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Sample records for lipid binding site

  1. Brominated lipids identify lipid binding sites on the surface of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Aleksander W; Gardiner, Alastair T; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2007-03-20

    This study describes the use of brominated phospholipids to distinguish between lipid and detergent binding sites on the surface of a typical alpha-helical membrane protein. Reaction centers isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides were cocrystallized with added brominated phospholipids. X-ray structural analysis of these crystals has revealed the presence of two lipid binding sites from the characteristic strong X-ray scattering from the bromine atoms. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this approach to mapping lipid binding sites at the surface of membrane proteins.

  2. Lipid binding to the carotenoid binding site in photosynthetic reaction centers.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sasmit S; Tang, Kai; Kálmán, László

    2011-10-12

    Lipid binding to the carotenoid binding site near the inactive bacteriochlorophyll monomer was probed in the reaction centers of carotenoid-less mutant, R-26 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Recently, a marked light-induced change of the local dielectric constant in the vicinity of the inactive bacteriochlorophyll monomer was reported in wild type that was attributed to structural changes that ultimately lengthened the lifetime of the charge-separated state by 3 orders of magnitude (Deshmukh, S. S.; Williams, J. C.; Allen, J. P.; Kalman, L. Biochemistry 2011, 50, 340). Here in the R-26 reaction centers, the combination of light-induced structural changes and lipid binding resulted in a 5 orders of magnitude increase in the lifetime of the charge-separated state involving the oxidized dimer and the reduced primary quinone in proteoliposomes. Only saturated phospholipids with fatty acid chains of 12 and 14 carbon atoms long were bound successfully at 8 °C by cooling the reaction center protein slowly from room temperature. In addition to reporting a dramatic increase of the lifetime of the charge-separated state at physiologically relevant temperatures, this study reveals a novel lipid binding site in photosynthetic reaction center. These results shed light on a new potential application of the reaction center in energy storage as a light-driven biocapacitor since the charges separated by ∼30 Å in a low-dielectric medium can be prevented from recombination for hours.

  3. Free Energy Landscape of Lipid Interactions with Regulatory Binding Sites on the Transmembrane Domain of the EGF Receptor.

    PubMed

    Hedger, George; Shorthouse, David; Koldsø, Heidi; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-08-25

    Lipid molecules can bind to specific sites on integral membrane proteins, modulating their structure and function. We have undertaken coarse-grained simulations to calculate free energy profiles for glycolipids and phospholipids interacting with modulatory sites on the transmembrane helix dimer of the EGF receptor within a lipid bilayer environment. We identify lipid interaction sites at each end of the transmembrane domain and compute interaction free energy profiles for lipids with these sites. Interaction free energies ranged from ca. -40 to -4 kJ/mol for different lipid species. Those lipids (glycolipid GM3 and phosphoinositide PIP2) known to modulate EGFR function exhibit the strongest binding to interaction sites on the EGFR, and we are able to reproduce the preference for interaction with GM3 over other glycolipids suggested by experiment. Mutation of amino acid residues essential for EGFR function reduce the binding free energy of these key lipid species. The residues interacting with the lipids in the simulations are in agreement with those suggested by experimental (mutational) studies. This approach provides a generalizable tool for characterizing the interactions of lipids that bind to specific sites on integral membrane proteins.

  4. Free Energy Landscape of Lipid Interactions with Regulatory Binding Sites on the Transmembrane Domain of the EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid molecules can bind to specific sites on integral membrane proteins, modulating their structure and function. We have undertaken coarse-grained simulations to calculate free energy profiles for glycolipids and phospholipids interacting with modulatory sites on the transmembrane helix dimer of the EGF receptor within a lipid bilayer environment. We identify lipid interaction sites at each end of the transmembrane domain and compute interaction free energy profiles for lipids with these sites. Interaction free energies ranged from ca. −40 to −4 kJ/mol for different lipid species. Those lipids (glycolipid GM3 and phosphoinositide PIP2) known to modulate EGFR function exhibit the strongest binding to interaction sites on the EGFR, and we are able to reproduce the preference for interaction with GM3 over other glycolipids suggested by experiment. Mutation of amino acid residues essential for EGFR function reduce the binding free energy of these key lipid species. The residues interacting with the lipids in the simulations are in agreement with those suggested by experimental (mutational) studies. This approach provides a generalizable tool for characterizing the interactions of lipids that bind to specific sites on integral membrane proteins. PMID:27109430

  5. Arylfluorosulfates Inactivate Intracellular Lipid Binding Protein(s) through Chemoselective SuFEx Reaction with a Binding Site Tyr Residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wentao; Dong, Jiajia; Plate, Lars; Mortenson, David E; Brighty, Gabriel J; Li, Suhua; Liu, Yu; Galmozzi, Andrea; Lee, Peter S; Hulce, Jonathan J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Saez, Enrique; Powers, Evan T; Wilson, Ian A; Sharpless, K Barry; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2016-06-15

    Arylfluorosulfates have appeared only rarely in the literature and have not been explored as probes for covalent conjugation to proteins, possibly because they were assumed to possess high reactivity, as with other sulfur(VI) halides. However, we find that arylfluorosulfates become reactive only under certain circumstances, e.g., when fluoride displacement by a nucleophile is facilitated. Herein, we explore the reactivity of structurally simple arylfluorosulfates toward the proteome of human cells. We demonstrate that the protein reactivity of arylfluorosulfates is lower than that of the corresponding aryl sulfonyl fluorides, which are better characterized with regard to proteome reactivity. We discovered that simple hydrophobic arylfluorosulfates selectively react with a few members of the intracellular lipid binding protein (iLBP) family. A central function of iLBPs is to deliver small-molecule ligands to nuclear hormone receptors. Arylfluorosulfate probe 1 reacts with a conserved tyrosine residue in the ligand-binding site of a subset of iLBPs. Arylfluorosulfate probes 3 and 4, featuring a biphenyl core, very selectively and efficiently modify cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2), both in vitro and in living cells. The X-ray crystal structure of the CRABP2-4 conjugate, when considered together with binding site mutagenesis experiments, provides insight into how CRABP2 might activate arylfluorosulfates toward site-specific reaction. Treatment of breast cancer cells with probe 4 attenuates nuclear hormone receptor activity mediated by retinoic acid, an endogenous client lipid of CRABP2. Our findings demonstrate that arylfluorosulfates can selectively target single iLBPs, making them useful for understanding iLBP function. PMID:27191344

  6. The interfacial lipid binding site on the potassium channel KcsA is specific for anionic phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Marius, Phedra; Alvis, Simon J; East, J Malcolm; Lee, Anthony G

    2005-12-01

    Lipid binding to the potassium channel KcsA from Streptomyces lividans has been studied using quenching of the fluorescence of Trp residues by brominated phospholipids. It is shown that binding of phospholipids to nonannular lipid binding sites on KcsA, located one each at the four protein-protein interfaces in the tetrameric structure, is specific for anionic phospholipids, zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine being unable to bind at the sites. The binding constant for phosphatidylglycerol of 3.0 +/- 0.7 mol fraction(-1) means that in a membrane containing approximately 20 mol% phosphatidylglycerol, as in the Escherichia coli inner membrane, the nonannular sites will be approximately 37% occupied by phosphatidylglycerol. The binding constant for phosphatidic acid is similar to that for phosphatidylglycerol but binding constants for phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin are about double those for phosphatidylglycerol. Binding to annular sites around the circumference of the KcsA tetramer are different on the extracellular and intracellular faces of the membrane. On the extracellular face of the membrane the binding constants for anionic lipids are similar to those for phosphatidylcholine, the lack of specificity being consistent with the lack of any marked clusters of charged residues on KcsA close to the membrane on the extracellular side. In contrast, binding to annular sites on the intracellular side of the membrane shows a distinct structural specificity, with binding of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylglycerol being stronger than binding of phosphatidylcholine, whereas binding constants for phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin are similar to that for phosphatidylcholine. It is suggested that this pattern of binding follows from the pattern of charge distribution on KcsA on the intracellular side of the membrane. PMID:16199503

  7. Probing the interaction of lipids with the non-annular binding sites of the potassium channel KcsA by magic-angle spinning NMR

    PubMed Central

    Marius, Phedra; de Planque, Maurits R.R.; Williamson, Philip T.F.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the potassium channel KcsA is tightly regulated through the interactions of anionic lipids with high-affinity non-annular lipid binding sites located at the interface between the channel's subunits. Here we present solid-state phosphorous NMR studies that resolve the negatively charged lipid phosphatidylglycerol within the non-annular lipid-binding site. Perturbations in chemical shift observed upon the binding of phosphatidylglycerol are indicative of the interaction of positively charged sidechains within the non-annular binding site and the negatively charged lipid headgroup. Site directed mutagenesis studies have attributed these charge interactions to R64 and R89. Functionally the removal of the positive charges from R64 and R89 appears to act synergistically to reduce the probability of channel opening. PMID:21963409

  8. Key Amino Acid Residues of Ankyrin-Sensitive Phosphatidylethanolamine/Phosphatidylcholine-Lipid Binding Site of βI-Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Wolny, Marcin; Grzybek, Michał; Bok, Ewa; Chorzalska, Anna; Lenoir, Marc; Czogalla, Aleksander; Adamczyk, Klaudia; Kolondra, Adam; Diakowski, Witold; Overduin, Michael; Sikorski, Aleksander F.

    2011-01-01

    It was shown previously that an ankyrin-sensitive, phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylcholine (PE/PC) binding site maps to the N-terminal part of the ankyrin-binding domain of β-spectrin (ankBDn). Here we have identified the amino acid residues within this domain which are responsible for recognizing monolayers and bilayers composed of PE/PC mixtures. In vitro binding studies revealed that a quadruple mutant with substituted hydrophobic residues W1771, L1775, M1778 and W1779 not only failed to effectively bind PE/PC, but its residual PE/PC-binding activity was insensitive to inhibition with ankyrin. Structure prediction and analysis, supported by in vitro experiments, suggests that “opening” of the coiled-coil structure underlies the mechanism of this interaction. Experiments on red blood cells and HeLa cells supported the conclusions derived from the model and in vitro lipid-protein interaction results, and showed the potential physiological role of this binding. We postulate that direct interactions between spectrin ankBDn and PE-rich domains play an important role in stabilizing the structure of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton. PMID:21738695

  9. Proposed carrier lipid-binding site of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Yang; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Hsu, Min-Feng; Wang, Andrew H J

    2014-07-01

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP), an integral membrane protein, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate to undecaprenyl phosphate, which is an essential carrier lipid in the bacterial cell wall synthesis. Sequence alignment reveals two consensus regions, containing glutamate-rich (E/Q)XXXE plus PGXSRSXXT motifs and a histidine residue, specific to the bacterial UppP enzymes. The predicted topological model suggests that both of these regions are localized near the aqueous interface of UppP and face the periplasm, implicating that its enzymatic function is on the outer side of the plasma membrane. The mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that most of the mutations (E17A/E21A, H30A, S173A, R174A, and T178A) within the consensus regions are completely inactive, indicating that the catalytic site of UppP is constituted by these two regions. Enzymatic analysis also shows an absolute requirement of magnesium or calcium ions in enzyme activity. The three-dimensional structural model and molecular dynamics simulation studies have shown a plausible structure of the catalytic site of UppP and thus provides insights into the molecular basis of the enzyme-substrate interaction in membrane bilayers. PMID:24855653

  10. NMR structure of rALF-Pm3, an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from shrimp: model of the possible lipid A-binding site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinshan; Boze, Hélène; Chemardin, Patrick; Padilla, André; Moulin, Guy; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Pugnière, Martine; Roquet, Françoise; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne; Aumelas, André

    2009-03-01

    The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF-Pm3 is a 98-residue protein identified in hemocytes from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. It was expressed in Pichia pastoris from the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter as a folded and (15)N uniformly labeled rALF-Pm3 protein. Its 3D structure was established by NMR and consists of three alpha-helices packed against a four-stranded beta-sheet. The C(34)-C(55) disulfide bond was shown to be essential for the structure stability. By using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that rALF-Pm3 binds to LPS, lipid A and to OM-174, a soluble analogue of lipid A. Biophysical studies of rALF-Pm3/LPS and rALF-Pm3/OM-174 complexes indicated rather high molecular sized aggregates, which prevented us to experimentally determine by NMR the binding mode of these lipids to rALF-Pm3. However, on the basis of striking structural similarities to the FhuA/LPS complex, we designed an original model of the possible lipid A-binding site of ALF-Pm3. Such a binding site, located on the ALF-Pm3 beta-sheet and involving seven charged residues, is well conserved in ALF-L from Limulus polyphemus and in ALF-T from Tachypleus tridentatus. In addition, our model is in agreement with experiments showing that beta-hairpin synthetic peptides corresponding to ALF-L beta-sheet bind to LPS. Delineating lipid A-binding site of ALFs will help go further in the de novo design of new antibacterial or LPS-neutralizing drugs. PMID:19107926

  11. Crystal Structure of Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), a Putative Membrane-Bound Lipid Phosphatase, Reveals a Novel Binuclear Metal Binding Site and Two Proton Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran,D.; Bonnano, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, catalyzes formation of phosphatidylglycerol from phosphatidylglycerophosphate. Phosphatidylglycerol is a multifunctional phospholipid, found in the biological membranes of many organisms. Here, we report the crystal structure of Listeria monocytogenes PGPase at 1.8 Angstroms resolution. PGPase, an all-helical molecule, forms a homotetramer. Each protomer contains an independent active site with two metal ions, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, forming a hetero-binuclear center located in a hydrophilic cavity near the surface of the molecule. The binuclear center, conserved ligands, metal-bound water molecules, and an Asp-His dyad form the active site. The catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is likely to proceed via binuclear metal activated nucleophilic water. The binuclear metal-binding active-site environment of this structure should provide insights into substrate binding and metal-dependent catalysis. A long channel with inter-linked linear water chains, termed 'proton wires', is observed at the tetramer interface. Comparison of similar water chain structures in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), Cytochrome f, gramicidin, and bacteriorhodopsin, suggests that PGPase may conduct protons via proton wires.

  12. The structure of the yeast NADH dehydrogenase (Ndi1) reveals overlapping binding sites for water- and lipid-soluble substrates.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Momi; Lee, Yang; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Yagi, Takao; Iwata, So; Cameron, Alexander D; Maher, Megan J

    2012-09-18

    Bioenergy is efficiently produced in the mitochondria by the respiratory system consisting of complexes I-V. In various organisms, complex I can be replaced by the alternative NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2), which catalyzes the transfer of an electron from NADH via FAD to quinone, without proton pumping. The Ndi1 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a monotopic membrane protein, directed to the matrix. A number of studies have investigated the potential use of Ndi1 as a therapeutic agent against complex I disorders, and the NDH-2 enzymes have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for treatments against the causative agents of malaria and tuberculosis. Here we present the crystal structures of Ndi1 in its substrate-free, NAD(+)- and ubiquinone- (UQ2) complexed states. The structures reveal that Ndi1 is a peripheral membrane protein forming an intimate dimer, in which packing of the monomeric units within the dimer creates an amphiphilic membrane-anchor domain structure. Crucially, the structures of the Ndi1-NAD(+) and Ndi1-UQ2 complexes show overlapping binding sites for the NAD(+) and quinone substrates.

  13. Calmodulin binds to maize lipid transfer protein and modulates its lipids binding ability.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuifeng; Xie, Wanqin; Bai, Wenyan; Li, Zhenpeng; Zhao, Yulong; Liu, Hua

    2008-11-01

    Although plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTPs) are characterized by their ability to bind and transfer a broad range of hydrophobic ligands in vitro, their biological functions in vivo remain unclear. Recently, it has been proposed that ns-LTPs may play a key role in plant defense mechanisms, particularly during the induction of systemic acquired resistance, however, very little is known about the regulation in this process. We report that the binding of maize non-specific lipid transfer protein (Zm-LTP) to calmodulin (CaM) is in a calcium-independent manner. To better understand the interaction mechanism between Zm-LTP and CaM, the CaM-binding site of Zm-LTP was mapped to the region of amino acids 46-60. Point mutations indicate that four amino acid residues, R46, R47, K54 and R58, in this region are crucial for binding. Furthermore, we tested the effects of CaM on the lipid-binding activity of Zm-LTP in the presence of Ca(2+), EGTA, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide and trifluoperazine respectively. We also investigated the structural features of CaM-binding motifs in LTPs from different species and strong differences were observed. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction with CaM could be a common feature of plant LTPs. The identification and characterization of CaM-binding domain of LTPs should provide new insights into the mechanism by which the physiological functions of LTPs are regulated.

  14. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    TWO MAIN FAMILIES OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED IN PARASITIC PLATYHELMINTHES: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  15. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  16. A twoferase for lipid transfer at ER-golgi contact sites.

    PubMed

    Levine, Tim P

    2013-11-25

    Reporting in Cell, Mesmin et al. (2013) show how a single molecule of oxysterol binding protein, which has a lipid binding domain that solubilizes both sterol and PI4P, might integrate its two specificities to drive the two lipids in opposite directions across endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi membrane contact sites.

  17. Spastin binds to lipid droplets and affects lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Chrisovalantis; Orso, Genny; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Herholz, Marija; Gumeni, Sentiljana; Tadepalle, Nimesha; Jüngst, Christian; Tzschichholz, Anne; Schauss, Astrid; Höning, Stefan; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Daga, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT)-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87). We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs). A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP.

  18. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  19. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  20. Binding sites associated with inhibition of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of experimental and theoretical evidence has been integrated into coherent molecular mechanisms for the action of photosystem II herbicides. Photosystem II herbicides act by inhibiting electron transfers between the first and second plastoquinones on the reducing side of photosystem II. Each herbicide molecule must have a flat polar component with hydrophobic substituents to be active. The hydrophobic substituents serve to partition the molecule into lipid regions of the cell and to fit the hydrophobic region of the herbicide binding site. The flat polar portion of the herbicide is used for electrostatic binding to the polar region of the herbicide binding site. Theoretical calculations have been carried out to investigate the binding of herbicides to model proteinaceous binding sites.

  1. Fluorescence analysis of the lipid binding-induced conformational change of apolipoprotein E4.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Hata, Mami; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Nickel, Margaret; Phillips, Michael C; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-17

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E is thought to undergo conformational changes in the N-terminal helix bundle domain upon lipid binding, modulating its receptor binding activity. In this study, site-specific fluorescence labeling of the N-terminal (S94) and C-terminal (W264 or S290) helices in apoE4 by pyrene maleimide or acrylodan was employed to probe the conformational organization and lipid binding behavior of the N- and C-terminal domains. Guanidine denaturation experiments monitored by acrylodan fluorescence demonstrated the less organized, more solvent-exposed structure of the C-terminal helices compared to the N-terminal helix bundle. Pyrene excimer fluorescence together with gel filtration chromatography indicated that there are extensive intermolecular helix-helix contacts through the C-terminal helices of apoE4. Comparison of increases in pyrene fluorescence upon binding of pyrene-labeled apoE4 to egg phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles suggests a two-step lipid-binding process; apoE4 initially binds to a lipid surface through the C-terminal helices followed by the slower conformational reorganization of the N-terminal helix bundle domain. Consistent with this, fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements from Trp residues to acrylodan attached at position 94 demonstrated that upon binding to the lipid surface, opening of the N-terminal helix bundle occurs at the same rate as the increase in pyrene fluorescence of the N-terminal domain. Such a two-step mechanism of lipid binding of apoE4 is likely to apply to mostly phospholipid-covered lipoproteins such as VLDL. However, monitoring pyrene fluorescence upon binding to HDL(3) suggests that not only apoE-lipid interactions but also protein-protein interactions are important for apoE4 binding to HDL(3).

  2. Thioredoxin binding site of phosphoribulokinase overlaps the catalytic site. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.A.; Hartman, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ATP-regulatory binding site of phosphoribulokinase was studied using bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate (BrAcNHEtOP). BrAcNHEtOP binds to the active-regulatory binding site of the protein. Following trypsin degradation of the labeled protein, fragments were separated by HPLC and sequenced. (DT)

  3. Receptor-binding sites: bioinformatic approaches.

    PubMed

    Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that both transient and long-lasting interactions between biomacromolecules and their molecular partners are the most fundamental of all biological mechanisms and lie at the conceptual heart of protein function. In particular, the protein-binding site is the most fascinating and important mechanistic arbiter of protein function. In this review, I examine the nature of protein-binding sites found in both ligand-binding receptors and substrate-binding enzymes. I highlight two important concepts underlying the identification and analysis of binding sites. The first is based on knowledge: when one knows the location of a binding site in one protein, one can "inherit" the site from one protein to another. The second approach involves the a priori prediction of a binding site from a sequence or a structure. The full and complete analysis of binding sites will necessarily involve the full range of informatic techniques ranging from sequence-based bioinformatic analysis through structural bioinformatics to computational chemistry and molecular physics. Integration of both diverse experimental and diverse theoretical approaches is thus a mandatory requirement in the evaluation of binding sites and the binding events that occur within them. PMID:16671408

  4. Kinetics characterization of c-Src binding to lipid membranes: Switching from labile to persistent binding.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Busquets, Maria Antònia; Sagués, Francesc; Pons, Miquel

    2016-02-01

    Cell signaling by the c-Src proto-oncogen requires the attachment of the protein to the inner side of the plasma membrane through the myristoylated N-terminal region, known as the SH4 domain. Additional binding regions of lower affinity are located in the neighbor intrinsically disordered Unique domain and the structured SH3 domain. Here we present a surface plasmon resonance study of the binding of a myristoylated protein including the SH4, Unique and SH3 domains of c-Src to immobilized liposomes. Two distinct binding processes were observed: a fast and a slow one. The second process lead to a persistently bound form (PB) with a slower binding and a much slower dissociation rate than the first one. The association and dissociation of the PB form could be detected using an anti-SH4 antibody. The kinetic analysis revealed that binding of the PB form follows a second order rate law suggesting that it involves the formation of c-Src dimers on the membrane surface. A kinetically equivalent PB form is observed in a myristoylated peptide containing only the SH4 domain but not in a construct including the three domains but with a 12-carbon lauroyl substituent instead of the 14-carbon myristoyl group. The PB form is observed with neutral lipids but its population increases when the immobilized liposomes contain negatively charged lipids. We suggest that the PB form may represent the active signaling form of c-Src while the labile form provides the capacity for fast 2D search of the target signaling site on the membrane surface. PMID:26638178

  5. Kinetics characterization of c-Src binding to lipid membranes: Switching from labile to persistent binding.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Busquets, Maria Antònia; Sagués, Francesc; Pons, Miquel

    2016-02-01

    Cell signaling by the c-Src proto-oncogen requires the attachment of the protein to the inner side of the plasma membrane through the myristoylated N-terminal region, known as the SH4 domain. Additional binding regions of lower affinity are located in the neighbor intrinsically disordered Unique domain and the structured SH3 domain. Here we present a surface plasmon resonance study of the binding of a myristoylated protein including the SH4, Unique and SH3 domains of c-Src to immobilized liposomes. Two distinct binding processes were observed: a fast and a slow one. The second process lead to a persistently bound form (PB) with a slower binding and a much slower dissociation rate than the first one. The association and dissociation of the PB form could be detected using an anti-SH4 antibody. The kinetic analysis revealed that binding of the PB form follows a second order rate law suggesting that it involves the formation of c-Src dimers on the membrane surface. A kinetically equivalent PB form is observed in a myristoylated peptide containing only the SH4 domain but not in a construct including the three domains but with a 12-carbon lauroyl substituent instead of the 14-carbon myristoyl group. The PB form is observed with neutral lipids but its population increases when the immobilized liposomes contain negatively charged lipids. We suggest that the PB form may represent the active signaling form of c-Src while the labile form provides the capacity for fast 2D search of the target signaling site on the membrane surface.

  6. Structural Analysis of Papain-Like NlpC/P60 Superfamily Enzymes with a Circularly Permuted Topology Reveals Potential Lipid Binding Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Rawlings, Neil D.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-07-11

    NlpC/P60 superfamily papain-like enzymes play important roles in all kingdoms of life. Two members of this superfamily, LRAT-like and YaeF/YiiX-like families, were predicted to contain a catalytic domain that is circularly permuted such that the catalytic cysteine is located near the C-terminus, instead of at the N-terminus. These permuted enzymes are widespread in virus, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotes. We determined the crystal structure of a member of the YaeF/YiiX-like family from Bacillus cereus in complex with lysine. The structure, which adopts a ligand-induced, 'closed' conformation, confirms the circular permutation of catalytic residues. A comparative analysis of other related protein structures within the NlpC/P60 superfamily is presented. Permutated NlpC/P60 enzymes contain a similar conserved core and arrangement of catalytic residues, including a Cys/His-containing triad and an additional conserved tyrosine. More surprisingly, permuted enzymes have a hydrophobic S1 binding pocket that is distinct from previously characterized enzymes in the family, indicative of novel substrate specificity. Further analysis of a structural homolog, YiiX (PDB 2if6) identified a fatty acid in the conserved hydrophobic pocket, thus providing additional insights into possible function of these novel enzymes.

  7. Polypharmacology within CXCR4: Multiple binding sites and allosteric behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planesas, Jesús M.; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I.; Borrell, José I.; Teixidó, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    CXCR4 is a promiscuous receptor, which binds multiple diverse ligands. As usual in promiscuous proteins, CXCR4 has a large binding site, with multiple subsites, and high flexibility. Hence, it is not surprising that it is involved in the phenomenon of allosteric modulation. However, incomplete knowledge of allosteric ligand-binding sites has hampered an in-depth molecular understanding of how these inhibitors work. For example, it is known that lipidated fragments of intracellular GPCR loops, so called pepducins, such as pepducin ATI-2341, modulate CXCR4 activity using an agonist allosteric mechanism. Nevertheless, there are also examples of small organic molecules, such as AMD11070 and GSK812397, which may act as antagonist allosteric modulators. Here, we give new insights into this issue by proposing the binding interactions between the CXCR4 receptor and the above-mentioned allosteric modulators. We propose that CXCR4 has minimum two topographically different allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site would be in the intracellular loop 1 (ICL1) where pepducin ATI-2341 would bind to CXCR4, and the second one, in the extracellular side of CXCR4 in a subsite into the main orthosteric binding pocket, delimited by extracellular loops n° 1, 2, and the N-terminal end, where antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397 would bind. Prediction of allosteric interactions between CXCR4 and pepducin ATI-2341 were studied first by rotational blind docking to determine the main binding region and a subsequent refinement of the best pose was performed using flexible docking methods and molecular dynamics. For the antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397, the entire CXCR4 protein surface was explored by blind docking to define the binding region. A second docking analysis by subsites of the identified binding region was performed to refine the allosteric interactions. Finally, we identified the binding residues that appear to be essential for CXCR4 (agonists and antagonists) allosteric

  8. The Chemistry of Sites Binding Rubidium in Chlorella

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Dan

    1962-01-01

    The chemistry of sites that specifically bind Rb in Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been investigated by changing or modifying specific chemical groups or bonds in the cell and observing changes in binding capacity. Boiling the cells in water or in 70 per cent ethanol did not affect binding capacities of the sites. These results suggest that the integrity of the sites is independent of both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic bonds, and that the sites, therefore, do not consist of a protein or protein-lipid complex. At 30°C, both 1 M HCL and 0.5 to 1 M NaOH rapidly inactivated 70 per cent of the sites, but over a range of Ph 4.4 to 11.3, there was no effect. The sites are inactivated by strong chelating agents at 0.05 to 0.2 M and by reagents which reduce trivalent iron, and 4 to 10 atoms of iron per site are removed from the cells. Prolonged incubation in iron solutions, but not in solutions of Cu, Mn, or Mg, reversed to a considerable extent inactivation by EDTA. It is suggested that the sites probably bind trivalent iron tightly as chelation bridges which are essential to their structure. These structural bridges are broken when iron is removed by chelating agents or reduction, and are reformed in the presence of iron. Other experimental evidence indicates that amine, sulfhydryl, and carbonyl groups are not structural components of the sites. PMID:19873550

  9. Properties of binding sites for chloroquine in liver lysosomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Colombo, M I; Bertini, F

    1988-12-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is an antimalarial and antirheumatic drug that accumulates in lysosomes. We purified liver lysosomal membranes of tritosomes from albino mice injected with Triton WR 1339. The membranes were used for the binding assay with CQ in 0.01 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). This binding was saturable, with a KD value of 6.2 microM. To understand the nature of CQ affinity, the binding was done under conditions that alter membrane structure and composition. Changes in pH, high ionic strength, and bivalent cations reversibly decreased the binding, while the effect of non-ionic detergents was partially reversed. The cationic detergent Hyamine strongly decreased the binding, and its effect was trypsin and neuraminidase had no effect. The results indicate the existence of binding sites for CQ in liver lysosomal membranes, which were strongly affected by changes of charge in the molecules involved in the binding. The treatment with the enzymes suggests that loss of polar groups of phospholipids increases the affinity of CQ by exposing protein sites located deep in the membrane, or by permiting a closer interaction between the drug and membrane lipids. CQ lysosomotropism and other effects of CQ on the lysosomal apparatus studied by other authors may be due not only to its accumulation inside the acid milieu of the lysosomes, in the same manner as other weak bases, but also to the affinity of CQ for binding sites in the lysosomal membrane. PMID:3192634

  10. (/sup 3/)tetrahydrotrazodone binding. Association with serotonin binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, D.A.; Taylor, D.P.; Enna, S.J.

    1983-05-01

    High (17 nM) and low (603 nM) affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/)tetrahydrotrazodone ((/sup 3/) THT), a biologically active analogue of trazodone, have been identified in rat brain membranes. The substrate specificity, concentration, and subcellular and regional distributions of these sites suggest that they may represent a component of the serotonin transmitter system. Pharmacological analysis of (/sup 3/)THT binding, coupled with brain lesion and drug treatment experiments, revealed that, unlike other antidepressants, (/sup 3/) THT does not attach to either a biogenic amine transporter or serotonin binding sites. Rather, it would appear that (/sup 3/)THT may be an antagonist ligand for the serotonin binding site. This probe may prove of value in defining the mechanism of action of trazodone and in further characterizing serotonin receptors.

  11. New Insights into Nisin's Antibacterial Mechanism Revealed by Binding Studies with Synthetic Lipid II Analogues.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Peter; Oppedijk, Sabine F; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-01-12

    Nisin is the preeminent lantibiotic, and to date its antibacterial mechanism has been investigated using a variety of techniques. While nisin's lipid II-mediated mode of action is well-established, a detailed analysis of the thermodynamic parameters governing this interaction has not been previously reported. We here describe an approach employing isothermal titration calorimetry to directly measure the affinity of nisin for lipid II and a number of synthetic lipid II precursors and analogues. Our measurements confirm the pyrophosphate unit of lipid II as the primary site of nisin binding and also indicate that the complete MurNAc moiety is required for a high-affinity interaction. Additionally, we find that while the pentapeptide unit of the lipid II molecule is not required for strong binding by nisin, it does play an important role in stabilizing the subsequently formed nisin-lipid II pore complex, albeit at an entropic cost. The anchoring of lipid II in a membrane environment was also found to play a significant role in enhancing nisin binding and is required in order to achieve a high-affinity interaction. PMID:26653142

  12. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  13. Binding Orientations and Lipid Interactions of Human Amylin at Zwitterionic and Anionic Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhenyu; Jia, Yan; Wei, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the interaction of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) with lipids may facilitate hIAPP aggregation and cause the death of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, the detailed hIAPP-membrane interactions and the influences of lipid compositions are unclear. In this study, as a first step to understand the mechanism of membrane-mediated hIAPP aggregation, we investigate the binding behaviors of hIAPP monomer at zwitterionic palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer by performing atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The results are compared with those of hIAPP at anionic palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) bilayers. We find that the adsorption of hIAPP to POPC bilayer is mainly initiated from the C-terminal region and the peptide adopts a helical structure with multiple binding orientations, while the adsorption to POPG bilayer is mostly initiated from the N-terminal region and hIAPP displays one preferential binding orientation, with its hydrophobic residues exposed to water. hIAPP monomer inserts into POPC lipid bilayers more readily than into POPG bilayers. Peptide-lipid interaction analyses show that the different binding features of hIAPP at POPC and POPG bilayers are attributed to different magnitudes of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with lipids. This study provides mechanistic insights into the different interaction behaviors of hIAPP with zwitterionic and anionic lipid bilayers. PMID:26649316

  14. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  15. Multiple instance learning of Calmodulin binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Fayyaz ul Amir Afsar; Ben-Hur, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitously conserved protein that acts as a calcium sensor, and interacts with a large number of proteins. Detection of CaM binding proteins and their interaction sites experimentally requires a significant effort, so accurate methods for their prediction are important. Results: We present a novel algorithm (MI-1 SVM) for binding site prediction and evaluate its performance on a set of CaM-binding proteins extracted from the Calmodulin Target Database. Our approach directly models the problem of binding site prediction as a large-margin classification problem, and is able to take into account uncertainty in binding site location. We show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the standard SVM formulation, and illustrate its ability to recover known CaM binding motifs. A highly accurate cascaded classification approach using the proposed binding site prediction method to predict CaM binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana is also presented. Availability: Matlab code for training MI-1 SVM and the cascaded classification approach is available on request. Contact: fayyazafsar@gmail.com or asa@cs.colostate.edu PMID:22962461

  16. Inhibition of cell-cell binding by lipid assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Bargatze, Robert F.

    2001-05-22

    This invention relates generally to the field of therapeutic compounds designed to interfere between the binding of ligands and their receptors on cell surface. More specifically, it provides products and methods for inhibiting cell migration and activation using lipid assemblies with surface recognition elements that are specific for the receptors involved in cell migration and activation.

  17. Two bradykinin binding sites with picomolar affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, D.C.; Vavrek, R.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and related peptides exert a wide range of effects on several organ systems. We have attempted to sort out these effects by studying the binding interaction of (/sup 3/H)BK at the membrane level with in vitro receptor binding techniques. High specific activity (/sup 3/H)BK and an enzyme inhibitor cocktail has enabled us to label two BK binding sites with different affinity and peptide specificity in several guinea-pig tissues. In the guinea-pig ileum the high-affinity site has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (/sup 3/H)BK of 13 pM and a maximal number of binding sites of 8.3 pmol/g of tissue wet weight. The low-affinity guinea-pig ileum site displays a Kd of 910 pM, a maximum number of binding sites of 14 pmol/g of tissue wet weight and shows a greater selectivity for BK analogs over Lysyl-BK analogs. Two similar sites can also be discriminated in kidney and heart. The potencies of a series of BK analogs at the high-affinity guinea-pig ileum site correlate well with their potencies in contracting ileal smooth muscle. The binding of (/sup 3/H)BK in the guinea-pig ileum is inhibited by physiological concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations.

  18. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    PubMed

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  19. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    PubMed

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  20. Binding of Hemagglutinin and Influenza Virus to a Peptide-Conjugated Lipid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Shibata, Rabi; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) plays an important role in the first step of influenza virus (IFV) infection because it initiates the binding of the virus to the sialylgalactose linkages of the receptors on the host cells. We herein demonstrate that a HA-binding peptide immobilized on a solid support is available to bind to HA and IFV. We previously obtained a HA-binding pentapeptide (Ala-Arg-Leu-Pro-Arg), which was identified by phage-display selection against HAs from random peptide libraries. This peptide binds to the receptor-binding site of HA by mimicking sialic acid. A peptide-conjugated lipid (pep-PE) was chemically synthesized from the peptide and a saturated phospholipid. A lipid bilayer composed of pep-PE and an unsaturated phospholipid (DOPC) was immobilized on a mica plate; and the interaction between HA and the pep-PE/DOPC membrane was investigated using atomic force microscopy. The binding of IFV to the pep-PE/DOPC membrane was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription PCR. Our results indicate that peptide-conjugated lipids are a useful molecular device for the detection of HA and IFV. PMID:27092124

  1. Interaction with membrane lipids and heme ligand binding properties of Escherichia coli flavohemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Bonamore, Alessandra; Farina, Anna; Gattoni, Maurizio; Schininà, M Eugenia; Bellelli, Andrea; Boffi, Alberto

    2003-05-20

    Escherichia coli flavohemoglobin has been shown to be able to bind specifically unsaturated and/or cyclopropanated fatty acids with very high affinity. Unsaturated or cyclopropanated fatty acid binding results in a modification of the visible absorption spectrum of the ferric heme, corresponding to a transition from a pentacoordinated (typical of the ligand free protein) to a hexacoordinated, high spin, heme iron. In contrast, no detectable interaction has been observed with saturated fatty acid, saturated phospholipids, linear, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons pointing out that the protein recognizes specifically double bonds in cis conformation within the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid molecule. Accordingly, as demonstrated in gel filtration experiments, flavohemoglobin is able to bind liposomes obtained from lipid extracts of E. coli membranes and eventually abstract phospholipids containing cis double bonds and/or cyclopropane rings along the acyl chains. The presence of a protein bound lipid strongly affects the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of imidazole binding to the ferric protein and brings about significant modifications in the reactivity of the ferrous protein with oxygen and carbon monoxide. The effect of the bound lipid has been accounted for by a reaction scheme that involves the presence of two sites for the lipid/ligand recognition, namely, the heme iron and a non-heme site located in a loop region above the heme pocket. PMID:12741837

  2. Heparin-binding defective lipoprotein lipase is unstable and causes abnormalities in lipid delivery to tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, E. Peer; Merkel, Martin; Kako, Yuko; Melford, Kristan; Radner, Herbert; Breslow, Jan L.; Bensadoun, André; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2001-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is hypothesized to stabilize the enzyme, localize LpL in specific capillary beds, and route lipoprotein lipids to the underlying tissues. To test these hypotheses in vivo, we created mice expressing a human LpL minigene (hLpLHBM) carrying a mutated heparin-binding site. Three basic amino acids in the carboxyl terminal region of LpL were mutated, yielding an active enzyme with reduced heparin binding. Mice expressing hLpLHBM accumulated inactive human LpL (hLpL) protein in preheparin blood. hLpLHBM rapidly lost activity during a 37°C incubation, confirming a requirement for heparin binding to stabilize LpL. Nevertheless, expression of hLpLHBM prevented the neonatal demise of LpL knockout mice. On the LpL-deficient background hLpLHBM expression led to defective targeting of lipids to tissues. Compared with mice expressing native hLpL in the muscle, hLpLHBM transgenic mice had increased postprandial FFAs, decreased lipid uptake in muscle tissue, and increased lipid uptake in kidneys. Thus, heparin association is required for LpL stability and normal physiologic functions. These experiments confirm in vivo that association with HSPGs can provide a means to maintain proteins in their stable conformations and to anchor them at sites where their activity is required. PMID:11342582

  3. The RNA binding of protein A from Wuhan nodavirus is mediated by mitochondrial membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Miao, Meng; Wang, Zhaowei; Liu, Yongxiang; Yang, Jie; Xia, Hongjie; Li, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-08-01

    RNA replication of positive-strand (+)RNA viruses requires the lipids present in intracellular membranes, the sites of which viral replicases associate with. However, the direct effects of membrane lipids on viral replicases are still poorly understood. Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) protein A, which associates with mitochondrial membranes, is the sole replicase required for RNA replication. Here, we report that WhNV protein A binds to RNA1 in a cooperative manner. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane lipids (MMLs) stimulated the RNA binding activity and cooperativity of protein A, and such stimulations exhibited strong selectivity for distinct phospholipids. Interestingly, MMLs stimulated the RNA-binding cooperativity only at higher protein A concentrations. Further investigation showed that MMLs stimulate the RNA binding of protein A by promoting its self-interaction. Finally, manipulating MML metabolism affected the protein A-induced RNA1 recruitment in cells. Together, our findings reveal the direct effects of membrane lipids on the RNA binding activity of a nodaviral replicase. PMID:25092456

  4. Tissue specificity of endothelin binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bolger, G.T.; Liard, F.; Krogsrud, R.; Thibeault, D.; Jaramillo, J. )

    1990-09-01

    A measurement was made of the binding of 125I-labeled endothelin (125I-ET) to crude membrane fractions prepared from rat aorta, atrium, ventricle, portal vein, trachea, lung parenchyma, vas deferens, ileum, bladder, and guinea-pig taenia coli and lung parenchyma. Scatchard analysis of 125I-ET binding in all tissues indicated binding to a single class of saturable sites. The affinity and density of 125I-ET binding sites varied between tissues. The Kd of 125I-ET binding was approximately 0.5 nM for rat aorta, trachea, lung parenchyma, ventricle, bladder, and vas deferens, and guinea-pig taenia coli and lung parenchyma, 1.8 nM for rat portal vein and atrium, and 3.3 nM for ileum. The Bmax of 125I-ET binding had the following rank order of density in rat tissues: trachea greater than lung parenchyma = vas deferens much greater than aorta = portal vein = atrium greater than bladder greater than ventricle = ileum. The properties of 125I-ET endothelin binding were characterized in rat ventricular membranes. 125I-ET binding was time dependent, reaching a maximum within 45-60 min at 25 degrees C. The calculated microassociation constant was 9.67 x 10(5) s-1 M-1. Only 15-20% of 125I-ET dissociated from its binding site even when dissociation was studied as long as 3 h. Preincubation of ventricular membranes with ET prevented binding of 125I-ET. 125I-ET binding was destroyed by boiling of ventricular membranes and was temperature, pH, and cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+) dependent.

  5. Lipid-regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes by oxysterol-binding protein homologues

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Timothy A.; Choi, Mal-Gi; Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Mears, Jason A.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hinshaw, Jenny E.

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are transferred between cellular membranes by vesicular and poorly understood nonvesicular pathways. Oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in sterol sensing and nonvesicular transport. In this study, we show that yeast ORPs use a novel mechanism that allows regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes, such as organelle contact sites. We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. Using Osh4p/Kes1p as a representative ORP, we show that ORPs have at least two membrane-binding surfaces; one near the mouth of the sterol-binding pocket and a distal site that can bind a second membrane. The distal site is required for the protein to function in cells and, remarkably, regulates the rate at which Osh4p extracts and delivers sterols in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest a new model of how ORPs could sense and regulate the lipid composition of adjacent membranes. PMID:20008566

  6. Multivalent Ligand-Receptor Binding on Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyunsook; Robison, Aaron D.; Cremer, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid supported lipid bilayers provide an excellent platform for studying multivalent protein-ligand interactions because the two-dimensional fluidity of the membrane allows for lateral rearrangement of ligands in order to optimize binding. Our laboratory has combined supported lipid bilayer-coated microfluidic platforms with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to obtain equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) data for these systems. This high throughput, on-chip approach provides highly accurate thermodynamic information about multivalent binding events while requiring only very small sample volumes. Herein, we review some of the most salient findings from these studies. In particular, increasing ligand density on the membrane surface can provide a modest enhancement or attenuation of ligand-receptor binding depending upon whether the surface ligands interact strongly with each other. Such effects, however, lead to little more than one order of magnitude change in the apparent KD values. On the other hand, the lipophilicity and presentation of lipid bilayer-conjugated ligands can have a much greater impact. Indeed, changing the way a particular ligand is conjugated to the membrane can alter the apparent KD value by at least three orders of magnitude. Such a result speaks strongly to the role of ligand availability for multivalent ligand-receptor binding. PMID:19508894

  7. Interaction with amyloid beta peptide compromises the lipid binding function of apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Tamamizu-Kato, Shiori; Cohen, Jenny K; Drake, Carolyn B; Kosaraju, Malathi G; Drury, Jessica; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy

    2008-05-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E is an exchangeable apolipoprotein that plays an integral role in cholesterol transport in the plasma and the brain. It is also associated with protein misfolding or amyloid proteopathy of the beta amyloid peptide (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The C-terminal domain (CT) of apoE encompasses two types of amphipathic alpha helices: a class A helix (residues 216-266) and a class G* helix (residues 273-299). This domain also harbors high-affinity lipoprotein binding and apoE self-association sites that possibly overlap. The objective of this study is to examine if the neurotoxic oligomeric Abeta interacts with apoE CT and if this association affects the lipoprotein binding function of recombinant human apoE CT. Site-specific fluorescence labeling of single cysteine-containing apoE CT variants with donor probes were employed to identify the binding of Abeta bearing an acceptor probe by intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy-transfer analysis. A higher efficiency of energy transfer was noted with probes located in the class A helix than with those located in the class G* helix of apoE CT. In addition, incubation of apoE CT with Abeta severely impaired the lipid binding ability and the overall amount of lipid-associated apoE CT. However, when apoE CT is present in a lipid-bound state, Abeta appears to be localized within the lipid milieu of the lipoprotein particle and not associated with any specific segments of the protein. When our data are taken together, they suggest that Abeta association compromises the fundamental lipoprotein binding function of apoE, which may have implications not only in terms of amyloid buildup but also in terms of the accumulation of cholesterol at extracellular sites.

  8. Receptor-like function of heparin in the binding and uptake of neutral lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Bosner, M.S.; Gulick, T.; Riley, D.J.S.; Spilburg, C.A.; Lange, L.G. III )

    1988-10-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the binding, amphipathic stabilization, and metabolism of the major neutral lipids are well studied, but the details of their movement from a binding compartment to a metabolic compartment deserve further attention. Since all neutral lipids must cross hydrophilic segments of plasma membranes during such movement, the authors postulate that a critical receptor-like site exists on the plasma membrane to mediate a step between binding and metabolism and that membrane-associated heparin is a key part of this mediator. For example, intestinal brush border membranes containing heparin bind homogeneous human pancreatic {sup 125}I-labeled cholesterol esterase and {sup 125}I-labeled triglyceride lipase. This interaction is enzyme concentration-dependent, specific, and saturable and is reversed upon addition of soluble heparin. Scatchard analysis demonstrates a single class of receptors with a K{sub d} of 100 nM and a B{sub max} of approximately 50-60 pmol per mg of vesicle protein. They conclude that a physiological role for intestinal heparin is that of a mediator to bind neutral lipolytic enzymes at the brush border and thus promote absorption of the subsequent hydrolyzed nutrients in the intestine. This mechanism may be a generalized pathway for transport of neutral lipids into endothelial and other cells.

  9. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%-8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein-RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein-RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions.

  10. Radiation inactivation reveals discrete cation binding sites that modulate dihydropyridine binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bolger, G.T.; Skolnick, P.; Kempner, E.S. )

    1989-08-01

    In low ionic strength buffer (5 mM Tris.HCl), the binding of (3H) nitrendipine to dihydropyridine calcium antagonist binding sites of mouse forebrain membranes is increased by both Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. Radiation inactivation was used to determine the target size of ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding sites in 5 mM Tris.HCl buffer, in the presence and absence of these cations. After irradiation, ({sup 3}H) nitrendipine binding in buffer with or without Na+ was diminished, due to a loss of binding sites and also to an increase in Kd. After accounting for radiation effects on the dissociation constant, the target size for the nitrendipine binding site in buffer was 160-170 kDa and was 170-180 kDa in the presence of sodium. In the presence of calcium ions, ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding showed no radiation effects on Kd and yielded a target size of 150-170 kDa. These findings suggest, as in the case of opioid receptors, the presence of high molecular weight membrane components that modulate cation-induced alterations in radioligand binding to dihydropyridine binding sites.

  11. Dynamics of Transcription Factor Binding Site Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tuğrul, Murat; Paixão, Tiago; Barton, Nicholas H.; Tkačik, Gašper

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of gene regulation is crucial for our understanding of the phenotypic differences between species, populations and individuals. Sequence-specific binding of transcription factors to the regulatory regions on the DNA is a key regulatory mechanism that determines gene expression and hence heritable phenotypic variation. We use a biophysical model for directional selection on gene expression to estimate the rates of gain and loss of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in finite populations under both point and insertion/deletion mutations. Our results show that these rates are typically slow for a single TFBS in an isolated DNA region, unless the selection is extremely strong. These rates decrease drastically with increasing TFBS length or increasingly specific protein-DNA interactions, making the evolution of sites longer than ∼ 10 bp unlikely on typical eukaryotic speciation timescales. Similarly, evolution converges to the stationary distribution of binding sequences very slowly, making the equilibrium assumption questionable. The availability of longer regulatory sequences in which multiple binding sites can evolve simultaneously, the presence of “pre-sites” or partially decayed old sites in the initial sequence, and biophysical cooperativity between transcription factors, can all facilitate gain of TFBS and reconcile theoretical calculations with timescales inferred from comparative genomics. PMID:26545200

  12. Role of carbohydrates in thyrotropin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Pekonen, F

    1980-07-01

    The role of carbohydrates in thyrotropin binding was studied by glycosidase treatment of human thyroid membranes. Removal of over 75% of membrane sialic acid resulted in a 50% increase of TSH binding, measured in 10 mM Tris-HCl, 50 mM NaCl, 0.1% bSA, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C (buffer A). This augmentation was due to an increase in binding to high affinity sites (Ka 1 X 10(10)M-1). The binding was highly specific and was not significantly inhibited by gangliosides. In contrast, low affinity binding of TSH was unchanged either in buffer A or in 10 mM Tris-acetate, 0.1% bSA pH 6.0, 4 degrees C (buffer B) and was inhibited by gangliosides. Treatment of membranes with beta-galactosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and alpha-L-fucosidase had little effect on TSH binding. The data suggests that membrane-associated sialic acid inhibits TSH binding to high affinity receptors and that gangliosides are not involved in tthis TSH-receptor interaction.

  13. Anionic Lipids: Determinants of Binding Cytotoxins from Snake Venom on the Surface of Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Boldyrev, I.A.; Omelkov, A.V.; Utkin, Yu.N.; Efremov, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic properties of cytotoxins (CTs) from snake venom are mediated by their interaction with the cell membrane. The hydrophobic pattern containing the tips of loops I–III and flanked by polar residues is known to be a membrane–binding motif of CTs. However, this is not enough to explain the difference in activity among various CTs which are similar in sequence and in 3D structure. The mechanism of further CT–membrane interaction leading to pore formation and cell death still remains unknown. Published experimental data on the specific interaction between CT and low molecular weight anionic components (sulphatide) of the bilayer point to the existence of corresponding ligand binding sites on the surface of toxin molecules. In this work we study the membrane–lytic properties of CT I, CT II (Naja oxiana), and Ct 4 (Naja kaouthia), which belong to different structural and functional types (P– and S–type) of CTs, by measuring the intensity of a fluorescent dye, calcein released from liposomes containing a phosphatidylserine (PS) lipid as an anionic component. Using molecular docking simulations, we find and characterize three sites in CT molecules that can potentially bind the PS polar head. Based on the data obtained, we suggest a hypothesis that CTs can specifically interact with one or more of the anionic lipids (in particular, with PS) contained in the membrane, thus facilitating the interaction between CTs and the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. PMID:22649646

  14. Molecular design of substrate binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, J.A.; Hobbs, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    Computer-aided molecular design methods were used to tailor binding sites for small substrate molecules, including CO{sub 2} and methane. The goal is to design a cavity, adjacent to a catalytic metal center, into which the substrate will selectively bind through only non-bonding interactions with the groups lining the binding pocket. Porphyrins are used as a basic molecular structure, with various substituents added to construct the binding pocket. The conformations of these highly-substituted porphyrins are predicted using molecular mechanics calculations with a force field that gives accurate predictions for metalloporhyrins. Dynamics and energy-minimization calculations of substrate molecules bound to the cavity indicate high substrate binding affinity. The size, shape and charge-distribution of groups surrounding the cavity provide molecular selectivity. Specifically, calculated binding energies of methane, benzene, dichloromethane, CO{sub 2} and chloroform vary by about 10 kcal/mol for metal octaethyl-tetraphenylporphyrins (OETPPs) with chloroform, dichloromethane, and CO{sub 2} having the lowest. Significantly, a solvent molecule is found in the cavity in the X-ray structures of Co- and CuOETPP crystals obtained from dichloromethane. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Molecular design of substrate binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, J.A.; Hobbs, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided molecular design methods were used to tailor binding sites for small substrate molecules, including CO{sub 2} and methane. The goal is to design a cavity, adjacent to a catalytic metal center, into which the substrate will selectively bind through only non-bonding interactions with the groups lining the binding pocket. Porphyrins are used as a basic molecular structure, with various substituents added to construct the binding pocket. The conformations of these highly-substituted porphyrins are predicted using molecular mechanics calculations with a force field that gives accurate predictions for metalloporhyrins. Dynamics and energy-minimization calculations of substrate molecules bound to the cavity indicate high substrate binding affinity. The size, shape and charge-distribution of groups surrounding the cavity provide molecular selectivity. Specifically, calculated binding energies of methane, benzene, dichloromethane, CO{sub 2} and chloroform vary by about 10 kcal/mol for metal octaethyl-tetraphenylporphyrins (OETPPs) with chloroform, dichloromethane, and CO{sub 2} having the lowest. Significantly, a solvent molecule is found in the cavity in the X-ray structures of Co- and CuOETPP crystals obtained from dichloromethane. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Extra-helical binding site of a glucagon receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Ali; Doré, Andrew S; Lamb, Daniel; Krishnamurthy, Harini; Southall, Stacey M; Baig, Asma H; Bortolato, Andrea; Koglin, Markus; Robertson, Nathan J; Errey, James C; Andrews, Stephen P; Teobald, Iryna; Brown, Alastair J H; Cooke, Robert M; Weir, Malcolm; Marshall, Fiona H

    2016-05-12

    Glucagon is a 29-amino-acid peptide released from the α-cells of the islet of Langerhans, which has a key role in glucose homeostasis. Glucagon action is transduced by the class B G-protein-coupled glucagon receptor (GCGR), which is located on liver, kidney, intestinal smooth muscle, brain, adipose tissue, heart and pancreas cells, and this receptor has been considered an important drug target in the treatment of diabetes. Administration of recently identified small-molecule GCGR antagonists in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a substantial reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations. Although an X-ray structure of the transmembrane domain of the GCGR has previously been solved, the ligand (NNC0640) was not resolved. Here we report the 2.5 Å structure of human GCGR in complex with the antagonist MK-0893 (ref. 4), which is found to bind to an allosteric site outside the seven transmembrane (7TM) helical bundle in a position between TM6 and TM7 extending into the lipid bilayer. Mutagenesis of key residues identified in the X-ray structure confirms their role in the binding of MK-0893 to the receptor. The unexpected position of the binding site for MK-0893, which is structurally similar to other GCGR antagonists, suggests that glucagon activation of the receptor is prevented by restriction of the outward helical movement of TM6 required for G-protein coupling. Structural knowledge of class B receptors is limited, with only one other ligand-binding site defined--for the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRF1R)--which was located deep within the 7TM bundle. We describe a completely novel allosteric binding site for class B receptors, providing an opportunity for structure-based drug design for this receptor class and furthering our understanding of the mechanisms of activation of these receptors. PMID:27111510

  17. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes. PMID:19754879

  18. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  19. Receptor-Like Function of Heparin in the Binding and Uptake of Neutral Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosner, Matthew S.; Gulick, Tod; Riley, D. J. S.; Spilburg, Curtis A.; Lange, Louis G.

