Science.gov

Sample records for lipid profile depend

  1. Searching for Linear Dependencies between Heart Magnetic Resonance Images and Lipid Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Söderlund, Hans; Heliö, Tiina; Orešič, Matej

    Information derived from "omics" data in life science research are frequently limited by specific spatial or temporal scales these data describe. As a case study of integrating physiological and molecular data in human, here we study associations between the heart magnetic resonance images and serum lipidomic profiles. In the best case, such associations could help infer the physiologic state of the heart from a blood serum sample without need to use expensive imaging techniques. Strong marginal and partial correlations are found between the lipid profiles and parameters derived from the heart images. Regression analyses are applied to study these dependencies in more detail. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mapping lipid profiles to heart images, and thus combining information from two very different scales, small molecules and macroscopic physiologic features. Such mappings could be generalized to other "omics" data as well to complete our picture of the holistic function of a living organism.

  2. The Effects of Physical Training on Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, B. N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) participated in a 12-week exercise program to determine whether such training would bring about changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles. The findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for individuals with IDDM. (MT)

  3. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  4. Ferulic Acid modulates altered lipid profiles and prooxidant/antioxidant status in circulation during nicotine-induced toxicity: a dose-dependent study.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Chandran, Kalpana; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine, an active ingredient of tobacco smoke, is known to induce hyperlipidemia and disturb the prooxidant-antioxidant status. In our study, ferulic acid, a naturally occurring nutritional compound, was tested for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic property in a dose-dependent manner against nicotine-induced toxicity in female Wistar rats. We tested three different doses of ferulic acid-10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg/kg body weight-for their protective effects. The activities of biochemical marker enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, levels of peroxidative indices (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides), nitric oxide, and circulatory lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids) were increased significantly in the nicotine-treated group when compared to normal, which were brought down in ferulic acid-treated groups. The antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione) was found to be decreased in the nicotine-treated group, and was significantly increased in ferulic acid-administered groups. Further, ferulic acid also positively modulated the nicotine-induced changes in the micronutrients (zinc and copper) level. The dose 20 mg/kg body weight was found to be more effective than the other two doses. Our data suggest that FA exerts its preventive effects by modulating the degree of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, lipid profiles, and trace element levels during nicotine-induced toxicity. PMID:20021059

  5. Profiling Lipid Metabolites Yields Unique Information on Sex- and Time-dependent Responses of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Exposed to 17α-Ethynylestradiol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alterations in hepatic lipid profiles of fathead minnows (FHM) exposed to the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling. The exposures were conducted using either 10 ng/l or 100 ng/l EE2 via a continuous flo...

  6. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  7. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2012-11-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup −}) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179–188]. However, ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH{sup −} and ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ({sup 1}H) and {sup 31}phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH{sup −} deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH{sub 2}-) and FAMEs) were

  8. Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Huybrechts, Inge; Labayen, Idoia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Palacios, Gonzalo; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnár, Dénes; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Vyncke, Krishna; Sjöström, Michael; Libuda, Lars; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-12-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44% boys) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (β = - 0.189, P< 0.001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (β = - 0.319, P< 0.001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.

  9. Lipid mediator profile in vernix caseosa reflects skin barrier development

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio; Holm, Tina; Sjödin, Marcus O. D.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Alm, Johan; Scheynius, Annika; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Vernix caseosa (VC) is a protective layer that covers the skin of most human newborns. This study characterized the VC lipid mediator profile, and examined its relationship to gestational period, gender of the newborn and maternal lifestyle. VC collected at birth from 156 newborns within the ALADDIN birth cohort was analyzed and 3 different groups of lipid mediators (eicosanoids and related oxylipin analogs, endocannabinoids and sphingolipids) were screened using LC-MS/MS. A total of 54 compounds were detected in VC. A number of associations between lipid mediators and the gestational period were observed, including increases in the ceramide to sphingomyelin ratio as well as the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Gender-specific differences in lipid mediator levels were observed for all 3 lipid classes. In addition, levels of the linoleic acid oxidation products 9(10)-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic and 12(13)-epoxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (EpOMEs) as well as 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (DiHOME) were increased in VC of children from mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle. Accordingly, VC was found to be rich in multiple classes of bioactive lipid mediators, which evidence lifestyle, gender and gestational week dependencies. Levels of lipid mediators in VC may therefore be useful as early stage non-invasive markers of the development of the skin as a protective barrier. PMID:26521946

  10. Correlations between anthropometry and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Alekhya, Katamreddy; Saisumanth, Kandula; Lakshmanrao, Nambaru; Komali, Kanagala

    2013-01-01

    Over a period of time, anthropometric parameters have evolved into reliable indicators for predicting the incidence of diabetes mellitus. A number of studies have shown correlations between anthropometry and lipid profiles in healthy volunteers. This study examined correlations between anthropometry and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics. The limited observations made in this study reveal that anthropometric parameters are not ideal for predicting lipid profile abnormalities in type 2 diabetics. PMID:23961494

  11. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  12. Bimodal lipid substrate dependence of phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Ganong, B R

    1990-07-24

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was solubilized from rat liver microsomes and partially purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Reactive Green 19-Superose. Examination of the ATP dependence using a mixed micellar assay gave a Km of 120 microM. The dependence of reaction rate on PI was more complicated. PI kinase bound a large amount of Triton X-100, and as expected for a micelle-associated enzyme utilizing a micelle-associated lipid substrate, the reaction rate was dependent on the micellar mole fraction, PI/(PI + Triton X-100), with a Km of 0.02 (unitless). Activity showed an additional dependence on bulk PI concentration at high micelle dilution. These results demonstrated two kinetically distinguishable steps leading to formation of a productive PI/enzyme(/ATP) complex. The rate of the first step, which probably represents exchange of PI from the bulk micellar pool into enzyme-containing micelles, depends on bulk PI concentration. The rate of the second step, association of PI with enzyme within a single micelle, depends on the micellar mole fraction of PI. Depression of the apparent Vmax at low ionic strength suggested that electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged PI/Triton X-100 mixed micelles inhibits PI exchange, consistent with a model in which intermicellar PI exchange depends on micellar collisions.

  13. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  14. Effect of Silybin on Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolaemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asirvatham, Sylvia Santhakumari; Janarthanam, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis associated conditions, such as Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), ischaemic cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. Though there are hypolipidemic drugs available, the search for a more efficacious hypo lipidemic agent was always going on. Aim To study the effect of Silybin on lipid profile in Hypercholesterolaemic rats. Materials and Methods After grant of permission from animal ethics committee, the animals were divided into four groups of eight each (normal control, Experimental control with High cholesterol diet, High cholesterol diet + Silybin 300mg, High cholesterol diet + Silybin 600mg). At the end of 60 days the animals in all the groups were subjected to overnight fasting followed by plasma and liver biochemical analyses. Statistical Analysis The data were analysed by ANNOVA followed by Duncan’s multi range test and the value of p≤0.05 was used as the criterion for statistical significance. Results The rats fed on high cholesterol diet showed significant increase in serum total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C and VLDL-C. Treatment with Silybin significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (24%), Triglycerides (21%), LDL-C (24%) in a dose dependent manner. Rats treated with Silybin (300 and 600 mg/kg) showed significant increase in hepatic HDL –C and decrease in other lipid profiles. Conclusion Treatment with Silybin significantly decreased both serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C and increased HDL-C at both doses. PMID:27190826

  15. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  16. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  17. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  18. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  19. Lipid Profile among Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ali A Muttalib

    2014-12-01

    Associations between hearing and blood lipids have been the focus of scientific inquiry for more than 50 years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between hyperlipidaemia among patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss compared to normal controls. A case control study concerned with 22 patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who underwent lipid profile evaluation. The lipid profile of these patients was compared with corresponding results of 55 age matched persons (volunteers) with normal hearing. These patients were collected from the Out Patient Department of ENT at Al-Jamhory Teaching Hospital, Mosul/Iraq and private clinic of the author for the period from February 2011 to July 2013. The average age of patients was 44.7 years with a range of 26-65 years. The peak age incidence was in the 5(th) decade of life. The study included 11 male patients (50 %) and 11 females (50 %). Meanwhile, the average age of the control group was 41.7 years with 25 (45.5 %) males and 30 (54.5 %) females. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the means of lipid profile and blood sugar of the patients and the control group apart from HDL where there was no significant difference. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia seems to be significantly associated with the occurrence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss according to this study.

  20. Plasma flux-dependent lipid A deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ahmed, Musahid; Liu, Suet Yi; Fang, Yigang; Seog, Joonil; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of gas plasma flux on endotoxin lipid A film deactivation. To study the effect of the flux magnitude of reactive species, a modified low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with O radical flux ˜1016 cm-2 s-1 was used. After ICP exposures, it was observed that while the Fourier transform infrared absorbance of fatty chains responsible for the toxicity drops by 80% through the film, no obvious film endotoxin deactivation is seen. This is in contrast to that previously observed under low flux exposure conducted in a vacuum beam system: near-surface only loss of fatty chains led to significant film deactivation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of changes at the film surface did not appear to correlate with the degree of deactivation. Lipid A films need to be nearly completely removed in order to detect significant deactivation under high flux conditions. Additional high reactive species flux experiments were conducted using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet and a UV/ozone device. Exposure of lipid A films to reactive species with these devices showed similar deactivation behaviour. The causes for the difference between low and high flux exposures may be due to the nature of near-surface structural modifications as a function of the rate of film removal.

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Detergent Resistant Membranes (Lipid Rafts) of Prostasomes.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Louise; Ronquist, Karl K Göran; Ek, Bo; Ronquist, Gunnar; Larsson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Prostasomes are exosomes derived from prostate epithelial cells through exocytosis by multivesicular bodies. Prostasomes have a bilayered membrane and readily interact with sperm. The membrane lipid composition is unusual with a high contribution of sphingomyelin at the expense of phosphatidylcholine and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are dominant. Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered domains that are more tightly packed than the surrounding nonraft phase of the bilayer. Lipid rafts are proposed to be highly dynamic, submicroscopic assemblies that float freely within the liquid disordered membrane bilayer and some proteins preferentially partition into the ordered raft domains. We asked the question whether lipid rafts do exist in prostasomes and, if so, which proteins might be associated with them. Prostasomes of density range 1.13-1.19g/ml were subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation in sucrose fabricated by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% Triton X-100 with capacity for banding at 1.10 g/ml, i.e. the classical density of lipid rafts. Prepared prostasomal lipid rafts (by gradient ultracentrifugation) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The clearly visible band on top of 1.10g/ml sucrose in the Triton X-100 containing gradient was subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem MS and more than 370 lipid raft associated proteins were identified. Several of them were involved in intraluminal vesicle formation, e.g. tetraspanins, ESCRTs, and Ras-related proteins. This is the first comprehensive liquid chromatography-tandem MS profiling of proteins in lipid rafts derived from exosomes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002163.

  2. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX. PMID:27630835

  3. Glutathione peroxidase and iron-thiol dependent lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Punekar, N S; Lardy, H A

    1989-12-01

    Role of glutathione peroxidase in iron-thiol-mediated lipid peroxidation was examined. The enzyme was unable to prevent peroxidation of extracted rat liver microsomal lipids. In contrast, when arachidonic acid was the substrate, glutathione peroxidase did decrease the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material. Superoxide dismutase produced a consistent but partial inhibition of peroxidation and catalase was without effect. Our results suggest that iron-thiol-dependent lipid peroxidation cannot be completely blocked by protective enzymes that are effective in other systems. PMID:2635868

  4. Lipid profile in patients with fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ozgocmen, S; Ardicoglu, O

    2000-10-01

    In this study serum lipid profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were investigated and compared with healthy controls. Thirty women who had FMS and 32 women who had MPS with the characteristic trigger points (TrP), especially on the periscapular region were included in this study. Thirty one age matched healthy women were assigned as a control group. All of the subjects were sedentary healthy housewives. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were not significantly different between the FMS and control groups. On the other hand the MPS group had total cholesterol (198.7 vs 172.9 mg/dL, p=0.003), triglyceride (124.7 vs 87.6 mg/dL, p=0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (127.5 vs 108.4 mg/dL, p=0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) (24.9 vs 17.3 mg/dL, p=0.008) levels, which were significantly higher than the controls. There was no significant difference between the lipid profiles in the FMS and MPS groups. Tissue compliance, which was measured from trigger points in the MPS group, correlated significantly with total cholesterol and LDL-c levels. In conclusion, a significant difference was found between the lipid levels of patients with MPS and the controls. More extensive investigation of lipid and lipoprotein levels is required to determine whether high lipid levels are the cause or result of MPS.

  5. Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

    2014-10-01

    Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ω6/ω3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality.

  6. Distinct urinary lipid profile in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueheng; Setchell, Kenneth; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for the majority of new-onset end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during adolescence. FSGS treatment is a great challenge for pediatric nephrologists due to intertwined molecular pathways underlining its complex pathophysiology. There is emerging evidence showing that perturbed lipid metabolism plays a role in the pathophysiology of FSGS. Methods We postulate that the nephrotic milieu in FSGS differs from minimal change disease (MCD) and that urinary lipidomics can be used as a tool for early diagnosis of FSGS. We explored the urinary lipid profile of patients with FSGS and MCD using an unbiased metabolomics approach. Results We discovered a unique lipid signature characterized by increased concentration of fatty acid (FA) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and a decrease in urinary concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in patients with FSGS. These findings indicate increased metabolism of membrane phospholipid PC by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), resulting in higher urinary concentrations of LPC and FA. Conclusions We propose that increased PC by-products can be used as a biomarker to diagnose FSGS and shed light on the mechanism of tubular and podocyte damage. Validation of identified urinary lipids as a biomarker in predicting the diagnosis and progression of FSGS in a larger patient population is warranted. PMID:26537928

  7. Dependence of norfloxacin diffusion across bilayers on lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Sowmya; Cama, Jehangir; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2016-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in medicine and raises the need to develop and design new drug molecules that can efficiently inhibit bacterial replication. Spurring the passive uptake of the drug molecules is an obvious solution. However our limited understanding of drug-membrane interactions due to the presence of an overwhelming variety of lipids constituting cellular membranes and the lack of facile tools to probe the bio-physical interactions between drugs and lipids imposes a major challenge towards developing new drug molecules that can enter the cell via passive diffusion. Here, we used a label-free micro-fluidic platform combined with giant unilamellar lipid vesicles to investigate the permeability of membranes containing mixtures of DOPE and DOPG in DOPC, leading to a label-free measurement of passive membrane-permeability of autofluorescent antibiotics. A fluoroquinolone drug, norfloxacin was used as a case study. Our results indicate that the diffusion of norfloxacin is strongly dependent on the lipid composition which is not expected from the traditional octanol-lipid partition co-efficient assay. The anionic lipid, DOPG, slows the diffusion process whereas the diffusion across liposomes containing DOPE increases with higher DOPE concentration. Our findings emphasise the need to investigate drug-membrane interactions with focus on the specificity of drugs to lipids for efficient drug delivery, drug encapsulation and targeted drug-delivery.

  8. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  9. Dietary quality among Tehranian adults in relation to lipid profile: findings from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseni-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Mehran, Mahya; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidaemia has been increasing in developing countries that are undergoing nutrition transition. However, the association of diet quality and lipid profile has not been well-understood in these countries. The aim of the current study was to compare the ability of three diet quality indices--the Mediterranean diet scale (MDS), healthy eating index-2005 (HEI-2005), and diet quality index-international (DQI-I) in relation to changes in lipid profile between baseline and 6.7 years of follow-up. Baseline data from two 24-hour dietary recalls provided by 469 adults with mean age of 38.7 +/- 12.3 years, who were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, were analyzed to describe dietary intakes. Data on anthropometry, sociodemography, physical activity, and other lifestyle variables were recorded, and a comparison of baseline and follow-up data revealed changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-G), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A general linear model was used in assessing changes in lipid profile depending on adherence to diet quality indices at baseline, after adjustment for age, smoking status, waist-circumference, body mass index, physical activity, and energy intake. A significant interaction was observed between scores and sex, and upon stratification, males in the highest quartile score of the HEI-2005 had significantly lower TG changes than those in the lowest quartile, after adjusting for confounders (-8.8 vs 2.9, p = 0.038). No association was apparent in females (-0.2 vs 11.2, p = 0.297). In addition, a positive association was found between DQI-I and HDL-C (Q1-0.6 vs Q4 = -2.0, p = 0.044) in males. In both sexes, all these indices were weakly associated with TC while none was associated with LDL-C. It is concluded: adherence to the HEI-2005 recommendations was weakly associated with reduced TG concentration in an urban Iranian adult

  10. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid profile of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).

    PubMed

    Niyas, Zareena; Variyar, Prasad S; Gholap, Achyut S; Sharma, Arun

    2003-10-22

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid constituents of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) was examined at radiation doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol, the major lipid component, was found to be made up of myristic (90%), palmitic (6%), lauric (3%), petroselinic (0.13%), and stearic acids (0.5%) as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A dose-dependent decrease in the triacylglycerol content and a concomitant increase in free fatty acids characterized the lipid profile of the irradiated spice. This suggested a breakdown of acylglycerols during radiation processing, resulting in the release of free fatty acids. These changes were found to be significant at doses above 5 kGy. The impact of the above changes on the flavor of the spice is discussed. These studies suggest that radiation processing of nutmeg should be limited to a dose of 5 kGy.

  12. LC/MS lipid profiling from human serum: a new method for global lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Di Veroli, Alessandra; Valeri, Aurora; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have improved the sensitivity and selectivity of LC/MS analyzers, providing very efficient tools for lipidomics research. In particular, the nine lipid classes that constitute 99 % of the human serum lipidome (sterols, cholesteryl esters, phosphocholines, phosphoethanolamines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, lysophosphocholines, and diacylglycerols) can be easily detected. However, until today there has not been a unique technique for sample preparation that provides a satisfactory recovery for all of these nine classes together. In this work, we have developed and validated a new one-phase extraction (OPE) method that overcomes this limitation. This method was also compared with the gold standard lipid extraction methods such as Folch, Bligh & Dyer, and recently developed methods with methanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether. Results demonstrate that the mixture of methanol/chloroform/MTBE (MMC) provides a recovery very close to 100 % for all nine lipid classes of the human serum investigated. For this extraction method, 100 μL of human serum is incubated with 2 mL of the solvents mixture, then vortexed and centrifuged. For its simplicity of execution, rapidity, reproducibility, and the reduced volume of sample required, this method opens the door to the use of human serum lipid profiling for large-scale applications in scientific research and clinical trials.

