-01

    Novel pink light emitting long-lasting afterglow CdSiO 3:Sm 3+ phosphors are prepared by the conventional high-temperature solid-state method and their luminescent properties are investigated. XRD and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are used to characterize the synthesized phosphors. The phosphors are well crystallized by calcinations at 1050°C for 5 h. These phosphors emit pink light and show long-lasting phosphorescence after they are excited with 254 nm ultraviolet light. The phosphorescence lasts for nearly 5 h in the light perception of the dark-adapted human eye (0.32 mcd/m 2). The phosphorescence mechanism is also investigated. All the results indicate that these phosphors have promising potential practical applications.

  20. The last Balmer line and H gamma in model B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Klinglesmith, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Profiles of the last few Balmer lines (H12-H27) and the full profiles of the H gamma line were computed for a grid of hydrogen line blanketed model atmospheres. The use of the last hydrogen line and the equivalent width of H gamma provide a quick means of estimating the effective temperature and surface gravity of B stars. Regression curves relating the quantum number of the last hydrogen line to the electron density in the model atmosphere are given. Futhermore, it is shown that the difference in the gravity determination deduced from H gamma equivalent widths using the Edmonds-Schuter-Wells formalism and the Griem wing formulae is, at worst, 0.18 in the common logarithm.

  1. Role of seasonality in the evolution of climate during the last 100 million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, T. J.; Short, D. A.; North, G. R.; Mengel, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A simple climate model has been used to calculate the effect of past changes in the land-sea distribution on the seasonal cycle of temperatures during the last 100 million years. Modeled summer temperature decreased over Greenland by more than 10 C and over Antarctica by 5 to 8 C. For the last 80 million years, this thermal response is comparable in magnitude to estimated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects. Analysis of paleontological data provides some support for the proposed hypothesis that large changes due to seasonality may have sometimes resulted in an ice-free state due to high summer temperatures rather than year-round warmth. Such 'cool' nonglacials may have prevailed for as much as one-third of the last 100 million years.

  2. Tropical Atlantic Temperature Seasonality at the End of the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, T.; Giry, C.; Scholz, D.; Lohmann, G.; Pfeiffer, M.; Pätzold, J.; Kölling, M.; Scheffers, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The end of the last interglacial period, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets, which are partially comparable to those projected for future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this period that lead into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature variability in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean for 117.7 ± 0.8 kyr ago, using fossil coral (Diploria strigosa) Sr/Ca and δ18O records from Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). Our 20-year snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature variability for the end of the last interglacial is compared with Bonaire monthly coral Sr/Ca and δ18O records for snapshots since the mid-Holocene, comprising a total length of 295 years. We find that temperature seasonality in the southern Caribbean Sea at the end of the last interglacial was relatively stable and similar to today. Our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (COSMOS) indicate an orbital control on temperature seasonality in the tropical North Atlantic at the end of the last interglacial, despite the large-scale perturbations of ocean circulation and climate during this period, and suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean was a relatively stable feature of the ocean-atmosphere system at the end of the last interglacial.

  3. Permafrost response to last interglacial warming: field evidence from non-glaciated Yukon and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Froese, Duane G.; Jensen, Britta J. L.

    2010-11-01

    We present stratigraphic observations from three sites in eastern Beringia - Ch'ijee's Bluff in northern Yukon and nearby exposures on the Old Crow River, the Palisades on the Yukon River in Alaska, and placer mining exposures at Thistle Creek in west-central Yukon - which provide insight into the response of permafrost to regional warming during the last interglaciation. Chronology is based on the presence of Old Crow tephra, an important regional stratigraphic marker that dates to late Marine Isotope Stage 6, supplemented by paleoecology and non-finite 14C ages on wood-rich organic silts. Old Crow tephra overlies several relict ice wedges at the Palisades and Thistle Creek, indicating that permafrost at these sites did not thaw completely during the last interglaciation. Prominent deposits of last interglacial wood-rich organic silt are present at multiple sites in eastern Beringia, and probably represent accumulations of reworked forest vegetation due to thaw slumping or deposition into thermokarst ponds or depressions. Consistent stratigraphic relations between these deposits, Old Crow tephra, and ice wedge pseudomorphs at our three study sites, and at least six other sites in eastern Beringia, suggest that thaw of shallow permafrost was widespread during the last interglaciation. Limited stratigraphic evidence suggests that thaw was probably on the order of meters, rather than 10s of meters. The ubiquity of shallow permafrost degradation during the last interglaciation suggests that current ground warming may foreshadow widespread near-surface thaw under even modest future warming scenarios. However, the persistence of relict pre-last interglacial ice wedges highlights the potential for the regional antiquity of discontinuous permafrost, and provides compelling field evidence for the long-term resilience of deep permafrost during sustained periods of warmer-than-present climate.