    1988-10-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the binding, amphipathic stabilization, and metabolism of the major neutral lipids (e.g., cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and fatty acids) are well studied, but the details of their movement from a binding compartment to a metabolic compartment deserve further attention. Since all neutral lipids must cross hydrophilic segments of plasma membranes during such movement, we postulate that a critical receptor-like site exists on the plasma membrane to mediate a step between binding and metabolism and that membrane-associated heparin is a key part of this mediator. For example, intestinal brush border membranes containing heparin bind homogeneous human pancreatic 125I-labeled cholesterol esterase (100 kDa) and 125I-labeled triglyceride lipase (52 kDa). This interaction is enzyme concentration-dependent, specific, and saturable and is reversed upon addition of soluble heparin. Scatchard analysis demonstrates a single class of receptors with a Kd of 100 nM and a Bmax of approximately 50-60 pmol per mg of vesicle protein. In contrast, enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of hydrophilic compounds such as amylase, phospholipase A2, and deoxyribonuclease do not bind to intestinal membranes in this manner. Human pancreatic cholesterol esterase also binds specifically and saturably to cultured intestinal epithelial cells (CaCo-2), and soluble heparin significantly diminishes the cellular uptake of the resultant hydrophobic reaction products (cholesterol and free fatty acids). We conclude that a physiological role for intestinal heparin is that of a mediator to bind neutral lipolytic enzymes at the brush border and thus promote absorption of the subsequent hydrolyzed nutrients in the intestine. This mechanism may be a generalizable pathway for transport of neutral lipids into endothelial and other cells.

  20. DBSI: DNA-binding site identifier

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Ericksen, Spencer S.; Mitchell, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present the DNA-Binding Site Identifier (DBSI), a new structure-based method for predicting protein interaction sites for DNA binding. DBSI was trained and validated on a data set of 263 proteins (TRAIN-263), tested on an independent set of protein-DNA complexes (TEST-206) and data sets of 29 unbound (APO-29) and 30 bound (HOLO-30) protein structures distinct from the training data. We computed 480 candidate features for identifying protein residues that bind DNA, including new features that capture the electrostatic microenvironment within shells near the protein surface. Our iterative feature selection process identified features important in other models, as well as features unique to the DBSI model, such as a banded electrostatic feature with spatial separation comparable with the canonical width of the DNA minor groove. Validations and comparisons with established methods using a range of performance metrics clearly demonstrate the predictive advantage of DBSI, and its comparable performance on unbound (APO-29) and bound (HOLO-30) conformations demonstrates robustness to binding-induced protein conformational changes. Finally, we offer our feature data table to others for integration into their own models or for testing improved feature selection and model training strategies based on DBSI. PMID:23873960

  1. Computational Identification of Uncharacterized Cruzain Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Benjamin A.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, claims 50,000 lives annually and is the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. As current antichagastic therapies like nifurtimox and benznidazole are highly toxic, ineffective at parasite eradication, and subject to increasing resistance, novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Cruzain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma cruzi, is one attractive drug target. In the current work, molecular dynamics simulations and a sequence alignment of a non-redundant, unbiased set of peptidase C1 family members are used to identify uncharacterized cruzain binding sites. The two sites identified may serve as targets for future pharmacological intervention. PMID:20485483

  2. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  3. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E; Rigby, Neil M; Mackie, Alan R; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39-40, 56-57 and 79-80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs. PMID:27458082

  4. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Mackie, Alan R.; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs. PMID:27458082

  5. The prediction of novel multiple lipid-binding regions in protein translocation motor proteins: a possible general feature.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rob C A

    2011-03-01

    Protein translocation is an important cellular process. SecA is an essential protein component in the Sec system, as it contains the molecular motor that facilitates protein translocation. In this study, a bioinformatics approach was applied in the search for possible lipid-binding helix regions in protein translocation motor proteins. Novel lipid-binding regions in Escherichia coli SecA were identified. Remarkably, multiple lipid-binding sites were also identified in other motor proteins such as BiP, which is involved in ER protein translocation. The prokaryotic signal recognition particle receptor FtsY, though not a motor protein, is in many ways related to SecA, and was therefore included in this study. The results demonstrate a possible general feature for motor proteins involved in protein translocation. PMID:20957445

  6. Single Molecule Kinetics of ENTH Binding to Lipid Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozovsky, Sharon; Forstner, Martin B.; Sondermann, Holger; Groves, Jay T.

    2012-04-03

    Transient recruitment of proteins to membranes is a fundamental mechanism by which the cell exerts spatial and temporal control over proteins’ localization and interactions. Thus, the specificity and the kinetics of peripheral proteins’ membrane residence are an attribute of their function. In this article, we describe the membrane interactions of the interfacial epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain with its target lipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). The direct visualization and quantification of interactions of single ENTH molecules with supported lipid bilayers is achieved using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) with a time resolution of 13 ms. This enables the recording of the kinetic behavior of ENTH interacting with membranes with physiologically relevant concentrations of PtdIns(4,5)P2 despite the low effective binding affinity. Subsequent single fluorophore tracking permits us to build up distributions of residence times and to measure ENTH dissociation rates as a function of membrane composition. In addition, due to the high time resolution, we are able to resolve details of the motion of ENTH associated with a simple, homogeneous membrane. In this case ENTH’s diffusive transport appears to be the result of at least three different diffusion processes.

  7. Binding Sites Analyser (BiSA): Software for Genomic Binding Sites Archiving and Overlap Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khushi, Matloob; Liddle, Christopher; Clarke, Christine L.; Graham, J. Dinny

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide mapping of transcription factor binding and histone modification reveals complex patterns of interactions. Identifying overlaps in binding patterns by different factors is a major objective of genomic studies, but existing methods to archive large numbers of datasets in a personalised database lack sophistication and utility. Therefore we have developed transcription factor DNA binding site analyser software (BiSA), for archiving of binding regions and easy identification of overlap with or proximity to other regions of interest. Analysis results can be restricted by chromosome or base pair overlap between regions or maximum distance between binding peaks. BiSA is capable of reporting overlapping regions that share common base pairs; regions that are nearby; regions that are not overlapping; and average region sizes. BiSA can identify genes located near binding regions of interest, genomic features near a gene or locus of interest and statistical significance of overlapping regions can also be reported. Overlapping results can be visualized as Venn diagrams. A major strength of BiSA is that it is supported by a comprehensive database of publicly available transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications, which can be directly compared to user data. The documentation and source code are available on http://bisa.sourceforge.net PMID:24533055

  8. Protein surface-distribution and protein-protein interactions in the binding of peripheral proteins to charged lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heimburg, T; Marsh, D

    1995-01-01

    The binding of native cytochrome c to negatively charged lipid dispersions of dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol has been studied over a wide range of ionic strengths. Not only is the strength of protein binding found to decrease rapidly with increasing ionic strength, but also the binding curves reach an apparent saturation level that decreases rapidly with increasing ionic strength. Analysis of the binding isotherms with a general statistical thermodynamic model that takes into account not only the free energy of the electrostatic double layer, but also the free energy of the surface distribution of the protein, demonstrates that the apparent saturation effects could arise from a competition between the out-of-plane binding reaction and the lateral in-plane interactions between proteins at the surface. It is found that association with nonlocalized sites results in binding isotherms that display the apparent saturation effect to a much more pronounced extent than does the Langmuir adsorption isotherm for binding to localized sites. With the model for nonlocalized sites, the binding isotherms of native cytochrome c can be described adequately by taking into account only the entropy of the surface distribution of the protein, without appreciable enthalpic interactions between the bound proteins. The binding of cytochrome c to dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol dispersions at a temperature at which the bound protein is denatured on the lipid surface, but is nondenatured when free in solution, has also been studied. The binding curves for the surface-denatured protein differ from those for the native protein in that the apparent saturation at high ionic strength is less pronounced. This indicates the tendency of the denatured protein to aggregate on the lipid surface, and can be described by the binding isotherms for nonlocalized sites only if attractive interactions between the surface-bound proteins are included in addition to the distributional entropic terms. Additionally

  9. Lipid binding protein response to a bile acid library: a combined NMR and statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Tomaselli, Simona; Pagano, Katiuscia; Boulton, Stephen; Zanzoni, Serena; Melacini, Giuseppe; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Primary bile acids, differing in hydroxylation pattern, are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and, once formed, can undergo extensive enzyme-catalysed glycine/taurine conjugation, giving rise to a complex mixture, the bile acid pool. Composition and concentration of the bile acid pool may be altered in diseases, posing a general question on the response of the carrier (bile acid binding protein) to the binding of ligands with different hydrophobic and steric profiles. A collection of NMR experiments (H/D exchange, HET-SOFAST, ePHOGSY NOESY/ROESY and (15) N relaxation measurements) was thus performed on apo and five different holo proteins, to monitor the binding pocket accessibility and dynamics. The ensemble of obtained data could be rationalized by a statistical approach, based on chemical shift covariance analysis, in terms of residue-specific correlations and collective protein response to ligand binding. The results indicate that the same residues are influenced by diverse chemical stresses: ligand binding always induces silencing of motions at the protein portal with a concomitant conformational rearrangement of a network of residues, located at the protein anti-portal region. This network of amino acids, which do not belong to the binding site, forms a contiguous surface, sensing the presence of the bound lipids, with a signalling role in switching protein-membrane interactions on and off.

  10. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  11. Extended synaptotagmins are Ca2+-dependent lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijia; Liu, Yinghui; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Paine, Alex; Rathore, Shailendra S; Shen, Jingshi

    2016-04-19

    Organelles are in constant communication with each other through exchange of proteins (mediated by trafficking vesicles) and lipids [mediated by both trafficking vesicles and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs)]. It has long been known that vesicle trafficking can be tightly regulated by the second messenger Ca(2+), allowing membrane protein transport to be adjusted according to physiological demands. However, it remains unclear whether LTP-mediated lipid transport can also be regulated by Ca(2+) In this work, we show that extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), poorly understood membrane proteins at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, are Ca(2+)-dependent LTPs. Using both recombinant and endogenous mammalian proteins, we discovered that E-Syts transfer glycerophospholipids between membrane bilayers in the presence of Ca(2+) E-Syts use their lipid-accommodating synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid binding protein (SMP) domains to transfer lipids. However, the SMP domains themselves cannot transport lipids unless the two membranes are tightly tethered by Ca(2+)-bound C2 domains. Strikingly, the Ca(2+)-regulated lipid transfer activity of E-Syts was fully recapitulated when the SMP domain was fused to the cytosolic domain of synaptotagmin-1, the Ca(2+)sensor in synaptic vesicle fusion, indicating that a common mechanism of membrane tethering governs the Ca(2+)regulation of lipid transfer and vesicle fusion. Finally, we showed that microsomal vesicles isolated from mammalian cells contained robust Ca(2+)-dependent lipid transfer activities, which were mediated by E-Syts. These findings established E-Syts as a novel class of LTPs and showed that LTP-mediated lipid trafficking, like vesicular transport, can be subject to tight Ca(2+)regulation. PMID:27044075

  12. The seipin complex Fld1/Ldb16 stabilizes ER–lipid droplet contact sites

    PubMed Central

    Grippa, Alexandra; Buxó, Laura; Mora, Gabriel; Funaya, Charlotta; Idrissi, Fatima-Zahra; Mancuso, Francesco; Gomez, Raul; Muntanyà, Júlia; Sabidó, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are storage organelles consisting of a neutral lipid core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and a set of LD-specific proteins. Most LD components are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that is often physically connected with LDs. How LD identity is established while maintaining biochemical and physical connections with the ER is not known. Here, we show that the yeast seipin Fld1, in complex with the ER membrane protein Ldb16, prevents equilibration of ER and LD surface components by stabilizing the contact sites between the two organelles. In the absence of the Fld1/Ldb16 complex, assembly of LDs results in phospholipid packing defects leading to aberrant distribution of lipid-binding proteins and abnormal LDs. We propose that the Fld1/Ldb16 complex facilitates the establishment of LD identity by acting as a diffusion barrier at the ER–LD contact sites. PMID:26572621

  13. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Tickle, Ian J.; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-01-01

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26655740

  14. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, R Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L; Saini, Harpreet K; Tickle, Ian J; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-12-29

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Exploiting bioorthogonal chemistry to elucidate protein-lipid binding interactions and other biological roles of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Best, Michael D; Rowland, Meng M; Bostic, Heidi E

    2011-09-20

    Lipids play critical roles in a litany of physiological and pathophysiological events, often through the regulation of protein function. These activities are generally difficult to characterize, however, because the membrane environment in which lipids operate is very complex. Moreover, lipids have a diverse range of biological functions, including the recruitment of proteins to membrane surfaces, actions as small-molecule ligands, and covalent protein modification through lipidation. Advancements in the development of bioorthogonal reactions have facilitated the study of lipid activities by providing the ability to selectively label probes bearing bioorthogonal tags within complex biological samples. In this Account, we discuss recent efforts to harness the beneficial properties of bioorthogonal labeling strategies in elucidating lipid function. Initially, we summarize strategies for the design and synthesis of lipid probes bearing bioorthogonal tags. This discussion includes issues to be considered when deciding where to incorporate the tag, particularly the presentation within a membrane environment. We then present examples of the application of these probes to the study of lipid activities, with a particular emphasis on the elucidation of protein-lipid binding interactions. One such application involves the development of lipid and membrane microarray analysis as a high-throughput platform for characterizing protein-binding interactions. Here we discuss separate strategies for binding analysis involving the immobilization of either whole liposomes or simplified isolated lipid structures. In addition, we present the different strategies that have been used to derivatize membrane surfaces via bioorthogonal reactions, either by using this chemistry to produce functionalized lipid scaffolds that can be incorporated into membranes or through direct modification of intact membrane surfaces. We then provide an overview of the development of lipid activity probes to

  16. TIM-4 structures identify a Metal Ion-dependent Ligand Binding Site where phosphatidylserine binds

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Cesar; Ballesteros, Angela; Martinez-Muñoz, Laura; Mellado, Mario; Kaplan, Gerardo G.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Casasnovas, José M.

    2008-01-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins are important regulators of T cell responses. They have been linked to autoimmunity and cancer. Structures of the murine TIM-4 identified a Metal Ion-dependent Ligand Binding Site (MILIBS) in the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of the TIM family. The characteristic CC’ loop of the TIM domain and the hydrophobic FG loop shaped a narrow cavity where acidic compounds penetrate and coordinate to a metal ion bound to conserved residues in the TIM proteins. The structure of phosphatidylserine bound to the Ig domain showed that the hydrophilic head penetrates into the MILIBS and coordinates with the metal ion, while the aromatic residues on the tip of the FG loop interacted with the fatty acid chains and could insert into the lipid bilayer. Our results also revealed a significant role of the MILIBS in trafficking of TIM-1 to the cell surface. PMID:18083575

  17. Predicting Ca2+ -binding sites using refined carbon clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Xue; Wong, Hing C; Wohlhueter, Robert; Kirberger, Michael P; Chen, Guantao; Yang, Jenny J

    2012-12-01

    Identifying Ca(2+) -binding sites in proteins is the first step toward understanding the molecular basis of diseases related to Ca(2+) -binding proteins. Currently, these sites are identified in structures either through X-ray crystallography or NMR analysis. However, Ca(2+) -binding sites are not always visible in X-ray structures due to flexibility in the binding region or low occupancy in a Ca(2+) -binding site. Similarly, both Ca(2+) and its ligand oxygens are not directly observed in NMR structures. To improve our ability to predict Ca(2+) -binding sites in both X-ray and NMR structures, we report a new graph theory algorithm (MUG(C) ) to predict Ca(2+) -binding sites. Using carbon atoms covalently bonded to the chelating oxygen atoms, and without explicit reference to side-chain oxygen ligand co-ordinates, MUG(C) is able to achieve 94% sensitivity with 76% selectivity on a dataset of X-ray structures composed of 43 Ca(2+) -binding proteins. Additionally, prediction of Ca(2+) -binding sites in NMR structures was obtained by MUG(C) using a different set of parameters, which were determined by the analysis of both Ca(2+) -constrained and unconstrained Ca(2+) -loaded structures derived from NMR data. MUG(C) identified 20 of 21 Ca(2+) -binding sites in NMR structures inferred without the use of Ca(2+) constraints. MUG(C) predictions are also highly selective for Ca(2+) -binding sites as analyses of binding sites for Mg(2+) , Zn(2+) , and Pb(2+) were not identified as Ca(2+) -binding sites. These results indicate that the geometric arrangement of the second-shell carbon cluster is sufficient not only for accurate identification of Ca(2+) -binding sites in NMR and X-ray structures but also for selective differentiation between Ca(2+) and other relevant divalent cations.

  18. Caleosins: Ca2+-binding proteins associated with lipid bodies.

    PubMed

    Naested, H; Frandsen, G I; Jauh, G Y; Hernandez-Pinzon, I; Nielsen, H B; Murphy, D J; Rogers, J C; Mundy, J

    2000-11-01

    We have previously identified a rice gene encoding a 27 kDa protein with a single Ca2+-binding EF-hand and a putative membrane anchor. We report here similar genes termed caleosins, CLO, in other plants and fungi; they comprise a multigene family of at least five members in Arabidopsis (AtClo1-5). Northern hybridization demonstrated that AtClo2-4 mRNAs levels were low in various tissues, while AtClo1 mRNA levels were high in developing embryos and mature seeds. Analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the GUS reporter under control of the AtClo1 promoter showed strong levels of expression in developing embryos and also in root tip cells. Antibodies raised against AtCLO1 were used to detect caleosin in cellular fractions of Arabidopsis and rapeseed. This indicated that caleosins are a novel class of lipid body proteins, which may also be associated with an ER subdomain. PMID:11197322

  19. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas.

  20. Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The binding of transcription factors to specific locations in the genome is integral to the orchestration of transcriptional regulation in cells. To characterize transcription factor binding site function on a large scale, we predicted and mutagenized 455 binding sites in human promoters. We carried out functional tests on these sites in four different immortalized human cell lines using transient transfections with a luciferase reporter assay, primarily for the transcription factors CTCF, GABP, GATA2, E2F, STAT, and YY1. Results In each cell line, between 36% and 49% of binding sites made a functional contribution to the promoter activity; the overall rate for observing function in any of the cell lines was 70%. Transcription factor binding resulted in transcriptional repression in more than a third of functional sites. When compared with predicted binding sites whose function was not experimentally verified, the functional binding sites had higher conservation and were located closer to transcriptional start sites (TSSs). Among functional sites, repressive sites tended to be located further from TSSs than were activating sites. Our data provide significant insight into the functional characteristics of YY1 binding sites, most notably the detection of distinct activating and repressing classes of YY1 binding sites. Repressing sites were located closer to, and often overlapped with, translational start sites and presented a distinctive variation on the canonical YY1 binding motif. Conclusions The genomic properties that we found to associate with functional TF binding sites on promoters -- conservation, TSS proximity, motifs and their variations -- point the way to improved accuracy in future TFBS predictions. PMID:22951020

  1. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    DOE PAGES

    Barbaglia, Allison M.; Tamot, Banita; Greve, Veronica; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2016-04-28

    Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho-) lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and thatmore » they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012). Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I) a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II) a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III) and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein), a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while all

  2. Phloem Proteomics Reveals New Lipid-Binding Proteins with a Putative Role in Lipid-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barbaglia, Allison M.; Tamot, Banita; Greve, Veronica; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho-) lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012). Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I) a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II) a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III) and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein), a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while all three

  3. Zinc-induced oligomerization of zinc α2 glycoprotein reveals multiple fatty acid-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Henna; Miah, Layeque; Lau, Andy M; Brochard, Lea; Hati, Debolina; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Zinc α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with a class I MHC protein fold and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Although its intrinsic ligand remains unknown, ZAG binds the dansylated C11 fatty acid 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) in the groove between the α1 and α2 domains. The surface of ZAG has approximately 15 weak zinc-binding sites deemed responsible for precipitation from human plasma. In the present study the functional significance of these metal sites was investigated. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and CD showed that zinc, but not other divalent metals, causes ZAG to oligomerize in solution. Thus ZAG dimers and trimers were observed in the presence of 1 and 2 mM zinc. Molecular modelling of X-ray scattering curves and sedimentation coefficients indicated a progressive stacking of ZAG monomers, suggesting that the ZAG groove may be occluded in these. Using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity, these ZAG-zinc oligomers were again observed in the presence of the fluorescent boron dipyrromethene fatty acid C16-BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid). Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that ZAG binds C16-BODIPY. ZAG binding to C16-BODIPY, but not to DAUDA, was reduced by increased zinc concentrations. We conclude that the lipid-binding groove in ZAG contains at least two distinct fatty acid-binding sites for DAUDA and C16-BODIPY, similar to the multiple lipid binding seen in the structurally related immune protein CD1c. In addition, because high concentrations of zinc occur in the pancreas, the perturbation of these multiple lipid-binding sites by zinc may be significant in Type 2 diabetes where dysregulation of ZAG and zinc homoeostasis occurs.

  4. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  5. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational

  6. OSBP-Related Protein Family in Lipid Transport Over Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) localize at membrane contact sites, which are high-capacity platforms for inter-organelle exchange of small molecules and information. ORPs can simultaneously associate with the two apposed membranes and transfer lipids across the interbilayer gap. Oxysterol-binding protein moves cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum to trans-Golgi, driven by the retrograde transport of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Analogously, yeast Osh6p mediates the transport of phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in exchange for PI4P, and ORP5 and -8 are suggested to execute similar functions in mammalian cells. ORPs may share the capacity to bind PI4P within their ligand-binding domain, prompting the hypothesis that bidirectional transport of a phosphoinositide and another lipid may be a common theme among the protein family. This model, however, needs more experimental support and does not exclude a function of ORPs in lipid signaling. PMID:26715851

  7. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  8. Lipid binding ability of human apolipoprotein E N-terminal domain isoforms: correlation with protein stability?

    PubMed

    Weers, Paul M M; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Choy, Nicole; Luty, Robert; Hicks, Les; Kay, Cyril M; Ryan, Robert O

    2003-01-01

    decreasing the pH to 3.0. Taken together, the data indicate that changes in the stability of secondary structure elements in apoE-NT isoforms are not responsible for pH-induced increases in lipid binding activity. It is likely that pH-induced disruption of inter-helical tertiary contacts may promote helix bundle conformational changes that present the hydrophobic interior of the protein to potential lipid surface binding sites.

  9. pMD-Membrane: A Method for Ligand Binding Site Identification in Membrane-Bound Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based or mixed solvent molecular dynamics simulation is a useful approach for the identification and characterization of druggable sites in drug targets. However, thus far the method has been applied only to soluble proteins. A major reason for this is the potential effect of the probe molecules on membrane structure. We have developed a technique to overcome this limitation that entails modification of force field parameters to reduce a few pairwise non-bonded interactions between selected atoms of the probe molecules and bilayer lipids. We used the resulting technique, termed pMD-membrane, to identify allosteric ligand binding sites on the G12D and G13D oncogenic mutants of the K-Ras protein bound to a negatively charged lipid bilayer. In addition, we show that differences in probe occupancy can be used to quantify changes in the accessibility of druggable sites due to conformational changes induced by membrane binding or mutation. PMID:26506102

  10. Autoradiographic localization of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.D.; Springall, D.R.; Wharton, J.; Polak, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques and {sup 125}I-labeled endothelin-1 were used to study the distribution of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin. Specific endothelin-1 binding sites were localized to blood vessels (capillaries, deep cutaneous vascular plexus, arteries, and arterioles), the deep dermal and connective tissue sheath of hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle. Specific binding was inhibited by endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 as well as endothelin-1. Non-specific binding was found in the epidermis and the medulla of hair follicles. No binding was found in connective tissue or fat. These vascular binding sites may represent endothelin receptors, in keeping with the known cutaneous vasoconstrictor actions of the peptide. If all binding sites are receptors, the results suggest that endothelin could also regulate the function of sweat glands and may have trophic effects in the skin.

  11. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  12. Unraveling determinants of transcription factor binding outside the core binding site.

    PubMed

    Levo, Michal; Zalckvar, Einat; Sharon, Eilon; Dantas Machado, Ana Carolina; Kalma, Yael; Lotam-Pompan, Maya; Weinberger, Adina; Yakhini, Zohar; Rohs, Remo; Segal, Eran

    2015-07-01

    Binding of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory sequences is a pivotal step in the control of gene expression. Despite many advances in the characterization of sequence motifs recognized by TFs, our ability to quantitatively predict TF binding to different regulatory sequences is still limited. Here, we present a novel experimental assay termed BunDLE-seq that provides quantitative measurements of TF binding to thousands of fully designed sequences of 200 bp in length within a single experiment. Applying this binding assay to two yeast TFs, we demonstrate that sequences outside the core TF binding site profoundly affect TF binding. We show that TF-specific models based on the sequence or DNA shape of the regions flanking the core binding site are highly predictive of the measured differential TF binding. We further characterize the dependence of TF binding, accounting for measurements of single and co-occurring binding events, on the number and location of binding sites and on the TF concentration. Finally, by coupling our in vitro TF binding measurements, and another application of our method probing nucleosome formation, to in vivo expression measurements carried out with the same template sequences serving as promoters, we offer insights into mechanisms that may determine the different expression outcomes observed. Our assay thus paves the way to a more comprehensive understanding of TF binding to regulatory sequences and allows the characterization of TF binding determinants within and outside of core binding sites. PMID:25762553

  13. Driving force of binding of amyloid {beta}-protein to lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Katsumi

    2008-06-06

    Amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}) has been reported to interact with a variety of lipid species, although the thermodynamic driving force remains unclear. We investigated the binding of A{beta}s labeled with the dye diethylaminocoumarin (DAC-A{beta}s) to lipid bilayers under various conditions. DAC-A{beta}-(1-40) electrostatically bound to anionic and cationic lipids at acidic and alkaline interfacial pH, respectively. However, at neutral pH, electroneutral A{beta} did not bind to these lipids, indicating little hydrophobic interaction between A{beta}-(1-40) and the acyl chains of lipids. In contrast, DAC-A{beta} associated with glycolipids even under electroneutral conditions. These results suggested that hydrogen-bonding as well as hydrophobic interactions with sugar groups of glycolipids drive the membrane binding of A{beta}-(1-40)

  14. Antimicrobial lipopeptide tridecaptin A1 selectively binds to Gram-negative lipid II

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Stephen A.; Findlay, Brandon; Bakhtiary, Alireza; Acedo, Jeella Z.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Eva M.; Mercier, Pascal; Vederas, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Tridecaptin A1 (TriA1) is a nonribosomal lipopeptide with selective antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show that TriA1 exerts its bactericidal effect by binding to the bacterial cell-wall precursor lipid II on the inner membrane, disrupting the proton motive force. Biochemical and biophysical assays show that binding to the Gram-negative variant of lipid II is required for membrane disruption and that only the proton gradient is dispersed. The NMR solution structure of TriA1 in dodecylphosphocholine micelles with lipid II has been determined, and molecular modeling was used to provide a structural model of the TriA1–lipid II complex. These results suggest that TriA1 kills Gram-negative bacteria by a mechanism of action using a lipid-II–binding motif. PMID:27688760

  15. Differential lipid binding of vinculin isoforms promotes quasi-equivalent dimerization.

    PubMed

    Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Rangarajan, Erumbi S; Brown, David T; Izard, Tina

    2016-08-23

    The main cause of death globally remains debilitating heart conditions, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which are often due to mutations of specific components of adhesion complexes. Vinculin regulates these complexes and plays essential roles in intercalated discs that are necessary for muscle cell function and coordinated movement and in the development and function of the heart. Humans bearing familial or sporadic mutations in vinculin suffer from chronic, progressively debilitating DCM that ultimately leads to cardiac failure and death, whereas autosomal dominant mutations in vinculin can also provoke HCM, causing acute cardiac failure. The DCM/HCM-associated mutants of vinculin occur in the 68-residue insert unique to the muscle-specific, alternatively spliced isoform of vinculin, termed metavinculin (MV). Contrary to studies that suggested that phosphoinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) only induces vinculin homodimers, which are asymmetric, we show that phospholipid binding results in a domain-swapped symmetric MV dimer via a quasi-equivalent interface compared with vinculin involving R975. Although one of the two PIP2 binding sites is preserved, the symmetric MV dimer that bridges two PIP2 molecules differs from the asymmetric vinculin dimer that bridges only one PIP2 Unlike vinculin, wild-type MV and the DCM/HCM-associated R975W mutant bind PIP2 in their inactive conformations, and R975W MV fails to dimerize. Mutating selective vinculin residues to their corresponding MV residues, or vice versa, switches the isoform's dimeric constellation and lipid binding site. Collectively, our data suggest that MV homodimerization modulates microfilament attachment at muscular adhesion sites and furthers our understanding of MV-mediated cardiac remodeling. PMID:27503891

  16. Quenching of fluorescein-conjugated lipids by antibodies. Quantitative recognition and binding of lipid-bound haptens in biomembrane models, formation of two-dimensional protein domains and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers, M; Grainger, D W; Herron, J N; Lim, K; Ringsdorf, H; Salesse, C

    1992-01-01

    Three model biomembrane systems, monolayers, micelles, and vesicles, have been used to study the influence of chemical and physical variables of hapten presentation at membrane interfaces on antibody binding. Hapten recognition and binding were monitored for the anti-fluorescein monoclonal antibody 4-4-20 generated against the hapten, fluorescein, in these membrane models as a function of fluorescein-conjugated lipid architecture. Specific recognition and binding in this system are conveniently monitored by quenching of fluorescein emission upon penetration of fluorescein into the antibody's active site. Lipid structure was shown to play a large role in affecting antibody quenching. Interestingly, the observed degrees of quenching were nearly independent of the lipid membrane model studied, but directly correlated with the chemical structure of the lipids. In all cases, the antibody recognized and quenched most efficiently a lipid based on dioctadecylamine where fluorescein is attached to the headgroup via a long, flexible hydrophilic spacer. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine containing a fluorescein headgroup demonstrated only partial binding/quenching. Egg phosphatidylethanolamine with a fluorescein headgroup showed no susceptibility to antibody recognition, binding, or quenching. Formation of two-dimensional protein domains upon antibody binding to the fluorescein-lipids in monolayers is also presented. Chemical and physical requirements for these antibody-hapten complexes at membrane surfaces have been discussed in terms of molecular dynamics simulations based on recent crystallographic models for this antibody-hapten complex (Herron et al., 1989. Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 5:271-280). Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:1420916

  17. Identification of key residues in the A-Raf kinase important for phosphoinositide lipid binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lindsey M; James, Kristy M; Chamberlain, M Dean; Anderson, Deborah H

    2005-03-01

    Raf kinases are involved in regulating cellular signal transduction pathways in response to a wide variety of external stimuli. Upstream signals generate activated Ras-GTP, important for the relocalization of Raf kinases to the membrane. Upon full activation, Raf kinases phosphorylate and activate downstream kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The Raf family of kinases has three members, Raf-1, B-Raf, and A-Raf. The ability of Raf-1 and B-Raf to bind phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidic acid (PA) has been show to facilitate Raf membrane associations and regulate Raf kinase activity. We have characterized the lipid binding properties of A-Raf, as well as further characterized those of Raf-1. Both A-Raf and Raf-1 were found to bind to 3-, 4-, and 5-monophosphorylated phosphoinositides [PI(3)P, PI(4)P, and PI(5)P] as well as phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P(2)]. In addition, A-Raf also bound specifically to phosphatidylinositol 4,5- and 3,4-bisphosphates [PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4)P(2)] and to PA. A mutational analysis of A-Raf localized the PI(4,5)P(2) binding site to two basic residues (K50 and R52) within the Ras binding domain. Additionally, an A-Raf mutant lacking the first 199 residues [i.e., the entire conserved region 1 (CR1) domain] bound the same phospholipids as full-length Raf-1. This suggests that a second region of A-Raf between amino acids 200 and 606 was responsible for interactions with the monophosphorylated PIs and PI(3,5)P(2). These results raise the possibility that Raf-1 and A-Raf bind to specific phosphoinositides as a mechanism to localize them to particular membrane microdomains rich in these phospholipids. Moreover, the differences in their lipid binding profiles could contribute to their proposed isoform-specific Raf functions.

  18. Sizes of Mn-binding sites in spinach thylakoids

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Asada, K.

    1986-12-25

    The sizes of the Mn-binding sites in spinach thylakoids were estimated by target size analysis, assaying the membrane-bound Mn that was resistant to EDTA washing after radiation inactivation. The inactivation curve showed well the inactivation of two independent Mn-binding sites of different sizes: about two-thirds of the Mn coordinated to a binding site of 65 kDa, and the rest bound to a much smaller site of only about 3 kDa. In the large site, there was about 1 g atom of Mn/110 mol of chlorophyll in spinach thylakoids, which was constant in normally grown plants, although the Mn level in the small site depended on culture conditions. Thylakoids that had been incubated with hydroxylamine or in 0.8 M Tris lost Mn exclusively from the large binding site.

  19. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-05-24

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

  20. Binding studies of SV40 T-antigen to SV40 binding site II.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, P; Nasoff, M S; Fisher, E F; Walsh, A M; Caruthers, M H

    1985-09-25

    SV40 T-Antigen binding site II was synthesized, cloned and analyzed for its ability to bind purified SV40 T-antigen. We report the binding constant of T-antigen for isolated site II. Using a filter binding assay the calculated binding constant was 6-8 fold less efficient than site I previously reported. Binding constants were calculated using two methods. The first was a direct calculation using a protein titration curve (KD). The second was by the ratio of measured association and dissociation rates. Both methods gave similar constants. Protection studies with SV40 T-antigen on the T-antigen binding sites in the wild-type array demonstrated that the binding constants of site I and site II are similar to those calculated for the individual sites. These results demonstrate that SV40 T-antigen does not bind cooperatively to sites one and two as earlier believed and are in agreement with recent observations emanating from several laboratories.

  1. Exploration of Gated Ligand Binding Recognizes an Allosteric Site for Blocking FABP4-Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiang; Dong, Zigang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), reversibly binding to fatty acids and other lipids with high affinities, is a potential target for treatment of cancers. The binding site of FABP4 is buried in an interior cavity and thereby ligand binding/unbinding is coupled with opening/closing of FABP4. It is a difficult task both experimentally and computationally to illuminate the entry or exit pathway, especially with the conformational gating. In this report we combine extensive computer simulations, clustering analysis, and Markov state model to investigate the binding mechanism of FABP4 and troglitazone. Our simulations capture spontaneous binding and unbinding events as well as the conformational transition of FABP4 between the open and closed states. An allosteric binding site on the protein surface is recognized for development of novel FABP4 inhibitors. The binding affinity is calculated and compared with the experimental value. The kinetic analysis suggests that ligand residence on the protein surface may delay the binding process. Overall, our results provide a comprehensive picture of ligand diffusion on the protein surface, ligand migration into the buried cavity, and the conformational change of FABP4 at an atomic level. PMID:26580122

  2. Evaluation of the metal binding sites in a recombinant coagulation factor VIII identifies two sites with unique metal binding properties.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Lars Anders; Thim, Lars; Olsen, Ole Hvilsted; Nicolaisen, Else Marie

    2013-06-01

    Coagulation factor VIII is a glycosylated, non-covalent heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain (A1-A2-B domains) and a light chain (A3-C1-C2 domains). The association of the chains, and the stability and function of the dimer depend on the presence of metal ions. We applied X-ray fluorescence, X-ray crystallographic structure determination with anomalous signals at different wavelengths, and colorimetric measurements to evaluate the metal binding sites in a recombinant factor VIII molecule, turoctocog alfa. We identified a metal binding site in domain A3 dominated by Cu(+) binding and a site in domain A1 dominated by Zn(2+) binding.

  3. Partitioning, diffusion, and ligand binding of raft lipid analogs in model and cellular plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Levental, Ilya; Grzybek, Michal; Schwarzmann, Günter; Mueller, Veronika; Honigmann, Alf; Belov, Vladimir N; Eggeling, Christian; Coskun, Unal; Simons, Kai; Schwille, Petra

    2012-07-01

    Several simplified membrane models featuring coexisting liquid disordered (Ld) and ordered (Lo) lipid phases have been developed to mimic the heterogeneous organization of cellular membranes, and thus, aid our understanding of the nature and functional role of ordered lipid-protein nanodomains, termed "rafts". In spite of their greatly reduced complexity, quantitative characterization of local lipid environments using model membranes is not trivial, and the parallels that can be drawn to cellular membranes are not always evident. Similarly, various fluorescently labeled lipid analogs have been used to study membrane organization and function in vitro, although the biological activity of these probes in relation to their native counterparts often remains uncharacterized. This is particularly true for raft-preferring lipids ("raft lipids", e.g. sphingolipids and sterols), whose domain preference is a strict function of their molecular architecture, and is thus susceptible to disruption by fluorescence labeling. Here, we analyze the phase partitioning of a multitude of fluorescent raft lipid analogs in synthetic Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) and cell-derived Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles (GPMVs). We observe complex partitioning behavior dependent on label size, polarity, charge and position, lipid headgroup, and membrane composition. Several of the raft lipid analogs partitioned into the ordered phase in GPMVs, in contrast to fully synthetic GUVs, in which most raft lipid analogs mis-partitioned to the disordered phase. This behavior correlates with the greatly enhanced order difference between coexisting phases in the synthetic system. In addition, not only partitioning, but also ligand binding of the lipids is perturbed upon labeling: while cholera toxin B binds unlabeled GM1 in the Lo phase, it binds fluorescently labeled GMI exclusively in the Ld phase. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) by stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy on intact

  4. Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging To Identify Protein Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient biomolecular interactions are the cornerstones of the cellular machinery. The identification of the binding sites for low affinity molecular encounters is essential for the development of high affinity pharmaceuticals from weakly binding leads but is hindered by the lack of robust methodologies for characterization of weakly binding complexes. We introduce a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of low affinity protein–ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, which are invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. The methodology is corroborated by identification of the low millimolar volatile anesthetic interaction site of the calcium sensor protein calmodulin. It presents an efficient route to binding site localization for low affinity complexes and is applicable to rapid screening of protein–ligand systems with varying binding affinity. PMID:26289584

  5. Competitive binding of nile red between lipids and β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Jana, Barnali; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Fluorometric measurements are exploited to explore the binding interactions of nile red (NR) with anionic lipid dimyristoyl-L-α-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), zwitterionic lipid dimyristoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as well as neutral cyclic oligosaccharide β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solutions. The binding constants are found to be quite high and comparable (within a factor of five). Series of spectral techniques like steady state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy study, micropolarity study, quenching study and time resolved experiments reveal that the addition of β-CD to the probe-lipid complexes results in weakening of the lipid-probe interaction and formation of probe-β-CD inclusion complexes leading to the removal of some of the probe (NR) molecules from the lipid environments. The extent of removal of NR is, however, more from DMPG than DMPC lipid. The phenomena are explained from the concept of competitive binding of the probe between the lipids and β-CD. Since lipids are the principal constituents of the cell walls, the work might make a foundation for the possible removal of excess of molecules like nile red adsorbed on the cell walls.

  6. Disentangling Viral Membrane Fusion from Receptor Binding Using Synthetic DNA-Lipid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Rawle, Robert J; Boxer, Steven G; Kasson, Peter M

    2016-07-12

    Enveloped viruses must bind to a receptor on the host membrane to initiate infection. Membrane fusion is subsequently initiated by a conformational change in the viral fusion protein, triggered by receptor binding, an environmental change, or both. Here, we present a strategy to disentangle the two processes of receptor binding and fusion using synthetic DNA-lipid conjugates to bind enveloped viruses to target membranes in the absence of receptor. This permits direct testing of whether receptor engagement affects the fusion mechanism as well as a comparison of fusion behavior across viruses with different receptor binding specificities. We demonstrate this approach by binding X-31 influenza virus to target vesicles and measuring the rates of individual pH-triggered lipid mixing events using fluorescence microscopy. Influenza lipid mixing kinetics are found to be independent of receptor binding, supporting the common yet previously unproven assumption that receptor binding does not produce any clustering or spatial rearrangement of viral hemagglutinin, which affects the rate-limiting step of pH-triggered fusion. This DNA-lipid tethering strategy should also allow the study of viruses where challenging receptor reconstitution has previously prevented single-virus fusion experiments. PMID:27410740

  7. Disentangling Viral Membrane Fusion from Receptor Binding Using Synthetic DNA-Lipid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Rawle, Robert J; Boxer, Steven G; Kasson, Peter M

    2016-07-12

    Enveloped viruses must bind to a receptor on the host membrane to initiate infection. Membrane fusion is subsequently initiated by a conformational change in the viral fusion protein, triggered by receptor binding, an environmental change, or both. Here, we present a strategy to disentangle the two processes of receptor binding and fusion using synthetic DNA-lipid conjugates to bind enveloped viruses to target membranes in the absence of receptor. This permits direct testing of whether receptor engagement affects the fusion mechanism as well as a comparison of fusion behavior across viruses with different receptor binding specificities. We demonstrate this approach by binding X-31 influenza virus to target vesicles and measuring the rates of individual pH-triggered lipid mixing events using fluorescence microscopy. Influenza lipid mixing kinetics are found to be independent of receptor binding, supporting the common yet previously unproven assumption that receptor binding does not produce any clustering or spatial rearrangement of viral hemagglutinin, which affects the rate-limiting step of pH-triggered fusion. This DNA-lipid tethering strategy should also allow the study of viruses where challenging receptor reconstitution has previously prevented single-virus fusion experiments.

  8. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  9. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  10. Temperature and pressure adaptation of the binding site of acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Hochachka, P W

    1974-12-01

    1. Studies with a carbon substrate analogue, 3,3-dimethylbutyl acetate, indicate that the hydrophobic contribution to binding at the anionic site of acetylcholinesterase is strongly disrupted at low temperatures and high pressures. 2. Animals living in different physical environments circumvent this problem by adjusting the enthalpic and entropic contributions to binding. 3. An extreme example of this adaptational strategy is supplied by brain acetylcholinesterase extracted from an abyssal fish living at 2 degrees C and up to several hundred atmospheres of pressure. This acetylcholinesterase appears to have a smaller hydrophobic binding region in the anionic site, playing a measurably decreased role in ligand binding. PMID:4462739

  11. Temperature and pressure adaptation of the binding site of acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Hochachka, Peter W.

    1974-01-01

    1. Studies with a carbon substrate analogue, 3,3-dimethylbutyl acetate, indicate that the hydrophobic contribution to binding at the anionic site of acetylcholinesterase is strongly disrupted at low temperatures and high pressures. 2. Animals living in different physical environments circumvent this problem by adjusting the enthalpic and entropic contributions to binding. 3. An extreme example of this adaptational strategy is supplied by brain acetylcholinesterase extracted from an abyssal fish living at 2°C and up to several hundred atmospheres of pressure. This acetylcholinesterase appears to have a smaller hydrophobic binding region in the anionic site, playing a measurably decreased role in ligand binding. PMID:4462739

  12. Keys to Lipid Selection in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Catalysis: Structural Flexibility, Gating Residues and Multiple Binding Pockets

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Giulia; Bauer, Inga; Campomanes, Pablo; Cavalli, Andrea; Armirotti, Andrea; Girotto, Stefania; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates the endocannabinoid system cleaving primarily the lipid messenger anandamide. FAAH has been well characterized over the years and, importantly, it represents a promising drug target to treat several diseases, including inflammatory-related diseases and cancer. But its enzymatic mechanism for lipid selection to specifically hydrolyze anandamide, rather than similar bioactive lipids, remains elusive. Here, we clarify this mechanism in FAAH, examining the role of the dynamic paddle, which is formed by the gating residues Phe432 and Trp531 at the boundary between two cavities that form the FAAH catalytic site (the “membrane-access” and the “acyl chain-binding” pockets). We integrate microsecond-long MD simulations of wild type and double mutant model systems (Phe432Ala and Trp531Ala) of FAAH, embedded in a realistic membrane/water environment, with mutagenesis and kinetic experiments. We comparatively analyze three fatty acid substrates with different hydrolysis rates (anandamide > oleamide > palmitoylethanolamide). Our findings identify FAAH’s mechanism to selectively accommodate anandamide into a multi-pocket binding site, and to properly orient the substrate in pre-reactive conformations for efficient hydrolysis that is interceded by the dynamic paddle. Our findings therefore endorse a structural framework for a lipid selection mechanism mediated by structural flexibility and gating residues between multiple binding cavities, as found in FAAH. Based on the available structural data, this exquisite catalytic strategy for substrate specificity seems to be shared by other lipid-degrading enzymes with similar enzymatic architecture. The mechanistic insights for lipid selection might assist de-novo enzyme design or drug discovery efforts. PMID:26111155

  13. Binding to the lipid monolayer induces conformational transition in Aβ monomer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongwon; Klimov, Dmitri K

    2013-02-01

    Using implicit solvent atomistic model and replica exchange molecular dynamics, we study binding of Aβ monomer to zwitterionic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid monolayer. Our results suggest that Aβ binding to the monolayer is governed primarily by positively charged and aromatic amino acids. Lysine residues tend to interact with surface choline and phosphorous lipid groups, whereas aromatic amino acids penetrate deeper into the monolayer, reaching its hydrophobic core. We show that binding to the DMPC monolayer causes a dramatic conformational transition in Aβ monomer, resulting in chain extension, loss of intrapeptide interactions, and formation of β-structure. This conformational transition is far more significant than that occurring during the initial stages of aggregation in water. We also found that Aβ binding perturbs surface ordering of lipids interacting with Aβ. PMID:23053007

  14. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) have been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine.

  15. Protein-protein binding site identification by enumerating the configurations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to predict protein-protein binding sites has a wide range of applications, including signal transduction studies, de novo drug design, structure identification and comparison of functional sites. The interface in a complex involves two structurally matched protein subunits, and the binding sites can be predicted by identifying structural matches at protein surfaces. Results We propose a method which enumerates “all” the configurations (or poses) between two proteins (3D coordinates of the two subunits in a complex) and evaluates each configuration by the interaction between its components using the Atomic Contact Energy function. The enumeration is achieved efficiently by exploring a set of rigid transformations. Our approach incorporates a surface identification technique and a method for avoiding clashes of two subunits when computing rigid transformations. When the optimal transformations according to the Atomic Contact Energy function are identified, the corresponding binding sites are given as predictions. Our results show that this approach consistently performs better than other methods in binding site identification. Conclusions Our method achieved a success rate higher than other methods, with the prediction quality improved in terms of both accuracy and coverage. Moreover, our method is being able to predict the configurations of two binding proteins, where most of other methods predict only the binding sites. The software package is available at http://sites.google.com/site/guofeics/dobi for non-commercial use. PMID:22768846

  16. SIENA: Efficient Compilation of Selective Protein Binding Site Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Bietz, Stefan; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-01-25

    Structural flexibility of proteins has an important influence on molecular recognition and enzymatic function. In modeling, structure ensembles are therefore often applied as a valuable source of alternative protein conformations. However, their usage is often complicated by structural artifacts and inconsistent data annotation. Here, we present SIENA, a new computational approach for the automated assembly and preprocessing of protein binding site ensembles. Starting with an arbitrarily defined binding site in a single protein structure, SIENA searches for alternative conformations of the same or sequentially closely related binding sites. The method is based on an indexed database for identifying perfect k-mer matches and a recently published algorithm for the alignment of protein binding site conformations. Furthermore, SIENA provides a new algorithm for the interaction-based selection of binding site conformations which aims at covering all known ligand-binding geometries. Various experiments highlight that SIENA is able to generate comprehensive and well selected binding site ensembles improving the compatibility to both known and unconsidered ligand molecules. Starting with the whole PDB as data source, the computation time of the whole ensemble generation takes only a few seconds. SIENA is available via a Web service at www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/siena .

  17. Evidence for a second receptor binding site on human prolactin.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Struman, I; Mainfroid, V; Kinet, S; Martial, J A

    1994-12-23

    The existence of a second receptor binding site on human prolactin (hPRL) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. First, 12 residues of helices 1 and 3 were mutated to alanine. Since none of the resulting mutants exhibit reduced bioactivity in the Nb2 cell proliferation bioassay, the mutated residues do not appear to be functionally necessary. Next, small residues surrounding the helix 1-helix 3 interface were replaced with Arg and/or Trp, the aim being to sterically hinder the second binding site. Several of these mutants exhibit only weak agonistic properties, supporting our hypothesis that the channel between helices 1 and 3 is involved in a second receptor binding site. We then analyzed the antagonistic and self-antagonistic properties of native hPRL and of several hPRLs analogs altered at binding site 1 or 2. Even at high concentrations (approximately 10 microM), no self-inhibition was observed with native hPRL; site 2 hPRL mutants self-antagonized while site 1 mutants did not. From these data, we propose a model of hPRL-PRL receptor interaction which slightly differs from that proposed earlier for the homologous human growth hormone (hGH) (Fuh, G., Cunningham, B. C., Fukunaga, R., Nagata, S., and Goeddel, D. V., and Well, J. A. (1992) Science 256, 1677-1680). Like hGH, hPRL would bind sequentially to two receptor molecules, first through site 1, then through site 2, but we would expect the two sites of hPRL to display, unlike the two binding sites of hGH, about the same binding affinity, thus preventing self-antagonism at high concentrations. PMID:7798264

  18. Autoradiographic localization of relaxin binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, P.L.; Phillips, H.S. )

    1991-08-01

    Relaxin is a member of the insulin family of polypeptide hormones and exerts its best understood actions in the mammalian reproductive system. Using a biologically active 32P-labeled human relaxin, the authors have previously shown by in vitro autoradiography specific relaxin binding sites in rat uterus, cervix, and brain tissues. Using the same approach, they describe here a detailed localization of human relaxin binding sites in the rat brain. Displaceable relaxin binding sites are distributed in discrete regions of the olfactory system, neocortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, midbrain, and medulla of the male and female rat brain. Characterization of the relaxin binding sites in the subfornical organ and neocortex reveals a single class of high-affinity sites (Kd = 1.4 nM) in both regions. The binding of relaxin to two of the circumventricular organs (subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) and the neurosecretory magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei) provides the anatomical and biochemical basis for emerging physiological evidence suggesting a central role for relaxin in the control of blood pressure and hormone release. They conclude that specific, high-affinity relaxin binding sites are present in discrete regions of the rat brain and that the distribution of some of these sites may be consistent with a role for relaxin in control of vascular volume and blood pressure.

  19. Specific Lipid Binding of Membrane Proteins in Detergent Micelles Characterized by NMR and Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linlin; Wang, Shuqing; Run, Changqing; OuYang, Bo; Chou, James J

    2016-09-27

    Many membrane proteins bind specifically to lipids as an integral component of their structures. The ability of detergents to support lipid binding is thus an important consideration when solubilizing membrane proteins for structural studies. In particular, the zwitterionic phosphocholine (PC)-based detergents, which have been widely used in solution NMR studies of channels and transporters, are controversial because of their strong solubilization power and thus perceived as more denaturing than nonionic detergents such as the maltosides. Here, we investigate the ability of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) to specifically bind cardiolipin, a mitochondrial lipid important for the carrier function, in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. We found that in DPC, the AAC specifically binds cardiolipin in a manner consistent with the bound cardiolipins found in the crystal structures of the AAC determined in n-decyl β-d-maltoside. Our results suggest that PC detergent is compatible with specific lipid binding and that PC detergent mixed with the relevant lipid represents a viable solubilization system for NMR studies of membrane proteins. PMID:27625145

  20. Annexin II contains two types of Ca(2+)-binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jost, M; Weber, K; Gerke, V

    1994-01-01

    The annexins are a multigene family of Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins which contain novel types of Ca2+ sites. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated mutant proteins that show defects in the Ca(2+)-binding sites in a particular member of this family, the src tyrosine kinase substrate annexin II. Analysis of the relative Ca(2+)-binding affinities of annexin II mutants in a combined Ca2+/phospholipid-binding assay revealed two distinct types of Ca(2+)-binding sites. Three so-called type II sites are found in annexin repeats 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Two so-called type III sites are located in the first repeat and involve the glutamic acid residues at positions 52 and 95. Both types of sites were recently identified by X-ray crystallography in annexins V and I [Huber, Schneider, Mayr, Römisch and Paques (1990) FEBS Lett. 275, 15-21; Weng, Luecke, Song, Kang, Kim and Huber (1993) Protein Sci. 2, 448-458], indicating that similar principles govern Ca2+ binding to annexins in crystals and in solution. The two types of Ca(2+)-binding sites differ not only in their architecture but also in their affinity for the bivalent cation. The Ca2+ concentration needed for half-maximal phosphatidylserine binding is 5-10 microM for an annexin II derivative with intact type II but defective type III sites (TM annexin II) whereas a mutant protein containing defective type II but unaltered type III sites (CM annexin II) requires 200-300 microM Ca2+ for the same activity. Annexin II mutants with defects in the type II and/or type III sites also show different subcellular distributions. When expressed transiently in HeLa cells, TM annexin II acquires the typical location in the cortical cytoskeleton observed for the wild-type molecule. In contrast, CM annexin II remains essentially cytosolic, as does a mutant protein containing defects in both type II and type III Ca(2+)-binding sites (TCM annexin II). This indicates that the intracellular association of annexin II

  1. A single native ganglioside GM1-binding site is sufficient for cholera toxin to bind to cells and complete the intoxication pathway.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G; Yang, Zhijie; Kam, Wendy R; Lencer, Wayne I; Holmes, Randall K

    2012-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the majority of the symptoms of the diarrheal disease cholera. CT is a heterohexameric protein complex with a 240-residue A subunit and a pentameric B subunit of identical 103-residue B polypeptides. The A subunit is proteolytically cleaved within a disulfide-linked loop to generate the A1 and A2 fragments. The B subunit of wild-type (wt) CT binds 5 cell surface ganglioside GM(1) (GM(1)) molecules, and the toxin-GM(1) complex traffics from the plasma membrane (PM) retrograde through endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). From the ER, the enzymatic A1 fragment retrotranslocates to the cytosol to cause disease. Clustering of GM(1) by multivalent toxin binding can structurally remodel cell membranes in ways that may assist toxin uptake and retrograde trafficking. We have recently found, however, that CT may traffic from the PM to the ER by exploiting an endogenous glycosphingolipid pathway (A. A. Wolf et al., Infect. Immun. 76:1476-1484, 2008, and D. J. F. Chinnapen et al., Dev. Cell 23:573-586, 2012), suggesting that multivalent binding to GM(1) is dispensable. Here we formally tested this idea by creating homogenous chimeric holotoxins with defined numbers of native GM(1) binding sites from zero (nonbinding) to five (wild type). We found that a single GM(1) binding site is sufficient for activity of the holotoxin. Therefore, remodeling of cell membranes by mechanisms that involve multivalent binding of toxin to GM(1) receptors is not essential for toxicity of CT. Through multivalent binding to its lipid receptor, cholera toxin (CT) can remodel cell membranes in ways that may assist host cell invasion. We recently found that CT variants which bind no more than 2 receptor molecules do exhibit toxicity, suggesting that CT may be able to enter cells by coopting an endogenous lipid sorting pathway without clustering receptors. We tested this idea directly by using purified variants

  2. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  3. Lipid-Free Antigen B Subunits from Echinococcus granulosus: Oligomerization, Ligand Binding, and Membrane Interaction Properties

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Álvarez, Valeria; Franchini, Gisela R.; Pórfido, Jorge L.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Ferreira, Ana M.; Córsico, Betina

    2015-01-01

    Background The hydatid disease parasite Echinococcus granulosus has a restricted lipid metabolism, and needs to harvest essential lipids from the host. Antigen B (EgAgB), an abundant lipoprotein of the larval stage (hydatid cyst), is thought to be important in lipid storage and transport. It contains a wide variety of lipid classes, from highly hydrophobic compounds to phospholipids. Its protein component belongs to the cestode-specific Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein family, which includes five 8-kDa isoforms encoded by a multigene family (EgAgB1-EgAgB5). How lipid and protein components are assembled into EgAgB particles remains unknown. EgAgB apolipoproteins self-associate into large oligomers, but the functional contribution of lipids to oligomerization is uncertain. Furthermore, binding of fatty acids to some EgAgB subunits has been reported, but their ability to bind other lipids and transfer them to acceptor membranes has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Lipid-free EgAgB subunits obtained by reverse-phase HPLC were used to analyse their oligomerization, ligand binding and membrane interaction properties. Size exclusion chromatography and cross-linking experiments showed that EgAgB8/2 and EgAgB8/3 can self-associate, suggesting that lipids are not required for oligomerization. Furthermore, using fluorescent probes, both subunits were found to bind fatty acids, but not cholesterol analogues. Analysis of fatty acid transfer to phospholipid vesicles demonstrated that EgAgB8/2 and EgAgB8/3 are potentially capable of transferring fatty acids to membranes, and that the efficiency of transfer is dependent on the surface charge of the vesicles. Conclusions/Significance We show that EgAgB apolipoproteins can oligomerize in the absence of lipids, and can bind and transfer fatty acids to phospholipid membranes. Since imported fatty acids are essential for Echinococcus granulosus, these findings provide a mechanism whereby EgAgB could engage in lipid

  4. Binding of small basic peptides to membranes containing acidic lipids: theoretical models and experimental results.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tal, N; Honig, B; Peitzsch, R M; Denisov, G; McLaughlin, S

    1996-01-01

    We measured directly the binding of Lys3, Lys5, and Lys7 to vesicles containing acidic phospholipids. When the vesicles contain 33% acidic lipids and the aqueous solution contains 100 mM monovalent salt, the standard Gibbs free energy for the binding of these peptides is 3, 5, and 7 kcal/mol, respectively. The binding energies decrease as the mol% of acidic lipids in the membrane decreases and/or as the salt concentration increases. Several lines of evidence suggest that these hydrophilic peptides do not penetrate the polar headgroup region of the membrane and that the binding is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. To calculate the binding energies from classical electrostatics, we applied the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation to atomic models of the phospholipid bilayers and the basic peptides in aqueous solution. The electrostatic free energy of interaction, which arises from both a long-range coulombic attraction between the positively charged peptide and the negatively charged lipid bilayer, and a short-range Born or image charge repulsion, is a minimum when approximately 2.5 A (i.e., one layer of water) exists between the van der Waals surfaces of the peptide and the lipid bilayer. The calculated molar association constants, K, agree well with the measured values: K is typically about 10-fold smaller than the experimental value (i.e., a difference of about 1.5 kcal/mol in the free energy of binding). The predicted dependence of K (or the binding free energies) on the ionic strength of the solution, the mol% of acidic lipids in the membrane, and the number of basic residues in the peptide agree very well with the experimental measurements. These calculations are relevant to the membrane binding of a number of important proteins that contain clusters of basic residues. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8842196

  5. Opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney: Radioligand homogenate binding and autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, V.U.; Hughes, J.; Hunter, J.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The specific binding of the selective {mu}-, {delta}-, and {kappa}-opioid ligands (3H)(D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5)enkephalin ((3H) DAGOL), (3H)(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((3H)DPDPE), and (3H)U69593, respectively, to crude membranes of the guinea pig and rat whole kidney, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla was investigated. In addition, the distribution of specific 3H-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney was visualized by autoradiography. Homogenate binding and autoradiography demonstrated the absence of {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig kidney. No opioid binding sites were demonstrable in the rat kidney. In the guinea pig whole kidney, cortex, and medulla, saturation studies demonstrated that (3H)DPDPE bound with high affinity (KD = 2.6-3.5 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding sites (Bmax = 8.4-30 fmol/mg of protein). Competition studies using several opioid compounds confirmed the nature of the {delta}-opioid binding site. Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that specific (3H)DPDPE binding sites were distributed radially in regions of the inner and outer medulla and at the corticomedullary junction of the guinea pig kidney. Computer-assisted image analysis of saturation data yielded KD values (4.5-5.0 nM) that were in good agreement with those obtained from the homogenate binding studies. Further investigation of the {delta}-opioid binding site in medulla homogenates, using agonist ((3H)DPDPE) and antagonist ((3H)diprenorphine) binding in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and nucleotides, suggested that the {delta}-opioid site is linked to a second messenger system via a GTP-binding protein. Further studies are required to establish the precise localization of the {delta} binding site in the guinea pig kidney and to determine the nature of the second messenger linked to the GTP-binding protein in the medulla.

