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Sample records for liolaemus questions answered

  1. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  2. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  3. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  4. Investigations of Human Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.

    The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

  5. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  6. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  7. Instance-Based Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task

  8. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  9. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  10. Information Extraction Supported Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-15

    cymfony.com, wei@cymfony.com phone : (716) 565-9114 fax: (716) 565-0308 15 October, 1999 Abstract This paper discusses the use of our information...display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 19 OCT 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-10-1999 to 00-10-1999 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE Information Extraction Supported Question Answering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  11. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  12. Answers to Your Questions About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…

  13. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  14. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  15. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  16. Questions and Answers for Architectural Coatings Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA compiled this question and answer document from inquiries received after the publication of the 1999 final architectural coatings rule and from questions raised at meetings with industry associations.

  17. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Folic Acid Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Frequently Asked Questions General Information ...

  18. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  19. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which

  20. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for…

  1. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  2. Memory, Knowledge, and the Answering of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…

  3. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  4. So, What Is the Answer? Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Don

    2005-01-01

    Leaders are barraged daily by teachers, administrators, and students seeking answers to questions ranging from the simplistic to the metaphysical in their complexity. The author is sure leaders wonder at times, "How in the world can I free up enough time to answer them all?" Well, the author states that he hates to break the news, but it is…

  5. Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

  6. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  7. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  8. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  9. The American Indians: Answers to 101 Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this publication answers questions basic to an understanding of the American Indian and his socioeconomic position in the United States. The following identify major areas covered and representative questions: (1) The Indian People (Who is an Indian?); (2) The Legal Status of Indians (Are Indians…

  10. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  11. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare Standard...Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated August 4, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 04 AUG 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and

  12. American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

  13. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  14. Questions and Answers about CD ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

  15. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  16. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  17. Question and Answer Guide to OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Sidney S. C.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic factual information about the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), its data base, its operation, and its functions. It is intended for libraries which have not yet participated in OCLC, but would be useful as a reference guide in all libraries. Presented in question and answer form, the guide consists…

  18. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  19. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD...medical facilities, known as “military treatment facilities” or “MTFs” as space is available, or, through private health care providers. Known as “Tricare

  20. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD) medical

  1. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  2. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2016-07-12

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  3. Domain and Intelligence Based Multimedia Question Answering System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, K. Magesh; Valarmathie, P.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia question answering systems have become very popular over the past few years. It allows users to share their thoughts by answering a given question or obtain information from a set of answered questions. However, existing QA systems support only textual answer which is not so instructive for many users. The user's discussion can be…

  4. Chasing the Patagonian sun: comparative thermal biology of Liolaemus lizards.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Débora Lina Moreno; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Bonino, Marcelo F; Perotti, M Gabriela; Abdala, Cristian S; Schulte, James A; Cruz, Félix B

    2013-04-01

    The importance of the thermal environment for ectotherms and its relationship with thermal physiology and ecology is widely recognized. Several models have been proposed to explain the evolution of the thermal biology of ectotherms, but experimental studies have provided mixed support. Lizards from the Liolaemus goetschi group can be found along a wide latitudinal range across Argentina. The group is monophyletic and widely distributed, and therefore provides excellent opportunities to study the evolution of thermal biology. We studied thermal variables of 13 species of the L. goetschi group, in order to answer three questions. First, are aspects of the thermal biology of the L. goetschi group modelled by the environment or are they evolutionarily conservative? Second, have thermal characteristics of these animals co-evolved? And third, how do the patterns of co-evolution observed within the L. goetschi group compare to those in a taxonomically wider selection of species of Liolaemus? We collected data on 13 focal species and used species information of Liolaemus lizards available in the literature and additional data obtained by the authors. We tackled these questions using both conventional and phylogenetically based analyses. Our results show that lizards from the L. goetschi group and the genus Liolaemus in general vary in critical thermal minimum in relation to mean air temperature, and particularly the L. goetschi group shows that air temperature is associated with critical thermal range, as well as with body temperature. Although the effect of phylogeny cannot be ignored, our results indicate that these thermal biology aspects are modelled by cold environments of Patagonia, while other aspects (preferred body temperature and critical thermal maximum) are more conservative. We found evidence of co-evolutionary patterns between critical thermal minimum and preferred body temperature at both phylogenetic scales (the L. goetschi group and the extended sample of

  5. What questions can a placebo answer?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Weijer, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction-describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise-in particular the distinction between de facto and de jure interpretations of the concept-allows the concept to explain when and why a placebo control may be necessary to answer a question of clinical importance.

  6. Interpretation of genomic data: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis, and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray-based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hype and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in bringing on an era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in rethinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  7. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

  8. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  9. Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine L.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and…

  10. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  11. Does Anyone Know the Answer to that Question? Individual Differences in Judging Answerability

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin; Buratti, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Occasionally people may attempt to judge whether a question can be answered today, or if not, if it can be answered in the future. For example, a person may consider whether enough is known about the dangers of living close to a nuclear plant, or to a major electricity cable, for them to be willing to do so, and state-authorities may consider whether questions about the dangers of new technologies have been answered, or in a reasonable future can be, for them to be willing to invest money in research aiming develop such technologies. A total of 476 participants, for each of 22 knowledge questions, either judged whether it was answerable today (current answerability), or judged when it could be answered (future answerability). The knowledge questions varied with respect to the expected consensus concerning their answerability: consensus questions (high expected consensus), non-consensus questions (lower expected consensus), and illusion questions (formulated to appear answerable, but with crucial information absent). The questions’ judged answerability level on the two scales was highly correlated. For both scales, consensus questions were rated more answerable than the non-consensus questions, with illusion questions falling in-between. The result for the illusion questions indicates that a feeling of answerability can be created even when it is unlikely that somebody can come up with an answer. The results also showed that individual difference variables influenced the answerability judgments. Higher levels of belief in certainty of knowledge, mankind’s knowledge, and mankind’s efficacy were related to judging the non-consensus questions as more answerable. Participants rating the illusion questions as answerable rated the other answerability questions as more, or equally, answerable compared to the other participants and showed tendencies to prefer a combination of more epistemic default processing and less intellectual processing. PMID:26793164

  12. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  13. Priority Intelligence Requirement Answering and Commercial Question-Answering: Identifying the Gaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    15th ICCRTS “The Evolution of C2” Priority Intelligence Requirement Answering and Commercial Question-Answering: Identifying the Gaps Topic...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Priority Intelligence Requirement Answering and Commercial Question-Answering: Identifying the Gaps 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...text?based logic or ?semantic web? technologies; and social questionanswering technologies. We identify gaps in the PIR answering process that cannot

  14. Answering Physicians' Clinical Questions: Obstacles and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W.; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Chambliss, M. Lee; Ebell, Mark H.; Rosenbaum, Marcy E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the most frequent obstacles preventing physicians from answering their patient-care questions and the most requested improvements to clinical information resources. Design: Qualitative analysis of questions asked by 48 randomly selected generalist physicians during ambulatory care. Measurements: Frequency of reported obstacles to answering patient-care questions and recommendations from physicians for improving clinical information resources. Results: The physicians asked 1,062 questions but pursued answers to only 585 (55%). The most commonly reported obstacle to the pursuit of an answer was the physician's doubt that an answer existed (52 questions, 11%). Among pursued questions, the most common obstacle was the failure of the selected resource to provide an answer (153 questions, 26%). During audiotaped interviews, physicians made 80 recommendations for improving clinical information resources. For example, they requested comprehensive resources that answer questions likely to occur in practice with emphasis on treatment and bottom-line advice. They asked for help in locating information quickly by using lists, tables, bolded subheadings, and algorithms and by avoiding lengthy, uninterrupted prose. Conclusion: Physicians do not seek answers to many of their questions, often suspecting a lack of usable information. When they do seek answers, they often cannot find the information they need. Clinical resource developers could use the recommendations made by practicing physicians to provide resources that are more useful for answering clinical questions. PMID:15561792

  15. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  16. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  17. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  18. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  19. Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset

  20. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  1. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  2. The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

  3. Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

  4. Questions and answers about energy recovery from waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Questions and answers about the developing waste-to-energy industry are presented. They are intended as a ready reference for the general public and others interested in exploring the option of utilizing municipal waste as a renewable energy resource. Questions were researched and answered in six broad categories: general information; state-of-the-art; economics/financial; environmental; institutional; and project implementation.

  5. Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Answers Palliative Care Questions and Answers Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with a ... a package deal? No, there is no ‘palliative care’ benefit package Yes, hospice is a comprehensive benefit covered by Medicare and ...

  6. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions…

  7. Semantic representation of consumer questions and physician answers.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Laura A; Soergel, Dagobert; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the underlying semantics of health consumers' questions and physicians' answers in order to analyze the semantic patterns within these texts. We manually identified semantic relationships within question-answer pairs from Ask-the-Doctor Web sites. Identification of the semantic relationship instances within the texts was based on the relationship classes and structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network. We calculated the frequency of occurrence of each semantic relationship class, and conceptual graphs were generated, joining concepts together through the semantic relationships identified. We then analyzed whether representations of physician's answers exactly matched the form of the question representations. Lastly, we examined characteristics of the answer conceptual graphs. We identified 97 semantic relationship instances in the questions and 334 instances in the answers. The most frequently identified semantic relationship in both questions and answers was brings_about (causal). We found that the semantic relationship propositions identified in answers that most frequently contain a concept also expressed in the question were: brings_about, isa, co_occurs_with, diagnoses, and treats. Using extracted semantic relationships from real-life questions and answers can produce a valuable analysis of the characteristics of these texts. This can lead to clues for creating semantic-based retrieval techniques that guide users to further information. For example, we determined that both consumers and physicians often express causative relationships and these play a key role in leading to further related concepts.

  8. Manufacturer Tier 3 Questions and EPA Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a record of EPA responses to manufacturer questions received prior to October 16, 2015 with respect to implementation of the Tier 3 final rule intended to aid regulated parties in achieving compliance with regulations for light-duty

  9. Distance Education Complexities: Questions To Be Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis; Li, Ning

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the development of distance education for instruction and training due to new technologies and software focuses on questions that need to be asked to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Highlights include institutional and organizational concerns; content design analyses; development issues; implementation; evaluation; management…

  10. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  11. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a

  12. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  13. Questions and Answers About Alternatives in Each Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following list of questions and answers provides an overview of the regulations governing the use of substitutes that are reviewed under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program in various industrial sectors.

  14. American Iron and Steel Requirement - Guidance and Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Explanation of the P.L. 113-76, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 its implementation for the American Iron and Steel (AIS) requirement and other questions and answers in regards to AIS requirements

  15. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  16. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2013-02-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  17. Detecting Bot-Answerable Questions in Ubuntu Chat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Detecting Bot -Answerable Questions in Ubuntu Chat David C. Uthus NRC/NRL Postdoctoral Fellow Washington, DC 20375 duthus@google.com David W. Aha Navy...Chat technical support channel has bots that output specific messages in response to com- mand words from other channel users. These messages can be...automatically distinguish bot -answerable questions, which would mitigate this prob- lem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on investigating

  18. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2016-07-12

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  19. Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…

  20. Temporal Preparation for Speaking in Question-Answer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Lilla; De Ruiter, Jan P.; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end. In the experiment, it was possible to guess the answer at the beginning of the questions in half of the experimental trials. We also manipulated whether it was possible to predict the length of the last word of the questions. The results suggest when listeners know the answer early they start speech production already during the questions. Speakers can also time when to speak by predicting the duration of turns. These temporal predictions can be based on the length of anticipated words and on the overall probability of turn durations. PMID:28270782

  1. Mergers and acquisitions. Frequently asked questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Lin, S M; Smeltzer, C H; Thomas, C

    2000-03-01

    This article is structured in a question/answer format based on interviews with Dr. Carolyn Hope Smeltzer and Salima Manji Lin of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Chicago, and Chuck Thomas of Hinshaw & Culbertson, Rockford. The questions come from CEO's, healthcare executives, and nurse executives at hospitals that are contemplating mergers or that have both succeeded and failed to merge their institutions. The experts share their knowledge.

  2. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

  3. Self-Injury: Answers to Questions for Parents, Teachers, & Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Bruce L.

    This guide to preventing self-injurious behavior, in question-and-answer format, is intended for parents, teachers, and other caregivers of people with disabilities. It describes the more common types of self-injurious behavior, discusses methods for identifying causes of self injury, and outlines interventions. Specifically, the guide covers: (1)…

  4. Teacher Deployment of "Oh" in Known-Answer Question Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoda, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This conversation analytic study describes some specific interactional contexts in which native English-speaking teachers produce "oh" in known-answer question sequences in English language classes. The data for this study come from 10 video-recorded Japanese primary school English language class sessions. The analysis identified three…

  5. 500 Questions and Answers for New Teachers: A Survival Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torreano, Joanna Montagna

    This book presents tips, in the form of questions and answers, to help beginning teachers feel less isolated. There are six sections. "Getting Your Act Together" includes "What To Do Before School Opens"; "The First Day of School"; "Open House"; "Goal Setting"; and "Last Day of School.""Getting To Know You" includes "Administrators"; "Board of…

  6. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES...

  7. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Pt. 361, App....

  8. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES...

  9. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  10. Question and Answer: Observation in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kay

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kay Baker sets out to answer the questions, "What is observation? What is the nature of observation in the elementary class? How can observation help the adult guide the development of children?" She responds by listing the areas that can be observed in the elementary class (the prepared environment, the work of the…

  11. Questions and Answers about Writing a Lau Compliance Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    The Lau v. Nichols decision and its implications for school districts are explained in this question and answer format paper. Lau compliance plans are described in full. The number of students necessary for development of a plan or program, what a Lau plan should include, and appropriate program types are detailed. (MK)

  12. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  13. Brief Answers to 20 Questions about Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vriend, John

    1979-01-01

    The president of Association for Specialists in Group Work, a counselor trainer, and a consultant on group counseling, reported questions most often asked and framed responses mindful of beginning and practicing group counselors. Answers cover such topics as group size, selection, emotions, roles, leadership and other areas. (Author/CMG)

  14. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  15. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  16. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  17. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet.

  18. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  19. Semantics and Quantification in Natural Language Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    data structures and data base design. The method I developed was essentially an interpretation of Carnap’s notion of truth conditions ( Carnap ...types of inference for answering questions, corresponding roughly to Carnap’s distinction between intension and extension ( Carnap , 1964b). First...and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA, December. Carnap , R. (1964a). Foundations of Logic and Mathematics. In The Structure of Language; Readings in the

  20. Questions & answers about hospice: a guide for Missouri's physicians.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Hospice provides multidisciplinary care to dying patients with and without cancer. Most adults would prefer to be cared for in their home or that of a family member. This guide provides answers to the questions most commonly asked of physicians. Its goal is to facilitate a better understanding of what hospice does, who is eligible, physician roles, and how physicians can use hospice to help their patients.

  1. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong

    2016-09-21

    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions.

  2. Drug discovery FAQs: workflows for answering multidomain drug discovery questions.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.

  3. Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

    1974-01-01

    An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

  4. Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

  5. PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem.

  6. Cross-domain question classification in community question answering via kernel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.

  7. Exoplanets and Other Modern Answers to Old Astronomical Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2002-04-01

    The Greeks were the first to ask, or at least to write about asking, questions like whether there are other planets like earth and whether the universe is finite or infinite. In all cases, they answered both yes and not (since there were lots of Greeks and not much data). A good deal later (but still in the period called history, unless you are very old), astronomers started asking whether the duration of the universe was finite or infinite, what the stars are made of and what keeps them shining, and whether there are other galaxies like ours. All of these now how answers at some confidence level. Close to 100 planets outside our solar system have been reported, starting in 1995, but selection effects mean that none are like earth. Data from many sources (supernovae, radioactive elements, microwave radiation, and all) combine to say that the universe has a finite past but probably an infinite future and an extent that, if not infinite, is anyhow very much larger than a breadbox. The stars run on nuclear fusion, and there are oodles of galaxies. The talk will explore how we have learned some of these things and try to look forward to current unsolved problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  8. Ten commonly asked computer questions ... and answers. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Dennis

    2006-12-01

    I hope that you have learned something from this article that will help you get through your next computer crisis. Remember that most computer problems are not your fault and they are not the end of the world. It stinks when your car breaks down, and it stinks when your PC crashes, but you will get through it. If your PC does crash, write down what you were doing when it crashed, any changes that were made, any software that was installed, and take a deep breath. You will be able to help get the problem solved quicker if you stay relaxed. Part 2 of this article, to be published in a future issue of Dentistry Today, will answer the next 5 commonly asked computer questions.