  4. Mechanisms of long-lasting hyperpolarizations underlying slow sleep oscillations in cat corticothalamic networks.

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, D; Timofeev, I; Steriade, M

    1996-01-01

    1. To explore the nature of the long-lasting hyperpolarizations that characterize slow oscillations in corticothalamic circuits in vivo, intracellular recordings were obtained under ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia from cortical (Cx) cells of the cat precruciate motor cortex, thalamic reticular (RE) cells from the rostrolateral sector, and thalamocortical (TC) cells from the ventrolateral (VL) nucleus. 2. Measurements in the three cell types showed input resistance (Rin) to be highest during the long-lasting hyperpolarizations that correspond to depth-positive waves of the cortical EEG. Rin was lowest during the early phase of high-amplitude depth-negative EEG waves and increased thereafter until the next cycle of the slow oscillation. 3. Spontaneous long-lasting hyperpolarizations were compared with those evoked by dorsal thalamic stimulation. Voltage versus current (V-I) plots showed similar membrane potential (Vm) ranges and slopes for spontaneous and evoked hyperpolarizations in both Cx and RE cells. V-I plots from TC cells had similar slopes, but Vm during evoked hyperpolarizations was displaced towards more negative values. 4. Intracellular injection of constant hyperpolarizing current in Cx cells increased the amplitude of the initial part of the depolarizing plateau of the slow oscillation, but decreased the amplitude of the last part. 5. These results suggest disfacilitation to be the dominant mechanism in the membrane of cortical and thalamic cells during the spontaneous long-lasting hyperpolarizations, which shape and synchronize slow oscillations in corticothalamic networks. In Cx and RE cells, the same mechanism underlies thalamically evoked long-lasting hyperpolarizations. By contrast, evoked responses in TC cells show a strong additional hyperpolarizing factor. We propose that GABAB processes are stronger in TC than in Cx neurones, thus rendering the thalamus an easier target for absence-type epileptic phenomena through potentiation of thalamic rebound

  5. Decadal variability of NAO during the last millennium inferred from Saharan dust in Alpine ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwikowski, Margit; Sigl, Michael; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2010-05-01

    Interannual variability of North African atmospheric dust is strongly linked to drought conditions in the Sahel and to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Dust generation and transport are enhanced during winter NAO(+) phases when the North African dust source regions are controlled by high pressure situations leading to less precipitation, and thus to stronger wind erosion of soil material. However, direct Saharan dust observations are limited to the last decades only. Here, we present a first highly resolved ice core record of Saharan dust from the Alps, spanning the last 1,000 years. We focus thereby on concentrations of Fe, Al, Sr, and Ca which are typical elements present in long-range transported Saharan dust. We show that the mineral dust transport to the Southern Alps is primarily controlled by drought conditions in Northern Africa and by the winter NAO. Mean dust concentrations of the last 20 years are unprecedented in the context of the last 1,000 years. These elevated Saharan dust concentrations are consistent with the observed widespread increase in dustiness and dust storm frequencies over Northern Africa from direct measurements or from satellite based observations over the last decades. In contrast, between AD 1050 and 1400, when persistent arid conditions in the main source regions of dust in Northern Africa were deduced from tree-ring data and linked to a pervasive positive NAO mode over centuries, no according imprint is recorded in the ice core mineral dust record. We assume that the low-frequency variability of the tree-ring based reconstruction of Moroccan droughts (which also form the basis for the NAO reconstruction) is biased by the method applied to remove the non-climatic growth trends from the tree-ring series. Based on the ice core data we suggest that decadal-scale variability of the NAO (Moroccan droughts) prevailed over the last 1,000 years.

  6. Last-In First-Elected Last-Out (LIFELO) Scheme for Real-Time Sequential Analysis of Continuous Spatial Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Yuan and Warnick Kernan

    2007-07-09

    Conventionally, sequential analysis of time-dependent observation data follows a simple First-in/ First-out (FIFO) scheme. Under a FIFO scheme, the oldest data point in the system is first chosen for subsequent analysis, such as for computing population mean and sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). Once the analysis is completed or the decision is made, the oldest data point is dropped out of the system and a new sample is drawn. The intrinsic disadvantage of a FIFO scheme is its delayed response. At the time a new sample is drawn, the analysis either cannot tell immediately about the sample, or makes an incorrect statement about the sample. In our research, we adopted a Last-In/ First-Elected/ Last-Out (LIFELO) scheme for realtime sequential analysis of continuous spatial survey data. In this scheme, the most recent data point from a given spatial location in the sequence is first selected for starting the subsequent analysis. If needed, the next youngest data point is chosen to join the analysis. This process is continued until a conclusion is made about the most recent location or data point. LIFELO scheme offers a reduced response time and spatial errors for decision-making for time-and-spatial critical environmental contamination surveys. In terms of methodology, it can also be used for early detection of epidemic diseases.