  6. Lipid binding and membrane penetration of polymyxin B derivatives studied in a biomimetic vesicle system.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Marina; Tsubery, Haim; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Shames, Alex; Fridkin, Mati; Jelinek, Raz

    2003-01-01

    Understanding membrane interactions and cell-wall permeation of Gram-negative bacteria is of great importance, owing to increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and therapeutic treatments. Here we use biomimetic lipid vesicles to analyse membrane association and penetration by synthetic derivatives of polymyxin B (PMB), a potent naturally occurring antibacterial cyclic peptide. The PMB analogues studied were PMB nonapeptide (PMBN), in which the hydrophobic alkyl residue was cleaved, PMBN diastereomer containing D-instead of L-amino acids within the cyclic ring (dPMBN) and PMBN where the hydrophobic alkyl chain was replaced with an Ala6 repeat (Ala6-PMBN). Peptide binding measurements, colorimetric transitions induced within the vesicles, fluorescence quenching experiments and ESR spectroscopy were applied to investigate the structural parameters underlying the different membrane-permeation profiles and biological activities of the analogues. The experiments point to the role of negatively charged lipids in membrane binding and confirm the prominence of lipopolisaccharide (LPS) in promoting membrane association and penetration by the peptides. Examination of the lipid interactions of the PMB derivatives shows that the cyclic moiety of PMB is not only implicated in lipid attachment and LPS binding, but also affects penetration into the inner bilayer core. The addition of the Ala6 peptide moiety, however, does not significantly promote peptide insertion into the hydrophobic lipid environment. The data also indicate that the extent of penetration into the lipid bilayer is not related to the overall affinity of the peptides to the membrane. PMID:12848621

  7. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  8. Organic solvents identify specific ligand binding sites on protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, E; Otting, G

    1997-03-01

    Enzymes frequently recognize substrates and pharmaceutical drugs through specific binding interactions in deep pockets on the protein surface. We show how the specificity-determining substrate binding site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) can be readily identified in aqueous solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using small organic solvent molecules as detection probes. Exchange of magnetization between the 1H nuclei of the protein and the ligands through dipole-dipole interactions is observed which allows the modeling of their position and orientation at the binding site. Combined with site-specific binding constants measured by titration experiments with different organic solvents, the method can provide important information for rational drug design. In addition, the lifetime of nonspecific interactions of HEWL with organic solvents is shown to be in the sub-nanosecond time range. PMID:9062927

  9. Binding sites for gonadotropins in human postmenopausal ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, R.; Shima, K.; Yamoto, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Nishimori, K.; Hiraoka, J.

    1989-02-01

    The binding of human LH and human FSH to postmenopausal ovarian tissue from 21 patients with cervical carcinoma was analyzed. The binding sites for FSH and LH were demonstrated in postmenopausal ovarian tissue. The surface-binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the cells of cortical stroma of the postmenopausal ovary. In addition, diffuse cytoplasmic staining of endogenous estrogen and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity were detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in the cells of the cortical stroma. Electron microscopic study also suggested steroidogenic function in the cells of the cortical stroma. The results of the present study suggest that postmenopausal ovaries contain specific binding sites for pituitary gonadotropins and play a role in ovarian steroidogenesis.

  10. Ligand electronic properties modulate tau filament binding site density

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Katryna; Jensen, Jordan R.; Honson, Nicolette S.; Schafer, Kelsey N.; Cooper, Grace L.; Kuret, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules that bind tau-bearing neurofibrillary lesions are being sought for premortem diagnosis, staging, and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathic neurodegenerative diseases. The utility of these agents will depend on both their binding affinity and binding site density (Bmax). Previously we identified polarizability as a descriptor of protein aggregate binding affinity. To examine its contribution to binding site density, we investigated the ability of two closely related benzothiazole derivatives ((E)-2-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]azo]-6-methoxybenzothiazole) and ((E)-2-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]-6-methoxybenzothiazole)) that differed in polarizability to displace probes of high (Thioflavin S) and low (radiolabeled (E,E)-1-iodo-2,5-bis(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-methoxy)styrylbenzene; IMSB) density sites. Consistent with their site densities, Thioflavin S completely displaced radiolabeled IMSB, but IMSB was incapable of displacing Thioflavin S. Although both benzothiazoles displaced the low Bmax IMSB probe, only the highly polarizable analog displaced near saturating concentrations of the Thioflavin S probe. Quantum calculations showed that high polarizability reflected extensive pi-electron delocalization fostered by the presence of electron donating and accepting groups. These data suggest that electron delocalization promotes ligand binding at a subset of sites on tau aggregates that are present at high density, and that optimizing this aspect of ligand structure can yield tau-directed agents with superior diagnostic and therapeutic performance. PMID:23072817

  11. Surface area of lipid membranes regulates the DNA-binding capacity of cationic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caminiti, Ruggero; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    We have applied electrophoresis on agarose gels to investigate the DNA-binding capacity of cationic liposomes made of cationic DC-cholesterol and neutral dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine as a function of membrane charge density and cationic lipid/DNA charge ratio. While each cationic liposome formulation exhibits a distinctive DNA-protection ability, here we show that such a capacity is universally regulated by surface area of lipid membranes available for binding in an aspecific manner. The relevance of DNA protection for gene transfection is also discussed.

  12. Functional conservation of Rel binding sites in drosophilid genomes.

    PubMed

    Copley, Richard R; Totrov, Maxim; Linnell, Jane; Field, Simon; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Udalova, Irina A

    2007-09-01

    Evolutionary constraints on gene regulatory elements are poorly understood: Little is known about how the strength of transcription factor binding correlates with DNA sequence conservation, and whether transcription factor binding sites can evolve rapidly while retaining their function. Here we use the model of the NFKB/Rel-dependent gene regulation in divergent Drosophila species to examine the hypothesis that the functional properties of authentic transcription factor binding sites are under stronger evolutionary constraints than the genomic background. Using molecular modeling we compare tertiary structures of the Drosophila Rel family proteins Dorsal, Dif, and Relish and demonstrate that their DNA-binding and protein dimerization domains undergo distinct rates of evolution. The accumulated amino acid changes, however, are unlikely to affect DNA sequence recognition and affinity. We employ our recently developed microarray-based experimental platform and principal coordinates statistical analysis to quantitatively and systematically profile DNA binding affinities of three Drosophila Rel proteins to 10,368 variants of the NFKB recognition sequences. We then correlate the evolutionary divergence of gene regulatory regions with differences in DNA binding affinities. Genome-wide analyses reveal a significant increase in the number of conserved Rel binding sites in promoters of developmental and immune genes. Significantly, the affinity of Rel proteins to these sites was higher than to less conserved sites and was maintained by the conservation of the DNA binding site sequence (static conservation) or in some cases despite significantly diverged sequences (dynamic conservation). We discuss how two types of conservation may contribute to the stabilization and optimization of a functional gene regulatory code in evolution.

  13. Functional conservation of Rel binding sites in drosophilid genomes

    PubMed Central

    Copley, Richard R.; Totrov, Maxim; Linnell, Jane; Field, Simon; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Udalova, Irina A.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary constraints on gene regulatory elements are poorly understood: Little is known about how the strength of transcription factor binding correlates with DNA sequence conservation, and whether transcription factor binding sites can evolve rapidly while retaining their function. Here we use the model of the NFKB/Rel-dependent gene regulation in divergent Drosophila species to examine the hypothesis that the functional properties of authentic transcription factor binding sites are under stronger evolutionary constraints than the genomic background. Using molecular modeling we compare tertiary structures of the Drosophila Rel family proteins Dorsal, Dif, and Relish and demonstrate that their DNA-binding and protein dimerization domains undergo distinct rates of evolution. The accumulated amino acid changes, however, are unlikely to affect DNA sequence recognition and affinity. We employ our recently developed microarray-based experimental platform and principal coordinates statistical analysis to quantitatively and systematically profile DNA binding affinities of three Drosophila Rel proteins to 10,368 variants of the NFKB recognition sequences. We then correlate the evolutionary divergence of gene regulatory regions with differences in DNA binding affinities. Genome-wide analyses reveal a significant increase in the number of conserved Rel binding sites in promoters of developmental and immune genes. Significantly, the affinity of Rel proteins to these sites was higher than to less conserved sites and was maintained by the conservation of the DNA binding site sequence (static conservation) or in some cases despite significantly diverged sequences (dynamic conservation). We discuss how two types of conservation may contribute to the stabilization and optimization of a functional gene regulatory code in evolution. PMID:17785540

  14. Perturbation Approaches for Exploring Protein Binding Site Flexibility to Predict Transient Binding Pockets.

    PubMed

    Kokh, Daria B; Czodrowski, Paul; Rippmann, Friedrich; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Simulations of the long-time scale motions of a ligand binding pocket in a protein may open up new perspectives for the design of compounds with steric or chemical properties differing from those of known binders. However, slow motions of proteins are difficult to access using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and are thus usually neglected in computational drug design. Here, we introduce two nonequilibrium MD approaches to identify conformational changes of a binding site and detect transient pockets associated with these motions. The methods proposed are based on the rotamerically induced perturbation (RIP) MD approach, which employs perturbation of side-chain torsional motion for initiating large-scale protein movement. The first approach, Langevin-RIP (L-RIP), entails a series of short Langevin MD simulations, each starting with perturbation of one of the side-chains lining the binding site of interest. L-RIP provides extensive sampling of conformational changes of the binding site. In less than 1 ns of MD simulation with L-RIP, we observed distortions of the α-helix in the ATP binding site of HSP90 and flipping of the DFG loop in Src kinase. In the second approach, RIPlig, a perturbation is applied to a pseudoligand placed in different parts of a binding pocket, which enables flexible regions of the binding site to be identified in a small number of 10 ps MD simulations. The methods were evaluated for four test proteins displaying different types and degrees of binding site flexibility. Both methods reveal all transient pocket regions in less than a total of 10 ns of simulations, even though many of these regions remained closed in 100 ns conventional MD. The proposed methods provide computationally efficient tools to explore binding site flexibility and can aid in the functional characterization of protein pockets, and the identification of transient pockets for ligand design. PMID:27399277

  15. Perturbation Approaches for Exploring Protein Binding Site Flexibility to Predict Transient Binding Pockets.

    PubMed

    Kokh, Daria B; Czodrowski, Paul; Rippmann, Friedrich; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Simulations of the long-time scale motions of a ligand binding pocket in a protein may open up new perspectives for the design of compounds with steric or chemical properties differing from those of known binders. However, slow motions of proteins are difficult to access using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and are thus usually neglected in computational drug design. Here, we introduce two nonequilibrium MD approaches to identify conformational changes of a binding site and detect transient pockets associated with these motions. The methods proposed are based on the rotamerically induced perturbation (RIP) MD approach, which employs perturbation of side-chain torsional motion for initiating large-scale protein movement. The first approach, Langevin-RIP (L-RIP), entails a series of short Langevin MD simulations, each starting with perturbation of one of the side-chains lining the binding site of interest. L-RIP provides extensive sampling of conformational changes of the binding site. In less than 1 ns of MD simulation with L-RIP, we observed distortions of the α-helix in the ATP binding site of HSP90 and flipping of the DFG loop in Src kinase. In the second approach, RIPlig, a perturbation is applied to a pseudoligand placed in different parts of a binding pocket, which enables flexible regions of the binding site to be identified in a small number of 10 ps MD simulations. The methods were evaluated for four test proteins displaying different types and degrees of binding site flexibility. Both methods reveal all transient pocket regions in less than a total of 10 ns of simulations, even though many of these regions remained closed in 100 ns conventional MD. The proposed methods provide computationally efficient tools to explore binding site flexibility and can aid in the functional characterization of protein pockets, and the identification of transient pockets for ligand design.

  16. The TRPV5/6 calcium channels contain multiple calmodulin binding sites with differential binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kovalevskaya, Nadezda V; Bokhovchuk, Fedir M; Vuister, Geerten W

    2012-06-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5/6 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5/6) are thoroughly regulated in order to fine-tune the amount of Ca(2+) reabsorption. Calmodulin has been shown to be involved into calcium-dependent inactivation of TRPV5/6 channels by binding directly to the distal C-terminal fragment of the channels (de Groot et al. in Mol Cell Biol 31:2845-2853, 12). Here, we investigate this binding in detail and find significant differences between TRPV5 and TRPV6. We also identify and characterize in vitro four other CaM binding fragments of TRPV5/6, which likely are also involved in TRPV5/6 channel regulation. The five CaM binding sites display diversity in binding modes, binding stoichiometries and binding affinities, which may fine-tune the response of the channels to varying Ca(2+)-concentrations. PMID:22354706

  17. Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin Binds to Membrane Lipids and Its Cytotoxic Action Depends on Sulfatide.

    PubMed

    Gil, Carles; Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Blasi, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) is one of the major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, being the causal agent of fatal enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. Etx is synthesized as a non-active prototoxin form (proEtx) that becomes active upon proteolytic activation. Etx exhibits a cytotoxic effect through the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane of selected cell targets where Etx specifically binds due to the presence of specific receptors. However, the identity and nature of host receptors of Etx remain a matter of controversy. In the present study, the interactions between Etx and membrane lipids from the synaptosome-enriched fraction from rat brain (P2 fraction) and MDCK cell plasma membrane preparations were analyzed. Our findings show that both Etx and proEtx bind to lipids extracted from lipid rafts from the two different models as assessed by protein-lipid overlay assay. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Binding of proEtx to sulfatide, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol (3)-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (5)-phosphate was detected. Removal of the sulphate groups via sulfatase treatment led to a dramatic decrease in Etx-induced cytotoxicity, but not in proEtx-GFP binding to MDCK cells or a significant shift in oligomer formation, pointing to a role of sulfatide in pore formation in rafts but not in toxin binding to the target cell membrane. These results show for the first time the interaction between Etx and membrane lipids from host tissue and point to a major role for sulfatides in C. perfringens epsilon toxin pathophysiology.

  18. Specific [(3)H]tryptophan binding sites in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wong, P T; Lee, H S; Tan, C H; Teo, W L

    1989-01-01

    [(3)H]Tryptophan binds to a single population of sites in the rat cortical synaptosomal membranes. The binding is reversible and follows the law of mass action. By saturation studies using increasing concentration of [(3)H]tryptophan with decreasing specific radioactivity, the apparent K(d) obtained was approx. 0.8 ?M and the B(max) 110 pmol/mg protein. However, the IC(50) obtained for unlabelled tryptophan in displacing [(3)H]tryptophan binding (3.5 nM) was 0.26 ?M. All six naturally occurring aromatic amino acids studied displaced [(3)H]tryptophan binding with tryptophan and phenylalanine showing higher apparent affinity than histidine, tyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan. These binding sites are proteins in nature as they are sensitive to trypsin and ?-chymotrypsin. It is observed that about 37% of the sites seem to be protected from the proteolytic enzymes by the membrane structure. Furthermore, they are extremely sensitive to phospholipase A(2) presumably because altered membrane phospholipids conduce a conformational change in the binding protein. A considerable degree of stereospecificity was demonstrated with the affinity for l-tryptophan about 90 times higher than that for d-tryptophan. The affinity for l-phenylalanine was 8 times higher than that for d-phenylalanine. Ligand specificity for the aromatic amino acids is remarkable as hydrocinnamic acid, 2-phenylethylamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, dopamine, ?-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and taurine did not displace [(3)H]tryptophan binding. Therefore, these sites are termed aromatic amino acid binding sites (AABS). Whether or not AABS are involved in neuromodulation at the synapse awaits clarification. If so, the endogenous ligand for the AABS may well be tryptophan.

  19. The binding sites for tRNA on eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Leader, D P; Machray, G C

    1975-07-01

    We have studied the non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA to ribosomes from rat liver using deacylated tRNA to inhibit binding to the P-site and puromycin (5 x 10-minus3M) to inhibit binding to the A-site. We conclude that at a low concentration of magnesium ions (10mM) phe-tRNA is bound only at the A-site of 80S irbosomes, whereas at a high concentration of magnesium ions (40mM) phe-tRNA is also bound at the P-site. Studies with edeine indicate that, during non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA, eukaryotic ribosomes (in contrast to prokarotic ribosomes) have the A-site of the 60S subunit and the initiation site of the 40S subunit juxtaposed. This may account for the differences observed, in formation of diphenylalanyl-tRNA and phenylalanyl-puromycin, between phe-tRNA bound non-enzymically to the P-sites of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes.

  20. The binding sites for tRNA on eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Leader, D P; Machray, G C

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA to ribosomes from rat liver using deacylated tRNA to inhibit binding to the P-site and puromycin (5 x 10-minus3M) to inhibit binding to the A-site. We conclude that at a low concentration of magnesium ions (10mM) phe-tRNA is bound only at the A-site of 80S irbosomes, whereas at a high concentration of magnesium ions (40mM) phe-tRNA is also bound at the P-site. Studies with edeine indicate that, during non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA, eukaryotic ribosomes (in contrast to prokarotic ribosomes) have the A-site of the 60S subunit and the initiation site of the 40S subunit juxtaposed. This may account for the differences observed, in formation of diphenylalanyl-tRNA and phenylalanyl-puromycin, between phe-tRNA bound non-enzymically to the P-sites of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes. PMID:1098024

  1. Two disparate ligand binding sites in the human P2Y1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Zhang, Kaihua; Kiselev, Evgeny; Crane, Steven; Wang, Jiang; Paoletta, Silvia; Yi, Cuiying; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Wenru; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Hong; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Jiang, Hualiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Beili

    2015-01-01

    In response to adenosine 5′-diphosphate, the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation, and thus serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Here we report the crystal structures of the human P2Y1R in complex with a nucleotide antagonist MRS2500 at 2.7Å resolution, and with a non-nucleotide antagonist BPTU at 2.2Å resolution. The structures reveal two distinct ligand binding sites, providing atomic details of P2Y1R’s unique ligand binding modes. MRS2500 recognizes a binding site within the seven transmembrane bundle of P2Y1R, which, however, is different in shape and location from the nucleotide binding site in previously determined P2Y12R structure. BPTU binds to an allosteric pocket on the external receptor interface with the lipid bilayer, making it the first structurally characterized selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand located entirely outside of the helical bundle. These high-resolution insights into P2Y1R should enable discovery of new orthosteric and allosteric antithrombotic drugs with reduced adverse effects. PMID:25822790

  2. Calmodulin regulates dimerization, motility, and lipid binding of Leishmania myosin XXI.

    PubMed

    Batters, Christopher; Ellrich, Heike; Helbig, Constanze; Woodall, Katy Anna; Hundschell, Christian; Brack, Dario; Veigel, Claudia

    2014-01-14

    Myosin XXI is the only myosin expressed in Leishmania parasites. Although it is assumed that it performs a variety of motile functions, the motor's oligomerization states, cargo-binding, and motility are unknown. Here we show that binding of a single calmodulin causes the motor to adopt a monomeric state and to move actin filaments. In the absence of calmodulin, nonmotile dimers that cross-linked actin filaments were formed. Unexpectedly, structural analysis revealed that the dimerization domains include the calmodulin-binding neck region, essential for the generation of force and movement in myosins. Furthermore, monomeric myosin XXI bound to mixed liposomes, whereas the dimers did not. Lipid-binding sections overlapped with the dimerization domains, but also included a phox-homology domain in the converter region. We propose a mechanism of myosin regulation where dimerization, motility, and lipid binding are regulated by calmodulin. Although myosin-XXI dimers might act as nonmotile actin cross-linkers, the calmodulin-binding monomers might transport lipid cargo in the parasite. PMID:24379364

  3. Calmodulin regulates dimerization, motility, and lipid binding of Leishmania myosin XXI

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Ellrich, Heike; Helbig, Constanze; Woodall, Katy Anna; Hundschell, Christian; Brack, Dario; Veigel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Myosin XXI is the only myosin expressed in Leishmania parasites. Although it is assumed that it performs a variety of motile functions, the motor’s oligomerization states, cargo-binding, and motility are unknown. Here we show that binding of a single calmodulin causes the motor to adopt a monomeric state and to move actin filaments. In the absence of calmodulin, nonmotile dimers that cross-linked actin filaments were formed. Unexpectedly, structural analysis revealed that the dimerization domains include the calmodulin-binding neck region, essential for the generation of force and movement in myosins. Furthermore, monomeric myosin XXI bound to mixed liposomes, whereas the dimers did not. Lipid-binding sections overlapped with the dimerization domains, but also included a phox-homology domain in the converter region. We propose a mechanism of myosin regulation where dimerization, motility, and lipid binding are regulated by calmodulin. Although myosin-XXI dimers might act as nonmotile actin cross-linkers, the calmodulin-binding monomers might transport lipid cargo in the parasite. PMID:24379364

  4. Probing binding hot spots at protein–RNA recognition sites

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-01

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein–RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein–RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein–protein and protein–RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein–RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. PMID:26365245

  5. Investigation of the Lipid Binding Properties of the Marburg Virus Matrix Protein VP40

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Kaveesha J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marburg virus (MARV), which belongs to the virus family Filoviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates that is often fatal. MARV is a lipid-enveloped virus that during the replication process extracts its lipid coat from the plasma membrane of the host cell it infects. MARV carries seven genes, one of which encodes its matrix protein VP40 (mVP40), which regulates the assembly and budding of the virions. Currently, little information is available on mVP40 lipid binding properties. Here, we have investigated the in vitro and cellular mechanisms by which mVP40 associates with lipid membranes. mVP40 associates with anionic membranes in a nonspecific manner that is dependent upon the anionic charge density of the membrane. These results are consistent with recent structural determination of mVP40, which elucidated an mVP40 dimer with a flat and extensive cationic lipid binding interface. IMPORTANCE Marburg virus (MARV) is a lipid-enveloped filamentous virus from the family Filoviridae. MARV was discovered in 1967, and yet little is known about how its seven genes are used to assemble and form a new viral particle in the host cell it infects. The MARV matrix protein VP40 (mVP40) underlies the inner leaflet of the virus and regulates budding from the host cell plasma membrane. In vitro and cellular assays in this study investigated the mechanism by which mVP40 associates with lipids. The results demonstrate that mVP40 interactions with lipid vesicles or the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane are electrostatic but nonspecific in nature and are dependent on the anionic charge density of the membrane surface. Small molecules that can disrupt lipid trafficking or reduce the anionic charge of the plasma membrane interface may be useful in inhibiting assembly and budding of MARV. PMID:26719280

  6. Binding balls: fast detection of binding sites using a property of spherical Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Comin, Matteo; Guerra, Concettina; Dellaert, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The functional prediction of proteins is one of the most challenging problems in modern biology. An established computational technique involves the identification of three-dimensional local similarities in proteins. In this article, we present a novel method to quickly identify promising binding sites. Our aim is to efficiently detect putative binding sites without explicitly aligning them. Using the theory of Spherical Harmonics, a candidate binding site is modeled as a Binding Ball. The Binding Ball signature, offered by the Spherical Fourier coefficients, can be efficiently used for a fast detection of putative regions. Our contribution includes the Binding Ball modeling and the definition of a scoring function that does not require aligning candidate regions. Our scoring function can be computed efficiently using a property of Spherical Fourier transform (SFT) that avoids the evaluation of all alignments. Experiments on different ligands show good discrimination power when searching for known binding sites. Moreover, we prove that this method can save up to 40% in time compared with traditional approaches.

  7. Penicillin-binding site on the Escherichia coli cell envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, L.; Lee, Y.; Schwarz, U.; Lorian, V.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 35/S-labeled penicillin to distinct penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of the cell envelope obtained from the sonication of Escherichia coli was studied at different pHs ranging from 4 to 11. Experiments distinguishing the effect of pH on penicillin binding by PBP 5/6 from its effect on beta-lactamase activity indicated that although substantial binding occurred at the lowest pH, the amount of binding increased with pH, reaching a maximum at pH 10. Based on earlier studies, it is proposed that the binding at high pH involves the formation of a covalent bond between the C-7 of penicillin and free epsilon amino groups of the PBPs. At pHs ranging from 4 to 8, position 1 of penicillin, occupied by sulfur, is considered to be the site that establishes a covalent bond with the sulfhydryl groups of PBP 5. The use of specific blockers of free epsilon amino groups or sulfhydryl groups indicated that wherever the presence of each had little or no effect on the binding of penicillin by PBP 5, the presence of both completely prevented binding. The specific blocker of the hydroxyl group of serine did not affect the binding of penicillin.

  8. Discovery of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors identified by pharmacophore modeling and sequential virtual screening techniques.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikhar; Fallarero, Adyary; Järvinen, Päivi; Karlsson, Daniela; Johnson, Mark S; Vuorela, Pia M; Mohan, C Gopi

    2011-02-15

    Dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are promising for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They alleviate the cognitive deficits and AD-modifying agents, by inhibiting the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregation, through binding to both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, the so called dual binding site of the AChE enzyme. In this Letter, chemical features based 3D-pharmacophore models were developed based on the eight potent and structurally diverse AChE inhibitors (I-VIII) obtained from high-throughput in vitro screening technique. The best 3D-pharmacophore model, Hypo1, consists of two hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, one hydrophobe, and two hydrophobic aliphatic features obtained by Catalyst/HIPHOP algorithm adopted in Discovery studio program. Hypo1 was used as a 3D query in sequential virtual screening study to filter three small compound databases. Further, a total of nine compounds were selected and followed on in vitro analysis. Finally, we identified two leads--Specs1 (IC(50)=3.279 μM) and Spec2 (IC(50)=5.986 μM) dual binding site compounds from Specs database, having good AChE enzyme inhibitory activity. PMID:21273074

  9. Discovery of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors identified by pharmacophore modeling and sequential virtual screening techniques.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikhar; Fallarero, Adyary; Järvinen, Päivi; Karlsson, Daniela; Johnson, Mark S; Vuorela, Pia M; Mohan, C Gopi

    2011-02-15

    Dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are promising for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They alleviate the cognitive deficits and AD-modifying agents, by inhibiting the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregation, through binding to both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, the so called dual binding site of the AChE enzyme. In this Letter, chemical features based 3D-pharmacophore models were developed based on the eight potent and structurally diverse AChE inhibitors (I-VIII) obtained from high-throughput in vitro screening technique. The best 3D-pharmacophore model, Hypo1, consists of two hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, one hydrophobe, and two hydrophobic aliphatic features obtained by Catalyst/HIPHOP algorithm adopted in Discovery studio program. Hypo1 was used as a 3D query in sequential virtual screening study to filter three small compound databases. Further, a total of nine compounds were selected and followed on in vitro analysis. Finally, we identified two leads--Specs1 (IC(50)=3.279 μM) and Spec2 (IC(50)=5.986 μM) dual binding site compounds from Specs database, having good AChE enzyme inhibitory activity.

  10. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    PubMed Central

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states. PMID:25004958

  11. Evidence for chemoreceptors with bimodular ligand-binding regions harboring two signal-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Molina, Estela; Reyes-Darias, José-Antonio; Lacal, Jesús; Ramos, Juan L.; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gavira, Jose A.; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemoreceptor-based signaling is a central mechanism in bacterial signal transduction. Receptors are classified according to the size of their ligand-binding region. The well-studied cluster I proteins have a 100- to 150-residue ligand-binding region that contains a single site for chemoattractant recognition. Cluster II receptors, which contain a 220- to 300-residue ligand-binding region and which are almost as abundant as cluster I receptors, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report high-resolution structures of the ligand-binding region of the cluster II McpS chemotaxis receptor (McpS-LBR) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in complex with different chemoattractants. The structure of McpS-LBR represents a small-molecule binding domain composed of two modules, each able to bind different signal molecules. Malate and succinate were found to bind to the membrane-proximal module, whereas acetate binds to the membrane-distal module. A structural alignment of the two modules revealed that the ligand-binding sites could be superimposed and that amino acids involved in ligand recognition are conserved in both binding sites. Ligand binding to both modules was shown to trigger chemotactic responses. Further analysis showed that McpS-like receptors were found in different classes of proteobacteria, indicating that this mode of response to different carbon sources may be universally distributed. The physiological relevance of the McpS architecture may lie in its capacity to respond with high sensitivity to the preferred carbon sources malate and succinate and, at the same time, mediate lower sensitivity responses to the less preferred but very abundant carbon source acetate. PMID:23112148

  12. Allosteric interaction of trimebutine maleate with dihydropyridine binding sites.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, M; Kurosawa, H; Naito, K; Tamaki, H

    1990-07-31

    The effects of trimebutine maleate on [3H]nitrendipine binding to guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle membranes and Ca2(+)-induced contraction of the taenia cecum were studied. Specific binding of [3H]nitrendipine to smooth muscle membranes was saturable, with a KD value and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 0.16 nM and 1070 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Trimebutine inhibited [3H]nitrendipine binding in a concentration-dependent manner with a Ki value of 9.3 microM. In the presence of trimebutine (10 microM), Scatchard analysis indicated a competitive-like inhibition with a decrease in the binding affinity (0.31 nM) without a change in Bmax (1059 fmol/mg protein). However, a dissociation experiment using trimebutine (10 or 100 microM) showed that the decreased affinity was due to an increase of the dissociation rate constant of [3H]nitrendipine binding to the membrane. In mechanical experiments using the taenia cecum, trimebutine (3-30 microM) caused a parallel rightward shift of the dose-response curve for the contractile response to a higher concentration range of Ca2+ under high-K+ conditions in a noncompetitive manner. These results suggest that trimebutine has negative allosteric interactions with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and antagonizes Ca2+ influx, consequently inhibiting contractions of intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:2171963

  13. Covalent attachment of functionalized lipid bilayers to planar waveguides for measuring protein binding to biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heyse, S.; Vogel, H.; Sänger, M.; Sigrist, H.

    1995-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring sensitively the interactions between ligands and their membrane-bound receptors in situ using integrated optics, thus avoiding the need for additional labels. Phospholipid bilayers were attached covalently to waveguides by a novel protocol, which can in principle be used with any glass-like surface. In a first step, phospholipids carrying head-group thiols were covalently immobilized onto SiO2-TiO2 waveguide surfaces. This was accomplished by acylation of aminated waveguides with the heterobifunctional crosslinker N-succinimidyl-3-maleimidopropionate, followed by the formation of thioethers between the surface-grafted maleimides and the synthetic thiolipids. The surface-attached thiolipids served as hydrophobic templates and anchors for the deposition of a complete lipid bilayer either by fusion of lipid vesicles or by lipid self-assembly from mixed lipid/detergent micelles. The step-by-step lipid bilayer formation on the waveguide surface was monitored in situ by an integrated optics technique, allowing the simultaneous determination of optical thickness and one of the two refractive indices of the adsorbed organic layers. Surface coverages of 50-60% were calculated for thiolipid layers. Subsequent deposition of POPC resulted in an overall lipid layer thickness of 45-50 A, which corresponds to the thickness of a fluid bilayer membrane. Specific recognition reactions occurring at cell membrane surfaces were modeled by the incorporation of lipid-anchored receptor molecules into the supported bilayer membranes. (1) The outer POPC layer was doped with biotinylated phosphatidylethanolamine. Subsequent specific binding of streptavidin was optically monitored. (2) A lipopeptide was incorporated in the outer POPC monolayer. Membrane binding of monoclonal antibodies, which were directed against the peptide moiety of the lipopeptide, was optically detected. The specific antibody binding correlated well with the lipopepitde

  14. Dimer interface of bovine cytochrome c oxidase is influenced by local posttranslational modifications and lipid binding

    PubMed Central

    Liko, Idlir; Degiacomi, Matteo T.; Mohammed, Shabaz; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Schmidt, Carla; Robinson, Carol V.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine cytochrome c oxidase is an integral membrane protein complex comprising 13 protein subunits and associated lipids. Dimerization of the complex has been proposed; however, definitive evidence for the dimer is lacking. We used advanced mass spectrometry methods to investigate the oligomeric state of cytochrome c oxidase and the potential role of lipids and posttranslational modifications in its subunit interfaces. Mass spectrometry of the intact protein complex revealed that both the monomer and the dimer are stabilized by large lipid entities. We identified these lipid species from the purified protein complex, thus implying that they interact specifically with the enzyme. We further identified phosphorylation and acetylation sites of cytochrome c oxidase, located in the peripheral subunits and in the dimer interface, respectively. Comparing our phosphorylation and acetylation sites with those found in previous studies of bovine, mouse, rat, and human cytochrome c oxidase, we found that whereas some acetylation sites within the dimer interface are conserved, suggesting a role for regulation and stabilization of the dimer, phosphorylation sites were less conserved and more transient. Our results therefore provide insights into the locations and interactions of lipids with acetylated residues within the dimer interface of this enzyme, and thereby contribute to a better understanding of its structure in the natural membrane. Moreover dimeric cytochrome c oxidase, comprising 20 transmembrane, six extramembrane subunits, and associated lipids, represents the largest integral membrane protein complex that has been transferred via electrospray intact into the gas phase of a mass spectrometer, representing a significant technological advance. PMID:27364008

  15. GPS-Lipid: a robust tool for the prediction of multiple lipid modification sites.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yubin; Zheng, Yueyuan; Li, Hongyu; Luo, Xiaotong; He, Zhihao; Cao, Shuo; Shi, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Xue, Yu; Zuo, Zhixiang; Ren, Jian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common post-translational modifications in eukaryotic cells, lipid modification is an important mechanism for the regulation of variety aspects of protein function. Over the last decades, three classes of lipid modifications have been increasingly studied. The co-regulation of these different lipid modifications is beginning to be noticed. However, due to the lack of integrated bioinformatics resources, the studies of co-regulatory mechanisms are still very limited. In this work, we developed a tool called GPS-Lipid for the prediction of four classes of lipid modifications by integrating the Particle Swarm Optimization with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO) algorithm. GPS-Lipid was proven to be evidently superior to other similar tools. To facilitate the research of lipid modification, we hosted a publicly available web server at http://lipid.biocuckoo.org with not only the implementation of GPS-Lipid, but also an integrative database and visualization tool. We performed a systematic analysis of the co-regulatory mechanism between different lipid modifications with GPS-Lipid. The results demonstrated that the proximal dual-lipid modifications among palmitoylation, myristoylation and prenylation are key mechanism for regulating various protein functions. In conclusion, GPS-lipid is expected to serve as useful resource for the research on lipid modifications, especially on their co-regulation. PMID:27306108

  16. GPS-Lipid: a robust tool for the prediction of multiple lipid modification sites.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yubin; Zheng, Yueyuan; Li, Hongyu; Luo, Xiaotong; He, Zhihao; Cao, Shuo; Shi, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Xue, Yu; Zuo, Zhixiang; Ren, Jian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common post-translational modifications in eukaryotic cells, lipid modification is an important mechanism for the regulation of variety aspects of protein function. Over the last decades, three classes of lipid modifications have been increasingly studied. The co-regulation of these different lipid modifications is beginning to be noticed. However, due to the lack of integrated bioinformatics resources, the studies of co-regulatory mechanisms are still very limited. In this work, we developed a tool called GPS-Lipid for the prediction of four classes of lipid modifications by integrating the Particle Swarm Optimization with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO) algorithm. GPS-Lipid was proven to be evidently superior to other similar tools. To facilitate the research of lipid modification, we hosted a publicly available web server at http://lipid.biocuckoo.org with not only the implementation of GPS-Lipid, but also an integrative database and visualization tool. We performed a systematic analysis of the co-regulatory mechanism between different lipid modifications with GPS-Lipid. The results demonstrated that the proximal dual-lipid modifications among palmitoylation, myristoylation and prenylation are key mechanism for regulating various protein functions. In conclusion, GPS-lipid is expected to serve as useful resource for the research on lipid modifications, especially on their co-regulation.

  17. GPS-Lipid: a robust tool for the prediction of multiple lipid modification sites

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yubin; Zheng, Yueyuan; Li, Hongyu; Luo, Xiaotong; He, Zhihao; Cao, Shuo; Shi, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Xue, Yu; Zuo, Zhixiang; Ren, Jian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common post-translational modifications in eukaryotic cells, lipid modification is an important mechanism for the regulation of variety aspects of protein function. Over the last decades, three classes of lipid modifications have been increasingly studied. The co-regulation of these different lipid modifications is beginning to be noticed. However, due to the lack of integrated bioinformatics resources, the studies of co-regulatory mechanisms are still very limited. In this work, we developed a tool called GPS-Lipid for the prediction of four classes of lipid modifications by integrating the Particle Swarm Optimization with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO) algorithm. GPS-Lipid was proven to be evidently superior to other similar tools. To facilitate the research of lipid modification, we hosted a publicly available web server at http://lipid.biocuckoo.org with not only the implementation of GPS-Lipid, but also an integrative database and visualization tool. We performed a systematic analysis of the co-regulatory mechanism between different lipid modifications with GPS-Lipid. The results demonstrated that the proximal dual-lipid modifications among palmitoylation, myristoylation and prenylation are key mechanism for regulating various protein functions. In conclusion, GPS-lipid is expected to serve as useful resource for the research on lipid modifications, especially on their co-regulation. PMID:27306108

  18. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes. PMID:25966259

  19. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes.

  20. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  1. Caffeine inhibits glucose transport by binding at the GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jay M; Cura, Anthony J; Lloyd, Kenneth P; Carruthers, Anthony

    2015-05-15

    Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is the primary glucose transport protein of the cardiovascular system and astroglia. A recent study proposes that caffeine uncompetitive inhibition of GLUT1 results from interactions at an exofacial GLUT1 site. Intracellular ATP is also an uncompetitive GLUT1 inhibitor and shares structural similarities with caffeine, suggesting that caffeine acts at the previously characterized endofacial GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site. We tested this by confirming that caffeine uncompetitively inhibits GLUT1-mediated 3-O-methylglucose uptake in human erythrocytes [Vmax and Km for transport are reduced fourfold; Ki(app) = 3.5 mM caffeine]. ATP and AMP antagonize caffeine inhibition of 3-O-methylglucose uptake in erythrocyte ghosts by increasing Ki(app) for caffeine inhibition of transport from 0.9 ± 0.3 mM in the absence of intracellular nucleotides to 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.5 mM in the presence of 5 mM intracellular ATP or AMP, respectively. Extracellular ATP has no effect on sugar uptake or its inhibition by caffeine. Caffeine and ATP displace the fluorescent ATP derivative, trinitrophenyl-ATP, from the GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site, but d-glucose and the transport inhibitor cytochalasin B do not. Caffeine, but not ATP, inhibits cytochalasin B binding to GLUT1. Like ATP, caffeine renders the GLUT1 carboxy-terminus less accessible to peptide-directed antibodies, but cytochalasin B and d-glucose do not. These results suggest that the caffeine-binding site bridges two nonoverlapping GLUT1 endofacial sites-the regulatory, nucleotide-binding site and the cytochalasin B-binding site. Caffeine binding to GLUT1 mimics the action of ATP but not cytochalasin B on sugar transport. Molecular docking studies support this hypothesis.

  2. Two nucleotide binding sites modulate ( sup 3 H) glyburide binding to rat cortex membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Triggle, D.J.; Janis, R.A. State Univ. of New York, Buffalo )

    1991-03-11

    The effects of nucleotides on the binding of the ATP-dependent K{sup +}-channel antagonist ({sup 3}H)glyburide (GLB) to rat cortex membranes were examined. Nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) and nucleotide diphosphate (NDPs) inhibited the binding of GLB. This effect was dependent on the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Inhibition of binding by NTPs, with the exception of ATP{gamma}S, was dependent on the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. GLB binding showed a biphasic response to ADP: up to 3 mM, ADP inhibited binding, and above this concentration GLB binding increased rapidly, and was restored to normal levels by 10 mM ADP. In the presence of Mg{sup 2+}, ADP did not stimulate binding. Saturation analysis in the presence of Mg{sup 2+} and increasing concentrations of ADP showed that ADP results primarily in a change of the B{sub max} for GLB binding. The differential effects of NTPS and NDPs indicate that two nucleotide binding sites regulate GLB binding.

  3. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Archundia, Marlet; Cordomi, Arnau; Garriga, Pere; Perez, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS). Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand. PMID:22500107

  4. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. IMPORTANCE We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. PMID:26764003

  5. Interaction of P-aminobenzoic acid with normal and sickel erythrocyte membrane: photoaffinity labelling of the binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Premachandra, B.R.

    1986-03-05

    Electron microscopic studies revealed that P-Amino benzoic acid (PABA) could prevent eichinocytosis of red cells in vitro. Equilibrium binding studies with right side out membrane vesicles (ROV) revealed a similar number of binding sites (1.2-1.4 ..mu..mol/mg) and Kd (1.4-1.6 mM) values for both normal and sickle cell membranes. /sup 14/C-Azide analogue of PABA was synthesized as a photoaffinity label to probe its sites of interaction on the erythrocyte membranes. Competitive binding studies of PABA with its azide indicated that both the compounds share common binding sites on the membrane surface since a 20 fold excess of azide inhibited PABA binding in a linear fashion. The azide was covalently incorporated into the membrane components only upon irradiation (52-35% of the label found in the proteins and the rest in lipids). Electrophoretic analysis of photolabelled ROV revealed that the azide interacts chiefly with Band 3 protein. PABA inhibited both high and low affinity calcium (Ca) binding sites situated on either surface of the membrane in a non-competitive manner; however, Ca binding stimulated by Mg-ATP was not affected. Ca transport into inside out vesicles was inhibited by PABA; but it did not affect the calcium ATP-ase activity. The authors studies suggest that the mechanism of action of PABA is mediated by its interaction with Band 3 protein (anion channel), calcium channel and calcium binding sites of erythrocyte membrane.

  6. Two Classes of Cholesterol Binding Sites for the β2AR Revealed by Thermostability and NMR

    PubMed Central

    Gater, Deborah L.; Saurel, Olivier; Iordanov, Iordan; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim; Milon, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and modulation of their activities in membranes is a fundamental issue for understanding their function. Despite the identification of cholesterol binding sites in high-resolution x-ray structures of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and other GPCRs, the binding affinity of cholesterol for this receptor and exchange rates between the free and bound cholesterol remain unknown. In this study we report the existence of two classes of cholesterol binding sites in β2AR. By analyzing the β2AR unfolding temperature in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) as a function of cholesterol concentration we observed high-affinity cooperative binding of cholesterol with sub-nM affinity constant. In contrast, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments revealed the existence of a second class of cholesterol binding sites, in fast exchange on the STD NMR timescale. Titration of the STD signal as a function of cholesterol concentration provided a lower limit of 100 mM for their dissociation constant. However, these binding sites are specific for both cholesterol and β2AR, as shown with control experiments using ergosterol and a control membrane protein (KpOmpA). We postulate that this specificity is mediated by the high-affinity bound cholesterol molecules and propose the formation of transient cholesterol clusters around the high-affinity binding sites. PMID:25418299

  7. Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilia; Nanda, Hirsh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By assembling in a protein lattice on the host's plasma membrane, the retroviral Gag polyprotein triggers formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. The MA domain of Gag employs multiple signals—electrostatic, hydrophobic, and lipid-specific—to bring the protein to the plasma membrane, thereby complementing protein-protein interactions, located in full-length Gag, in lattice formation. We report the interaction of myristoylated and unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag MA domains with bilayers composed of purified lipid components to dissect these complex membrane signals and quantify their contributions to the overall interaction. Surface plasmon resonance on well-defined planar membrane models is used to quantify binding affinities and amounts of protein and yields free binding energy contributions, ΔG, of the various signals. Charge-charge interactions in the absence of the phosphatidylinositide PI(4,5)P2 attract the protein to acidic membrane surfaces, and myristoylation increases the affinity by a factor of 10; thus, our data do not provide evidence for a PI(4,5)P2 trigger of myristate exposure. Lipid-specific interactions with PI(4,5)P2, the major signal lipid in the inner plasma membrane, increase membrane attraction at a level similar to that of protein lipidation. While cholesterol does not directly engage in interactions, it augments protein affinity strongly by facilitating efficient myristate insertion and PI(4,5)P2 binding. We thus observe that the isolated MA protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length Gag, binds the membrane with submicromolar affinities. IMPORTANCE Like other retroviral species, the Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 contains three major domains: the N-terminal, myristoylated MA domain that targets the protein to the plasma membrane of the host; a central capsid-forming domain; and the C-terminal, genome-binding nucleocapsid domain. These domains act in concert to condense Gag into a membrane

  8. Functional differences between neurotransmitter binding sites of muscle acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Bruhova, Iva; Chakraborty, Srirupa; Gupta, Shaweta; Zheng, Wenjun; Auerbach, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    A muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has two neurotransmitter binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αε (adult) or αγ (fetal) subunit interfaces. We used single-channel electrophysiology to measure the effects of mutations of five conserved aromatic residues at each site with regard to their contribution to the difference in free energy of agonist binding to active versus resting receptors (ΔGB1). The two binding sites behave independently in both adult and fetal AChRs. For four different agonists, including ACh and choline, ΔGB1 is ∼-2 kcal/mol more favorable at αγ compared with at αε and αδ. Only three of the aromatics contribute significantly to ΔGB1 at the adult sites (αY190, αY198, and αW149), but all five do so at αγ (as well as αY93 and γW55). γW55 makes a particularly large contribution only at αγ that is coupled energetically to those contributions of some of the α-subunit aromatics. The hydroxyl and benzene groups of loop C residues αY190 and αY198 behave similarly with regard to ΔGB1 at all three kinds of site. ACh binding energies estimated from molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with experimental values from electrophysiology and suggest that the αγ site is more compact, better organized, and less dynamic than αε and αδ. We speculate that the different sensitivities of the fetal αγ site versus the adult αε and αδ sites to choline and ACh are important for the proper maturation and function of the neuromuscular synapse. PMID:25422413

  9. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-03-01

    The distribution of binding site for (/sup 125/I)-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing (/sup 125/I)-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain.

  10. Microarrays for identifying binding sites and probing structure of RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H.; Kierzek, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are widely used in various biological studies. In this review, application of oligonucleotide microarrays for identifying binding sites and probing structure of RNAs is described. Deep sequencing allows fast determination of DNA and RNA sequence. High-throughput methods for determination of secondary structures of RNAs have also been developed. Those methods, however, do not reveal binding sites for oligonucleotides. In contrast, microarrays directly determine binding sites while also providing structural insights. Microarray mapping can be used over a wide range of experimental conditions, including temperature, pH, various cations at different concentrations and the presence of other molecules. Moreover, it is possible to make universal microarrays suitable for investigations of many different RNAs, and readout of results is rapid. Thus, microarrays are used to provide insight into oligonucleotide sequences potentially able to interfere with biological function. Better understanding of structure–function relationships of RNA can be facilitated by using microarrays to find RNA regions capable to bind oligonucleotides. That information is extremely important to design optimal sequences for antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA because both bind to single-stranded regions of target RNAs. PMID:25505162

  11. Specific binding sites for muramyl peptides on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.H.S.; Krueger, J.M.; Karnovsky, M.L.

    1986-03-15

    Two radiolabeled (/sup 125/I) muramyl peptide derivatives of high specific activity were prepared: a tripeptide with an iodinated C-terminal tyrosine methyl ester (Ligand I), and a muramyl tripeptide with a C-terminal lysine derivatized with Bolton-Hunter reagent (Ligand II). These were used to characterize binding of muramyl peptides to monolayers of murine macrophages. Saturable high-affinity binding to resident, caseinate-elicited, and Listeria-activated peritoneal cells was observed with both radioligands. Binding affinities varied with the state of activation of the macrophages, and K/sub D/ values ranged from 48 +/- 33 pM (for resident macrophages, Ligand I) to 1020 +/- 90 pM (for activated macrophages, Ligand II). Specific binding sites were also found on a macrophage-derived cell line. The ability of several unlabeled muramyl peptides to compete with Ligands I and II for their binding sites was tested. Competition was stereospecific and correlated with known biological activities of these compounds (i.e., immunoadjuvanticity, pyrogenicity, and somnogenicity). The sites identified here for Ligands I and II may mediate some of the effects that muramyl peptides have previously been demonstrated to have on macrophages.

  12. Characterization of Heparin-binding Site of Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J.; Pytel, Kamila; Rathbone, Daniel L.; Li, Xiaoling; Griffin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca2+-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and metastatic cancer. Extracellular TG2 can also facilitate cell adhesion important in wound healing through a nontransamidating mechanism via its association with fibronectin, heparan sulfates (HS), and integrins. Regulating the mechanism how TG2 is translocated into the ECM therefore provides a strategy for modulating these physiological and pathological functions of the enzyme. Here, through molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified the HS-binding site of TG2 202KFLKNAGRDCSRRSSPVYVGR222. We demonstrate the requirement of this binding site for translocation of TG2 into the ECM through a mechanism involving cell surface shedding of HS. By synthesizing a peptide NPKFLKNAGRDCSRRSS corresponding to the HS-binding site within TG2, we also demonstrate how this mimicking peptide can in isolation compensate for the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin via binding to syndecan-4, leading to activation of PKCα, pFAK-397, and ERK1/2 and the subsequent formation of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton organization. A novel regulatory mechanism for TG2 translocation into the extracellular compartment that depends upon TG2 conformation and the binding of HS is proposed. PMID:22298777

  13. Sodium channel from rat brain. Reconstitution of voltage-dependent scorpion toxin binding in vesicles of defined lipid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, D.J.; Talvenheimo, J.A.; Catterall, W.A.

    1985-09-25

    Purified sodium channels incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles mediate neurotoxin-activated SSNa influx but do not bind the alpha-scorpion toxin from Leiurus quinquestriatus (LqTx) with high affinity. Addition of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylserine to the reconstitution mixture restores high affinity LqTx binding with KD = 1.9 nM for PC/PE vesicles at -90 mV and 36 degrees C in sucrose-substituted medium. Other lipids tested were markedly less effective. The binding of LqTx in vesicles of PC/PE (65:35) is sensitive to both the membrane potential formed by sodium gradients across the reconstituted vesicle membrane and the cation concentration in the extravesicular medium. Binding of LqTx is reduced 3- to 4-fold upon depolarization to 0 mV from -50 to -60 mV in experiments in which (Na+)out/(Na+)in is varied by changing (Na+)in or (Na+)out at constant extravesicular ionic strength. It is concluded that the purified sodium channel contains the receptor site for LqTx in functional form and that restoration of high affinity, voltage-dependent binding of LqTx by the purified sodium channel requires an appropriate ratio of PC to PE and/or phosphatidylserine in the vesicle membrane.