  9. Wnt signaling in planarians: new answers to old questions.

    PubMed

    Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Adell, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Wnts are secreted glycoproteins involved in a broad range of essential cell functions, including proliferation, migration and cell-fate determination. Recent years have seen substantial research effort invested in elucidating the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in planarians, flatworms with incredible regenerative capacities. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and non-canonical (β-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling in planarians, not only during regeneration, but also during normal homeostasis. We also describe some of the preliminary data that has been obtained regarding the role of these pathways during embryogenesis. Models are proposed to integrate the different results which have been obtained to date and highlight those questions that still remain to be answered.

  10. Sentence Topics Based Knowledge Acquisition for Question Answering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Yun, Bo-Hyun

    This paper presents a knowledge acquisition method using sentence topics for question answering. We define templates for information extraction by the Korean concept network semi-automatically. Moreover, we propose the two-phase information extraction model by the hybrid machine learning such as maximum entropy and conditional random fields. In our experiments, we examined the role of sentence topics in the template-filling task for information extraction. Our experimental result shows the improvement of 18% in F-score and 434% in training speed over the plain CRF-based method for the extraction task. In addition, our result shows the improvement of 8% in F-score for the subsequent QA task.

  11. If bone is the answer, then what is the question?

    PubMed Central

    HUISKES, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article

  12. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  13. Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers to Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examine the psychometric effects of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to open-ended questions, and allowing participants to revise their answers following feedback. Participants answering verbal and math questions are able to correct many of their initial incorrect answers, resulting in higher revised…

  14. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  15. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Loans in Areas Having Special Flood... on comments received, the Agencies also have significantly revised two questions and answers... title ``Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding...

  16. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  17. 25 CFR 162.026 - Who can answer questions about leasing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can answer questions about leasing? 162.026 Section... General Provisions Lease Administration § 162.026 Who can answer questions about leasing? An Indian... BIA under § 162.018) with jurisdiction over the land for answers to questions about the...

  18. 25 CFR 162.026 - Who can answer questions about leasing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can answer questions about leasing? 162.026 Section... General Provisions Lease Administration § 162.026 Who can answer questions about leasing? An Indian... BIA under § 162.018) with jurisdiction over the land for answers to questions about the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. 1.416...-1 Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. The following questions and answers relate to special rules for top-heavy plans under section 416 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as added by...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  3. Responding to Children's Answers: Questions Embedded in the Social Context of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article presents analysis of question-answer sequences during problem inquiry between a teacher and two children in an early childhood crèche in New Zealand. Conversation analysis is used to reveal which questions the teacher asks, how children answer the questions, and the teacher's responses to the child's answers. Although adults'…

  4. Answering Scientific Questions Using an Artistic Framework: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Being multidisciplinary, while admired, is not viewed as a goal of education. Instead, extreme specialization is emphasized. One seeks to attain mastery of a given subject, but at what cost? Even those fields viewed as "interdisciplinary" are often quite narrow in scope, only permitting the most closely related subjects to coalesce. The arts however, are by nature both inter- and multi-disciplinary. They attempt to research, analyze, and reflect upon broader questions, often employing techniques garnered from far-flung fields in order to do so. It is an unfortunate dilemma then that the artist should seem so separate from the scientist, as it seems that both are engaged in a sort of hypothesis testing. Perhaps this division is a remnant of the antiquated left- and right-brained dichotomy, which clearly separated the two groups: Science and Art, Left and Right. In this way, the artist was branded as Science's "other," despite the inherent sameness of their processes. This "otherness" has been carried forward to the present, where artists are often viewed as simply craftspeople -object makers- and the concept of the "artistic problem" is rarely considered. As someone possessing degrees in both Fine Art and Hydrology, the author attempts to explain the connection between the two subjects, and the manner in which they compliment and enlighten each other in her own research. She hypothesizes that in addition to this "otherness," it is the multi-dimensional mode of thinking and dealing with problems that sets the artist apart. But this is a dynamic trait, and as such, it should be considered that by approaching scientific endeavors as artistic problems, the researcher could be permitted a broader framework in which to answer a given scientific question.

  5. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    PubMed Central

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  6. [Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].

    PubMed

    Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution?

  7. TrustQ: a category reputation based question and answer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuhua; Shen, Haiying

    2014-06-01

    Question and Answering (Q/A) systems aggregate the collected intelligence of all users to provide satisfying answers for questions. A well-developed Q/A system should provide high question response rate, low response delay and good answer quality. Previous works use reputation systems to achieve the goals. However, these reputation systems evaluate a user with an overall rating for all questions the user has answered regardless of the question categories, thus the reputation score cannot accurately reflect the user's ability to answer a question in a specific category. In this paper, we propose TtustQ, a category reputation based Q/A System. TtustQ evaluates users' willingness and capability to answer questions in different categories. Considering a user has different willingness to answer questions from different users, TtustQ lets each node evaluate the reputation of other nodes answering its own questions. User a calculates user b's final reputation by considering both user a's direct rating and the indirect ratings on user b from other nodes. The reputation values facilitate forwarding a question to potential answerers, which improves the question response rate, response delay and answer quality. Our trace-driven simulation on PeerSim demonstrates the effectiveness of TtustQ in providing good user experience in terms of response rate and latency, and the answer quality.

  8. Human milk research for answering questions about human health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Bates, Michael N; Goldstein, Daniel A; Haynes, Suzanne G; Hench, Karen D; Lawrence, Ruth A; Paul, Ian M; Qian, Zhengmin

    2005-10-22

    Concerns regarding human milk in our society are diverse, ranging from the presence of environmental chemicals to the health of breastfed infants and the economic value of breastfeeding to society. The panel convened for the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals in the United States, held at the Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, on 24--26 September 2004, considered how human milk research may contribute to environmental health initiatives to benefit society. The panel concluded that infant, maternal, and community health can benefit from studies using human milk biomonitoring. Unlike other biological specimens, human milk provides information regarding exposure of the mother and breastfed infant to environmental chemicals. Some of the health topics relevant to this field of research include disorders of growth and development in infants, cancer origins in women, and characterization of the trend of exposure to environmental chemicals in the community. The research focus will determine the design of the study and the need for the collection of alternative biological specimens and the long-term storage of these specimens. In order to strengthen the ability to interpret study results, it is important to identify reference ranges for the chemicals measured and to control for populations with high environmental chemical exposure, because the amount of data on environmental chemical levels in human milk that is available for comparison is extremely limited. In addition, it will be necessary to validate models used to assess infant exposure from breastfeeding because of the variable nature of current models. Information on differences between individual and population risk estimates for toxicity needs to be effectively communicated to the participant. Human milk research designed to answer questions regarding health will require additional resources to meet these objectives.

  9. 26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. 1.416... and answers on top-heavy plans. The following questions and answers relate to special rules for top... 713(f) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369): Table of Contents G—General Provisions...

  10. Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and…

  11. Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

  12. I Know the Answer, But What's the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)

  13. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  14. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  15. Asked and answered--online: how two medical libraries are using OCLC's QuestionPoint to answer reference questions.

    PubMed

    Markgren, Susanne; Ascher, Marie T; Crow, Suzanne J; Lougee-Heimer, Haldor

    2004-01-01

    This paper imparts the experiences of two similar but unaffiliated medical libraries that use QuestionPoint, OCLC's collaborative virtual reference product. The authors introduce the major features of QuestionPoint, with particular emphasis on its asynchronous e-mail reference service. After presenting how both libraries have employed this service in their respective environments, the paper examines the quantity and quality of reference questions submitted via QuestionPoint. The types of questions are explicated, and statistical trends are compared.

  16. Parallelization Issues of Domain Specific Question Answering System on Cell B.E. Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Ankush; Sondhi, Parikshit

    A question answering system is an information retrieval application which allows users to directly obtain appropriate answers to a question. In order to deal with an explosive growth of information over internet and increased number of processing stages in answer retrieval, time and processing hardware required by question answering system has increased. The need of hardware is currently served by connecting thousands of computers in cluster. But faster and less complex alternatives can be found as a multi-core processor. This paper presents a pioneer work by identifying major issues involved in porting a general question answering framework on a cell processor and their possible solutions. The work is evaluated by porting the indexing algorithm of our biomedical question answering system, INDOC (Internet Doctor) on cell processors.

  17. The Question-Answer Exchange between Mothers and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, W. P.; Arnold, Jenifer

    The quality of mother-child linguistic interaction was studied in 40 6-year-old English children and their mothers. Both the middle and working classes were represented in the sample. Tasks were administered in which children were to ask questions of their mothers. Questions were analyzed in terms of open versus closed. The majority of the…

  18. Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

  19. A Flexible Question-and-Answer Task for Measuring Speech Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Timothy; Roverud, Elin; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This report introduces a new speech task based on simple questions and answers. The task differs from a traditional sentence recall task in that it involves an element of comprehension and can be implemented in an ongoing fashion. It also contains two target items (the question and the answer) that may be associated with different voices and locations to create dynamic listening scenarios. A set of 227 questions was created, covering six broad categories (days of the week, months of the year, numbers, colors, opposites, and sizes). All questions and their one-word answers were spoken by 11 female and 11 male talkers. In this study, listeners were presented with question-answer pairs and asked to indicate whether the answer was true or false. Responses were given as simple button or key presses, which are quick to make and easy to score. Two preliminary experiments are presented that illustrate different ways of implementing the basic task. In the first experiment, question-answer pairs were presented in speech-shaped noise, and performance was compared across subjects, question categories, and time, to examine the different sources of variability. In the second experiment, sequences of question-answer pairs were presented amidst competing conversations in an ongoing, spatially dynamic listening scenario. Overall, the question-and-answer task appears to be feasible and could be implemented flexibly in a number of different ways. PMID:27888257

  20. Paper and Other Web Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This May 2003 document contains questions and answers on the Paper and Web Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulation. The questions cover topics such as compliance, applicability, and initial notification.

  1. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding on eligible rollover distributions... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of the Internal...

  2. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  3. 26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of section 416(g)(3). T-32 Q. How are rollovers and plan-to-plan transfers treated in testing whether... accepted prior to January 1, 1984. T-33 Q. How are the aggregate defined benefit and defined contribution...-1 Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. The following questions and answers relate to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of section 416(g)(3). T-32 Q. How are rollovers and plan-to-plan transfers treated in testing whether... accepted prior to January 1, 1984. T-33 Q. How are the aggregate defined benefit and defined contribution...-1 Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. The following questions and answers relate to...

  5. Violations of Information Structure: An Electrophysiological Study of Answers to Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, H. W.; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position…

  6. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withholding on eligible rollover distributions... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of the Internal...

  7. Repeatedly Answering Questions that Elicit Inquiry-Based Thinking Improves Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Phanikiran; Schimmack, Ulrich; Lam, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Participants engaged in inquiry by practicing how to answer questions about a journal article. Inquiry improves writing by helping one learn more about the topic at hand. Practice improves performance only if learners know how to perform a task accurately (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993) and answering questions trains them on the best way…

  8. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN LIBRARIES. STUDIES IN THE MAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE IN LIBRARIES, REPORT NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIEBER, CAROLINE E.

    TRADITIONAL METHODS OF ANALYZING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS AS THEY OCCUR IN REFERENCE LIBRARIES ARE DISCUSSED AND CRITICIZED. METHODS OF EXAMINING QUESTIONS, THE QUESTION-ANSWERING PROCESS, AND ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ARE EVALUATED. A PRAGMATIC SCHEME IS SUGGESTED WHICH CLASSIFIES ANSWERS BY THEIR FORMATS, DIVIDING THEM INTO EXACT-REPRODUCTION TYPE,…

  10. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Richard; Moscati, Ronald; Halpern, Shravanti; Schwartz, Diane G; Abbas, June

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM) residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED). Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion EM residents' ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. PMID:22224135

  11. 26 CFR 1.402(c)-2 - Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What is the rule regarding distributions that may be rolled over to an... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible rollover distributions; questions and.... § 1.402(c)-2 Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions...

  12. The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie Wofford

    This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

  13. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  14. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  15. Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

  16. Naptime Tips: Answers to Caregivers Most Frequent Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that children vary in the amount of sleep they need but that rest is important. Gives advice in response to caregiver questions concerning child naptime, including determining length of nap, getting children settled, providing a conducive classroom environment, dealing with resistance, and addressing parental concerns. (BGC)

  17. A Noisy-Channel Approach to Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Jean - Paul Sartre die? S2: Jean - Paul Sartre died of a lung ailment. These question-factoid pairs are... Sartre born?” we will select the following factoids: 1- Jean - Paul Sartre was born in 1905. 2- Jean - Paul Sartre died in 1980. 3- Jean - Paul Sartre was...born in Paris. 4- Jean - Paul Sartre died of a lung ailment. Up to now, we have collected about 100,000

  18. Questions and Answers for Reporting for the 2006 Partial Updating of the TSCA Chemical Inventory Database: Inorganic Chemicals Addendum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses specific questions related to reporting inorganic chemicals under the IUR and is an addendum to the Questions and Answers for Reporting for the 2006 Partial Updating of the TSCA Chemical Inventory Database (Questions and Answers Document).

  19. Ethanol-BDNF interactions: Still More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Margaret I.

    2008-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has emerged as a regulator of development, plasticity and, recently, addiction. Decreased neurotrophic activity may be involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the adult brain and in the etiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. This can occur through decreased expression of BDNF or through inability of the receptor to transduce signals in the presence of ethanol. In contrast, recent studies implicate region-specific up-regulation of BDNF and associated signaling pathways in anxiety, addiction and homeostasis after ethanol exposure. Anxiety and depression are precipitating factors for substance abuse and these disorders also involve region-specific changes in BDNF in both pathogenesis and response to pharmacotherapy. Polymorphisms in the genes coding for BDNF and its receptor TrkB are linked to affective, substance abuse and appetitive disorders and therefore may play a role in the development of alcoholism. This review summarizes historical and pre-clinical data on BDNF and TrkB as it relates to ethanol toxicity and addiction. Many unresolved questions about region-specific changes in BDNF expression and the precise role of BDNF in neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction remain to be elucidated. Resolution of these questions will require significant integration of the literature on addiction and comorbid psychiatric disorders that contribute to the development of alcoholism. PMID:18394710

  20. 75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question 12... advice concerning compliance with the bar code label requirements. In this guidance, FDA is proposing...

  1. Obstacles to answering doctors' questions about patient care with evidence: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W; Osheroff, Jerome A; Ebell, Mark H; Chambliss, M Lee; Vinson, Daniel C; Stevermer, James J; Pifer, Eric A

    2002-01-01

    Objective To describe the obstacles encountered when attempting to answer doctors' questions with evidence. Design Qualitative study. Setting General practices in Iowa. Participants 9 academic generalist doctors, 14 family doctors, and 2 medical librarians. Main outcome measure A taxonomy of obstacles encountered while searching for evidence based answers to doctors' questions. Results 59 obstacles were encountered and organised according to the five steps in asking and answering questions: recognise a gap in knowledge, formulate a question, search for relevant information, formulate an answer, and use the answer to direct patient care. Six obstacles were considered particularly salient by the investigators and practising doctors: the excessive time required to find information; difficulty modifying the original question, which was often vague and open to interpretation; difficulty selecting an optimal strategy to search for information; failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic; uncertainty about how to know when all the relevant evidence has been found so that the search can stop; and inadequate synthesis of multiple bits of evidence into a clinically useful statement. Conclusions Many obstacles are encountered when asking and answering questions about how to care for patients. Addressing these obstacles could lead to better patient care by improving clinically oriented information resources. What is already known on this topicDoctors are encouraged to search for evidence based answers to their questions about patient care but most go unansweredStudies have not defined the obstacles to answering questions in a systematic mannerA comprehensive description of such obstacles has not been presentedWhat this study addsFifty nine obstacles were found while attempting to answer clinical questions with evidence; six were particularly salientThe obstacles were comprehensively described and organised PMID:11909789

  2. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions.

    PubMed

    Accad, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance.