  13. HIF-2α dependent lipid storage promotes endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bo; Ackerman, Daniel; Sanchez, Danielle J.; Li, Bo; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Grazioli, Alison; Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Diehl, J. Alan; Keith, Brian; Simon, M. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Two hallmarks of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are constitutive hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling and abundant intracellular lipid droplets (LDs). However, regulation of lipid storage and its role in ccRCC are incompletely understood. Transcriptional profiling of primary ccRCC samples revealed that expression of the LD coat protein gene PLIN2 was elevated in tumors and correlated with HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, activation. HIF-2α dependent PLIN2 expression promoted lipid storage, proliferation, and viability in xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, lipid storage maintained integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is functionally and physically associated with LDs. Specifically, PLIN2 dependent lipid storage suppressed cytotoxic ER stress responses that otherwise result from elevated protein synthetic activity characteristic of ccRCC cells. Thus, in addition to promoting ccRCC proliferation and anabolic metabolism, HIF-2α modulates lipid storage to sustain ER homeostasis, particularly under conditions of nutrient and oxygen limitation, thereby promoting tumor cell survival. PMID:25829424

  14. Effect of selenium supplementation on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Hamidreza; Golmohamadi, Sima; Pasdar, Yahya; Jasemi, Kambiz; Almasi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major causes of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis is premature atherosclerosis. Selenium, a trace element involved in important enzymatic activities inside the body, has protective effects against lipid oxidation and inhibits cholesterol accumulation in blood vessels. Objectives: To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial which lasted for 3 months, 84 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental group (received selenium supplementation) or control group (received placebo). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and selenium level were measured before and after the study. Results: Mean (±SD) serum LDL-C level significantly increased in experimental group from 85.66 (±31.12) to 109.12 (±32.29) mg/dl (P<0.001). Likewise, in control group serum LDL-C significantly increased from 80.55 (±21.13) to 97.05 (±28.07) mg/dl (P<0.001). However, with control of LDL-C effect before and after the study, it was revealed that LDL-C change was not statistically significant (P=0.21). Similarly, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not show significant changes before and after the study in any group. Conclusion: Selenium supplementation had no beneficial effect on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27689119

  15. The lipid layer of tears: dependent on meibomian gland function.

    PubMed

    McCulley, James P; Shine, Ward E

    2004-03-01

    There is growing laboratory and clinical evidence implicating the meibomian glands of the eyelid as playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of various ocular surface disorders such as chronic blepharitis and dry eye. Meibomian glands produce a lipid material whose synthesis is dependent on factors such as stem cells, neurological stimulants and hormones. This lipid material is fluid, spreads easily, is a surfactant as well as an aqueous barrier, and must remain functional after a blink. Before delivery it can be modified by factors such as hormone abnormalities and even after delivery it may be modified by lipases produced by ocular bacteria.

  16. Anesthetic diffusion through lipid membranes depends on the protonation rate.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Sierra-Valdez, F J; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2014-12-18

    Hundreds of substances possess anesthetic action. However, despite decades of research and tests, a golden rule is required to reconcile the diverse hypothesis behind anesthesia. What makes an anesthetic to be local or general in the first place? The specific targets on proteins, the solubility in lipids, the diffusivity, potency, action time? Here we show that there could be a new player equally or even more important to disentangle the riddle: the protonation rate. Indeed, such rate modulates the diffusion speed of anesthetics into lipid membranes; low protonation rates enhance the diffusion for local anesthetics while high ones reduce it. We show also that there is a pH and membrane phase dependence on the local anesthetic diffusion across multiple lipid bilayers. Based on our findings we incorporate a new clue that may advance our understanding of the anesthetic phenomenon.

  17. The cosmological dependence of cluster density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, Mary M.; Evrard, August E.; Richstone, Douglas O.

    1994-10-01

    We use N-body simulations to study the shape of mean cluster density and velocity profiles in the nonlinear regime formed via gravitational instability. The dependence of the final structure on both cosmology and initial density field is examined, using a grid of cosmologies and scale-free initial power spectra P(k) varies as kn. Einstein-de Sitter, open (Omega0 = 0.2 and 0.1) and flat, low density (Omega0 = 0.2 lambda0 = 0.8) models are examined, with initial spectral indices n = -2, -1 and 0. For each model, we stack clusters in an appropriately scaled manner to define an average density profile in the nonlinear regime. The profiles are well fit by a power law rho(r) varies as r-alpha for radii whereat the local density contrast is between 100 and 3000. This covers 99% of the cluster volume. We find a clear trend toward steeper slopes (larger alphas) with both increasing n and decreasing Omega0. The Omega0 dependence is partially masked by the n dependence; there is degeneracy in the values of alpha between the Einstein-de Sitter and flat, low-density cosmologies. However, the profile slopes in the open models are consistently higher than the Omega = 1 values for the range of n examined. Cluster density profiles are thus potentially useful cosmological diagnostics. We find no evidence for a constant density core in any of the models, although the density profiles do tend to flatten at small radii. Much of the flattening is due to the force softening required by the simulations. An attempt is made to recover the unsoftened profiles assuming angular momentum invariance. The recovered profiles in Einstein-de Sitter cosmologies are consistent with a pure power law up to the highest density contrasts (106) accessible with our resolution. The low-density models show significant deviation from a power law above density contrasts approximately 105. We interpret this curvature as reflecting the non-scale-invariant nature of the background cosmology in these models. These

  18. The cosmological dependence of cluster density profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crone, Mary M.; Evrard, August E.; Richstone, Douglas O.

    1994-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study the shape of mean cluster density and velocity profiles in the nonlinear regime formed via gravitational instability. The dependence of the final structure on both cosmology and initial density field is examined, using a grid of cosmologies and scale-free initial power spectra P(k) varies as k(exp n). Einstein-de Sitter, open (Omega(sub 0) = 0.2 and 0.1) and flat, low density (Omega(sub 0) = 0.2 lambda(sub 0) = 0.8) models are examined, with initial spectral indices n = -2, -1 and 0. For each model, we stack clusters in an appropriately scaled manner to define an average density profile in the nonlinear regime. The profiles are well fit by a power law rho(r) varies as r(exp -alpha) for radii whereat the local density contrast is between 100 and 3000. This covers 99% of the cluster volume. We find a clear trend toward steeper slopes (larger alphas) with both increasing n and decreasing Omega(sub 0). The Omega(sub 0) dependence is partially masked by the n dependence; there is degeneracy in the values of alpha between the Einstein-de Sitter and flat, low-density cosmologies. However, the profile slopes in the open models are consistently higher than the Omega = 1 values for the range of n examined. Cluster density profiles are thus potentially useful cosmological diagnostics. We find no evidence for a constant density core in any of the models, although the density profiles do tend to flatten at small radii. Much of the flattening is due to the force softening required by the simulations. An attempt is made to recover the unsoftened profiles assuming angular momentum invariance. The recovered profiles in Einstein-de Sitter cosmologies are consistent with a pure power law up to the highest density contrasts (10(exp 6)) accessible with our resolution. The low-density models show significant deviation from a power law above density contrasts approximately 10(exp 5). We interpret this curvature as reflecting the non

  19. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  20. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sunil A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Liebeskind, David S.; Won, Seok Joon; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior efforts to identify a blood biomarker of brain injury have relied almost exclusively on proteins; however their low levels at early time points and poor correlation with injury severity have been limiting. Lipids, on the other hand, are the most abundant molecules in the brain and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously showed that certain sphingolipid (SL) species are highly specific to the brain. Here we examined the feasibility of using SLs as biomarkers for acute brain injury. A rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a mouse model of stroke were used to identify candidate SL species though our mass-spectrometry based lipid profiling approach. Plasma samples collected after TBI in the rat showed large increases in many circulating SLs following injury, and larger lesions produced proportionately larger increases. Plasma samples collected 24 hours after stroke in mice similarly revealed a large increase in many SLs. We constructed an SL score (sum of the two SL species showing the largest relative increases in the mouse stroke model) and then evaluated the diagnostic value of this score on a small sample of patients (n = 14) who presented with acute stroke symptoms. Patients with true stroke had significantly higher SL scores than patients found to have non-stroke causes of their symptoms. The SL score correlated with the volume of ischemic brain tissue. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lipid biomarkers to diagnose brain injury. Future studies will be needed to further characterize the diagnostic utility of this approach and to transition to an assay method applicable to clinical settings. PMID:26076478

  1. Stimation of reference interval of lipid profile in Assamese population.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhumita; Saikia, Mauchumi

    2009-04-01

    12hrs fasting samples of 1485 apparently healthy, Assamese population in the age group of 20-80 yrs., mostly from the urban area of Assam were tested for serum lipid profile that includes total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) over a period of three years. The values (median and range in mg/dl) obtained were 170 (93-263); 110 (40-256); 40 (23-73); 103 (40-173) and 22 (8-51) respectively. After grouping these subjects according to the age and sex no significant difference were observed between most of the groups. Median and upper range of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were found to be higher in women than in men in all the age groups. But triacylglycerol and VLDL-C concentrations were observed to be higher in the men than women except in age group of 61-70 yrs. It can be suggested that lipid values obtained in this study can be used as the reference value, based on which clinical correlation can be made. PMID:23105831

  2. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  3. Differential human urinary lipid profiles using various lipid-extraction protocols: MALDI-TOF and LIFT-TOF/TOF analyses.

    PubMed

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Changes in lipid levels/profiles can reflect health status and diseases. Urinary lipidomics, thus, has a great potential in clinical diagnostics/prognostics. Previously, only chloroform and methanol were used for extracting lipids from the urine. The present study aimed to optimize lipid extraction and examine differential lipid classes obtained by various extraction protocols. Urine samples were collected from eight healthy individuals and then pooled. Lipids were extracted by six solvent protocols, including (i) chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v), (ii) chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), (iii) hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v), (iv) chloroform, (v) diethyl ether, and (vi) hexane. Lipid profiles of the six extracts were acquired by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and some lipid classes were verified by LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The data revealed that phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be detected by all six protocols. However, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were detectable only by protocols (i)-(iv), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was detectable only by protocols (iii)-(vi), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was detectable only by protocols (v)-(vi). In summary, we have demonstrated differential lipidome profiles yielded by different extraction protocols. These data can serve as an important source for selection of an appropriate extraction method for further highly focused studies on particular lipid classes in the human urine. PMID:27646409

  4. Differential human urinary lipid profiles using various lipid-extraction protocols: MALDI-TOF and LIFT-TOF/TOF analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Changes in lipid levels/profiles can reflect health status and diseases. Urinary lipidomics, thus, has a great potential in clinical diagnostics/prognostics. Previously, only chloroform and methanol were used for extracting lipids from the urine. The present study aimed to optimize lipid extraction and examine differential lipid classes obtained by various extraction protocols. Urine samples were collected from eight healthy individuals and then pooled. Lipids were extracted by six solvent protocols, including (i) chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v), (ii) chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), (iii) hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v), (iv) chloroform, (v) diethyl ether, and (vi) hexane. Lipid profiles of the six extracts were acquired by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and some lipid classes were verified by LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The data revealed that phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be detected by all six protocols. However, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were detectable only by protocols (i)–(iv), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was detectable only by protocols (iii)–(vi), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was detectable only by protocols (v)–(vi). In summary, we have demonstrated differential lipidome profiles yielded by different extraction protocols. These data can serve as an important source for selection of an appropriate extraction method for further highly focused studies on particular lipid classes in the human urine. PMID:27646409

  5. Combined Supplementation with Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit Ethanol Extracts Dose-Dependently Improves Body Composition, Plasma Lipid Profiles, Inflammatory Status, and Antioxidant Capacity in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Su-Jung; Kim, Ae Hyang; Han, Youngji; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of combined grape pomace and omija fruit ethanol extracts (GO) on metabolic disorders in overweight or obese subjects. Seventy-six subjects (30-70 years, body mass index ≥23.0 kg/m2) were divided into control (starch, 4 g/day, n = 24), low-GO (low dose GO, grape pomace extract [342.5 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [57.5 mg/day], n = 26), and high-GO (high dose GO, grape pomace extract [685 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [115 mg/day], n = 26) groups. Body composition, nutrient intake, plasma lipid profiles, inflammation, antioxidant capacity, and hepatotoxicity markers were assessed in all subjects at the baseline and 10 weeks after taking the supplements. The body weight and body fat of overweight or obese subjects was not significantly altered in the low-GO and high-GO groups. However, the high-GO supplement significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final plasma total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels and increased the baseline-adjusted final plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 level compared with that of the control group. In addition, the high-GO supplement significantly lowered apo B, apo B/apo A-1, lipoprotein a (Lp[a]), atherogenic index, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and elevated erythrocyte antioxidant capacity compared with the control group or the baseline levels. The low-GO supplement decreased the plasma IL-1β level and elevated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity compared with that at baseline. However, in general, high-GO exerted a greater effect than low-GO. There were no significant differences in activities of plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase between the groups. This study is a preliminary clinical study to verify that GO could be beneficial for amelioration of obesity-related dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress

  6. The Temperature Dependence of Lipid Membrane Permeability, its Quantized Nature, and the Influence of Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Andreas; Wodzinska, Katarzyna; Fidorra, Matthias; Winterhalter, Mathias; Heimburg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the permeability of lipid membranes for fluorescence dyes and ions. We find that permeability reaches a maximum close to the chain melting transition of the membranes. Close to transitions, fluctuations in area and compressibility are high, leading to an increased likelihood of spontaneous lipid pore formation. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy reveals the permeability for rhodamine dyes across 100-nm vesicles. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we find that the permeability of vesicle membranes for fluorescence dyes is within error proportional to the excess heat capacity. To estimate defect size we measure the conductance of solvent-free planar lipid bilayer. Microscopically, we show that permeation events appear as quantized current events very similar to those reported for channel proteins. Further, we demonstrate that anesthetics lead to a change in membrane permeability that can be predicted from their effect on heat capacity profiles. Depending on temperature, the permeability can be enhanced or reduced. We demonstrate that anesthetics decrease channel conductance and ultimately lead to blocking of the lipid pores in experiments performed at or above the chain melting transition. Our data suggest that the macroscopic increase in permeability close to transitions and microscopic lipid ion channel formation are the same physical process. PMID:19486680

  7. Nutritional Status and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, M; Feliu, M S; Cassetti, L I; Slobodianik, N H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, there have been many reports of HIV infection and abnormalities in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims at describing the nutritional status of HIV-infected adults and its relation to lipid profile through traditional [total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL)] and other parameters [Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), fibrinogen, and high sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)]. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and references were taken from WHO. TC, HDL, TG and glucose were determined and non-HDL cholesterol and LDL were calculated. ApoB and fibrinogen were determined by quantitative radial immunodiffusion on agar plates (Diffuplate,Biocientífica SA,Argentina) and hs-CRP by immunoturbidimetric test. Qualitative variables were compared with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Quantitative variables were compared applying parametrics or nonparametric tests. Pearson test for correlations. Software SPSS 17.0. 97 patients were analyzed: 69.1% were men. 80% were on antiretroviral treatment. Average (SD) BMI was 24.3 (4.1) kg/m(2). 29.4% were overweight and 5.9% obese. Patients with a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher levels of TG, ApoB and glycemia than well-nourished people [246.1(169.0) vs. 142.9(78.4) mg/dL;p=0.029, 198.6(69.3) vs. 126.4(50.6) mg/dL;p=0.01 and 100 (3.2) vs. 90.2 (6.9) mg/dL;p=0.008 resp.] and a significantly decreased HDL [37.2(1.5) vs. 49.8(10.4) mg/dL;p<0.01]. No statistically significant correlation was found between ApoB and non-HDL (p=0,063). There was no evidence that there is a direct relation between Apo B and the other lipid parameters. The potential increase in CVD in this group of patients, would be related to the higher levels of TG, ApoB and overweight/obesity. Nutritional education is needed to promote a healthy weight to warn against the risk of

  8. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons.

    PubMed

    Cenzano, Ana M; Cantoro, Renata; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa; Abdala, Guillermina I; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-01-11

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  9. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons

    PubMed Central

    Cenzano, Ana M.; Cantoro, Renata; Teresa Hernandez-Sotomayor, S. M.; Abdala, Guillermina I.; Racagni, Graciela E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  10. Dependency of Lipid Raft Diffusion on System Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ryan

    2009-11-01

    An inherit limitation in molecular dynamics is a finite system size. Although periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic an infinite space, minimizing the artificial effects created by the physical dimensions of the system still remains an issue. Here I will discuss the undesirable relationship between system properties and system size observed via a dissipative particle dynamics approach. In particular, results illustrate a strong dependence between the diffusion of a lipid raft along a membrane and the length of the axis perpendicular to it, even at relatively large system sizes. Methods for obtaining system properties independently of simulation size are crucial for accurate results.