  14. Thymocyte plasma membrane: the location of specific glucocorticoid binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeev, P.V.; Kalinin, G.V.; Dukhanin, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    In modern molecular endocrinology it is now possible to determine the localization of receptors for biologically active substances with the aid of ligands, with high affinity for the receptor, immobilized on polymers. The purpose of this paper is to study the ability of hydrocortisone (HC), immobilized on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-HC), to reduce binding of tritium-HC by thymocytes of adrenalectomized rats. It is determined that specific binding sites for HC on rat thymocytes are also accessible for PVP-HC, which, due to the fact that this immobilized version of HC does not penetrate into the cell, leads to the conclusion that the binding sites for HC itself are located in the plasma membrane.

  15. Using evolutionary and structural information to predict DNA-binding sites on DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Igor B; Gou, Zhenkun; Li, Run; Hwang, Seungwoo

    2006-07-01

    Proteins that interact with DNA are involved in a number of fundamental biological activities such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. A reliable identification of DNA-binding sites in DNA-binding proteins is important for functional annotation, site-directed mutagenesis, and modeling protein-DNA interactions. We apply Support Vector Machine (SVM), a supervised pattern recognition method, to predict DNA-binding sites in DNA-binding proteins using the following features: amino acid sequence, profile of evolutionary conservation of sequence positions, and low-resolution structural information. We use a rigorous statistical approach to study the performance of predictors that utilize different combinations of features and how this performance is affected by structural and sequence properties of proteins. Our results indicate that an SVM predictor based on a properly scaled profile of evolutionary conservation in the form of a position specific scoring matrix (PSSM) significantly outperforms a PSSM-based neural network predictor. The highest accuracy is achieved by SVM predictor that combines the profile of evolutionary conservation with low-resolution structural information. Our results also show that knowledge-based predictors of DNA-binding sites perform significantly better on proteins from mainly-alpha structural class and that the performance of these predictors is significantly correlated with certain structural and sequence properties of proteins. These observations suggest that it may be possible to assign a reliability index to the overall accuracy of the prediction of DNA-binding sites in any given protein using its sequence and structural properties. A web-server implementation of the predictors is freely available online at http://lcg.rit.albany.edu/dp-bind/.

  16. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  17. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements. PMID:21087992

  18. Can cofactor-binding sites in proteins be flexible? Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin binds FMN dimer.

    PubMed

    Muralidhara, B K; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2003-11-11

    Flavodoxins catalyze redox reactions using the isoalloxazine moiety of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor stacked between two aromatic residues located in two peptide loops. At high FMN concentrations that favor stacked FMN dimers in solution, isothermal titration calorimetric studies show that these dimers bind strongly to apo-flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (30 degrees C, 20 mM Hepes, pH 7, K(D) = 5.8 microM). Upon increasing the temperature so the FMN dimers dissociate (as shown by (1)H NMR), only one-to-one (FMN-to-protein) binding is observed. Calorimetric titrations result in one-to-one binding also in the presence of phosphate or sulfate (30 degrees C, 13 mM anion, pH 7, K(D) = 0.4 microM). FMN remains dimeric in the presence of phosphate and sulfate, suggesting that specific binding of a divalent anion to the phosphate-binding site triggers ordering of the peptide loops so only one isoalloxazine can fit. Although the physiological relevance of FMN and other nucleotides as dimers has not been explored, our study shows that high-affinity binding to proteins of such dimers can occur in vitro. This emphasizes that the cofactor-binding site in flavodoxin is more flexible than previously expected. PMID:14596623

  19. Interplay of electrostatics and lipid packing determines the binding of charged polymer coated nanoparticles to model membranes.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nupur; Bhattacharya, Rupak; Saha, Arindam; Jana, Nikhil R; Basu, Jaydeep K

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of nanoparticle-membrane interactions is useful for various applications of nanoparticles like drug delivery and imaging. Here we report on the studies of interaction between hydrophilic charged polymer coated semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles with model lipid membranes. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity measurements suggest that cationic nanoparticles bind and penetrate bilayers of zwitterionic lipids. Penetration and binding depend on the extent of lipid packing and result in the disruption of the lipid bilayer accompanied by enhanced lipid diffusion. On the other hand, anionic nanoparticles show minimal membrane binding although, curiously, their interaction leads to reduction in lipid diffusivity. It is suggested that the enhanced binding of cationic QDs at higher lipid packing can be understood in terms of the effective surface potential of the bilayers which is tunable through membrane lipid packing. Our results bring forth the subtle interplay of membrane lipid packing and electrostatics which determine nanoparticle binding and penetration of model membranes with further implications for real cell membranes.

  20. The Effect of Environment on the Recognition and Binding of Vancomycin to Native and Resistant Forms of Lipid II

    PubMed Central

    Jia, ZhiGuang; O'Mara, Megan L.; Zuegg, Johannes; Cooper, Matthew A.; Mark, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations have been used to examine in detail the mechanism by which a receptor molecule (the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin) recognizes and binds to a target molecule (lipid II) embedded within a membrane environment. The simulations show that the direct interaction of vancomycin with lipid II, as opposed to initial binding to the membrane, leads most readily to the formation of a stable complex. The recognition of lipid II by vancomycin occurred via the N-terminal amine group of vancomycin and the C-terminal carboxyl group of lipid II. Despite lying at the membrane-water interface, the interaction of vancomycin with lipid II was found to be essentially identical to that of soluble tripeptide analogs of lipid II (Ac-d-Ala-d-Ala; root mean-square deviation 0.11 nm). Free energy calculations also suggest that the relative binding affinity of vancomycin for native, resistant, and synthetic forms of membrane-bound lipid II was unaffected by the membrane environment. The effect of the dimerization of vancomycin on the binding of lipid II, the position of lipid II within a biological membrane, and the effect of the isoamylene tail of lipid II on membrane fluidity have also been examined. PMID:22261057

  1. Targeting Different Transthyretin Binding Sites with Unusual Natural Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ortore, Gabriella; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Braca, Alessandra; Ciccone, Lidia; Rossello, Armando; Martinelli, Adriano; Nencetti, Susanna

    2016-08-19

    Misfolding and aggregation of the transthyretin (TTR) protein leads to certain forms of amyloidosis. Some nutraceuticals, such as flavonoids and natural polyphenols, have recently been investigated as modulators of the self-assembly process of TTR, but they generally suffer from limited bioavailability. To discover innovative and more bioavailable natural compounds able to inhibit TTR amyloid formation, a docking study was performed using the crystallographic structure of TTR. This computational strategy was projected as an ad hoc inspection of the possible relationship between binding site location and modulation of the assembly process; interactions with the as-yet-unexplored epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) sites and with the thyroxine (T4) pocket were simultaneously analyzed. All the compounds studied seem to prefer the traditional T4 binding site, but some interesting results emerged from the screening of an in-house database, used for validating the computational protocol, and of the Herbal Ingredients Targets (HIT) catalogue available on the ZINC database. PMID:27159149

  2. Allosteric opening of the polypeptide-binding site when an Hsp70 binds ATP

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ruifeng; Sarbeng, Evans Boateng; Liu, Qun; Le, Katherine Quynh; Xu, Xinping; Xu, Hongya; Yang, Jiao; Wong, Jennifer Li; Vorvis, Christina; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    The 70kD heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones essential for cellular protein folding and proteostasis. Each Hsp70 has two functional domains: a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, and a substrate-binding domain (SBD) that binds extended polypeptides. NBD and SBD interact little when in ADP; however, ATP binding allosterically couples the polypeptide- and ATP-binding sites. ATP binding promotes polypeptide release; polypeptide rebinding stimulates ATP hydrolysis. This allosteric coupling is poorly understood. Here we present the crystal structure of an intact Hsp70 from Escherichia coli in an ATP-bound state at 1.96 Å resolution. NBD-ATP adopts a unique conformation, forming extensive interfaces with a radically changed SBD that has its α-helical lid displaced and the polypeptide-binding channel of its β-subdomain restructured. These conformational changes together with our biochemical tests provide a long-sought structural explanation for allosteric coupling in Hsp70 activity. PMID:23708608

  3. Effect of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol on myelin basic protein-mediated binding of actin filaments to lipid bilayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Joan M; Rangaraj, Godha; Dicko, Awa

    2012-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to negatively charged lipids on the cytosolic surface of oligodendrocytes and is believed to be responsible for adhesion of these surfaces in the multilayered myelin sheath. It can also assemble actin filaments and tether them to lipid bilayers through electrostatic interactions. Here we investigate the effect of increased negative charge of the lipid bilayer due to phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) on MBP-mediated binding of actin to the lipid bilayer, by substituting phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate for PI in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol lipid vesicles. Phosphorylation of PI caused dissociation of the MBP/actin complex from the lipid vesicles due to repulsion of the negatively charged complex from the negatively charged membrane surface. An effect of phosphorylation could be detected even if the inositol lipid was only 2mol% of the total lipid. Calcium-calmodulin dissociated actin from the MBP-lipid vesicles and phosphorylation of PI increased the amount dissociated. These results show that changes to the lipid composition of myelin, which could occur during signaling or other physiological events, could regulate the ability of MBP to act as a scaffolding protein and bind actin filaments to the lipid bilayer.

  4. Binding sites for streptococci and staphylococci in fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Kuusela, P; Vartio, T; Vuento, M; Myhre, E B

    1984-01-01

    Purified cathepsin G fragments of fibronectin were used to locate the binding sites for streptococci and staphylococci in the fibronectin molecule. The iodinated, NH2-terminal, 30-kilodalton (kd) fragment bound to group A and G streptococci and to Staphylococcus aureus. The 125I-labeled, COOH-terminal, 120- to 140-kd fragment bound weakly to group A streptococcus strain and to S. aureus when tested in a buffer of low ionic strength. The 30- and 120- to 140-kd fragments inhibited the binding of iodinated fragments to bacteria. The two fragments were, on a molar basis, equally effective, and they were more potent inhibitors than intact fibronectin. The gelatin-binding 40-kd fragment neither bound to any of the bacterial strains nor inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled 30-kd or 125I-labeled 120- to 140-kd fragments to bacteria. The results indicate that fibronectin has at least two separate binding sites for streptococci and staphylococci, one in the NH2-terminal region and another in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule, both capable of specific interaction with a complementary structure exposed on streptococcal and staphylococcal cell surfaces. Images PMID:6746098

  5. Ion binding sites and their representations by reduced models.

    PubMed

    Roux, Benoît

    2012-06-14

    The binding of small metal ions to complex macromolecular structures is typically dominated by strong local interactions of the ion with its nearest ligands. Progress in understanding the molecular determinants of ion selectivity can often be achieved by considering simplified reduced models comprised of only the most important ion-coordinating ligands. Although the main ingredients underlying simplified reduced models are intuitively clear, a formal statistical mechanical treatment is nonetheless necessary in order to draw meaningful conclusions about complex macromolecular systems. By construction, reduced models only treat the ion and the nearest coordinating ligands explicitly. The influence of the missing atoms from the protein or the solvent is incorporated indirectly. Quasi-chemical theory offers one example of how to carry out such a separation in the case of ion solvation in bulk liquids, and in several ways, a statistical mechanical formulation of reduced binding site models for macromolecules is expected to follow a similar route. However, there are also important differences when the ion-coordinating moieties are not solvent molecules from a bulk phase but are molecular ligands covalently bonded to a macromolecular structure. Here, a statistical mechanical formulation of reduced binding site models is elaborated to address these issues. The formulation provides a useful framework to construct reduced binding site models, and define the average effect from the surroundings on the ion and the nearest coordinating ligands.

  6. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors via their allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; Lisá, V; el-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1996-01-01

    Ligands that bind to the allosteric-binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors alter the conformation of the classical-binding sites of these receptors and either diminish or increase their affinity for muscarinic agonists and classical antagonists. It is not known whether the resulting conformational change also affects the interaction between the receptors and the G proteins. We have now found that the muscarinic receptor allosteric modulators alcuronium, gallamine, and strychnine (acting in the absence of an agonist) alter the synthesis of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the M2 or the M4 subtype of muscarinic receptors in the same direction as the agonist carbachol. In addition, most of their effects on the production of inositol phosphates in CHO cells expressing the M1 or the M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes are also similar to (although much weaker than) those of carbachol. The agonist-like effects of the allosteric modulators are not observed in CHO cells that have not been transfected with the gene for any of the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The effects of alcuronium on the formation of cAMP and inositol phosphates are not prevented by the classical muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate. These observations demonstrate for the first time that the G protein-mediated functional responses of muscarinic receptors can be evoked not only from their classical, but also from their allosteric, binding sites. This represents a new mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:8710935

  7. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Im, Jae Hong; Nakane, Takashi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Toru; Kitamoto, Dai

    2001-01-01

    Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A) and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1) for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid. PMID:11604104

  8. Blind prediction of charged ligand binding affinities in a model binding site

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Gabriel J.; Boyce, Sarah E.; Fischer, Marcus; Fish, Inbar; Mobley, David L.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting absolute protein-ligand binding affinities remains a frontier challenge in ligand discovery and design. This becomes more difficult when ionic interactions are involved, because of the large opposing solvation and electrostatic attraction energies. In a blind test, we examined whether alchemical free energy calculations could predict binding affinities of 14 charged and 5 neutral compounds previously untested as ligands for a cavity binding site in Cytochrome C Peroxidase. In this simplified site, polar and cationic ligands compete with solvent to interact with a buried aspartate. Predictions were tested by calorimetry, spectroscopy, and crystallography. Of the 15 compounds predicted to bind, 13 were experimentally confirmed, while four compounds were false negative predictions. Predictions had an RMSE of 1.95 kcal/mol to the experimental affinities, and predicted poses had an average RMSD of 1.7 Å to the crystallographic poses. This test serves as a benchmark for these thermodynamically rigorous calculations at predicting binding affinities for charged compounds, and gives insights into the existing sources of error, which are primarily electrostatic interactions inside proteins. Our experiments also provide a useful set of ionic binding affinities in a simplified system for testing new affinity prediction methods. PMID:23896298

  9. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution. PMID:26561004

  10. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  11. The helical propensity of KLA amphipathic peptides enhances their binding to gel-state lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Arouri, Ahmad; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The role and importance of the conformation of antimicrobial peptides for their binding and incorporation into lipid membranes as well as for their bioactivity are still not well understood. In this paper, we studied the interaction between four cationic alpha-helical KLA peptides, which differ primarily in their helical propensity, and the anionic gel-state lipid DPPG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol). Of particular interest was the influence of the peptide conformation and membrane surface properties on the electrostatic binding process. Dynamic light scattering (DSL) showed that generally the KLA peptides possess high aggregation power but modest solubilization power. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) spectra revealed that the KLA peptides with the low helical propensity tend to form beta-structures at low lipid/peptide ratios. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms showed that the helical KLA peptides stabilize the DPPG bilayer, whereas the beta-structured peptides induce pronounced membrane perturbations. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) isotherms showed that the helical KLA peptides bind more efficiently to DPPG vesicles than the beta-structured KLA peptides, and that the binding affinity of the peptides is proportional to the peptide helical propensity and membrane negative surface charge. The stoichiometry values (N) deduced from the ITC isotherms suggest that the helical KLA peptides have a higher capacity to translocate the DPPG lipid bilayer. The new data presented in this study demonstrate the flexibility of KLA peptides in adopting various conformations in response to the surrounding and also how the peptide structuring controls the mode of peptide-membrane interaction.

  12. The helical propensity of KLA amphipathic peptides enhances their binding to gel-state lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Arouri, Ahmad; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The role and importance of the conformation of antimicrobial peptides for their binding and incorporation into lipid membranes as well as for their bioactivity are still not well understood. In this paper, we studied the interaction between four cationic alpha-helical KLA peptides, which differ primarily in their helical propensity, and the anionic gel-state lipid DPPG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol). Of particular interest was the influence of the peptide conformation and membrane surface properties on the electrostatic binding process. Dynamic light scattering (DSL) showed that generally the KLA peptides possess high aggregation power but modest solubilization power. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) spectra revealed that the KLA peptides with the low helical propensity tend to form beta-structures at low lipid/peptide ratios. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms showed that the helical KLA peptides stabilize the DPPG bilayer, whereas the beta-structured peptides induce pronounced membrane perturbations. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) isotherms showed that the helical KLA peptides bind more efficiently to DPPG vesicles than the beta-structured KLA peptides, and that the binding affinity of the peptides is proportional to the peptide helical propensity and membrane negative surface charge. The stoichiometry values (N) deduced from the ITC isotherms suggest that the helical KLA peptides have a higher capacity to translocate the DPPG lipid bilayer. The new data presented in this study demonstrate the flexibility of KLA peptides in adopting various conformations in response to the surrounding and also how the peptide structuring controls the mode of peptide-membrane interaction. PMID:23792704

  13. Lipid Binding of the Amphipathic Helix Serving as Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Daniel; Oetter, Kay-Marcus; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses express a peculiar protein named Erns representing envelope glycoprotein and RNase, which is important for control of the innate immune response and persistent infection. The latter functions are connected with secretion of a certain amount of Erns from the infected cell. Retention/secretion of Erns is most likely controlled by its unusual membrane anchor, a long amphipathic helix attached in plane to the membrane. Here we present results of experiments conducted with a lipid vesicle sedimentation assay able to separate lipid-bound from unbound protein dissolved in the water phase. Using this technique we show that a protein composed of tag sequences and the carboxyterminal 65 residues of Erns binds specifically to membrane vesicles with a clear preference for compositions containing negatively charged lipids. Mutations disturbing the helical folding and/or amphipathic character of the anchor as well as diverse truncations and exchange of amino acids important for intracellular retention of Erns had no or only small effects on the proteins membrane binding. This result contrasts the dramatically increased secretion rates observed for Erns proteins with equivalent mutations within cells. Accordingly, the ratio of secreted versus cell retained Erns is not determined by the lipid affinity of the membrane anchor. PMID:26270479

  14. Photosensitizer binding to lipid bilayers as a precondition for the photoinactivation of membrane channels.

    PubMed Central

    Rokitskaya, T I; Block, M; Antonenko, Y N; Kotova, E A; Pohl, P

    2000-01-01

    The photodynamic activity of sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanines (AlPcS(n), 1 lipids. Adsorbing to the surface of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), aluminum phthalocyanine disulfonate induced the highest changes in their electrophoretic mobility. AlPcS(2) was also most efficient in mediating photoinactivation of gramicidin channels, as revealed by measurements of the electric current across planar lipid bilayers. The increase in the degree of sulfonation of phthalocyanine progressively reduced its affinity for the lipid bilayer as well as its potency of sensitizing gramicidin channel photoinactivation. The portion of photoinactivated gramicidin channels, alpha, increased with rising photosensitizer concentration up to some optimum. The concentration at which alpha was at half-maximum amounted to 80 nM, 30 nM, 200 nM, and 2 microM for AlPcS(1), AlPcS(2), AlPcS(3), and AlPcS(4), respectively. At high concentrations alpha was found to decrease, which was attributed to quenching of reactive oxygen species and self-quenching of the photosensitizer triplet state by its ground state. Fluoride anions were observed to inhibit both AlPcS(n) (2 binding to LUVs and sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels. It is concluded that photosensitizer binding to membrane lipids is a prerequisite for the photodynamic inactivation of gramicidin channels. PMID:10777753

  15. Binding of dinitrogen to an iron-sulfur-carbon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Ilija; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Bill, Eckhard; Vinyard, David J.; Holland, Patrick L.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogenases are the enzymes by which certain microorganisms convert atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia, thereby providing essential nitrogen atoms for higher organisms. The most common nitrogenases reduce atmospheric N2 at the FeMo cofactor, a sulfur-rich iron-molybdenum cluster (FeMoco). The central iron sites that are coordinated to sulfur and carbon atoms in FeMoco have been proposed to be the substrate binding sites, on the basis of kinetic and spectroscopic studies. In the resting state, the central iron sites each have bonds to three sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Addition of electrons to the resting state causes the FeMoco to react with N2, but the geometry and bonding environment of N2-bound species remain unknown. Here we describe a synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe-S bond and binds N2. The product is the first synthetic Fe-N2 complex in which iron has bonds to sulfur and carbon atoms, providing a model for N2 coordination in the FeMoco. Our results demonstrate that breaking an Fe-S bond is a chemically reasonable route to N2 binding in the FeMoco, and show structural and spectroscopic details for weakened N2 on a sulfur-rich iron site.

  16. Binding of dinitrogen to an iron-sulfur-carbon site.

    PubMed

    Čorić, Ilija; Mercado, Brandon Q; Bill, Eckhard; Vinyard, David J; Holland, Patrick L

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogenases are the enzymes by which certain microorganisms convert atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia, thereby providing essential nitrogen atoms for higher organisms. The most common nitrogenases reduce atmospheric N2 at the FeMo cofactor, a sulfur-rich iron-molybdenum cluster (FeMoco). The central iron sites that are coordinated to sulfur and carbon atoms in FeMoco have been proposed to be the substrate binding sites, on the basis of kinetic and spectroscopic studies. In the resting state, the central iron sites each have bonds to three sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Addition of electrons to the resting state causes the FeMoco to react with N2, but the geometry and bonding environment of N2-bound species remain unknown. Here we describe a synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe-S bond and binds N2. The product is the first synthetic Fe-N2 complex in which iron has bonds to sulfur and carbon atoms, providing a model for N2 coordination in the FeMoco. Our results demonstrate that breaking an Fe-S bond is a chemically reasonable route to N2 binding in the FeMoco, and show structural and spectroscopic details for weakened N2 on a sulfur-rich iron site.

  17. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Effects of macromolecular crowding on a small lipid binding protein probed at the single-amino acid level.

    PubMed

    Pérez Santero, Silvia; Favretto, Filippo; Zanzoni, Serena; Chignola, Roberto; Assfalg, Michael; D'Onofrio, Mariapina

    2016-09-15

    Macromolecular crowding is a distinctive feature of the cellular interior, influencing the behaviour of biomacromolecules. Despite significant advancements in the description of the effects of crowding on global protein properties, the influence of cellular components on local protein attributes has received limited attention. Here, we describe a residue-level systematic interrogation of the structural, dynamic, and binding properties of the liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in crowded solutions. Two-dimensional NMR spectral fingerprints and relaxation data were collected on LFABP in the presence of polymeric and biomolecular crowders. Non-interacting crowders produced minimal site-specific spectral perturbations on ligand-free and lipid-bound LFABP. Conformational adaptations upon ligand binding reproduced those observed in dilute solution, but a perturbation of the free oleate state resulted in less favorable uptake. When LFABP engaged in direct interactions with background molecules, changes in local chemical environments were detected for residues of the internal binding pocket and of the external surface. Enhanced complexity was introduced by investigating LFABP in cell lysates, and in membrane-bounded compartments. LFABP was able to capture ligands from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell lysates, and from artificial cells (water-in-oil emulsion droplets). The data suggest that promiscuous interactions are a major factor influencing protein function in the cell. PMID:27457417

  19. Mass spectrometry reveals synergistic effects of nucleotides, lipids, and drugs binding to a multidrug resistance efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Julien; Wang, Sheila C; Politis, Argyris; Reading, Eamonn; Ma, Jerome; Biggin, Philip C; Zhou, Min; Tao, Houchao; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey; Morgner, Nina; Robinson, Carol V

    2013-06-11

    Multidrug resistance is a serious barrier to successful treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, wherein chemotherapeutics are exported from target cells by membrane-embedded pumps. The most prevalent of these pumps, the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), consists of two homologous halves each comprising one nucleotide-binding domain and six transmembrane helices. The transmembrane region encapsulates a hydrophobic cavity, accessed by portals in the membrane, that binds cytotoxic compounds as well as lipids and peptides. Here we use mass spectrometry (MS) to probe the intact P-gp small molecule-bound complex in a detergent micelle. Activation in the gas phase leads to formation of ions, largely devoid of detergent, yet retaining drug molecules as well as charged or zwitterionic lipids. Measuring the rates of lipid binding and calculating apparent KD values shows that up to six negatively charged diacylglycerides bind more favorably than zwitterionic lipids. Similar experiments confirm binding of cardiolipins and show that prior binding of the immunosuppressant and antifungal antibiotic cyclosporin A enhances subsequent binding of cardiolipin. Ion mobility MS reveals that P-gp exists in an equilibrium between different states, readily interconverted by ligand binding. Overall these MS results show how concerted small molecule binding leads to synergistic effects on binding affinities and conformations of a multidrug efflux pump.

  20. Binding Cooperativity Matters: A GM1-Like Ganglioside-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Binding Study Using a Nanocube-Based Lipid Bilayer Array

    PubMed Central

    Weatherston, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-glycan recognition is often mediated by multivalent binding. These multivalent bindings can be further complicated by cooperative interactions between glycans and individual glycan binding subunits. Here we have demonstrated a nanocube-based lipid bilayer array capable of quantitatively elucidating binding dissociation constants, maximum binding capacity, and binding cooperativity in a high-throughput format. Taking cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as a model cooperativity system, we studied both GM1 and GM1-like gangliosides binding to CTB. We confirmed the previously observed CTB-GM1 positive cooperativity. Surprisingly, we demonstrated fucosyl-GM1 has approximately 7 times higher CTB binding capacity than GM1. In order to explain this phenomenon, we hypothesized that the reduced binding cooperativity of fucosyl-GM1 caused the increased binding capacity. This was unintuitive, as GM1 exhibited higher binding avidity (16 times lower dissociation constant). We confirmed the hypothesis using a theoretical stepwise binding model of CTB. Moreover, by taking a mixture of fucosyl-GM1 and GM2, we observed the mild binding avidity fucosyl-GM1 activated GM2 receptors enhancing the binding capacity of the lipid bilayer surface. This was unexpected as GM2 receptors have negligible binding avidity in pure GM2 bilayers. These unexpected discoveries demonstrate the importance of binding cooperativity in multivalent binding mechanisms. Thus, quantitative analysis of multivalent protein-glycan interactions in heterogeneous glycan systems is of critical importance. Our user-friendly, robust, and high-throughput nanocube-based lipid bilayer array offers an attractive method for dissecting these complex mechanisms. PMID:27070150

  1. Binding Cooperativity Matters: A GM1-Like Ganglioside-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Binding Study Using a Nanocube-Based Lipid Bilayer Array.

    PubMed

    Worstell, Nolan C; Krishnan, Pratik; Weatherston, Joshua D; Wu, Hung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Protein-glycan recognition is often mediated by multivalent binding. These multivalent bindings can be further complicated by cooperative interactions between glycans and individual glycan binding subunits. Here we have demonstrated a nanocube-based lipid bilayer array capable of quantitatively elucidating binding dissociation constants, maximum binding capacity, and binding cooperativity in a high-throughput format. Taking cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as a model cooperativity system, we studied both GM1 and GM1-like gangliosides binding to CTB. We confirmed the previously observed CTB-GM1 positive cooperativity. Surprisingly, we demonstrated fucosyl-GM1 has approximately 7 times higher CTB binding capacity than GM1. In order to explain this phenomenon, we hypothesized that the reduced binding cooperativity of fucosyl-GM1 caused the increased binding capacity. This was unintuitive, as GM1 exhibited higher binding avidity (16 times lower dissociation constant). We confirmed the hypothesis using a theoretical stepwise binding model of CTB. Moreover, by taking a mixture of fucosyl-GM1 and GM2, we observed the mild binding avidity fucosyl-GM1 activated GM2 receptors enhancing the binding capacity of the lipid bilayer surface. This was unexpected as GM2 receptors have negligible binding avidity in pure GM2 bilayers. These unexpected discoveries demonstrate the importance of binding cooperativity in multivalent binding mechanisms. Thus, quantitative analysis of multivalent protein-glycan interactions in heterogeneous glycan systems is of critical importance. Our user-friendly, robust, and high-throughput nanocube-based lipid bilayer array offers an attractive method for dissecting these complex mechanisms. PMID:27070150

  2. Crystallographic location of two Zn{sup 2+} binding sites in the avian cytochrome bc1 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Edward A.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Bellamy, Henry D.; Huang, Lishar

    2000-06-20

    The chicken mitochondrial ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase (bc1 complex) is inhibited by Zn{sup 2+} ions, but with higher Ki ({approximately}3 {micro}M) than the corresponding bovine enzyme. When equilibrated with mother liquor containing 200 mM ZnCl{sub 2} for 7 days, the crystalline chicken bc1 complex specifically binds Zn{sup 2+} at 4 sites representing two sites on each monomer in the dimer. These two sites are close to the stigmatellin-binding site, taken to be center Qo of the Q-cycle mechanism, and are candidates for the inhibitory site. One binding site is actually in the hydrophobic channel between the Qo site and the bulk lipid phase, and may interfere with quinone binding. The other is in a hydrophilic area between cytochromes b and c1, and might interfere with the egress of protons from the Qo site to the intermembrane aqueous medium. No zinc was bound near the putative proteolytic active site of subunits 1 and 2 (homologous to mitochondrial processing peptidase) under these conditions.

  3. The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix

    PubMed Central

    Barneda, David; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Gaspar, Maria L; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Prasannan, Sunil; Dormann, Dirk; Han, Gil-Soo; Jesch, Stephen A; Carman, George M; Kagan, Valerian; Parker, Malcolm G; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Dixon, Ann M; Henry, Susan A; Christian, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis depends on the highly regulated storage and release of triacylglycerol primarily in adipose tissue, and excessive storage is a feature of common metabolic disorders. CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. We demonstrate an essential role in this process for an amphipathic helix in CIDEA, which facilitates embedding in the LD phospholipid monolayer and binds phosphatidic acid (PA). LD pairs are docked by CIDEA trans-complexes through contributions of the N-terminal domain and a C-terminal dimerization region. These complexes, enriched at the LD–LD contact site, interact with the cone-shaped phospholipid PA and likely increase phospholipid barrier permeability, promoting LD fusion by transference of lipids. This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07485.001 PMID:26609809

  4. Comparative conventional- and quantum dot-labeling strategies for LPS binding site detection in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Mgcina, Londiwe S.; Dubery, Ian A.; Piater, Lizelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is recognized as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) and not only induces an innate immune response in plants, but also stimulates the development of characteristic defense responses. However, identification and characterization of a cell surface LPS-receptor/binding site, as described in mammals, remains elusive in plants. As an amphiphilic, macromolecular lipoglycan, intact LPS potentially contains three MAMP-active regions, represented by the O-polysaccharide chain, the core and the lipid A. Binding site studies with intact labeled LPS were conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and quantified using flow cytometry fluorescence changes. Quantum dots (Qdots), which allow non-covalent, hydrophobic labeling were used as a novel strategy in this study and compared to covalent, hydrophilic labeling with Alexa 488. Affinity for LPS-binding sites was clearly demonstrated by concentration-, temperature-, and time-dependent increases in protoplast fluorescence following treatment with the labeled LPS. Moreover, this induced fluorescence increase was convincingly reduced following pre-treatment with excess unlabeled LPS, thereby indicating reversibility of LPS binding. Inhibition of the binding process is also reported using endo- and exocytosis inhibitors. Here, we present evidence for the anticipated presence of LPS-specific binding sites in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and furthermore propose Qdots as a more sensitive LPS-labeling strategy in comparison to the conventional Alexa 488 hydrazide label for binding studies. PMID:26029233

  5. Occupancy of the iron binding sites of human transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H A; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C A

    1984-01-01

    The in vivo distribution of iron between the binding sites of transferrin was examined. Plasma was obtained from normal subjects under basal conditions and after in vitro and in vivo iron loading. Independent methods, including measurement of the transferrin profile after isoelectric focusing and cross immunoelectrophoresis, and determination of the iron content in the separated fractions were in agreement that there was a random distribution of iron on binding sites. This held true with in vitro loading, when iron was increased by intestinal absorption and with loading from the reticuloendothelial system. The data indicate that the distribution of apo-, monoferric, and diferric transferrins is predictable on the basis of the plasma transferrin saturation and negate the concept that iron loading of transferrin in vitro is a selective process with possible functional consequences in tissue iron delivery. PMID:6589596

  6. Direct GR Binding Sites Potentiate Clusters of TF Binding across the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Vockley, Christopher M; D'Ippolito, Anthony M; McDowell, Ian C; Majoros, William H; Safi, Alexias; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Reddy, Timothy E

    2016-08-25

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds the human genome at >10,000 sites but only regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. To determine the functional effect of each site, we measured the glucocorticoid (GC) responsive activity of nearly all GR binding sites (GBSs) captured using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in A549 cells. 13% of GBSs assayed had GC-induced activity. The responsive sites were defined by direct GR binding via a GC response element (GRE) and exclusively increased reporter-gene expression. Meanwhile, most GBSs lacked GC-induced reporter activity. The non-responsive sites had epigenetic features of steady-state enhancers and clustered around direct GBSs. Together, our data support a model in which clusters of GBSs observed with ChIP-seq reflect interactions between direct and tethered GBSs over tens of kilobases. We further show that those interactions can synergistically modulate the activity of direct GBSs and may therefore play a major role in driving gene activation in response to GCs. PMID:27565349

  7. Direct GR Binding Sites Potentiate Clusters of TF Binding across the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Vockley, Christopher M; D'Ippolito, Anthony M; McDowell, Ian C; Majoros, William H; Safi, Alexias; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Reddy, Timothy E

    2016-08-25

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds the human genome at >10,000 sites but only regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. To determine the functional effect of each site, we measured the glucocorticoid (GC) responsive activity of nearly all GR binding sites (GBSs) captured using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in A549 cells. 13% of GBSs assayed had GC-induced activity. The responsive sites were defined by direct GR binding via a GC response element (GRE) and exclusively increased reporter-gene expression. Meanwhile, most GBSs lacked GC-induced reporter activity. The non-responsive sites had epigenetic features of steady-state enhancers and clustered around direct GBSs. Together, our data support a model in which clusters of GBSs observed with ChIP-seq reflect interactions between direct and tethered GBSs over tens of kilobases. We further show that those interactions can synergistically modulate the activity of direct GBSs and may therefore play a major role in driving gene activation in response to GCs.

  8. Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, I. L.; Nadassy, K.; Wodak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations. PMID:10082367

  9. A Conserved Steroid Binding Site in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Ling; Mills, Denise A.; Buhrow, Leann; Hiser, Carrie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2010-09-02

    Micromolar concentrations of the bile salt deoxycholate are shown to rescue the activity of an inactive mutant, E101A, in the K proton pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase. A crystal structure of the wild-type enzyme reveals, as predicted, deoxycholate bound with its carboxyl group at the entrance of the K path. Since cholate is a known potent inhibitor of bovine oxidase and is seen in a similar position in the bovine structure, the crystallographically defined, conserved steroid binding site could reveal a regulatory site for steroids or structurally related molecules that act on the essential K proton path.

  10. DNA methylation presents distinct binding sites for human transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohui; Wan, Jun; Su, Yijing; Song, Qifeng; Zeng, Yaxue; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Shin, Jaehoon; Cox, Eric; Rho, Hee Sool; Woodard, Crystal; Xia, Shuli; Liu, Shuang; Lyu, Huibin; Ming, Guo-Li; Wade, Herschel; Song, Hongjun; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs with methylated CpG (mCpG)-dependent DNA-binding activities. Interestingly, some TFs exhibit specific binding activity to methylated and unmethylated DNA motifs of distinct sequences. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we focused on Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and decoupled its mCpG- and CpG-binding activities via site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, KLF4 binds specific methylated or unmethylated motifs in human embryonic stem cells in vivo. Our study suggests that mCpG-dependent TF binding activity is a widespread phenomenon and provides a new framework to understand the role and mechanism of TFs in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00726.001. PMID:24015356

  11. The Next Generation of Transcription Factor Binding Site Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2013-01-01

    Finding where transcription factors (TFs) bind to the DNA is of key importance to decipher gene regulation at a transcriptional level. Classically, computational prediction of TF binding sites (TFBSs) is based on basic position weight matrices (PWMs) which quantitatively score binding motifs based on the observed nucleotide patterns in a set of TFBSs for the corresponding TF. Such models make the strong assumption that each nucleotide participates independently in the corresponding DNA-protein interaction and do not account for flexible length motifs. We introduce transcription factor flexible models (TFFMs) to represent TF binding properties. Based on hidden Markov models, TFFMs are flexible, and can model both position interdependence within TFBSs and variable length motifs within a single dedicated framework. The availability of thousands of experimentally validated DNA-TF interaction sequences from ChIP-seq allows for the generation of models that perform as well as PWMs for stereotypical TFs and can improve performance for TFs with flexible binding characteristics. We present a new graphical representation of the motifs that convey properties of position interdependence. TFFMs have been assessed on ChIP-seq data sets coming from the ENCODE project, revealing that they can perform better than both PWMs and the dinucleotide weight matrix extension in discriminating ChIP-seq from background sequences. Under the assumption that ChIP-seq signal values are correlated with the affinity of the TF-DNA binding, we find that TFFM scores correlate with ChIP-seq peak signals. Moreover, using available TF-DNA affinity measurements for the Max TF, we demonstrate that TFFMs constructed from ChIP-seq data correlate with published experimentally measured DNA-binding affinities. Finally, TFFMs allow for the straightforward computation of an integrated TF occupancy score across a sequence. These results demonstrate the capacity of TFFMs to accurately model DNA

  12. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824

  13. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  14. Copper binding to the prion protein: Structural implications of four identical cooperative binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Viles, John H.; Cohen, Fred E.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Goodin, David B.; Wright, Peter E.; Dyson, H. Jane

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is growing to support a functional role for the prion protein (PrP) in copper metabolism. Copper ions appear to bind to the protein in a highly conserved octapeptide repeat region (sequence PHGGGWGQ) near the N terminus. To delineate the site and mode of binding of Cu(II) to the PrP, the copper-binding properties of peptides of varying lengths corresponding to 2-, 3-, and 4-octarepeat sequences have been probed by using various spectroscopic techniques. A two-octarepeat peptide binds a single Cu(II) ion with Kd ≈ 6 μM whereas a four-octarepeat peptide cooperatively binds four Cu(II) ions. Circular dichroism spectra indicate a distinctive structuring of the octarepeat region on Cu(II) binding. Visible absorption, visible circular dichroism, and electron spin resonance spectra suggest that the coordination sphere of the copper is identical for 2, 3, or 4 octarepeats, consisting of a square-planar geometry with three nitrogen ligands and one oxygen ligand. Consistent with the pH dependence of Cu(II) binding, proton NMR spectroscopy indicates that the histidine residues in each octarepeat are coordinated to the Cu(II) ion. Our working model for the structure of the complex shows the histidine residues in successive octarepeats bridged between two copper ions, with both the Nɛ2 and Nδ1 imidazole nitrogen of each histidine residue coordinated and the remaining coordination sites occupied by a backbone amide nitrogen and a water molecule. This arrangement accounts for the cooperative nature of complex formation and for the apparent evolutionary requirement for four octarepeats in the PrP. PMID:10051591

  15. Cholesterol Modifies Huntingtin Binding to, Disruption of, and Aggregation on Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Campbell, Warren A; Chaibva, Maxmore; Jain, Pranav; Leslie, Ashley E; Frey, Shelli L; Legleiter, Justin

    2016-01-12

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormally long CAG-repeats in the huntingtin gene that encode an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) domain near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ domains are directly correlated to disease-related htt aggregation. Htt is found highly associated with a variety of cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominantly comprised of lipids. Since cholesterol homeostasis is altered in HD, we investigated how varying cholesterol content modifies the interactions between htt and lipid membranes. A combination of Langmuir trough monolayer techniques, vesicle permeability and binding assays, and in situ atomic force microscopy were used to directly monitor the interaction of a model, synthetic htt peptide and a full-length htt-exon1 recombinant protein with model membranes comprised of total brain lipid extract (TBLE) and varying amounts of exogenously added cholesterol. As the cholesterol content of the membrane increased, the extent of htt insertion decreased. Vesicles containing extra cholesterol were resistant to htt-induced permeabilization. Morphological and mechanical changes in the bilayer associated with exposure to htt were also drastically altered by the presence of cholesterol. Disrupted regions of pure TBLE bilayers were grainy in appearance and associated with a large number of globular aggregates. In contrast, morphological changes induced by htt in bilayers enriched in cholesterol were plateau-like with a smooth appearance. Collectively, these observations suggest that the presence and amount of cholesterol in lipid membranes play a critical role in htt binding and aggregation on lipid membranes.

  16. Cholesterol Modifies Huntingtin Binding to, Disruption of, and Aggregation on Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Campbell, Warren A; Chaibva, Maxmore; Jain, Pranav; Leslie, Ashley E; Frey, Shelli L; Legleiter, Justin

    2016-01-12

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormally long CAG-repeats in the huntingtin gene that encode an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) domain near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ domains are directly correlated to disease-related htt aggregation. Htt is found highly associated with a variety of cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominantly comprised of lipids. Since cholesterol homeostasis is altered in HD, we investigated how varying cholesterol content modifies the interactions between htt and lipid membranes. A combination of Langmuir trough monolayer techniques, vesicle permeability and binding assays, and in situ atomic force microscopy were used to directly monitor the interaction of a model, synthetic htt peptide and a full-length htt-exon1 recombinant protein with model membranes comprised of total brain lipid extract (TBLE) and varying amounts of exogenously added cholesterol. As the cholesterol content of the membrane increased, the extent of htt insertion decreased. Vesicles containing extra cholesterol were resistant to htt-induced permeabilization. Morphological and mechanical changes in the bilayer associated with exposure to htt were also drastically altered by the presence of cholesterol. Disrupted regions of pure TBLE bilayers were grainy in appearance and associated with a large number of globular aggregates. In contrast, morphological changes induced by htt in bilayers enriched in cholesterol were plateau-like with a smooth appearance. Collectively, these observations suggest that the presence and amount of cholesterol in lipid membranes play a critical role in htt binding and aggregation on lipid membranes. PMID:26652744

  17. Evidence that Escherichia coli STb enterotoxin binds to lipidic components extracted from the pig jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rousset, E; Dubreuil, J D

    1999-11-01

    Escherichia coli strains producing the heat-stable enterotoxin STb cause diarrhoea in pigs, but little is known on the receptor binding step initiating the diarrhoeal process. In the present study, pig jejunal mucosa extracts were tested for the presence of binding component(s) for STb. Jejunal epithelial cells and the mucus layer were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated material was transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane and overlayed with STb. The results indicated that a band migrating with the tracking dye was bound by STb. This band was not stained by Coomassie blue and was thus regarded as non proteinic but rather as a lipidic component. Thus, total lipid extracts were obtained from the epithelial cells and the mucus layer. Compared to SDS-PAGE on 12% gels, a better separation of the low molecular mass components contained in these extracts was obtained using high-density Phastgel. Most of the components were detected following silver staining but not using Coomassie blue. Interestingly, commercially available pure glycolipids could also be visualized, after separation, only following silver staining. In the total lipid extracts, a band migrating in the 2.5-6.5 kDa range was observed. Using a monoclonal antisulfatide antibody, this band was recognized indicating that sulfatide was, in effect, present in the extract. When pure sulfatide was run on the same gels, it showed the same electrophoretic mobility. In addition, a dose dependent binding of STb to sulfatide could be observed. Taken together, these data suggested that sulfatide present on the jejunal mucosa, could represent a natural target binding molecule for STb. PMID:10482388

  18. Finding the target sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Kazan, Hilal; Lipshitz, Howard D; Morris, Quaid D

    2014-01-01

    RNA–protein interactions differ from DNA–protein interactions because of the central role of RNA secondary structure. Some RNA-binding domains (RBDs) recognize their target sites mainly by their shape and geometry and others are sequence-specific but are sensitive to secondary structure context. A number of small- and large-scale experimental approaches have been developed to measure RNAs associated in vitro and in vivo with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Generalizing outside of the experimental conditions tested by these assays requires computational motif finding. Often RBP motif finding is done by adapting DNA motif finding methods; but modeling secondary structure context leads to better recovery of RBP-binding preferences. Genome-wide assessment of mRNA secondary structure has recently become possible, but these data must be combined with computational predictions of secondary structure before they add value in predicting in vivo binding. There are two main approaches to incorporating structural information into motif models: supplementing primary sequence motif models with preferred secondary structure contexts (e.g., MEMERIS and RNAcontext) and directly modeling secondary structure recognized by the RBP using stochastic context-free grammars (e.g., CMfinder and RNApromo). The former better reconstruct known binding preferences for sequence-specific RBPs but are not suitable for modeling RBPs that recognize shape and geometry of RNAs. Future work in RBP motif finding should incorporate interactions between multiple RBDs and multiple RBPs in binding to RNA. WIREs RNA 2014, 5:111–130. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1201 PMID:24217996

  19. Conformational changes of an exchangeable apolipoprotein, apolipophorin III from Locusta migratoria, at low pH: correlation with lipid binding.

    PubMed

    Weers, P M; Kay, C M; Ryan, R O

    2001-06-26

    Locusta migratoria apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is a helix bundle exchangeable apolipoprotein that reversibly binds to lipoprotein surfaces. Structural reorganization of its five amphipathic alpha-helices enables the transition from the lipid-free to lipid-bound state. ApoLp-III-induced transformation of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer vesicles into smaller discoidal complexes is enhanced as a function of decreasing pH, with maximal transformation occurring at pH 3.5. Over the entire pH range studied, apoLp-III retains nearly all of its secondary structure content. Whereas no changes in fluorescence emission maximum of the two Trp residues in apoLp-III were observed in the pH range from 7.0 to 4.0, a further decrease in pH resulted in a strong red shift. Near-UV circular dichroism spectra of apoLp-III showed well-defined extrema (at 286 and 292 nm) between pH 7.0 and pH 4.0, which were attributed to Trp115. Below pH 4.0, these extrema collapsed, indicating a less rigid environment for Trp115. Similarly, the fluorescence intensity of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate in the presence of apoLp-III increased 4-fold below pH 4.0, indicating exposure of hydrophobic sites in the protein in this pH range. Taken together, the data suggest two conformational states of the protein. In the first state between pH 7.0 and pH 4.0, apoLp-III retains a nativelike helix bundle structure. The second state, found between pH 3.0 and pH 4.0, is reminiscent of a molten globule, wherein tertiary structure contacts are disrupted without a significant loss of secondary structure content. In both states DMPC vesicle transformation is enhanced by lowering the solution pH, reaching an optimum in the second state. The correlation between tertiary structure and lipid binding activity suggests that helix bundle organization is a determinant of apoLp-III lipid binding activity.

  20. Impact of Hapten Presentation on Antibody Binding at Lipid Membrane Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyunsook; Yang, Tinglu; Lasagna, Mauricio D.; Shi, Jinjun; Reinhart, Gregory D.; Cremer, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    We report the effects of ligand presentation on the binding of aqueous proteins to solid supported lipid bilayers. Specifically, we show that the equilibrium dissociation constant can be strongly affected by ligand lipophilicity and linker length/structure. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) were compared for two model systems, biotin/anti-biotin and 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)/anti-DNP, in bulk solution and at model membrane surfaces. The binding constants in solution were obtained from fluorescence anisotropy measurements. The surface binding constants were determined by microfluidic techniques in conjunction with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that the bulk solution equilibrium dissociation constants for anti-biotin and anti-DNP were almost identical, KD(bulk) = 1.7 ± 0.2 nM vs. 2.9 ± 0.1 nM. By contrast, the dissociation constant for anti-biotin antibody was three orders of magnitude tighter than for anti-DNP at a lipid membrane interface, KD = 3.6 ± 1.1 nM vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 μM. We postulate that the pronounced difference in surface binding constants for these two similar antibodies is due to differences in the ligands' relative lipophilicity, i.e., the more hydrophobic DNP molecules had a stronger interaction with the lipid bilayers, rendering them less available to incoming anti-DNP antibodies compared with the biotin/anti-biotin system. However, when membrane-bound biotin ligands were well screened by a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer brush, the KD value for the anti-biotin antibody could also be weakened by three orders of magnitude, 2.4 ± 1.1 μM. On the other hand, the dissociation constant for anti-DNP antibodies at a lipid interface could be significantly enhanced when DNP haptens were tethered to the end of very long hydrophilic PEG lipopolymers (KD = 21 ± 10 nM) rather than presented on short lipid-conjugated tethers. These results demonstrate that ligand presentation strongly influences

  1. The effect of binding of spider-derived antimicrobial peptides, oxyopinins, on lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kaoru; Corzo, Gerardo

    2006-09-01

    Oxyopinins (Oxki1 and Oxki2) are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the crude venom of the wolf spider Oxyopes kitabensis. The effect of oxyopinins on lipid bilayers was investigated using high-sensitivity titration calorimetry and (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy. High-sensitivity titration calorimetry experiments showed that the binding of oxyopinins was exothermic, and the binding enthalpies (DeltaH) to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) were -18.1 kcal/mol and -15.0 kcal/mol for Oxki1 and Oxki2, respectively, and peptide partition coefficient (K(p)) was found to be 3.9x10(3) M(-1). (31)P NMR spectra of 1,2-dielaidoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DEPE) membranes in the presence of oxyopinins indicated that they induced a positive curvature in lipid bilayers. The induced positive curvature was stronger in the presence of Oxki2 than in the presence of Oxki1. (31)P NMR spectra of phosphaditylcholine (PC) membranes in the presence of Oxki2 showed that Oxki2 produced micellization of membranes at low peptide concentrations, but unsaturated PC membranes or acidic phospholipids prevented micellization from occurring. Furthermore, (31)P NMR spectra using membrane lipids from E. coli suggested that Oxki1 was more disruptive to bacterial membranes than Oxki2. These results strongly correlate to the known biological activity of the oxyopinins.

  2. Coenzyme A Binding to the Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb Increases Conformational Sampling of Antibiotic Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohu; Norris, Adrianne; Baudry, Jerome Y; Serpersu, Engin H

    2011-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to describe the dynamic properties of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb (AAC) in its apo and coenzyme A (CoASH) bound forms. The {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H HSQC spectra indicate a partial structural change and coupling of the CoASH binding site with another region in the protein upon the CoASH titration into the apo enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a significant structural and dynamic variation of the long loop in the antibiotic binding domain in the form of a relatively slow (250 ns), concerted opening motion in the CoASH enzyme complex and that binding of the CoASH increases the structural flexibility of the loop, leading to an interchange between several similar equally populated conformations.

  3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulated benzodiazepine binding sites in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lummis, S.C.R.; Johnston, G.A.R. ); Nicoletti, G. ); Holan, G. )

    1991-01-01

    Benzodiazepine binding sites, which were once considered to exist only in higher vertebrates, are here demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli. The bacterial ({sup 3}H)diazepam binding sites are modulated by GABA; the modulation is dose dependent and is reduced at high concentrations. The most potent competitors of E.Coli ({sup 3}H)diazepam binding are those that are active in displacing ({sup 3}H)benzodiazepines from vertebrate peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites. These vertebrate sites are not modulated by GABA, in contrast to vertebrate neuronal benzodiazepine binding sites. The E.coli benzodiazepine binding sites therefore differ from both classes of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites; however the ligand spectrum and GABA-modulatory properties of the E.coli sites are similar to those found in insects. This intermediate type of receptor in lower species suggests a precursor for at least one class of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites may have existed.

  4. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  5. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  6. A Unitary Anesthetic-Binding Site at High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, L.; Brannigan, G; Economou, N; Xi, J; Hall, M; Liu, R; Rossi, M; Dailey, W; Grasty, K; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  7. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution*

    PubMed Central

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABAA receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABAA receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels. PMID:19605349

  8. PeptiSite: a structural database of peptide binding sites in 4D.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Chayan; Kufareva, Irina; Ilatovskiy, Andrey V; Abagyan, Ruben

    2014-03-21

    We developed PeptiSite, a comprehensive and reliable database of biologically and structurally characterized peptide-binding sites, in which each site is represented by an ensemble of its complexes with protein, peptide and small molecule partners. The unique features of the database include: (1) the ensemble site representation that provides a fourth dimension to the otherwise three dimensional data, (2) comprehensive characterization of the binding site architecture that may consist of a multimeric protein assembly with cofactors and metal ions and (3) analysis of consensus interaction motifs within the ensembles and identification of conserved determinants of these interactions. Currently the database contains 585 proteins with 650 peptide-binding sites. http://peptisite.ucsd.edu/ link allows searching for the sites of interest and interactive visualization of the ensembles using the ActiveICM web-browser plugin. This structural database for protein-peptide interactions enables understanding of structural principles of these interactions and may assist the development of an efficient peptide docking benchmark. PMID:24406170

  9. Nuclear pore targeting of the yeast Pom33 nucleoporin depends on karyopherin and lipid binding.

    PubMed

    Floch, Aurélie G; Tareste, David; Fuchs, Patrick F J; Chadrin, Anne; Naciri, Ikrame; Léger, Thibaut; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Palancade, Benoit; Doye, Valérie

    2015-01-15

    Pom33 is an integral membrane protein of the yeast nuclear pore complex (NPC), and it is required for proper NPC distribution and assembly. To characterize the Pom33 NPC-targeting determinants, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. This identified a new Pom33 partner, the nuclear import factor Kap123. In vitro experiments revealed a direct interaction between the Pom33 C-terminal domain (CTD) and Kap123. In silico analysis predicted the presence of two amphipathic α-helices within Pom33-CTD. Circular dichroism and liposome co-flotation assays showed that this domain is able to fold into α-helices in the presence of liposomes and preferentially binds to highly curved lipid membranes. When expressed in yeast, under conditions abolishing Pom33-CTD membrane association, this domain behaves as a Kap123-dependent nuclear localization signal (NLS). Although deletion of Pom33 C-terminal domain (Pom33(ΔCTD)-GFP) impaired Pom33 stability and NPC targeting, mutants affecting either Kap123 binding or the amphipathic properties of the α-helices did not display any detectable defect. However, combined impairment of lipid and Kap123 binding affects targeting of Pom33 to NPCs. These data highlight the requirement of multiple determinants and mechanisms for proper NPC localization of Pom33.

  10. Centrifugation-based assay for examining nanoparticle-lipid membrane binding and disruption.

    PubMed

    Xi, Aihong; Bothun, Geoffrey D

    2014-03-01

    Centrifugation-based assays are commonly employed to study protein-membrane affinity or binding using lipid bilayer vesicles. An analogous assay has been developed to study nanoparticle-membrane interactions as a function of nanoparticle surface functionalization, membrane lipid composition, and monovalent salt concentration (NaCl). Anionic (carboxylic acid, Ag-COOH), cationic (amine, Ag-NH), and polyethylene glycol coated (Ag-PEG) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were examined based on their surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which was used to determine the degree of binding to anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic membrane vesicles by analyzing supernatant and sediment phases. SPR was also used to examine AgNP aggregation in solution and at membrane-water interfaces, and direct visualization of AgNP-membrane binding, vesicle aggregation, and vesicle disruption was achieved by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The extent of AgNP binding, based on AgNP + vesicle heteroaggregation, and vesicle disruption was dependent upon the degree of electrostatic attraction. Because of their biological and environmental relevance, Ag-PEG + anionic vesicles systems were examined in detail. Cryo-TEM image analysis was performed to determine apparent membrane-water partition coefficients and AgNP aggregation states (in solution and bound to membranes) as a function of NaCl concentration. Despite possessing a PEG coating and exhibiting a slight negative charge, Ag-PEG was able to bind to model anionic bacterial membranes either as individual AgNPs (low salt) or as AgNP aggregates (high salt). The centrifugation assay provides a rapid and straightforward way to screen nanoparticle-membrane interactions.