  3. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions

    PubMed Central

    Accad, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance. PMID:24899737

  4. Working with Second Language Learners: Answers to Teachers' Top Ten Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Stephen

    This book aims to provide practical, research-informed answers to the questions most frequently asked by teachers of second language learners. Every question targets one of the key instructional issues teachers must address to ensure success for their second language students. Included among the questions are: How do I assess a student's English?…

  5. Impact of Question-Answering Tasks on Search Processes and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Tomas; Gilabert, Ramiro; Gil, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of (a) high- and low-level questions and (b) reading the text before the questions asked on performance, delayed text recall, and deep text comprehension, as well as on specific text-inspection patterns. Participants were 37 undergraduate students who answered either high- or low-level questions using the software…

  6. Questioning as an Instructional Strategy in Multimedia Environments: Does Having to Answer Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Rodicio, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Interactive multimedia learning environments incorporate interactive features, such as questioning, through which questions are posed to students and feedback is delivered on their answers. An experiment was conducted comparing two forms of questioning. The participants learned about geology with a multimedia environment that included questioning…

  7. 26 CFR 1.402(c)-2 - Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What is the rule regarding distributions that may be rolled over to an... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible rollover distributions; questions and... Plans, Etc. § 1.402(c)-2 Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following...

  8. Supporting Mediated Peer-Evaluation to Grade Answers to Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marsico, Maria; Sciarrone, Filippo; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We show an approach to semi-automatic grading of answers given by students to open ended questions (open answers). We use both peer-evaluation and teacher evaluation. A learner is modeled by her Knowledge and her assessments quality (Judgment). The data generated by the peer- and teacher-evaluations, and by the learner models is represented by a…

  9. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  10. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  12. Brig. Gen. Richard F. Abel and Col. Natan J. Lindsay answering questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Brigadier General Richard F. Abel, right, director of public affairs for the Air Force, and Colonel Nathan J. Lindsay of the USAF's space division, answer questions concerning STS-4 during a press conference at JSC on May 20, 1982.

  13. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On This Page What is ... supplement in SELECT prevent prostate cancer? What is SELECT? SELECT stands for the Selenium and Vitamin E ...

  14. 77 FR 8885 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  15. Science Matters Podcast: Questions and Answers with EPA's Dr. Peter Grevatt

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Peter Grevatt, the director of EPA's Office of Children's Health Protection, as he answers questions about children's health, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  16. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  17. The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allan J.

    This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

  18. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  19. ACQUISITION OF INTRAVERBAL BEHAVIOR: TEACHING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM TO MAND FOR ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hollobaugh, Tatia

    2010-01-01

    Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying “I don't know please tell me” (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2 participants. For 1 participant, tangible reinforcement resulted in increased frequency of correct answers, and direct prompting of correct answers was eventually conducted for the final participant. The IDKPTM response generalized to untargeted unknown questions with 3 participants. Results of person and setting generalization probes varied, but some generalization eventually occurred for all participants following additional training or interspersal of probe trials with training trials. PMID:20808492

  20. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  1. Two Preferences in Question-Answer Sequences in Language Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoda, Yuri; Aline, David

    2013-01-01

    Discussing two preferences associated with question-answer sequences, this study examines student responses to teacher questions in primary school English-as-a-foreign-language classes. The paper starts out with a reconsideration of institutional context, with a focus on classroom context from a conversation analysis perspective. We then introduce…

  2. Questions and Answers about IDEA. 2nd Edition. NICHCY News Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.; Gutierrez, Mary Kate, Ed.

    This document provides answers to questions frequently asked by parents and practitioners about the mandates and requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA). The 29 questions are organized into six sections: (1) background information on the IDEA (history of IDEA, and obtaining copies of IDEA and…

  3. On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The Impact of Mode on Performance and Question Answering Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and question answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics questions, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…

  4. 40 Questions and Answers Regarding Act 109, the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg. Office for Aid to Nonpublic Education.

    This document was prepared to answer questions regarding the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act which became effective after June 19, 1968. Questions pertain to (1) the secular educational services that can be purchased under this law; (2) the specific areas of compensation such as salaries, textbooks, and instructional…

  5. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when…

  6. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  7. Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Coiera, Enrico W.; Gosling, A. Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions. Design: Pre-/post-intervention experimental design. Measurements: In a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion of correct answers pre- and post-intervention, direction of change in answers, and differences between professional groups. Results: System use resulted in a 21% improvement in clinicians' answers, from 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.4–32.6) correct pre- to 50% (95% CI 46.0–54.0) post-system use. In 33% (95% CI 29.1–36.9) answers were changed from incorrect to correct. In 21% (95% CI 17.1–23.9) correct pre-test answers were supported by evidence found using the system, and in 7% (95% CI 4.9–9.1) correct pre-test answers were changed incorrectly. For 40% (35.4–43.6) of scenarios, incorrect pre-test answers were not rectified following system use. Despite significant differences in professional groups' pre-test scores [family practitioners: 41% (95% CI 33.0–49.0), hospital doctors: 35% (95% CI 28.5–41.2), and clinical nurse consultants: 17% (95% CI 12.3–21.7; χ2 = 29.0, df = 2, p < 0.01)], there was no difference in post-test scores. (χ2 = 2.6, df = 2, p = 0.73). Conclusions: The use of an online information retrieval system was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of answers provided by clinicians to typical clinical problems. In a small proportion of cases, use of the system produced errors. While there was variation in the performance of clinical groups when answering questions unaided, performance did not differ significantly following system use. Online information retrieval systems can be an effective tool in improving the accuracy of

  8. Smartphone use to answer clinical questions: a descriptive study of APNs.

    PubMed

    Grabowsky, Adelia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of smartphones by Alabama Advanced Practice Nurses to find information to address clinical questions and seeks to describe the types of questions answered using smartphones; barriers to information seeking; apps and online resources perceived as most helpful; and training/resource needs. Information collected in this study can be used by libraries that serve nursing students to develop training and resources to assist both nursing students and practicing nurses to become more efficient and effective information seekers.

  9. A compilation of Good Laboratory Practice questions and (where to get the) answers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, D E; Purdue, T W

    1995-12-01

    Since the inception of the Food and Drug Administration's Good Laboratory Practice Regulations and Environmental Protection Agency's Good Laboratory Practice Standards, many "questions and answer" documents have been produced. Our purpose in this presentation is to pull together some of these reference documents and provide a cross-reference index to sort through the many topics and questions. The combined reference resource and index provide the quality assurance professional a useful Good Laboratory Practice information tool.

  10. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  11. Answers to Questions Posed During Daily Patient Care Are More Likely to Be Answered by UpToDate Than PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Stalenhoef, Anton FH; de Vries Robbé, Pieter F; Overbeke, A John PM

    2008-01-01

    Background UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. Objective The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources, comparing search results with regard to different medical topics and the time spent searching for an answer. Methods A total of 40 residents and 30 internists in internal medicine working in an academic medical center searched PubMed and UpToDate using an observation portal during daily medical care. The information source used for searching and the time needed to find an answer to the question were recorded by the portal. Information was provided by searchers regarding the topic of the question, the situation that triggered the question, and whether an answer was found. Results We analyzed 1305 patient-related questions sent to PubMed and/or UpToDate between October 1, 2005 and March 31, 2007 using our portal. A complete answer was found in 594/1125 (53%) questions sent to PubMed or UpToDate. A partial or full answer was obtained in 729/883 (83%) UpToDate searches and 152/242 (63%) PubMed searches (P < .001). UpToDate answered more questions than PubMed on all major medical topics, but a significant difference was detected only when the question was related to etiology (P < .001) or therapy (P = .002). Time to answer was 241 seconds (SD 24) for UpToDate and 291 seconds (SD 7) for PubMed. Conclusions Specialists and residents in internal medicine generally use less than 5 minutes to answer patient-related questions in daily care. More questions are answered using UpToDate than PubMed on all major medical topics. PMID:18926978

  12. Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation for Crews of Suborbital Spacecraft: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Crewmembers, Ionizing Radiation, Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Solar Cosmic Radiation, Cancer Risk, Hereditary Risks, Radiation Exposure Limits Document is...higher altitudes. The dose to non-pregnant crewmembers could also have exceeded the recommended limit . A solar radiation alert system, developed by...Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation for Crews of Suborbital Spacecraft : Questions & Answers Kyle Copeland Civil Aerospace Medical Institute

  13. MEDLINE as a Source of Just-in-Time Answers to Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Hauser, Susan E.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Ford, Glenn M.; Jacobs, Joshua L.; Thoma, George R.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians increasingly use handheld devices to support evidence-based practice and for clinical decision support. However, support of clinical decisions through information retrieval from MEDLINE® and other databases lags behind popular daily activities such as patient information or drug formulary look-up. The objective of the current study is to determine whether relevant information can be retrieved from MEDLINE to answer clinical questions using a handheld device at the point of care. Analysis of search and retrieval results for 108 clinical questions asked by members of clinical teams during 28 daily rounds in a 12-bed intensive care unit confirm MEDLINE as a potentially valuable resource for just-in-time answers to clinical questions. Answers to 93 (86%) questions were found in MEDLINE by two resident physicians using handheld devices. The majority of answers, 88.9% and 97.7% respectively, were found during rounds. Strategies that facilitated timely retrieval of results include using PubMed® Clinical Queries and Related Articles, spell check, and organizing retrieval results into topical clusters. Further possible improvements in organization of retrieval results such as automatic semantic clustering and providing patient outcome information along with the titles of the retrieved articles are discussed. PMID:17238329

  14. Long-Term Follow-Up of Echolalia and Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, R. M.; Faw, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    A long-term followup (from 26 to 57 months) of echolalia and correct question-answering was conducted with six mentally retarded adult subjects identified from three previously published studies. Echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6 percent of the followups. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. (Author/DB)

  15. An Elementary School Educator's Guide to Program Evaluation: Getting Answers to Your Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Brenda Guenther; Lipka, Richard

    This guide gives elementary school educators the tools they need to get answers to their questions about program evaluation. It shows how to use information to work more effectively and efficiently, and its explains how to use program evaluation techniques to make sure that the solutions selected truly solve the problems of interest. The first two…

  16. Getting Answers to Your Questions: A Middle-Level Educator's Guide to Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Brenda Guenther; Lipka, Richard P.

    This guide gives middle school teachers and principals the tools they need to get answers to their questions about program evaluation. It shows how to use the information to work more effectively and efficiently and explains how to use program evaluation techniques to make sure that the approaches selected really solve the problems of interest.…

  17. Gathering and Using Patron and Librarian Perceptions of Question-Answering Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of patrons and reference librarians as sources of data for the evaluation of the effectiveness of answers to reference questions. Describes the Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation program and considers staffing patterns, time spent, collection size, and bibliographic instruction. Reference Transaction…

  18. The New Senior High School French as a Second Language Program: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    Information is offered, in question-and-answer format, on the design, objectives, standards, and procedures for the revised French second language program to be offered in Alberta's (Canada) high schools. The new program consists of 3 well-defined levels of competency: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Learner expectations exist at each level…

  19. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  20. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  1. Questions and Answers on Library Law: The Freedom of Information Act, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhler, Scott; Petsche, Janet; Allison, Rinda

    1999-01-01

    Answers commonly asked questions on library law that may arise under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Discusses fees for public records, rules libraries must follow for public information requests, individual library information-provision policy, and FOIA requirements for creation and disclosure of library records. (AEF)

  2. 76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements... Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers'' dated August 2011. The guidance announced in... alternative coding technologies to the linear bar code requirement. The guidance announced in this...

  3. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  4. A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Bill

    QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the…

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loechler, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

  6. How do you Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers like Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-06-01

    Beagle 2 lander is a flight qualified scientific payload and it offers a unique suite of instruments which can offer answers to the life on Mars question. Using multiple Beagle 2 landers on Mars offers a low-cost and outstanding scientific option.

  7. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  8. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

  9. Questions and Answers Concerning the Higher Education Provisions of the RAISE Bill (Senate Bill 357).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

    Questions and answers are presented concerning the consequences for higher education of the passage of the RAISE Bill (Senate Bill 357), a comprehensive education bill designed to raise educational standards in Florida. This statement by Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) covers: (1) the bill and its provisions for higher education; (2) ways in…

  10. Using and Developing with CD-Interactive: Frequently Asked Questions Are Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lediaev, Lucy; van Sonderen, Lex

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I) using a question-and-answer format. Highlights include development of the CD-I technology; where to purchase discs and players; compatibility with other CD-ROM drives; how to make discs; authoring systems versus custom programs; entertainment and educational applications; licensing issues; specifications;…

  11. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... to the provision of financial services. See Joint Final Rule, 60 FR 22156, 22160 (May 4, 1995..., financial institutions, and the public. The ] Questions and Answers were first published under the auspices of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) in 1996 (61 FR 54647), and...

  12. A Comparison of Students' Explanations Derived from Spoken and Written Methods of Questioning and Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether and how the quality of students' explanations of chemical phenomena was affected by changing the method of giving the question and answer between the spoken and written formats. Concluded that there was no difference between the performance of students using any of these combinations of formats. (Author/YP)

  13. Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

  14. Automatic Classification of Question & Answer Discourse Segments from Teacher's Speech in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Nathaniel; D'Mello, Sidney; Olney, Andrew M.; Nystrand, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Question-answer (Q&A) is fundamental for dialogic instruction, an important pedagogical technique based on the free exchange of ideas and open-ended discussion. Automatically detecting Q&A is key to providing teachers with feedback on appropriate use of dialogic instructional strategies. In line with this, this paper studies the…

  15. An Open-Ended, Short Answer, Text Question Tool: Improving Interactivity on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, David M.; Eizenberg, Norm

    This paper reports the results of a study of the development of an innovative learning element designed to be implemented in a computer-facilitated learning (CFL) module. The learning element is an open-ended, short answer, text question tool (TQT) designed to be used in World Wide Web-based courses or incorporated into hybrid Web/CD-ROM systems.…

  16. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydemir, Melike; Kursun, Engin; Karaman, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To…

  17. Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions…

  18. Technical Approaches for Answering the Question: What is the condition of the Nation's Waters?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys were designed to answer the question of the status and trends in the condition of each of our aquatic resources: coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams and wetlands. At the higher levels, the EPA is consistently asked a see...

  19. Mini-trucks: Questions and Answers for State Inspection and Maintenance Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet presents a series of questions and answers regarding state inspection and the maintenance of mini trucks and vans (Kei-class vehicles) that are being imported into the United States. (EPA Publication # EPA-420-F-09-004)

  20. MEDLINE as a source of just-in-time answers to clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Hauser, Susan E; Humphrey, Susanne M; Ford, Glenn M; Jacobs, Joshua L; Thoma, George R

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians increasingly use handheld devices to support evidence-based practice and for clinical decision support. However, support of clinical decisions through information retrieval from MEDLINE(R) and other databases lags behind popular daily activities such as patient information or drug formulary look-up. The objective of the current study is to determine whether relevant information can be retrieved from MEDLINE to answer clinical questions using a handheld device at the point of care. Analysis of search and retrieval results for 108 clinical questions asked by members of clinical teams during 28 daily rounds in a 12-bed intensive care unit confirm MEDLINE as a potentially valuable resource for just-in-time answers to clinical questions. Answers to 93 (86%) questions were found in MEDLINE by two resident physicians using handheld devices. The majority of answers, 88.9% and 97.7% respectively, were found during rounds. Strategies that facilitated timely retrieval of results include using PubMed(R) Clinical Queries and Related Articles, spell check, and organizing retrieval results into topical clusters. Further possible improvements in organization of retrieval results such as automatic semantic clustering and providing patient outcome information along with the titles of the retrieved articles are discussed.

  1. The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) - Some questions and answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficke, John F.; Hawkinson, Richard O.

    1975-01-01

    One of the major new efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey is the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). This circular is intended to answer some of the frequently asked questions concerning concepts used in establishing NASQAN, its purposes, design, value, and future plans.

  2. Q & A: Questions and Answers for Teachers About National Board Certification, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Arlington, VA.

    This brochure offers answers to questions for teachers about National Board Certification, including: what the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is; what National Board Certification (NBC) is; how involved teachers are in NBPTS; NBPTS' five core propositions; the NBPTS standards; how NBPTS standards are developed; whether…

  3. Five questions that need answering when considering the design of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy; Davies, Hugh; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2014-07-16

    Evidence suggests that research protocols often lack important information on study design, which hinders external review. The study protocol should provide an adequate explanation for why the proposed study methodology is appropriate for the question posed, why the study design is likely to answer the research question, and why it is the best approach. It is especially important that researchers explain why the treatment difference sought is worthwhile to patients, and they should reference consultations with the public and patient groups and existing literature. Moreover, the study design should be underpinned by a systematic review of the existing evidence, which should be included in the research protocol. The Health Research Authority in collaboration with partners has published guidance entitled 'Specific questions that need answering when considering the design of clinical trials'. The guidance will help those designing research and those reviewing it to address key issues.