  11. Lipid Profiles in Wheat Cultivars Resistant and Susceptible to Tan Spot and the Effect of Disease on the Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongwon; Jeannotte, Richard; Welti, Ruth; Bockus, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid profiles in wheat leaves and the effects of tan spot on the profiles were quantified by mass spectrometry. Inoculation with Pyrenophora tritici-repentis significantly reduced the amount of leaf lipids, including the major plastidic lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which together accounted for 89% of the mass spectral signal of detected lipids in wheat leaves. Levels of these lipids in susceptible cultivars dropped much more quickly during infection than those in resistant cultivars. Furthermore, cultivars resistant or susceptible to tan spot displayed different lipid profiles; leaves of resistant cultivars had more MGDG and DGDG than susceptible ones, even in non-inoculated plants. Lipid compositional data from leaves of 20 non-inoculated winter wheat cultivars were regressed against an index of disease susceptibility and fitted with a linear model. This analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between resistance and levels of plastidic galactolipids and indicated that cultivars with high resistance to tan spot uniformly had more MGDG and DGDG than cultivars with high susceptibility. These findings suggest that lipid composition of wheat leaves may be a determining factor in the resistance response of cultivars to tan spot. PMID:23035632

  12. Effect of meditation on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Rashmi; Dikshit, Nirupama

    2002-10-01

    In this study, respiratory functions, cardiovascular parameters and lipid profile of those practicing Raja Yoga meditation (short and long term meditators) were compared with those of nonmediators. Vital capacity, tidal volume and breath holding were significantly higher in short and long term meditators than nonmeditators. Long term mediators had significantly higher vital capacity and expiratory pressure than short term meditators. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in both short and long term meditators as compared to nonmeditators. Heart rate was significantly lower in long term meditators than in short term meditators and nonmeditators. Lipid profile showed a significant lowering of serum cholesterol in short and long term meditators as compared to nonmeditators. Lipid profile of short and long term meditators was better than the profile of nonmeditators inspite of similar physical activity. This shows that Raja Yoga meditation provides significant improvements in respiratory functions, cardiovascular parameters and lipid profile.

  13. Comparative evaluation of raloxifene versus estrogen: Progestin on symptomatology, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Dogiparthi, Anuradha; Aggarwal, Neelam; Suri, Vanita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Malhotra, Sarla

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of raloxifene and estrogen progesterone (E + P) combination on symptoms, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled and allocated to three groups namely E + P, raloxifene, and controls. These groups were given 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone, 60 mg raloxifene and no therapy, respectively. Symptomatology and lipid profile were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months. Endometrial thickness was evaluated at 6 and 12 months, and endometrial biopsy was repeated at 12 months. The demographic profile of the women in the three different groups was comparable. In addition, the symptomatology, lipid profile, mean endometrial thickness, and endometrial biopsy categorization were comparable. E + P and raloxifene were equally effective in improving the postmenopausal symptoms and lipid profile. E + P had stimulatory effect on the endometrium, whereas raloxifene was found to be neutral. PMID:21799632

  14. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, Pinteraction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; Pinteraction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, Pinteraction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; Pinteraction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  15. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Pollin, Toni I; Isakova, Tamara; Jablonski, Kathleen A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S; Delahanty, Linda M; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Goldberg, Ronald B; Florez, Jose C; Franks, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17)). Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5)-1 10(-19)). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5), P(interaction) = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction) = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction) = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction) = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  16. Improved cardiac management with a disease management program incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    McAna, John F; Goldfarb, Neil I; Couto, Joseph; Henry, Michelle A; Piefer, Gary; Rapier, George M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improved effectiveness of a disease management treatment protocol incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling and targeted lipid care based on lipid profile findings in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) or congestive heart failure (CHF) enrolled in a managed care plan. This retrospective cohort study, conducted over a 2-year period, compared outcomes between patients with a standard lipid profile to those evaluated with a comprehensive lipid profile. All adult members of the WellMed Medical Management, Inc. managed care health plan diagnosed with IHD or CHF, and continuously enrolled between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2008, were included in the study. Cases were defined as those who had at least 1 comprehensive lipid test (the VAP [vertical auto profile] ultracentrifuge test) during this period (n=1767); they were compared to those who had no lipid testing or traditional standard lipid testing only (controls, n=289). Univariate statistics were analyzed to describe the groups, and bivariate t tests or chi-squares examined differences between the 2 cohorts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounders. The results show that the case group had lower total costs ($4852.62 vs. $7413.18; P=0.0255), fewer inpatient stays (13.1% vs. 18.3% of controls; P=0.0175) and emergency department visits (11.9% vs. 15.6% of controls; P=0.0832). Prescription use and frequency of lipid measurement suggested improved control resulting from a targeted approach to managing specific dyslipidemias. A treatment protocol incorporating a comprehensive lipid profile appears to improve care and reduce utilization and costs in a disease management program for cardiac patients.

  17. Characterizing Exposures of Fish to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent: An Integrated Metabolite and Lipid Profiling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolite and lipid profiling are well established techniques for studying chemical-induced alterations to normal biological function in numerous organisms. These techniques have been used successfully to identify biomarkers of chemical exposure, screen for chemical potency, or ...

  18. Correlation between anthropometry and lipid profile in healthy subjects of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Manjareeka, Magna; Nanda, Sitikantha; Mishra, Jayanti; Mishra, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases constitute one class of common contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in developing countries and is related to cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric parameters have the advantages in daily clinical practice of being a simple to measure tool with good reproducibility, especially in a developing country like India. Aim of this study is to correlate some anthropometric variables with lipid parameters in healthy subjects and to assess the anthropometric variable which best reflects the altered lipid profile. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted after the Institutional Ethical Committee Clearance. Included participants (1187) were subjected to anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference using standard procedures on the same morning of the day, as the blood sample was collected after overnight fast and estimated for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: There is a weak correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid parameters. Among all the anthropometric variables studied, WC is best correlated to lipid parameters. The mean values of lipid parameters were not significantly different in BMI <25 and BMI ≥25 groups. Conclusions: WC remains one of the simple and reliable variables which best reflects the lipid profile. In a developing country like India, where measurement of cardiovascular risk factors such as body fat saturation and lipid profile remains difficult in the rural population, WC may be used as an effective tool, without being used as a substitute. PMID:26903756

  19. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis.

  20. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  1. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  2. Profiling over 1500 lipids in induced lung sputum and the implications in studying lung diseases.

    PubMed

    t'Kindt, Ruben; Telenga, Eef D; Jorge, Lucie; Van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Sandra, Pat; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Sandra, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Induced lung sputum is a valuable matrix in the study of respiratory diseases. Although the methodology of sputum collection has evolved to a point where it is repeatable and responsive to inflammation, its use in molecular profiling studies is still limited. Here, an in-depth lipid profiling of induced lung sputum using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS) is described. An enormous complexity in lipid composition could be revealed. Over 1500 intact lipids, originating from 6 major lipid classes, have been accurately identified in 120 μL of induced sputum. By number and measured intensity, glycerophospholipids represent the largest lipid class, followed by sphingolipids, glycerolipids, fatty acyls, sterol lipids, and prenol lipids. Several prenol lipids, originating from tobacco, could be detected in the lung sputum of smokers. To illustrate the utility of the methodology in studying respiratory diseases, a comparative lipid screening was performed on lung sputum extracts in order to study the effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on the lung barrier lipidome. Results show that sphingolipid expression in induced sputum significantly differs between smokers with and without COPD.

  3. Effects of bioactive components of sea cucumber on the serum, liver lipid profile and lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Qian; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhao-Jie; Wang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Jia-Hui; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Several studies had indicated that the whole body of sea cucumber had beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. However, little information has been known on the individual functions of its bioactive components, and this study was undertaken to compare the different effects on improving lipid metabolism. The rats were assigned to seven groups: control, whole sea cucumber, saponins, polysaccharides, collagen peptides, dregs and non-saponin residues. After 28 d of feeding, the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and hepatic lipid concentrations were examined. The results indicated that a dietary saponin supplement significantly suppressed adipose accumulation, and reduced serum and hepatic lipids. Saponin proved to be more effective than the other isolated components, so is considered to be the main lipid-lowering component in sea cucumber. The possible mechanism by which saponins improved lipid metabolism was also investigated. The saponins of sea cucumber suppressed and delayed TG and TC absorption which could be related to the pancreatic lipase inhibiting effect of saponins. This may be an important mechanism to explain its lipid-lowering effect on rats.

  4. DJ-1 associates with lipid rafts by palmitoylation and regulates lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Suh, Young Ho; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang Myun

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disease. Several genes have been associated with familial type PD, providing tremendous insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Gathering evidence supports the view that these gene products may operate through common molecular pathways. Recent reports suggest that many PD-associated gene products, such as α-synuclein, LRRK2, parkin and PINK1, associate with lipid rafts and lipid rafts may be associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we observed that DJ-1 protein also associated with lipid rafts. Palmitoylation of three cysteine residues (C46/53/106) and C-terminal region of DJ-1 were required for this association. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the localization of DJ-1 into lipid rafts in astrocytes. The LPS-TLR4 signaling was more augmented in DJ-1 knock-out astrocytes by the impairment of TLR4 endocytosis. Furthermore, lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis including the endocytosis of CD14, which play a major role in regulating TLR4 endocytosis was also impaired, but clathrin-dependent endocytosis was not. This study provides a novel function of DJ-1 in lipid rafts, which may contribute the pathogenesis of PD. Moreover, it also provides the possibility that many PD-related proteins may operate through common molecular pathways in lipid rafts.

  5. Circulating lipids and glycaemic control in insulin dependent diabetic children.

    PubMed Central

    Azad, K; Parkin, J M; Court, S; Laker, M F; Alberti, K G

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and its relation to glycaemic control was studied in a group of 51 diabetic children and a control population of 132 schoolchildren. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the fasting state was increased in the diabetic group (39%) compared with control subjects (17%). Serum cholesterol concentration alone was raised in 25% of diabetic subjects while serum cholesterol and triglycerides were raised in 14%, compared with 16% and 0.7% respectively in control subjects. Serum total cholesterol (5.1 v 4.5 mmol/l), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.2 v 2.6 mmol/l), non-esterified fatty acids (0.91 v 0.50 mmol/l), and triglycerides (0.94 v 0.76 mmol/l) were higher in diabetic children. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein (apo)B concentrations increased with worsening control, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations were unaltered. There were also positive correlations between glycated haemoglobin and total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apoB in diabetic children. Thus, abnormalities in circulating lipids are common in young subjects with IDDM but largely disappear if blood glucose concentrations are reasonably controlled. PMID:7944528

  6. A Study to Evaluate Lipid Profile in Treatment Naïve HIV Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Devanath, Anitha; Ray, Somdattaa; Kumar, Ravi; Prarthana, B S

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with lipid abnormalities in treatment naïve patients. CD4 count is used for monitoring the HIV infection. Primary objective was to evaluate and correlate lipid profile and CD4 counts in HIV infection. Secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using Lipid profile to monitor the HIV infected treatment naïve patients instead of CD4 counts. 112 patients were selected based on a criteria from ART center in tertiary care center. CD4 counts were assessed and Lipid profile was evaluated enzymatically. A correlation study was done between the lipid profile and the CD4 count and clinical stages of infection. Cholesterol showed no significant correlation in any stage. HDL-C showed significant correlation (p < 0.05) with stage 2 and 4 disease. LDL-C showed no significant correlation in any stage. TGL showed significant correlation (p < 0.05) at stage 4 disease. Hence, HDL-C and TGL can be used as indicators of lipid status and for infection progression in treatment naive HIV patients, while Cholesterol and LDL-C has no role to play.

  7. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremanfard, Farahnaz; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Shahnazari, Banafsheh; Gholami, Golnaz; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease), as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian). With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL) in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5). No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis. PMID:26421116

  8. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  10. Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, D R S; Nakachima, L; Biagioni, R B; Nakazone, M A; Pinhel, M A S; Trindade, D M; Mafra, V T; Tácito, L H B; Martin, J F V; Pinheiro Júnior, S; Brandão, A C

    2007-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE - e2, e3, e4 alleles) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, with the e4 considered to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the apoE polymorphisms in Brazilians with CAD and their influence on the lipid profile and other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking). Two hundred individuals were examined: 100 patients with atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography and 100 controls. Blood samples were drawn to determine apoE polymorphisms and lipid profile. As expected, the e3 allele was prevalent in the CAD (0.87) and non-CAD groups (0.81; P = 0.099), followed by the e4 allele (0.09 and 0.14, respectively; P = 0.158). The e3/3 (76 and 78%) and e3/4 (16 and 23%) were the most common genotypes for patients and controls, respectively. The lipid profile was altered in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), independently of the e4 allele. However, in the controls this allele was prevalent in individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels only (odds ratio = 2.531; 95% CI = 1.028-6.232). The frequency of risk factors was higher in the CAD group (P < 0.05), but their association with the lipid profile was not demonstrable in e4 carriers. In conclusion, the e4 allele is not associated with CAD or lipid profile in patients with atherosclerosis. However, its frequency in the non-CAD group is associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol, suggesting an independent effect of the e4 allele on lipid profile when the low frequency of other risk factors in this group is taken into account. PMID:17273655

  11. The type of fat ingested at breakfast influences the plasma lipid profile of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ruiz, J M; Delgado-Alarcon, J M; Rubio-Perez, J M; Albaladejo Oton, M D

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  12. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  13. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  14. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p < 0.05). In view of the close association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  15. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  16. An implicit solvent coarse-grained lipid model with correct stress profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodt, Alex J.; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    We develop a coarse-grained parametrization strategy for lipid membranes that we illustrate for a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. Our coarse-graining approach eliminates the high cost of explicit solvent but maintains more lipid interaction sites. We use a broad attractive tail-tail potential and extract realistic bonded potentials of mean force from all-atom simulations, resulting in a model with a sharp gel to fluid transition, a correct bending modulus, and overall very reasonable dynamics when compared with experiment. We also determine a quantitative stress profile and correct breakdown of contributions from lipid components when compared with detailed all-atom simulation benchmarks, which has been difficult to achieve for implicit membrane models. Such a coarse-grained lipid model will be necessary for efficiently simulating complex constructs of the membrane, such as protein assembly and lipid raft formation, within these nonaqueous chemical environments.

  17. PROFILE OF LIVER DYSFUNCTION IN ALCHOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Desai, N.G.; Vaswani, M.; Chavan, B.S.; Tripathi, B.M.; Kaw, N.

    1996-01-01

    Ninety two patients of alcohol dependence were studied for liver function at a specialised drug dependence treatment centre. Biochemical laboratory evidence of liver dysfunction was found in a very large number of patients, including the patients who had no clinical signs or symptoms. The findings from this retrospective study are discussed in the context of the earlier studies from other settings in India. PMID:21584115

  18. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat.

  19. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat. PMID:26506539

  20. Short-term menhaden oil rich diet changes renal lipid profile in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Denninghoff, Valeria C; Uceda, Ana M; Díaz, Maria L; Uicich, Raúl; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid were analyzed. Renal lipid profile, as well as the fatty acid composition of the three oils, was measured. Choline-deficient rats fed vegetable oils showed renal cortical necrosis. Renal omega-6 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a cholinedeficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with vegetable oils, while renal omega-3 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a choline-deficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with menhaden oil. Rats fed menhaden oil diets had higher levels of renal eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Renal myristic acid was increased in rats fed menhaden oil. The lipid renal profile varied quickly according to the type of oil present in the diet.

  1. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    DOE PAGES

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reportermore » of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. In conclusion, our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.« less

  2. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    PubMed

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  3. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    PubMed

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. PMID:27164999

  4. Lipoprotein and lipid profiles of elite athletes in Olympic sports.

    PubMed

    Tsopanakis, C; Kotsarellis, D; Tsopanakis, A D

    1986-12-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain an insight into the influence exerted upon plasma lipid parameters by high quality physical training in different specialties of nine Olympic sports. We compared the concentrations of serum cholesterol (TC), total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL, VLDL, and % distribution of HDL, LDL, and VLDL of elite athletes (n = 127, age = 22.0 +/- 3.2 yrs) participating in regular training for over 3 years (2-4 h/day), separated into 11 groups of athletic specialties, with those obtained from a group of selected sedentary controls (n = 26, age = 25.3 +/- 4.5 yrs). We also compared the lipoprotein ratio factor (RF) values TC/HDL and LDL/HDL. The athletic disciplines examined were football, basketball, volleyball, boxing, wrestling, judo, sailing, skiing (slalom), track (two groups), and throwing-jumping. Football, volleyball, judo, SD and LD running, and the total sum of athletes had significantly higher HDL than the controls. Football, basketball, volleyball and all the disciplines taken together showed significantly lower LDL. Boxing, judo, and LD running had significantly lower VLDL and volleyball, SD, and LD running significantly lower %VLDL. Volleyball had significantly lower TL, boxing and volleyball lower TC, while judo, boxing, SD and LD running had lower TG. Sailing had significantly lower %HDL and higher %LDL and TL than the controls; wrestling, skiing, and throwing-jumping did not differ. In all the athletes taken together, VO2 max or relative body weight, with respect to HDL and TC/HDL, were found to be slightly correlated (r = 0.30, P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. MOLECULAR GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL APPROACHES FOR DEFINING LIPID-DEPENDENT MEMBRANE PROTEIN FOLDING

    PubMed Central

    Dowhan, William; Bogdanov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein folding and topogenesis. Lipid dependence of this process was determined by employing Escherichia coli cells in which specific lipids can be eliminated, substituted, tightly titrated or controlled temporally during membrane protein synthesis and assembly. The secondary transport protein lactose permease (LacY) was used to establish general principles underlying the molecular basis of lipid-dependent effects on protein domain folding, protein transmembrane domain (TM) orientation, and function. These principles were then extended to several other secondary transport proteins of E. coli. The methods used to follow proper conformational organization of protein domains and the topological organization of protein TMs in whole cells and membranes are described. The proper folding of an extramembrane domain of LacY that is crucial for energy dependent uphill transport function depends on specific lipids acting as non-protein molecular chaperones. Correct TM topogenesis is dependent on charge interactions between the cytoplasmic surface of membrane proteins and a proper balance of the membrane surface net charge defined by the lipid head groups. Short-range interactions between the nascent protein chain and the translocon are necessary but not sufficient for establishment of final topology. After release from the translocon short-range interactions between lipid head groups and the nascent protein chain, partitioning of protein hydrophobic domains into the membrane bilayer, and long–range interactions within the protein thermodynamically drive final membrane protein organization. Given the diversity of membrane lipid compositions throughout nature, it is tempting to speculate that during the course of evolution the physical and chemical properties of proteins and lipids have co-evolved in the context of the lipid environment of membrane systems in which both are mutually depend on each other for