  7. Beryllium-10 dating of the duration and retreat of the last pinedale glacial sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Gosse, J.C. |; Klein, J.; Evenson, E.B.

    1995-06-02

    Accurate terrestrial glacial chronologies are needed for comparison with the marine record to establish the dynamics of global climate change during transitions from glacial to interglacial regimes. Cosmogenic beryllium-10 measurements in the Wind River Range indicate that the last glacial maximum (marine oxygen isotope stage 2) was achieved there by 21,700 {+-} 700 beryllium-10 years and lasted 5900 years. Ages of a sequence of recessional moraines and striated bedrock surfaces show that the initial deglaciation was rapid and that the entire glacial system retreated 33 kilometers to the cirque basin by 12,100 {+-} 500 beryllium-10 years.

  8. Beryllium-10 dating of the duration and retreat of the last pinedale glacial sequence.

    PubMed

    Gosse, J C; Klein, J; Lawn, B; Middleton, R; Evenson, E B

    1995-06-02

    Accurate terrestrial glacial chronologies are needed for comparison with the marine record to establish the dynamics of global climate change during transitions from glacial to interglacial regimes. Cosmogenic beryllium-10 measurements in the Wind River Range indicate that the last glacial maximum (marine oxygen isotope stage 2) was achieved there by 21,700 +/- 700 beryllium-10 years and lasted 5900 years. Ages of a sequence of recessional moraines and striated bedrock surfaces show that the initial deglaciation was rapid and that the entire glacial system retreated 33 kilometers to the cirque basin by 12,100 +/- 500 beryllium-10 years.

  9. The evolution of the treatment of esophageal achalasia: a look at the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Allaix, Marco E; Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2012-09-01

    Thanks to the development of minimally invasive surgery, the last 20 years have witnessed a revolution in the treatment of benign esophageal disorders, particularly for esophageal achalasia. This has brought a shift in the treatment algorithm of this disease, as today a laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is considered the primary form of treatment in most Centers in North America. This article reviews the evolution of the treatment of esophageal achalasia during the last two decades, with particular stress on the key technical elements of this operation.

  10. [Reducing occupational burnout and enhancing job performance in new nurses: the efficacy of "last mile" programs].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Liu, Pei-Fen; Ho, Hsueh-Hua; Chen, Ping-Ling; Chao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Lien

    2012-08-01

    New nurses undergo a stressful and challenging transition process in the nursing workplace. Lack of patient care knowledge and skills and work adaption difficulties lead to a high turnover rate that drains essential new talent away from the nursing profession and further exacerbates professional staffing shortages in the healthcare sector. The "last mile" program is a program developed jointly by a nursing school and hospital as a mechanism to bridge classroom learning to clinical practice and smooth the transition of nursing students into nursing professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of the "last mile" program on job performance and occupational burnout among new nurses. We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 2009 on a convenience sample of new nurses in a medical center. Participants were assigned into two groups, namely those enrolled in the last mile program (n = 29) and those not enrolled in the program (n = 94). Research team members and several collaborative universities developed the last mile program used in this study; Seven experts established content validity; The last mile program included 84 hours of lecture courses and 160 hours of clinical practice. Data was collected using the nursing job performance scale developed in 2007 by Greenslade and Jimmieson and translated ÷ back translated into an equivalent Chinese version. Exploratory factor analysis showed all items aggraded into 8 factors, which could be divided into task performance and contextual performance concept categories. Task performance concepts included: social support, information, coordination of care, and technical care; Contextual performance concepts included: interpersonal support, job-task support, volunteering for additional duties and compliance. The Cronbach's α for the 8 factors were .70-.95. The occupational burnout inventory included the 4 subscales of personal burnout, work-related burnout, client-related burnout, and over