  4. Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V.

    1995-05-01

    The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

  5. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  6. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  7. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    PubMed

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone.

  8. Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' and its implications for anthropology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alix A

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines Kant's anthropological project and its relationship to his conception of 'man' in order to show that Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' entails a decisive re-evaluation of traditional conceptions of human nature. I argue that Kant redirects the question 'what is man?' away from defining man in terms of what he is, and towards defining him in terms of what he does, in particular through the distinction between three levels of what I will call 'man's praxis': the levels of technicality, prudence, and morality. As soon as man is understood in terms of what he makes of himself rather than in terms of what he is, two crucial issues arise: what is the purpose of his making? And how can he reach this destination? My claim is that whilst the first question is answered by ethics and a doctrine of prudence, the second question is answered by anthropology. In this sense, anthropology plays the crucial role of identifying the worldly helps and hindrances to the realisation of man's purposes--and this is the reason why it should be understood as a 'pragmatic' discipline.

  9. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  10. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  11. AGU Climate Scientists Offer Question-and-Answer Service for Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stacy

    2010-03-01

    In fall 2009, AGU launched a member-driven pilot project to improve the accuracy of climate science coverage in the media and to improve public understanding of climate science. The project's goal was to increase the accessibility of climate science experts to journalists across the full spectrum of media outlets. As a supplement to the traditional one-to-one journalist-expert relationship model, the project tested the novel approach of providing a question-and-answer (Q&A) service with a pool of expert scientists and a Web-based interface with journalists. Questions were explicitly limited to climate science to maintain a nonadvocacy, nonpartisan perspective.

  12. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question...

  13. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Questions and Answers (Q&A's)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This September 2004 document contains questions and answers on the Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulation. The questions cover topics such as compliance, and applicability, etc

  14. Questions and Answers Regarding the 1997 State Plan Requirements for Hospital, Medical, and Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 1997 document contains questions and answers on the state plan requirements for HMIWI regulations. The questions cover topics such as re-opening existing sources, timelines for submission, consequences for failure to submit, and more.

  15. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  16. Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect…

  17. The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

  18. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  19. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  20. THE NEW HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions.

    PubMed

    Brock, Adrian C

    2016-06-27

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in History of Psychology on Nov 7 2016 (see record 2016-53552-001). There was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The professionalization of the history of psychology from the 1960s led to significant changes in the way that history was written. Several authors tried to summarize these changes in the 1980s, and Laurel Furumoto's (1989) G. Stanley Hall lecture, "The new history of psychology" is the best-known example of this genre. This journal published a critique of the new history by Benjamin R. Lovett (2006) with the title, "The new history of psychology: A review and critique," and it is still being cited as an authoritative source. The article consists of 3 parts. First, the author attempts to show that the new history is not as different from the old as its proponents claim. He then discusses some problems that he considers to be unique to the new history, and he presents them in the form of 5 questions for the new historians, which he then goes on to answer himself. Finally, he discusses the problematic relationship between critical history and psychology. This article is a reply to Lovett's article. The author argues that the new history is different from the old in every way that Lovett claims that it is not. It critically analyzes Lovett's answers to his own 5 questions and offers some alternative answers to these questions. It also suggests that many psychologist-historians are opposed to new history of psychology, especially in its critical versions, and that this explains why Lovett's article has been uncritically received. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community–Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. Objective In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Methods Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. Results On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system–based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm’s performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Conclusions Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites. PMID:27485666

  2. Enfuvirtide for nurses: answering patient questions on activity, safety, and lifestyle impact.

    PubMed

    Glutzer, Eileen; Lalezari, Jacob P

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of enfuvirtide, the first self-administered parenteral antiretroviral, has reinforced the HIV nurse's role in patient education, support, and motivation. Detailed background knowledge of the drug will assist nurses to provide answers to common questions and concerns raised during patient training. Three particular concerns often raised are curiosity about how enfuvirtide works, what side effects can be expected, and how these and the process of daily injection will affect the patient's daily routine. This brief review is designed to provide nurse-educators with clinical information on these three issues to help them better provide the answers patients will need to help them feel confident self-administering this new drug.

  3. Plasticity and Adult Neurogenesis in Amphibians and Reptiles: More Questions than Answers.

    PubMed

    Powers, Alice Schade

    2016-08-24

    Studies of the relationship between behavioral plasticity and new cells in the adult brain in amphibians and reptiles are sparse but demonstrate that environmental and hormonal variables do have an effect on the amount of cell proliferation and/or migration. The variables that are reviewed here are: enriched environment, social stimulation, spatial area use, season, photoperiod and temperature, and testosterone. Fewer data are available for amphibians than for reptiles, but for both groups many issues are still to be resolved. It is to be hoped that the questions raised here will generate more answers in future studies.

  4. Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

  5. How do students with dyslexia perform in extended matching questions, short answer questions and observed structured clinical examinations?

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sandra; Leinster, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    There are an increasing number of students with learning difficulties attending university, and currently much debate about the suitability and ability of students with dyslexia at both medical school and once they graduate into clinical practice. In this study we describe the performance of students with dyslexia compared to fellow students in extended matching questions (EMQ), short answer question (SAQ) and observed structured clinical examinations (OSCE) and discuss the implications of differences identified. End of year assessment results for 5 cohorts of medical students were analysed. Students with dyslexia did less well overall in all assessment types in year 1 but this difference was not evident in later years. Dyslexic students who were allowed extra time in written assessments did better than dyslexic students who did not have their assessment concessions in place. When station type within OSCE assessments was analysed students with dyslexia did less well in both examination skills and data interpretation stations in years 1, 2 & 3. In conclusion, differences in performance in written assessments are only evident early in training and may be partly due to delayed adjustment to medical school or implementation of assessment concessions. Performance in individual OSCE stations is dependent on station type. Why students with specific learning difficulties (SpLDs) perform less well in examination skills and data analysis OSCE stations requires further investigation.

  6. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  7. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  8. Violations of information structure: an electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions.

    PubMed

    Cowles, H W; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent [Hruska, C., Steinhauer, K., Alter, K., & Steube, A. (2000). ERP effects of sentence accents and violations of the information structure. In Poster presented at the 13th annual CUNY conference on human sentence processing, San Diego, CA.], but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents [Bornkessel, I., Schlesewsky, M., & Friederici, A. (2003). Contextual information modulated initial processes of syntactic integration: the role of inter- versus intrasentential predictions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 29, 871-882.].

  9. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  10. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  11. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary…

  12. Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.

    PubMed

    Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

    1990-01-01

    A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6% of the follow-ups. Five subjects displayed correct responding above baseline levels. No clear differences were noted in correct responding or echolalia between the trainer and novel-person presentations or between trained and untrained questions. In a follow-up in a natural environment conducted by a novel person, lower than baseline levels of echolalia were displayed by 3 subjects; 2 subjects displayed lower than baseline levels in some assessments. Two subjects consistently displayed correct responding above baseline, and 3 did so occasionally. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed.

  13. [Tannins, a new family of bio-active natural organic compounds (questions and answers)].

    PubMed

    Okuda, T

    1995-02-01

    Twelve questions concerning tannin selected from questions raised by other workers on the author's research were picked up. The answers of each question are as follows. 1. What is tannin?--the differences between the old concept and the new definition of tannin. 2. Is tannic acid the same as tannin? 3. How could each tannin be analyzed as a pure compound? 4. Which tannin found in recent years is implicated with the change of the concept of tannin in medicinal plants? 5. Is it possible that one to several chemical structures represent tannins contained in each plant species? 6. Which tannin-containing plants met in the human life are rich in tannins? 7. Is tannin produced by all species of plants?--a correlation between the occurrence of hydrolyzable tannins and the plant evolution system. 8. When and where are the hydrolyzable tannin oligomers produced, in the plant or after extraction? 9. Are tannins bound to other substances in the plants? 10. Is it appropriate to call tannins "plant polyphenols"? 11. Is it true that tannins are inhibitors of enzymes? 12. What kind of biological activities have been found for tannins.

  14. Answers in search of a question: 'proofs' of the tri-dimensionality of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, Craig

    From Kant's first published work to recent articles in the physics literature, philosophers and physicists have long sought an answer to the question: Why does space have three dimensions? In this paper, I will flesh out Kant's claim with a brief detour through Gauss' law. I then describe Büchel's version of the common argument that stable orbits are possible only if space is three dimensional. After examining objections by Russell and van Fraassen, I develop three original criticisms of my own. These criticisms are relevant to both historical and contemporary proofs of the dimensionality of space (in particular, a recent one by Burgbacher, Lämmerzahl, and Macias). In general, I argue that modern "proofs" of the dimensionality of space have gone off track.

  15. Relevance of basic research to clinical data: good answers, wrong questions!

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Holmes, Gregory L

    2008-01-01

    Do early seizures beget seizures later in life? Clinical data and experimental observations seem to answer that question differently, with a no and a yes, respectively, which may stem from an inadequate readout of what experimental data actually do tell us and a possible simplification of what clinical data indicate. Using specific experimental examples, it is possible to show that in the developing brain, seizures do produce long-lasting alterations of neuronal excitability, although ongoing seizures are not observed in adults. The findings suggest that the long-lasting changes in developmental programs and network activity that seizures induce do not necessarily lead to epilepsy, unless other events that remain to be identified occur.

  16. Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

  17. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  18. If changing skill mix is the answer, what is the question?

    PubMed

    Buchan, J; Ball, J; O'May, F

    2001-10-01

    Changing skill mix is often identified as a potential solution to health services staffing and resourcing problems, or is related to health sector reform. This paper discusses what is meant by skill mix, provides a typology of the different approaches to assessing skill mix and examines, by means of case studies, the contextual, political, social and economic factors that play a part in determining skill mix. These factors are examined in relation to three factors: the reasons (or drivers) for examining skill mix; the impact of contextual constraints; and the effect of varying spans of managerial control. Case studies conducted in Costa Rica, Finland, Mexico, the UK and the USA are used to explore the reality of assessing skill in different contexts and health care settings. We argue that, although skill mix may be a universal challenge, it is not a challenge that all managers or health professionals can meet in the same way, or with the same resources. Context can have a significant effect on the ability of health service managers to assess and change skill mix. The key determinant is the extent to which these factors are in the locus of control of management nationally, regionally, or locally, within different countries. We emphasise the need to evaluate the problem and examine the context, before deciding if a change in skill mix is the answer. The local managerial span of control and degree of organisational flexibility will be major factors in determining the likely impact of any attempts to change skill mix. Before embarking on a skill mix review, any organisation should ask itself the question: 'If changing skill mix is the answer, what is the question?'

  19. Multiple-Choice Answers: To Change or Not to Change? Perhaps Not Such a Simple Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscott, Heidi

    2016-11-01

    When grading students' quizzes and exams, I find that students are seemingly always changing their answers from the right answer to the wrong answer. In fact, I have cautioned students against changing their answer. Colleagues have made similar observations and some books on test-taking strategies advise against answer-changing. In an effort to find out how pervasive the answer-changing problem was, I collected some data and dug a little deeper into the research. My hypothesis was that students most frequently changed their answers from right to wrong. Have you made similar observations? If yes, then the results of this study may surprise you.

  20. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not. PMID:26113627

  1. Advances in Intelligence Research: What Should be Expected in the XXI Century (Questions & Answers).

    PubMed

    Colom, Roberto

    2016-12-06

    Here I briefly delineate my view about the main question of this International Seminar, namely, what should we expecting from the XXI Century regarding the advancements in intelligence research. This view can be summarized as 'The Brain Connection' (TBC), meaning that neuroscience will be of paramount relevance for increasing our current knowledge related to the key question: why are some people smarter than others? We need answers to the issue of what happens in our brains when the genotype and the environment are integrated. The scientific community has devoted great research efforts, ranging from observable behavior to hidden genetics, but we are still far from having a clear general picture of what it means to be more or less intelligent. After the discussion held with the panel of experts participating in the seminar, it is concluded that advancements will be more solid and safe increasing the collaboration of scientists with shared research interests worldwide. Paralleling current sophisticated analyses of how the brain computes, nowadays science may embrace a network approach.

  2. Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in the Immunocompetent Patient—Many Questions, Some Answers

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John F.; Valencia-Rey, Paula A.; Davis, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are no prospective data regarding the management of pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent patient. Clinical guidelines recommend oral fluconazole for patients with mild to moderate symptoms and amphotericin B plus flucytosine followed by fluconazole for severe disease. It is unclear whether patients who have histological evidence of Cryptococcus neoformans but negative cultures will even respond to drug treatment. We evaluated and managed a patient whose presentation and course raised important questions regarding the significance of negative cultures, antifungal choices, duration of therapy, and resolution of clinical, serologic, and radiographic findings. Methods. In addition to our experience, to answer these questions we reviewed available case reports and case series regarding immunocompetent patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis for the last 55 years using the following definitions: Definite - Clinical and/or radiographic findings of pulmonary infection and respiratory tract isolation of C. neoformans without other suspected etiologies; Probable - Clinical and radiographic findings of pulmonary infection, histopathologic evidence of C. neoformans, and negative fungal cultures with or without a positive cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen. Results. Pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves in most patients with or without specific antifungal therapy. Clinical, radiographic, and serologic resolution is slow and may take years. Conclusions. Persistently positive antigen titers are most common in untreated patients and may remain strongly positive despite complete or partial resolution of disease. Respiratory fungal cultures are often negative and may indicate nonviable organisms. PMID:27704021

  3. Influences of Writing Tasks on Students' Answers to Recall and Higher-Level Test Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Prain, Vaughan; Wallace, Carolyn

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports on two inter-related studies that examined the use of non-traditional writing strategies within secondary school science classrooms. The first study involved Year 10 students who incorporated one letter writing experience into the learning sequence when studying genetics. The second study was with Year 9 students who used both a non-traditional laboratory writing heuristic and letter writing as part of the learning sequence when studying a topic on light. The same teacher was involved in both case studies. A higher-level analogy question was added to the teacher-prepared tests for each study to examine if students who participated in writing-to-learn activities were able to perform significantly better as a group than a group of students who completed traditional teacher directed laboratory activities and note-taking. Results indicate that for the first study there was not a significant difference using t-test analysis, while for the second study involving two writing treatments there was a statistically significant difference using t-test analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in responses between treatment and control groups when answering low level recall questions for either case study. Student interviews indicated awareness by students of the metacognitive value gained by using the non-traditional writing types.

  4. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  5. Tips for giving a memorable presentation, part VI: the effective use of questions by a speaker, and answering questions from listeners.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2012-12-01

    Previous articles in this series have focused on tips for educators and leaders in giving a presentation, followed by articles on composing the talk and PowerPoint slides. This article focuses on how a speaker can effectively use questions to engage the audience and answer questions from the listeners, including members of the media. Additional comments will be given on how to give a clear presentation so that many questions will not be necessary.

  6. Increasing Students' Sensitivity to Sources of Information: An Instructional Study in Question-Answer Relationships. Technical Report No. 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program to help teachers instruct students in finding the relationship between questions designed to test their comprehension of a text and the location of possible information for answering those questions. Specifically, the study examined whether training would enhance student…

  7. Interteach Preparation: A Comparison of the Effects of Answering versus Generating Study Guide Questions on Quiz Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Axe, Judah B.; Parker, Edward D.

    2009-01-01

    Within an interteaching context, an alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of answering versus writing study guide questions on quiz performance in a 10-week methods course in special education. Results indicated quiz performance was not substantially influenced by the type of preparation, but that writing questions led to…

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This supplement No. 1 contains explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement No. 1 contains explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... technology at conferences. Section C: Educational instruction. Section D: Research, correspondence, and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This...