  6. A simple desalting method for direct MALDI mass spectrometry profiling of tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hay-Yan J; Liu, Cheng Bin; Wu, Hsuan-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Direct MALDI-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) profiling of tissue lipids often observes isobaric phosphatidylcholine (PC) species caused by the endogenous alkali metal ions that bias the relative abundance of tissue lipids. Fresh rat brain cryosections were washed with 70% ethanol (EtOH), water (H₂O), or 150 mM ammonium acetate (NH₄Ac), and the desalting effectiveness of each fluid was evaluated by MALDI-MS profiling of PC and sphingomyelin (SM) species in tissue and in the washing runoff. The results indicated that EtOH and H₂O only partially desalted the tissue lipids, yet both substantially displaced the tissue lipids to the washing runoffs. On the other hand, NH₄Ac effectively desalted the tissue lipids and produced a runoff containing no detectable PCs or SMs. NH₄Ac wash also unveiled the underlying changes of PCs and SMs in the infarcted rat cortex previously masked by edema-caused increase of tissue sodium. The MS/MS of an isobaric PC in the infarcted cortex revealed the precursor change as the result of NH₄Ac wash and confirmed the desalting effectiveness of such wash. Other than desalting, NH₄Ac wash also removes contaminants in tissue, enhances the overall spectral quality, and benefits additionally in profiling of biological molecules in tissue. PMID:21266365

  7. Comparative lipid profiling of the cnidarian Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Teresa A; Schmeitzel, John L; Klein, Joshua A; Hwang, Janice J; Schwarz, Jodi A

    2013-01-01

    Corals and other cnidarians house photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts within membrane-bound compartments inside gastrodermal cells. Nutritional interchanges between the partners produce carbohydrates and lipids for metabolism, growth, energy stores, and cellular structures. Although lipids play a central role in the both the energetics and the structural/morphological features of the symbiosis, previous research has primarily focused on the fatty acid and neutral lipid composition of the host and symbiont. In this study we conducted a mass spectrometry-based survey of the lipidomic changes associated with symbiosis in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, an important model system for coral symbiosis. Lipid extracts from A. pallida in and out of symbiosis with its symbiont Symbiodinium were prepared and analyzed using negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Through this analysis we have identified, by exact mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS), several classes of glycerophospholipids in A. pallida. Several molecular species of di-acyl phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as well as 1-alkyl, 2-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidycholine were identified. The 1-alkyl, 2-acyl PEs are acid sensitive suggestive that they are plasmalogen PEs possessing a double bond at the 1-position of the alkyl linked chain. In addition, we identified several molecular species of phosphonosphingolipids called ceramide aminoethylphosphonates in anemone lipid extracts by the release of a characteristic negative product ion at m/z 124.014 during MS/MS analysis. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), an anionic lipid often found in photosynthetic organisms, was identified as a prominent component of Symbiodinium lipid extracts. A comparison of anemone lipid profiles revealed a subset of lipids that show dramatic differences in abundance when anemones are in the symbiotic state as compared to the non

  8. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. In conclusion, our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.

  9. Effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on lipid profile and histopathological changes in hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheraji, S H; Amin, I; Azlan, A; Manap, M Y; Hassan, F A

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on lipid profile, liver and kidney function, and body fat in hypercholesterolaemic rats. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The negative control group received a standard diet. The positive control group received a cholesterol-enriched diet, whereas the intervention groups received a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with B. longum BB536 alone or in combination with inulin or Mangifera pajang fibrous polysaccharides. After 8 weeks, plasma lipids, and liver and kidney function were tested. Intake of the cholesterol-enriched diet increased total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, creatinine, urea, liver weight, adipose tissue weight, liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size. B. longum BB536 supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol, liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size, and positively affected liver and kidney function. These effects were significantly increased in the presence of inulin and M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides.

  10. Lipid profiling of cancerous and benign gallbladder tissues by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, Kamaiah; Sonkar, Kanchan; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay K; Sinha, Neeraj

    2011-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative (1) H NMR analysis of lipid extracts of gallbladder tissue in chronic cholecystitis (CC, benign) (n = 14), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC, intermediate) (n = 9) and gallbladder cancer (GBC, malignant) (n = 8) was carried out to understand the mechanisms involved in the transformation of benign gallbladder tissue to intermediate and malignant tissue. The results revealed alterations in various tissue lipid components in gallbladder in CC, XGC and GBC. The difference in the nature of lipid components in benign and malignant disease may aid in the identification of the biological pathways involved in the etiopathogenesis of GBC. This is the first study on lipid profiling of gallbladder tissue by (1) H NMR spectroscopy, and has possible implications for the development of future diagnostic approaches. PMID:22945290

  11. Clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia are associated to overweight and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Cano-García, Francisco J; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Fernández-Riejo, Patricia; Moreno Fernández, Ana M; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; De Miguel, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    In order to analyze the association between body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and clinical symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia, we assessed BMI levels, lipid profile and its association with clinical symptoms in 183 patients with fibromyalgia. The patients were evaluated using tender points, FIQ and Visual Analogue Scales of pain (VAS). Serum lipid profile analysis (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL), and biochemical parameters were measured in the biochemistry laboratory. The BMI distribution of the nonobese, overweight and obese patients' groups were relatively even with 37.7, 35.5 and 26.8%, respectively, with a mean BMI of 27.3 ± 4.9. The number of tender points showed significantly positive correlation with higher BMI (P < 0.05). A total of 57.9% of patients showed increased levels of total cholesterol, 63.4 % increased levels of LDL cholesterol and 19.9% high levels of triglycerides. BMI, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed high association with some clinical parameters. Overweight and lipid profile could be associated with fibromyalgia symptoms. A treatment program with weight loss strategies, and control in diet and increased physical activity is advised to patients.

  12. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  13. The effects of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on lipid profile in women.

    PubMed

    Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Jalali, Mahmoud; Heshmat, Ramin; Chamary, Maryam

    2010-06-01

    Many studies have been done on the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic yoghurt. The results, however, are not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on the lipid profile in women. In a randomised trial, ninety female volunteers aged 19-49 years were assigned to three groups. Subjects consumed daily 300 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g conventional yoghurt or no yoghurt for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples, 3 d dietary records and anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline (T1), end of week 3 (T2) and end of week 6 (T3). Lipid profile parameters were determined by enzymic methods. Results showed no significant difference in lipid profile within any group throughout the study. Comparing mean differences (T1 - T3) among the three groups showed: no difference in TAG and LDL-cholesterol, a decrease in cholesterol in both conventional (P < 0.05) and probiotic yoghurt groups (P < 0.005) compared with the control group, a decrease in total:HDL-cholesterol ratio for conventional (P < 0.05) and probiotic yoghurt groups (P < 0.001) compared with the control group, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol in the probiotic yoghurt group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Positive changes in lipid profile were observed in both yoghurt groups. Any added effect, therefore, is due to the consumption of fermented milk products. PMID:20100374

  14. Monoolein-based cubosomes affect lipid profile in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Murgia, Sergio; Putzu, Danilo; Meli, Valeria; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2015-10-01

    Monoolein-based cubosomes are promising drug delivery nanocarriers for theranostic purposes. Nevertheless, a small amount of research has been undertaken to investigate the impact of these biocompatible nanoparticles on cell lipid profile. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore changes in lipid components occurring in human carcinoma HeLa cells when exposed to short-term treatments (2 and 4h) with monoolein-based cubosomes stabilized by Pluronic F108 (MO/PF108). A combination of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC with DAD and ELSD detection was performed to analyze cell total fatty acid profile and levels of phospholipids, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. The treatments with MO/PF108 cubosomes, at non-cytotoxic concentration (83μg/mL of MO), affected HeLa fatty acid profile, and a significant increase in the level of oleic acid 18:1 n-9 was observed in treated cells after lipid component saponification. Nanoparticle uptake modulated HeLa cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of oleic acid in the phospholipid and triacylglycerol fractions, whereas no changes were observed in the cellular levels of free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate. Moreover, cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplet content were assessed on cubosome-treated cells with an alternative technique using Nile red staining. A significant increase in the amount of the intracellular membranes and mostly in the cytoplasmic lipid droplets was detected, confirming that monoolein-based cubosome treatment influences the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of lipid droplets.

  15. Plasma lipid profiling in a large population-based cohort[S

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Christopher K.; Greeve, Melissa A.; Kowalczyk, Adam; Almasy, Laura; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.; Shaw, Jonathan; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Meikle, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed plasma lipid profiling using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry on a population cohort of more than 1,000 individuals. From 10 μl of plasma we were able to acquire comparative measures of 312 lipids across 23 lipid classes and subclasses including sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and cholesterol esters (CEs) in 20 min. Using linear and logistic regression, we identified statistically significant associations of lipid classes, subclasses, and individual lipid species with anthropometric and physiological measures. In addition to the expected associations of CEs and triacylglycerol with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), ceramide was significantly higher in males and was independently associated with age and BMI. Associations were also observed for sphingomyelin with age but this lipid subclass was lower in males. Lysophospholipids were associated with age and higher in males, but showed a strong negative association with BMI. Many of these lipids have previously been associated with chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and may mediate the interactions of age, sex, and obesity with disease risk. PMID:23868910

  16. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  17. Lipid profiles within the SABRE trial of anastrozole with and without risedronate.

    PubMed

    Van Poznak, Catherine; Makris, Andreas; Clack, Glen; Barlow, David H; Eastell, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Lipid profiles in women with early breast cancer receiving anastrozole with or without risedronate were examined within an international Phase III/IV study to assess for possible treatment related changes. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were assigned to 1 of 3 strata by risk of fragility fracture. Patients with the highest risk for fracture received anastrozole plus risedronate (A + R). Moderate-risk patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to A + R or anastrozole and placebo (A + P). Lower-risk patients received anastrozole (A) alone. Serial fasting blood samples were assessed for changes in lipid parameters relative to baseline after 12 months of treatment with anastrozole with or without risedronate. Samples were centrally analyzed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Analysis was performed as primary analysis population for lipids (A plus A + P), lipid intention to treat population and secondary population (A + R). Of the 119 patients treated with A plus A + P, there were 66 patients eligible for inclusion in the primary analysis population. Of the 115 patients treated with secondary population (A + R) there were 65 patients eligible for lipid profiling. For LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TC and TG there were no significant changes between the baseline and 12 months assessments to suggest that any of these therapies have a negative impact on the lipid profile. In this study of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole with or without risedronate, there was no adverse effect on LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TC or TG values over the 12 months monitoring period.

  18. Lipid Profiles within the SABRE Trial of Anastrozole with and without Risedronate

    PubMed Central

    Van Poznak, Catherine; Makris, Andreas; Clack, Glen; Barlow, David H.; Eastell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lipid profiles in women with early breast cancer receiving anastrozole with or without risedronate were examined within an international Phase III/IV study to assess for possible treatment related changes. Methods Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were assigned to 1 of 3 strata by risk of fragility fracture. Patients with the highest risk for fracture received anastrozole plus risedronate (A+R). Moderate-risk patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to anastrozole and risedronate (A+R) or anastrozole and placebo (A+P). Lower-risk patients received anastrozole (A) alone. Serial fasting blood samples were assessed for changes in lipid parameters relative to baseline after 12 months of treatment with anastrozole with or without risedronate. Samples were centrally analyzed for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Analysis was performed as primary analysis population for lipids (A plus A+P), lipid intention to treat population and secondary population (A+R). Results Of the 119 patients treated with A plus A+P, there were 66 patients eligible for inclusion in the primary analysis population. Of the 115 patients treated with secondary population (A+R) there were 65 patients eligible for lipid profiling. For LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TC and TG there were no significant changes between the baseline and 12 month assessments to suggest that any of these therapies have a negative impact on the lipid profile. Conclusions In this study of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole with or without risedronate, there was no adverse effect on LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TC or TG values over the 12 month monitoring period. PMID:22763465

  19. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  20. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  1. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  2. Serial measurement of lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Harsh Vardhan; Raizada, Arun; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentration of lipids and lipoproteins changes during the course of acute coronary syndrome as a consequence of the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the levels of lipid profile and inflammatory markers. We investigated 400 patients with AMI who were admitted within 24 h of onset of symptoms. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined by standard enzymatic methods along with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay) and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (quantitative ''sandwich'' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The results indicate a trend of reduced TC, LDL, and HDL, and elevated TG levels, along with pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (p < 0.001), between day 1 and the day 2 serum samples of AMI patients. However, corrections in the serum levels have been observed at day 7. Our results demonstrate significant variations in the mean lipid levels and inflammatory markers between days 1, 2 and 7 after AMI. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum lipids should be assessed within 24 hours after infarction. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. Exact knowledge regarding baseline serum lipids and lipoprotein levels as well as their varying characteristics can provide a rational basis for clinical decisions about lipid lowering therapy. PMID:26535040

  3. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  4. Forensic identification of seal oils using lipid profiles and statistical models.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret H; Seaborn, Gloria T; Schwacke, John H

    2013-03-01

    Seal blubber oils are used as a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Canada but prohibited in the United States and (FA) European Union. Thus, a reliable method is needed to identify oils originating from seals versus fish. Two lipid profiling methods, fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, were applied with statistical models to discriminate commercial oils and blubber samples harvested from marine fish and seals. Significant differences were observed among FA profiles, and seal samples differed from each of the fish oils (p ≤ 0.001). FA and TAG profiles were used to discriminate sample groups using a random forest classifier; all samples were classified correctly as seals versus fish using both methods. We propose a two-step method for the accurate identification of seal oils, with preliminary identification based on FA profile analysis and confirmation with TAG profiles.

  5. Study of lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and vitamin E in pregnancy induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Suchanda; Abraham, Rebecca; Vedavalli, R; Daniel, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common medical complication of pregnancy with a high incidence. The study comprised of 30 normal and 30 PIH cases in their third trimester of pregnancy and the following estimations were done: Serum Malondialdehyde level (MDA), Vitamin E, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C. The PIH cases had significant rise in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (P=<0.0001). There was a significant rise in the fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in PIH (P=<0.0001). MDA was twice in the cases and Vitamin E was half the levels that of controls (P=<0.0001). The level of rise of serum lipids did not significantly correlate with the rise or fall in MDA. In PIH cases there was a negative correlation of diastolic BP with MDA (P<0.05). Early detection of these parameters is going to aid in better management of PIH cases.

  6. Extended synaptotagmins are Ca2+-dependent lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijia; Liu, Yinghui; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Paine, Alex; Rathore, Shailendra S; Shen, Jingshi

    2016-04-19

    Organelles are in constant communication with each other through exchange of proteins (mediated by trafficking vesicles) and lipids [mediated by both trafficking vesicles and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs)]. It has long been known that vesicle trafficking can be tightly regulated by the second messenger Ca(2+), allowing membrane protein transport to be adjusted according to physiological demands. However, it remains unclear whether LTP-mediated lipid transport can also be regulated by Ca(2+) In this work, we show that extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), poorly understood membrane proteins at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, are Ca(2+)-dependent LTPs. Using both recombinant and endogenous mammalian proteins, we discovered that E-Syts transfer glycerophospholipids between membrane bilayers in the presence of Ca(2+) E-Syts use their lipid-accommodating synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid binding protein (SMP) domains to transfer lipids. However, the SMP domains themselves cannot transport lipids unless the two membranes are tightly tethered by Ca(2+)-bound C2 domains. Strikingly, the Ca(2+)-regulated lipid transfer activity of E-Syts was fully recapitulated when the SMP domain was fused to the cytosolic domain of synaptotagmin-1, the Ca(2+)sensor in synaptic vesicle fusion, indicating that a common mechanism of membrane tethering governs the Ca(2+)regulation of lipid transfer and vesicle fusion. Finally, we showed that microsomal vesicles isolated from mammalian cells contained robust Ca(2+)-dependent lipid transfer activities, which were mediated by E-Syts. These findings established E-Syts as a novel class of LTPs and showed that LTP-mediated lipid trafficking, like vesicular transport, can be subject to tight Ca(2+)regulation. PMID:27044075

  7. Autophagy regulation depends on ER homeostasis controlled by lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Ariadna P; Graef, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a highly conserved homeostasis and quality control process critically linked to neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. A key feature of autophagy is the de novo formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane vesicular structures encapsulating cytoplasmic cargo for vacuolar turnover and recycling. The membrane rearrangements underlying nucleation, expansion, closure, and vacuolar fusion of autophagosomes are driven by multicomponent core autophagy machinery in cooperation with numerous factors involved in a variety of cellular processes. Our current understanding of the origin and contribution of diverse membrane sources to autophagosome biogenesis and of cellular functions enabling stress-appropriate autophagy responses critical for cell health and survival remains limited. Here, we summarize and discuss our recent findings analyzing the role of lipid droplets (LDs), conserved intracellular storage compartments for neutral lipids, for autophagy regulation. Our data indicate that LDs are dispensable as membrane sources, but fulfill critical functions for maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, including buffering of newly synthesized fatty acids and maintenance of phospholipid composition, required for intact autophagy regulation and cell survival during nutrient stress.

  8. Effects of endurance training on blood lipid profiles in adolescent female distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mitsuzono, Ryoichi; Ube, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of endurance training on the relationships of body composition, blood lipid profiles and sex hormones in adolescent female distance-runners. We cross-sectionally compared body composition, blood lipid profiles and blood sex hormones of non-athletes (n=7) and distance-runners (n=8), with the similar lower level of BMI (17.1 kg/m(2) vs. 18.7 kg/m(2), respectively). After the cross sectional comparison on the influence of endurance training, body composition, blood lipid profiles and blood sex hormones were examined at pre- and post-one year endurance training in the distance-runners (n=6) to determine longitudinal effects. %Fat in distance-runners revealed a tendency to be lower than that in non-athletes (23.8+/-3.5 vs 27.3+/-2.5%). Both groups showed good blood lipid profiles, such as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), HDL-2c, and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). However, the estrogen (E(2)) level of distance-runners was less than one third of that in non-athletes (30.5+/-11.3 vs 112.9+/-66.2 pg/ml, p<0.01). In addition, the blood E(2) levels (pg/ml) were significantly associated with the internal fat mass (IF, kg) in all subjects (r=-0.613, p<0.05, n=15). On the other hand, the overall body composition and good blood lipid profiles in the longitudinal comparison were maintained to a constant level for one year endurance training, except for significant elevations in the two enzyme activities and E(2) level (LPL activity: from 145.3+/-40.8 to 362.2+/-65.8 ng/ml, HTGL activity: from 0.054+/-0.020 to 0.173+/-0.080 micromole/ml/min, E(2): from 30.7+/-13.2 to 65.6+/-24.2 pg/ml, p<0.05). These results suggest that the lipid profiles such as HDL-c and Apo A-I in adolescent female distance-runners could be rather affected by endurance training, despite the low level of E(2) for a long term.