  11. Site-specific fab fragment biotinylation at the conserved nucleotide binding site for enhanced Ebola detection.

    PubMed

    Mustafaoglu, Nur; Alves, Nathan J; Bilgicer, Basar

    2015-07-01

    The nucleotide binding site (NBS) is a highly conserved region between the variable light and heavy chains at the Fab domains of all antibodies, and a small molecule that we identified, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), binds specifically to this site. Fab fragment, with its small size and simple production methods compared to intact antibody, is good candidate for use in miniaturized diagnostic devices and targeted therapeutic applications. However, commonly used modification techniques are not well suited for Fab fragments as they are often more delicate than intact antibodies. Fab fragments are of particular interest for sensor surface functionalization but immobilization results in damage to the antigen binding site and greatly reduced activity due to their truncated size that allows only a small area that can bind to surfaces without impeding antigen binding. In this study, we describe an NBS-UV photocrosslinking functionalization method (UV-NBS(Biotin) in which a Fab fragment is site-specifically biotinylated with an IBA-EG11-Biotin linker via UV energy exposure (1 J/cm(2)) without affecting its antigen binding activity. This study demonstrates successful immobilization of biotinylated Ebola detecting Fab fragment (KZ52 Fab fragment) via the UV-NBS(Biotin) method yielding 1031-fold and 2-fold better antigen detection sensitivity compared to commonly used immobilization methods: direct physical adsorption and NHS-Biotin functionalization, respectively. Utilization of the UV-NBS(Biotin) method for site-specific conjugation to Fab fragment represents a proof of concept use of Fab fragment for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications with numerous fluorescent probes, affinity molecules and peptides.

  12. Calcium-independent binding to interfacial phorbol esters causes protein kinase C to associate with membranes in the absence of acidic lipids.

    PubMed

    Mosior, M; Newton, A C

    1996-02-01

    The mechanism of interaction of phorbol esters with conventional protein kinase Cs was addressed by examining the direct binding of this class of activators to protein kinase C beta II. Binding measurements reveal that the major role of phorbol esters is to increase the affinity of protein kinase C for membranes by several orders of magnitude. The relative increase depends linearly on the mole fraction of phorbol esters in membranes, with the potency illustrated by the finding that 1 mol% phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases protein kinase C's membrane association by approximately 4 orders of magnitude. For comparison, diacylglycerol (DG), which also activates protein kinase C by increasing the enzyme's membrane affinity, is 2 orders of magnitude less effective than PMA in altering protein kinase C's membrane affinity. The remarkably high-affinity interaction with phorbol esters allowed us to measure the direct binding of protein kinase C to PMA in neutral membranes and, thus, to evaluate the effect of Ca2+ on the phorbol ester interaction in the absence of Ca2+ effects on the enzyme's interaction with acidic lipids. Changing the Ca2+ concentration over 5 orders of magnitude had no effect on the direct interaction of protein kinase C with PMA immobilized in phosphatidylcholine membranes. Thus, the Ca(2+)-binding site for membrane association and the phorbol ester-binding site do not interact allosterically. Lastly, a method that does not have the limitations of the Scatchard plot for analysis of amphitropic proteins was used to determine the dissociation constant of protein kinase C from phorbol esters: expressed relative to membrane lipids, the dissociation constant is 1.5 x 10(-5) mol %. In summary, our data reveal that (1) the direct binding of protein kinase C to phorbol esters, in the absence of interactions with acidic lipids, provides a major contribution to the free energy change involved in the association of protein kinase C with membranes and

  13. Drug binding and mobility relating to the thermal fluctuation in fluid lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Emiko; Yoshii, Noriyuki

    2008-12-01

    Drug binding and mobility in fluid lipid bilayer membranes are quantified in situ by using the multinuclear solution NMR combined with the pulsed-field-gradient technique. One-dimensional and pulsed-field-gradient F19 and H1 NMR signals of an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) are analyzed at 283-313 K in the presence of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) as model cell membranes. The simultaneous observation of the membrane-bound and free 5FU signals enables to quantify in what amount of 5FU is bound to the membrane and how fast 5FU is moving within the membrane in relation to the thermal fluctuation of the soft, fluid environment. It is shown that the mobility of membrane-bound 5FU is slowed down by almost two orders of magnitude and similar to the lipid movement in the membrane, the movement closely related to the intramembrane fluidity. The mobility of 5FU and EPC is, however, not similar at 313 K; the 5FU movement is enhanced in the membrane as a result of the loose binding of 5FU in the lipid matrices. The membrane-bound fraction of 5FU is ˜0.1 and almost unaltered over the temperature range examined. It is also independent of the 5FU concentration from 2 to 30 mM with respect to the 40-50 mM LUV. The free energy of the 5FU binding is estimated at -4 to -2 kJ/mol, the magnitude always close to the thermal fluctuation, 2.4-2.6 kJ/mol.

  14. Accelerating All-Atom MD Simulations of Lipids Using a Modified Virtual-Sites Technique.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Bastien; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-12-01

    We present two new implementations of the virtual sites technique which completely suppresses the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen atoms in a lipid bilayer allowing for an increased time step of 5 fs in all-atom simulations of the CHARMM36 force field. One of our approaches uses the derivation of the virtual sites used in GROMACS while the other uses a new definition of the virtual sites of the CH2 groups. Our methods is tested on a DPPC (no unsaturated chain), a POPC (one unsaturated chain), and a DOPC (two unsaturated chains) lipid bilayers. We calculate various physical properties of the membrane of our simulations with and without virtual sites and explain the differences and similarity observed. The best agreements are obtained for the GROMACS original virtual sites on the DOPC bilayer where we get an area per lipid of 67.3 ± 0.3 Å(2) without virtual sites and 67.6 ± 0.3 Å(2) with virtual sites. In conclusion the virtual-sites technique on lipid membranes is a powerful simulation tool, but it should be used with care. The procedure can be applied to other force fields and lipids in a straightforward manner.

  15. CryptoSite: Expanding the Druggable Proteome by Characterization and Prediction of Cryptic Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Cimermancic, Peter; Weinkam, Patrick; Rettenmaier, T Justin; Bichmann, Leon; Keedy, Daniel A; Woldeyes, Rahel A; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Demerdash, Omar N; Mitchell, Julie C; Wells, James A; Fraser, James S; Sali, Andrej

    2016-02-22

    Many proteins have small-molecule binding pockets that are not easily detectable in the ligand-free structures. These cryptic sites require a conformational change to become apparent; a cryptic site can therefore be defined as a site that forms a pocket in a holo structure, but not in the apo structure. Because many proteins appear to lack druggable pockets, understanding and accurately identifying cryptic sites could expand the set of drug targets. Previously, cryptic sites were identified experimentally by fragment-based ligand discovery and computationally by long molecular dynamics simulations and fragment docking. Here, we begin by constructing a set of structurally defined apo-holo pairs with cryptic sites. Next, we comprehensively characterize the cryptic sites in terms of their sequence, structure, and dynamics attributes. We find that cryptic sites tend to be as conserved in evolution as traditional binding pockets but are less hydrophobic and more flexible. Relying on this characterization, we use machine learning to predict cryptic sites with relatively high accuracy (for our benchmark, the true positive and false positive rates are 73% and 29%, respectively). We then predict cryptic sites in the entire structurally characterized human proteome (11,201 structures, covering 23% of all residues in the proteome). CryptoSite increases the size of the potentially "druggable" human proteome from ~40% to ~78% of disease-associated proteins. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of our approach in practice, we experimentally validate a cryptic site in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using a covalent ligand and NMR spectroscopy. The CryptoSite Web server is available at http://salilab.org/cryptosite.

  16. Lipid binding to cytoglobin leads to a change in haem co-ordination: a role for cytoglobin in lipid signalling of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Brandon J; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Wilson, Michael T

    2011-03-15

    Cytoglobin is a recently discovered hexa-co-ordinate haemoglobin that does not appear to function as a classical oxygen-binding protein. Its function is unknown and studies on the effects of changes in its expression have not decisively determined its role within the cell. In the present paper, we report that the protein is transformed from hexa-co-ordinate to penta-co-ordinate on binding a lipid molecule. This transformation occurs with the ferric oxidation state of the protein, but not the ferrous state, indicating that this process only occurs under an oxidative environment and may thus be related to redox-linked cell signalling mechanisms. Oleate binds to the protein in a 1:1 stoichiometry and with high affinity (K(d)=0.7 μM); however, stopped-flow kinetic measurements yield a K(d) value of 110 μM. The discrepancy between these K(d) values may be rationalized by recognizing that cytoglobin is a disulfide-linked dimer and invoking co-operativity in oleate binding. The lipid-induced transformation of cytoglobin from hexa-co-ordinate to penta-co-ordinate does not occur with similar hexa-co-ordinate haemoglobins such as neuroglobin, and therefore appears to be a unique property of cytoglobin among the haemoglobin superfamily. The lipid-derived transformation may explain why cytoglobin has enhanced peroxidatic activity, converting lipids into various oxidized products, a property virtually absent from neuroglobin and much decreased in myoglobin. We propose that the binding of ferric cytoglobin to lipids and their subsequent transformation may be integral to the physiological function of cytoglobin, generating cell signalling lipid molecules under an oxidative environment. PMID:21171964

  17. MONKEY: Identifying conserved transcription-factor binding sitesin multiple alignments using a binding site-specific evolutionarymodel

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, VenkyN.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-10-28

    We introduce a method (MONKEY) to identify conserved transcription-factor binding sites in multispecies alignments. MONKEY employs probabilistic models of factor specificity and binding site evolution, on which basis we compute the likelihood that putative sites are conserved and assign statistical significance to each hit. Using genomes from the genus Saccharomyces, we illustrate how the significance of real sites increases with evolutionary distance and explore the relationship between conservation and function.

  18. Membrane Docking Geometry of GRP1 PH Domain Bound to a Target Lipid Bilayer: An EPR Site-Directed Spin-Labeling and Relaxation Study

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Kyle E.; Corbin, John A.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    The second messenger lipid PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate) is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase) in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH) domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i) PIP3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii) PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral diffusion observed for PIP3

  19. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; Zhang, Lei; Patel, Mili; Wang, Francis; Rames, Matthew J.; Ren, Amy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Qiu, Xiayang; Johns, Douglas G.; Charles, M. Arthur; Ren, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobic environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.

  20. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; Zhang, Lei; Patel, Mili; Wang, Francis; Rames, Matthew J.; Ren, Amy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Qiu, Xiayang; Johns, Douglas G.; Charles, M. Arthur; Ren, Gang

    2015-03-04

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobic environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.

  1. Roles played by acidic lipids in HIV-1 Gag membrane binding.

    PubMed

    Olety, Balaji; Ono, Akira

    2014-11-26

    The MA domain mediates plasma membrane (PM) targeting of HIV-1 Gag, leading to particle assembly at the PM. The interaction between MA and acidic phospholipids, in addition to N-terminal myristoyl moiety, promotes Gag binding to lipid membranes. Among acidic phospholipids, PI(4,5)P2, a PM-specific phosphoinositide, is essential for proper HIV-1 Gag localization to the PM and efficient virus particle production. Recent studies further revealed that MA-bound RNA negatively regulates HIV-1 Gag membrane binding and that PI(4,5)P2 is necessary to overcome this RNA-imposed block. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of Gag-membrane interactions and discuss potential roles played by acidic phospholipids.

  2. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; Zhang, Lei; Patel, Mili; Wang, Francis; Rames, Matthew J.; Ren, Amy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Qiu, Xiayang; et al

    2015-03-04

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobicmore » environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.« less

  3. The first intron of the human growth hormone gene contains a binding site for glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, D D; Marks, A R; Buckley, D I; Kapler, G; Payvar, F; Goodman, H M

    1985-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) protein stimulates transcription from a variety of cellular genes. We show here that GCR partially purified from rat liver binds specifically to a site within the first intron of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, approximately 100 base pairs downstream from the start of hGH transcription. GCR binding is selectively inhibited by methylation of two short, symmetrically arranged clusters of guanine residues within this site. A cloned synthetic 24-base-pair deoxyoligonucleotide containing the predicted GCR binding sequence interacts specifically with GCR. The hGH binding site shares sequence homology with a GCR binding site upstream from the human metallothionein II gene and a subset of GCR binding sites from mouse mammary tumor virus. All of these binding sites for this eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory protein show remarkable similarity in overall geometry to the binding sites for several prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins. Images PMID:2983311

  4. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-03-20

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme.

  5. Conserved properties of individual Ca2+-binding sites in calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Halling, D. Brent; Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; Hall, Amelia W.; Aldrich, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca2+-sensing protein that is highly conserved and ubiquitous in eukaryotes. In humans it is a locus of life-threatening cardiomyopathies. The primary function of CaM is to transduce Ca2+ concentration into cellular signals by binding to a wide range of target proteins in a Ca2+-dependent manner. We do not fully understand how CaM performs its role as a high-fidelity signal transducer for more than 300 target proteins, but diversity among its four Ca2+-binding sites, called EF-hands, may contribute to CaM’s functional versatility. We therefore looked at the conservation of CaM sequences over deep evolutionary time, focusing primarily on the four EF-hand motifs. Expanding on previous work, we found that CaM evolves slowly but that its evolutionary rate is substantially faster in fungi. We also found that the four EF-hands have distinguishing biophysical and structural properties that span eukaryotes. These results suggest that all eukaryotes require CaM to decode Ca2+ signals using four specialized EF-hands, each with specific, conserved traits. In addition, we provide an extensive map of sites associated with target proteins and with human disease and correlate these with evolutionary sequence diversity. Our comprehensive evolutionary analysis provides a basis for understanding the sequence space associated with CaM function and should help guide future work on the relationship between structure, function, and disease. PMID:26884197

  6. Atrial natriuretic factor binding sites in experimental congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Thibault, G.; Wrobel-Konrad, E.; De Lean, A.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M. )

    1989-10-01

    A quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study was performed on the aorta, renal glomeruli, and adrenal cortex of cardiomyopathic hamsters in various stages of heart failure and correlated, in some instances, with in vivo autoradiography. The results indicate virtually no correlation between the degree of congestive heart failure and the density of 125I-labeled atrial natriuretic factor ((Ser99, Tyr126)ANF) binding sites (Bmax) in the tissues examined. Whereas the Bmax was increased in the thoracic aorta in moderate and severe heart failure, there were no significant changes in the zona glomerulosa. The renal glomeruli Bmax was lower in mild and moderate heart failure compared with control and severe heart failure. The proportion of ANF B- and C-receptors was also evaluated in sections of the aorta, adrenal, and kidney of control and cardiomyopathic hamsters with severe heart failure. (Arg102, Cys121)ANF (des-(Gln113, Ser114, Gly115, Leu116, Gly117) NH2) (C-ANF) at 10(-6) M displaced approximately 505 of (Ser99, Tyr126)125I-ANF bound in the aorta and renal glomeruli and approximately 20% in the adrenal zona glomerulosa in both series of animals. These results suggest that ANF may exert a buffering effect on the vasoconstriction of heart failure and to a certain extent may inhibit aldosterone secretion. The impairment of renal sodium excretion does not appear to be related to glomerular ANF binding sites at any stage of the disease.

  7. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Binding Sites in the Brain: Regulation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rochelle D.; Kellar, Kenneth J.

    1983-04-01

    Tritiated acetylcholine was used to measure binding sites with characteristics of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Regulation of the binding sites in vivo was examined by administering two drugs that stimulate nicotinic receptors directly or indirectly. After 10 days of exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex was decreased. However, after repeated administration of nicotine for 10 days, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cortex was increased. Saturation analysis of tritiated acetylcholine binding in the cortices of rats treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate or nicotine indicated that the number of binding sites decreased and increased, respectively, while the affinity of the sites was unaltered.

  8. All-atom simulations and free-energy calculations of coiled-coil peptides with lipid bilayers: binding strength, structural transition, and effect on lipid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sun Young; Lee, Hwankyu

    2016-01-01

    Peptides E and K, which are synthetic coiled-coil peptides for membrane fusion, were simulated with lipid bilayers composed of lipids and cholesterols at different ratios using all-atom models. We first calculated free energies of binding from umbrella sampling simulations, showing that both E and K peptides tend to adsorb onto the bilayer surface, which occurs more strongly in the bilayer composed of smaller lipid headgroups. Then, unrestrained simulations show that K peptides more deeply insert into the bilayer with partially retaining the helical structure, while E peptides less insert and predominantly become random coils, indicating the structural transition from helices to random coils, in quantitative agreement with experiments. This is because K peptides electrostatically interact with lipid phosphates, as well as because hydrocarbons of lysines of K peptide are longer than those of glutamic acids of E peptide and thus form stronger hydrophobic interactions with lipid tails. This deeper insertion of K peptide increases the bilayer dynamics and a vacancy below the peptide, leading to the rearrangement of smaller lipids. These findings help explain the experimentally observed or proposed differences in the insertion depth, binding strength, and structural transition of E and K peptides, and support the snorkeling effect. PMID:26926570

  9. Oligosaccharyltransferase directly binds to ribosome at a location near the translocon-binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.; Li, H.; Li, Hua; Lennarz, W. J.

    2009-04-28

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OT) transfers high mannose-type glycans to the nascent polypeptides that are translated by the membrane-bound ribosome and translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum through the Sec61 translocon complex. In this article, we show that purified ribosomes and OT can form a binary complex with a stoichiometry of {approx}1 to 1 in the presence of detergent. We present evidence that OT may bind to the large ribosomal subunit near the site where nascent polypeptides exit. We further show that OT and the Sec61 complex can simultaneously bind to ribosomes in vitro. Based on existing data and our findings, we propose that cotranslational translocation and N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides are mediated by a ternary supramolecular complex consisting of OT, the Sec61 complex, and ribosomes.

  10. A surface-associated retinol- and fatty acid-binding protein (Gp-FAR-1) from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida: lipid binding activities, structural analysis and expression pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Prior, A; Jones, J T; Blok, V C; Beauchamp, J; McDermott, L; Cooper, A; Kennedy, M W

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes produce at least two structurally novel classes of small helix-rich retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins that have no counterparts in their plant or animal hosts and thus represent potential targets for new nematicides. Here we describe a protein (Gp-FAR-1) from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera pallida, which is a member of the nematode-specific fatty-acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) family of proteins but localizes to the surface of this species, placing it in a strategic position for interaction with the host. Recombinant Gp-FAR-1 was found to bind retinol, cis-parinaric acid and the fluorophore-tagged lipids 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid and dansyl-D,L-alpha-amino-octanoic acid. The fluorescence emission characteristics of the dansylated analogues indicated that the entire ligand enters the binding cavity. Fluorescence competition experiments showed that Gp-FAR-1 binds fatty acids in the range C(11) to C(24), with optimal binding at C(15). Intrinsic fluorescence analysis of a mutant protein into which a tryptophan residue had been inserted supported computer-based predictions of the position of this residue at the protein's interior and possibly also at the binding site. Of direct relevance to plant defence systems was the observation that Gp-FAR-1 binds two lipids (linolenic and linoleic acids) that are precursors of plant defence compounds and the jasmonic acid signalling pathway. Moreover, Gp-FAR-1 was found to inhibit the lipoxygenase-mediated modification of these substrates in vitro. Thus not only does Gp-FAR-1 function as a broad-spectrum retinol- and fatty-acid-binding protein, the results are consistent with the idea that Gp-FAR-1 is involved in the evasion of primary host plant defence systems. PMID:11368765

  11. Examination of the thiamin diphosphate binding site in yeast transketolase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Meshalkina, L; Nilsson, U; Wikner, C; Kostikowa, T; Schneider, G

    1997-03-01

    The role of two conserved amino acid residues in the thiamin diphosphate binding site of yeast transketolase has been analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of E162, which is part of a cluster of glutamic acid residues at the subunit interface, by alanine or glutamine results in mutant enzymes with most catalytic properties similar to wild-type enzyme. The two mutant enzymes show, however, significant increases in the K0.5 values for thiamin diphosphate in the absence of substrate and in the lag of the reaction progress curves. This suggests that the interaction of E162 with residue E418, and possibly E167, from the second subunit is important for formation and stabilization of the transketolase dimer. Replacement of the conserved residue D382, which is buried upon binding of thiamin diphosphate, by asparagine and alanine, results in mutant enzymes severely impaired in thiamin diphosphate binding and catalytic efficiency. The 25-80-fold increase in K0.5 for thiamin diphosphate suggests that D382 is involved in cofactor binding, probably by electrostatic compensation of the positive charge of the thiazolium ring and stabilization of a flexible loop at the active site. The decrease in catalytic activities in the D382 mutants indicates that this residue might also be important in subsequent steps in catalysis.

  12. Stable, ligand-doped, poly(bis-SorbPC) lipid bilayer arrays for protein binding and detection.

    PubMed

    Joubert, James R; Smith, Kathryn A; Johnson, Erin; Keogh, John P; Wysocki, Vicki H; Gale, Bruce K; Conboy, John C; Saavedra, S Scott

    2009-06-01

    A continuous-flow microspotter was used to generate planar arrays of stabilized bilayers composed of the polymerizable lipid bis-SorbPC and dopant lipids bearing ligands for proteins. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the uniformity of the bilayers and to detect protein binding. After UV-initiated polymerization, poly(lipid) bilayer microarrays were air-stable. Cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) bound to an array of poly(lipid) bilayers doped with GM(1), and the extent of binding was correlated to the mole percentage of GM(1) in each spot. A poly(lipid) bilayer array composed of spots doped with GM(1) and spots doped with biotin-DOPE specifically bound CTb and streptavidin to the respective spots from a dissolved mixture of the two proteins. Poly(bis-SorbPC)/GM(1) arrays retained specific CTb binding capacity after multiple regenerations with a protein denaturing solution and also after exposure to air. In addition, these arrays are stable in vacuum, which allows the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to detect specifically bound CTb. This work demonstrates the considerable potential of poly(lipid) bilayer arrays for high-throughput binding assays and lipidomics studies. PMID:20355927

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Lipid-Binding Property of GrlR, a Locus of Enterocyte Effacement Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Jobichen, C.; Fernandis, A; Velazquez-Campoy, A; Leung, K; Mok, Y; Wenk, M; Sivaraman, J

    2009-01-01

    Lipocalins are a broad family of proteins identified initially in eukaryotes and more recently in Gram-negative bacteria. The functions of lipocalin or lipid-binding proteins are often elusive and very diverse. Recently, we have determined the structure of GrlR (global regulator of LEE repressor), which plays a key role in the regulation of LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) proteins. GrlR adopts a lipocalin-like fold that is composed of an eight-stranded e-barrel followed by an a-helix at the C-terminus. GrlR has a highly hydrophobic cavity region and could be a potential transporter of lipophilic molecules. To verify this hypothesis, we carried out structure-based analysis of GrlR, determined the structure of the lipid-GrlR complex and measured the binding of lipid to recombinant GrlR by ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry). In addition, we identified phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the endogenously bound lipid species of GrlR using electrospray-ionization MS. Furthermore, we have shown that the lipid-binding property of GrlR is similar to that of its closest lipocalin structural homologue, e-lactoglobulin. Our studies demonstrate the hitherto unknown lipid-binding property of GrlR.

  14. GE23077 binds to the RNA polymerase 'i' and 'i+1' sites and prevents the binding of initiating nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Degen, David; Ho, Mary X; Sineva, Elena; Ebright, Katherine Y; Ebright, Yon W; Mekler, Vladimir; Vahedian-Movahed, Hanif; Feng, Yu; Yin, Ruiheng; Tuske, Steve; Irschik, Herbert; Jansen, Rolf; Maffioli, Sonia; Donadio, Stefano; Arnold, Eddy; Ebright, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches, we show that the cyclic-peptide antibiotic GE23077 (GE) binds directly to the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) active-center 'i' and 'i+1' nucleotide binding sites, preventing the binding of initiating nucleotides, and thereby preventing transcription initiation. The target-based resistance spectrum for GE is unusually small, reflecting the fact that the GE binding site on RNAP includes residues of the RNAP active center that cannot be substituted without loss of RNAP activity. The GE binding site on RNAP is different from the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, GE and rifamycins do not exhibit cross-resistance, and GE and a rifamycin can bind simultaneously to RNAP. The GE binding site on RNAP is immediately adjacent to the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, covalent linkage of GE to a rifamycin provides a bipartite inhibitor having very high potency and very low susceptibility to target-based resistance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02450.001.

  15. Lipid composition is important for highly efficient target binding and retention of immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Huang, L. ); Kennel, S.J. )

    1990-08-01

    By taking advantage of a monoclonal IgG antibody, 34A, which is highly specific to pulmonary endothelial cells, the authors have prepared liposomes containing various amounts of antibody molecules (immunoliposomes). These immunoliposomes accumulate specifically in the lung when injected i.v. Two lipid compositions were used: phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/phosphatidylserine (PS), 10:5:1 (mol/mol), a composition that allows liposomes to be readily taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (liver and spleen), and phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/ganglioside GM{sub 1}, 10:5:1 (mol/mol), a composition that allows liposomes to avoid or delay the RES uptake (the so-called stealth liposomes). Although an increase in the number of antibody molecules per liposome was accompanied by an increased level of lung binding of the immunoliposomes, differences due to the lipid composition were more profound. Conjugation of antibody to the stealth liposome did not increase the rate of liposome uptake by liver; this rate was approximately 10-fold lower than that of the PS-containing liposomes without antibody. Stealth immunoliposomes with high antibody content also showed long retention in the lung. These results can be understood on the basis of two competing kinetic processes: lung binding whose rate is directly proportional to the antibody content of the immunoliposomes and uptake by RES whose rate is significantly reduced in the case of the stealth liposomes.

  16. Alpha-synuclein lipid-dependent membrane binding and translocation through the α-hemolysin channel.

    PubMed

    Gurnev, Philip A; Yap, Thai Leong; Pfefferkorn, Candace M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Lee, Jennifer C; Parsegian, V Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2014-02-01

    Gauging the interactions of a natively unfolded Parkinson disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) with membranes and its pathways between and within cells is important for understanding its pathogenesis. Here, to address these questions, we use a robust β-barrel channel, α-hemolysin, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. Transient, ~95% blockage of the channel current by α-syn was observed when 1), α-syn was added from the membrane side where the shorter (stem) part of the channel is exposed; and 2), the applied potential was lower on the side of α-syn addition. While the on-rate of α-syn binding to the channel strongly increased with the applied field, the off-rate displayed a turnover behavior. Statistical analysis suggests that at voltages >50 mV, a significant fraction of the α-syn molecules bound to the channel undergoes subsequent translocation. The observed on-rate varied by >100 times depending on the bilayer lipid composition. Removal of the last 25 amino acids from the highly negatively charged C-terminal of α-syn resulted in a significant decrease in the binding rates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-barrel channels may serve as sensitive probes of α-syn interactions with membranes as well as model systems for studies of channel-assisted protein transport.

  17. Alpha-Synuclein Lipid-Dependent Membrane Binding and Translocation through the α-Hemolysin Channel

    PubMed Central

    Gurnev, Philip A.; Yap, Thai Leong; Pfefferkorn, Candace M.; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Lee, Jennifer C.; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2014-01-01

    Gauging the interactions of a natively unfolded Parkinson disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) with membranes and its pathways between and within cells is important for understanding its pathogenesis. Here, to address these questions, we use a robust β-barrel channel, α-hemolysin, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. Transient, ∼95% blockage of the channel current by α-syn was observed when 1), α-syn was added from the membrane side where the shorter (stem) part of the channel is exposed; and 2), the applied potential was lower on the side of α-syn addition. While the on-rate of α-syn binding to the channel strongly increased with the applied field, the off-rate displayed a turnover behavior. Statistical analysis suggests that at voltages >50 mV, a significant fraction of the α-syn molecules bound to the channel undergoes subsequent translocation. The observed on-rate varied by >100 times depending on the bilayer lipid composition. Removal of the last 25 amino acids from the highly negatively charged C-terminal of α-syn resulted in a significant decrease in the binding rates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-barrel channels may serve as sensitive probes of α-syn interactions with membranes as well as model systems for studies of channel-assisted protein transport. PMID:24507596

  18. Quantification of helix–helix binding affinities in micelles and lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Lomize, Andrei L.; Pogozheva, I.D.; Mosberg, H.I.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical approach for estimating association free energies of α-helices in nonpolar media has been developed. The parameters of energy functions have been derived from ΔΔG values of mutants in water-soluble proteins and partitioning of organic solutes between water and nonpolar solvents. The proposed approach was verified successfully against three sets of published data: (1) dissociation constants of α-helical oligomers formed by 27 hydrophobic peptides; (2) stabilities of 22 bacteriorhodopsin mutants, and (3) protein-ligand binding affinities in aqueous solution. It has been found that coalescence of helices is driven exclusively by van der Waals interactions and H-bonds, whereas the principal destabilizing contributions are represented by side-chain conformational entropy and transfer energy of atoms from a detergent or lipid to the protein interior. Electrostatic interactions of α-helices were relatively weak but important for reproducing the experimental data. Immobilization free energy, which originates from restricting rotational and translational rigid-body movements of molecules during their association, was found to be less than 1 kcal/mole. The energetics of amino acid substitutions in bacteriorhodopsin was complicated by specific binding of lipid and water molecules to cavities created in certain mutants. PMID:15340167

  19. Mutations of fumarase that distinguish between the active site and a nearby dicarboxylic acid binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, T.; Lees, M.; Banaszak, L.

    1997-01-01

    Two mutant forms of fumarase C from E. coli have been made using PCR and recombinant DNA. The recombinant form of the protein included a histidine arm on the C-terminal facilitating purification. Based on earlier studies, two different carboxylic acid binding sites, labeled A- and B-, were observed in crystal structures of the wild type and inhibited forms of the enzyme. A histidine at each of the sites was mutated to an asparagine. H188N at the A-site resulted in a large decrease in specific activity, while the H129N mutation at the B-site had essentially no effect. From the results, we conclude that the A-site is indeed the active site, and a dual role for H188 as a potential catalytic base is proposed. Crystal structures of the two mutant proteins produced some unexpected results. Both mutations reduced the affinity for the carboxylic acids at their respective sites. The H129N mutant should be particularly useful in future kinetic studies because it sterically blocks the B-site with the carboxyamide of asparagine assuming the position of the ligand's carboxylate. In the H188N mutation at the active site, the new asparagine side chain still interacts with an active site water that appears to have moved slightly as a result of the mutation. PMID:9098893

  20. A Distinct Subfraction of Aβ is Responsible for the High-Affinity Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) Binding Site in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

    PubMed Central

    Matveev, Sergey V.; Spielmann, H. Peter; Metts, Brittney M.; Chen, Jing; Onono, Fredrick; Zhu, Haining; Scheff, Stephen W.; Walker, Lary C.; LeVine, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The positron emitting (PET) 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) ligand is used to image β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brains of living subjects with the intent of detecting early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, deposits of human-sequence Aβ in APP transgenic mice and nonhuman primates bind very little PIB. The high stoichiometry of PIB:Aβ binding in human AD suggests that the PIB binding site may represent a particularly pathogenic entity and/or report local pathologic conditions. In this study, 3H-PIB was employed to track purification of the PIB binding site in > 90% yield from frontal cortical tissue of autopsy-diagnosed AD subjects. The purified PIB binding site comprises a distinct, highly insoluble subfraction of the Aβ in AD brain with low buoyant density due to an SDS-resistant association with a limited subset of brain proteins and lipids with physical properties similar to lipid rafts and to a ganglioside:Aβ complex in AD and Down Syndrome brain. Both the protein and lipid components are required for PIB binding. Elucidation of human-specific biological components and pathways will be important in guiding improvement of the animal models for AD and in identifying new potential therapeutic avenues. PMID:24995708

  1. Mechanisms of in vivo binding site selection of the hematopoietic master transcription factor PU.1.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thu-Hang; Minderjahn, Julia; Schmidl, Christian; Hoffmeister, Helen; Schmidhofer, Sandra; Chen, Wei; Längst, Gernot; Benner, Christopher; Rehli, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is crucial for the development of many hematopoietic lineages and its binding patterns significantly change during differentiation processes. However, the 'rules' for binding or not-binding of potential binding sites are only partially understood. To unveil basic characteristics of PU.1 binding site selection in different cell types, we studied the binding properties of PU.1 during human macrophage differentiation. Using in vivo and in vitro binding assays, as well as computational prediction, we show that PU.1 selects its binding sites primarily based on sequence affinity, which results in the frequent autonomous binding of high affinity sites in DNase I inaccessible regions (25-45% of all occupied sites). Increasing PU.1 concentrations and the availability of cooperative transcription factor interactions during lineage differentiation both decrease affinity thresholds for in vivo binding and fine-tune cell type-specific PU.1 binding, which seems to be largely independent of DNA methylation. Occupied sites were predominantly detected in active chromatin domains, which are characterized by higher densities of PU.1 recognition sites and neighboring motifs for cooperative transcription factors. Our study supports a model of PU.1 binding control that involves motif-binding affinity, PU.1 concentration, cooperativeness with neighboring transcription factor sites and chromatin domain accessibility, which likely applies to all PU.1 expressing cells.

  2. Demonstration of specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (/sup 3/H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for /sup 3/H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane.

  3. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation.

  4. Definition of endotoxin binding sites in horseshoe crab factor C recombinant sushi proteins and neutralization of endotoxin by sushi peptides.

    PubMed

    Tan, N S; Ng, M L; Yau, Y H; Chong, P K; Ho, B; Ding, J L

    2000-09-01

    Three truncated fragments, harboring different sushi domains, namely, sushi123, sushi1, and sushi3 domains, of Factor C were produced as biologically active secreted recombinant proteins. Sushi1 and 3 each has a high-affinity LPS binding site with K:(d) of 10(-9) to 10(-10) M. Positive cooperativity in sushi123 resulted in a 1000-fold increase in K:(d)2. The core LPS binding region of sushi1 and 3 reside in two 34-mer peptides, S1 and S3. A rigidly held disulfide-bonded structure is not essential but is important for LPS binding, as confirmed by a 100- to 10000-fold decrease in affinity. Both S1 and S3 can inhibit LAL reaction and LPS-induced hTNF-alpha secretion with different potency. LAL assay revealed that at least two molecules of S1 bind cooperatively to one LPS molecule, with Hill's coefficient of 2.42. The LPS binding by S3 is independent and noncooperative. The modified SDelta1 and SDelta3 peptides exhibited increased LPS neutralization potential although its LPS binding affinities indicated only a 10-fold improvement. Hence, the structural difference of the four sushi peptides conferred different efficiencies in LPS neutralization without altering their binding affinity for LPS. Circular dichroism spectrometry revealed that the four peptides underwent conformational change in the presence of lipid A, transitioning from a random coil to either an alpha-helical or beta-sheet structure. Two factors are critical for the sensitivity of Factor C to LPS: 1) the presence of multiple binding sites for LPS on a single Factor C molecule; and 2) high positive cooperativity in LPS binding. The results showed that in the design of an improved LPS binding and neutralizing peptide, charge balance of the peptide is a critical parameter in addition to its structure.

  5. Nanoscale Synaptic Membrane Mimetic Allows Unbiased High Throughput Screen That Targets Binding Sites for Alzheimer’s-Associated Aβ Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Kyle C.; Marunde, Matthew R.; Das, Aditi; Velasco, Pauline T.; Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Marty, Michael T.; Jiang, Haoming; Luan, Chi-Hao; Sligar, Stephen G.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their value as sources of therapeutic drug targets, membrane proteomes are largely inaccessible to high-throughput screening (HTS) tools designed for soluble proteins. An important example comprises the membrane proteins that bind amyloid β oligomers (AβOs). AβOs are neurotoxic ligands thought to instigate the synapse damage that leads to Alzheimer’s dementia. At present, the identities of initial AβO binding sites are highly uncertain, largely because of extensive protein-protein interactions that occur following attachment of AβOs to surface membranes. Here, we show that AβO binding sites can be obtained in a state suitable for unbiased HTS by encapsulating the solubilized synaptic membrane proteome into nanoscale lipid bilayers (Nanodiscs). This method gives a soluble membrane protein library (SMPL)—a collection of individualized synaptic proteins in a soluble state. Proteins within SMPL Nanodiscs showed enzymatic and ligand binding activity consistent with conformational integrity. AβOs were found to bind SMPL Nanodiscs with high affinity and specificity, with binding dependent on intact synaptic membrane proteins, and selective for the higher molecular weight oligomers known to accumulate at synapses. Combining SMPL Nanodiscs with a mix-incubate-read chemiluminescence assay provided a solution-based HTS platform to discover antagonists of AβO binding. Screening a library of 2700 drug-like compounds and natural products yielded one compound that potently reduced AβO binding to SMPL Nanodiscs, synaptosomes, and synapses in nerve cell cultures. Although not a therapeutic candidate, this small molecule inhibitor of synaptic AβO binding will provide a useful experimental antagonist for future mechanistic studies of AβOs in Alzheimer’s model systems. Overall, results provide proof of concept for using SMPLs in high throughput screening for AβO binding antagonists, and illustrate in general how a SMPL Nanodisc system can facilitate drug

  6. Paracetamol and cytarabine binding competition in high affinity binding sites of transporting protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2006-07-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, AA) the most popular analgesic drug is commonly used in the treatment of pain in patients suffering from cancer. In our studies, we evaluated the competition in binding with serum albumin between paracetamol (AA) and cytarabine, antyleukemic drug (araC). The presence of one drug can alter the binding affinity of albumin towards the second one. Such interaction can result in changing of the free fraction of the one of these drugs in blood. Two spectroscopic methods were used to determine high affinity binding sites and the competition of the drugs. Basing on the change of the serum albumin fluorescence in the presence of either of the drugs the quenching ( KQ) constants for the araC-BSA and AA-BSA systems were calculated. Analysis of UV difference spectra allowed us to describe the changes in drug-protein complexes (araC-albumin and AA-albumin) induced by the presence of the second drug (AA and araC, respectively). The mechanism of competition between araC and AA has been proposed.

  7. alpha-Galactoside binding lectin from Artocarpus hirsuta: characterization of the sugar specificity and binding site.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, M M; Khan, M I; Gaikwad, S M

    1998-07-23

    The hemagglutinin from the seeds of Artocarpus hirsuta was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-sephadex. The native protein of molecular mass 60,000 (gel filtration) is made up of two pairs of unidentical subunits, alpha and beta with molecular masses of 15,800 and 14,130. The lectin is basic in nature (pI 8.5) and a glycoprotein with neutral sugar content of 6.25%. Rabbit as well as human erythrocytes (A, B and O) are agglutinated by the lectin. The lectin activity is neither affected by Ca2+, Mg2+ or Mn2+ nor by EDTA. Methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside, pNP-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and pNP-alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine are the best inhibitors of the lectin. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-alpha-galactopyranoside fluorescence was quenched on binding to A. hirsuta lectin. The sugar has two binding sites per tetramer of the lectin with a Ka of 3.5x105 M-1 at 25 degrees C. Chemical modification studies indicate that the net positive charge associated with epsilon-NH2 of lysine residues and the phenyl ring of tyrosine are essential for the sugar binding activity of A. hirsuta lectin.

  8. Chloramphenicol binding to human serum albumin: Determination of binding constants and binding sites by steady-state fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Zhao, Guangyu; Chen, Shoucong; Liu, Feng; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    The interaction between chloramphenicol and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV/vis, circular dichroism (CD) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by chloramphenicol was the result of the formation of drug-HSA complex, and the effective quenching constants ( Ka) were 2.852 × 10 4, 2.765 × 10 4, 2.638 × 10 4 and 2.542 × 10 4 M -1 at 287, 295, 303 and 311 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ H) and entropy change (Δ S) for the reaction were calculated to be -3.634 kJ mol -1 and 72.66 J mol -1 K -1 according to van't Hoff equation. The results indicated that the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played a major role in the binding of drug to HSA. The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained to be 3.63 nm according to Förster's theory. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that the binding of drug to HSA primarily took place in subdomain IIA. The alterations of HSA secondary structure in the presence of chloramphenicol were confirmed by the evidences from synchronous fluorescence, CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. In addition, the effect of common ions on the binding constants of drug-HSA complex was also discussed.

  9. A Sialic Acid Binding Site in a Human Picornavirus

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Martin; Hähnlein-Schick, Irmgard; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Arnberg, Niklas; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The picornaviruses coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and enterovirus 70 (EV70) cause continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease against which neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are currently available. Moreover, these viruses can cause symptoms in the cornea, upper respiratory tract, and neurological impairments such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. We report the structures of an intact human picornavirus in complex with a range of glycans terminating in Neu5Ac. We determined the structure of the CVA24v to 1.40 Å resolution, screened different glycans bearing Neu5Ac for CVA24v binding, and structurally characterized interactions with candidate glycan receptors. Biochemical studies verified the relevance of the binding site and demonstrated a preference of CVA24v for α2,6-linked glycans. This preference can be rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations that show that α2,6-linked glycans can establish more contacts with the viral capsid. Our results form an excellent platform for the design of antiviral compounds to prevent AHC. PMID:25329320

  10. The metal-binding sites of glycose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Gilg, Kathrin; Mayer, Tobias; Ghaschghaie, Natascha; Klüfers, Peter

    2009-10-14

    In aqueous solution, the reducing sugar phosphates D-arabinose 5-phosphate, D-ribose 5-phosphate, D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, D-fructose 6-phosphate, D-glucose 6-phosphate and D-mannose 6-phosphate provide metal-binding sites at their glycose core on reaction with Pd(II)(en) or M(III)(tacn) residues (M = Ga, Co; en = ethylenediamine, tacn = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane). The individual species were detected by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The coordination patterns are related to the metal-binding modes of the respective parent glycoses. In detail, ribo- and arabinofuranose phosphate favour kappaO(1,3) coordination, whereas the ketofuranose core of fructose phosphate and fructose bisphosphate provides the kappaO(2,3) chelator thus maintaining the configuration of the respective major solution anomer. On palladium excess, D-fructose 6-phosphate is metallated twice in a unique kappaO(1,3):kappaO(2,4) metallation pattern. Dimetallation is also found for the aldohexose phosphates. A mixed glycose-core-phosphate chelation was detected for Pd(II)(en) and M(III)(tacn) residues with M = Al, Ga in the pH range just above the physiological pH for the D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ligand. The results are discussed in relation to D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-metabolism in class-II aldolases. PMID:19771356

  11. Photoaffinity Labeling the Propofol Binding Site in GLIC†

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, David C.; Gill, Jonathan F.; Chen, Qiang; Tillman, Tommy; Dailey, William P.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic, produces many of its anesthetic effects in vivo by potentiating the responses of GABA type A receptors (GABAAR), members of the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) that contain anion-selective channels. Propofol also inhibits pLGICs containing cation-selective channels, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GLIC, a prokaryotic proton-gated homolog from Gloeobacter violaceus. In the structure of GLIC co-crystallized with propofol at pH 4 (presumed open/desensitized states), propofol was localized to an intrasubunit pocket at the extracellular end of the transmembrane domain within the bundle of transmembrane α-helices [Nury, H, et. al. (2011) Nature 469, 428–431]. To identify propofol binding sites in GLIC in solution, we used a recently developed photoreactive propofol analog (2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol or AziPm) which acts as an anesthetic in vivo and potentiates GABAAR in vitro. For GLIC expressed in Xenopus oocytes, propofol and AziPm inhibited current responses at pH 5.5 (EC20) with IC50s of 20 and 50 μM, respectively. When [3H]AziPm (7 μM) was used to photolabel detergent-solubilized, affinity-purified GLIC at pH 4.4, protein microsequencing identified propofol-inhibitable photolabeling of three residues in the GLIC transmembrane domain: Met-205, Tyr-254, and Asn-307 in the M1, M3, and M4 transmembrane helices, respectively. Thus, in GLIC in solution, propofol and AziPm bind competitively to a site in proximity to these residues, which in the GLIC crystal structure are in contact with the propofol bound in the intrasubunit pocket. PMID:24341978

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum PI(3)P lipid binding targets malaria proteins to the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Stahelin, Robert V.; Speicher, Kaye D.; Speicher, David W.; Haldar, Kasturi

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Hundreds of effector proteins of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum constitute a `secretome', carrying a host-targeting (HT) signal, which predicts their export from the intracellular pathogen into the surrounding erythrocyte. Cleavage of the HT signal by a parasite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protease, plasmepsin V, is the proposed export mechanism. Here we show that the HT signal exports by recognition of the lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) in the ER, prior to and independent of protease action. Secretome HT signals, including those of major virulence determinants bind PI(3)P with nanomolar affinity and amino acid specificities displayed by HT-mediated export. PI(3)P-enriched regions are detected within the parasite's ER, co-localize with endogenous HT signal on ER precursors, which also display high affinity binding to PI(3)P. A related, pathogenic oomycete's HT signal export is dependent on PI(3)P binding, without cleavage by plasmepsin V. Thus PI(3)P in the ER functions in mechanisms of secretion and pathogenesis. PMID:22265412

  13. Identification and in silico analysis of helical lipid binding regions in proteins belonging to the amphitropic protein family.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rob C A

    2014-12-01

    The role of protein-lipid interactions is increasingly recognized to be of importance in numerous biological processes. Bioinformatics is being increasingly used as a helpful tool in studying protein-lipid interactions. Especially recently developed approaches recognizing lipid binding regions in proteins can be implemented. In this study one of those bioinformatics approaches specialized in identifying lipid binding helical regions in proteins is expanded. The approach is explored further by features which can be easily obtained manually. Some interesting examples of members of the amphitropic protein family have been investigated in order to demonstrate the additional features of this bioinformatics approach. The results in this study seem to indicate interesting characteristics of amphitropic proteins and provide insight into the mechanistic functioning and overall understanding of this intriguing class of proteins. Additionally, the results demonstrate that the presented bioinformatics approach might be either an interesting starting point in protein-lipid interactions studies or a good tool for selecting new focus points for more detailed experimental research of proteins with known overall protein-lipid binding abilities. PMID:25431407

  14. Identification and in silico analysis of helical lipid binding regions in proteins belonging to the amphitropic protein family.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rob C A

    2014-12-01

    The role of protein-lipid interactions is increasingly recognized to be of importance in numerous biological processes. Bioinformatics is being increasingly used as a helpful tool in studying protein-lipid interactions. Especially recently developed approaches recognizing lipid binding regions in proteins can be implemented. In this study one of those bioinformatics approaches specialized in identifying lipid binding helical regions in proteins is expanded. The approach is explored further by features which can be easily obtained manually. Some interesting examples of members of the amphitropic protein family have been investigated in order to demonstrate the additional features of this bioinformatics approach. The results in this study seem to indicate interesting characteristics of amphitropic proteins and provide insight into the mechanistic functioning and overall understanding of this intriguing class of proteins. Additionally, the results demonstrate that the presented bioinformatics approach might be either an interesting starting point in protein-lipid interactions studies or a good tool for selecting new focus points for more detailed experimental research of proteins with known overall protein-lipid binding abilities.

  15. Semisynthetic Lipopeptides Derived from Nisin Display Antibacterial Activity and Lipid II Binding on Par with That of the Parent Compound.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Timo; Wood, Thomas M; 't Hart, Peter; Kleijn, Laurens H J; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Willems, Rob J L; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2015-07-29

    The lipid II-binding N-terminus of nisin, comprising the so-called A/B ring system, was synthetically modified to provide antibacterially active and proteolytically stable derivatives. A variety of lipids were coupled to the C-terminus of the nisin A/B ring system to generate semisynthetic constructs that display potent inhibition of bacterial growth, with activities approaching that of nisin itself. Most notable was the activity observed against clinically relevant bacterial strains including MRSA and VRE. Experiments with membrane models indicate that these constructs operate via a lipid II-mediated mode of action without causing pore formation. A lipid II-dependent mechanism of action is further supported by antagonization assays wherein the addition of lipid II was found to effectively block the antibacterial activity of the nisin-derived lipopeptides. PMID:26122963

  16. Semisynthetic Lipopeptides Derived from Nisin Display Antibacterial Activity and Lipid II Binding on Par with That of the Parent Compound.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Timo; Wood, Thomas M; 't Hart, Peter; Kleijn, Laurens H J; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Willems, Rob J L; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2015-07-29

    The lipid II-binding N-terminus of nisin, comprising the so-called A/B ring system, was synthetically modified to provide antibacterially active and proteolytically stable derivatives. A variety of lipids were coupled to the C-terminus of the nisin A/B ring system to generate semisynthetic constructs that display potent inhibition of bacterial growth, with activities approaching that of nisin itself. Most notable was the activity observed against clinically relevant bacterial strains including MRSA and VRE. Experiments with membrane models indicate that these constructs operate via a lipid II-mediated mode of action without causing pore formation. A lipid II-dependent mechanism of action is further supported by antagonization assays wherein the addition of lipid II was found to effectively block the antibacterial activity of the nisin-derived lipopeptides.

  17. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  18. Lipid-binding properties of human ApoD and Lazarillo-related lipocalins: functional implications for cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mario; Sanchez, Diego; Correnti, Colin; Strong, Roland K; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2013-08-01

    Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded β-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior. Using tryptophan fluorescence titration, we screened the binding of 15 potential lipid partners for NLaz, ApoD and Laz and uncovered several novel ligands with apparent dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Retinoic acid (RA), retinol, fatty acids and sphingomyelin are shared ligands. Sterols, however, showed a species-specific binding pattern: cholesterol did not show strong binding to human ApoD, whereas NLaz and Laz did bind ergosterol. Among the lipocalin-specific ligands, we found that ApoD selectively binds the endocannabinoid anandamide but not 2-acylglycerol, and that NLaz binds the pheromone 7-tricosene, but not 7,11-heptacosadiene or 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate. To test the functional relevance of lipocalin ligand binding at the cellular level, we analyzed the effect of ApoD, Laz and NLaz preloaded with RA on neuronal differentiation. Our results show that ApoD is necessary and sufficient to allow for RA differentiating activity. Both human ApoD and Drosophila NLaz successfully deliver RA to immature neurons, driving neurite outgrowth. We conclude that ApoD, NLaz and Laz bind selectively to a different but overlapping set of lipid ligands. This multispecificity can explain their varied physiological functions.

  19. AtVPS34, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase of Arabidopsis thaliana, is an essential protein with homology to a calcium-dependent lipid binding domain.

    PubMed

    Welters, P; Takegawa, K; Emr, S D; Chrispeels, M J

    1994-11-22

    The cDNA encoding phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase was cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana, and the derived amino acid sequence (AtVPS34) has a significantly higher homology to yeast PI 3-kinase (VPS34) than to the mammalian (p110). The protein has two conserved domains: a catalytic site with the ATP-binding site near the C terminus and a calcium-dependent lipid-binding domain near the N terminus. The plant cDNA does not rescue a yeast vps34 deletion mutant, but a chimeric gene in which the coding sequence for the C-terminal third of VPS34 is replaced by the corresponding sequence from the plant gene does rescue the yeast mutant. PI 3-kinase activity is detectable in extracts from plants that overexpress the plant PI 3-kinase. Expression of antisense constructs gives rise to second-generation transformed plants severely inhibited in growth and development.

  20. Tetrahymena Expresses More than a Hundred Proteins with Lipid-binding MORN Motifs that can Differ in their Subcellular Localisations.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B

    2015-01-01

    Proteins with membrane occupation and recognition nexus (MORN) motifs are associated with cell fission in apicomplexan parasites, chloroplast division in Arabidopsis and the motility of sperm cells. We found that ciliates are among those that encode the largest variety of MORN proteins. Tetrahymena thermophila expresses 129 MORN protein-encoding genes, some of which are specifically up-regulated during conjugation. A lipid-binding assay underpins the assumption that the predominant function of MORN motifs themselves is to confer the ability of lipid binding. The localisation of four MORN candidate proteins with similar characteristics highlights the functional diversity of this group especially in ciliates.

  1. Identification of a new hormone-binding site on the surface of thyroid hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Souza, P C T; Puhl, A C; Martínez, L; Aparício, R; Nascimento, A S; Figueira, A C M; Nguyen, P; Webb, P; Skaf, M S; Polikarpov, I

    2014-04-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors involved in cell differentiation, growth, and homeostasis. Although X-ray structures of many nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal that the ligand binds within the hydrophobic core of the ligand-binding pocket, a few studies suggest the possibility of ligands binding to other sites. Here, we report a new x-ray crystallographic structure of TR-LBD that shows a second binding site for T3 and T4 located between H9, H10, and H11 of the TRα LBD surface. Statistical multiple sequence analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and cell transactivation assays indicate that residues of the second binding site could be important for the TR function. We also conducted molecular dynamics simulations to investigate ligand mobility and ligand-protein interaction for T3 and T4 bound to this new TR surface-binding site. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations designed to compute ligand-protein dissociation constant indicate that the binding affinities to this surface site are of the order of the plasma and intracellular concentrations of the thyroid hormones, suggesting that ligands may bind to this new binding site under physiological conditions. Therefore, the second binding site could be useful as a new target site for drug design and could modulate selectively TR functions.

  2. Discovery and information-theoretic characterization of transcription factor binding sites that act cooperatively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Jacob; Adami, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factor binding to the surface of DNA regulatory regions is one of the primary causes of regulating gene expression levels. A probabilistic approach to model protein-DNA interactions at the sequence level is through position weight matrices (PWMs) that estimate the joint probability of a DNA binding site sequence by assuming positional independence within the DNA sequence. Here we construct conditional PWMs that depend on the motif signatures in the flanking DNA sequence, by conditioning known binding site loci on the presence or absence of additional binding sites in the flanking sequence of each site's locus. Pooling known sites with similar flanking sequence patterns allows for the estimation of the conditional distribution function over the binding site sequences. We apply our model to the Dorsal transcription factor binding sites active in patterning the Dorsal-Ventral axis of Drosophila development. We find that those binding sites that cooperate with nearby Twist sites on average contain about 0.5 bits of information about the presence of Twist transcription factor binding sites in the flanking sequence. We also find that Dorsal binding site detectors conditioned on flanking sequence information make better predictions about what is a Dorsal site relative to background DNA than detection without information about flanking sequence features.