  11. Was millennial scale climate change during the Last Glacial triggered by explosive volcanism?

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, James U.L.; Brown, Richard J.; McElwaine, Jim N.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for millennial scale climate change within glacial time intervals are equivocal. Here we show that all eight known radiometrically-dated Tambora-sized or larger NH eruptions over the interval 30 to 80 ka BP are associated with abrupt Greenland cooling (>95% confidence). Additionally, previous research reported a strong statistical correlation between the timing of Southern Hemisphere volcanism and Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events (>99% confidence), but did not identify a causative mechanism. Volcanic aerosol-induced asymmetrical hemispheric cooling over the last few hundred years restructured atmospheric circulation in a similar fashion as that associated with Last Glacial millennial-scale shifts (albeit on a smaller scale). We hypothesise that following both recent and Last Glacial NH eruptions, volcanogenic sulphate injections into the stratosphere cooled the NH preferentially, inducing a hemispheric temperature asymmetry that shifted atmospheric circulation cells southward. This resulted in Greenland cooling, Antarctic warming, and a southward shifted ITCZ. However, during the Last Glacial, the initial eruption-induced climate response was prolonged by NH glacier and sea ice expansion, increased NH albedo, AMOC weakening, more NH cooling, and a consequent positive feedback. Conversely, preferential SH cooling following large SH eruptions shifted atmospheric circulation to the north, resulting in the characteristic features of DO events. PMID:26616338

  12. Has New Labour's Numbers Drive Done Lasting Damage to State Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2010-01-01

    The last government's emphasis on results statistics--implicit in its systems for holding teachers to account--as the be-all-and-end-all of a good education, reflected the largely undebated victory of one set of possible aims for schooling over another. Pragmatism beat idealism, as schools' priorities were reshaped along similarly calculating…

  13. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  14. US Military Hand Guns. Examination of Literature for the Last Twenty Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    A special thanks to my wife Mary for her encourage- ment. Lastly, with the help of my four "cookie monsters " Elizabeth, Joseph, John, and Robert...United Kingdom recommended standardization to the 9mm parabellum round. Argues that an atuomatic clogs faster than a revolver. 114.. "Heckler & Loch

  15. Public Claims on U. S. Output: Federal Budget Options in the Last Half of the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    The volume focuses on the long-term outlook for the Federal budget in terms of the overall balance between outlays and receipts and the possible program options that might be considered in policy planning over the long term. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the budget outlook for the last half of the 1970's. Chapters 3-10 discuss possible program…

  16. Psychology Studies' Drive to Educational Reform in the Last 20 Years in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Da-jun; Xu, Xing-chun

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between educational psychology research and educational reform, this essay reviews the development of educational psychology studies in the last 20 years in China. The study shows that: (1) Rapid development has been made in the areas of establishing discipline systems; (2) Research fields have been…

  17. A single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Carmina; Piedrafita, Blanca; Serra, Miguel A; del Olmo, Juan A; Rodrigo, José M; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver disease is associated with poor prognosis. This could be due to the induction by the transient episode of hepatic encephalopathy of long-lasting alterations making patients more susceptible. We show that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in signal transduction. The content of the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase dependent on cAMP (PKA-RI) is increased in erythrocytes from cirrhotic patients. This increase is reproduced in rats with portacaval anastomosis and in rats with hyperammonemia without liver failure, suggesting that hyperammonemia is responsible for increased PKA-RI in patients. We analyzed whether there is a correlation between ammonia levels and PKA-RI content in patients. All cirrhotic patients had increased content of PKA-RI. Some of them showed normal ammonia levels but had suffered previous hyperammonemia episodes. This suggested that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia could induce the long-lasting increase in PKA-RI. To assess this, we injected normal rats with ammonia and blood was taken at different times. Ammonia returned to basal levels at 2 h. However, PKA-RI was significantly increased in blood cells from rats injected with ammonia 3 wk after injection. In conclusion, it is shown that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in signal transduction both in blood and brain. These alterations may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy.

  18. Will It Last? Evidence of Institutionalization at Carnegie Classified Community Engagement Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The traditional question inferred by attention to institutionalization is, "Will it last?" or "Will it die out when there is a new leader or when the grant ends?" In the case of community engagement, attention to institutionalization reveals a more complex portrait of organizational change that includes a critical reflection on not only the…

  19. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509 How...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509 How...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509 How...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509 How...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509 How...