  9. Metabolite and Lipid Profiling of Biobank Plasma Samples Collected Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Ärlestig, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective The early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is desirable to install treatment to prevent disease progression and joint destruction. Autoantibodies and immunological markers pre-date the onset of symptoms by years albeit not all patients will present these factors, even at disease onset. Additional biomarkers would be of high value to improve early diagnosis and understanding of the process, leading to disease development. Methods Plasma samples donated before the onset of RA were identified in the Biobank of Northern Sweden, a collection within national health survey programs. Thirty samples from pre-symptomatic individuals and nineteen from controls were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) metabolite and lipid profiling. Lipid and metabolite profiles discriminating samples from pre-symptomatic individuals from controls were identified after univariate and multivariate OPLS-DA based analyses. Results The OPLS-DA models including pre-symptomatic individuals and controls identified profiles differentiating between the groups that was characterized by lower levels of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids, with higher levels of lysophospatidylcholines (LPCs) and metabolites from tryptophan metabolism in pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls. Lipid profiling showed that the majority of phospholipids and sphingomyelins were at higher levels in pre-symptomatic individuals in comparison with controls. Conclusions Our LCMS based approach demonstrated that there are changes in small molecule and lipid profiles detectable in plasma samples collected from the pre-symptomatic individuals who subsequently developed RA, which point to an up-regulation of levels of lysophospatidylcholines, and of tryptophan metabolism, perturbation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and increased oxidative stress in pre-symptomatic individuals’ years before onset of symptoms. PMID:27755546

  10. The role of Fe3+ on Fe2+-dependent lipid peroxidation in phospholipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ohyashiki, Takao; Kadoya, Akinori; Kushida, Katsumi

    2002-02-01

    Fe2+-dependent lipid peroxidation in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production, was stimulated in the presence of Fe3+ in a concentration-dependent manner. The rates of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction and Fe2+ oxidation (Fe2+ disappearance and Fe3+ formation) were also enhanced by the addition of Fe3+ to the reaction mixture, and there is a good linear relationship between these parameters. These results suggest that the facilitation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via Fe2+ oxidation is closely related to the onset of the stimulatory effect of Fe3+ on Fe2+-dependent lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, results using the liposomes containing various concentrations of endogenous lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) indicated that endogenous LOOH is not directly involved in the onset of the Fe3+ stimulatory effect on Fe2+-dependent TBARS production and ROS production. This hypothesis was further confirmed by the evidence that Fe2+-dependent ROS production and Fe2+ oxidation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes were also stimulated by the addition of Fe3+. The results with several antioxidants and radical scavengers suggested that ROS related to Fe2+-dependent lipid peroxidation and its stimulation by Fe3+ are ferrous-oxygen complexes rather than superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Based on these results, we proposed a possible mechanism for the onset of the Fe3+ stimulation in Fe2+-dependent lipid peroxidation. PMID:11848210

  11. Factors Associated with Adiposity, Lipid Profile Disorders and the Metabolic Syndrome Occurrence in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the dependencies between a woman’s menopausal status and adiposity, lipid profile and metabolic syndrome occurrence, as well as finding out whether the correlations between the socio-demographic profile and lifestyle elements and adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS are the same before and after menopause. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3636 women, aged between 40–59, which involved a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples, on the basis of which the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose was estimated. Before menopause, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.08; %BFβ = 0.07; WCβ = 0.06) was characteristic for women living in a stable relationship than for single women. Women who smoked in the past were characterized by a higher BMI (β = 0.09) and WC (β = 0.06) in comparison with women who have never smoked, while after menopause a greater adiposity (%BFβ = 0.12) and a worse lipid profile (TCβ = 0.08; LDLβ = 0.07; HDLβ = -0.05; TGβ = 0.14) were present in women currently smoking, in comparison to women who have never smoked. After menopause, in women who had two or more children, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.07 and 0.09; %BFβ = 0.05 and 0.07) and a higher risk of MetS (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03–1.44) was observed compared to nulliparous women, than before menopause. In women with a higher level of education, the risk of MetS after menopause was significantly lower compared with women with a lower level of education (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.61–0.90). Physical activity after menopause had a higher influence on the decrease in the women’s adiposity (BMIβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; %BFβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; WCβ = -0.14 v. -0.08), than before menopause. In women not undergoing hormone replacement therapy, some of the socio-demographic factors and lifestyle elements affected adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS differently before and after

  12. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Fereshteh; Kia, Mahsa; Soleimani, Alireza; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge, data on the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are scarce. The current study was done to determine the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with DN. This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 60 patients with DN were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 200 μg of selenium supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) daily for 12 weeks. Blood sampling was performed for the quantification of glycemic indicators and lipid profiles at the onset of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention. Selenium supplementation for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated B cell function (HOMA-B) (P = 0.009) and a significant rise in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Taking selenium supplements had no significant effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and lipid profiles compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that selenium supplementation for 12 weeks among patients with DN had beneficial effects on plasma GPx, serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B, while it did not affect FPG, QUICKI, and lipid profiles. PMID:26686847

  13. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Methods Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. Results A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal

  14. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2006-11-01

    Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favourably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19 % compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins--these include plant sterols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk.

  15. Sage Tea Drinking Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Defences in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Carla M.; Ramos, Alice A.; Azevedo, Marisa F.; Lima, Cristovao F.; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (common sage) is a plant with antidiabetic properties. A pilot trial (non-randomized crossover trial) with six healthy female volunteers (aged 40–50) was designed to evaluate the beneficial properties of sage tea consumption on blood glucose regulation, lipid profile and transaminase activity in humans. Effects of sage consumption on erythrocytes’ SOD and CAT activities and on Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes were also evaluated. Four weeks sage tea treatment had no effects on plasma glucose. An improvement in lipid profile was observed with lower plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels as well as higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels during and two weeks after treatment. Sage tea also increased lymphocyte Hsp70 expression and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities. No hepatotoxic effects or other adverse effects were observed. PMID:19865527

  16. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2006-11-01

    Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favourably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19 % compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins--these include plant sterols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk. PMID:17125536

  17. The effect of omega-3 on serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Hamid Reza; Pasdar, Yahya; Raisi, Daryosh; Najafi, Farid; Esfandiari, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major complications in hemodialysis patients is cardiovascular disease. Lipid abnormality is an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To investigate the effect of omega-3 supplementation on serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study included 2 groups of patients: those who received omega-3 supplementation (experimental group; 30 cases) and those who received placebo (control group; 30 cases). They received these for 10 weeks and serum lipid profile (triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C], and total cholesterol) was assessed 2 times, first before initiating supplementation and then at the end of 10-week study period. Results: Mean (±SD) serum total cholesterol levels at the beginning was 163 (±47) mg/dL in experimental group and 143 (±25) mg/dL in control group (P> 0.05). These values decreased to 124 mg/dL and 132 mg/dL in control and experimental groups (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference of HDL-C, LDL-C, or triglyceride levels between experimental and control groups after 10 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation in hemodialysis patients only showed significant decrease of serum total cholesterol level, but not other lipids. PMID:26468477

  18. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  19. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  20. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  1. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  2. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  3. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm. PMID:26811546

  4. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm.

  5. Glycaemia Status, Lipid Profile and Renal Parameters in Progressive Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Debahuti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Existence of systemic co-morbidities in DPN patients has not been studied much, especially in Indian population. Aim To evaluate glycaemic status, lipid profile, renal parameters and blood count to assess occurrence of co-morbidities as severity of DPN progresses. Materials and Methods A case control study involving 104 DPN patients and 43 controls of age 31-70years were selected. Patients were categorized into stage 0, 1, 2 and 3 of severity as per Dyck system of classification. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS), Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), Lipid profile, Vitamin B12, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Urea, Creatinine and Complete blood counts were assessed along with baseline characteristics. Results Glycosylated haemoglobin was in uncontrolled range for DPN patients (9.03±2.09) FBS and PPBS were significantly more with progress of severity of DPN (p<0.001). HDL decreased (p<0.001) as severity progressed and Triglyceride increased in DPN cases. Mean urea values increased (p=0.008) while haemoglobin levels and RBC count decreased (p<0.001) as severity of DPN progressed. Conclusion Abnormal lipid profile, increased urea and decreased RBC levels point to co-existence of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities as severity of DPN progressed. PMID:27790428

  6. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  7. Improving the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbit by supplementation of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2011-07-27

    It is imperative that there be a diet designed specifically to improve lipid profile in order to impede the progress of atherosclerosis. Because rice is a staple food in Asia, it will be chosen as the diet of interest. This study sets out to discover whether consumption of different processed rice diets may result in a change of the lipid profile. The experiment was done on male New Zealand white rabbits after 10 weeks of treatment with diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. The experimental diets include white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). Among them, rabbits fed a GBR diet demonstrated significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL, and atherogenic index (AI) and a higher level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Results from atherosclerotic plaque assessment further support the findings. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), which acts as an indicator for oxidative stress, was also reduced by GBR diet. The positive change in lipid profile in the rabbits fed GBR appeared to correspond with the higher amounts of γ-oryzanol, tocopherol, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content. PMID:21682316

  8. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Paredes, Mario; Espino y Sosa, Salvador; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Ortega-Castillo, Veronica; Rodriguez-Bosch, Mario; Bravo-Flores, Eyerahi; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Gaona-Estudillo, Rubí; Martinez-Bautista, Nancy; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0). Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p < 0.05). A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.327; p = 0.022) was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r = 0.358; p = 0.013). Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn. PMID:27190514

  9. Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Cheung, Stanley K K; Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Linda C W; Leung, Vivian P Y; Hui, Elsie; Ng, Chelsia C Y; Chow, Moses; Ho, Ping C; Lam, Sherry; Woo, Jean; Chiu, Helen F K; Goggins, William; Zee, Benny; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Hazel; Cheng, William K F; Fong, Carmen; Lee, Jenny S W; Chan, Ming-Houng; Szeto, Samuel S L; Lui, Victor W C; Tsoh, Joshua; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Iris H S; Lam, Christopher W K

    2007-12-01

    Studies in animals and a short-term human study have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound concentrated in the curry spice turmeric, decreases serum cholesterol concentration. However, no controlled human trials have examined the effect of curcumin on cholesterol. This study investigated the effects of consuming curcumin on the serum lipid profile in men and women. Elderly subjects (n=36) consumed 4 g/d curcumin, 1g/d curcumin, or placebo in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Plasma curcumin and its metabolites were measured at 1 month, and the serum lipid profile was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The plasma curcumin concentration reached a mean of 490 nmol/L. The curcumin concentration was greater after capsule than powder administration. Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.

  10. Impact of Genetic Variants of Apolipoprotein E on Lipid Profile in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gregório, Michele L.; Pinhel, Marcela A. S.; Sado, Caroline L.; Longo, Gabriela S.; Oliveira, Fábio N.; Amorim, Gisele S.; Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Florim, Greiciane M.; Mazeti, Camila M.; Martins, Denise P.; Tognola, Waldir A.; Brandão, Antonio C.; Júnior, Sidney Pinheiro; de Godoy, Moacir F.; Souza, Dorotéia R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) seems to involve genetic susceptibility to neurodegeneration. APOE gene has been considered a risk factor for PD. This study aimed to evaluate the association of APOE polymorphism with PD and its influence on lipid profile. We studied 232 PD patients (PD) and 169 individuals without the disease. The studied polymorphism was analyzed by PCR/RFLP. The Fisher's exact test, chi-square, ANOVA, and t-test (P < 0.05) were applied. The APOE3/3 genotype was prevalent in PD patients and Controls (P = 0.713) followed by APOE3/4 (P = 0.772). Both groups showed recommended values for lipid profile, with increase in the values of total cholesterol and LDLc, as well as decreased values of triglycerides in PD patients compared with Controls (P < 0.05 for all of them). Increased levels of HDLc, in PD patients, were associated with the APOE3/3 versus APOE-/4 genotypes (P = 0.012). The APOE polymorphism does not distinguish PD patients from Controls, as opposed to the lipid profile alone or in association with APOE. Furthermore, a relationship between increase of HDLc levels and APOE3 in homozygous was found in PD patients only. PMID:24175296

  11. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  12. Observing a Lipid-Dependent Alteration in Single Lactose Permeases

    PubMed Central

    Serdiuk, Tetiana; Sugihara, Junichi; Mari, Stefania A.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Lipids of the Escherichia coli membrane are mainly composed of 70–80% phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and 20–25% phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Biochemical studies indicate that the depletion of PE causes inversion of the N-terminal helix bundle of the lactose permease (LacY), and helix VII becomes extramembraneous. Here we study this phenomenon using single-molecule force spectroscopy, which is sensitive to the structure of membrane proteins. In PE and PG at a ratio of 3:1, ~95% of the LacY molecules adopt a native structure. However, when PE is omitted and the membrane contains PG only, LacY almost equally populates a native and a perturbed conformation. The most drastic changes occur at helices VI and VII and the intervening loop. Since helix VII contains Asp237 and Asp240, zwitterionic PE may suppress electrostatic repulsion between LacY and PG in the PE:PG environment. Thus, PE promotes a native fold and prevents LacY from populating a functionally defective, non-native conformation. PMID:25800555

  13. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. Conclusions/Significance Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Pollen

  14. Sensitivity of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of rat and bovine to lipid peroxidation: a comparative study of light emission and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gavazza, Mariana; Marmunti, Mónica; Catalá, Angel

    2005-12-01

    Much work has been carried out on non-enzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different tissues of monogastric animals, but little information is available about this process in poligastric animals. Studies were carried out to determine the sensitivity of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of rat and bovine to lipid peroxidation (ascorbate-Fe2+ dependent) by comparison of light emission and fatty acid profiles. Mitochondria from both species were susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Measurements of chemiluminescence indicate that the lipid peroxidation process was more effective in mitochondria from rat liver than in the organelle obtained from bovine, whereas changes were not observed in mitochondria from rat and bovine kidney. The fatty acid composition of total lipids isolated from liver and kidney mitochondria of both species was substantially modified when subjected to non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation with a decrease of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition was higher in mitochondria obtained from rat liver (43.11+/- 4.16) than in bovine (15.78 +/- 0.76). As a consequence, the unsaturation index (UI), was higher in mitochondria of rat liver than in bovine. Nevertheless, the PUFA composition of kidney mitochondria from both species was similar; therefore, statistically significant differences in the UI were not observed. The results suggest that mainly the PUFAs present in hepatic and kidney mitochondria were sensitive to oxidative damage. The lipid peroxidation process was more effective in rat liver mitochondria than in bovine.

  15. Lipid Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in ... carries it to the liver for removal. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in ...

  16. Gender Associated Lipid and Apolipoprotein Profile in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Majkic-Singh, Nada T.; Stankovic, Sanja S.; Kosanovic-Jakovic, Natalija G.; Zoric, Lepsa D.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandra P.; Terzic, Dragana D.; Stojanovic, Jecka Z.

    2011-01-01

    The role of lipid parameters disorder in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze lipid profile in these patients and to test the influence of gender on lipid profile of AMD patients, especially in the early and late form of the disease. 82 patients with AMD (mean age 70.3 yrs) and 80 age-matched control subjects were included in this study. Serum lipid and apolipoproteiin levels were determined using standardized methods. AMD patients had significantly higher values of total cholesterol (P=0.000), HDL-cholesterol (P=0.0003) and LDL-cholesterol (P=0.000) compared to control group. Significantly higher values of apo A1 (P=0.039), apo E (P=0.002), total-cholesterol (P=0.000), LDL-chol. (P=0.026), total HDL-chol (P=0.000), HDL3-chol. (P=0.005) and non-HDL-cholesterol (P=0.029) were found in female AMD patients compared to males with AMD. Females with the advanced form of the disease had significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.006), HDL-C (P=0.004), non HDL-C (P=0.05) and apo E (P=0.014) compared to males with the same form of the disease. There is a significant disorder of lipid parameters in AMD patients especially in females. More severe forms of AMD are followed by the increase of atherogenic lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, and females have higher values of these parameters compared to males with the same form of AMD.