  3. Discovery and information-theoretic characterization of transcription factor binding sites that act cooperatively.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Jacob; Adami, Christoph

    2015-09-02

    Transcription factor binding to the surface of DNA regulatory regions is one of the primary causes of regulating gene expression levels. A probabilistic approach to model protein-DNA interactions at the sequence level is through position weight matrices (PWMs) that estimate the joint probability of a DNA binding site sequence by assuming positional independence within the DNA sequence. Here we construct conditional PWMs that depend on the motif signatures in the flanking DNA sequence, by conditioning known binding site loci on the presence or absence of additional binding sites in the flanking sequence of each site's locus. Pooling known sites with similar flanking sequence patterns allows for the estimation of the conditional distribution function over the binding site sequences. We apply our model to the Dorsal transcription factor binding sites active in patterning the Dorsal-Ventral axis of Drosophila development. We find that those binding sites that cooperate with nearby Twist sites on average contain about 0.5 bits of information about the presence of Twist transcription factor binding sites in the flanking sequence. We also find that Dorsal binding site detectors conditioned on flanking sequence information make better predictions about what is a Dorsal site relative to background DNA than detection without information about flanking sequence features.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of a stretch-activated channel inhibitor GsMTx4 with lipid membranes: two binding modes and effects of lipid structure.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Manami; Nishizawa, Kazuhisa

    2007-06-15

    Our recent molecular dynamics simulation study of hanatoxin 1 (HaTx1), a gating modifier that binds to the voltage sensor of K(+) channels, has shown that HaTx1 has the ability to interact with carbonyl oxygen atoms of both leaflets of the lipid bilayer membrane and to be located at a deep position within the membrane. Here we performed a similar study of GsMTx4, a stretch-activated channels inhibitor, belonging to the same peptide family as HaTx1. Both toxins have an ellipsoidal shape, a belt of positively charged residues around the periphery, and a hydrophobic protrusion. Results show that, like HaTx1, GsMTx4 can interact with the membrane in two different ways. When all the positively charged residues interact with the outer leaflet lipid, GsMTx4 can assume a shallow binding mode. On the other hand, when the electrostatic interaction brings the positively charged groups of K-8 and K-28 into the vicinity of the carbonyl oxygen atoms of the inner leaflet lipids, the system exhibits a deep binding mode. This deep mode is accompanied by local membrane thinning. For both HaTx1 and GsMTx4, our mean force measurement analyses show that the deep binding mode is energetically favored over the shallow mode when a DPPC (dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane is used at 310 K. In contrast, when a POPC (palmitooleoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane is used at 310 K, the two binding modes exhibited similar stability for both toxins. Similar analyses with DPPC membrane at 330 K led to an intermediary result between the above two results. Therefore, the structure of the lipid acyl chains appears to influence the location and the dynamics of the toxins within biological membranes. We also compared the behavior of an arginine and a lysine residue within the membrane. This is of interest because the arginine residue interaction with the lipid carbonyl oxygen atoms mediates the deep binding mode for HaTx1, whereas the lysine residue plays that role for GsMTx4. The arginine

  5. A delocalized proton-binding site within a membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Freier, Erik; Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    The role of protein-bound water molecules in protein function and catalysis is an emerging topic. Here, we studied the solvation of an excess proton by protein-bound water molecules and the contribution of the surrounding amino acid residues at the proton release site of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. It hosts an excess proton within a protein-bound water cluster, which is hydrogen bonded to several surrounding amino acids. Indicative of delocalization is a broad continuum absorbance experimentally observed by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In combination with site-directed mutagenesis, the involvement of several amino acids (especially Glu-194 and Glu-204) in the delocalization was elaborated. Details regarding the contributions of the glutamates and water molecules to the delocalization mode in biomolecular simulations are controversial. We carried out quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding simulations for all amino acids that have been experimentally shown to be involved in solvation of the excess proton, and systematically investigated the influence of the quantum box size. We compared calculated theoretical infrared spectra with experimental ones as a measure for the correct description of excess proton delocalization. A continuum absorbance can only be observed for small quantum boxes containing few amino acids and/or water molecules. Larger quantum boxes, including all experimentally shown involved amino acids, resulted in narrow absorbance bands, indicating protonation of a single binding site in contradiction to experimental results. We conclude that small quantum boxes seem to reproduce representative extreme cases of proton delocalization modes: proton delocalization only on water molecules or only between Glu-194 and Glu-204. Extending the experimental spectral region to lower wave numbers, a water-delocalized proton reproduces the observed continuum

  6. Mapping the Nucleotide Binding Site of Uncoupling Protein 1 Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A tight regulation of proton transport in the inner mitochondrial membrane is crucial for physiological processes such as ATP synthesis, heat production, or regulation of the reactive oxygen species as proposed for the uncoupling protein family members (UCP). Specific regulation of proton transport is thus becoming increasingly important in the therapy of obesity and inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and ischemic diseases. We and other research groups have shown previously that UCP1- and UCP2-mediated proton transport is inhibited by purine nucleotides. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the inhibitory effect of ATP, although structural details are still lacking. Moreover, the unresolved mystery is how UCP operates in vivo despite the permanent presence of high (millimolar) concentrations of ATP in mitochondria. Here we use the topographic and recognition (TREC) mode of an atomic force microscope to visualize UCP1 reconstituted into lipid bilayers and to analyze the ATP–protein interaction at a single molecule level. The comparison of recognition patterns obtained with anti-UCP1 antibody and ATP led to the conclusion that the ATP binding site can be accessed from both sides of the membrane. Using cantilever tips with different cross-linker lengths, we determined the location of the nucleotide binding site inside the membrane with 1 Å precision. Together with the recently published NMR structure of a UCP family member (Berardi et al. Nature, 2011, 476, 109–113), our data provide a valuable insight into the mechanism of the nucleotide binding and pave the way for new pharmacological approaches against the diseases mentioned above. PMID:23414455

  7. Dynamics of lipid droplet-associated proteins during hormonally stimulated lipolysis in engineered adipocytes: stabilization and lipid droplet binding of adipocyte differentiation-related protein/adipophilin.

    PubMed

    Gross, Danielle N; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Hosaka, Toshio; Zhang, Hui-Hong; Pino, Elizabeth C; Souza, Sandra; Obin, Martin; Greenberg, Andrew S; Pilch, Paul F

    2006-02-01

    In mature adipocytes, triglyceride is stored within lipid droplets, which are coated with the protein perilipin, which functions to regulate lipolysis by controlling lipase access to the droplet in a hormone-regulatable fashion. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) is a widely expressed lipid droplet binding protein that is coexpressed with perilipin in differentiating fat cells but is minimally present in fully differentiated cultured adipocytes. We find that fibroblasts ectopically expressing C/EBPalpha (NIH-C/EBPalpha cells) differentiate into mature adipocytes that simultaneously express perilipin and ADRP. In response to isoproterenol, perilipin is hyperphosphorylated, lipolysis is enhanced, and subsequently, ADRP expression increases coincident with it surrounding intracellular lipid droplets. In the absence of lipolytic stimulation, inhibition of proteasomal activity with MG-132 increased ADRP levels to those of cells treated with 10 mum isoproterenol, but ADRP does not surround the lipid droplet in the absence of lipolytic stimulation. We overexpressed a perilipin A construct in NIH-C/EBPalpha cells where the six serine residues known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A were changed to alanine (Peri A Delta1-6). These cells show no increase in ADRP expression in response to isoproterenol. We propose that ADRP can replace perilipin on existing lipid droplets or those newly formed as a result of fatty acid reesterification, under dynamic conditions of hormonally stimulated lipolysis, thus preserving lipid droplet morphology/structure. PMID:16239256

  8. Fluorine Bonding Enhances the Energetics of Protein-Lipid Binding in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lan; Jalili, Nobar; Baergen, Alyson; Ng, Simon; Bailey, Justin; Derda, Ratmir; Klassen, John S.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports on the first experimental study of the energies of noncovalent fluorine bonding in a protein-ligand complex in the absence of solvent. Arrhenius parameters were measured for the dissociation of gaseous deprotonated ions of complexes of bovine β-lactoglobulin (Lg), a model lipid-binding protein, and four fluorinated analogs of stearic acid (SA), which contained (X =) 13, 15, 17, or 21 fluorine atoms. In all cases, the activation energies (Ea) measured for the loss of neutral XF-SA from the (Lg + XF-SA)7- ions are larger than for SA. From the kinetic data, the average contribution of each > CF2 group to Ea was found to be ~1.1 kcal mol-1, which is larger than the ~0.8 kcal mol-1 value reported for > CH2 groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that fluorocarbon-protein interactions are inherently stronger (enthalpically) than the corresponding hydrocarbon interactions.

  9. MicroRNA binding sites in C. elegans 3' UTRs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaochun; Rennie, William A; Mallick, Bibekanand; Kanoria, Shaveta; Long, Dang; Wolenc, Adam; Carmack, C Steven; Ding, Ye

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Since the discovery of lin-4, the founding member of the miRNA family, over 360 miRNAs have been identified for Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Prediction and validation of targets are essential for elucidation of regulatory functions of these miRNAs. For C. elegans, crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) has been successfully performed for the identification of target mRNA sequences bound by Argonaute protein ALG-1. In addition, reliable annotation of the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) as well as developmental stage-specific expression profiles for both miRNAs and 3' UTR isoforms are available. By utilizing these data, we developed statistical models and bioinformatics tools for both transcriptome-scale and developmental stage-specific predictions of miRNA binding sites in C. elegans 3' UTRs. In performance evaluation via cross validation on the ALG-1 CLIP data, the models were found to offer major improvements over established algorithms for predicting both seed sites and seedless sites. In particular, our top-ranked predictions have a substantially higher true positive rate, suggesting a much higher likelihood of positive experimental validation. A gene ontology analysis of stage-specific predictions suggests that miRNAs are involved in dynamic regulation of biological functions during C. elegans development. In particular, miRNAs preferentially target genes related to development, cell cycle, trafficking, and cell signaling processes. A database for both transcriptome-scale and stage-specific predictions and software for implementing the prediction models are available through the Sfold web server at http://sfold.wadsworth.org. PMID:24827614

  10. Co-opted oxysterol-binding ORP and VAP proteins channel sterols to RNA virus replication sites via membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Brandizzi, Federica; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-10-01

    Viruses recruit cellular membranes and subvert cellular proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis to build viral replicase complexes and replication organelles. Among the lipids, sterols are important components of membranes, affecting the shape and curvature of membranes. In this paper, the tombusvirus replication protein is shown to co-opt cellular Oxysterol-binding protein related proteins (ORPs), whose deletion in yeast model host leads to decreased tombusvirus replication. In addition, tombusviruses also subvert Scs2p VAP protein to facilitate the formation of membrane contact sites (MCSs), where membranes are juxtaposed, likely channeling lipids to the replication sites. In all, these events result in redistribution and enrichment of sterols at the sites of viral replication in yeast and plant cells. Using in vitro viral replication assay with artificial vesicles, we show stimulation of tombusvirus replication by sterols. Thus, co-opting cellular ORP and VAP proteins to form MCSs serves the virus need to generate abundant sterol-rich membrane surfaces for tombusvirus replication.

  11. Effect of dietary cellulose on site of lipid absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, D.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1985-08-01

    The effect of dietary cellulose on the localization within the small intestine of isotopically labeled triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) from a test meal was investigated. Feeding a 20% cellulose meal resulted in greater quantities of /sup 14/C-TG present in both the contents and mucosa of the distal intestine compared with a fiber-free control meal. In contrast, cellulose had no effect on the localization of CH within either the intestinal contents or the mucosa. Accumulation of TG within the intestine was not due to differences in stomach emptying, as the emptying rate was similar for both TG and CH. Within the bulk phase TG must be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase before it is available for cellular uptake at the microvillus membrane, whereas CH requires no hydrolysis. The greater amount of TG, but not of CH, within the intestine suggests that cellulose can interfere with lipase activity in vivo. Consequently, cellulose can delay TG hydrolysis and increase the amount of lipid absorbed in the ileum.

  12. The Use ofa Hydrophobic Binding Peptide Modified Lipid Nanocarrier Improving Tumor Distribution and Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Yang, Xiucong; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gao, Shanyun; He, Bing; Mei, Bong; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In addition to showing the specific interaction between a generalized ligand and its receptor and the electrostatic effect between positive cell-penetrating peptides and negative cell membranes, our last study demonstrated the hydrophobic interactivity between a hydrophobic binding peptide (HBP) and biomembranes to be favorable in drug delivery. To yield more evidence for this new strategy and to find more effective HBPs, here we designed and established a novel nanomedicine associated with cyclosporin A (CsA) because this peptide is electrically neutral, highly hydrophobic, very stable in vivo and safe at the given dose. First, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between the CsA molecules and the lipid membrane. The lactate dehydrogenase release assay proved that CsA exhibited low toxicity to cell membranes. These facts encouraged us to explore the potential application of CsA as an HBP to actualize intracellular delivery of nanomedicines for tumor therapy. When conjugated to lipid nanocarriers, CsA significantly enhanced their binding with cells and,. consequently, increased the internalization of recoded nanomedicines into cells. The in vivo experiments further showed that the CsA-associated nanocarriers could achieve better delivery to tumor tissues and improve the tumor therapy of doxorubicin (DOX) compared to the nonmodified control; these findings were identical to the observations-in cell studies. In conclusion, CsA, a readily obtainable molecule with favorable characteristics, is indeed a good candidate for an HBP, and this study provides solid, novel evidence for the use of HBP-based nanocarriers as effective antitumor drug delivery systems.

  13. The Use ofa Hydrophobic Binding Peptide Modified Lipid Nanocarrier Improving Tumor Distribution and Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Yang, Xiucong; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gao, Shanyun; He, Bing; Mei, Bong; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In addition to showing the specific interaction between a generalized ligand and its receptor and the electrostatic effect between positive cell-penetrating peptides and negative cell membranes, our last study demonstrated the hydrophobic interactivity between a hydrophobic binding peptide (HBP) and biomembranes to be favorable in drug delivery. To yield more evidence for this new strategy and to find more effective HBPs, here we designed and established a novel nanomedicine associated with cyclosporin A (CsA) because this peptide is electrically neutral, highly hydrophobic, very stable in vivo and safe at the given dose. First, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between the CsA molecules and the lipid membrane. The lactate dehydrogenase release assay proved that CsA exhibited low toxicity to cell membranes. These facts encouraged us to explore the potential application of CsA as an HBP to actualize intracellular delivery of nanomedicines for tumor therapy. When conjugated to lipid nanocarriers, CsA significantly enhanced their binding with cells and,. consequently, increased the internalization of recoded nanomedicines into cells. The in vivo experiments further showed that the CsA-associated nanocarriers could achieve better delivery to tumor tissues and improve the tumor therapy of doxorubicin (DOX) compared to the nonmodified control; these findings were identical to the observations-in cell studies. In conclusion, CsA, a readily obtainable molecule with favorable characteristics, is indeed a good candidate for an HBP, and this study provides solid, novel evidence for the use of HBP-based nanocarriers as effective antitumor drug delivery systems. PMID:27319213

  14. Gag Induces the Coalescence of Clustered Lipid Rafts and Tetraspanin-Enriched Microdomains at HIV-1 Assembly Sites on the Plasma Membrane ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Ian B.; Grover, Jonathan R.; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ono, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 structural protein Gag associates with two types of plasma membrane microdomains, lipid rafts and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), both of which have been proposed to be platforms for HIV-1 assembly. However, a variety of studies have demonstrated that lipid rafts and TEMs are distinct microdomains in the absence of HIV-1 infection. To measure the impact of Gag on microdomain behaviors, we took advantage of two assays: an antibody-mediated copatching assay and a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that measures the clustering of microdomain markers in live cells without antibody-mediated patching. We found that lipid rafts and TEMs copatched and clustered to a greater extent in the presence of membrane-bound Gag in both assays, suggesting that Gag induces the coalescence of lipid rafts and TEMs. Substitutions in membrane binding motifs of Gag revealed that, while Gag membrane binding is necessary to induce coalescence of lipid rafts and TEMs, either acylation of Gag or binding of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate is sufficient. Finally, a Gag derivative that is defective in inducing membrane curvature appeared less able to induce lipid raft and TEM coalescence. A higher-resolution analysis of assembly sites by correlative fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy showed that coalescence of clustered lipid rafts and TEMs occurs predominately at completed cell surface virus-like particles, whereas a transmembrane raft marker protein appeared to associate with punctate Gag fluorescence even in the absence of cell surface particles. Together, these results suggest that different membrane microdomain components are recruited in a stepwise manner during assembly. PMID:21813604

  15. Identification and characterization of a novel high affinity metal-binding site in the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M R; Simorre, J P; Hanson, P; Mokler, V; Bellon, L; Beigelman, L; Pardi, A

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal-binding site has been identified in the hammerhead ribozyme by 31P NMR. The metal-binding site is associated with the A13 phosphate in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme and is distinct from any previously identified metal-binding sites. 31P NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the metal-binding affinity for this site and leads to an apparent dissociation constant of 250-570 microM at 25 degrees C for binding of a single Mg2+ ion. The NMR data also show evidence of a structural change at this site upon metal binding and these results are compared with previous data on metal-induced structural changes in the core of the hammerhead ribozyme. These NMR data were combined with the X-ray structure of the hammerhead ribozyme (Pley HW, Flaherty KM, McKay DB. 1994. Nature 372:68-74) to model RNA ligands involved in binding the metal at this A13 site. In this model, the A13 metal-binding site is structurally similar to the previously identified A(g) metal-binding site and illustrates the symmetrical nature of the tandem G x A base pairs in domain 2 of the hammerhead ribozyme. These results demonstrate that 31P NMR represents an important method for both identification and characterization of metal-binding sites in nucleic acids. PMID:10445883

  16. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  17. Discovery of a novel allosteric inhibitor-binding site in ERK5: comparison with the canonical kinase hinge ATP-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongming; Tucker, Julie; Wang, Xiaotao; Gavine, Paul R.; Phillips, Chris; Augustin, Martin A.; Schreiner, Patrick; Steinbacher, Stefan; Preston, Marian; Ogg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, regulation of transcription and development. As a member of the MAP kinase family, ERK5 (MAPK7) is involved in the downstream signalling pathways of various cell-surface receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. In the current study, five structures of the ERK5 kinase domain co-crystallized with ERK5 inhibitors are reported. Interestingly, three of the compounds bind at a novel allosteric binding site in ERK5, while the other two bind at the typical ATP-binding site. Binding of inhibitors at the allosteric site is accompanied by displacement of the P-loop into the ATP-binding site and is shown to be ATP-competitive in an enzymatic assay of ERK5 kinase activity. Kinase selectivity data show that the most potent allosteric inhibitor exhibits superior kinase selectivity compared with the two inhibitors that bind at the canonical ATP-binding site. An analysis of these structures and comparison with both a previously published ERK5–inhibitor complex structure (PDB entry 4b99) and the structures of three other kinases (CDK2, ITK and MEK) in complex with allosteric inhibitors are presented. PMID:27139631

  18. Discovery of a novel allosteric inhibitor-binding site in ERK5: comparison with the canonical kinase hinge ATP-binding site.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongming; Tucker, Julie; Wang, Xiaotao; Gavine, Paul R; Phillips, Chris; Augustin, Martin A; Schreiner, Patrick; Steinbacher, Stefan; Preston, Marian; Ogg, Derek

    2016-05-01

    MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, regulation of transcription and development. As a member of the MAP kinase family, ERK5 (MAPK7) is involved in the downstream signalling pathways of various cell-surface receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. In the current study, five structures of the ERK5 kinase domain co-crystallized with ERK5 inhibitors are reported. Interestingly, three of the compounds bind at a novel allosteric binding site in ERK5, while the other two bind at the typical ATP-binding site. Binding of inhibitors at the allosteric site is accompanied by displacement of the P-loop into the ATP-binding site and is shown to be ATP-competitive in an enzymatic assay of ERK5 kinase activity. Kinase selectivity data show that the most potent allosteric inhibitor exhibits superior kinase selectivity compared with the two inhibitors that bind at the canonical ATP-binding site. An analysis of these structures and comparison with both a previously published ERK5-inhibitor complex structure (PDB entry 4b99) and the structures of three other kinases (CDK2, ITK and MEK) in complex with allosteric inhibitors are presented.

  19. Characterization of the proton binding sites of extracellular polymeric substances in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Chang, Sheng; Defersha, Fantahun M

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the chemical compositions and acidic constants of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating synthetic brewery wastewater by using chemical analysis, linear programming analysis (LPA) of titration data, and FT-IR analysis. The linear programming analysis of titration data revealed that the EPSs have proton binding sites with pKa values from pKa ≤ 6, between 6 and 7, and approximately 9.8. The strong acidic sites (pKa ≤ 6) and some weak acidic sites (7.5 < pKa < 9.0) were found to be readily removed by 0.45-μm membrane filtration. In addition, the FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids in the EPS samples. Based on the FT-IR analysis and the main chemical functional groups at the bacterial cell surfaces, the identified proton binding sites were related to carboxyl, phosphate, and hydroxyl/amine groups with pKa values of 4.6 ± 0.7, 6.6 ± 0.01, and 9.7 ± 0.1, respectively, with the corresponding respective intensities of 0.31 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.3, and 1.53 ± 0.3 mmole/g-EPS. The pKa values and intensities of the proton binding sites are the fundamental molecular properties of EPSs that affect the EPS charge, molecular interactions, and metal complexation characteristics. Determination of such properties can advance Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO)-based concentration polarization modeling, facilitate the estimation of the osmotic pressure of the EPS concentration polarization layers, and lead to a deeper understanding of the role of metal complexation in membrane fouling. PMID:25935368

  20. Leveraging cross-species transcription factor binding site patterns: from diabetes risk loci to disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Claussnitzer, Melina; Dankel, Simon N; Klocke, Bernward; Grallert, Harald; Glunk, Viktoria; Berulava, Tea; Lee, Heekyoung; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Fadista, Joao; Ehlers, Kerstin; Wahl, Simone; Hoffmann, Christoph; Qian, Kun; Rönn, Tina; Riess, Helene; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Bretschneider, Nancy; Schroeder, Timm; Skurk, Thomas; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Spieler, Derek; Klingenspor, Martin; Seifert, Martin; Kern, Michael J; Mejhert, Niklas; Dahlman, Ingrid; Hansson, Ola; Hauck, Stefanie M; Blüher, Matthias; Arner, Peter; Groop, Leif; Illig, Thomas; Suhre, Karsten; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Mellgren, Gunnar; Hauner, Hans; Laumen, Helmut

    2014-01-16

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous risk loci associated with diverse diseases. However, identification of disease-causing variants within association loci remains a major challenge. Divergence in gene expression due to cis-regulatory variants in noncoding regions is central to disease susceptibility. We show that integrative computational analysis of phylogenetic conservation with a complexity assessment of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) can identify cis-regulatory variants and elucidate their mechanistic role in disease. Analysis of established type 2 diabetes risk loci revealed a striking clustering of distinct homeobox TFBS. We identified the PRRX1 homeobox factor as a repressor of PPARG2 expression in adipose cells and demonstrate its adverse effect on lipid metabolism and systemic insulin sensitivity, dependent on the rs4684847 risk allele that triggers PRRX1 binding. Thus, cross-species conservation analysis at the level of co-occurring TFBS provides a valuable contribution to the translation of genetic association signals to disease-related molecular mechanisms.

  1. Leveraging cross-species transcription factor binding site patterns: from diabetes risk loci to disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Claussnitzer, Melina; Dankel, Simon N; Klocke, Bernward; Grallert, Harald; Glunk, Viktoria; Berulava, Tea; Lee, Heekyoung; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Fadista, Joao; Ehlers, Kerstin; Wahl, Simone; Hoffmann, Christoph; Qian, Kun; Rönn, Tina; Riess, Helene; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Bretschneider, Nancy; Schroeder, Timm; Skurk, Thomas; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Spieler, Derek; Klingenspor, Martin; Seifert, Martin; Kern, Michael J; Mejhert, Niklas; Dahlman, Ingrid; Hansson, Ola; Hauck, Stefanie M; Blüher, Matthias; Arner, Peter; Groop, Leif; Illig, Thomas; Suhre, Karsten; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Mellgren, Gunnar; Hauner, Hans; Laumen, Helmut

    2014-01-16

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous risk loci associated with diverse diseases. However, identification of disease-causing variants within association loci remains a major challenge. Divergence in gene expression due to cis-regulatory variants in noncoding regions is central to disease susceptibility. We show that integrative computational analysis of phylogenetic conservation with a complexity assessment of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) can identify cis-regulatory variants and elucidate their mechanistic role in disease. Analysis of established type 2 diabetes risk loci revealed a striking clustering of distinct homeobox TFBS. We identified the PRRX1 homeobox factor as a repressor of PPARG2 expression in adipose cells and demonstrate its adverse effect on lipid metabolism and systemic insulin sensitivity, dependent on the rs4684847 risk allele that triggers PRRX1 binding. Thus, cross-species conservation analysis at the level of co-occurring TFBS provides a valuable contribution to the translation of genetic association signals to disease-related molecular mechanisms. PMID:24439387

  2. Associations of B- and C-Raf with cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and lipid second messengers: preferential binding of Raf to artificial lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Hekman, Mirko; Hamm, Heike; Villar, Ana V; Bader, Benjamin; Kuhlmann, Jurgen; Nickel, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R

    2002-07-01

    The serine/threonine kinase C-Raf is a key mediator in cellular signaling. Translocation of Raf to membranes has been proposed to be facilitated by Ras proteins in their GTP-bound state. In this study we provide evidence that both purified B- and C-Raf kinases possess lipophilic properties and associate with phospholipid membranes. In the presence of phosphatidylserine and lipid second messengers such as phosphatidic acid and ceramides these associations were very specific with affinity constants (K(D)) in the range of 0.5-50 nm. Raf association with liposomes was accompanied by displacement of 14-3-3 proteins and inhibition of Raf kinase activities. Interactions of Raf with cholesterol are of particular interest, since cholesterol has been shown to be involved, together with sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids in the formation of specialized lipid microdomains called rafts. We demonstrate here that purified Raf proteins have moderate binding affinity for cholesterol. However, under conditions of lipid raft formation, Raf association with cholesterol (or rafts) increased dramatically. Since ceramides also support formation of rafts and interact with Raf we propose that Raf may be present at the plasma membrane in two distinct microdomains: in raft regions via association with cholesterol and ceramides and in non-raft regions due to interaction with phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. At either location Raf kinase activity was inhibited by lipid binding in the absence or presence of Ras. Ras-Raf interactions with full-length C-Raf were studied both in solution and in phospholipid environment. Ras association with Raf was GTP dependent as previously demonstrated for C-Raf-RBD fragments. In the presence of liposomes the recruitment of C-Raf by reconstituted Ras-farnesyl was only marginal, since almost 70% of added C-Raf was bound by the lipids alone. Thus Ras-Raf binding in response to activation of Ras-coupled receptors may utilize Raf protein that is

  3. The PurR binding site in the glyA promoter region of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Steiert, J G; Kubu, C; Stauffer, G V

    1992-12-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change the PurR binding site in the control region of a glyA-lac gene fusion. Mutations that changed the PurR binding sequence away from the consensus sequence reduced PurR binding, which correlated with reduced purine-mediated repression. Mutations that changed the binding sequence toward the consensus sequence had no significant effect on either PurR binding or purine-mediated repression. Hypoxanthine and guanine, co-repressors for PurR-mediated regulation of the pur regulon, increased binding of PurR to glyA operator DNA.

  4. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C.; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments. PMID:26308719

  5. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments.

  6. The function of the octamer-binding site in the DRA promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, C.F.; Jabrane-Ferrat, N.; Peterlin, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    The octamer binding site, which is located immediately upstream of the poorly conserved DRA TATA sequence, is important for high levels of expression of this human major histocompatibility class II gene in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the substitution of the DRA TATA sequence with the TATA box from the adenovirus Elb promoter removes the requirement for the octamer binding site for high levels of expression from the DRA promoter. Since only the TATA box from the Elb but not the DRA promoters binds the TATA binding protein, we conclude that the octamer binding site helps to recruit TBP to the DRA promoter. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Mutational Analysis of the High-Affinity Zinc Binding Site Validates a Refined Human Dopamine Transporter Homology Model

    PubMed Central

    Stockner, Thomas; Montgomery, Therese R.; Kudlacek, Oliver; Weissensteiner, Rene; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H.

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of the leucine transporter (LeuT) is frequently used as a template for homology models of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Although similar in structure, DAT differs considerably from LeuT in a number of ways: (i) when compared to LeuT, DAT has very long intracellular amino and carboxyl termini; (ii) LeuT and DAT share a rather low overall sequence identity (22%) and (iii) the extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of DAT is substantially longer than that of LeuT. Extracellular zinc binds to DAT and restricts the transporter‚s movement through the conformational cycle, thereby resulting in a decrease in substrate uptake. Residue H293 in EL2 praticipates in zinc binding and must be modelled correctly to allow for a full understanding of its effects. We exploited the high-affinity zinc binding site endogenously present in DAT to create a model of the complete transmemberane domain of DAT. The zinc binding site provided a DAT-specific molecular ruler for calibration of the model. Our DAT model places EL2 at the transporter lipid interface in the vicinity of the zinc binding site. Based on the model, D206 was predicted to represent a fourth co-ordinating residue, in addition to the three previously described zinc binding residues H193, H375 and E396. This prediction was confirmed by mutagenesis: substitution of D206 by lysine and cysteine affected the inhibitory potency of zinc and the maximum inhibition exerted by zinc, respectively. Conversely, the structural changes observed in the model allowed for rationalizing the zinc-dependent regulation of DAT: upon binding, zinc stabilizes the outward-facing state, because its first coordination shell can only be completed in this conformation. Thus, the model provides a validated solution to the long extracellular loop and may be useful to address other aspects of the transport cycle. PMID:23436987

  8. The Adipophilin C Terminus Is a Self-folding Membrane-binding Domain That Is Important for Milk Lipid Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Brandi M.; Russell, Tanya D.; Schaack, Jerome; Orlicky, David J.; Reigan, Philip; Ladinsky, Mark; McManaman, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLD) in mammary epithelial cells undergo secretion by a unique membrane envelopment process to produce milk lipids. Adipophilin (ADPH/Plin2), a member of the perilipin/PAT family of lipid droplet-associated proteins, is hypothesized to mediate CLD secretion through interactions with apical plasma membrane elements. We found that the secretion of CLD coated by truncated ADPH lacking the C-terminal region encoding a putative four-helix bundle structure was impaired relative to that of CLD coated by full-length ADPH. We used homology modeling and analyses of the solution and membrane binding properties of purified recombinant ADPH C terminus to understand how this region possibly mediates CLD secretion. Homology modeling supports the concept that the ADPH C terminus forms a four-helix bundle motif and suggests that this structure can form stable membrane bilayer interactions. Circular dichroism and protease mapping studies confirmed that the ADPH C terminus is an independently folding α-helical structure that is relatively resistant to urea denaturation. Liposome binding studies showed that the purified C terminus binds to phospholipid membranes through electrostatic dependent interactions, and cell culture studies documented that it localizes to the plasma membrane. Collectively, these data provide direct evidence that the ADPH C terminus forms a stable membrane binding helical structure that is important for CLD secretion. We speculate that interactions between the four-helix bundle of ADPH and membrane phospholipids may be an initial step in milk lipid secretion. PMID:21383012

  9. Role of leucine zipper motif in apoE3 N-terminal domain lipid binding activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Ryan, Robert O

    2006-09-01

    The N terminal domain of human apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3-NT) functions as a ligand for members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Whereas lipid-free apoE3-NT adopts a stable four-helix bundle conformation, a lipid binding induced conformational change is required for LDLR recognition. To investigate the role of a leucine zipper motif identified in the helix bundle on lipid binding activity, three leucine residues in helix 2 (Leu63, Leu71 and Leu78) were replaced by alanine. Recombinant "leucine to alanine" (LA) apoE3-NT was produced in E. coli, isolated and characterized. Stability studies revealed a transition midpoint of guanidine hydrochloride induced denaturation of 2.7 M and 2.1 M for wild type (WT) and LA apoE3-NT, respectively. Results from fluorescent dye binding assays revealed that, compared to WT apoE3-NT, LA apoE3-NT has an increased content of solvent exposed hydrophobic surfaces. In phospholipid vesicle solubilization assays, LA apoE3-NT was more effective than WT apoE3-NT at inducing a time-dependent decrease in dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol vesicle light scattering intensity. Likewise, in lipoprotein binding assays, LA apoE3-NT protected human low-density lipoprotein from phospholipase C induced aggregation to a greater extent than WT apoE3-NT. On the other hand, LA apoE3-NT and WT apoE3-NT were equivalent in terms of their ability to bind a soluble LDLR fragment. The results suggest that the leucine zipper motif confers stability to the apoE3-NT helix bundle state and may serve to modulate lipid binding activity of this domain and, thereby, influence the conformational transition associated with manifestation of LDLR binding activity.

  10. Characterization of the zinc binding site of bacterial phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed

    Omburo, G A; Kuo, J M; Mullins, L S; Raushel, F M

    1992-07-01

    The bacterial phosphotriesterase has been found to require a divalent cation for enzymatic activity. This enzyme catalyzes the detoxification of organophosphorus insecticides and nerve agents. In an Escherichia coli expression system significantly higher concentrations of active enzyme could be produced when 1.0 mM concentrations of Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ were included in the growth medium. The isolated enzymes contained up to 2 equivalents of these metal ions as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the various metal enzyme derivatives was lost upon incubation with EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid. Protection against inactivation by metal chelation was afforded by the binding of competitive inhibitors, suggesting that at least one metal is at or near the active site. Apoenzyme was prepared by incubation of the phosphotriesterase with beta-mercaptoethanol and EDTA for 2 days. Full recovery of enzymatic activity could be obtained by incubation of the apoenzyme with 2 equivalents of Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, or Mn2+. The 113Cd NMR spectrum of enzyme containing 2 equivalents of 113Cd2+ showed two resonances at 120 and 215 ppm downfield from Cd(ClO4)2. The NMR data are consistent with nitrogen (histidine) and oxygen ligands to the metal centers.

  11. Evolutionary computation for discovery of composite transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Gary B.; Porto, V. William; Varga, Gabor; Dow, Ernst R.; Craven, Andrew M.; Powers, David M.; Harlow, Harry B.; Su, Eric W.; Onyia, Jude E.; Su, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated the use of evolutionary computation for the discovery of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in promoter regions upstream of coexpressed genes. However, it remained unclear whether or not composite TFBS elements, commonly found in higher organisms where two or more TFBSs form functional complexes, could also be identified by using this approach. Here, we present an important refinement of our previous algorithm and test the identification of composite elements using NFAT/AP-1 as an example. We demonstrate that by using appropriate existing parameters such as window size, novel-scoring methods such as central bonusing and methods of self-adaptation to automatically adjust the variation operators during the evolutionary search, TFBSs of different sizes and complexity can be identified as top solutions. Some of these solutions have known experimental relationships with NFAT/AP-1. We also indicate that even after properly tuning the model parameters, the choice of the appropriate window size has a significant effect on algorithm performance. We believe that this improved algorithm will greatly augment TFBS discovery. PMID:18927103

  12. Energetic localization of saxitoxin in its channel binding site.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Gaurav; Shang, Lisa; Li, Xiufeng; Dudley, Samuel C

    2002-08-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) selectively blocks the voltage-gated sodium channel at the outer vestibule lined by P-loops of the four domains. Neosaxitoxin has an additional -OH group at the N1 position of the 1,2,3 guanidinium (N1-OH) that interacts with domains I and IV of the Na(+) channel. Determination of a second toxin interaction with the channel would fix the location of STX. Gonyautoxin 2,3 and Gonyautoxin 1,4 are C-11 sulfated derivatives of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin, respectively. We used these variants to constrain the STX docking orientation by energetically localizing the C-11 sulfate in the outer vestibule. Interactions between the C-11 sulfate and each of the four domains of the channel were determined by a systematic approach to mutant cycle analysis in which all known carboxyl groups important for site 1 toxin binding were neutralized, allowing energetic triangulation of the toxin sulfate and overcoming some limitations of mutant cycles. Toxin IC(50)s were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp from Xenopus oocytes injected with the channel mRNA. Three unique types of analysis based on the coupling results localized the C-11 sulfate between domains III and IV. Combined with our previous report, the data establish the orientation of STX in the outer vestibule and confirm the clockwise arrangement of the channel domains.

  13. ATP binding to two sites is necessary for dimerization of nucleotide-binding domains of ABC proteins.

    PubMed

    Zoghbi, Maria E; Altenberg, Guillermo A

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters have a functional unit formed by two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). ATP-bound NBDs dimerize in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides sandwiched at the dimer interface. Both NBDs contribute residues to each of the two nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) in the dimer. In previous studies, we showed that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii forms ATP-bound dimers that dissociate completely following hydrolysis of one of the two bound ATP molecules. Since hydrolysis of ATP at one NBS is sufficient to drive dimer dissociation, it is unclear why all ABC proteins contain two NBSs. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) to study ATP-induced formation of NBD homodimers containing two NBSs competent for ATP binding, and NBD heterodimers with one active NBS and one binding-defective NBS. The results showed that binding of two ATP molecules is necessary for NBD dimerization. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dissociation, but two binding sites are required to form the ATP-sandwich NBD dimer necessary for hydrolysis.

  14. Platelet binding sites for factor VIII in relation to fibrin and phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gary E; Novakovic, Valerie A; Shi, Jialan; Rasmussen, Jan; Pipe, Steven W

    2015-09-01

    Thrombin-stimulated platelets expose very little phosphatidylserine (PS) but express binding sites for factor VIII (fVIII), casting doubt on the role of exposed PS as the determinant of binding sites. We previously reported that fVIII binding sites are increased three- to sixfold when soluble fibrin (SF) binds the αIIbβ3 integrin. This study focuses on the hypothesis that platelet-bound SF is the major source of fVIII binding sites. Less than 10% of fVIII was displaced from thrombin-stimulated platelets by lactadherin, a PS-binding protein, and an fVIII mutant defective in PS-dependent binding retained platelet affinity. Therefore, PS is not the determinant of most binding sites. FVIII bound immobilized SF and paralleled platelet binding in affinity, dependence on separation from von Willebrand factor, and mediation by the C2 domain. SF also enhanced activity of fVIII in the factor Xase complex by two- to fourfold. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESH8, against the fVIII C2 domain, inhibited binding of fVIII to SF and platelets but not to PS-containing vesicles. Similarly, mAb ESH4 against the C2 domain, inhibited >90% of platelet-dependent fVIII activity vs 35% of vesicle-supported activity. These results imply that platelet-bound SF is a component of functional fVIII binding sites. PMID:26162408

  15. Knowledge-based annotation of small molecule binding sites in proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study of protein-small molecule interactions is vital for understanding protein function and for practical applications in drug discovery. To benefit from the rapidly increasing structural data, it is essential to improve the tools that enable large scale binding site prediction with greater emphasis on their biological validity. Results We have developed a new method for the annotation of protein-small molecule binding sites, using inference by homology, which allows us to extend annotation onto protein sequences without experimental data available. To ensure biological relevance of binding sites, our method clusters similar binding sites found in homologous protein structures based on their sequence and structure conservation. Binding sites which appear evolutionarily conserved among non-redundant sets of homologous proteins are given higher priority. After binding sites are clustered, position specific score matrices (PSSMs) are constructed from the corresponding binding site alignments. Together with other measures, the PSSMs are subsequently used to rank binding sites to assess how well they match the query and to better gauge their biological relevance. The method also facilitates a succinct and informative representation of observed and inferred binding sites from homologs with known three-dimensional structures, thereby providing the means to analyze conservation and diversity of binding modes. Furthermore, the chemical properties of small molecules bound to the inferred binding sites can be used as a starting point in small molecule virtual screening. The method was validated by comparison to other binding site prediction methods and to a collection of manually curated binding site annotations. We show that our method achieves a sensitivity of 72% at predicting biologically relevant binding sites and can accurately discriminate those sites that bind biological small molecules from non-biological ones. Conclusions A new algorithm has been

  16. Prediction of lipid-binding regions in cytoplasmic and extracellular loops of membrane proteins as exemplified by protein translocation membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rob C A

    2013-01-01

    The presence of possible lipid-binding regions in the cytoplasmic or extracellular loops of membrane proteins with an emphasis on protein translocation membrane proteins was investigated in this study using bioinformatics. Recent developments in approaches recognizing lipid-binding regions in proteins were found to be promising. In this study a total bioinformatics approach specialized in identifying lipid-binding helical regions in proteins was explored. Two features of the protein translocation membrane proteins, the position of the transmembrane regions and the identification of additional lipid-binding regions, were analyzed. A number of well-studied protein translocation membrane protein structures were checked in order to demonstrate the predictive value of the bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that lipid-binding regions in the cytoplasmic and extracellular loops in protein translocation membrane proteins can be predicted, and it is proposed that the interaction of these regions with phospholipids is important for proper functioning during protein translocation. PMID:22961045

  17. Mapping of the leptin binding sites and design of a leptin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Peelman, Frank; Van Beneden, Katrien; Zabeau, Lennart; Iserentant, Hannes; Ulrichts, Peter; Defeau, Delphine; Verhee, Annick; Catteeuw, Dominiek; Elewaut, Dirk; Tavernier, Jan

    2004-09-24

    The leptin/leptin receptor system shows strong similarities to the long-chain cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor cytokine/receptor systems. The IL-6 family cytokines interact with their receptors through three different binding sites I-III. The leptin structure was superposed on the crystal structures of several long-chain cytokines, and a series of leptin mutants was generated focusing on binding sites I-III. The effect of the mutations on leptin receptor (LR) signaling and on binding to the membrane proximal cytokine receptor homology domain (CRH2) of the LR was determined. Mutations in binding site I at the C terminus of helix D show a modest effect on signaling and do not affect binding to CRH2. Binding site II is composed of residues at the surface of helices A and C. Mutations in this site impair binding to CRH2 but have only limited effect on signaling. Site III mutations around the N terminus of helix D impair receptor activation without affecting binding to CRH2. We identified an S120A/T121A mutant in binding site III, which lacks any signaling capacity, but which still binds to CRH2 with wild type affinity. This leptin mutant behaves as a potent leptin antagonist both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15213225

  18. Characterization of the Estradiol-Binding Site Structure of Human Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin-Miao; Wang, Pan; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2011-01-01

    Background Earlier studies showed that 17β-estradiol (E2), an endogenous female sex hormone, can bind to human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a protein folding catalyst for disulfide bond formation and rearrangement. This binding interaction can modulate the intracellular levels of E2 and its biological actions. However, the structure of PDI's E2-binding site is still unclear at present, which is the focus of this study. Methodology/Principal Findings The E2-binding site structure of human PDI was studied by using various biochemical approaches coupled with radiometric receptor-binding assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular computational modeling. Analysis of various PDI protein fragments showed that the [3H]E2-binding activity is not associated with the single b or b' domain but is associated with the b-b' domain combination. Computational docking analyses predicted that the E2-binding site is located in a hydrophobic pocket composed mainly of the b' domain and partially of the b domain. A hydrogen bond, formed between the 3-hydroxyl group of E2 and His256 of PDI is critical for the binding interaction. This binding model was jointly confirmed by a series of detailed experiments, including site-directed mutagenesis of the His256 residue coupled with selective modifications of the ligand structures to alter the binding interaction. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study elucidated the structural basis for the PDI–E2 binding interaction and the reservoir role of PDI in modulating the intracellular E2 levels. The identified PDI E2-binding site is quite different from its known peptide binding sites. Given that PDI is a potential therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy and HIV prevention and that E2 can inhibit PDI activity in vitro, the E2-binding site structure of human PDI determined here offers structural insights which may aid in the rational design of novel PDI inhibitors. PMID:22073283

  19. Immunochemical and Pharmacological Distinctions between Curaremimetic Neurotoxin Binding Sites of Central, Autonomic, and Peripheral Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Ronald J.

    1986-08-01

    Comparative pharmacological and immunochemical studies were conducted on α -bungarotoxin binding sites from rat brain or muscle, Torpedo electric tissue, or the TE671 or PC12 clonal cell lines. Characteristic distinctions were observed in the pharmacological profile of drugs competing for toxin binding to different tissues. Differences also were found in the proportion of toxin binding sites (membrane-bound or detergent-solubilized) that are immunologically reactive with either monoclonal antibodies directed against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from the electric organ of Torpedo or polyclonal antisera raised against nicotinic receptors from the electric organ of Electrophorus. These results suggest that toxin binding sites are structurally heterogeneous. Structural heterogeneity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neurotoxin binding sites, or both, may contribute to the manifestation of nicotinic receptor functional heterogeneity and may explain the apparent discrepancy at some sites between toxin binding activity and toxin functional potency.

  20. Oestradiol and testosterone binding sites in mice tibiae and their relationship with bone growth.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Ventanas, J; Burgos, J

    1986-11-01

    High affinity oestradiol and testosterone binding sites were found in tibiae cytosol from entire male and female of different ages. Scatchard assay allowed to estimate a Kd of 2.7 X 10(-9) M for oestradiol binding sites indicating that the 3H-oestradiol binding was of high affinity. Oestradiol and testosterone binding sites abundance in mice tibiae are subject to change with age. It is not easy to establish a direct correlation between these changes and the values reported here on bone growth in weight and length, however seems possible to point a negative relationship between bone lengthening and oestradiol binding site levels in female, as well a positive relationship with testosterone in both sexes. The presence of oestradiol and testosterone binding sites in epiphyses and not in the diaphyses reinforces the hypothesis that both are playing some role in bone growth.

  1. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes.

  2. Structural Perspectives on the Evolutionary Expansion of Unique Protein-Protein Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shaytan, Alexey K; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-09-15

    Structures of protein complexes provide atomistic insights into protein interactions. Human proteins represent a quarter of all structures in the Protein Data Bank; however, available protein complexes cover less than 10% of the human proteome. Although it is theoretically possible to infer interactions in human proteins based on structures of homologous protein complexes, it is still unclear to what extent protein interactions and binding sites are conserved, and whether protein complexes from remotely related species can be used to infer interactions and binding sites. We considered biological units of protein complexes and clustered protein-protein binding sites into similarity groups based on their structure and sequence, which allowed us to identify unique binding sites. We showed that the growth rate of the number of unique binding sites in the Protein Data Bank was much slower than the growth rate of the number of structural complexes. Next, we investigated the evolutionary roots of unique binding sites and identified the major phyletic branches with the largest expansion in the number of novel binding sites. We found that many binding sites could be traced to the universal common ancestor of all cellular organisms, whereas relatively few binding sites emerged at the major evolutionary branching points. We analyzed the physicochemical properties of unique binding sites and found that the most ancient sites were the largest in size, involved many salt bridges, and were the most compact and least planar. In contrast, binding sites that appeared more recently in the evolution of eukaryotes were characterized by a larger fraction of polar and aromatic residues, and were less compact and more planar, possibly due to their more transient nature and roles in signaling processes.

  3. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25644246

  4. The Lipid Bilayer Provides a Site for Cortisone Crystallization at High Cortisone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Richard J.; Khondker, Adree; Hub, Jochen S.; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2016-01-01

    Cortisone is an injected anti-inflammatory drug that can cause painful side effects known as “steroid flares” which are caused by cortisone crystallizing at the injection site. We used molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray diffraction to study the interaction of cortisone with model lipid membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at drug concentrations from 0 mol% to 50 mol%. Cortisone was found to partition in the lipid bilayer and locate in the hydrophilic to hydrophobic interface of the membranes. Cortisone strongly affects the integrity of the membrane, as quantified by a decreased membrane thickness, increased area per lipid, and decreased lipid tail order parameters. At cortisone concentrations of more than 20 mol%, signals from crystallized cortisone were observed. These crystallites are embedded in the bilayers and orient with the membranes. While the cortisone molecules align parallel to the bilayers at low concentrations, they start to penetrate the hydrophobic core at higher concentrations. Trans-membrane crystallites start to nucleate when the membrane thickness has decreased such that cortisone molecules in the different leaflets can find partners from the opposite leaflet resulting in a non-zero density of cortisone molecules in the bilayer center. We suggest that the lipid bilayer provides a site for cortisone crystallization. PMID:26936102

  5. Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J D; Hinz, A; Bergmann, A; Huang, J; Ovcharenko, I; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-04-19

    Mammalian genomic imprinting is regulated by Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) that are usually associated with tandem arrays of transcription factor binding sites. In the current study, the sequence features derived from a tandem array of YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR (differentially methylated region) led us to identify three additional clustered YY1 binding sites, which are also localized within the DMRs of Xist, Tsix, and Nespas. These regions have been shown to play a critical role as ICRs for the regulation of surrounding genes. These ICRs have maintained a tandem array of YY1 binding sites during mammalian evolution. The in vivo binding of YY1 to these regions is allele-specific and only to the unmethylated active alleles. Promoter/enhancer assays suggest that a tandem array of YY1 binding sites function as a potential orientation-dependent enhancer. Insulator assays revealed that the enhancer-blocking activity is detected only in the YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR but not in the YY1 binding sites of other DMRs. Overall, our identification of three additional clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinted domains suggests a significant role for YY1 in mammalian genomic imprinting.

  6. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-05-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, (/sup 3/H) dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for (/sup 3/H) (D-Ala2, D-Leu5)enkephalin and (3H)ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites.

  7. Hydrolysis at One of the Two Nucleotide-binding Sites Drives the Dissociation of ATP-binding Cassette Nucleotide-binding Domain Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Zoghbi, Maria E.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional unit of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters consists of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). ATP binding elicits association of the two NBDs, forming a dimer in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides “sandwiched” at the dimer interface. Each of the two nucleotide-binding sites is formed by residues from the two NBDs. We recently found that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii dimerizes in response to ATP binding and dissociates completely following ATP hydrolysis. However, it is still unknown whether dissociation of NBD dimers follows ATP hydrolysis at one or both nucleotide-binding sites. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer to study heterodimers formed by one active (donor-labeled) and one catalytically defective (acceptor-labeled) NBD. Rapid mixing experiments in a stop-flow chamber showed that NBD heterodimers with one functional and one inactive site dissociated at a rate indistinguishable from that of dimers with two hydrolysis-competent sites. Comparison of the rates of NBD dimer dissociation and ATP hydrolysis indicated that dissociation followed hydrolysis of one ATP. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dimer dissociation. PMID:24129575

  8. Rapid comparison of protein binding site surfaces with Property Encoded Shape Distributions (PESD)

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sourav; Kokardekar, Arshad

    2009-01-01

    Patterns in shape and property distributions on the surface of binding sites are often conserved across functional proteins without significant conservation of the underlying amino-acid residues. To explore similarities of these sites from the viewpoint of a ligand, a sequence and fold-independent method was created to rapidly and accurately compare binding sites of proteins represented by property-mapped triangulated Gauss-Connolly surfaces. Within this paradigm, signatures for each binding site surface are produced by calculating their property-encoded shape distributions (PESD), a measure of the probability that a particular property will be at a specific distance to another on the molecular surface. Similarity between the signatures can then be treated as a measure of similarity between binding sites. As postulated, the PESD method rapidly detected high levels of similarity in binding site surface characteristics even in cases where there was very low similarity at the sequence level. In a screening experiment involving each member of the PDBBind 2005 dataset as a query against the rest of the set, PESD was able to retrieve a binding site with identical E.C. (Enzyme Commission) numbers as the top match in 79.5% of cases. The ability of the method in detecting similarity in binding sites with low sequence conservations were compared with state-of-the-art binding site comparison methods. PMID:19919089

  9. Solution structure of barley lipid transfer protein complexed with palmitate. Two different binding modes of palmitate in the homologous maize and barley nonspecific lipid transfer proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, M. H.; Poulsen, F. M.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from barley (ns-LTPbarley) in complex with palmitate has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure has been compared to the structure of ns-LTPbarley in the absence of palmitate, to the structure of ns-LTPbarley in complex with palmitoyl coenzyme A, to the structure of ns-LTPmaize in its free form, and to the maize protein complexed with palmitate. Binding of palmitate only affects the structure of ns-LTPbarley moderately in contrast to the binding of palmitoyl coenzyme A, which leads to a considerable expansion of the protein. The modes of binding palmitate to the maize and barley protein are different. Although in neither case there are major conformational changes in the protein, the orientation of the palmitate in the two proteins is exactly opposite. PMID:9865943

  10. Lack of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate binding to biologically relevant binding sites on mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, E M; Lubrano, T M; Gordon, J; Fields, J Z

    1992-09-01

    We analyzed the binding characteristics of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate ([3H]QNB), a muscarinic cholinergic ligand, to rat and human mononuclear cells (MNC). Under various assay conditions, atropine-sensitive, saturable binding occurred with an apparent Kd of 10 nM. Conditions which disrupted the MNC membrane reduced total binding and eliminated specific binding. Muscarinic agonists were unable to inhibit [3H]QNB binding to MNC at concentrations up to 10(-2) M. Stereoisomers dexetimide and levetimide were equipotent inhibitors of binding (IC50 2 x 10(-5) M). We conclude that, although atropine-sensitive binding of [3H]QNB to MNC occurs, the binding is not consistent with the presence of a biologically relevant muscarinic cholinergic receptor. PMID:1392105

  11. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.

  12. Helicase binding to DnaI exposes a cryptic DNA-binding site during helicase loading in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Charikleia; Schaeffer, Patrick M.; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Soultanas, Panos

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis DnaI, DnaB and DnaD proteins load the replicative ring helicase DnaC onto DNA during priming of DNA replication. Here we show that DnaI consists of a C-terminal domain (Cd) with ATPase and DNA-binding activities and an N-terminal domain (Nd) that interacts with the replicative ring helicase. A Zn2+-binding module mediates the interaction with the helicase and C67, C70 and H84 are involved in the coordination of the Zn2+. DnaI binds ATP and exhibits ATPase activity that is not stimulated by ssDNA, because the DNA-binding site on Cd is masked by Nd. The ATPase activity resides on the Cd domain and when detached from the Nd domain, it becomes sensitive to stimulation by ssDNA because its cryptic DNA-binding site is exposed. Therefore, Nd acts as a molecular ‘switch’ regulating access to the ssDNA binding site on Cd, in response to binding of the helicase. DnaI is sufficient to load the replicative helicase from a complex with six DnaI molecules, so there is no requirement for a dual helicase loader system. PMID:17003052

  13. Helicase binding to DnaI exposes a cryptic DNA-binding site during helicase loading in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Charikleia; Schaeffer, Patrick M; Dixon, Nicholas E; Soultanas, Panos

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis DnaI, DnaB and DnaD proteins load the replicative ring helicase DnaC onto DNA during priming of DNA replication. Here we show that DnaI consists of a C-terminal domain (Cd) with ATPase and DNA-binding activities and an N-terminal domain (Nd) that interacts with the replicative ring helicase. A Zn2+-binding module mediates the interaction with the helicase and C67, C70 and H84 are involved in the coordination of the Zn2+. DnaI binds ATP and exhibits ATPase activity that is not stimulated by ssDNA, because the DNA-binding site on Cd is masked by Nd. The ATPase activity resides on the Cd domain and when detached from the Nd domain, it becomes sensitive to stimulation by ssDNA because its cryptic DNA-binding site is exposed. Therefore, Nd acts as a molecular 'switch' regulating access to the ssDNA binding site on Cd, in response to binding of the helicase. DnaI is sufficient to load the replicative helicase from a complex with six DnaI molecules, so there is no requirement for a dual helicase loader system. PMID:17003052

  14. Calculated vibrational properties of pigments in protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Hari Prasad; Hastings, Gary

    2011-06-28

    FTIR difference spectroscopy is widely used to probe molecular bonding interactions of protein-bound electron transfer cofactors. The technique is particularly attractive because it provides information on both neutral and radical cofactor states. Such dual information is not easily obtainable using other techniques. Although FTIR difference spectroscopy has been used to study cofactors in biological protein complexes, in nearly all cases interpretation of the spectra has been purely qualitative. Virtually no computational work has been undertaken in an attempt to model the spectra. To address this problem we have developed the use of ONIOM (our own N-layered integrated molecular Orbital + Molecular mechanics package) (quantum mechanical:molecular mechanics) methods to calculate FTIR difference spectra associated with protein-bound cofactors. As a specific example showing the utility of the approach we have calculated isotope edited FTIR difference spectra associated with unlabeled and labeled ubiquinones in the Q(A) binding site in Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centers. The calculated spectra are in remarkable agreement with experiment. Such agreement cannot be obtained by considering ubiquinone molecules in the gas phase or in solution. A calculation including the protein environment is required. The ONIOM calculated spectra agree well with experiment but indicate a very different interpretation of the experimental data compared to that proposed previously. In particular the calculations do not predict that one of the carbonyl groups of Q(A) is very strongly hydrogen bonded. We show that a computational-based interpretation of FTIR difference spectra associated with protein-bound cofactors is now possible. This approach will be applicable to FTIR studies of many cofactor-containing proteins.