  4. Last male wins the egg fertilization fight: A case study in ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Desh Deepak; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection and the mechanisms involved in sperm competition have not been greatly explored in ladybird beetles. The present study was conducted to investigate the processes of sperm competition and the role of mate guarding behaviour in its regulation in ladybird beetles. We investigated these questions in polyandrous females of the ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a phenotypic marker (typical and intermediate morph) to assess paternity of offspring; to determine sperm competition. We conducted two double mating experiments: (i) complete first and second matings, and (ii) disrupted first and complete second matings each using homomorphic and heteromorphic pairing in alternation. Males which mated last were found to sire up to 72% of the offspring produced, indicating last male sperm precedence. Morph itself, independent of mating order, did not have a significant effect on proportion of offspring sired. Paternity share of the last male was negatively associated with mating duration of the first male; mating duration of the first male being indicative of mate guarding. This therefore indicates that prolonged matings by first males are essentially examples of post-copulatory mate guarding to prevent last male sperm precedence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deglacial Meltwater Pulse Recorded in Last Interglacial Mollusk Shells from Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelstern, I. Z.; Rowe, M. P.; Lohmann, K. C.; Defliese, W.; Petersen, S. V.; Brewer, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    Iceberg scours as far south as the Florida Strait and the presence of ice rafted debris in sediments from the Bermuda Rise indicate that during the last glacial phase icebergs traveled quite far south during episodes of excessive iceberg discharge from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (Heinrich Events). We present evidence that the effects of these events extended southward into the subtropics during the previous deglaciation (Termination-II), potentially aligned with Heinrich Event 11, and that meltwater reached Bermuda. Temperatures 10° C colder and seawater δ18O values 2 ‰ more negative than modern are derived from Last Interglacial Cittarium pica shells from Grape Bay, Bermuda using the clumped isotope paleothermometer. In contrast, Last Interglacial shells from Rocky Bay record temperatures only slightly colder and seawater δ18O values similar to modern, potentially representing more typical Last Interglacial conditions in Bermuda outside of a meltwater event. The cold ocean conditions observed illustrate extreme sensitivity of Bermudian climate to rapid climate and ocean circulation changes. They also provide further evidence for routine meltwater transport in the North Atlantic to near-equatorial latitudes during deglaciation.

  6. 31 CFR 19.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 19.865 Section 19.865 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE...) If the debarment is for a violation of the provisions of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988,...

  7. The Last Days of Life: Symptom Burden and Impact on Nutrition and Hydration in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Dev, Rony; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We will review the symptom burden in cancer patients in the last days of life, its impact on nutrition and hydration, and the role of artificial nutrition and hydration in patients with days of life expectancy. Recent findings In the last days of life, cancer patients often experience progressive functional decline and worsening symptom burden. Many symptoms such as anorexia-cachexia, dysphagia and delirium could impair oral intake. These, coupled with refractory cachexia, contribute to persistent weight loss and decreased quality of life. Furthermore, the inability to eat/drink and body image changes can result in emotional distress for patients and caregivers. Clinicians caring for these individuals need to ensure longitudinal communication about goals of care, education about the natural process of dying, optimization of symptom management, and provide appropriate emotional support for patients and caregivers. There is a lack of evidence to support that artificial nutrition and hydration can improve outcomes in the last days of life. Artificial nutrition is not recommended because of its invasive nature, while artificial hydration may be considered on a case-by-case basis. Summary This review highlights the need to conduct further research on symptom burden, nutrition and hydration in the last days of life. PMID:26509860

  8. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  9. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  10. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  11. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  12. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  13. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  14. Changes in Lithuanian Pre-School and Pre-Primary Education Quality over the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…

  15. Selective Maintenance of Motor Performance in Older Adults from Long-Lasting Sport Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dascal, Juliana Bayeux; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Decline of motor performance in older individuals affects their quality of life. Understanding the contribution of sport-related training in advanced ages might help to attenuate motor performance decay as one gets older. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent to which long-lasting training in running or sport-specific skills…

  16. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  17. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  18. Unpublished manuscripts of Sophie Germain and a revaluation of her work on Fermat's Last Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Centina, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Published, and discussed, are some manuscripts and a letter of Sophie Germain concerning her work on Fermat's Last Theorem. These autographs, held at Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, at the Moreniana Library, Florence, and at the University Library, Göttingen, contribute to a substantial revaluation of her work on this subject.

  19. A Potential Value of Familiarity and Experience: Can Informal Fieldwork Have a Lasting Impact upon Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Boyd, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that an informal field trip can have a lasting impact upon aspects of learning in a primary school context. Specifically, we consider the longer term impact of an informal trip to a rocky shore upon scores achieved in literacy assessments taking place five months after a relevant five months after a fieldwork. Pupils…

  20. Outpatient Health Care Utilization of Suicide Decedents in Their Last Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li; Chen, Lih-Hwa; Huang, Shiuh-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of health care utilization during the last year of life by Taiwanese who died by suicide were analyzed. The degree of health services utilization was evaluated by extracting the data of National Health Insurance (NHI) outpatient cohort records in 2006. A total of 4,406 fatal suicide cases were matched with the 17,587,901…