  17. Observational study of lipid profile and LDL particle size in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is characterized by an increase in plasma triglycerides, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and the prevalence of small, dense-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) particles. The aim of this study was to establish the importance of LDL particle size measurement by gender in a group of patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) attending at a Cardiovascular Risk Unit in Primary Care and their classification into phenotypes. Subjects and methods One hundred eighty-five patients (93 men and 92 women) from several areas in the South of Spain, for a period of one year in a health centre were studied. Laboratory parameters included plasma lipids, lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein size and several atherogenic rates were determinated. Results We found differences by gender between anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and glucose measures by MS status. Lipid profile was different in our two study groups, and gender differences in these parameters within each group were also remarkable, in HDLc and Apo A-I values. According to LDL particle size, we found males had smaller size than females, and patients with MS had also smaller than those without MS. We observed inverse relationship between LDL particle size and triglycerides in patients with and without MS, and the same relationship between all atherogenic rates in non-MS patients. When we considered our population in two classes of phenotypes, lipid profile was worse in phenotype B. Conclusion In conclusion, we consider worthy the measurement of LDL particle size due to its relationship with lipid profile and cardiovascular risk. PMID:21936888

  18. Therapeutic modulation of cannabinoid lipid signaling: metabolic profiling of a novel antinociceptive cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Wood, JodiAnne T.; Smith, Dustin M.; Janero, David R.; Zvonok, Alexander M.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    Aims AM-1241, a novel, racemic cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2) ligand, is the primary experimental agonist used to characterize the role of CB2-mediated lipid signaling in health and disease, including substance abuse disorders. In vivo pharmacological effects have been used as indirect proxies for AM-1241 biotransformation processes that could modulate activity. We report the initial pre-clinical characterization of AM-1241 biotransformation and in vivo distribution. Main methods AM-1241 metabolism was characterized in a variety of predictive in vitro systems (Caco-2 cells, mouse, rat and human microsomes) and in the mouse in vivo. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used to quantify AM-1241 tissue distribution and metabolic conversion. Key findings AM-1241 bound extensively to plasma protein/albumin. A pharmacological AM-1241 dose (25 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered to mice for direct determination of its plasma half-life (37 min), following which AM-1241 was quantified in brain, spleen, liver, and kidney. After p.o. administration, AM-1241 was detected in plasma, spleen, and kidney; its oral bioavailability was ~21%. From Caco-2 permeability studies and microsomal-based hepatic clearance estimates, in vivo AM-1241 absorption was moderate. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of AM-1241 in vitro generated hydroxylation and demethylation metabolites. Species-dependent differences were discovered in AM-1241’s predicted hepatic clearance. Our data demonstrate that AM-1241 has the following characteristics: a) short plasma half-life; b) limited oral bioavailability; c) extensive plasma/albumin binding; d) metabolic substrate for hepatic hydroxylation and demethylation; e) moderate hepatic clearance. Significance These results should help inform the design, optimization, and pre-clinical profiling of CB2 ligands as pharmacological tools and medicines. PMID:22749867

  19. Total Homocysteine, Diet, and Lipid Profiles in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Chao, Wei-Hsun; Kamath, Savitri K.; Quinn, Laurie; Fritschi, Cynthia; Maggiore, Jack A.; Williams, Robert H.; Reynolds, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Limited research is available on the possible differences in the cardiovascular risk factors of total homocysteine (tHcy), dietary energy, and lipids among adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), type 2 DM, or healthy controls. This study’s primary aim was to compare the dietary energy and the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12, as well as lipids and tHcy for adolescents with type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and healthy non-DM controls. Subjects and Methods This secondary analysis of the merging of 2 datasets included the following adolescents: 50 with type 1 DM, 14 with type 2 DM, and 53 controls. Mean ages for those with type 1 versus type 2 DM were 15.2 ± 1.9 versus 16.1 ± 1.9 years, respectively. Mean age for the controls was 16.5 ± 1.0 years. Variables included fasting tHcy and lipids, and 24-hour dietary recalls for macronutrients and micronutrients. Hemoglobin A1c was obtained for those with DM. Statistical analyses included one-way analyses of variance, Pearson correlations, and stepwise regression. Results and Conclusions Adolescents with type 1 DM had the lowest tHcy values (P < .05), which were reflective of the limited extant research with this population. Lipid profiles and dietary energy did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. Hemoglobin A1c was related to total cholesterol and triglycerides in those with type 1 DM, confirming the importance of promoting better metabolic control in lipid management for these youth. Future research should continue to explore the validity of tHcy and lipids as predictors of CV risks for youth with type 1 and type 2 DM. PMID:16407737

  20. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  1. Assessment of BMI, Serum Leptin Levels and Lipid Profile in Patients with Skin Tags

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (ST) are benign lesions composed of loose fibrous tissue, associated with obesity and atherogenic profile. Thus help in the follow up by considering ST as a useful cutaneous sign for the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Aim: To evaluate the association of skin tags with BMI, serum leptin and lipid profile. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 cases with ST and 40 age and gender matched controls. Subjects on oral contraceptives and systemic drugs especially lipid lowering agents, pregnant women, cases with medical history of endocrine disease, acute infection, erythroderma and psoriasis, cases with a drug history of isotretinoin use in last six months were excluded from the study. Blood samples were collected. Serum lipids and serum leptin were estimated. Result: The acrochordons group showed significantly higher values of BMI, total cholesterol (TC) and TC/HDL ratio. 60% of the patients with ST were overweight and 10% were obese. There was no statistical significant difference in leptin levels between the groups. Leptin showed a positive significant correlation with BMI in the acrochordons group. Conclusion: All the above derangements confirm that ST is cutaneous findings frequently associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. Thus follow-up of these patients with regard to the development of diseases associated with atherosclerosis may be beneficial. PMID:25386426

  2. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-09-29

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0-12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7-40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term.

  3. Ectopic lipid deposition and the metabolic profile of skeletal muscle in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kathryn C.; Wohlers, Lindsay M.; Lovering, Richard M.; Schuh, Rosemary A.; Maher, Amy C.; Bonen, Arend; Koves, Timothy R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Thomson, David M.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Disruptions of ovarian function in women are associated with increased risk of metabolic disease due to dysregulation of peripheral glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Our previous evidence suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism coupled with altered mitochondrial function may also develop. The objective of this study was to use an integrative metabolic approach to identify potential areas of dysfunction that develop in skeletal muscle from ovariectomized (OVX) female mice compared with age-matched ovary-intact adult female mice (sham). The OVX mice exhibited significant increases in body weight, visceral, and inguinal fat mass compared with sham mice. OVX mice also had significant increases in skeletal muscle intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) compared with the sham animals, which corresponded to significant increases in the protein content of the fatty acid transporters CD36/FAT and FABPpm. A targeted metabolic profiling approach identified significantly lower levels of specific acyl carnitine species and various amino acids in skeletal muscle from OVX mice compared with the sham animals, suggesting a potential dysfunction in lipid and amino acid metabolism, respectively. Basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates were significantly impaired in skeletal muscle fibers from OVX mice compared with sham animals. Collectively, these data indicate that loss of ovarian function results in increased IMCL storage that is coupled with alterations in mitochondrial function and changes in the skeletal muscle metabolic profile. PMID:23193112

  4. Variations in the lipid profile of patients with chronic renal failure treated with pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    de Gómez Dumm, Nelva T; Giammona, Ana M; Touceda, Luis A

    2003-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia and lipid abnormalities are commonly found in patients with chronic renal failure; both are recognized as risk factors for atherosclerosis. The homocysteine-lowering effect of pyridoxine is controversial. This study was performed to determine the effect of a high dose of pyridoxine (300 mg i.v. three times a week) on plasma and red blood cell lipid profile and plasma homocysteine concentration in twelve chronic renal failure patients on regular hemodialysis. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study (basal 1), after 30 and 60 days of treatment and 4 months after withdrawal (basal 2). Results Pyridoxine supplementation induced a significant decrease in total plasma homocysteine level and also a lowering effect in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides. These biochemical data increased when the samples were taken at basal 2, reaching the levels obtained at the beginning of the experiment. LDL cholesterol increased whereas HDL cholesterol was reduced during the treatment. In erythrocyte membranes vitamin B6 therapy enhanced the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio as well as the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenyl-hexatriene. Conclusions We conclude that high doses of pyridoxine represent an effective strategy to ameliorate both plasma homocysteine levels and lipid profiles in chronic renal failure patients, protecting them from atherosclerosis. Further research using a long-term treatment would be necessary in an attempt to restore the fatty acid pattern and the fluidity of red cell membranes. PMID:14575530

  5. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0–12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7–38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7–40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7–41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term. PMID:25263327

  6. Associations of three lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms, lipid profiles and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    DAOUD, MOHAMED S.; ATAYA, FARID S.; FOUAD, DALIA; ALHAZZANI, AMAL; SHEHATA, AFAF I.; AL-JAFARI, ABDULAZIZ A.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in lipoprotein metabolism by hydrolyzing the core triglycerides (TGs) of circulating chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The effects of LPL polymorphisms on lipid levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) have been inconsistent among studies and populations. To assess the lipid profiles and distributions of three LPL gene polymorphisms in Saudi patients with CAD, the HindIII, PvuII and Ser447Ter polymorphisms in the LPL gene were analyzed in 226 patients with CAD and 110 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect LPL gene polymorphisms. The plasma lipid profiles of the patients were determined using standard enzymatic methods. Patients in the CAD group had significantly higher triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than controls irrespective of the HindIII, PvuII or Ser447Ter genotype. Compared to the findings in controls, the HindIII TT, PvuII TC and Ser447Ter CC genotypes were associated with significantly reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in patients with CAD (P<0.0001). In summary, there are associations between LPL gene variants and high plasma TG, TC and LDL-C levels as well as low HDL-C levels. PMID:24648989

  7. Gene expression profiling reveals Nef induced deregulation of lipid metabolism in HIV-1 infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Surya; Trivedi, Jay; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-03-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on landscape of cellular transcriptome favoring HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have tried to explore effect of Nef on cellular gene expression profile in conjunction with rest of HIV-1 proteins. Our results show that 237 genes are differentially regulated due to the presence of Nef during infection, which belong to several broad categories like "signaling", "apoptosis", "transcription" and "lipid metabolism" in gene ontology analysis. Furthermore, our results show that Nef causes disruption of lipid content in HIV-1 infected T cells. Molecular inhibitors of lipid metabolism like Atorvastatin and Ranolazine were found to have profound effect on wild type virus as compared to nef-deleted HIV-1. Thus our results suggest that interference in lipid metabolism is a potential mechanism through which Nef contributes in enhancing HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26915805

  8. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  10. Crack depth profiling using guided wave angle dependent reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Volker, Arno Pahlavan, Lotfollah Blacquiere, Gerrit

    2015-03-31

    Tomographic corrosion monitoring techniques have been developed, using two rings of sensors around the circumference of a pipe. This technique is capable of providing a detailed wall thickness map, however this might not be the only type of structural damage. Therefore this concept is expanded to detect and size cracks and small corrosion defects like root corrosion. The expanded concept uses two arrays of guided-wave transducers, collecting both reflection and transmission data. The data is processed such that the angle-dependent reflectivity is obtained without using a baseline signal of a defect-free situation. The angle-dependent reflectivity is the input of an inversion scheme that calculates a crack depth profile. From this profile, the depth and length of the crack can be determined. Preliminary experiments show encouraging results. The depth sizing accuracy is in the order of 0.5 mm.

  11. Profiling the Triacylglyceride Contents in Bat Integumentary Lipids by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Risch, Thomas S.; Savary, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals. PMID:24056580

  12. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the risk factors in two isolated Chinese minorities

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pei-Juan; Xie, Rui-Bin; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Dai-Xun; Huang, Jian; Huang, Feng; Li, Hui; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Both Jing and Mulao nationalities are the isolated minorities in China. Little is known about the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the two ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the differences in serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors between the Jing and Mulao populations. A cross-sectional study of dyslipidemia was conducted in Dongxing city, Guangxi, China, during Dec 2011 and Jan 2012. A total of 1254 subjects of Jing and 1251 participants of Mulao were surveyed by a stratified randomized sampling. Information on demography, diet and lifestyle was collected with standardized questionnaire. Serum lipid levels were detected using the commercially available kits. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower but the levels of ApoB were higher in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (32.38% vs. 24.38%), high ApoB (35.25% vs. 15.35%) and low ApoA1/ApoB ratio (22.65% vs. 16.87%) was higher and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.48% vs. 2.16%), high LDL-C (17.54% vs. 40.53%) and low ApoA1 (5.98% vs. 11.43%) was lower in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The risk factors for serum lipid parameters and hyperlipidemia were different between the two ethnic groups. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors are different between the Jing and Mulao populations. These differences may result from the combined effects of different diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors. PMID:26770556

  13. The Relationships between Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone with Lipid Profile in Euthyroid Men

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population. Methods: A total of 708 Chinese and Malay men aged 20 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Their blood was collected for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels. The association was analyzed using multiple regression and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, ethnicity, body mass index and FT4/FT3/TSH levels. Results: In multiple regression models, TSH was positively and significantly associated with TG (p<0.05). Free T4 was positively and significantly associated with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C (p<0.05). Free T3 was negatively and significantly associated with HDL-C (p<0.05). In binary logistic models, an increase in TSH was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TG in the subjects (p<0.05), while an increase in FT4 was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TC but a lower prevalence of subnormal HDL in the subjects (p<0.05). Free T3 was not associated with any lipid variables in the logistic regression (p>0.05). Conclusions: In euthyroid Malaysian men, there are positive and significant relationships between TSH level and TG level, and between FT4 level and cholesterol levels. PMID:24578612

  14. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals.

  15. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  16. Profile of dependence symptoms among extramedical opioid analgesic users.

    PubMed

    Martins, Silvia S; Ghandour, Lilian A; Chilcoat, Howard D

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of problems due to extramedical opioid analgesic use ('analgesic misuse') in the US general population. This study explores the distribution of the seven DSM-IV-defined past-year dependence symptoms in a total household sample of 7,810 past-year extramedical opioid analgesic users using the 2002-2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We tested for differences in opioid analgesic dependence symptom profiles across four subgroups of opioid analgesic users, different levels of deviant behaviors, and presence/absence of serious mental health problems quantified by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-sf). Generalized Estimated Equations (GEE) models were used to analyze the data. The most common opioid analgesic dependence symptoms were 'tolerance' (17.0%) and 'salience' (13.3%). Opioid analgesic dependence symptom profiles were 'parallel' across the groups of past-year opioid analgesic users, across deviant behavior groups and across presence/absence of serious mental health problems. Extramedical use of opioid analgesics associated with prescription drug use, having high levels of deviant behaviors, and having serious mental health problems were more strongly associated with endorsement of opioid analgesics dependence symptoms.

  17. The dependence of lipid asymmetry upon phosphatidylcholine acyl chain structure[S

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mijin; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in inner and outer leaflet lipid composition, is an important feature of biomembranes. By utilizing our recently developed MβCD-catalyzed exchange method, the effect of lipid acyl chain structure upon the ability to form asymmetric membranes was investigated. Using this approach, SM was efficiently introduced into the outer leaflet of vesicles containing various phosphatidylcholines (PC), but whether the resulting vesicles were asymmetric (SM outside/PC inside) depended upon PC acyl chain structure. Vesicles exhibited asymmetry using PC with two monounsaturated chains of >14 carbons; PC with one saturated and one unsaturated chain; and PC with phytanoyl chains. Vesicles were most weakly asymmetric using PC with two 14 carbon monounsaturated chains or with two polyunsaturated chains. To define the origin of this behavior, transverse diffusion (flip-flop) of lipids in vesicles containing various PCs was compared. A correlation between asymmetry and transverse diffusion was observed, with slower transverse diffusion in vesicles containing PCs that supported lipid asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric vesicles can be prepared using a wide range of acyl chain structures, but fast transverse diffusion destroys lipid asymmetry. These properties may constrain acyl chain structure in asymmetric natural membranes to avoid short or overly polyunsaturated acyl chains. PMID:23093551

  18. Lateral Pressure Dependence of the Phospholipid Transmembrane Diffusion Rate in Planar-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Timothy C.; Conboy, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) flip-flop kinetics on the lateral membrane pressure in a phospholipid bilayer was investigated by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. Planar-supported lipid bilayers were prepared on fused silica supports using the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaeffer technique, which allows precise control over the lateral surface pressure and packing density of the membrane. The lipid bilayer deposition pressure was varied from 28 to 42 mN/m. The kinetics of lipid flip-flop in these membranes was measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at 37°C. An order-of-magnitude difference in the rate constant for lipid translocation (10.9 × 10−4 s−1 to 1.03 × 10−4 s−1) was measured for membranes prepared at 28 mN/m and 42 mN/m, respectively. This change in rate results from only a 7.4% change in the packing density of the lipids in the bilayer. From the observed kinetics, the area of activation for native phospholipid flip-flop in a protein-free DPPC planar-supported lipid bilayer was determined to be 73 ± 12 Å2/molecule at 37°C. Significance of the observed activation area and potential future applications of the technique to the study of phospholipid flip-flop are discussed. PMID:18339755

  19. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Oestradiol in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kilim, Srinivas; Chandala, Srinivasa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the menopausal status and related hormonal variation of oestradiol with plasma lipid concentrations. Material and Methods: Fifty premenopausal women and fifty postmenopausal women subjects were selected. Data was collected through clinical evaluation from questionnaires and laboratory investigations. Plasma oestradiol and lipid profile determinations were done by using competitive binding immunoassay methods and enzymatic methods respectively. Student’s T test and Pearson’s test of correlation were used for the statistical analysis. P-values of < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol levels in post-menopausal women. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly decreased in post-menopausal women. The calculated atherogenic index (Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio) was significantly increased in post-menopausal women as compared to that in premenopausal women. Oestradiol concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in post-menopausal women. Discussion: Oestrogen changes the vascular permeability by increasing nitrous oxide production. It maintains a healthy lipoprotein profile. It stabilizes the endothelial cells, enhances antioxidant effect and alters fibrinolysis protein. All these cardioprotective mechanisms are lost in menopause. Postmenopausal women develop an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Menopause leads to changes in lipid profile by reducing HDL, and elevating Total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, thus increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. These changes are caused by reduced oestrogen concentrations which are seen in menopause. PMID:24086849

  20. Serum lipid profiles are associated with disability and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. Objective To assess the associations of serum lipid profile variables (triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) and total cholesterol) with disability and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This study included 492 MS patients (age: 47.1 ± 10.8 years; disease duration: 12.8 ± 10.1 years) with baseline and follow-up Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) assessments after a mean period of 2.2 ± 1.0 years. The associations of baseline lipid profile variables with disability changes were assessed. Quantitative MRI findings at baseline were available for 210 patients. Results EDSS worsening was associated with higher baseline LDL (p = 0.006) and total cholesterol (p = 0.001, 0.008) levels, with trends for higher triglyceride (p = 0.025); HDL was not associated. A similar pattern was found for MSSS worsening. Higher HDL levels (p < 0.001) were associated with lower contrast-enhancing lesion volume. Higher total cholesterol was associated with a trend for lower brain parenchymal fraction (p = 0.033). Conclusions Serum lipid profile has modest effects on disease progression in MS. Worsening disability is associated with higher levels of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher HDL is associated with lower levels of acute inflammatory activity. PMID:21970791

  1. Cardiolipin Deficiency in Rhodobacter sphaeroides Alters the Lipid Profile of Membranes and of Crystallized Cytochrome Oxidase, but Structure and Function Are Maintained

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi; Tamot, Banita; Hiser, Carrie; Reid, Gavin E.; Benning, Christoph; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2012-05-08

    Many recent studies highlight the importance of lipids in membrane proteins, including in the formation of well-ordered crystals. To examine the effect of changes in one lipid, cardiolipin, on the lipid profile and the production, function, and crystallization of an intrinsic membrane protein, cytochrome c oxidase, we mutated the cardiolipin synthase (cls) gene of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, causing a >90% reduction in cardiolipin content in vivo and selective changes in the abundances of other lipids. Under these conditions, a fully native cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was produced, as indicated by its activity, spectral properties, and crystal characteristics. Analysis by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed that the cardiolipin level in CcO crystals, as in the membranes, was greatly decreased. Lipid species present in the crystals were directly analyzed for the first time using MS/MS, documenting their identities and fatty acid chain composition. The fatty acid content of cardiolipin in R. sphaeroides CcO (predominantly 18:1) differs from that in mammalian CcO (18:2). In contrast to the cardiolipin dependence of mammalian CcO activity, major depletion of cardiolipin in R. sphaeroides did not impact any aspect of CcO structure or behavior, suggesting a greater tolerance of interchange of cardiolipin with other lipids in this bacterial system.