  15. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  16. Crystal structure of equine serum albumin in complex with cetirizine reveals a novel drug binding site.

    PubMed

    Handing, Katarzyna B; Shabalin, Ivan G; Szlachta, Karol; Majorek, Karolina A; Minor, Wladek

    2016-03-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is the main transporter of drugs in mammalian blood plasma. Here, we report the first crystal structure of equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with antihistamine drug cetirizine at a resolution of 2.1Å. Cetirizine is bound in two sites--a novel drug binding site (CBS1) and the fatty acid binding site 6 (CBS2). Both sites differ from those that have been proposed in multiple reports based on equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence studies for mammalian albumins as cetirizine binding sites. We show that the residues forming the binding pockets in ESA are highly conserved in human serum albumin (HSA), and suggest that binding of cetirizine to HSA will be similar. In support of that hypothesis, we show that the dissociation constants for cetirizine binding to CBS2 in ESA and HSA are identical using tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Presence of lysine and arginine residues that have been previously reported to undergo nonenzymatic glycosylation in CBS1 and CBS2 suggests that cetirizine transport in patients with diabetes could be altered. A review of all available SA structures from the PDB shows that in addition to the novel drug binding site we present here (CBS1), there are two pockets on SA capable of binding drugs that do not overlap with fatty acid binding sites and have not been discussed in published reviews. PMID:26896718

  17. CALCIUM-INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION IS MEDIATED BY RHODNIUS HEME-BINDING PROTEIN (RHBP) AND PREVENTED BY VITELLIN.

    PubMed

    Paes, Marcia C; Silveira, Alan B; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Luciano, Monalisa; Coelho, Marsen G P; Todeschini, Adriane R; Bianconi, M Lucia; Atella, Georgia C; Silva-Neto, Mário A C

    2015-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation is promoted by the quasi-lipoxygenase (QL) activity of heme proteins and enhanced by the presence of free calcium. Unlike mammalian plasma, the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, contains both a free heme-binding protein (RHBP) and circulating lipoproteins. RHBP binds and prevents the heme groups of the proteins from participating in lipid peroxidation reactions. Herein, we show that despite being bound to RHBP, heme groups promote lipid peroxidation through a calcium-dependent QL reaction. This reaction is readily inhibited by the presence of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene or micromolar levels of the main yolk phosphoprotein vitellin (Vt). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation is eliminated by the in vitro dephosphorylation of Vt, indicating that this reaction depends on the interaction of free calcium ions with negatively charged phosphoamino acids. Our results demonstrate that calcium chelation mediated by phosphoproteins occurs via an antioxidant mechanism that protects living organisms from lipid peroxidation. PMID:26111116

  18. Using circular permutation analysis to redefine the R17 coat protein binding site.

    PubMed

    Gott, J M; Pan, T; LeCuyer, K A; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1993-12-14

    The bacteriophage R17 coat protein binding site consists of an RNA hairpin with a single purine nucleotide bulge in the helical stem. Circular permutation analysis (CPA) was used to examine binding effects caused by a single break in the phosphodiester backbone. This method revealed that breakage of all but one phosphodiester bond within a well-defined binding site substantially reduced the binding affinity. This is probably due to destabilization of the hairpin structure upon breaking the ribose phosphates at these positions. One circularly permuted isomer with the 5' and 3' ends at the bulged nucleotide bound with wild-type affinity. However, extending the 5' end of this CP isomer greatly reduces binding, making it unlikely that this circularly permuted binding site will be active when embedded in a larger RNA. CPA also locates the 5' and 3' boundaries of protein binding sites on the RNA. The 5' boundary of the R17 coat protein site as defined by CPA was two nucleotides shorter (nucleotides -15 to +2) than the previously determined site (-17 to +2). The smaller binding site was verified by terminal truncation experiments. A minimal-binding fragment (-14 to +2) was synthesized and was found to bind tightly to the coat protein. The site size determined by 3-ethyl-1-nitrosourea-modification interference was larger at the 5' end (-16 to +1), probably due, however, to steric effects of ethylation of phosphate oxygens. Thus, the apparent site size of a protein binding site is dependent upon the method used. PMID:7504949

  19. Biochemical study of prolactin binding sites in Xenopus laevis brain and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Muccioli, G.; Guardabassi, A.; Pattono, P. )

    1990-03-01

    The occurrence of prolactin binding sites in some brain structures (telencephalon, ventral hypothalamus, myelencephalon, hypophysis, and choroid plexus) from Xenopus laevis (anuran amphibian) was studied by the in vitro biochemical technique. The higher binding values were obtained at the level of the choroid plexus and above all of the hypothalamus. On the bases of hormonal specificity and high affinity, these binding sites are very similar to those of prolactin receptors of classical target tissues as well as of those described by us in other structures from Xenopus. To our knowledge, the present results provide the first demonstration of the occurrence of prolactin specific binding sites in Xenopus laevis choroid plexus cells.

  20. Evidence for a non-opioid sigma binding site din the guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, F.; Pascaud, X.; Vauche, D.; Junien, J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a binding site to (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 was demonstrated in a guinea-pig myenteric plexus (MYP) membrane preparation. Specific binding to this receptor was saturable, reversible, linear with protein concentration and consisted of two components, a high affinity site and a low affinity site. Morphine and naloxone 10/sup -4/M were unable to displace (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding. Haloperidol, imipramine, ethylketocyclazocine and propranolol were among the most potent compounds to inhibit this specific binding. These results suggest the presence of a non-opioid haloperidol sensitive sigma receptor in the MYP of the guinea-pig.

  1. 2-([sup 125]I) iodomelatonin binding sites in rat adrenals: Pharmacological characteristics and subcellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Persengiev, S.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Specific binding sites for 2-[[sup 125]I] iodomelatonin, a selective radiolabeled melatonin receptor ligand, were detected and characterized in rat adrenal membranes. Saturation studies demonstrated that 2-[[sup 125]I]iodomelatonin binds to a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 541 pM and a total binding capacity (Bmax) of 3.23 fmol/mg protein. Competition experiments revealed that the relative order of potency of compounds tested was as follows: 6-chloromelatonin > 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > 5-methoxytryptamine > 5-methoxytryptophol. The highest density of binding sites was found in membranes from nuclear and mitochondrial subcellular fractions.

  2. Decomposition of the factors that govern binding site preference in a multiple rotaxane.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Joseph P; Sohlberg, Karl

    2009-06-18

    A particularly interesting class of multiple rotaxanes consists of complexes where one long shaft threads two rings. If the shaft contains three or more potential binding sites for the rings, multiple co-conformations are possible. Such a complex is a molecular topological analogue to an abacus. Here we address the question, how does strength of ring binding to the shaft vary with respect to position on the shaft? Previous studies have found that a shaft with three binding sites exhibits strongest ring binding at the center site. Here a five-binding-site shaft is studied. We employ a novel method to partition the total energy of the system into contributions from intercomponent binding and intracomponent distortion. The method uses the output of quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations to determine fitting parameters in a set of coupled equations. The solution of the equations yields the energy partitioning and reveals the influence of long-range intercomponent interactions.

  3. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a new source of IgE-binding lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Elide A; Pravettoni, Valerio; Farioli, Laura; Primavesi, Laura; Scibilia, Joseph; Piantanida, Marta; Mascheri, Ambra; Conti, Amedeo

    2010-04-14

    Green beans belong to the Fabaceae family, which includes widely consumed species, such as beans, peanuts, and soybeans. In the literature, few cases have described allergic reactions upon the exposure to green bean boiling steam or ingestion. Here, we describe five patients reporting documented adverse reactions upon the ingestion of cooked green beans, and we characterize the responsible allergen. Fresh and cooked green beans were tested by a prick + prick technique. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and IgE immunoblotting were performed with boiled vegetable extract, and the N-terminal sequence of the immunoreactive protein was obtained by analyzing the excised band in a protein sequencer. Immunoblotting inhibition of cooked green bean with in-house-purified peach lipid transfer protein (LTP) Pru p 3 was performed. An interesting green bean protein was chromatographically purified, tested with a pool serum, and inhibited with Pru p 3. Moreover, its molecular mass was determined by mass spectrometry. Prick + prick tests with raw and cooked green beans were positive for all of the patients. IgE immunoblotting showed that all of the patients reacted toward a unique IgE-binding protein at about 9 kDa. The obtained N-terminal sequence revealed the following amino acids: Ala-Ile-Ser-X-Gly-Qln-Val-Thr-Ser-Ser-Leu-Ala, corresponding to an LTP. A complete inhibition of the IgE binding to this protein, in both raw and purified extract, was obtained by purified peach Pru p 3, confirming previous IgE immunoblotting results.

  4. Does transcription play a role in creating a condensin binding site?

    PubMed

    Bernard, Pascal; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved condensin complex is essential for the condensation and integrity of chromosomes through cell division. Published data argue that high levels of transcription contribute to specify some condensin-binding sites on chromosomes but the exact role of transcription in this process remains elusive. Here we discuss our recent data addressing the role of transcription in establishing a condensin-binding site.

  5. Inhibition of RNA polymerase by captan at both DNA and substrate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Lewis, R A

    1992-12-01

    RNA synthesis carried out in vitro by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase was inhibited irreversibly by captan when T7 DNA was used as template. An earlier report and this one show that captan blocks the DNA binding site on the enzyme. Herein, it is also revealed that captan acts at the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding site, and kinetic relationships of the action of captan at the two sites are detailed. The inhibition by captan via the DNA binding site of the enzyme was confirmed by kinetic studies and it was further shown that [14C]captan bound to the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase. This subunit contains the DNA binding site. Competitive-like inhibition by captan versus UTP led to the conclusion that captan also blocked the NTP binding site. In support of this conclusion, [14C]captan was observed to bind to the beta subunit which contains the NTP binding site. Whereas, preincubation of RNA polymerase with both DNA and NTPs prevented captan inhibition, preincubation with either DNA or NTPs alone was insufficient to protect the enzyme from the action of captan. Furthermore, the interaction of [14C]captan with the beta and beta' subunits was not prevented by a similar preincubation. Captan also bound, to a lesser extent, to the alpha and sigma subunits. Therefore, captan binding appears to involve interaction with RNA polymerase at sites in addition to those for DNA and NTP; however, this action does not inhibit the polymerase activity.

  6. PBSword: a web server for searching similar protein–protein binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Bin; Kuang, Xingyan; Zhao, Nan; Korkin, Dmitry; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    PBSword is a web server designed for efficient and accurate comparisons and searches of geometrically similar protein–protein binding sites from a large-scale database. The basic idea of PBSword is that each protein binding site is first represented by a high-dimensional vector of ‘visual words’, which characterizes both the global and local shape features of the binding site. It then uses a scalable indexing technique to search for those binding sites whose visual words representations are similar to that of the query binding site. Our system is able to return ranked results of binding sites in short time from a database of 194 322 domain–domain binding sites. PBSword supports query by protein ID and by new structures uploaded by users. PBSword is a useful tool to investigate functional connections among proteins based on the local structures of binding site and has potential applications to protein–protein docking and drug discovery. The system is hosted at http://pbs.rnet.missouri.edu. PMID:22689645

  7. In vivo stimulation of a chimeric promoter by binding sites for nuclear factor I.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, J J; Rebstein, P J; Manoukian, A; Gronostajski, R M

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear factor I (NFI) is composed of a family of site-specific DNA-binding proteins which recognize a DNA-binding site with the consensus sequence TGGC/A(N)5GCCAA. Binding sites for NFI have previously been shown to stimulate mRNA synthesis in vitro when present upstream of the TATA box of the adenovirus major late promoter (AdMLP). We have examined the effect of NFI-binding sites on transcription in vivo in transiently transfected HeLa and COS cells. An NFI-binding site isolated from the human genome activated expression from the minimal AdMLP in vivo in both the absence and presence of the simian virus 40 enhancer. A point mutation that decreased NFI binding affinity for the site in vitro reduced expression to near the basal level of the AdMLP. Several NFI-binding sites which differed in their spacer and flanking sequences were tested for their ability to activate expression in vivo. The ability of these sites to activate expression correlated with the strength of NFI binding in vitro. An NFI-binding site stimulated expression equally well when placed from 33 to 65 bp upstream of the TATA box. However, expression dropped to basal levels when the site was located from 71 to 77 bp upstream of the TATA box. These studies indicate that an NFI-binding site in this chimeric promoter activates expression in vivo only if located within a critical distance of the TATA box. PMID:1903836

  8. Effects of retinoids on differentiation, lipid metabolism, epidermal growth factor, and low-density lipoprotein binding in squamous carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ponec, M.; Weerheim, A. ); Havekes, L. ); Boonstra, J. )

    1987-08-01

    The relationship among keratinocyte differentiation capacity, lipid synthesis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, plasma membrane composition, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding has been studied in SCC-12F2 cells. The differentiation capacity of the cells, i.e., ionophore-induced cornified envelope formation, was inhibited by various retinoids and stimulated by hydrocortisone. Retinoids that caused a significant reduction of cornified envelope formation, i.e., retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, caused only minor changes in lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Arotinoid ethylsulfone, having a minor effect on cornified envelope formation, caused a drastic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis resulting in changes in the plasma membrane composition. Hydrocortisone stimulated cornified envelope formation but had only minor effects on lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Of all retinoids tested, only arotinoid ethylsulfone caused a drastic increase in EGF binding, while hydrocortisone had no effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the plasma membrane composition is not related to keratinocyte differentiation capacity, but most likely does determine EGF binding. Furthermore, EGF binding does not determine keratinocyte differentiation capacity.

  9. rVISTA for Comparative Sequence-Based Discovery of Functional Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, Gabriela G.; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-03-08

    Identifying transcriptional regulatory elements represents a significant challenge in annotating the genomes of higher vertebrates. We have developed a computational tool, rVISTA, for high-throughput discovery of cis-regulatory elements that combines transcription factor binding site prediction and the analysis of inter-species sequence conservation. Here, we illustrate the ability of rVISTA to identify true transcription factor binding sites through the analysis of AP-1 and NFAT binding sites in the 1 Mb well-annotated cytokine gene cluster1 (Hs5q31; Mm11). The exploitation of orthologous human-mouse data set resulted in the elimination of 95 percent of the 38,000 binding sites predicted upon analysis of the human sequence alone, while it identified 87 percent of the experimentally verified binding sites in this region.

  10. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  11. Membrane binding mode of intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of T cell receptor signaling subunits depends on lipid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sigalov, Alexander B.; Hendricks, Gregory M.

    2009-11-13

    Intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling subunits including {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} all contain one or more copies of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), tyrosine residues of which are phosphorylated upon receptor triggering. Membrane binding-induced helical folding of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} ITAMs is thought to control TCR activation. However, the question whether or not lipid binding of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} is necessarily accompanied by a folding transition of ITAMs remains open. In this study, we investigate whether the membrane binding mechanisms of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} depend on the membrane model used. Circular dichroic and fluorescence data indicate that binding of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} to detergent micelles and unstable vesicles is accompanied by a disorder-to-order transition, whereas upon binding to stable vesicles these proteins remain unfolded. Using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we show that upon protein binding, unstable vesicles fuse and rupture. In contrast, stable vesicles remain intact under these conditions. This suggests different membrane binding modes for {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} depending on the bilayer stability: (1) coupled binding and folding, and (2) binding without folding. These findings explain the long-standing puzzle in the literature and highlight the importance of the choice of an appropriate membrane model for protein-lipid interactions studies.

  12. Rosetta and the Design of Ligand Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rocco; Bender, Brian J; Allison, Brittany; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Proteins that bind small molecules (ligands) can be used as biosensors, signal modulators, and sequestering agents. When naturally occurring proteins for a particular target ligand are not available, artificial proteins can be computationally designed. We present a protocol based on RosettaLigand to redesign an existing protein pocket to bind a target ligand. Starting with a protein structure and the structure of the ligand, Rosetta can optimize both the placement of the ligand in the pocket and the identity and conformation of the surrounding sidechains, yielding proteins that bind the target compound.

  13. Human erythrocytes have binding sites for beta-endorphin.

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, C. O.; Chenet, B. P.; Kang, Y. H.; Mazorow, D. L.; Millar, D. B.; Hollis, V. W.

    1989-01-01

    Monoiodinated human beta-endorphin was found to bind specifically to human erythrocytes. Unlabeled beta-endorphin and beta-endorphin inhibited binding, but (-)naloxone, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin, and leu- and met-enkephalin did not. Immunoelectron microscopy, using rabbit anti-beta-endorphin antibody, an antirabbit IgG secondary antibody, and complexed horseradish peroxidase, revealed that at low concentrations beta-endorphin binds to the cell surface. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed no effect of beta-endorphin on membrane fluidity. This receptor does not appear to conform to the characteristics of an opiate receptor. Images Figures 2 and 3 PMID:2560064

  14. Rosetta and the Design of Ligand Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rocco; Bender, Brian J; Allison, Brittany; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Proteins that bind small molecules (ligands) can be used as biosensors, signal modulators, and sequestering agents. When naturally occurring proteins for a particular target ligand are not available, artificial proteins can be computationally designed. We present a protocol based on RosettaLigand to redesign an existing protein pocket to bind a target ligand. Starting with a protein structure and the structure of the ligand, Rosetta can optimize both the placement of the ligand in the pocket and the identity and conformation of the surrounding sidechains, yielding proteins that bind the target compound. PMID:27094285

  15. Probing the Binding Site of Bile Acids in TGR5.

    PubMed

    Macchiarulo, Antonio; Gioiello, Antimo; Thomas, Charles; Pols, Thijs W H; Nuti, Roberto; Ferrari, Cristina; Giacchè, Nicola; De Franco, Francesca; Pruzanski, Mark; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2013-12-12

    TGR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating cellular responses to bile acids (BAs). Although some efforts have been devoted to generate homology models of TGR5 and draw structure-activity relationships of BAs, none of these studies has hitherto described how BAs bind to TGR5. Here, we present an integrated computational, chemical, and biological approach that has been instrumental to determine the binding mode of BAs to TGR5. As a result, key residues have been identified that are involved in mediating the binding of BAs to the receptor. Collectively, these results provide new hints to design potent and selective TGR5 agonists. PMID:24900622

  16. Probing the Binding Site of Bile Acids in TGR5

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    TGR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating cellular responses to bile acids (BAs). Although some efforts have been devoted to generate homology models of TGR5 and draw structure–activity relationships of BAs, none of these studies has hitherto described how BAs bind to TGR5. Here, we present an integrated computational, chemical, and biological approach that has been instrumental to determine the binding mode of BAs to TGR5. As a result, key residues have been identified that are involved in mediating the binding of BAs to the receptor. Collectively, these results provide new hints to design potent and selective TGR5 agonists. PMID:24900622

  17. Incorporating replacement free energy of binding-site waters in molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanzi; Zhao, Lifeng; Peng, Shiming; Huang, Niu

    2014-09-01

    Binding-site water molecules play a crucial role in protein-ligand recognition, either being displaced upon ligand binding or forming water bridges to stabilize the complex. However, rigorously treating explicit binding-site waters is challenging in molecular docking, which requires to fully sample ensembles of waters and to consider the free energy cost of replacing waters. Here, we describe a method to incorporate structural and energetic properties of binding-site waters into molecular docking. We first developed a solvent property analysis (SPA) program to compute the replacement free energies of binding-site water molecules by post-processing molecular dynamics trajectories obtained from ligand-free protein structure simulation in explicit water. Next, we implemented a distance-dependent scoring term into DOCK scoring function to take account of the water replacement free energy cost upon ligand binding. We assessed this approach in protein targets containing important binding-site waters, and we demonstrated that our approach is reliable in reproducing the crystal binding geometries of protein-ligand-water complexes, as well as moderately improving the ligand docking enrichment performance. In addition, SPA program (free available to academic users upon request) may be applied in identifying hot-spot binding-site residues and structure-based lead optimization.

  18. Identification of zinc-binding sites of proteins: zinc binds to the amino-terminal region of tubulin

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, L.; Dominguez, J.E.; Avila, J.

    1988-07-01

    The discovery that certain proteins may require zinc for their activity, and the fact that several of them cannot be purified in large amounts, has led us to develop a rapid, sensitive method to detect these proteins in samples. This method is based on the fractionation of the proteins by gel electrophoresis, blotting onto nitrocellulose paper, and overlaying with /sup 65/Zn. We have tested the procedure with well-characterized zinc-binding proteins. In the case of tubulin, we have used this method to localize its zinc-binding site. It was found that zinc binds to the first 150 amino acids of both alpha- and beta-tubulin subunits.

  19. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  20. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  1. Spatial distribution of predicted transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila ChIP peaks.

    PubMed

    Pettie, Kade P; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Drewell, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    In the development of the Drosophila embryo, gene expression is directed by the sequence-specific interactions of a large network of protein transcription factors (TFs) and DNA cis-regulatory binding sites. Once the identity of the typically 8-10bp binding sites for any given TF has been determined by one of several experimental procedures, the sequences can be represented in a position weight matrix (PWM) and used to predict the location of additional TF binding sites elsewhere in the genome. Often, alignments of large (>200bp) genomic fragments that have been experimentally determined to bind the TF of interest in Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies are trimmed under the assumption that the majority of the binding sites are located near the center of all the aligned fragments. In this study, ChIP/chip datasets are analyzed using the corresponding PWMs for the well-studied TFs; CAUDAL, HUNCHBACK, KNIRPS and KRUPPEL, to determine the distribution of predicted binding sites. All four TFs are critical regulators of gene expression along the anterio-posterior axis in early Drosophila development. For all four TFs, the ChIP peaks contain multiple binding sites that are broadly distributed across the genomic region represented by the peak, regardless of the prediction stringency criteria used. This result suggests that ChIP peak trimming may exclude functional binding sites from subsequent analyses.

  2. Crystal structure of vinculin in complex with vinculin binding site 50 (VBS50), the integrin binding site 2 (IBS2) of talin

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesha, S.D.; Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gerard; Izard, Tina

    2012-05-10

    The cytoskeletal protein talin activates integrin receptors by binding of its FERM domain to the cytoplasmic tail of {beta}-integrin. Talin also couples integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, largely by binding to and activating the cytoskeletal protein vinculin, which binds to F-actin through the agency of its five-helix bundle tail (Vt) domain. Talin activates vinculin by means of buried amphipathic {alpha}-helices coined vinculin binding sites (VBSs) that reside within numerous four- and five-helix bundle domains that comprise the central talin rod, which are released from their buried locales by means of mechanical tension on the integrin:talin complex. In turn, these VBSs bind to the N-terminal seven-helix bundle (Vh1) domain of vinculin, creating an entirely new helix bundle that severs its head-tail interactions. Interestingly, talin harbors a second integrin binding site coined IBS2 that consists of two five-helix bundle domains that also contain a VBS (VBS50). Here we report the crystal structure of VBS50 in complex with vinculin at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and show that intramolecular interactions of VBS50 within IBS2 are much more extensive versus its interactions with vinculin. Indeed, the IBS2-vinculin interaction only occurs at physiological temperature and the affinity of VBS50 for vinculin is about 30 times less than other VBSs. The data support a model where integrin binding destabilizes IBS2 to allow it to bind to vinculin.

  3. Evidence of association between Nucleosome Occupancy and the Evolution of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Divergence of transcription factor binding sites is considered to be an important source of regulatory evolution. The associations between transcription factor binding sites and phenotypic diversity have been investigated in many model organisms. However, the understanding of other factors that contribute to it is still limited. Recent studies have elucidated the effect of chromatin structure on molecular evolution of genomic DNA. Though the profound impact of nucleosome positions on gene regulation has been reported, their influence on transcriptional evolution is still less explored. With the availability of genome-wide nucleosome map in yeast species, it is thus desirable to investigate their impact on transcription factor binding site evolution. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the role of nucleosome positioning in the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. Results We compared the transcription factor binding site frequency in nucleosome occupied regions and nucleosome depleted regions in promoters of old (orthologs among Saccharomycetaceae) and young (Saccharomyces specific) genes; and in duplicate gene pairs. We demonstrated that nucleosome occupied regions accommodate greater binding site variations than nucleosome depleted regions in young genes and in duplicate genes. This finding was confirmed by measuring the difference in evolutionary rates of binding sites in sensu stricto yeasts at nucleosome occupied regions and nucleosome depleted regions. The binding sites at nucleosome occupied regions exhibited a consistently higher evolution rate than those at nucleosome depleted regions, corroborating the difference in the selection constraints at the two regions. Finally, through site-directed mutagenesis experiment, we found that binding site gain or loss events at nucleosome depleted regions may cause more expression differences than those in nucleosome occupied regions. Conclusions Our study indicates the existence of

  4. Detecting O2 binding sites in protein cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Ryo; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Xue, Mengjun; Kameda, Tomoshi; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Internal cavities are important elements in protein structure, dynamics, stability and function. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate the binding of molecular oxygen (O2) to cavities in a well-studied model for ligand binding, the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. On increasing the O2 concentration to 8.9 mM, changes in 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts and signal broadening were observed specifically for backbone amide and side chain methyl groups located around the two hydrophobic cavities of the protein. O2-induced longitudinal relaxation enhancements for amide and methyl protons could be adequately accounted for by paramagnetic dipolar relaxation. These data provide the first experimental demonstration that O2 binds specifically to the hydrophobic, and not the hydrophilic cavities, in a protein. Molecular dynamics simulations visualized the rotational and translational motions of O2 in the cavities, as well as the binding and egress of O2, suggesting that the channel consisting of helices D, E, G, H, and J could be the potential gateway for ligand binding to the protein. Due to strong paramagnetic relaxation effects, O2 gas-pressure NMR measurements can detect hydrophobic cavities when populated to as little as 1%, and thereby provide a general and highly sensitive method for detecting oxygen binding in proteins. PMID:26830762

  5. Examination of Glycosaminoglycan Binding Sites on the XCL1 Dimer.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jamie C; Tyler, Robert C; Peterson, Francis C; Dyer, Douglas P; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Handel, Tracy M; Volkman, Brian F

    2016-03-01

    Known for its distinct metamorphic behavior, XCL1 interconverts between a canonical chemokine folded monomer (XCL1mon) that interacts with the receptor, XCR1, and a unique dimer (XCL1dim) that interacts with glycosaminoglycans and inhibits HIV-1 activity. This study presents the first detailed analysis of the GAG binding properties of XCL1dim. Basic residues within a conformationally selective dimeric variant of XCL1 (W55D) were mutated and analyzed for their effects on heparin binding. Mutation of Arg23 and Arg43 greatly diminished the level of heparin binding in both heparin Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance assays. To assess the contributions of different GAG structures to XCL1 binding, we developed a solution fluorescence polarization assay and correlated affinity with the length and level of sulfation of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides. It was recently demonstrated that the XCL1 GAG binding form, XCL1dim, is responsible for preventing HIV-1 infection through interactions with gp120. This study defines a GAG binding surface on XCL1dim that includes residues that are important for HIV-1 inhibition. PMID:26836755

  6. Low affinity binding site clusters confer hox specificity and regulatory robustness.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Justin; Abe, Namiko; Rinaldi, Lucrezia; McGregor, Alistair P; Frankel, Nicolás; Wang, Shu; Alsawadi, Ahmad; Valenti, Philippe; Plaza, Serge; Payre, François; Mann, Richard S; Stern, David L

    2015-01-15

    In animals, Hox transcription factors define regional identity in distinct anatomical domains. How Hox genes encode this specificity is a paradox, because different Hox proteins bind with high affinity in vitro to similar DNA sequences. Here, we demonstrate that the Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) in complex with its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd) bound specifically to clusters of very low affinity sites in enhancers of the shavenbaby gene of Drosophila. These low affinity sites conferred specificity for Ubx binding in vivo, but multiple clustered sites were required for robust expression when embryos developed in variable environments. Although most individual Ubx binding sites are not evolutionarily conserved, the overall enhancer architecture-clusters of low affinity binding sites-is maintained and required for enhancer function. Natural selection therefore works at the level of the enhancer, requiring a particular density of low affinity Ubx sites to confer both specific and robust expression. PMID:25557079

  7. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  8. n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside specifically competes with general anesthetics for anesthetic binding sites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longhe; Matsunaga, Felipe; Xi, Jin; Li, Min; Ma, Jingyuan; Liu, Renyu

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) specifically interacts with the anesthetic binding site in horse spleen apoferritin, a soluble protein which models anesthetic binding sites in receptors. This raises the possibility of other detergents similarly interacting with and occluding such sites from anesthetics, thereby preventing the proper identification of novel anesthetic binding sites. n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside (DDM) is a non-ionic detergent commonly used during protein-anesthetic studies because of its mild and non-denaturing properties. In this study, we demonstrate that SDS and DDM occupy anesthetic binding sites in the model proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and horse spleen apoferritin and thereby inhibit the binding of the general anesthetics propofol and isoflurane. DDM specifically interacts with HSA (Kd = 40 μM) with a lower affinity than SDS (Kd = 2 μM). DDM exerts all these effects while not perturbing the native structures of either model protein. Computational calculations corroborated the experimental results by demonstrating that the binding sites for DDM and both anesthetics on the model proteins overlapped. Collectively, our results indicate that DDM and SDS specifically interact with anesthetic binding sites and may thus prevent the identification of novel anesthetic sites. Special precaution should be taken when undertaking and interpreting results from protein-anesthetic investigations utilizing detergents like SDS and DDM.

  9. Position specific variation in the rate of evolution intranscription factor binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Kellis, Manolis; Lander, EricS.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2003-08-28

    The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational methods have been developed to characterize transcription factor binding sites, they remain difficult to identify. Comparison of non-coding DNA from related species has shown considerable promise in identifying these functional non-coding sequences, even though relatively little is known about their evolution. Here we analyze the genome sequences of the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus and S. mikataeto study the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. As expected, we find that both experimentally characterized and computationally predicted binding sites evolve slower than surrounding sequence, consistent with the hypothesis that they are under purifying selection. We also observe position-specific variation in the rate of evolution within binding sites. We find that the position-specific rate of evolution is positively correlated with degeneracy among binding sites within S. cerevisiae. We test theoretical predictions for the rate of evolution at positions where the base frequencies deviate from background due to purifying selection and find reasonable agreement with the observed rates of evolution. Finally, we show how the evolutionary characteristics of real binding motifs can be used to distinguish them from artifacts of computational motif finding algorithms. As has been observed for protein sequences, the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites varies with position, suggesting that some regions are under stronger functional constraint than others. This variation likely reflects the varying importance of different positions in the formation of the protein-DNA complex. The characterization of the pattern of evolution in known binding sites will likely contribute to the effective use of comparative

  10. Common Internal Allosteric Network Links Anesthetic Binding Sites in a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Thomas T.

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics bind reversibly to ion channels, modifying their global conformational distributions, but the underlying atomic mechanisms are not completely known. We examine this issue by way of the model protein Gloeobacter violaceous ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) using computational molecular dynamics, with a coarse-grained model to enhance sampling. We find that in flooding simulations, both propofol and a generic particle localize to the crystallographic transmembrane anesthetic binding region, and that propofol also localizes to an extracellular region shared with the crystallographic ketamine binding site. Subsequent simulations to probe these binding modes in greater detail demonstrate that ligand binding induces structural asymmetry in GLIC. Consequently, we employ residue interaction correlation analysis to describe the internal allosteric network underlying the coupling of ligand and distant effector sites necessary for conformational change. Overall, the results suggest that the same allosteric network may underlie the actions of various anesthetics, regardless of binding site. PMID:27403526

  11. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes.

  12. Common Internal Allosteric Network Links Anesthetic Binding Sites in a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Thomas T; Mincer, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics bind reversibly to ion channels, modifying their global conformational distributions, but the underlying atomic mechanisms are not completely known. We examine this issue by way of the model protein Gloeobacter violaceous ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) using computational molecular dynamics, with a coarse-grained model to enhance sampling. We find that in flooding simulations, both propofol and a generic particle localize to the crystallographic transmembrane anesthetic binding region, and that propofol also localizes to an extracellular region shared with the crystallographic ketamine binding site. Subsequent simulations to probe these binding modes in greater detail demonstrate that ligand binding induces structural asymmetry in GLIC. Consequently, we employ residue interaction correlation analysis to describe the internal allosteric network underlying the coupling of ligand and distant effector sites necessary for conformational change. Overall, the results suggest that the same allosteric network may underlie the actions of various anesthetics, regardless of binding site. PMID:27403526

  13. Heparanase Activates Antithrombin through the Binding to Its Heparin Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Águila, Sonia; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that participates in morphogenesis, tissue repair, heparan sulphates turnover and immune response processes. It is over-expressed in tumor cells favoring the metastasis as it penetrates the endothelial layer that lines blood vessels and facilitates the metastasis by degradation of heparan sulphate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Heparanase may also affect the hemostatic system in a non-enzymatic manner, up-regulating the expression of tissue factor, which is the initiator of blood coagulation, and dissociating tissue factor pathway inhibitor on the cell surface membrane of endothelial and tumor cells, thus resulting in a procoagulant state. Trying to check the effect of heparanase on heparin, a highly sulphated glycosaminoglycan, when it activates antithrombin, our results demonstrated that heparanase, but not proheparanase, interacted directly with antithrombin in a non-covalent manner. This interaction resulted in the activation of antithrombin, which is the most important endogenous anticoagulant. This activation mainly accelerated FXa inhibition, supporting an allosteric activation effect. Heparanase bound to the heparin binding site of antithrombin as the activation of Pro41Leu, Arg47Cys, Lys114Ala and Lys125Alaantithrombin mutants was impaired when it was compared to wild type antithrombin. Intrinsic fluorescence analysis showed that heparanase induced an activating conformational change in antithrombin similar to that induced by heparin and with a KD of 18.81 pM. In conclusion, under physiological pH and low levels of tissue factor, heparanase may exert a non-enzymatic function interacting and activating the inhibitory function of antithrombin. PMID:27322195

  14. Pharmacological specificity of some psychotomimetic and antipsychotic agents for the sigma and PCP binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Itzhak, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacological specificity of representative psychotomimetic agents such a phencyclidine (PCP) analogs, opiate benzomorphans and several antipsychotic agents was assessed for the sigma and PCP binding sites. In a series of binding experiments, in rat brain membranes, sigma and PCP binding sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)-1-(1-(3-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexyl) piperidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH), (+)(/sup 3/H)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047) and (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)-N-(1-propyl) piperidine and ((+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP). PCP analogs inhibit potently high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding and (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 binding, moderately the low affinity binding component of (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and very weakly (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding. (+)SKF 10047 and cyclazocine are potent to moderate inhibitors of (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047, high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PCP-3-OH binding. The antipsychotic agents display high affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding sites, moderate affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 sites and have no effect on either the high or low affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Multiple sup 3 H-oxytocin binding sites in rat myometrial plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Crankshaw, D.; Gaspar, V.; Pliska, V. )

    1990-01-01

    The affinity spectrum method has been used to analyse binding isotherms for {sup 3}H-oxytocin to rat myometrial plasma membranes. Three populations of binding sites with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.6-1.5 x 10(-9), 0.4-1.0 x 10(-7) and 7 x 10(-6) mol/l were identified and their existence verified by cluster analysis based on similarities between Kd, binding capacity and Hill coefficient. When experimental values were compared to theoretical curves constructed using the estimated binding parameters, good fits were obtained. Binding parameters obtained by this method were not influenced by the presence of GTP gamma S (guanosine-5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate) in the incubation medium. The binding parameters agree reasonably well with those found in uterine cells, they support the existence of a medium affinity site and may allow for an explanation of some of the discrepancies between binding and response in this system.

  16. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the osteoinductive protein NELL1 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Imai, Arisa; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2015-12-21

    Neural epidermal growth factor-like (NEL)-like 1 (NELL1) is a secretory osteogenic protein comprising an N-terminal thrombospondin-1-like (TSPN) domain, four von Willebrand factor type C domains, and six epidermal growth factor-like repeats. NELL1 shows heparin-binding activity; however, the biological significance remains to be explored. In this report, we demonstrate that NELL1 binds to cell surface proteoglycans through its TSPN domain. Major heparin-binding sites were identified on the three-dimensional structural model of the TSPN domain of NELL1. Mutant analysis of the heparin-binding sites indicated that the heparin-binding activity of the TSPN domain is involved in interaction of NELL1 with cell surface proteoglycans.

  17. RNase-mediated protein footprint sequencing reveals protein-binding sites throughout the human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ian M; Li, Fan; Alexander, Anissa; Goff, Loyal; Trapnell, Cole; Rinn, John L; Gregory, Brian D

    2014-01-07

    Although numerous approaches have been developed to map RNA-binding sites of individual RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), few methods exist that allow assessment of global RBP-RNA interactions. Here, we describe PIP-seq, a universal, high-throughput, ribonuclease-mediated protein footprint sequencing approach that reveals RNA-protein interaction sites throughout a transcriptome of interest. We apply PIP-seq to the HeLa transcriptome and compare binding sites found using different cross-linkers and ribonucleases. From this analysis, we identify numerous putative RBP-binding motifs, reveal novel insights into co-binding by RBPs, and uncover a significant enrichment for disease-associated polymorphisms within RBP interaction sites.

  18. Multiple octamer binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Groenen, M A; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; van Diggelen, R; Verstege, E

    1992-01-01

    Using a set of overlapping oligonucleotides from the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene we have identified two nuclear factors which probably are involved in expression of this gene and the related calcium sensitive alpha s1- and beta-casein genes. One of these factors which was present in extracts of all tissues that have been tested including Hela cells turned out to be the octamer binding protein OCT-1. Oct-1 binds with different affinity to 4 sites at positions centred around -480, -260, -210 and -50. The strongest of these 4 binding sites, the one around position -50, is highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. The other nuclear factor (MGF, mammary gland factor) which is specifically expressed in the mammary gland, binds to a site around position -90. This binding site is also highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. Images PMID:1508722

  19. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-09-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared (/sup 125/I)PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of (/sup 125/I)PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of (/sup 125/I)PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of (/sup 125/I)NPY binding sites.

  20. Six independent fucose-binding sites in the crystal structure of Aspergillus oryzae lectin.

    PubMed

    Makyio, Hisayoshi; Shimabukuro, Junpei; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Ando, Hiromune; Kato, Ryuichi

    2016-08-26

    The crystal structure of AOL (a fucose-specific lectin of Aspergillus oryzae) has been solved by SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) and MAD (multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing of seleno-fucosides. The overall structure is a six-bladed β-propeller similar to that of other fucose-specific lectins. The fucose moieties of the seleno-fucosides are located in six fucose-binding sites. Although the Arg and Glu/Gln residues bound to the fucose moiety are common to all fucose-binding sites, the amino-acid residues involved in fucose binding at each site are not identical. The varying peak heights of the seleniums in the electron density map suggest that each fucose-binding site has a different carbohydrate binding affinity. PMID:27318092

  1. Six independent fucose-binding sites in the crystal structure of Aspergillus oryzae lectin.

    PubMed

    Makyio, Hisayoshi; Shimabukuro, Junpei; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Ando, Hiromune; Kato, Ryuichi

    2016-08-26

    The crystal structure of AOL (a fucose-specific lectin of Aspergillus oryzae) has been solved by SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) and MAD (multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing of seleno-fucosides. The overall structure is a six-bladed β-propeller similar to that of other fucose-specific lectins. The fucose moieties of the seleno-fucosides are located in six fucose-binding sites. Although the Arg and Glu/Gln residues bound to the fucose moiety are common to all fucose-binding sites, the amino-acid residues involved in fucose binding at each site are not identical. The varying peak heights of the seleniums in the electron density map suggest that each fucose-binding site has a different carbohydrate binding affinity.

  2. Impact of Binding Site Comparisons on Medicinal Chemistry and Rational Molecular Design.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Christiane; Brinkjost, Tobias; Koch, Oliver

    2016-05-12

    Modern rational drug design not only deals with the search for ligands binding to interesting and promising validated targets but also aims to identify the function and ligands of yet uncharacterized proteins having impact on different diseases. Additionally, it contributes to the design of inhibitors with distinct selectivity patterns and the prediction of possible off-target effects. The identification of similarities between binding sites of various proteins is a useful approach to cope with those challenges. The main scope of this perspective is to describe applications of different protein binding site comparison approaches to outline their applicability and impact on molecular design. The article deals with various substantial application domains and provides some outstanding examples to show how various binding site comparison methods can be applied to promote in silico drug design workflows. In addition, we will also briefly introduce the fundamental principles of different protein binding site comparison methods.

  3. Cluster Analysis of p53 Binding Site Sequences Reveals Subsets with Different Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hyun; Latysheva, Natasha S.; Iggo, Richard D.; Barker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    p53 is an important regulator of cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis and metabolism, and is frequently mutated in tumors. It functions as a tetramer, where each component dimer binds to a decameric DNA region known as a response element. We identify p53 binding site subtypes and examine the functional and evolutionary properties of these subtypes. We start with over 1700 known binding sites and, with no prior labeling, identify two sets of response elements by unsupervised clustering. When combined, they give rise to three types of p53 binding sites. We find that probabilistic and alignment-based assessments of cross-species conservation show no strong evidence of differential conservation between types of binding sites. In contrast, functional analysis of the genes most proximal to the binding sites provides strong bioinformatic evidence of functional differentiation between the three types of binding sites. Our results are consistent with recent structural data identifying two conformations of the L1 loop in the DNA binding domain, suggesting that they reflect biologically meaningful groups imposed by the p53 protein structure. PMID:27812278

  4. Lipid oxidation in trout muscle is strongly inhibited by a protein that specifically binds hemin released from hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, He; Grunwald, Eric W; Park, Sungyong; Lei, Benfang; Richards, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant Streptococcal protein apoShp can be used as a probe for hemoglobin (Hb) reactivity in fish muscle due to its specific affinity for hemin that is released from Hb at post mortem pH values. Hemin affinity measurements indicated that apoShp binds hemin released from Hb but not myoglobin (Mb). Hemin affinity of holoShp was higher at pH 5.7 compared to pH 8.0. This may be attributed to enhanced electrostatic interaction of His58 with the heme-7-propionate at lower pH. ApoShp readily acquired hemin that was released from trout IV metHb in the presence of washed cod muscle during 2°C storage at pH 6.3. This was based on increases in redness in the washed cod matrix which occurs when apoShp binds hemin that is released from metHb. ApoShp prevented Hb-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle during 2°C storage. The prevention of Hb-mediated lipid oxidation by apoShp was likely due to bis-methionyl coordination of hemin that dissociated from metHb. This hexa-coordination of hemin appears to prevent peroxide-mediated redox reactions and there is no component in the matrix capable of dissociating hemin from Shp. ApoShp was also added to minced muscle from Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to examine the degree to which Hb contributes to lipid oxidation in trout muscle. Addition of apoShp inhibited approximately 90% of the lipid oxidation that occurred in minced trout muscle during 9 days of 2°C storage based on lipid peroxide, hexanal, and thiobarituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values. These results strongly suggest that Hb is the primary promoter of lipid oxidation in trout muscle. PMID:23570608

  5. Computational predictions suggest that structural similarity in viral polymerases may lead to comparable allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jodian A; Espiritu, Marie V; Abraham, Joel; Thorpe, Ian F

    2016-08-15

    The identification of ligand-binding sites is often the first step in drug targeting and design. To date there are numerous computational tools available to predict ligand binding sites. These tools can guide or mitigate the need for experimental methods to identify binding sites, which often require significant resources and time. Here, we evaluate four ligand-binding site predictor (LBSP) tools for their ability to predict allosteric sites within the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) polymerase. Our results show that the LISE LBSP is able to identify all three target allosteric sites within the HCV polymerase as well as a known allosteric site in the Coxsackievirus polymerase. LISE was then employed to identify novel binding sites within the polymerases of the Dengue, West Nile, and Foot-and-mouth Disease viruses. Our results suggest that all three viral polymerases have putative sites that share structural or chemical similarities with allosteric pockets of the HCV polymerase. Thus, these binding locations may represent an evolutionarily conserved structural feature of several viral polymerases that could be exploited for the development of small molecule therapeutics. PMID:27262620

  6. Characterization and autoradiographic localization of multiple tachykinin binding sites in gastrointestinal tract and bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Burcher, E.; Buck, S.H.; Lovenberg, W.; O'Donohue, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Binding sites for the (125I)Bolton-Hunter-labeled tachykinins substance K (BHSK), eledoisin (BHE) and substance P (BHSP) were investigated using crude membrane suspensions and autoradiography. In smooth muscle membranes from guinea-pig small intestine and rat duodenum, specific binding of BHSK was saturable and reversible, showing a single class of sites with a KD of 1 to 3 nM and maximum number of specific binding sites of 1 to 2 fmol/mg of wet weight tissue. Pharmacological characterization of this binding revealed a novel receptor site (K) with affinity for substance K greater than kassinin greater than or equal to eledoisin greater than neuromedin K greater than substance P greater than physalaemin. Inhibition of the binding of BHSK in membranes from mouse urinary bladder exhibited a similar K-type pattern. In rat duodenum and mouse bladder membranes, the binding of BHE was inhibited by substance K greater than kassinin greater than eledoisin greater than neuromedin K greater than substance P greater than physalaemin indicating the same receptor site as for BHSK. In rat cerebral cortex membranes BHE binding was inhibited by neuromedin K = kassinin = eledoisin greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than substance P indicating a definitive tachykinin E receptor site. The same displacement pattern of BHE binding was also detected in longitudinal muscle membranes from the guinea-pig small intestine. In mouse bladder membranes and in rat and guinea-pig intestine, the binding of BHSP was inhibited by substance P greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than or equal to eledoisin = kassinin greater than neuromedin K indicating a definitive tachykinin P receptor site. Autoradiographic binding sites for both BHSK and BHSP were seen in circular muscle of the rat stomach, small intestine and colon and in circular and longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig small intestine and colon.

  7. A functional study of concanavalin A-histamine binding site overlap in Tetrahymena phagocytosis test.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z; László, V

    1983-01-01

    Treatment with histamine stimulated the phagocytotic activity of the Tetrahymena to a measurable degree, which was still demonstrable after a week (about 40 generations). Concanavalin A, which binds to the same membrane binding site as histamine, inhibited the stimulatory action of subsequently added histamine, but did not in itself influence phagocytotic activity in any way. The inhibitory effect of Con A on the histamine binding site proved to be dose-dependent. These observations stress the importance of investigating the functional context--as sole realistic measure--of receptor--ligand bindings.

  8. Binding sites for L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate in hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Werling, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    Three binding sites for L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate on freshly-prepared hippocampal synaptic membranes were identified on the basis of their differing affinities for L-glutamate or quisqualate. The high affinity site yielded K/sub D/ and B/sub max/ values of 12 nM and 2.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Binding sites of lower affinity had K/sub D/ values of 200 nM (GLU A) and 1 ..mu..M (GLU B) and B/sub max/ values of about 30 and 60 pmol/mg protein, respectively. GLU A sites bound quisqualate with about 70 times the affinity fo GLU B sites, and thus quisoqualate could be used as a tool to discriminate them. Hill slopes indicated that each site represented a single population of non-interacting binding sites. Freezing drastically decreased GLU A binding, but nearly tripled GLU B binding. Both sites bound L-glutamate with 10-30 times the affinity of D-glutamate. The GLU A site also bound L-glutamate with about 10 times the affinity of L-asparate and discriminated poorly between L- and D-asparate. In contrast, the GLU B site bound L-aspartate with similar affinity to L-gluamate, and with much higher affinity than it bound D-aspartate. Both lesions of perforant path and destruction of the granule cells with colchicine markedly reduced radioligand binding to the GLU A site in the fascia dentata, but only the perforant path lesion significantly reduced binding to the GLU B site. The structural specificity of the GLU A site is consistent with its identification as a type of quisqualate receptor.

  9. An Overview of the Prediction of Protein DNA-Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between proteins and DNA play an important role in many essential biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and repair. The identification of amino acid residues involved in DNA-binding sites is critical for understanding the mechanism of these biological activities. In the last decade, numerous computational approaches have been developed to predict protein DNA-binding sites based on protein sequence and/or structural information, which play an important role in complementing experimental strategies. At this time, approaches can be divided into three categories: sequence-based DNA-binding site prediction, structure-based DNA-binding site prediction, and homology modeling and threading. In this article, we review existing research on computational methods to predict protein DNA-binding sites, which includes data sets, various residue sequence/structural features, machine learning methods for comparison and selection, evaluation methods, performance comparison of different tools, and future directions in protein DNA-binding site prediction. In particular, we detail the meta-analysis of protein DNA-binding sites. We also propose specific implications that are likely to result in novel prediction methods, increased performance, or practical applications. PMID:25756377

  10. Host-Guest Binding-Site-Tunable Self-Assembly of Stimuli-Responsive Supramolecular Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hao; Qi, Miao; Liu, Yuyang; Tian, Wei

    2016-06-13

    Despite the remarkable progress made in controllable self-assembly of stimuli-responsive supramolecular polymers (SSPs), a basic issue that has not been consideration to date is the essential binding site. The noncovalent binding sites, which connect the building blocks and endow supramolecular polymers with their ability to respond to stimuli, are expected to strongly affect the self-assembly of SSPs. Herein, the design and synthesis of a dual-stimuli thermo- and photoresponsive Y-shaped supramolecular polymer (SSP2) with two adjacent β-cyclodextrin/azobenzene (β-CD/Azo) binding sites, and another SSP (SSP1) with similar building blocks, but only one β-CD/Azo binding site as a control, are described. Upon gradually increasing the polymer solution temperature or irradiating with UV light, SSP2 self-assemblies with a higher binding-site distribution density; exhibits a flower-like morphology, smaller size, and more stable dynamic aggregation process; and greater controllability for drug-release behavior than those observed with SSP1 self-assemblies. The host-guest binding-site-tunable self-assembly was attributed to the positive cooperativity generated among adjacent binding sites on the surfaces of SSP2 self-assemblies. This work is beneficial for precisely controlling the structural parameters and controlled release function of SSP self-assemblies.

  11. Host-Guest Binding-Site-Tunable Self-Assembly of Stimuli-Responsive Supramolecular Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hao; Qi, Miao; Liu, Yuyang; Tian, Wei

    2016-06-13

    Despite the remarkable progress made in controllable self-assembly of stimuli-responsive supramolecular polymers (SSPs), a basic issue that has not been consideration to date is the essential binding site. The noncovalent binding sites, which connect the building blocks and endow supramolecular polymers with their ability to respond to stimuli, are expected to strongly affect the self-assembly of SSPs. Herein, the design and synthesis of a dual-stimuli thermo- and photoresponsive Y-shaped supramolecular polymer (SSP2) with two adjacent β-cyclodextrin/azobenzene (β-CD/Azo) binding sites, and another SSP (SSP1) with similar building blocks, but only one β-CD/Azo binding site as a control, are described. Upon gradually increasing the polymer solution temperature or irradiating with UV light, SSP2 self-assemblies with a higher binding-site distribution density; exhibits a flower-like morphology, smaller size, and more stable dynamic aggregation process; and greater controllability for drug-release behavior than those observed with SSP1 self-assemblies. The host-guest binding-site-tunable self-assembly was attributed to the positive cooperativity generated among adjacent binding sites on the surfaces of SSP2 self-assemblies. This work is beneficial for precisely controlling the structural parameters and controlled release function of SSP self-assemblies. PMID:27167577

  12. Imaging the recruitment and loss of proteins and lipids at single sites of calcium-triggered exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Adam J.; Sochacki, Kem A.; Taraska, Justin W.

    2016-01-01

    How and when the dozens of molecules that control exocytosis assemble in living cells to regulate the fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane is unknown. Here we image with two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy the local changes of 27 proteins at single dense-core vesicles undergoing calcium-triggered fusion. We identify two broad dynamic behaviors of exocytic molecules. First, proteins enriched at exocytic sites are associated with DCVs long before exocytosis, and near the time of membrane fusion, they diffuse away. These proteins include Rab3 and Rab27, rabphilin3a, munc18a, tomosyn, and CAPS. Second, we observe a group of classical endocytic proteins and lipids, including dynamins, amphiphysin, syndapin, endophilin, and PIP2, which are rapidly and transiently recruited to the exocytic site near the time of membrane fusion. Dynamin mutants unable to bind amphiphysin were not recruited, indicating that amphiphysin is involved in localizing dynamin to the fusion site. Expression of mutant dynamins and knockdown of endogenous dynamin altered the rate of cargo release from single vesicles. Our data reveal the dynamics of many key proteins involved in exocytosis and identify a rapidly recruited dynamin/PIP2/BAR assembly that regulates the exocytic fusion pore of dense-core vesicles in cultured endocrine beta cells. PMID:27307587

  13. Imaging the recruitment and loss of proteins and lipids at single sites of calcium-triggered exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Adam J; Sochacki, Kem A; Taraska, Justin W

    2016-08-01

    How and when the dozens of molecules that control exocytosis assemble in living cells to regulate the fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane is unknown. Here we image with two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy the local changes of 27 proteins at single dense-core vesicles undergoing calcium-triggered fusion. We identify two broad dynamic behaviors of exocytic molecules. First, proteins enriched at exocytic sites are associated with DCVs long before exocytosis, and near the time of membrane fusion, they diffuse away. These proteins include Rab3 and Rab27, rabphilin3a, munc18a, tomosyn, and CAPS. Second, we observe a group of classical endocytic proteins and lipids, including dynamins, amphiphysin, syndapin, endophilin, and PIP2, which are rapidly and transiently recruited to the exocytic site near the time of membrane fusion. Dynamin mutants unable to bind amphiphysin were not recruited, indicating that amphiphysin is involved in localizing dynamin to the fusion site. Expression of mutant dynamins and knockdown of endogenous dynamin altered the rate of cargo release from single vesicles. Our data reveal the dynamics of many key proteins involved in exocytosis and identify a rapidly recruited dynamin/PIP2/BAR assembly that regulates the exocytic fusion pore of dense-core vesicles in cultured endocrine beta cells. PMID:27307587

  14. Binding to plasma lipoproteins of chlorophenoxyisobutyric, tibric and nicotinic acids and their esters: its significance for the mechanism of lipid lowering by clofibrate and related drugs.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, J L; Dachet, C

    1976-01-01

    The binding of chlorophenoxyisobutyric (CPIB), tibric (TA) and nicotinic (NA) acids and CPIB ethyl ester (Clofibrate), TA and NA isopropyl esters (TAPE and NAPE) to human lipoproteins of low density of different classes (LDL2, LDL1 and VLDL) and high density (HDL) were studied by equilibrium dialysis and Sephadex gel filtration. Clofibrate and TAPE bound strongly to lipoproteins, but their acids, CPIB and TA and also NA and NAPE, did not bind. In the same experimental conditions, Clofibrate and TAPE bound only weakly to human serum albumin (HSA) and CPIB bound to HSA with a Ka of 3.3 X 10(5) M(-1) for 1 site of high affinity. The Clofibrate and TAPE bound to lipoproteins did not dissociate either during dialysis or during filtration on Sephadex G 25. The binding percentage remained constant for all drug concentrations studied, and the molar ratio of bound drug rose linearly with increasing concentrations. This suggests that the interaction may be irreversible, and there is some evidence that binding may induce irreversible changes in the lipoprotein molecules. These results, and those already found in experiments made with three other drugs related to Clofibrate, lead to the proposal that in their interaction with lipoproteins, the phenyl groups are necessary and the esterification is contributory. The possible role of this interaction in the lipid-lowering effect of the drugs is discussed with special reference to their possible implication in lipoprotein synthesis within the intestinal and hepatic cells.