  11. Quantifying the Effects of Chance in Multiple Choice and True/False Tests: Question Selection and Guessing of Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    Describes four measures of test unreliability that quantify effects of question selection and guessing, both separately and together--three chosen for immediacy and one for greater mathematical elegance. Quantifies their dependence on test length and number of answer options per question. Concludes that many multiple choice tests are unreliable…

  12. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  13. Assessment Strategies for a History Exam, or, Why Short-Answer Questions Are Better than In-Class Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The in-class essay is not an effective means to assess student ability in a history exam. History teachers should instead ask short-answer questions in order to test what the American Historical Association calls "objective" knowledge: the ability to identify concepts, historical actors, organizations, events, and so forth. Such questions,…

  14. Area Source Boiler National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ: Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This October 2016 question and answer (Q&A) document is in response to a number of questions the EPA has received from delegated state and local agencies and the regulated community regarding the NESHAP for Area source boilers. Document updates 4/2014 PDF.

  15. National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Area Source Standards for Prepared Feeds Manufacturing: Commonly Asked Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2011 document answers common questions about the NESHAP for Area Sources for Prepared Feeds Manufacturing. The questions range in topics including applicability, specific requirements, and recordkeeping.

  16. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified. The second is the distribution statement that accompanied the distribution check. The... rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.401(a)(31)-1 Section 1.401(a)(31)-1 Internal Revenue... eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to...

  17. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro

  18. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. Answering a question at the microphone on the floor is Dave King, director, Shuttle Processing. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space- related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  20. Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  1. STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  2. Using LQCD to answer questions about hadronic interactions: a perspective from a traditional nuclear theorist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    As computational resources increase and better algorithms are implemented, LQCD calculations of hadronic interaction observables become less of a pipe dream, and more of a reality, and will eventually become the status quo. One of the greatest strengths of LQCD calculations in the realm of low-energy nuclear physics comes from its predictive capability, as many hadronic systems not accessible by experiments can be calculated on the lattice. These calculations in turn have direct implications to nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, as well as the broader nuclear physics community. Thus the import of LQCD on low-energy nuclear physics cannot be overlooked, nor understated. In this talk I discuss current and ongoing efforts to extract hadronic interaction parameters from LQCD, enumerating current difficulties placed by available computer resources and algorithm limitations. I will also talk about future possibilities coming from increased computer resources and algorithm development, giving examples of how such calculations can answer longstanding questions in traditional nuclear physics. Finally, I will discuss the role that national labs can and should play in the area of LQCD as applied to low-energy nuclear physics.

  3. NBC's ``10.5'' May Answer An Age-Old Seismologic Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew V.

    2004-04-01

    There is a new NBC 4-hour miniseries set to air during the May sweeps period (2-3 May) titled simply enough ``10.5.'' No, this is not a sequel to ``9 and ½ weeks'', nor is it a mini-sequel to ``10''. This number instead refers to a mega-earthquake that rocks the west coast of the United States. One may think that the network writers have done their homework and have consulted a geophysicist or two regarding the realism of their program, let alone the title. This is just a short note to comment on their potential folly. I would like to clarify to the network writers, as well as to the non-seismologists in the Earth science community what exactly a magnitude 10.5 earthquake could be, and why, if such were to occur, it may be more than just a west coast problem. Alternatively, NBC may just soon answer an age-old seismologic question...

  4. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  5. Ten common questions (and their answers) about off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

    2012-10-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients.

  6. Perspectives from the Avian Phylogenomics Project: Questions that Can Be Answered with Sequencing All Genomes of a Vertebrate Class.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Erich D

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes. This success spurred on the creation of a project to sequence the genomes of at least one individual of all extant ∼10,500 bird species. The initiation of this project has led us to consider what questions now impossible to answer could be answered with all genomes, and could drive new questions now unimaginable. These include the generation of a highly resolved family tree of extant species, genome-wide association studies across species to identify genetic substrates of many complex traits, redefinition of species and the species concept, reconstruction of the genomes of common ancestors, and generation of new computational tools to address these questions. Here I present visions for the future by posing and answering questions regarding what scientists could potentially do with available genomes of an entire vertebrate class.

  7. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  8. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  9. Toward automated classification of consumers' cancer-related questions with a new taxonomy of expected answer types.

    PubMed

    McRoy, Susan; Jones, Sean; Kurmally, Adam

    2016-09-01

    This article examines methods for automated question classification applied to cancer-related questions that people have asked on the web. This work is part of a broader effort to provide automated question answering for health education. We created a new corpus of consumer-health questions related to cancer and a new taxonomy for those questions. We then compared the effectiveness of different statistical methods for developing classifiers, including weighted classification and resampling. Basic methods for building classifiers were limited by the high variability in the natural distribution of questions and typical refinement approaches of feature selection and merging categories achieved only small improvements to classifier accuracy. Best performance was achieved using weighted classification and resampling methods, the latter yielding an accuracy of F1 = 0.963. Thus, it would appear that statistical classifiers can be trained on natural data, but only if natural distributions of classes are smoothed. Such classifiers would be useful for automated question answering, for enriching web-based content, or assisting clinical professionals to answer questions.

  10. The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

  11. Topology of Innovation Spaces in the Knowledge Networks Emerging through Questions-And-Answers

    PubMed Central

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija; Rajković, Milan; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals. We find that the ranking distributions of the suitably scaled topological dimensions of nodes fall into a unique curve for all time intervals and filtering levels, suggesting a robust architecture of knowledge networks. Moreover, these networks preserve the logical structure of knowledge within emergent communities of nodes, labeled according to a standard mathematical classification scheme. Further, we investigate the appearance of new contents over time and their innovative combinations, which expand the knowledge network. In each network, we identify an innovation channel as a subgraph of triangles and larger simplices to which new tags attach. Our results show that the increasing topological complexity of the innovation channels contributes to network’s architecture over different time periods, and is consistent with temporal correlations of the occurrence of new tags. The methodology applies to a wide class of data with the suitable temporal resolution and clearly identified knowledge-content units. PMID:27171149

  12. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

    2008-12-01

    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  13. Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

  14. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k) provide? A-1:...

  15. Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

  16. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for independent contractors. (Temporary) 1.404(d)-1T... Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits for service providers with...

  17. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  18. Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

  19. Teaching a Child with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions Using a Speech-Generating Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnett, Amarie; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2016-01-01

    The current study systematically replicates and extends the findings of Ingvarsson and Hollobaugh (2010) by teaching a boy with autism who used a speech-generating device to mand for answers to unknown questions. The effects of the intervention were evaluated via a multiple baseline across stimulus sets. The intervention resulted in acquisition of…

  20. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public…

  1. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... check to more than one beneficiary, such as a surviving spouse and a minor child, how is the amount to... the payee's right to elect not to have withholding apply to any payment or distribution and how to... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to...

  2. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... check to more than one beneficiary, such as a surviving spouse and a minor child, how is the amount to... the payee's right to elect not to have withholding apply to any payment or distribution and how to... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to...

  3. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... check to more than one beneficiary, such as a surviving spouse and a minor child, how is the amount to... the payee's right to elect not to have withholding apply to any payment or distribution and how to... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T Internal Revenue... information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the penalties imposed by... 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369, 98 Stat. 681), for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T Internal Revenue... information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the penalties imposed by... 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369, 98 Stat. 681), for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T Internal Revenue... information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the penalties imposed by... 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369, 98 Stat. 681), for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T Internal Revenue... information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the penalties imposed by... 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369, 98 Stat. 681), for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T Internal Revenue... information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the penalties imposed by... 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369, 98 Stat. 681), for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

  9. 78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes... Radiological Health (CDRH) Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A.'' This draft document provides...), which were added by the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA), as those provisions pertain to...

  10. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  11. Talking with Children and Teens about Alzheimer's Disease: A Question and Answer Guidebook for Parents, Teachers and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, James M.

    Professionals in the fields of nursing, education, health care, recreation, and social work, who specialize in dealing with Alzheimer's disease, wrote answers to questions collected from discussion sessions held at four Pennsylvania elder facilities and made suggestions for talking to young people about the disease and its impact. This guidebook…

  12. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal... guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... Chapter Residual Solvents that applies to both human and veterinary drugs and to compendial and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Recovery Tax Act of 1981, under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section 1... Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers concern the treatment of losses on... 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is the scope of section 108 of the...

  14. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the draft guidance... rule entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage,...

  15. Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include

  16. Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

  17. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  18. ADAPT.DCU at TREC LiveQA: A Sentence Retrieval based Approach to Live Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    scores computed over all submitted runs. 5 Title Body Our Answer Score (1-4) Why does my cat has 2 eyes? So tell me.. It is a defect. In show quality... cats , it is considered a fault. 2) Cats have TWO eyes, generally, unless they lose one. 1 Do you like dogs? - DOG – that’s GOD spelled back- wards say...example, all the answers to the following question: Why does my cat have 2 eyes? received the lowest possible score. Another drawback of our system is

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualified. The second is the distribution statement that accompanied the distribution check. The... rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.401(a)(31)-1 Section 1.401(a)(31)-1 Internal Revenue... rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and...

  20. A Comparison of Student Performances in Answering Essay-Type and Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, D. I.; Holland, R. A. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three groups of students were tested on the same material in three different forms of examination. They performed better in multiple-choice and in cued essay questions than in uncued essay questions. (Author/LBH)

  1. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

  2. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  3. Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiner, Cecily

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

  4. Looking at Photoinduced Charge Transfer Processes in the IR: Answers to Several Long-Standing Questions.

    PubMed

    Dereka, Bogdan; Koch, Marius; Vauthey, Eric

    2017-02-21

    Because of its crucial role in many areas of science and technology, photoinduced electron transfer is the most investigated photochemical reaction. Despite this, several important questions remain open. We present recent efforts to answer some of them, which concern both inter- and intramolecular processes. The decisive factor that allowed these issues to be successfully addressed was the use of time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. Many different transient species, such as tight and loose ion pairs (TIPs and LIPs) and exciplexes, have been invoked to explain the dynamics of intermolecular photoinduced charge separation reactions (i.e., electron transfer between two neutral species) and the production of free ions. However, their structures are essentially unknown, and their exact roles in the reaction mechanism are unclear. Indeed, the commonly used transient electronic absorption spectroscopy does not give much structural insight and cannot clearly distinguish ion pairs from free ions, at least in the visible region. Unambiguous spectral signatures of TIPs, LIPs, and exciplexes could be observed in the IR using electron donor/acceptor (D/A) pairs with adequate vibrational marker modes. The ability to spectrally distinguish these intermediates allowed their dynamics to be disentangled and their roles to be determined. Structural information could be obtained using polarization-resolved TRIR spectroscopy. Our investigations reveal that moderately to highly exergonic reactions result in the formation of both TIPs and LIPs. TIPs are not only generated upon direct charge-transfer excitation of DA complexes, as usually assumed, but are also formed upon static quenching with reactant pairs at distances and orientations enabling charge separation without diffusion. On the other hand, dynamic quenching produces primarily LIPs. In the case of highly exergonic reactions, strong indirect evidence for the generation of ion pairs in an electronic excited state was found

  5. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

  6. Delay Assessment Framework for Automated Question-Answering System: An Approach for eLearning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muhammad Munwar; Saleem, Yasir

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Electronic Learning (eLearning) for the dissemination of higher education is rapidly increasing day by day. A large number of universities offering hundreds of course and a large number of the students are taking advantage from this type of learning paradigm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the delay factor in answering the…

  7. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The guidance contains... prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm and from further growth...

  8. Testing Intercultural Competence in (International) English: Some Basic Questions and Suggested Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camerer, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    The testing of intercultural competence has long been regarded as the field of psychometric test procedures, which claim to analyse an individual's personality by specifying and quantifying personality traits with the help of self-answer questionnaires and the statistical evaluation of these. The underlying assumption is that what is analysed and…

  9. [Practical approach to management of gynecomastia: six questions to be answered by the paediatrician regarding a patient with gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    Pubertal gynecomastia is a common concern in the consultation of the adolescent. Usually, it is accompanied by an emotional component that can lead to changes in everyday attitudes of youth. The responsability of the pediatrician is to rule out other etiologies, to avoid unnecessary additional studies, to limit active therapeutic attitudes, and to reaffirm the variation of normality. We briefly describe six eminently practical questions to be answered by the physician.

  10. The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further.

  11. QU at TREC-2015: Building Real-Time Systems for Tweet Filtering and Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    stream and responds to users’ information needs in real-time. For the microblog track, given a set of users’ interest pro- files, we developed two online...retrieved back their answers. 1. INTRODUCTION Twitter has rapidly developed over the past years and be- come a massive information sharing network...TWEET FILTERING Tweet filtering is the reverse of ad-hoc tweet search, where a user provides an information need at a certain point in time, and the

  12. The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

  13. Questions and Answers Regarding the 2009 New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emissions Guidelines, and State Plan Process for Hospital, Medical, and Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 2011 document contains questions and answers on the Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI) regulations. The questions cover topics such as state plan requirements, compliance, applicability, operator training, and more.

  14. Answers to Student's Most Popular Questions about Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... from NIDA scientists. For more information about Chat Day, go to https://teens.drugabuse.gov/national-drug- ...

  15. Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, Carole; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCC) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

  16. ESMO - Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale V.1.0 questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; Piccart, M J; Bogaerts, J; Tabernero, J; Latino, N J; de Vries, E G E

    2016-01-01

    The ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) is a standardised, generic, validated tool to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anticancer therapies. The ESMO-MCBS is intended to both assist oncologists in explaining the likely benefits of a particular treatment to their patients as well as to aid public health decision makers' prioritise therapies for reimbursement. From its inception the ESMO-MCBS Working Group has invited questions and critiques to promote understanding and to address misunderstandings regarding the nuanced use of the scale, and to identify shortcomings in the scale to be addressed in future planned revisions and updates. The ESMO-MCBS V.1.0 has attracted many questions regarding its development, structure and potential applications. These questions, together with responses from the ESMO-MCBS Working Group, have been edited and collated, and are herein presented as a supplementary resource. PMID:27900206

  17. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders.

  18. Children's Developing Knowledge of "Wh"-/Quantifier Question-Answer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achimova, Asya; Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien; Déprez, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    In response to questions in which a "wh"-term interacts with a universal quantifier in object position, such as "Who picked every toy?," children as old as 5 years of age often provide a list, pairing toys with the people who picked each of them. This response pattern is unexpected, it has been claimed, because children appear…

  19. The Law and Student Activities: Answers to Ten Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how numerous legal sources (Constitutional, federal, state, local, and common law) affect everyday public school operations. Fields 10 questions regarding written and legally sound rules, common rules for district schools, board approval of club bylaws and activities, "in loco parentis," legal image, employee assignments,…

  20. A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

    Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

  1. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  2. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  3. Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

  4. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  5. "Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

    2008-01-01

    "Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants…

  6. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

  7. Multi-scale ecosystem monitoring: an application of scaling data to answer multiple ecological questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods Standardized monitoring data collection efforts using a probabilistic sample design, such as in the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy, provide a core suite of ecological indicators, maximize data collection efficiency,...

  8. Research on Children: New Approaches to Answer Old Questions, But is This Sufficient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitall, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses how kinesiological research on children should advance. Using the study of motor development as a backdrop, the article is divided into three sections. The first section relates the four fundamental questions in motor development that have been asked throughout its history. The second section describes four areas of…

  9. Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

  10. Commentary: Plastic ocean and the cancer connection: 7 questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Benno Meyer-Rochow, V; Valérie Gross, J; Steffany, Frank; Zeuss, Dominique; Erren, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    A plethora of recent scientific reports testifies to challenges the world is facing from an ever-increasing marine plastic pollution. Toxicological concerns have been put forward, but possible links between the now ubiquitous synthetic polymers and human as well as wildlife cancers remain to be investigated. Hence, this commentary which addresses seven questions. Given numerous uncertainties on the factual impacts of plastics, we should embark on empirical studies into the validity of biologically plausible links between plastic residues and cancers and concomitantly consider ways to reduce plastics in the world within and around us.

  11. Answering the ultimate question "what is the proximal cause of aging?".

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2012-12-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging?

  12. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  13. How well do websites concerning children's anxiety answer parents' questions about treatment choices?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Walsh, Kate

    2015-10-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the quality of information concerning anxiety disorders in children that is available on the Internet and to evaluate changes in the quality of website information over time. The authors identified websites addressing child anxiety disorders (N = 26) using a Google search and recommendations from an expert in child anxiety. Each website was evaluated on the extent to which it addressed questions that parents consider important, the quality of information, and the reading level. All websites provided adequate information describing treatment options; however, fewer websites had information addressing many questions that are important to parents, including the duration of treatment, what happens when treatment stops, and the benefits and risks of various treatments. Many websites provided inadequate information on pharmacological treatment. Most websites were of moderate quality and had more difficult reading levels than is recommended. Five years after the initial assessment, authors re-analyzed the websites in order to investigate changes in content over time. The content of only six websites had been updated since the original analysis, the majority of which improved on the three aforementioned areas of evaluation. Websites could be strengthened by providing important information that would support parent decision-making.