  2. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metagenomic Signatures and Lipid Profiles After Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wilkins, M.; Daly, R. A.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas formations represent understudied deep biosphere ecosystems with important implications to terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and global energy resources. Recent 16S rRNA gene studies examining temporal microbial community dynamics of returned fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale indicate ecosystem changes from aerobic, low-salt associated microbes in injected fluids to anaerobic, halophilic taxa in produced fluids several months after fracturing. To further characterize changes in the ecology, functional potential and biosignatures of observed taxa, we sequenced genomic DNA from three key time points after fracturing (T7, T82, and T328; Tn, n = days) and analyzed their lipid signatures. The metagenomic profiles verify 16S rRNA gene trends, revealing strain-type changes in dominant Bacteria of Marinobacter, Halomonas, and Halanaerobium and the Archaeal genus Methanolobus through time. Novel species within the γ-Proteobacteria were also observed. Reconstructed genomes show as bioavailable N decreases through time, genes associated with N2 fixing and obtaining N from organic pools (ncd2, nit1, and eutCB) increase in T82 and T328 samples after oxidized nitrogen species (NO3) are depleted. Further, S oxidizing genes were only detected in the T7 sample with incomplete pathways for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR). Later time points showed an increase in abundance of sulfonate importer genes and the anaerobic DSR gene, asrA, suggesting the use of sulfite and sulfonates for S acquisition after sulfate is depleted. Lipid analyses confirmed distinct profiles between T82 and T328 and revealed differences in 16 and 18 C monounsaturated fatty acids, indicative of gram (-) bacteria. The lipid profile from T328 was markedly less diverse than that of T82 and indicated a very limited community, as supported by the 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic data. This research integrates metagenomic data with lipid profiles to characterize temporal

  3. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D.; Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Hess, Dean R.; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined “specialized proresolving mediators” (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae–infected (n = 5–6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200–300 ppm for 60–90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM–SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid–derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution. PMID:25568926

  4. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D; Colas, Romain A; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Hess, Dean R; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M; Piantadosi, Claude A; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-09-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined "specialized proresolving mediators" (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae-infected (n = 5-6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200-300 ppm for 60-90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM-SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution.

  5. Lipid profiling of developing Jatropha curcas L. seeds using (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Annarao, Sanjay; Sidhu, O P; Roy, Raja; Tuli, Rakesh; Khetrapal, C L

    2008-12-01

    Seed development in Jatropha curcas L. was studied with respect to phenology, oil content, lipid profile and concentration of sterols. Seeds were collected at various stages of development starting from one week after fertilization and in an interval of five days thereafter till maturity. These were classified as stage I to stage VII. Moisture content of the seeds ranged from 8.8 to 90.3%; the lowest in mature seeds in stage VII and highest in stage I. The seed area increased as the seed grew from stage I to stage VI (0.2-10.2mm(2) per seed), however, the seed area shrunk at stage VII. Increase in seed area corresponded to increase in fresh weight of the seeds. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of hexane extracts made at different stages of seed development revealed the presence of free fatty acids (FFA), methyl esters of fatty acids (FAME) and triglycerol esters (TAG), along with small quantity of sterols. The young seeds synthesized predominantly polar lipids. Lipid synthesis was noticed nearly three weeks after fertilization. From the fourth week the seeds actively synthesized TAG. Stage III is a turning point in seed development since at this stage, the concentration of sterols decreased to negligible, there was very little FAME formation, accumulation of TAG increased substantially, and there was a sudden decrease in FFA concentration. The findings can be helpful in understanding the biosynthesis and in efforts to improve biosynthesis of TAG and reduce FFA content in the mature seeds. PMID:18534845

  6. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria. PMID:27461878

  7. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria.

  8. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets. PMID:22898616

  9. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  10. Effects of phylloquinone supplementation on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Sousan; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an excess mortality from cardiovascular disease which is likely attributed to an atherogenic lipid profile. Among nutritional factors vitamin K has been recently focused as a pivotal nutrient in improvement of lipid related markers. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of vitamin K on lipid profile in this disease. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifty eight patients with definitive RA were participated in the present double blind placebo controlled study. They were randomly allocated into two groups to receive vitamin K1 as phylloquinone [10 mg/day] (n = 30) or placebo pills (n = 28), for eight weeks. In order to control the effects of probable confounders dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements including weight and height, clinical status using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28), physical activity and anxiety status were evaluated at baseline. Moreover, serum levels of lipid related markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any of the baseline characteristics. After adjusting for some relevant confounders, in comparison between two groups, we observed no significant changes in lipid related markers at the end of intervention. Also, there was no significant difference between before and after intervention values within groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Function of vitamin K1 in lipid profile modification remains still controversial. This study showed that vitamin K1 has no effect on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with a longer follow-up are required to determine the effects of vitamin K on atherogenic lipid profile. PMID:25861426

  11. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  12. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  13. Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Duck; Youn, Yeo Kyu; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid, has antioxidant activity as well as many positive effects, such as anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight and obese adults in Korea. In total, 27 subjects with body mass index >25.0 kg/m(2) were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups administered astaxanthin or placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were measured before and after intervention. Malondialdehyde (MDA), isoprostane (ISP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), as oxidative stress biomarkers, were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. LDL cholesterol and ApoB were significantly lower after treatment with astaxanthin, compared with the start of administration, whereas none of the lipid profiles was changed in the placebo group. At the baseline, all four biomarkers were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with the placebo group, MDA and ISP were significantly lower, but TAC was significantly higher in the astaxanthin group at 12 weeks. These results suggest that supplementary astaxanthin has positive effects by improving the LDL cholesterol, ApoB, and oxidative stress biomarkers.

  14. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; Wagner, Roger; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  15. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian university athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Oyelola, O O; Rufai, M A

    1993-01-01

    The fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles were determined in 14 healthy Nigerian male athletes and controls matched for sex and anthropometric parameters. The mean levels of total cholesterol (P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) AII and E were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the athletes than in the controls. However, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the mean values of the plasma triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, apo AI, B, Lp(a), LpA1 and CIII:NonB respectively for the athletes and controls. A priori, the potential effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was also compared using three predictor ratios - total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL), LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol and apo B:AI. The mean of the three ratios was lower in the athletes than in the controls; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Based on our data, exercise appears to decrease the TC:HDL ratio in the athletes by lowering LDL-cholesterol, while the HDL-cholesterol is unaffected. We conclude that physical activity has salutary effects on the lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles of healthy Nigerian men. PMID:8130968

  16. Effect of Abdominoplasty in the Lipid Profile of Patients with Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Pérez Verdin, Ana; Fuentes, Miguel; Godínez Gutiérrez, Sergio; Ambriz-Plascencia, Ana Rosa; González-García, Ignacio; Gómez-Fonseca, Sonia Mericia; Madrigal, Rosalio; González-Reynoso, Luis Iván; Figueroa, Sandra; Toscano Igartua, Xavier; Jiménez Gutierrez, Déctor Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Dyslipidemia like other chronic degenerative diseases is pandemic in Latin America and around the world. A lot of patients asking for body contouring surgery can be sick without knowing it. Objective. Observe the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, before and three months after an abdominoplasty. Methods. Patients candidate to an abdominoplasty without morbid obesity were followed before and three months after the surgery. We compared the lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and HOMA (cardiovascular risk marker) before and three months after the surgery. We used Student's t test to compare the results. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. Twenty-six patients were observed before and after the surgery. At the third month, we found only statistical differences in LDL and triglyceride values (P 0.04 and P 0.03). The rest of metabolic values did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. In this group of patients with dyslipidemia, at the third month, only LDL and triglyceride values reached statistical significances. There is no significant change in glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, VLDL, or HDL. PMID:23956856

  17. Distribution of paraoxonase PON1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican populations. Its role in the lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Ricardo; Zamora, José; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Fragoso, José Manuel; Cardoso, Guillermo; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2006-02-01

    Paraoxonase gene polymorphisms (PON1-55 and PON1-192) were determined in four Mexican populations (Mestizos, Nahuas, Teenek and Mayos) belonging to different ethnic groups. The role of these polymorphisms in the lipid profile in the Mestizo group was also analyzed. PON1 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison among Mexican populations showed increased frequencies of PON1-55 L allele and LL genotype and decreased frequencies of M allele and LM genotype in the three Amerindian populations when compared to Mestizos (P < 0.05). Mexicans together with Asian populations (from Japan and China) presented the highest frequencies of PON1-55 L allele (P < 0.05 when compared to Caucasian populations). Heterogeneous data were noted when PON1-192 polymorphism comparison was made. In summary, distribution frequencies of PON1 showed that Mexican populations are more related to Asians than Caucasians. This confirms previous studies with other genetic markers indicating that Native Americans have stronger genetic affinities to the Paleolithic people of North-East Asia than to other major world populations. In Mexican Mestizos, lack of correlation between PON1 polymorphisms and lipid profile was found, corroborating previous data in other populations. The present data could be helpful to understand the distribution of these polymorphisms and its role as genetic and evolutive markers in the Amerindian populations.

  18. Changes in the lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer players after a match.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, N; Bogdanis, G C; Kostopoulos, N; Souglis, A; Papadopoulos, Ch

    2014-01-01

    The lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer athletes was evaluated and compared with that of inactive individuals. Total cholesterol (T-C), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentration were measured in the morning and after a soccer or a basketball match. All parameters of lipid profile measured at a fasted and resting state, except HDL-C, were lower in the athletes compared with the controls (p < 0.01). The soccer match resulted in a greater decrease in TG (78.3 ± 6.7 to 70.7 ± 6.3, p < 0.01), T-C (179.3 ± 10.7 to 171.6 ± 9.6, p < 0.01), LDL-C (110.9 ± 8.9 to 103.5 ± 7.5, p < 0.01) compared with the basketball match that resulted only in a decrease in LDL-C (126.8 ± 9.5 to 117.3 ± 9.1, p < 0.01) and an increase in HDL-C that was similar to that observed after the soccer match (9-12%). These findings support the beneficial effects of basketball and soccer on cardiovascular health.

  19. Acoustic investigation of pressure-dependent resonance and shell elasticity of lipid-coated monodisperse microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanjun; Cabodi, Mario; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, frequency-dependent attenuation was measured acoustically for monodisperse lipid-coated microbubble suspensions as a function of excitation pressure and radius. The resonance frequency was identified from the attenuation spectra and had an inverse relationship with mean microbubble diameter and excitation pressure. A reduction in the estimated shell elasticity constant from 0.50 N/m to 0.29 N/m was observed as the excitation pressure was increased from 25 kPa to 100 kPa, respectively, which suggests a nonlinear relationship exists between lipid shell stiffness and applied strain. These findings support the viewpoint that lipid shells coating microbubbles exist as heterogeneous mixtures that undergo dynamic and rapid variations in mechanical properties under applied strains.

  20. Effects of synbiotic on anthropometry, lipid profile and oxidative stress in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ipar, N; Aydogdu, S Durmus; Yildirim, G Kilic; Inal, M; Gies, I; Vandenplas, Y; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics on obesity in adults; such experience is limited in children and adolescents. This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled study including children with primary obesity. The first group was treated with a standard method with a reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity. The second group received add-on daily synbiotic supplementation during one month. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of a synbiotic on anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters. One month of supplementation of the synbiotic resulted in a significant reduction of weight (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01). Changes (% reduction comparing to baseline) in anthropometric measurements, were significantly higher in the children receiving the additional synbiotic supplement (P<0.05). The percentage of children with weight loss was higher in the synbiotic group, but not statistically significant (71.4 vs 64.2%, P>0.05). At the 30(th) day of synbiotic intervention, serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total oxidative stress levels significantly declined (P<0.05). Changes in serum lipid levels were significantly higher in the synbiotic group (P<0.05). Changes in serum total oxidative stress levels before and after the intervention period, were significant in synbiotic group (P<0.01). In our study, changes in weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness were higher in the group receiving the one month synbiotic supplement thin in the standard method group. The supplement tested also had a beneficial effect on lipid profile and total oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of synbiotics on oxidative stress in obese patients with an additional effect on weight loss regarding to previous studies.

  1. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  2. Serum lipid profile and clinical characteristics of patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum*

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rezaei, Mansour; Ramezani, Mazaher; Najafi, Behnaz; Kavoussi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many factors are involved in the etiology of xanthelasma palpebrum, lipid disorder is strongly associated with its induction. Xanthelasma palpebrum, the most common type of xanthoma, usually presents in middle-aged females and results in aesthetic problems. Objective To evaluate thelipid profile and important clinical aspects of xanthelasma palpebrum patients. Methods In this descriptive study, we enrolled 42xanthelasma palpebrumpatients, and 42 cases of non-inflammatory skin disorders as thecontrol group, matched for age and gender.The clinical characteristics of the patients and fasting serum lipid profile were recorded for both groups. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS-16. Results Xanthelasma palpebrum was found more commonly in middle-aged females with disease onset of less than 1 year, and without significant familial history of xanthoma. Furthermore,xanthelasma lesionswere most often seen in the upper lid with mild extension and was rarely associated with systemic disease. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding hypertriglyceridemia (p= 0.231) and hypercholesterolemia (p= 0.302). The mean serum levels of cholesterol (221.51±60.4 mg/dl), triglyceride (185.98±71.1 mg/dl) and VLDL (37.7±17.6 mg/dl) were significantly higher and themedian HDL (36.2 (31, 41) mg/dl) level was lower in thepatient group. Conclusion In our study, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia did not reveal a significant difference between thepatient and control groups; however, mean serum values for cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and HDL showed a significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, in addition to lipid abnormality, other factors could be involved in the pathogenesis of xanthelasma palpebrum. PMID:27579742

  3. Effects of synbiotic on anthropometry, lipid profile and oxidative stress in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ipar, N; Aydogdu, S Durmus; Yildirim, G Kilic; Inal, M; Gies, I; Vandenplas, Y; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics on obesity in adults; such experience is limited in children and adolescents. This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled study including children with primary obesity. The first group was treated with a standard method with a reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity. The second group received add-on daily synbiotic supplementation during one month. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of a synbiotic on anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters. One month of supplementation of the synbiotic resulted in a significant reduction of weight (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01). Changes (% reduction comparing to baseline) in anthropometric measurements, were significantly higher in the children receiving the additional synbiotic supplement (P<0.05). The percentage of children with weight loss was higher in the synbiotic group, but not statistically significant (71.4 vs 64.2%, P>0.05). At the 30(th) day of synbiotic intervention, serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total oxidative stress levels significantly declined (P<0.05). Changes in serum lipid levels were significantly higher in the synbiotic group (P<0.05). Changes in serum total oxidative stress levels before and after the intervention period, were significant in synbiotic group (P<0.01). In our study, changes in weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness were higher in the group receiving the one month synbiotic supplement thin in the standard method group. The supplement tested also had a beneficial effect on lipid profile and total oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of synbiotics on oxidative stress in obese patients with an additional effect on weight loss regarding to previous studies. PMID:26259892

  4. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  5. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  6. Effects of Sesame Seed Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effect of sesame seed on lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Methods: Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups receiving 40 g of sesame seed daily along with standard medical therapy (n=25) or stan­dard treatment (n=25) for two months. Serum total antioxidant capacity, ma­londialdehyde (MDA) and lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) were measured. Results: After the intervention period two months of study, serum TC, LDL-cholesterol and MDA decreased significantly in the sesame group (P<0.05), while no significant difference in serum values of lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters was seen in the control group (P>0.05). There was no signifi­cant difference in pre and post-treatment values of lipid profile and oxidative parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current study showed a positive effect of sesame seed in improv­ing lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame seed might be of help to reduce oxidative stress in OA patients. PMID:25097842

  7. Lipid raft-dependent uptake, signaling, and intracellular fate of Porphyromonas gingivalis in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains involved in cellular trafficking and implicated as portals for certain pathogens. We sought to determine whether the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis enters macrophages via lipid rafts, and if so, to examine the impact of raft entry on its intracellular fate. Using J774A.1 mouse macrophages, we found that P. gingivalis colocalizes with lipid rafts in a cholesterol-dependent way. Depletion of cellular cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in about 50% inhibition of P. gingivalis uptake, although this effect was reversed by cholesterol reconstitution. The intracellular survival of P. gingivalis was dramatically inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells relative to untreated or cholesterol-reconstituted cells, even when infections were adjusted to allow equilibration of the initial intracellular bacterial load. P. gingivalis thus appeared to exploit raft-mediated uptake for promoting its survival. Consistent with this, lipid raft disruption enhanced the colocalization of internalized P. gingivalis with lysosomes. In contrast, raft disruption did not affect the expression of host receptors interacting with P. gingivalis, although it significantly inhibited signal transduction. In summary, P. gingivalis uses macrophage lipid rafts as signaling and entry platforms, which determine its intracellular fate to the pathogen’s own advantage. PMID:18547335

  8. Effect of cholesterol on structural and mechanical properties of membranes depends on lipid chain saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Jianjun; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2009-08-15

    The effects of cholesterol on membrane bending modulus K{sub C}, membrane thickness D{sub HH}, the partial and apparent areas of cholesterol and lipid, and the order parameter S{sub xray} are shown to depend upon the number of saturated hydrocarbon chains in the lipid molecules. Particularly striking is the result that up to 40% cholesterol does not increase the bending modulus K{sub C} of membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine lipids with two cis monounsaturated chains, although it does have the expected stiffening effect on membranes composed of lipids with two saturated chains. The B fluctuational modulus in the smectic liquid crystal theory is obtained and used to discuss the interactions between bilayers. Our K{sub C} results motivate a theory of elastic moduli in the high cholesterol limit and they challenge the relevance of universality concepts. Although most of our results were obtained at 30 deg. C, additional data at other temperatures to allow consideration of a reduced temperature variable do not support universality for the effect of cholesterol on all lipid bilayers. If the concept of universality is to be valid, different numbers of saturated chains must be considered to create different universality classes. The above experimental results were obtained from analysis of x-ray scattering in the low angle and wide angle regions.