  15. Analysis of a nucleotide-binding site of 5-lipoxygenase by affinity labelling: binding characteristics and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Y; Hammarberg, T; Radmark, O; Samuelsson, B; Ng, C F; Funk, C D; Loscalzo, J

    2000-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) catalyses the first two steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, which are inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid. 5LO activity is stimulated by ATP; however, a consensus ATP-binding site or nucleotide-binding site has not been found in its protein sequence. In the present study, affinity and photoaffinity labelling of 5LO with 5'-p-fluorosulphonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA) and 2-azido-ATP showed that 5LO bound to the ATP analogues quantitatively and specifically and that the incorporation of either analogue inhibited ATP stimulation of 5LO activity. The stoichiometry of the labelling was 1.4 mol of FSBA/mol of 5LO (of which ATP competed with 1 mol/mol) or 0.94 mol of 2-azido-ATP/mol of 5LO (of which ATP competed with 0.77 mol/mol). Labelling with FSBA prevented further labelling with 2-azido-ATP, indicating that the same binding site was occupied by both analogues. Other nucleotides (ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP and UTP) also competed with 2-azido-ATP labelling, suggesting that the site was a general nucleotide-binding site rather than a strict ATP-binding site. Ca(2+), which also stimulates 5LO activity, had no effect on the labelling of the nucleotide-binding site. Digestion with trypsin and peptide sequencing showed that two fragments of 5LO were labelled by 2-azido-ATP. These fragments correspond to residues 73-83 (KYWLNDDWYLK, in single-letter amino acid code) and 193-209 (FMHMFQSSWNDFADFEK) in the 5LO sequence. Trp-75 and Trp-201 in these peptides were modified by the labelling, suggesting that they were immediately adjacent to the C-2 position of the adenine ring of ATP. Given the stoichiometry of the labelling, the two peptide sequences of 5LO were probably near each other in the enzyme's tertiary structure, composing or surrounding the ATP-binding site of 5LO. PMID:11042125

  16. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  17. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing.

  18. Structural studies of neuropilin-2 reveal a zinc ion binding site remote from the vascular endothelial growth factor binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Chun Isabella; Fotinou, Constantina; Rana, Rohini; Yelland, Tamas; Frankel, Paul; Zachary, Ian; Djordjevic, Snezana

    2016-05-01

    Neuropilin-2 is a transmembrane receptor involved in lymphangiogenesis and neuronal development. In adults, neuropilin-2 and its homologous protein neuropilin-1 have been implicated in cancers and infection. Molecular determinants of the ligand selectivity of neuropilins are poorly understood. We have identified and structurally characterized a zinc ion binding site on human neuropilin-2. The neuropilin-2-specific zinc ion binding site is located near the interface between domains b1 and b2 in the ectopic region of the protein, remote from the neuropilin binding site for its physiological ligand, i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor. We also present an X-ray crystal structure of the neuropilin-2 b1 domain in a complex with the C-terminal sub-domain of VEGF-A. Zn(2+) binding to neuropilin-2 destabilizes the protein structure but this effect was counteracted by heparin, suggesting that modifications by glycans and zinc in the extracellular matrix may affect functional neuropilin-2 ligand binding and signalling activity. PMID:26991001

  19. Use of Thallium to Identify Monovalent Cation Binding Sites in GroEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, P.; Lorimer, G; Palczewski, K

    2009-01-01

    GroEL is a bacterial chaperone protein that assembles into a homotetradecameric complex exhibiting D{sub 7} symmetry and utilizes the co-chaperone protein GroES and ATP hydrolysis to assist in the proper folding of a variety of cytosolic proteins. GroEL utilizes two metal cofactors, Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +}, to bind and hydrolyze ATP. A K{sup +}-binding site has been proposed to be located next to the nucleotide-binding site, but the available structural data do not firmly support this conclusion. Moreover, more than one functionally significant K{sup +}-binding site may exist within GroEL. Because K{sup +} has important and complex effects on GroEL activity and is involved in both positive (intra-ring) and negative (inter-ring) cooperativity for ATP hydrolysis, it is important to determine the exact location of these cation-binding site(s) within GroEL. In this study, the K{sup +} mimetic Tl{sup +} was incorporated into GroEL crystals, a moderately redundant 3.94 {angstrom} resolution X-ray diffraction data set was collected from a single crystal and the strong anomalous scattering signal from the thallium ion was used to identify monovalent cation-binding sites. The results confirmed the previously proposed placement of K{sup +} next to the nucleotide-binding site and also identified additional binding sites that may be important for GroEL function and cooperativity. These findings also demonstrate the general usefulness of Tl{sup +} for the identification of monovalent cation-binding sites in protein crystal structures, even when the quality and resolution of the diffraction data are relatively low.

  20. Two renal. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor sites revealed by of-aminoclonidine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sripanidkulchai, B.; Dawson, R.; Oparil, S.; Wyss, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    (/sup 3/H)p-aminoclonidine (/sup 3/H)PAC, a specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist, was used to characterize ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor binding in rat renal membranes. Rosenthal plots demonstrated two binding sites with K/sub dS/ of approx. 1.7 and 14.2 nM and B/sub max/S (maximum binding) of 47.3 and 218.8 fmol/mg protein for the high- and low-affinity sites, respectively. These characteristics were confirmed by estimate of K/sub d/ parameters based on association and dissociation experiments. Pseudo-Hill coefficients generated from drug inhibition experiments were all less than unity, suggesting differential binding at two ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor binding sites. Specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists exhibited greater binding affinity to both sites than did nonspecific drugs, and all drugs displayed greater affinity for the high- than the low-affinity binding site. Both guanyl nucleotides and sodium chloride inhibited (/sup 3/H)PAC binding more at the high-affinity than at the low-affinity site. Renal denervation resulted in significant upregulation of receptor density only at the high-affinity sites with no change in receptor affinity at either site, suggesting that a majority of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors in the kidney are postsynaptic. Thus all lines of evidence in this study indicate that two ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor binding sites exist in the rat kidney.

  1. Calorimetric analysis of lambda cI repressor binding to DNA operator sites.

    PubMed

    Merabet, E; Ackers, G K

    1995-07-11

    Enthalpies and heat capacities were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry for bacteriophage lambda cI repressor binding to DNA containing various combinations of the three operator sites OR1, OR2, and OR3 (each comprising a consensus half-site and a specific nonconsensus half-site). Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to evaluate the effects of specific DNA binding on thermal melting of the N-terminal and C-terminal repressor domains. Principal findings of this study are as follows: (1) Binding of repressor to each of the DNA operators is dominated by a large negative enthalpy, in agreement with earlier van't Hoff analyses of quantitative footprint titration data [Koblan & Ackers (1992) Biochemistry 31, 57-65]. The calorimetric data also revealed negative heat capacities for cI binding that are of comparable magnitude with many other systems [Spolar & Record (1994) Science 263, 777-784]. However, this feature in combination with the large negative values of binding enthalpies leads to an enthalpic dominance throughout the physiological temperature range. The resulting thermodynamic profile is opposite to the entropically dominated binding observed for many systems, including lambda cro repressor which binds to the same sites as cI and also employs a helix-turn-helix binding domain [Takeda et al. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 8180-8184]. It is suggested that these thermodynamic differences may arise from interactions of the cI repressor's N-terminal "arm" with the DNA. (2) Repressor monomers do not bind significantly to DNA containing either a consensus half-site or a nonconsensus half-site. Binding affinity to the double-consensus operator is much weaker than to any of the natural full-site operators. The same was found with other combinations of half-sites. A mutant repressor (PT158) which is severely defective in dimerization [Burz et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 8399-8405] was also found to bind only full-site operators and showed

  2. Multiple binding modes for palmitate to barley lipid transfer protein facilitated by the presence of proline 12

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lorna J; Gunsteren, Wilfred F Van; Allison, Jane R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterise the binding of the fatty acid ligand palmitate in the barley lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP) internal cavity. Two different palmitate binding modes (1 and 2), with similar protein–ligand interaction energies, have been identified using a variety of simulation strategies. These strategies include applying experimental protein–ligand atom–atom distance restraints during the simulation, or protonating the palmitate ligand, or using the vacuum GROMOS 54B7 force-field parameter set for the ligand during the initial stages of the simulations. In both the binding modes identified the palmitate carboxylate head group hydrogen bonds with main chain amide groups in helix A, residues 4 to 19, of the protein. In binding mode 1 the hydrogen bonds are to Lys 11, Cys 13, and Leu 14 and in binding mode 2 to Thr 15, Tyr 16, Val 17, Ser 24 and also to the OH of Thr 15. In both cases palmitate binding exploits irregularity of the intrahelical hydrogen-bonding pattern in helix A of barley LTP due to the presence of Pro 12. Simulations of two variants of barley LTP, namely the single mutant Pro12Val and the double mutant Pro12Val Pro70Val, show that Pro 12 is required for persistent palmitate binding in the LTP cavity. Overall, the work identifies key MD simulation approaches for characterizing the details of protein–ligand interactions in complexes where NMR data provide insufficient restraints. PMID:23139016

  3. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  4. Nucleotide Binding Site Communication in Arabidopsis thaliana Adenosine 5;-Phosphosulfate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-08-31

    Adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of adenosine 3{prime}-phosphate 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which is an essential metabolite for sulfur assimilation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana, we examine the energetics of nucleotide binary and ternary complex formation and probe active site features that coordinate the order of ligand addition. Calorimetric analysis shows that binding can occur first at either nucleotide site, but that initial interaction at the ATP/ADP site was favored and enhanced affinity for APS in the second site by 50-fold. The thermodynamics of the two possible binding models (i.e. ATP first versus APS first) differs and implies that active site structural changes guide the order of nucleotide addition. The ligand binding analysis also supports an earlier suggestion of intermolecular interactions in the dimeric APSK structure. Crystallographic, site-directed mutagenesis, and energetic analyses of oxyanion recognition by the P-loop in the ATP/ADP binding site and the role of Asp136, which bridges the ATP/ADP and APS/PAPS binding sites, suggest how the ordered nucleotide binding sequence and structural changes are dynamically coordinated for catalysis.

  5. Computational investigation of stoichiometric effects, binding site heterogeneities, and selectivities of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Jacob J; Bergkvist, Magnus; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2016-06-01

    A series of quantum mechanical (QM) computational optimizations of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) systems were used to determine optimal monomer-to-target ratios. Imidazole- and xanthine-derived target molecules were studied. The investigation included both small-scale models (3-7 molecules) and larger-scale models (15-35 molecules). The optimal ratios differed between the small and larger scales. For the larger models containing multiple targets, binding-site surface area analysis was used to quantify the heterogeneity of these sites. The more fully surrounded sites had greater binding energies. No discretization of binding modes was seen, furthering arguments for continuous affinity distribution models. Molecular mechanical (MM) docking was then used to measure the selectivities of the QM-optimized binding sites. Selectivity was also shown to improve as binding sites become more fully encased by the monomers. For internal sites, docking consistently showed selectivity favoring the molecules that had been imprinted via QM geometry optimizations. The computationally imprinted sites were shown to exhibit size-, shape-, and polarity-based selectivity. Here we present a novel approach to investigate the selectivity and heterogeneity of imprinted polymer binding sites, by applying the rapid orientation screening of MM docking to the highly accurate QM-optimized geometries. Modeling schemes were designed such that no computing clusters or other specialized modeling equipment would be required. Improving the in silico analysis of MIP system properties will ultimately allow for the production of more sensitive and selective polymers. PMID:27207254

  6. Transcriptional activation through ETS domain binding sites in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene

    SciTech Connect

    Virbasius, J.V.; Scarpulla, R.C. )

    1991-11-01

    A mutational analysis of the rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (RCO4) promoter region revealed the presence of a major control element consisting of a tandemly repeated pair of binding sites for a nuclear factor from HeLa cells. This factor was designated NRF-2 (nuclear respiratory factor 2) because a functional recognition site was also found in the human ATP synthase {beta}-subunit gene. Deletion or site-directed point mutations of the NRF-2 binding sites in the RCO4 promoter resulted in substantial loss of transcriptional activity, and synthetic oligomers of the NRF-2 binding sites from both genes stimulated a heterologous promoter when cloned in cis. NRF-2 binding a transcriptional activation required a purine-rich core sequence, GGAA. This motif is characteristic of the recognition site for a family of activators referred to as ETS domain proteins because of the similarity within their DNA-binding domains to the ets-1 proto-oncogene product. NRF-2 recognized an authentic Ets-1 site within the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, and this site was able to compete for NRF-2 binding to the RCO4 promoter sequence. However, in contrast to Ets-1, which appears to be exclusive to lymphoid tissues, NRF-2 has the broad tissue distribution expected of a regulator of respiratory chain expression.

  7. Identification of the Rab5 Binding Site in p110β - Assays for PI3Kβ binding to Rab5

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Rachel S.; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Collado, Denise; Lopiccolo, Jaclyn; Bresnick, Anne R.; Backer, Jonthan M.

    2015-01-01

    Isoform-specific signaling by Class IA PI 3-kinases depends in part on the interactions between distinct catalytic subunits and upstream regulatory proteins. From among the class IA catalytic subunits (p110α, p110β, and p110δ), p110β has unique properties. Unlike the other family members, p110β directly binds to Gβγ subunits, downstream from activated G-protein coupled receptors, and to activated Rab5. Furthermore, the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of p110β binds to Rac and Cdc42 but not to Ras. Defining mutations that specifically disrupt these regulatory interactions is critical for defining their role in p110β signaling. This chapter describes the approach that was used to identify the Rab5 binding site in p110β, and discusses methods for the analysis of p110β-Rab5 interactions. PMID:25800850

  8. Functional Analyses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites that Differ between Present-Day and Archaic Humans

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Sven; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 25 previously identified transcription factor binding sites that carry DNA sequence changes that are present in all or nearly all present-day humans, yet occur in the ancestral state in Neandertals and Denisovans, the closest evolutionary relatives of humans. When the ancestral and derived forms of the transcription factor binding sites are tested using reporter constructs in 3 neuronal cell lines, the activity of 12 of the derived versions of transcription factor binding sites differ from the respective ancestral variants. This suggests that the majority of this class of evolutionary differences between modern humans and Neandertals may affect gene expression in at least some tissue or cell type. PMID:26454764

  9. Identification of ligands that target the HCV-E2 binding site on CD81.

    PubMed

    Olaby, Reem Al; Azzazy, Hassan M; Harris, Rodney; Chromy, Brett; Vielmetter, Jost; Balhorn, Rod

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis C is a global health problem. While many drug companies have active R&D efforts to develop new drugs for treating Hepatitis C virus (HCV), most target the viral enzymes. The HCV glycoprotein E2 has been shown to play an essential role in hepatocyte invasion by binding to CD81 and other cell surface receptors. This paper describes the use of AutoDock to identify ligand binding sites on the large extracellular loop of the open conformation of CD81 and to perform virtual screening runs to identify sets of small molecule ligands predicted to bind to two of these sites. The best sites selected by AutoLigand were located in regions identified by mutational studies to be the site of E2 binding. Thirty-six ligands predicted by AutoDock to bind to these sites were subsequently tested experimentally to determine if they bound to CD81-LEL. Binding assays conducted using surface Plasmon resonance revealed that 26 out of 36 (72 %) of the ligands bound in vitro to the recombinant CD81-LEL protein. Competition experiments performed using dual polarization interferometry showed that one of the ligands predicted to bind to the large cleft between the C and D helices was also effective in blocking E2 binding to CD81-LEL.

  10. Distinct specificity for corticosteroid binding sites in amphibian cytosol, neuronal membranes, and plasma.

    PubMed

    Orchinik, M; Matthews, L; Gasser, P J

    2000-05-01

    To address mechanisms of corticosteroid action, one needs tools for distinguishing between the major classes of corticosteroid binding sites: neuronal membrane-associated receptors, intracellular ligand-activated transcription factors, and corticosteroid binding globulins (CBG) in plasma. We characterized the binding parameters for three classes of binding sites in an amphibian, Ambystoma tigrinum, and found that each class had a distinct pharmacological specificity. Equilibrium saturation and kinetic experiments indicated that [3H]corticosterone binds to neuronal membranes with high affinity (Kd approximately 0.37 nM). Aldosterone and two synthetic ligands for mammalian intracellular receptors, dexamethasone and RU486, displayed low affinity for brain membrane sites. In cytosol prepared from brain and liver, [3H]corticosterone bound to a single class of receptors with high affinity (Kd approximately 0.75 and 4.69 nM, respectively) and the rank order potencies for steroid inhibition of [3H]corticosterone binding was RU486 > dexamethasone approximately = corticosterone > aldosterone. In kidney and skin cytosol, [3H]corticosterone binding was best fit with a model having a high-affinity and a lower-affinity site; these sites are not consistent with the pharmacology of mammalian Type I (MR) and Type II (GR) receptors. [3H]Corticosterone also bound to presumed CBG in plasma with high affinity (Kd approximately 2.7 nM), but dexamethasone and androgens bound to plasma CBG with equivalently high affinity. These data demonstrate that pharmacological specificity can be a useful tool for distinguishing corticosteroid binding to different classes of binding sites. These data also indicate that there may be marked species differences in the specificity of corticosteroid binding sites.

  11. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. Although the contribution of dysregulated Akt/mTORC1 signaling to cancer has been investigated extensively and altered lipid metabolism is observed in many tumors, the exact role of SREBPs in the control of biosynthetic processes required for Akt-dependent cell growth and their contribution to tumorigenesis remains unclear. Results We first investigated the effects of loss of SREBP function in non-transformed cells. Combined ablation of SREBP1 and SREBP2 by siRNA-mediated gene silencing or chemical inhibition of SREBP activation induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and engaged the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, specifically under lipoprotein-deplete conditions in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Induction of ER-stress led to inhibition of protein synthesis through increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. This demonstrates for the first time the importance of SREBP in the coordination of lipid and protein biosynthesis, two processes that are essential for cell growth and proliferation. SREBP ablation caused major changes in lipid composition characterized by a loss of mono- and poly-unsaturated lipids and induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Alterations in lipid composition and increased ROS levels, rather than overall changes to lipid synthesis rate, were required for ER-stress induction. Next, we analyzed the effect of SREBP ablation in a panel of cancer cell lines. Importantly, induction of apoptosis following SREBP depletion was restricted to lipoprotein-deplete conditions. U87 glioblastoma cells were highly susceptible to silencing of either SREBP isoform, and apoptosis induced by SREBP1 depletion in these cells was rescued by antioxidants or by restoring the levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, silencing of SREBP1

  12. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets.

  13. Binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in brain: alterations in Brattleboro rats

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, R.; Plunkett, L.M.

    1986-12-01

    Binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF-28) were analyzed in discrete brain areas of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus and Long-Evans (LE) controls by quantitative autoradiography. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and affinity constant (Ka) for /sup 125/I-ANF-28 were elevated significantly in the subfornical organ of Brattleboro rats compared to matched LE controls. In contrast, values for Bmax and Ka for /sup 125/I-ANF-28 binding in choroid plexus and area postrema were similar for rats of the two strains. These findings are consistent with a selective upregulation of ANF-28 binding sites in the subfornical organ of Brattleboro rats which exhibit a profound disturbance in body fluid homeostasis. These alterations in ANF-28 binding sites in the subfornical organ may represent a compensatory response to the absence of vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat.

  14. Development and structural analysis of adenosine site binding tankyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Waaler, Jo; Ignatev, Alexander; Nkizinkiko, Yves; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Obaji, Ezeogo; Krauss, Stefan; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-15

    Tankyrases 1 and 2, the specialized members of the ARTD protein family, are druggable biotargets whose inhibition may have therapeutic potential against cancer, metabolic disease, fibrotic disease, fibrotic wound healing and HSV viral infections. We have previously identified a novel tankyrase inhibitor scaffold, JW55, and showed that it reduces mouse colon adenoma formation in vivo. Here we expanded the scaffold and profiled the selectivity of the compounds against a panel of human ARTDs. The scaffold also enables a fine modulation of selectivity towards either tankyrase 1 or tankyrase 2. In order to get insight about the binding mode of the inhibitors, we solved crystal structures of the compounds in complex with tankyrase 2. The compounds bind to the adenosine pocket of the catalytic domain and cause changes in the protein structure that are modulated by the chemical modifications of the compounds. The structural analysis allows further rational development of this compound class as a potent and selective tankyrase inhibitor. PMID:26706174

  15. Development and structural analysis of adenosine site binding tankyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Waaler, Jo; Ignatev, Alexander; Nkizinkiko, Yves; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Obaji, Ezeogo; Krauss, Stefan; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-15

    Tankyrases 1 and 2, the specialized members of the ARTD protein family, are druggable biotargets whose inhibition may have therapeutic potential against cancer, metabolic disease, fibrotic disease, fibrotic wound healing and HSV viral infections. We have previously identified a novel tankyrase inhibitor scaffold, JW55, and showed that it reduces mouse colon adenoma formation in vivo. Here we expanded the scaffold and profiled the selectivity of the compounds against a panel of human ARTDs. The scaffold also enables a fine modulation of selectivity towards either tankyrase 1 or tankyrase 2. In order to get insight about the binding mode of the inhibitors, we solved crystal structures of the compounds in complex with tankyrase 2. The compounds bind to the adenosine pocket of the catalytic domain and cause changes in the protein structure that are modulated by the chemical modifications of the compounds. The structural analysis allows further rational development of this compound class as a potent and selective tankyrase inhibitor.

  16. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  17. Photoaffinity studies of the tubulin-colchicine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of colchicine derivatives were synthesized and coupled with 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-diazapropionyl chloride (TFDP-Cl) to produce colchicine photoaffinity analogs for use in tubulin labelling studies. Photoaffinity analogs of allocolchicine and podophylotoxin were also made using the same photoreactive moiety. Several labels were found to be effective inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. The approximate tubulin binding constants of the labels, calculated from polymerization inhibition data, varied between 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ to 2.5 x 10/sup 3/ M/sup -1/. The labels chosen for use in tubulin labelling experiments were (N-TFDP) deacetyl-thiocolchicine 1, (O-TFDP)thiocolchifoline 2, and (O-TFDP)-2-demethylthiocolchicine 3. Compound 1 was found to bind tubulin reversibly and to competitively inhibit colchicine binding. Methods for the incorporation of tritium and /sup 14/C in these labels were developed. Conditions were found which caused labels to insert into solvent without photorearrangement of the colchicine skeleton. Catalytic base caused the ..cap alpha..-diazo amide of 1 to rearrange to a triazole.

  18. A clustering property of highly-degenerate transcription factor binding sites in the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolin; Xuan, Zhenyu; Otto, Stefanie; Hover, John R; McCorkle, Sean R; Mandel, Gail; Zhang, Michael Q

    2006-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are short DNA sequences interacting with transcription factors (TFs), which regulate gene expression. Due to the relatively short length of such binding sites, it is largely unclear how the specificity of protein-DNA interaction is achieved. Here, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of TFBS-like sequences for the transcriptional repressor, RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST), as well as for several other representative mammalian TFs (c-myc, p53, HNF-1 and CREB). We find a nonrandom distribution of inexact sites for these TFs, referred to as highly-degenerate TFBSs, that are enriched around the cognate binding sites. Comparisons among human, mouse and rat orthologous promoters reveal that these highly-degenerate sites are conserved significantly more than expected by random chance, suggesting their positive selection during evolution. We propose that this arrangement provides a favorable genomic landscape for functional target site selection.

  19. Current Understanding of the Binding Sites, Capacity, Affinity, and Biological Significance of Metals in Melanin

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Metal chelation is often invoked as one of the main biological functions of melanin. In order to understand the interaction between metals and melanin, extensive studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the metal binding sites, binding capacity and affinity. These data are central to efforts aimed at elucidating the role metal binding plays in determining the physical, structural, biological, and photochemical properties of melanin. This article examines the current state of understanding of this field. PMID:17580858

  20. Effect of the Concentration of Cytolytic Protein Cyt2Aa2 on the Binding Mechanism on Lipid Bilayers Studied by QCM-D and AFM.

    PubMed

    Tharad, Sudarat; Iturri, Jagoba; Moreno-Cencerrado, Alberto; Mittendorfer, Margareta; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2015-09-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis is known by its insecticidal property. The insecticidal proteins are produced at different growth stages, including the cytolytic protein (Cyt2Aa2), which is a bioinsecticide and an antimicrobial protein. However, the binding mechanism (and the interaction) of Cyt2Aa2 on lipid bilayers is still unclear. In this work, we have used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the interaction between Cyt2Aa2 protein and (cholesterol-)lipid bilayers. We have found that the binding mechanism is concentration dependent. While at 10 μg/mL, Cyt2Aa2 binds slowly on the lipid bilayer forming a compliance protein/lipid layer with aggregates, at higher protein concentrations (100 μg/mL), the binding is fast, and the protein/lipid layer is more rigid including holes (of about a lipid bilayer thickness) in its structure. Our study suggests that the protein/lipid bilayer binding mechanism seems to be carpet-like at low protein concentrations and pore forming-like at high protein concentrations. PMID:26354323

  1. Nucleotide Interdependency in Transcription Factor Binding Sites in the Drosophila Genome

    PubMed Central

    Dresch, Jacqueline M.; Zellers, Rowan G.; Bork, Daniel K.; Drewell, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing objective in modern biology is to characterize the molecular components that drive the development of an organism. At the heart of eukaryotic development lies gene regulation. On the molecular level, much of the research in this field has focused on the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory regions in the genome known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). However, relatively little is known about the sequence-specific binding preferences of many TFs, especially with respect to the possible interdependencies between the nucleotides that make up binding sites. A particular limitation of many existing algorithms that aim to predict binding site sequences is that they do not allow for dependencies between nonadjacent nucleotides. In this study, we use a recently developed computational algorithm, MARZ, to compare binding site sequences using 32 distinct models in a systematic and unbiased approach to explore nucleotide dependencies within binding sites for 15 distinct TFs known to be critical to Drosophila development. Our results indicate that many of these proteins have varying levels of nucleotide interdependencies within their DNA recognition sequences, and that, in some cases, models that account for these dependencies greatly outperform traditional models that are used to predict binding sites. We also directly compare the ability of different models to identify the known KRUPPEL TF binding sites in CRMs and demonstrate that a more complex model that accounts for nucleotide interdependencies performs better when compared with simple models. This ability to identify TFs with critical nucleotide interdependencies in their binding sites will lead to a deeper understanding of how these molecular characteristics contribute to the architecture of CRMs and the precise regulation of transcription during organismal development. PMID:27330274

  2. Nucleotide Interdependency in Transcription Factor Binding Sites in the Drosophila Genome.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Jacqueline M; Zellers, Rowan G; Bork, Daniel K; Drewell, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing objective in modern biology is to characterize the molecular components that drive the development of an organism. At the heart of eukaryotic development lies gene regulation. On the molecular level, much of the research in this field has focused on the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory regions in the genome known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). However, relatively little is known about the sequence-specific binding preferences of many TFs, especially with respect to the possible interdependencies between the nucleotides that make up binding sites. A particular limitation of many existing algorithms that aim to predict binding site sequences is that they do not allow for dependencies between nonadjacent nucleotides. In this study, we use a recently developed computational algorithm, MARZ, to compare binding site sequences using 32 distinct models in a systematic and unbiased approach to explore nucleotide dependencies within binding sites for 15 distinct TFs known to be critical to Drosophila development. Our results indicate that many of these proteins have varying levels of nucleotide interdependencies within their DNA recognition sequences, and that, in some cases, models that account for these dependencies greatly outperform traditional models that are used to predict binding sites. We also directly compare the ability of different models to identify the known KRUPPEL TF binding sites in CRMs and demonstrate that a more complex model that accounts for nucleotide interdependencies performs better when compared with simple models. This ability to identify TFs with critical nucleotide interdependencies in their binding sites will lead to a deeper understanding of how these molecular characteristics contribute to the architecture of CRMs and the precise regulation of transcription during organismal development. PMID:27330274

  3. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  4. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amy Rhoden; Iverson, Brent L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  5. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Rhoden Smith, Amy; Iverson, Brent L

    2013-08-28

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid-based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  6. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is functionally affected by mutations on actin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Tang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Jia-Yao

    2013-03-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin, and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments. To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L. AtADF1, we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G- and F-actin binding. The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A, R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding. Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants overexpressing these mutants, we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth. Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional, unless the affinity for actin monomers is also affected. The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding, depolymerization of actin polymers, and therefore in the control of actin organization. PMID:23190411

  7. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Scatton, B.; Dubois, A.; Dubocovich, M.L.; Zahniser, N.R.; Fage, D.

    1985-03-04

    The distribution of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of /sup 3/H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the /sup 3/H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the /sup 3/H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that /sup 3/H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Identifying ligand binding sites and poses using GPU-accelerated Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Yanzhi; Chodera, John D.; Shirts, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to identify small molecule ligand binding sites and orientations to a given protein crystal structure using GPU-accelerated Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. The Hamiltonians used vary from the physical end state of protein interacting with the ligand to a unphysical end state where the ligand does not interact with the protein. As replicas explore the space of Hamiltonians interpolating between these states the ligand can rapidly escape local minima and explore potential binding sites. Geometric restraints keep the ligands within the protein volume, and a potential energy pathway designed to increase phase space overlap between intermediates ensures good mixing. Because of the rigorous statistical mechanical nature of the Hamiltonian exchange framework, we can also extract binding free energy estimates at all putative binding sites, which agree well with free energies computed from occupation probabilities. We present results of this methodology on the T4 lysozyme L99A model system with four ligands, including one non-binder as a control. We find that our methodology identifies the crystallographic binding sites consistently and accurately for the small number of ligands considered here and gives free energies consistent with experiment. We are also able to analyze the contribution of individual binding sites on the overall binding affinity. Our methodology points to near term potential applications in early-stage drug discovery. PMID:24297454

  9. Self-Assembly of Coordinative Supramolecular Polygons with Open Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Wang, Ming; Kobayashi, Shiho; Stang, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The design and synthesis of coordinative supramolecular polygons with open binding sites is described. Coordination-driven self-assembly of 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)pyridine with 60° and 120° organoplatinum acceptors results in quantitative formation of a supramolecular rhomboid and hexagon, respectively, both bearing open pyridyl binding sites. The structures were determined by multinuclear (31P and 1H) NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, along with a computational study. PMID:21516167

  10. Characterization of the Escherichia coli F factor traY gene product and its binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, W C; Morton, B S; Lahue, E E; Matson, S W

    1993-01-01

    The traY gene product (TraYp) from the Escherichia coli F factor has previously been purified and shown to bind a DNA fragment containing the F plasmid oriT region (E. E. Lahue and S. W. Matson, J. Bacteriol. 172:1385-1391, 1990). To determine the precise nucleotide sequence bound by TraYp, DNase I footprinting was performed. The TraYp-binding site is near, but not coincident with, the site that is nicked to initiate conjugative DNA transfer. In addition, a second TraYp binding site, which is coincident with the mRNA start site at the traYI promoter, is described. The Kd for each binding site was determined by a gel mobility shift assay. TraYp exhibits a fivefold higher affinity for the oriT binding site compared with the traYI promoter binding site. Hydrodynamic studies were performed to show that TraYp is a monomer in solution under the conditions used in DNA binding assays. Early genetic experiments implicated the traY gene product in the site- and strand-specific endonuclease activity that nicks at oriT (R. Everett and N. Willetts, J. Mol. Biol. 136:129-150, 1980; S. McIntire and N. Willetts, Mol. Gen. Genet. 178:165-172, 1980). As this activity has recently been ascribed to helicase I, it was of interest to see whether TraYp had any effect on this reaction. Addition of TraYp to nicking reactions catalyzed by helicase I showed no effect on the rate or efficiency of oriT nicking. Roles for TraYp in conjugative DNA transfer and a possible mode of binding to DNA are discussed. Images PMID:8468282

  11. Transcription factor binding sites downstream of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription start site are important for virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lint, C; Amella, C A; Emiliani, S; John, M; Jie, T; Verdin, E

    1997-01-01

    When transcriptionally active, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter contains a nucleosome-free region encompassing both the promoter/enhancer region and a large region (255 nucleotides [nt]) downstream of the transcription start site. We have previously identified new binding sites for transcription factors downstream of the transcription start site (nt 465 to 720): three AP-1 sites (I, II, and III), an AP3-like motif (AP3-L), a downstream binding factor (DBF) site, and juxtaposed Sp1 sites. Here, we show that the DBF site is an interferon-responsive factor (IRF) binding site and that the AP3-L motif binds the T-cell-specific factor NF-AT. Mutations that abolish the binding of each factor to its cognate site are introduced in an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone to study their effect on HIV-1 transcription and replication. Individual mutation of the DBF or AP3-L site as well as the double mutation AP-1(III)/AP3-L did not affect HIV-1 replication compared to that of the wild-type virus. In contrast, proviruses carrying mutations in the Sp1 sites were totally defective in terms of replication. Virus production occurred with slightly delayed kinetics for viruses containing combined mutations in the AP-1(III), AP3-L, and DBF sites and in the AP3-L and DBF-sites, whereas viruses mutated in the AP-1(I,II,III) and AP3-L sites and in the AP-1(I,II,III), AP3-L, and DBF sites exhibited a severely defective replicative phenotype. No RNA-packaging defect could be measured for any of the mutant viruses as determined by quantification of their HIV genomic RNA. Measurement of the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 promoter after transient transfection of the HIV-1 provirus DNA or of long terminal repeat-luciferase constructs showed a positive correlation between the transcriptional and the replication defects for most mutants. PMID:9223506

  12. Characterizing multiple metal ion binding sites within a ribozyme by cadmium-induced EPR silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kisseleva, Natalia; Kraut, Stefanie; Jäschke, Andres; Schiemann, Olav

    2007-01-01

    In ribozyme catalysis, metal ions are generally known to make structural and∕or mechanistic contributions. The catalytic activity of a previously described Diels-Alderase ribozyme was found to depend on the concentration of divalent metal ions, and crystallographic data revealed multiple binding sites. Here, we elucidate the interactions of this ribozyme with divalent metal ions in solution using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Manganese ion titrations revealed five high-affinity Mn2+ binding sites with an upper Kd of 0.6±0.2 μM. In order to characterize each binding site individually, EPR-silent Cd2+ ions were used to saturate the other binding sites. This cadmium-induced EPR silencing showed that the Mn2+ binding sites possess different affinities. In addition, these binding sites could be assigned to three different types, including innersphere, outersphere, and a Mn2+ dimer. Based on simulations, the Mn2+-Mn2+ distance within the dimer was found to be ∼6 Å, which is in good agreement with crystallographic data. The EPR-spectroscopic characterization reveals no structural changes upon addition of a Diels-Alder product, supporting the concept of a preorganized catalytic pocket in the Diels-Alder ribozyme and the structural role of these ions. PMID:19404418

  13. Dynamic coupling of regulated binding sites and cycling myosin heads in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2014-03-01

    In an activated muscle, binding sites on the thin filament and myosin heads switch frequently between different states. Because the status of the binding sites influences the status of the heads, and vice versa, the binding sites and myosin heads are dynamically coupled. The functional consequences of this coupling were investigated using MyoSim, a new computer model of muscle. MyoSim extends existing models based on Huxley-type distribution techniques by incorporating Ca(2+) activation and cooperative effects. It can also simulate arbitrary cross-bridge schemes set by the researcher. Initial calculations investigated the effects of altering the relative speeds of binding-site and cross-bridge kinetics, and of manipulating cooperative processes. Subsequent tests fitted simulated force records to experimental data recorded using permeabilized myocardial preparations. These calculations suggest that the rate of force development at maximum activation is limited by myosin cycling kinetics, whereas the rate at lower levels of activation is limited by how quickly binding sites become available. Additional tests investigated the behavior of transiently activated cells by driving simulations with experimentally recorded Ca(2+) signals. The unloaded shortening profile of a twitching myocyte could be reproduced using a model with two myosin states, cooperative activation, and strain-dependent kinetics. Collectively, these results demonstrate that dynamic coupling of binding sites and myosin heads is important for contractile function.

  14. Substance P receptor binding sites are expressed by glia in vivo after neuronal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Johnson, D.J.; Boehmer, C.G.; Catton, M.D.; Vinters, H.V.; Maggio, J.E.; Too, Hengphon; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-07-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that glia can express functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters. To determine whether similar neurotransmitter receptors are also expressed by glia in vivo, the authors examined the glial scar in the transected optic nerve of the albino rabbit by quantitative receptor autoradiography. Receptor binding sites for radiolabeled calcitonin gene-related peptide, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were examined. Specific receptor binding sites for each of these neurotransmitters were identified in the rabbit forebrain but were not detected in the normal optic nerve or tract. In the transected optic nerve and tract, only receptor binding sites for substance P were expressed at detectable levels. The density of substance P receptor binding sites observed in this glial scar is among the highest observed in the rabbit forebrain. Ligand displacement and saturation experiments indicate that the substance P receptor binding site expressed by the glial scar has pharmacological characteristics similar to those of substance P receptors in the rabbit striatum, rat brain, and rat and canine gut. The present study demonstrates that glial cells in vivo express high concentrations of substance P receptor binding sites after transection of retinal ganglion cell axons. Because substance P has been shown to regulate inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues, substance P may also, by analogy, be involved in regulating the glial response to injury in the central nervous system.

  15. Antimalarial 4(1H)-pyridones bind to the Qi site of cytochrome bc1

    PubMed Central

    Capper, Michael J.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Fisher, Nicholas; Strange, Richard W.; Moss, Darren; Ward, Stephen A.; Berry, Neil G.; Lawrenson, Alexandre S.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 is a proven drug target in the prevention and treatment of malaria. The rise in drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the organism responsible for malaria, has generated a global effort in designing new classes of drugs. Much of the design/redesign work on overcoming this resistance has been focused on compounds that are presumed to bind the Qo site (one of two potential binding sites within cytochrome bc1) using the known crystal structure of this large membrane-bound macromolecular complex via in silico modeling. Cocrystallization of the cytochrome bc1 complex with the 4(1H)-pyridone class of inhibitors, GSK932121 and GW844520, that have been shown to be potent antimalarial agents in vivo, revealed that these inhibitors do not bind at the Qo site but bind at the Qi site. The discovery that these compounds bind at the Qi site may provide a molecular explanation for the cardiotoxicity and eventual failure of GSK932121 in phase-1 clinical trial and highlight the need for direct experimental observation of a compound bound to a target site before chemical optimization and development for clinical trials. The binding of the 4(1H)-pyridone class of inhibitors to Qi also explains the ability of this class to overcome parasite Qo-based atovaquone resistance and provides critical structural information for future design of new selective compounds with improved safety profiles. PMID:25564664

  16. Mapping the iron binding site(s) on the small tetraheme cytochrome of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yufeng; Paquete, Catarina M; Louro, Ricardo O; Ross, Daniel E; Labelle, Edward; Bond, Daniel R; Tien, Ming

    2011-07-19

    In the model microbe Shewanella oneidensis, multi-heme proteins are utilized for respiratory metabolism where metals serve as the terminal electron acceptor. Among those is the periplasm-localized small tetraheme cytochrome (STC). STC has been extensively characterized structurally and electrochemically to which electron flow in and out of the protein has been modeled. However, until the present work, no kinetic studies have been performed to probe the route of electron flow or to determine the iron-binding site on STC. Using iron chelated by EDTA, NTA, or citrate, we have used chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis along with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and stopped-flow measurements to identify the iron binding site of STC. Chemical modifications of STC revealed that carboxyl groups on STC are involved in binding of EDTA-Fe(3+). Scanning mutagenesis was performed on Asp and Glu to probe the putative iron-binding site on STC. Two STC mutants (D21N; D80N) showed ∼70% decrease in observed electron transfer rate constant with EDTA-Fe(3+) from transient-state kinetic measurements. The impaired reactivity of STC (D80N/D21N) with EDTA-Fe(3+) was further confirmed by a significant decrease (>10-fold) in iron binding affinity.

  17. High affinity ( sup 3 H)glibenclamide binding sites in rat neuronal and cardiac tissue: Localization and developmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.; Velayo, N.L.; Dage, R.C.; Rampe, D. )

    1991-01-01

    We examined the binding of the antidiabetic sulfonylurea (3H) glibenclamide to rat brain and heart membranes. High affinity binding was observed in adult rat forebrain (Kd = 137.3 pM, maximal binding site density = 91.8 fmol/mg of protein) and ventricle (Kd = 77.1 pM, maximal binding site density = 65.1 fmol/mg of protein). Binding site density increased approximately 250% in forebrain membranes during postnatal development but was constant in ventricular membranes. Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the regional distribution of (3H) glibenclamide binding sites in sections from rat brain, spinal cord and heart. The greatest density of binding in adult brain was found in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, whereas the other areas displayed heterogenous binding. In agreement with the membrane binding studies, 1-day-old rat brain had significantly fewer (3H)glibenclamide binding sites than adult brain. Additionally, the pattern of distribution of these sites was qualitatively different from that of the adult. In adult rat spinal cord, moderate binding densities were observed in spinal cord gray and displayed a rostral to caudal gradient. In adult rat heart, moderate binding densities were observed and the sites were distributed homogeneously. In conclusion, significant development of (3H)glibenclamide binding sites was seen in the brain but not the heart during postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a heterogeneous distribution of binding sites was observed in both the brain and spinal cord of adult rats.

  18. Characterization of the Copper(II) Binding Sites in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Nettles, Whitnee L.; Song, He; Farquhar, Erik R.; Fitzkee, Nicholas C.; Emerson, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a well-studied, robust, mononuclear Zn-containing metalloprotein that serves as an excellent biological ligand system to study the thermodynamics associated with metal ion coordination chemistry in aqueous solution. The apo-form of human carbonic anhydrase II (CA) binds two equivalents of copper(II) with high affinity. The Cu2+ ions bind independently forming two non-coupled type-II copper centers in CA (CuA and CuB). However, the location and coordination mode of the CuA site in solution is unclear, compared to the CuB site that has been well characterized. Using paramagnetic NMR techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have identified an N-terminal Cu2+ binding location and collected information on the coordination mode of the CuA site in CA, which is consistent with a four to five coordinate N-terminal Cu2+ binding site reminiscent to a number of N-terminal copper(II) binding sites including the copper(II)-ATCUN and copper(II)-beta-amyloid complexes. Additionally, we report a more detailed analysis of the thermodynamics associated with copper(II) binding to CA. Although we are still unable to fully deconvolute Cu2+ binding data to the high-affinity CuA site, we have derived pH- and buffer-independent values for the thermodynamics parameters K and ΔH associated with Cu2+ binding to the CuB site of CA to be 2 × 109 and −17.4 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:26010488

  19. Unusually Situated Binding Sites for Bacterial Transcription Factors Can Have Hidden Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Haycocks, James R. J.; Grainger, David C.

    2016-01-01

    A commonly accepted paradigm of molecular biology is that transcription factors control gene expression by binding sites at the 5' end of a gene. However, there is growing evidence that transcription factor targets can occur within genes or between convergent genes. In this work, we have investigated one such target for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. We show that CRP binds between two convergent genes. When bound, CRP regulates transcription of a small open reading frame, which we term aatS, embedded within one of the adjacent genes. Our work demonstrates that non-canonical sites of transcription factor binding can have hidden functionality. PMID:27258043

  20. Differential Nucleosome Occupancies across Oct4-Sox2 Binding Sites in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sebeson, Amy; Xi, Liqun; Zhang, Quanwei; Sigmund, Audrey; Wang, Ji-Ping; Widom, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    The binding sequence for any transcription factor can be found millions of times within a genome, yet only a small fraction of these sequences encode functional transcription factor binding sites. One of the reasons for this dichotomy is that many other factors, such as nucleosomes, compete for binding. To study how the competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors helps determine a functional transcription factor site from a predicted transcription factor site, we compared experimentally-generated in vitro nucleosome occupancy with in vivo nucleosome occupancy and transcription factor binding in murine embryonic stem cells. Using a solution hybridization enrichment technique, we generated a high-resolution nucleosome map from targeted regions of the genome containing predicted sites and functional sites of Oct4/Sox2 regulation. We found that at Pax6 and Nes, which are bivalently poised in stem cells, functional Oct4 and Sox2 sites show high amounts of in vivo nucleosome displacement compared to in vitro. Oct4 and Sox2, which are active, show no significant displacement of in vivo nucleosomes at functional sites, similar to nonfunctional Oct4/Sox2 binding. This study highlights a complex interplay between Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors and nucleosomes among different target genes, which may result in distinct patterns of stem cell gene regulation.

  1. eFindSite: Enhanced Fingerprint-Based Virtual Screening Against Predicted Ligand Binding Sites in Protein Models.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Wei P; Brylinski, Michal

    2014-02-01

    A standard practice for lead identification in drug discovery is ligand virtual screening, which utilizes computing technologies to detect small compounds that likely bind to target proteins prior to experimental screens. A high accuracy is often achieved when the target protein has a resolved crystal structure; however, using protein models still renders significant challenges. Towards this goal, we recently developed eFindSite that predicts ligand binding sites using a collection of effective algorithms, including meta-threading, machine learning and reliable confidence estimation systems. Here, we incorporate fingerprint-based virtual screening capabilities in eFindSite in addition to its flagship role as a ligand binding pocket predictor. Virtual screening benchmarks using the enhanced Directory of Useful Decoys demonstrate that eFindSite significantly outperforms AutoDock Vina as assessed by several evaluation metrics. Importantly, this holds true regardless of the quality of target protein structures. As a first genome-wide application of eFindSite, we conduct large-scale virtual screening of the entire proteome of Escherichia coli with encouraging results. In the new approach to fingerprint-based virtual screening using remote protein homology, eFindSite demonstrates its compelling proficiency offering a high ranking accuracy and low susceptibility to target structure deformations. The enhanced version of eFindSite is freely available to the academic community at http://www.brylinski.org/efindsite. PMID:27485570

  2. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )

    1990-09-11

    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  3. Strong Ligand-Protein Interactions Derived from Diffuse Ligand Interactions with Loose Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Many systems in biology rely on binding of ligands to target proteins in a single high-affinity conformation with a favorable ΔG. Alternatively, interactions of ligands with protein regions that allow diffuse binding, distributed over multiple sites and conformations, can exhibit favorable ΔG because of their higher entropy. Diffuse binding may be biologically important for multidrug transporters and carrier proteins. A fine-grained computational method for numerical integration of total binding ΔG arising from diffuse regional interaction of a ligand in multiple conformations using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is presented. This method yields a metric that quantifies the influence on overall ligand affinity of ligand binding to multiple, distinct sites within a protein binding region. This metric is essentially a measure of dispersion in equilibrium ligand binding and depends on both the number of potential sites of interaction and the distribution of their individual predicted affinities. Analysis of test cases indicates that, for some ligand/protein pairs involving transporters and carrier proteins, diffuse binding contributes greatly to total affinity, whereas in other cases the influence is modest. This approach may be useful for studying situations where "nonspecific" interactions contribute to biological function. PMID:26064949

  4. Strong Ligand-Protein Interactions Derived from Diffuse Ligand Interactions with Loose Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many systems in biology rely on binding of ligands to target proteins in a single high-affinity conformation with a favorable ΔG. Alternatively, interactions of ligands with protein regions that allow diffuse binding, distributed over multiple sites and conformations, can exhibit favorable ΔG because of their higher entropy. Diffuse binding may be biologically important for multidrug transporters and carrier proteins. A fine-grained computational method for numerical integration of total binding ΔG arising from diffuse regional interaction of a ligand in multiple conformations using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is presented. This method yields a metric that quantifies the influence on overall ligand affinity of ligand binding to multiple, distinct sites within a protein binding region. This metric is essentially a measure of dispersion in equilibrium ligand binding and depends on both the number of potential sites of interaction and the distribution of their individual predicted affinities. Analysis of test cases indicates that, for some ligand/protein pairs involving transporters and carrier proteins, diffuse binding contributes greatly to total affinity, whereas in other cases the influence is modest. This approach may be useful for studying situations where “nonspecific” interactions contribute to biological function. PMID:26064949

  5. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Mantyh, P.W. )

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific binding of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.

  6. Targeting Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts by Stoichiometric Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles With a Sphingolipid-Binding Domain Peptide.

    PubMed

    Paramelle, David; Nieves, Daniel; Brun, Benjamin; Kraut, Rachel S; Fernig, David G

    2015-04-22

    A non-membrane protein-based nanoparticle agent for the tracking of lipid rafts on live cells is produced by stoichiometric functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a previously characterized sphingolipid- and cell membrane microdomain-binding domain peptide (SBD). The SBD peptide is inserted in a self-assembled monolayer of peptidol and alkane thiol ethylene glycol, on gold nanoparticles surface. The stoichiometric functionalization of nanoparticles with the SBD peptide, essential for single molecule tracking, is achieved by means of non-affinity nanoparticle purification. The SBD-nanoparticles have remarkable long-term resistance to electrolyte-induced aggregation and ligand-exchange and have no detectable non-specific binding to live cells. Binding and diffusion of SBD-nanoparticles bound to the membrane of live cells is measured by real-time photothermal microscopy and shows the dynamics of sphingolipid-enriched microdomains on cells membrane, with evidence for clustering, splitting, and diffusion over time of the SBD-nanoparticle labeled membrane domains. The monofunctionalized SBD-nanoparticle is a promising targeting agent for the tracking of lipid rafts independently of their protein composition and the labelling requires no prior modification of the cells. This approach has potential for further functionalization of the particles to manipulate the organization of, or targeting to microdomains that control signaling events and thereby lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutics.

  7. Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Despite the discovery of the first enhancer more than 30 y ago, the relationship between primary DNA sequence and enhancer activity remains obscure. In particular, the importance of "syntax" (the order, orientation, and spacing of binding sites) is unclear. A high-throughput screen identified synthetic notochord enhancers that are activated by the combination of ZicL and ETS transcription factors in Ciona embryos. Manipulation of these enhancers elucidated a "regulatory code" of sequence and syntax features for notochord-specific expression. This code enabled in silico discovery of bona fide notochord enhancers, including those containing low-affinity binding sites that would be excluded by standard motif identification methods. One of the newly identified enhancers maps upstream of the known enhancer that regulates Brachyury (Ci-Bra), a key determinant of notochord specification. This newly identified Ci-Bra shadow enhancer contains binding sites with very low affinity, but optimal syntax, and therefore mediates surprisingly strong expression in the notochord. Weak binding sites are compensated by optimal syntax, whereas enhancers containing high-affinity binding affinities possess suboptimal syntax. We suggest this balance has obscured the importance of regulatory syntax, as noncanonical binding motifs are typically disregarded by enhancer detection methods. As a result, enhancers with low binding affinities but optimal syntax may be a vastly underappreciated feature of the regulatory genome.

  8. Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Despite the discovery of the first enhancer more than 30 y ago, the relationship between primary DNA sequence and enhancer activity remains obscure. In particular, the importance of "syntax" (the order, orientation, and spacing of binding sites) is unclear. A high-throughput screen identified synthetic notochord enhancers that are activated by the combination of ZicL and ETS transcription factors in Ciona embryos. Manipulation of these enhancers elucidated a "regulatory code" of sequence and syntax features for notochord-specific expression. This code enabled in silico discovery of bona fide notochord enhancers, including those containing low-affinity binding sites that would be excluded by standard motif identification methods. One of the newly identified enhancers maps upstream of the known enhancer that regulates Brachyury (Ci-Bra), a key determinant of notochord specification. This newly identified Ci-Bra shadow enhancer contains binding sites with very low affinity, but optimal syntax, and therefore mediates surprisingly strong expression in the notochord. Weak binding sites are compensated by optimal syntax, whereas enhancers containing high-affinity binding affinities possess suboptimal syntax. We suggest this balance has obscured the importance of regulatory syntax, as noncanonical binding motifs are typically disregarded by enhancer detection methods. As a result, enhancers with low binding affinities but optimal syntax may be a vastly underappreciated feature of the regulatory genome. PMID:27155014

  9. 2( sup 125 I)Iodomelatonin binding sites in spleens of guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, A.M.S. ); Pang, S.F. )

    1992-01-01

    2-({sup 125}I)Iodomelatonin was found to bind specifically to the membrane preparations of the spleens of guinea pigs with high affinity. The binding was rapid, stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the binding assays revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 49.8{plus minus}4.12 pmol/l and binding site density (Bmax) of 0.69{plus minus}0.082 fmol/mg protein at mid-light. There was no significant change in the Kd or the Bmax at mid-dark. Kinetic analysis showed a Kd of 23.13{plus minus}4.81 pmol/l, in agreement to that derived from the saturation studies. The 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin binding sites have the following order of potency: 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > 6-chloromelatonin {much gt} N-acetylserotonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin > 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-methoxytryptophol > serotonin, 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid > 5-hydroxytryptophol, 3-acetylindole, 1-acetylindole-3-carboxyaldehyde, L-tryptophan > tryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Differential centrifugation studies showed that the binding sites are localized mainly in the nuclear fraction, the rest are distributed in the microsomal fraction, mitochondrial fraction and cytosolic fraction. The demonstration of 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin binding sites in the spleen suggests the presence of melatonin receptors and a direct mechanism of action of melatonin on the immune system.

  10. A Disease-Causing Variant in PCNA Disrupts a Promiscuous Protein Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Caroline M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Kelch, Brian A

    2016-03-27

    The eukaryotic DNA polymerase sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen or PCNA, is a ring-shaped protein complex that surrounds DNA to act as a sliding platform for increasing processivity of cellular replicases and for coordinating various cellular pathways with DNA replication. A single point mutation, Ser228Ile, in the human PCNA gene was recently identified to cause a disease whose symptoms resemble those of DNA damage and repair disorders. The mutation lies near the binding site for most PCNA-interacting proteins. However, the structural consequences of the S228I mutation are unknown. Here, we describe the structure of the disease-causing variant, which reveals a large conformational change that dramatically transforms the binding pocket for PCNA client proteins. We show that the mutation markedly alters the binding energetics for some client proteins, while another, p21(CIP1), is only mildly affected. Structures of the disease variant bound to peptides derived from two PCNA partner proteins reveal that the binding pocket can adjust conformation to accommodate some ligands, indicating that the binding site is dynamic and pliable. Our work has implications for the plasticity of the binding site in PCNA and reveals h