  14. Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.

    PubMed

    Aucamp, Pieter J

    2007-03-01

    The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This

  15. Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Parinda

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities.

  16. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation--some questions with no answers.

    PubMed

    Mosse, Irma B

    2012-10-01

    There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation, the main one is does ionizing radiation induce mutations in humans? There is no direct evidence that exposure of parents to radiation leads to excess heritable disease in offspring. What is the difference between human and other species in which radiation induced mutations are easily registered? During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo and we cannot observe such selection of radiation damaged cells in human. Low radiation doses - are they harmful or beneficial? The "hormesis" phenomenon as well as radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation dose. Can analysis of chromosomal aberration rate in lymphocytes be used for dosimetry? Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant mistakes of this method. Why did evolution preserve the bystander effect? This paper is discussion one and its goal is to pay attention on some effects of ionizing radiation.

  17. Feminist bioethics: toward developing a "feminist" answer to the surrogate motherhood question.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    1996-03-01

    Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others claim that it does nothing of the sort. Although such disagreement among feminist bioethicists reassures the general public that the feminist "program" for bioethics is not ideologically monolithic, it also confuses the public, especially women. In order to overcome this confusion, feminist bioethicists should work toward developing the kind of shared theoretical base that will foster frequent consensus on the biomedical principles, practices, and policies most likely to serve the interests of most women in the U.S. today.

  18. Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

  19. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro; Memo, Maurizio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Quaranta, Nicola; Stella, Roberto; Lin, Frank R

    2014-12-01

    The association between hearing impairment, the diagnosis of dementia, and the role of sensory therapy has been proposed for some time, but further research is needed. Current understanding of this association requires the commitment of those experts who can integrate experience and research from several fields to be able to understand the link from hearing to dementia. A workshop whose panelists included experts from many areas, ranging from ear, nose and throat (ENT) to dementia's specialists, was promoted and organized by the Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation (Milan, Italy; Houston, TX, USA) to increase the awareness of the relationship between hearing loss and dementia, and included questions and comments following a presentation from the clinical researcher, Frank Lin, who has been evaluating the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline since 2009.

  20. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research.

  1. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dicks, Lynn V; Baude, Mathilde; Roberts, Stuart P M; Phillips, James; Green, Mike; Carvell, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, an opportunity arose in England to develop an agri-environment package for wild pollinators, as part of the new Countryside Stewardship scheme launched in 2015. It can be understood as a 'policy window', a rare and time-limited opportunity to change policy, supported by a narrative about pollinator decline and widely supported mitigating actions. An agri-environment package is a bundle of management options that together supply sufficient resources to support a target group of species. This paper documents information that was available at the time to develop such a package for wild pollinators. Four questions needed answering: (1) Which pollinator species should be targeted? (2) Which resources limit these species in farmland? (3) Which management options provide these resources? (4) What area of each option is needed to support populations of the target species? Focussing on wild bees, we provide tentative answers that were used to inform development of the package. There is strong evidence that floral resources can limit wild bee populations, and several sources of evidence identify a set of agri-environment options that provide flowers and other resources for pollinators. The final question could only be answered for floral resources, with a wide range of uncertainty. We show that the areas of some floral resource options in the basic Wild Pollinator and Farmland Wildlife Package (2% flower-rich habitat and 1 km flowering hedgerow), are sufficient to supply a set of six common pollinator species with enough pollen to feed their larvae at lowest estimates, using minimum values for estimated parameters where a range was available. We identify key sources of uncertainty, and stress the importance of keeping the Package flexible, so it can be revised as new evidence emerges about how to achieve the policy aim of supporting pollinators on farmland.

  2. Multi-disciplinary studies of viruses: the role of structure in shaping the questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John E

    2008-09-01

    This contribution to the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Structural Biology traces a path in which the author evolved from seeing macromolecular structure as end in it self to a means of organizing and correlating data from many sources. The author looks at where we have been and where we are going in this enterprise and the role that structure plays in defining ever more ambitious biological questions and testing and refining models that incorporate data from many techniques. In this, essentially, personal account, the author reflects on 35 years of structural virology and the stages experienced; from "stand alone" crystallography of virus particles to the study of virus assembly and maturation in vitro and eventually into the entire virus infection process from particle cell entry to egress. In the process data from many sources were incorporated into reasonable and testable models based on structures ranging in resolution from near-atomic determined by crystallography, to nanometer, determined by electron cryo-microscopy and image reconstruction, to five nanometer tomographic studies in the cell. The technological development over this period, for structural studies at all resolutions and functional studies that were unimaginable three decades ago, has been astonishing. Here we look at an aspect of this development applied to virology.

  3. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays: answers to frequently asked questions.

    PubMed

    Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Éric; Charpentier, Sandrine; Dehoux, Monique; Lefevre, Guillaume; Meune, Christophe; Ray, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) assays have quickly gained in analytical sensitivity to become what are termed 'high-sensitivity cardiac troponin' (hs-cTn) assays, bringing a flurry of dense yet incomplete literature data. The net result is that cTn assays are not yet standardized and there are still no consensus-built data on how to use and interpret cTn assay results. To address these issues, the authors take cues and clues from multiple disciplines to bring responses to frequently asked questions. In brief, the effective use of hs-cTn hinges on knowing: specific assay characteristics, particularly precision at the 99th percentile of a reference population; factors of variation at the 99th percentile value; and the high-individuality of hs-cTn assays, for which the notion of individual kinetics is more informative than straight reference to 'normal' values. The significance of patterns of change between two assay measurements has not yet been documented for every hs-cTn assay. Clinicians need to work hand-in-hand with medical biologists to better understand how to use hs-cTn assays in routine practice.

  4. The nucleation of vortices in superfluid [sup 4]He: Answers and questions

    SciTech Connect

    Avenel, O.; Ihas G.G. ); Varoquaux, E. )

    1993-12-01

    The velocity threshold for phase slips, v[sub c], has been measured in ultra-pure [sup 4]He and ultra-dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, down to a temperature of 15 mK. These experiments have revealed a crossover from a temperature-dependent regime above [approximately]150 mK to a plateau of v[sub c] below in ultra-pure [sup 4]He. Concentrations of [sup 3]He impurities as low as a few parts in 10[sup [minus]9] greatly affect the plateau regime, causing v[sub c] to decrease markedly at low temperature. These observations are interpreted in the framework of the nucleation, either thermally activated or by quantum tunnelling, of vortices in the appropriate shape of half-rings. These vortices form on wall asperities at local velocities u[sub s] estimated to be [approximately]22 m/s in these experiments. The half-ring model is shown to yield a critical velocity of the same magnitude but leaves many basic questions unanswered.

  5. Eye tracking research to answer questions about augmentative and alternative communication assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Mitchell, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual's gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. Based on the sampling of the orientation of the individual's eyes, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking research technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods, and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures.

  6. Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M

    2003-01-01

    For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars Program (BSP), a diversity program at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, has worked to increase the participation and success of students majoring in the biological sciences. A quantitative comparison of students in and out of the program indicates that students in BSP graduate with a degree in biology at significantly higher rates than students not in BSP regardless of race/ethnicity. Furthermore, students who are in BSP have statistically lower high school grade point averages (GPAs) and Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) scores than students not in BSP. African-American and Hispanic students who join BSP graduate with significantly higher UC Berkeley biology GPAs than non-BSP African-American and Hispanic students, respectively. Majority (Asian and White) students in BSP graduate with statistically similar UC GPAs despite having lower SAT scores than non-BSP majority students. Although BSP students are more successful in completing a biology degree than non-program members, the results raise a series of questions about why the program works and for whom.

  7. The astrocytic contribution to neurovascular coupling--still more questions than answers?

    PubMed

    Kowiański, Przemysław; Lietzau, Grażyna; Steliga, Aleksandra; Waśkow, Monika; Moryś, Janusz

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow adequate for brain activity and metabolic demand is maintained through the processes of autoregulation and neurovascular coupling. Astrocytes undoubtedly make an important contribution to these processes. The critical factors that determine the polarity of astrocytic response include: metabolites (e.g., arachidonic acid and its derivatives, lactate and oxygen concentrations), ions (H(+), Ca(2+) and K(+)), gliotransmitters (glutamate, Glu; gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA; d-serine; adenosine 5'-triphosphate, ATP and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), neuronal activity and vascular tone. Although the astrocytic contribution to neurovascular coupling has been intensively studied, a few important questions still remain, such as: (1) the modulatory function of astrocytes in tripartite synapses, including effects related to the strength of synaptic stimulation and the particular signaling pathway (astrocytic or neuronal) that becomes activated, (2) the significance of the vasoconstrictive reaction evoked by arachidonic acid metabolites (e.g., 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 20-HETE) under both physiological and pathological conditions, (3) the relationship between brain activity level and metabolic processes occurring in astrocytes, which is studied using neuroradiological techniques and (4) the astrocytic contribution to the neurovascular response under pathological conditions. Hence, the function of astrocytes in neurovascular coupling remains ambiguous. The function of astrocytes is beneficial and integrative in physiological conditions, but under definitive pathological conditions may become detrimental and involved in the development of diseases like ischemic stroke, arterial hypertension and Alzheimer's disease.

  8. The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes.

  9. Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jørgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

    2014-08-01

    The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems.

  10. ALAT-2014 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Clinical Practice Guidelines: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín

    2015-08-01

    ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting.

  11. Wisconsin statutes regarding HIV testing in primary care: frequent questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P

    1998-12-01

    The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)].

  12. Questions and Answers for the Pulp and Paper National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart S

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This September 1999 document provides implementation information by supplying answers to frequently asked questions, such as applicability, definitions, various system processes, etc. on the Pulp and Paper NESHAP (40 CFR 63, subpart S).

  13. Neuroscience cannot answer these questions: a response to G. and R. Murrow's essay hypothesizing a link between dehumanization, human rights abuses and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2016-04-01

    The Murrows' paper, 'A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses', in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words. Suggesting that neuroscience can today inform these questions does a disservice to science, law and the complexity of the human condition.

  14. Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum.

  15. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States . Why is there a week-long lag between the data and when it’s ... surveillance data collection is based on a reporting week that starts on Sunday and ends on Saturday ...

  16. Beyond Question-Answering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-15

    utterance, in particular to determine the reference of pronouns , and to recover missing verb phrases. Along with many others, we take "context" to...intended to refer to using a pronoun or a definite description. The relation between the work on discourse entities and focus, and that on shared beliefs...e.g., the uttering of an imperative, interrogative , or declarative sentence, and infers the user wanted the typical effect of that action. What are

  17. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths. Is there a treatment for pneumococcal disease? Penicillin is the drug of choice for treatment of pneumo- coccal disease; however, resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics has been on the rise. ...

  18. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the problems of " Campylobacter " contamination on meat and poultry products, and offers guidelines for safe food handling ... found in the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, monkeys, wild birds, and some ...

  19. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with infections of the lungs (e.g., pneumonia), urinary tract (e.g., kidney), skin, and gut. Staphylococcus aureus ( staph ), Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), and some types of Streptococcus (strep) are common germs that can cause sepsis. ...

  20. Answering the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

    2011-01-01

    As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

  1. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... has received a booster dose within the last ten years should be protected. However, to ensure adequate ... with time, boosters of Td are needed every ten years. When adolescents and adults are scheduled for ...

  2. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... my child? Rabies is not common in dogs, cats, ferrets, and live- stock in the United States ... rabies isn't common in U.S. dogs and cats anymore, is there anything to worry about? Unfortunately, ...

  3. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... cutting boards, dishes, and countertops with hot soapy water after preparing each food item and before you go on to the next item. Consider using paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces. If you use cloth towels, wash them often in the hot cycle of your washing machine. SEPARATE: Don't Cross- ...

  4. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  5. "Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

  6. Our American Government: What Is It? How Does It Function? 150 Questions and Answers. Ninety Fifth Congress, First Session. House Document No. 95-257.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Committee on Printing, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents information about the United States government, its bases, processes, and branches, in a question and answer format. Based on questions similar to those frequently received by Members of Congress from their constituents, it offers brief and concise information. Topics covered are democracy and its American sources, the…

  7. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-01-01

    Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus.

  8. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  9. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for

  10. CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org.

  11. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  12. Neuroscience cannot answer these questions: a response to G. and R. Murrow's essay hypothesizing a link between dehumanization, human rights abuses and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B.

    2015-01-01

    The Murrows' paper, ‘A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses’, in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words. Suggesting that neuroscience can today inform these questions does a disservice to science, law and the complexity of the human condition. PMID:27774237

  13. How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

    Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). 31.3306(b)-1T Section 31.3306(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION...

  15. Individual and Collaborative Technology-Mediated Learning Using Question & Answer Online Discussion Forums--Perceptions of Public Health Learners in Dubai, UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofeso, Niyi; Hassan, Moustafa; Hamidi, Samer

    2016-01-01

    This case study provides evidence-based suggestions for the use of Question and Answer discussion forums for improving quality and assessment of online learning. General online discussion forums are accessible at any time to all subscribers, making it possible for some learners to update, concur with or paraphrase discussions posted earlier by…

  16. Facts & Figures: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students and Bilingual/ESL Programs, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    In question and answer form, this document presents information about limited English proficient (LEP) students and programs for them in the New York City (New York) schools. City and state regulations govern the identification of LEP students and their selection for English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual programs. The Board of Education…

  17. The Family and Medical Leave Act: What It Means for Caregivers in the Workplace. Questions and Answers for Employees and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is intended to protect employees' job and health benefits while they are on leave for certain family and health needs. This publication provides, in question-answer format, a description of the rights and obligations of employees and employers as stipulated by the FMLA. The report focuses on the requirements…

  18. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  2. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T Section 1.267(a)-2T Internal Revenue... Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction—(1) Scope. This section prescribes temporary question and... Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2) Effective date. Except as otherwise provided by Answer 2...

  3. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section 54.4977-1T... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers... section 531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all employees of any line...

  4. On the identity of Liolaemus nigromaculatus Wiegmann, 1834 (Iguania, Liolaemidae) and correction of its type locality

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Garin, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the current study, we review the taxonomic status of Liolaemus nigromaculatus. Despite being the nominal species of the nigromaculatus group and being the second species of the genus Liolaemus that was described, this species is of uncertain type locality and its true identification is a matter of discussion. After carefully analyzing several digital pictures of the holotype (juvenile male), reviewing all of the literature concerning the issue, examining specimens of nearly all recognized species of the nigromaculatus group, and determining the locations visited by the specimen collector, we are able to point out the following: 1) Liolaemus nigromaculatus was collected between Puerto Viejo and Copiapó of the Atacama region in Chile, and not in Huasco 2) Liolaemus bisignatus is a nomen nudum, and populations attributed to Liolaemus bisignatus should be referred to as Liolaemus nigromaculatus. 3) There is agreement that Liolaemus copiapoensis is indistinguishable from populations currently referred to as Liolaemus bisignatus (= Liolaemus nigromaculatus), 4) Populations found in Huasco (currently considered the type locality of Liolaemus nigromaculatus) are very similar to those found in Caldera (currently considered Liolaemus bisignatus) and should be designated as Liolaemus nigromaculatus, and 5) Liolaemus oxycephalus and Liolaemus inconspicuus are not synonymous with Liolaemus nigromaculatus, although their true identities are difficult to determine. We also detail several characteristic based on the holotype of Liolaemus nigromaculatus, in addition to drawing diagnostic comparisons between this species and others belonging to the nigromaculatus group. PMID:23794871

  5. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  6. Differences in Reaction to Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers for Multiple-Choice and Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Laitusis, Cara; Stone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There are many reasons to believe that open-ended (OE) and multiple-choice (MC) items elicit different cognitive demands of students. However, empirical evidence that supports this view is lacking. In this study, we investigated the reactions of test takers to an interactive assessment with immediate feedback and answer-revision opportunities for…

  7. Great Answers to Difficult Questions About Death - What Children Need to Know Goldman Linda Great Answers to Difficult Questions About Death - What Children Need to Know 112 Jessica Kingsley Publishers 9781849058056 1849058059 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2010-06-02

    Dealing with children's feelings and questions after a death can be incredibly difficult. This book, which is set out in easily accessed chapters, gives advice and suggestions on how to manage those conversations and questions that a bereaved child is likely to ask.

  8. Two new species of the Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex (Iguania, Liolaemidae) from Andean highlands of southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Díaz, Hugo A.; Esquerré, Damien; Urra, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The elongatus-kriegi complex is one of the most diverse clades of the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus of lizards. There are currently 29 species recognized in this group distributed between Chile and Argentina. Based on molecular evidence, there seem to be five main clades nested within this complex: the elongatus, leopardinus, kriegi, petrophilus and punmahuida clades. Liolaemus buergeri and Liolaemus kriegi, both of the kriegi clade, were believed to inhabit the surroundings of the Laja Lagoon, in the Biobío Region of Chile. Moreover, this Chilean population of Liolaemus kriegi was recently recognized as an undescribed taxon called “Liolaemus sp. A” based on molecular phylogenetics. In this work, we studied these two populations of the Laja Lagoon and provided the morphological diagnosis to describe them as two new species: Liolaemus scorialis sp. n. and Liolaemus zabalai sp. n., previously considered Liolaemus buergeri and “Liolaemus kriegi/Liolaemus sp. A” respectively. Additionally, we identified another population of Liolaemus scorialis in the vicinity of La Mula Lagoon in the Araucanía Region of Chile. Liolaemus scorialis differs from almost all of the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex by its considerably smaller size. Nevertheless, without molecular data we cannot assign it to any particular subclade. Liolaemus zabalai belongs to the kriegi clade based on published molecular phylogenies. Finally, we provide some natural history data on both species and we document for the first time the presence of Liolaemus neuquensis in Chile from a museum specimen from La Mula Lagoon. PMID:25987873

  9. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Key Points The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers.  (Question 1) PLCO results showed that: |

  10. The answer is questions: accelerated-nursing students report practice questions are fundamental to first-time NCLEX-RN success.

    PubMed

    Blozen, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program.

  11. I didn't know oxygen could boil! What preservice and inservice elementary teachers' answers to `simple' science questions reveals about their subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice*, Diana C.

    2005-09-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected from a total of 414 preservice and 67 inservice teachers during first-day discussions in elementary science methods courses. Both groups outperformed average citizens on the 10 survey questions. However, three other questions used to introduce discussion of why students may find learning science difficult revealed lack of conceptual understanding of basic physical and biological phenomena commonly found in most elementary science curricula. Results and implications are discussed in the context of increasing expectations for subject matter competence demanded of ‘highly qualified teachers’ under provisions of the 2001 US Elementary and Secondary Education Act (‘No Child Left Behind Act’).

  12. Exploring the Validity of Assessment in Anatomy: Do Images Influence Cognitive Processes Used in Answering Extended Matching Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Bouter, Shifra T.; van den Hurk, Marianne M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an important aspect of medical education because it tests students' competence and motivates them to study. Various assessment methods, with and without images, are used in the study of anatomy. In this study, we investigated the use of extended matching questions (EMQs). To gain insight into the influence of images on the…

  13. Assessment Questions: Equity Answers. Proceedings of the 1993 CRESST Conference (Los Angeles, California, September 12-14, 1993). Evaluation Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    Focusing on one of the critical questions in the shift to new forms of assessment, researchers, policymakers, and teachers met at the 1993 Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) to consider equity in assessment. The opening remarks of CRESST co-director Robert Linn stressed that equity is at the center of…

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... debriefed later about anything of potential military value he learns from you. If you are concerned that... 2705, 14th Street and Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. Question D(4): Would it make any..., dissertations, papers, electronic data bases, and other information available in a library that is accessible...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... debriefed later about anything of potential military value he learns from you. If you are concerned that... 2705, 14th Street and Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. Question D(4): Would it make any..., dissertations, papers, electronic data bases, and other information available in a library that is accessible...

  16. A Different Approach to Answering a Good Question: A Response to Hewes's Models of Communication Effects on Small Group Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonito, Joseph A.; Sanders, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Hewes's (1986, 1996, 2009) models of communication effects on small group outcomes. As sophisticated and thoughtful as Hewes's new model is, however, the authors take issue with it. For one, there is reason to question whether his approach is feasible. For another, his models are not founded on solid…

  17. 29 CFR 102.177 - Exclusion from hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... questions; Misconduct by attorneys and party representatives before the Agency; Procedures for processing misconduct allegations. 102.177 Section 102.177 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Misconduct by Attorneys or Party Representatives §...

  18. Career Counseling Is the Answer, so Why Keep Asking Questions? A Baseline of Career Counseling Outcomes Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Rich

    This paper offers a baseline about the status of career counseling outcomes research. It notes that few practitioners or researchers question the effectiveness of career counseling or related career interventions in the broad sense, yet the quality and comprehensiveness of the research deserves greater scrutiny in light of the field's broad scope…

  19. A combination of hand-held models and computer imaging programs helps students answer oral questions about molecular structure and function: a controlled investigation of student learning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michelle A; Peck, Ronald F; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

  20. Parity of indigenous and non-indigenous women in Brazil: does the reported number of children born depend upon who answers national census questions?

    PubMed

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee's color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection.

  1. Dissemination of reproductive health knowledge by questions and answers through telephone hotline: a feasibility study in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ko-Ko-Zaw; Than-Tun-sein; Kyaw-Minn; Khin-Maung-lwin; Ye-Htut; Yin-Thet-Nu-Oo; Theingi-Myint; San-Shwe; Khin-Pyone-Kyi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of disseminating reproductive health (RH) information to the general public of Myanmar in a confidential, anonymous and interactive way through a telephone hotline. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a short questionnaire interview with the RH hotline callers and analyzing sample audio recordings of conversations. The hotline was advertised in print media. It was answered by trained hotline responders (medical doctors) of Department of Madical Research (Lower Myanmar) (DMR-LM). There were 743 calls during six months, from all 14 States and Divisions. Most of the calls were from Yangon, Mandalay and Bago Division. Both male (48%) and female (52%) callers used the hotline. The majority of callers (74%) were between 25 and 45 years old; 21% were young people (15-25 years old). Married people (81%) used the hotline more than singles (19%). Most of the callers (91%) had a high school to graduate education level. The most frequently asked topics were infertility (23%), birth spacing (22%), sexual problems (13%) and adolescent health, including reproductive function (12%). The anonymity of the callers, the non-judgmental attitudes of the responders and the use of media for publicity appeared to facilitate the use of the hotline by the public. More linkages with service entry points, enhancement of communication skills, sexual counselling training and use of media can improve topic coverage and utilization of the reproductive health hotline.

  2. A new species of Liolaemus related to L. nigroviridis from the Andean highlands of Central Chile (Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Elorza, Alvaro A; Puas, German I; Alfaro-Pardo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The Liolaemus nigroviridis group is a clade of highland lizards endemic to Chile. These species are distributed from northern to central Chile, and currently there are no cases of sympatric distribution. This study describes a new species, Liolaemus uniformis sp. n., from this group, and provides a detailed morphological characterization and mitochondrial phylogeny using cytochrome-b. Liolaemus uniformis was found in sympatry with Liolaemus nigroviridis but noticeably differed in size, scalation, and markedly in the color pattern, without sexual dichromatism. This new species has probably been confused with Liolaemus monticola and Liolaemus bellii, both of which do not belong to the nigroviridis group. The taxonomic issues of this group that remain uncertain are also discussed.

  3. A new species of Liolaemus related to L. nigroviridis from the Andean highlands of Central Chile (Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Elorza, Alvaro A.; Puas, German I.; Alfaro-Pardo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Liolaemus nigroviridis group is a clade of highland lizards endemic to Chile. These species are distributed from northern to central Chile, and currently there are no cases of sympatric distribution. This study describes a new species, Liolaemus uniformis sp. n., from this group, and provides a detailed morphological characterization and mitochondrial phylogeny using cytochrome-b. Liolaemus uniformis was found in sympatry with Liolaemus nigroviridis but noticeably differed in size, scalation, and markedly in the color pattern, without sexual dichromatism. This new species has probably been confused with Liolaemus monticola and Liolaemus bellii, both of which do not belong to the nigroviridis group. The taxonomic issues of this group that remain uncertain are also discussed. PMID:26877688

  4. Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?

    ScienceCinema

    Ellis, John [CERN

    2016-07-12

    The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

  5. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  6. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Ziyad; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Dembinski, Rolf; Reckort, Sven; Grieb, Gerrit; Kauczok, Jens; Pallua, Norbert

    2012-05-14

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

  7. Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses."

  8. Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

  9. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  10. Chiropractic care and public health: answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?

  11. Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID

  12. Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of extra time as a test accommodation for transitioning adolescents with learning disabilities: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Noel; Nelson, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    The accommodation of students with learning disabilities (LD) on mandatory high stakes tests continues to heighten concern over the equity and effectiveness of current practices. As students transition from high school, they are required to complete timed graduation tests and postsecondary entrance examinations. The most common accommodation accessed by transitioning adolescents with LD is extended time. In order to inform test accommodation practices, a meta-analysis was conducted to address whether test scores from accommodated (i.e., extended time only) and standard test administrations are comparable for transitioning adolescents with LD as compared to their normally achieving peers. The results of the meta-analyses raised more questions than answers and highlighted the need for future research in this area.

  13. Corrosion at the head-neck interface of current designs of modular femoral components: essential questions and answers relating to corrosion in modular head-neck junctions.

    PubMed

    Osman, K; Panagiotidou, A P; Khan, M; Blunn, G; Haddad, F S

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing global awareness of adverse reactions to metal debris and elevated serum metal ion concentrations following the use of second generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The high incidence of these complications can be largely attributed to corrosion at the head-neck interface. Severe corrosion of the taper is identified most commonly in association with larger diameter femoral heads. However, there is emerging evidence of varying levels of corrosion observed in retrieved components with smaller diameter femoral heads. This same mechanism of galvanic and mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion has been observed in metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic components, suggesting an inherent biomechanical problem with current designs of the head-neck interface. We provide a review of the fundamental questions and answers clinicians and researchers must understand regarding corrosion of the taper, and its relevance to current orthopaedic practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:579-84.

  14. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on the M4 Common Technical Document--Quality: Questions and Answers/Location Issues; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2004-06-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "M4: The CTD--Quality: Questions and Answers/Location Issues." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). This guidance provides further clarification for preparing the quality components of an application file in the common technical document (CTD) format. The guidance addresses the relationship between linked sections for certain parameters (such as polymorphism and particle size), and it addresses location issues (by indicating the section in which to place requested information). The guidance is intended to ease the preparation of paper and electronic submissions, facilitate regulatory reviews, and simplify the exchange of regulatory information among regulatory authorities.

  15. Questions and Answers about Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... further understanding about the skin barrier and the microbiome of the skin could enhance understanding of the ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) Information Clearinghouse National Institutes of Health 1 ...

  16. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and ... A virus is spread by getting infected fecal matter into a person’s mouth who has never had ...

  17. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... approve it. Creating a drug costs lots of money. Since generic drug makers do not develop a drug from scratch, ... versions. The ANDA process does not require the drug sponsor to repeat costly animal and clinical research on ingredients or dosage forms already approved for ...

  18. NIMH Answers Questions about Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... thoughts and behaviors are: Depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders Substance abuse disorder Chronic pain Prior suicide attempt Family history of suicide Family violence, including physical or sexual abuse Firearms in the ...

  19. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... their parents anyway . A. Studies have shown that parents have a significant influence on youth decisions about alcohol consumption. Around 80% ... say in whether they drink alcohol, and a parent’s attitudes about alcohol use continue to influence drinking decisions even after a teen has left ...

  20. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms of psychosis include delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that others do not ... person begins to experience psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized speech. The goal is to ...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Activities Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Strategies and Plans Related CDC Education Programs Global Activities Measuring Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Tracking Antibiotic-Resistant ...

  2. Answering Questions about Complex Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    STRIPS: Fikes and Nilsson 1971) to work in probabilistic models of planning, events and causality ( Astrom 1965; Pearl 2001), employing many... Astrom , K. J. (1965). "Optimal control of Markov decision processes with incomplete state estimation." J1 Math1 Anal1 Applic. 10: 174-205. Barker, K

  3. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's "at-risk" or "heavy" drinking? What's the harm? What are the risks? What are symptoms of ... use disorder. The higher alcohol levels can also harm the liver, heart, and brain without the person ...

  4. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are there different types of primary bone cancer? Yes. Cancer can begin in any type of bone tissue. Bones are made up ... follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve? Yes. Bone cancer ... and should report any unusual symptoms right away. Follow-up varies for ...

  5. Donating Blood Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the future. In December 1998, a re-entry algorithm for anti-HBc was discussed at FDA's Blood ... to FDA, did not recommend the re-entry algorithm at that time. Individuals can be perfectly healthy, ...

  6. Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have taken Mifeprex? All providers of medical abortion and emergency room healthcare practitioners should investigate the ... of sepsis in women who are undergoing medical abortion and present with nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea and ...

  7. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Information Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ...

  8. Answering the Reading Level Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Gerald P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To explain reading level clearly to parents of learning disabled children, teachers must focus on two broad areas: the differences between standardized tests, and the occasional mismatch between sequence of instruction and the test items, per se. (CL)

  9. Egg Ambassadors: Answering Consumer Questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the gr...

  10. Investigations of Human Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Aiello, & Miller, 1975; Graesser & Black, 1985; Graesser & Golding, 1988; Norman, 1973; Norman & Rumelhart, 1975; Piaget , 1952; Shanon, 1983; Trabasso...Rumelhart, D. E. (1975). Explorations in cognition. San Francisco: Freeman. Piaget , J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York...California 5825 Callaghan, Suite 225 Santa Barbara, CA 93106 San Antonio, TX 78228 Dr. Ralph Dusek Dr. Jean -Claude Falmagne V-P Human Factors Irvine

  11. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  12. Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

  13. Toward probabilistic answers to key scientific questions in source modeling: Bayesian explorations of fault slip and coupling over the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Romain; Duputel, Zacharie; Simons, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data sampling ground displacements over tectonically deforming regions continuously opens new perspectives on fundamental questions on the seismogenic behavior of active faults. How much overlap is inferred between seismic and aseismic slip from geodetic and seismological data? Can we quantify the robustness of potential relationships between fault locking, aseismic slip and coseismic slip? However, knowing how much information we have gained compared to our preconceptions and which parameters of our models still need inputs from additional data is difficult to assess and very rarely quantified because of the size of the problems we are dealing with. We have developed AlTar, a massively parallel Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm exploiting cutting-edge computing capabilities of Graphic Processing Units, to sample Probability Density Functions (PDFs) in large-dimensional spaces. We use this solver to derive the PDFs of fault coupling and fault slip, seismic or aseismic, along active faults, focusing on the creeping section of the San Andreas fault, California, and on the northern Chilean subduction zone. We derive the gain of information from our coseismic and interseismic data sets and interrogate these probabilities to derive quantified answers to questions pertaining to the behavior of these faults during the earthquake cycle. Large amounts of data are an opportunity and we need to assess how much we still don't know about distributions of slip during the inter-, co- and post-seismic phases in order to assess where progress has to be made for future data developments.

  14. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

    2010-07-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

  15. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  16. Relationship between VacA Toxin and Host Cell Autophagy in Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Human Stomach: A Few Answers, Many Questions

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half the global population and represents the greatest risk factor for gastric malignancy. The relevance of H. pylori for gastric cancer development is equivalent to that of tobacco smoking for lung cancer. VacA toxin seems to play a pivotal role in the overall strategy of H. pylori towards achieving persistent gastric colonization. This strategy appears to involve the modulation of host cell autophagy. After an overview of autophagy and its role in infection and carcinogenesis, I critically review current knowledge about the action of VacA on host cell autophagy during H. pylori infection of the human stomach. Although VacA is a key player in modulation of H. pylori-induced autophagy, a few discrepancies in the data are also evident and many questions remain to be answered. We are thus still far from a definitive understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which VacA affects autophagy and the consequences of this toxin action on the overall pathogenic activity of H. pylori. PMID:27376331

  17. MIS 5e sea level: up to what point can we use literature reviews to answer the most pressing questions on the Last Interglacial ice sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    During MIS 5e (between ~128 and 116 kyr BP) greenhouse gas concentrations were comparable to pre-industrial levels, summer insolation was higher by ~10% at high latitudes and polar temperatures in both hemispheres were about 3-5 °C warmer than today. Sea level (SL) at this time has been a subject of numerous studies (and some debate) with ~1000 sites with MIS 5e sea level markers recognized worldwide. Recently, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009) and Dutton & Lambeck (Science, 2012) analyzed worldwide datasets of sea level markers pertaining to the last interglacial. After accounting for GIA, they reached similar conclusions that eustatic (i.e., globally averaged) sea level (ESL) was between +5 and +9.4 m above modern during MIS 5e. Furthermore, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009; GJI, 2013) suggest that sea level was not uniform during the LIG, but instead underwent at least two rapid oscillations including a rapid late 5e rise first proposed by Hearty et al. (QSR, 2007) and later by O'Leary et al. (Nat. Geo., 2013). Investigating the temporal and geographic variability of MIS 5e sea level opens new lines of research, in particular the possibility to fingerprint (Hay et al., QSR, 2014) the source of the proposed rapid ice sheet collapse near the end of the Last Interglacial. In this presentation we ask: can we use a database of published sea level estimates for this purpose? To answer this question, we built a relative sea level (RSL) database using RSLcalc 2.0; this is a relational database specifically designed to review relative sea level data points while keeping all the relevant information contained in the original publications. RSlcalc allows to estimate the measurement error (on the actual elevation of the SL feature), the error on the indicative range (the elevation range occupied by a sea level indicator) as well as the reference water level (the relationship between the marker and the former sea level). We show that the majority of published data have an accuracy of few

  18. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    PubMed

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-21

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit.

  19. "I Never Thought of It as Freezing": How Students Answer Questions on Large-Scale Science Tests and What They Know about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Tracy; Suarez, Catherine; Rosebery, Ann; O'Connor, Mary Catherine; Warren, Beth; Hudicourt-Barnes, Josiane

    2012-01-01

    Education policy in the U.S. in the last two decades has emphasized large-scale assessment of students, with growing consequences for schools, teachers, and students. Given the high stakes of such tests, it is important to understand the relationships between students' answers to test items and their knowledge and skills in the tested content…

  20. Finding the Patient’s Voice Using Big Data: Analysis of Users’ Health-Related Concerns in the ChaCha Question-and-Answer Service (2009–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, Amelia; Groves, Doyle; Carpenter, Janet S; Furrey, Christopher; Krishnan, Anand; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L; Palakal, Mathew; Wiehe, Sarah; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of effective health care and public health interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Big datasets from social media and question-and-answer services provide insight into the public’s health concerns and priorities without the financial, temporal, and spatial encumbrances of more traditional community-engagement methods and may prove a useful starting point for public-engagement health research (infodemiology). Objective The objective of our study was to describe user characteristics and health-related queries of the ChaCha question-and-answer platform, and discuss how these data may be used to better understand the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Methods We conducted a retrospective automated textual analysis of anonymous user-generated queries submitted to ChaCha between January 2009 and November 2012. A total of 2.004 billion queries were read, of which 3.50% (70,083,796/2,004,243,249) were missing 1 or more data fields, leaving 1.934 billion complete lines of data for these analyses. Results Males and females submitted roughly equal numbers of health queries, but content differed by sex. Questions from females predominantly focused on pregnancy, menstruation, and vaginal health. Questions from males predominantly focused on body image, drug use, and sexuality. Adolescents aged 12–19 years submitted more queries than any other age group. Their queries were largely centered on sexual and reproductive health, and pregnancy in particular. Conclusions The private nature of the ChaCha service provided a perfect environment for maximum frankness among users, especially among adolescents posing sensitive health questions. Adolescents’ sexual health queries reveal knowledge gaps with serious, lifelong consequences. The nature of questions to the service provides opportunities

  1. Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

  2. Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Frances

    This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

  3. Some questions provoked by a chronic headache (with mixed migraine and cluster headache features) in a woman with a pineal cyst. Answers from a literature review.

    PubMed

    Molina-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Martínez, M C; Vives-Pastor, B

    2010-09-01

    The main known function of the pineal gland in humans is the production of melatonin. Benign cysts of the gland have been related to headache, although the mechanism of production of this assumed clinical manifestation has not been clearly determined, due to the lack of large prospective studies. The question is complicated by the fact that pineal cysts are frequently found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Much has been published about the possible role of benign pineal cysts in the pathophisiology of headaches and the potential of melatonin in headache therapy, as well as in other disorders. The aim of this article is to review the current state of the subject. We have tried to place accurately the relation between headache and pineal cysts based on the available evidence, as well as the actual role of melatonin in physiology and pharmacology, more specifically in headache therapy. We include a clinical case to illustrate the subject.

  4. Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos E.

    2009-09-01

    According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

  5. Chemistry of Titan s aerosols : what do we know about them compared to 1995? With which questions will have to answer Cassini-Huygens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, P.; Ramirez, S.; Bernard, J.; Gazeau, M.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Raulin, F.

    Since the discovery of the dense layers of aerosols which hide the surface of Titan, no direct information on thes e aerosols available. In 1995 we thought that they had a fractal structure, that they quickly lost their absorbing properties between UV and IR, that they were insoluble in hydrocarbons and that their percentage of atoms of N was 1 to 11 times lower than their number of atoms of C. Since 1995 many experiments in laboratory made it possible to characterize analogues of these aerosols, and to better understand their possible interactions in the stratosphere and the troposphere of Titan. We will discuss these data and key questions that some instruments of the Cassini-Huygnes mission will have to solve starting in 2004.

  6. Mystery #5 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... the questions are provided. 1.   There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands. Answer: FALSE. Endemic ... on this island. 6.   Several plant species are endangered due to decimation by goats and competition with non-native ...

  7. Mystery #15 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... referred to as Kamchatka Oblast, defined by its political boundaries within a larger country. Answers to the questions are provided. ... the voyage, Steller identified the now-extinct Steller's sea cow and the spectacled cormorant, and described many other Alaskan species, ...

  8. Double Sampling with Multiple Imputation to Answer Large Sample Meta-Research Questions: Introduction and Illustration by Evaluating Adherence to Two Simple CONSORT Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Capers, Patrice L.; Brown, Andrew W.; Dawson, John A.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meta-research can involve manual retrieval and evaluation of research, which is resource intensive. Creation of high throughput methods (e.g., search heuristics, crowdsourcing) has improved feasibility of large meta-research questions, but possibly at the cost of accuracy. Objective: To evaluate the use of double sampling combined with multiple imputation (DS + MI) to address meta-research questions, using as an example adherence of PubMed entries to two simple consolidated standards of reporting trials guidelines for titles and abstracts. Methods: For the DS large sample, we retrieved all PubMed entries satisfying the filters: RCT, human, abstract available, and English language (n = 322, 107). For the DS subsample, we randomly sampled 500 entries from the large sample. The large sample was evaluated with a lower rigor, higher throughput (RLOTHI) method using search heuristics, while the subsample was evaluated using a higher rigor, lower throughput (RHITLO) human rating method. Multiple imputation of the missing-completely at-random RHITLO data for the large sample was informed by: RHITLO data from the subsample; RLOTHI data from the large sample; whether a study was an RCT; and country and year of publication. Results: The RHITLO and RLOTHI methods in the subsample largely agreed (phi coefficients: title = 1.00, abstract = 0.92). Compliance with abstract and title criteria has increased over time, with non-US countries improving more rapidly. DS + MI logistic regression estimates were more precise than subsample estimates (e.g., 95% CI for change in title and abstract compliance by year: subsample RHITLO 1.050–1.174 vs. DS + MI 1.082–1.151). As evidence of improved accuracy, DS + MI coefficient estimates were closer to RHITLO than the large sample RLOTHI. Conclusion: Our results support our hypothesis that DS + MI would result in improved precision and accuracy. This method is flexible and may provide a practical

  9. A Simple Answer to a Simple Question on Changing Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent

    2012-01-01

    In an article in the Winter 2011 issue of the "Journal of Educational Measurement", van der Linden, Jeon, and Ferrara suggested that "test takers should trust their initial instincts and retain their initial responses when they have the opportunity to review test items." They presented a complex IRT model that appeared to show that students would…

  10. Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Goldberg, Stephen; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. is described from the stomach of Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from San Guillermo National Park, Province of San Juan, Argentina. T. eleodori is most similar to those species lacking spicules, T. cnemidophorus, T. fitsimonsi, T. parkeri, T. schukurovi, and T. smogorzhewskii. T. eleodori is separated from these species based on the papilla pattern. T. eleodori has 12 pedunculate papillae and 14 sessile papillae, T. smogorzhewskii lacks pedunculate papillae, T. fitsimonsi and T. parkeri lack sessile papillae, and T. cnemidophorus has14-16 pedunculate papillae and 12 sessile papillae. T. eleodori represents the first member of the genus to be reported from Argentina.

  11. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular…

  12. National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... take into account specific biases that affect its measurement. These biases are lead-time, length, and overdiagnosis ... that it may never cause death. Case survival measurements cannot adjust for lead-time, length, and overdiagnosis ...

  13. Childhood Vaccines: Tough Questions, Straight Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious or potentially fatal diseases, including diphtheria, measles, polio and whooping cough (pertussis). If these diseases seem ... varicella) infection could lead to pneumonia. A natural polio infection could cause permanent paralysis. A natural mumps ...

  14. When the Answer Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battreal, Vanessa M.; Brewster, Vanessa; Dixon, Juli K.

    2016-01-01

    After teaching the concept of division with remainders for many years, Vanessa Battreal, Vanessa Brewster, and Juli Dixon noticed that interpreting remainders in contextualized problems is particularly challenging for elementary school students. To effectively interpret remainders, students must attend to problem context and consider carefully…

  15. Questions and Answers: Information for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes that school administrators, teachers, staff, and parents are concerned about the flu, particularly its effects on children. Schools are instrumental in keeping their communities healthy by taking actions such as posting information about hand hygiene in restrooms, providing flu…

  16. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their own bodies. They notice the differences between boys and girls and are naturally curious. Toddlers often will touch ... what age should girls be told about menstruation? Girls (and boys!) should have information about menstruation by about age ...

  17. Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... OTC) to prevent or treat diseases. Companies are marketing unapproved OTC chelation therapy products to patients with ... 4. Why did FDA take this action? Companies marketing unapproved OTC chelation products with unsubstantiated treatment claims ...

  18. Strategy-Selection in Question-Answering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-03

    Department, Office of Naval Research Naval Postgraduate School Office, London Monterey, CA 93940 Box 39 FPO New York, NY 09510 Dr. Steven Pinker Department...AFHRL Dr. Steven E. Poltrock Brooks AFB, TX 78235 MCC 9430 Research Blvd. Dr. Douglas Pearse Echelon Bldg #1 DCIEM Austin, TX 78759-6509 Box 2000...CT 06520 Washington, DC 20208 Dr. Albert Stevens Dr. Lee Shulman Bolt Beranek & Newman, Inc. Stanford University 10 Moulton St. 1040 Cathcart Way

  19. Questions and Answers About Shoulder Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dislocation using a traditional open surgery approach. Separation A shoulder separation occurs where the collarbone (clavicle) meets the shoulder ... acromioclavicular or AC joint) are signs that a separation may have occurred. Diagnosis. Doctors may diagnose a ...

  20. Finding Answers to Questions about School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the California School Finance (CASF) Web site, which explains the complexities of school funding in California. The Web site, www.californiaschoolfinance.org, was developed by EdSource, an organization that has been trusted in California for 30 years to explain school finance in simple, jargon-free language. The CASF site…

  1. Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    In one of those interesting intersections of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the University of Florida (UF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have joined together to try to pin down an elusive particle. This particle, called the axion, if it is found to exist and is not just a hypothesis, would be a long-sought relic from the first fractional second of the birth of the universe and one of the most weakly interacting particles known. Experimental verification of the existence of the axion would not only help ''balance the budget'' for the missing mass of the universe but also clear up one of the thorniest issues in particle physics.

  2. Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Smallpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes Governance About WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский ... Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects Governance About WHO Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment ...

  3. Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.C Estée Lauder Amplified Creme d Show Orchid AC9 2.08 48 Estée Lauder Prescriptives Estée ... 231 Maybelline L'Oréal USA Moisture Extreme A55 Orchid Frost WC3491 0.76 232 Cover Girl Queen ...

  4. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... External Link Disclaimer NKDEP Health Topics A-Z Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. March 1, 2012 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  5. Questions and Answers about Carotid Endarterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... other material inside the artery walls is called atherosclerosis, popularly known as "hardening of the arteries." The ... more informed decisions. In another trial (Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study, or ACAS), the procedure has also been ...

  6. Questions and Answers about Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... de fácil lectura) Other Information Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue, Q&A Order a NIAMS publication to be ... syndrome is a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. The primary purpose of connective tissue is to ...

  7. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: More questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Daxinger, Lucia; Whitelaw, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are widely accepted as playing a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and thereby contributing to the determination of the phenotype of multicellular organisms. In general, these marks are cleared and re-established each generation, but there have been reports in a number of model organisms that at some loci in the genome this clearing is incomplete. This phenomenon is referred to as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Moreover, recent evidence shows that the environment can stably influence the establishment of the epigenome. Together, these findings suggest that an environmental event in one generation could affect the phenotype in subsequent generations, and these somewhat Lamarckian ideas are stimulating interest from a broad spectrum of biologists, from ecologists to health workers. PMID:21041414

  8. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    having all been established in the 20th century . They were organized under Congress’s constitutional authority “to raise and support Armies” and “to...beneficiary, towards basic dental care procedures including diagnostic, preventive and some restorative services, as well as some oral surgery and

  9. [Lithiasis of the tonsil. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Bourdon, A J; Vermeulin, G; Beudez, C; Atassi, R; Abbar, H; Lemasson, P; Cikurel, M; Heran, J; Le-Quang, V; Roussy, M

    1994-01-01

    Imaging, clinical and frequency of the tonsil's calculi in function of the size of the calculi: inframillimetric calculi much frequent, not visible by imaging; small calculi from 1 to 7 mm frequent, visible by the imaging and much often asymptomatic; big ones superior of 7 mm rare, becoming exceptional and much often symptomatic above 15 mm.

  10. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-24

    Medicare-eligible retirees. Other TRICARE plans include TRICARE Young Adult , TRICARE Reserve Select and TRICARE Retired Reserve. TRICARE also...8 TRICARE Young Adult ...24 Does DOD Use Animals in Medical Research or Training ? ............................................. 24 Figures Figure

  11. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  12. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  13. Answering Consumer Questions: Opportunity for Impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the g...

  14. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of extreme cold produced by liquid nitrogen (or argon gas) to destroy abnormal tissue . Cryosurgery is used ... the bone). For internal tumors, liquid nitrogen or argon gas is circulated through a hollow instrument called ...

  15. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-18

    restorative services, as well as some oral surgery and emergency services. There is also a benefit for orthodontic services, which has a lifetime cap of...in time of war or national emergency , and at such other times as the national security may require, to fill the needs of the armed forces whenever...forces, in time of war or national emergency , and at such other times as the national security may require, to fill the needs of the armed forces

  16. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread of vector-borne diseases Mosquito surveillance and control What role does mosquito surveillance play in addressing ... in Aedes mosquito populations What role does mosquito control play in addressing Zika virus? Mosquito control is ...

  17. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... off the skin and fairly stiff to the touch. Reaching a peak after several months, the scar ... have received your message and will be in touch as soon as possible. Cleft Connection An Interview ...

  18. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    peppering each lift. Each lift revealed the same nineteen transverse pencil lines. These were the designer’s indexes repeated on each lift. Each lift repre...4, Polland Papers. Shows Polland conversion of spar deck to a gun deck. 34. Sloop of War Cyane and Levant. May 7 1836. Scale: 1" =6’. RG-19, E-126, 41...3-20B, NARA. Design draft noting changes to be made and proving the lines. 35. Sloop of War Cyane May 7th 1836. Scale: 5/16" = 1’. RG-19. E-126, 41-3

  19. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child learns to use them in a direct manner, without embarrassment. In fact, this is what ... to interrupt the play. You may wish to direct your child's attention to another activity without making ...

  20. Response to Intervention: Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti, David M.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; McAuley, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of the Problem-solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) framework will help educators address students' diverse learning and behavioral needs. It will also help educators who may view PS/RtI as a compliance matter rather than an informative educational process that helps children reach their goals.…