  9. Effect of cholesterol on structural and mechanical properties of membranes depends on lipid chain saturation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianjun; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol on membrane bending modulus KC, membrane thickness DHH, the partial and apparent areas of cholesterol and lipid, and the order parameter Sxray are shown to depend upon the number of saturated hydrocarbon chains in the lipid molecules. Particularly striking is the result that up to 40% cholesterol does not increase the bending modulus KC of membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine lipids with two cis monounsaturated chains, although it does have the expected stiffening effect on membranes composed of lipids with two saturated chains. The B fluctuational modulus in the smectic liquid crystal theory is obtained and used to discuss the interactions between bilayers. Our KC results motivate a theory of elastic moduli in the high cholesterol limit and they challenge the relevance of universality concepts. Although most of our results were obtained at 30 °C, additional data at other temperatures to allow consideration of a reduced temperature variable do not support universality for the effect of cholesterol on all lipid bilayers. If the concept of universality is to be valid, different numbers of saturated chains must be considered to create different universality classes. The above experimental results were obtained from analysis of x-ray scattering in the low angle and wide angle regions. PMID:19792175

  10. Size-dependent properties of small unilamellar vesicles formed by model lipids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Min; Li, Chun-Shian; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Wu, David T; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2012-01-10

    The size-dependent behavior of small unilamellar vesicles is explored by dissipative particle dynamics, including the membrane characteristics and mechanical properties. The spontaneously formed vesicles are in the metastable state and the vesicle size is controlled by the concentration of model lipids. As the vesicle size decreases, the bilayer gets thinner and the area density of heads declines. Nonetheless, the area density in the inner leaflet is higher than that in the outer. The packing parameters are calculated for both leaflets. The result indicates that the shape of lipid in the outer leaflet is like a truncated cone but that in the inner leaflet resembles an inverted truncated cone. Based on a local order parameter, our simulations indication that the orientation order of lipid molecules decreases as the size of the vesicle reduces and this fact reveals that the bilayer becoming thinner for smaller vesicle is mainly attributed to the orientation disorder of the lipids. The membrane tension can be obtained through the Young-Laplace equation. The tension is found to grow with reducing vesicle size. Therefore, small vesicles are less stable against fusion. Using the inflation method, the area stretching and bending moduli can be determined and those moduli are found to grow with reducing size. Nonetheless, a general equation with a single numerical constant can relate bending modulus, area stretching modulus, and bilayer thickness irrespective of the vesicle size. Finally, a simple metastable model is proposed to explain the size-dependent behavior of bilayer thickness, orientation, and tension.

  11. Arabidopsis D6PK is a lipid domain-dependent mediator of root epidermal planar polarity.

    PubMed

    Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Barbosa, Inês C R; Kiefer, Christian S; Brackmann, Klaus; Pietra, Stefano; Gustavsson, Anna; Zourelidou, Melina; Schwechheimer, Claus; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Development of diverse multicellular organisms relies on coordination of single-cell polarities within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity). Cell polarity often involves plasma membrane heterogeneity generated by accumulation of specific lipids and proteins into membrane subdomains. Coordinated hair positioning along Arabidopsis root epidermal cells provides a planar polarity model in plants, but knowledge about the functions of proteo-lipid domains in planar polarity signalling remains limited. Here we show that Rho-of-plant (ROP) 2 and 6, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3), DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN (DRP) 1A and DRP2B accumulate in a sterol-enriched, polar membrane domain during root hair initiation. DRP1A, DRP2B, PIP5K3 and sterols are required for planar polarity and the AGCVIII kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is a modulator of this process. D6PK undergoes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate- and sterol-dependent basal-to-planar polarity switching into the polar, lipid-enriched domain just before hair formation, unravelling lipid-dependent D6PK localization during late planar polarity signalling.

  12. Lipid-dependent Bidirectional Traffic of Apolipoprotein B in Polarized Enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Etienne; Demignot, Sylvie; Chateau, Danielle; Chambaz, Jean; Rousset, Monique; Delers, François

    2004-01-01

    Enterocytes are highly polarized cells that transfer nutrients across the intestinal epithelium from the apical to the basolateral pole. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a secretory protein that plays a key role in the transepithelial transport of dietary fatty acids as triacylglycerol. The evaluation of the control of apoB traffic by lipids is therefore of particular interest. To get a dynamic insight into this process, we used the enterocytic Caco-2 cells cultured on microporous filters, a system in which the apical and basal compartments can be delimited. Combining biochemical and morphological approaches, our results showed that, besides their role in protection from degradation, lipids control the intracellular traffic of apoB in enterocytes. A supply of fatty acids and cholesterol is sufficient for the export of apoB from the endoplasmic reticulum and its post-Golgi traffic up to the apical brush-border domain, where it remains until an apical supply of complex lipid micelles signals its chase down to the basolateral secretory domain. This downward traffic of apoB involves a microtubule-dependent process. Our results demonstrate an enterocyte-specific bidirectional process for the lipid-dependent traffic of a secretory protein. PMID:14565984

  13. Lipid raft-dependent plasma membrane repair interferes with the activation of B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Heather; Castro-Gomes, Thiago; Corrotte, Matthias; Tam, Christina; Maugel, Timothy K; Andrews, Norma W; Song, Wenxia

    2015-12-21

    Cells rapidly repair plasma membrane (PM) damage by a process requiring Ca(2+)-dependent lysosome exocytosis. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) released from lysosomes induces endocytosis of injured membrane through caveolae, membrane invaginations from lipid rafts. How B lymphocytes, lacking any known form of caveolin, repair membrane injury is unknown. Here we show that B lymphocytes repair PM wounds in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Wounding induces lysosome exocytosis and endocytosis of dextran and the raft-binding cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Resealing is reduced by ASM inhibitors and ASM deficiency and enhanced or restored by extracellular exposure to sphingomyelinase. B cell activation via B cell receptors (BCRs), a process requiring lipid rafts, interferes with PM repair. Conversely, wounding inhibits BCR signaling and internalization by disrupting BCR-lipid raft coclustering and by inducing the endocytosis of raft-bound CTB separately from BCR into tubular invaginations. Thus, PM repair and B cell activation interfere with one another because of competition for lipid rafts, revealing how frequent membrane injury and repair can impair B lymphocyte-mediated immune responses.

  14. Effects of Aster scaber Seed Oil Containing trans-Δ3 Fatty Acids on Lipid Profiles of Hamsters and Rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Soon; Lee, Koung-Hee; Jeong, Yeon-Ho; Koba, Kazunori; Sugano, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Aster scaber seed oil (ASO) on lipid profiles were studied in rats and hamsters. ASO contained considerable amounts of Δ3t-16:1 (11.4%), Δ3t, 9c-18:2 (4.6%), and Δ3t, 9c, 12c-18:3 (11.3%). Young rats and hamsters were fed diets containing ASO, soybean oil (SBO), or olive oil (OLO) as fat sources for 4 weeks in separate experiments with or without cholesterol. In the rat study, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol among the groups. The serum but not liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly lower in the ASO-fed group than it was in the other groups. The biochemical and growth parameters revealed no significant biological damages in the ASO-fed animals. In the hamster study, dietary cholesterol-dependent effects were evident in the serum lipids profiles, whereas the fat-induced effect was only observed in the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-/HDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, fat- and cholesterol-induced effects were evident in the ratio of serum LDL-/HDL-cholesterol. Significant interactions between dietary fat and cholesterol were observed as evident from the concentration of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol, as well as the activity of serum cholesterol ester transfer protein. These results suggest that dietary ASO containing trans-Δ3 fatty acids appeared to improve the serum LDL-/HDL-cholesterol ratio more than the SBO did, especially when hamsters were simultaneously fed cholesterol-supplemented diet.

  15. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Results from the present study suggest that Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  16. Fatty acid profiling during microbial lipid production under varying pO2 and impeller tip speeds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Ubaid; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Pandey, Ashok; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2008-12-01

    The fatty acid profile study was undertaken to study the effect of impeller tip speed-associated shear stress and dissolved oxygen saturation (DO) on the fatty acid composition variation and on total lipid content of the cells. The study was undertaken in a 5-l stirred tank bioreactor using Mucor sp. RRL001. To study the interaction of parameters and their effects, a central composite design was used. The fatty acid profiling during the course of study suggested that oleic acid and palmitic acid were two major components with their composition varying between 34-47% and 29-39.1%, respectively, of the total lipid content. The GLA content varied between 3% and 9% of the total lipid. The lipid profile study also revealed the presence of a minor amount of fatty acids of chain length C:12, C:20, C:22, and C:24. The modeling of lipid accumulation suggested that it follows a quadratic model with both impeller tip speed (p = 0.0166) and dissolved oxygen concentration (p = 0.0098) following the quadratic order of effect. The fermenter run based on the optimum production zone in response surface plot resulted in the maximum 4.8 g l(-1) lipid compared with the model-predicted value of 4.49 g l(-1). The present study suggests that dissolved oxygen saturation is a more significant contributor to total lipid accumulation. However, the study also suggests that the fatty acid profile of fungal lipid is not directly associated with the shear stress or oxygen availability in Mucor sp. RRL001. PMID:18581265

  17. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  18. Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process locally controlled by a novel genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) that orchestrate key resolution responses. Hence, it is of general interest to identify individual bioactive mediators and profile their biosynthetic pathways with related isomers as well as their relation(s) to classic eicosanoids in mammalian tissues. Lipid mediator (LM)-SPM levels and signature profiles of their biosynthetic pathways were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based LM metabololipidomics. LM and SPM were identified using ≥6 diagnostic ions and chromatographic behavior matching with both authentic and synthetic materials. This approach was validated using the composite reference plasma (SRM1950) of 100 healthy individuals. Using targeted LM metabololipidomics, we profiled LM and SPM pathways in human peripheral blood (plasma and serum) and lymphoid organs. In these, we identified endogenous SPM metabolomes, namely, the potent lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD), and maresins (MaR). These included RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, MaR1, and NPD1/PD1, which were identified in amounts within their bioactive ranges. In plasma and serum, principal component analysis (PCA) identified signature profiles of eicosanoids and SPM clusters. Plasma-SPM increased with omega-3 and acetylsalicylic acid intake that correlated with increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli in whole blood. These findings demonstrate an approach for identification of SPM pathways (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) in human blood and lymphoid tissues that were in amounts commensurate with their pro-resolving, organ protective, and tissue regeneration functions. LM metabololipidomics coupled with calibration tissues and physiological changes documented herein provide a tool for functional phenotypic profiling. PMID:24696140

  19. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C

    2005-09-01

    The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50-100 g/d), 2 peanut (35-68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40-84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50-100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts > or = 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.

  20. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus's growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: -0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: -0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = -0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: -0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: -0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: -0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  1. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  2. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C

    2005-09-01

    The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50-100 g/d), 2 peanut (35-68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40-84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50-100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts > or = 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals. PMID:16140880

  3. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. PMID:27606648

  4. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding.

  5. Lipid Profile Remodeling in Response to Nitrogen Deprivation in the Microalgae Chlorella sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) and Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Ian L. D.; Bergamin, Amanda; Shears, Melanie J.; Dias, Daniel A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Scales, Peter J.; Botté, Cyrille Y.; Callahan, Damien L.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs), the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to stress response in particular the deprivation of nutrients that can induce enhanced TAG synthesis. In this study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. in response to nitrogen deprivation (N-deprivation) was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress. As expected, an increase in TAGs and an overall decrease in polar lipids were observed. However, while most membrane lipid classes (phosphoglycerolipids and glycolipids) were found to decrease, the non-nitrogen containing phosphatidylglycerol levels increased considerably in both algae from initially low levels. Of particular significance, it was observed that the acyl composition of TAGs in Nannochloropsis sp. remain relatively constant, whereas Chlorella sp. showed greater variability following N-deprivation. In both algae the overall fatty acid profiles of the polar lipid classes were largely unaffected by N-deprivation, suggesting a specific FA profile for each compartment is maintained to enable continued function despite considerable reductions in the amount of these lipids. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were due primarily to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study provides the most detailed lipidomic information on two different microalgae with utility in biodiesel production and nutraceutical industries and proposes the mechanisms for this rearrangement. This research also highlights the usefulness of the latest MS-based approaches for microalgae lipid research. PMID:25171084

  6. Zinc protection against aluminium induced altered lipid profile and membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Zinc (Zn) supplementation on lipid profile and fluidity of cerebrum and cerebellum membranes of rats treated with aluminium (Al). Sprague dawley male rats were divided into four different treatment groups viz: Control, aluminium treated, zinc treated and aluminium+zinc treated. Aluminium (AlCl3) was administered orally at a dose of 100mg/kgb.wt./day (dissolved in drinking water). Zinc as zinc sulphate was supplemented to rats at a dose of 227mg/l in drinking water. A significant decrease in the levels of total lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides contents were observed in both the cerebrum and cerebellum following Al exposure, which were found to be significantly increased following Zn supplementation. On the contrary, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the formation of conjugated dienes, which were observed to be reduced on Zn co-treatment. Further, Al treatment significantly elevated the fluorescence polarization, anisotropy and order parameter, which however were normalized upon Zn co-administration. Hence, the present study depicts the potential of Zn in moderating the changes caused by Al on membrane composition and fluidity in rat brain.

  7. Characterization of hepatic lipid profiles in a mouse model with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kosuke; Uebanso, Takashi; Maekawa, Keiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Taguchi, Ryo; Nammo, Takao; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Udagawa, Haruhide; Fujii, Masato; Shibazaki, Yuichiro; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuki; Saito, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major health problem since it often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of NASH development and subsequent fibrosis have yet to be clarified. We compared comprehensive lipidomic profiles between mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and STAM mice with NASH and subsequent fibrosis. The STAM mouse is a model that demonstrates NASH progression resembling the disease in humans: STAM mice manifest NASH at 8 weeks, which progresses to fibrosis at 12 weeks, and finally develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Overall, 250 lipid molecules were detected in the liver using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that STAM mice with NASH presented a significantly higher abundance of sphingolipids and lower levels of triacylglycerols than the HFD-fed control mice. The abundance of certain fatty acids in phospholipid side chains was also significantly different between STAM and control mice, although global levels of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were comparable. Finally, increase in levels of acylcarnitines and some diacylglycerols was observed in STAM mice toward the fibrosis stage, but not in age-matched control mice. Our study provides insights into the lipid status of the steatotic, NASH, and fibrotic liver that would help elucidate the molecular pathophysiology of NASH progression. PMID:26289793

  8. Hydrodynamic Propulsion of Liposomes Electrostatically Attracted to a Lipid Membrane Reveals Size-Dependent Conformational Changes.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Block, Stephan; Höök, Fredrik; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-09-27

    The efficiency of lipid nanoparticle uptake across cellular membranes is strongly dependent on the very first interaction step. Detailed understanding of this step is in part hampered by the large heterogeneity in the physicochemical properties of lipid nanoparticles, such as liposomes, making conventional ensemble-averaging methods too blunt to address details of this complex process. Here, we contribute a means to explore whether individual liposomes become deformed upon binding to fluid cell-membrane mimics. This was accomplished by using hydrodynamic forces to control the propulsion of nanoscale liposomes electrostatically attracted to a supported lipid bilayer. In this way, the size of individual liposomes could be determined by simultaneously measuring both their individual drift velocity and diffusivity, revealing that for a radius of ∼45 nm, a close agreement with dynamic light scattering data was observed, while larger liposomes (radius ∼75 nm) displayed a significant deformation unless composed of a gel-phase lipid. The relevance of being able to extract this type of information is discussed in the context of membrane fusion and cellular uptake. PMID:27603118

  9. Hydrodynamic Propulsion of Liposomes Electrostatically Attracted to a Lipid Membrane Reveals Size-Dependent Conformational Changes.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Block, Stephan; Höök, Fredrik; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-09-27

    The efficiency of lipid nanoparticle uptake across cellular membranes is strongly dependent on the very first interaction step. Detailed understanding of this step is in part hampered by the large heterogeneity in the physicochemical properties of lipid nanoparticles, such as liposomes, making conventional ensemble-averaging methods too blunt to address details of this complex process. Here, we contribute a means to explore whether individual liposomes become deformed upon binding to fluid cell-membrane mimics. This was accomplished by using hydrodynamic forces to control the propulsion of nanoscale liposomes electrostatically attracted to a supported lipid bilayer. In this way, the size of individual liposomes could be determined by simultaneously measuring both their individual drift velocity and diffusivity, revealing that for a radius of ∼45 nm, a close agreement with dynamic light scattering data was observed, while larger liposomes (radius ∼75 nm) displayed a significant deformation unless composed of a gel-phase lipid. The relevance of being able to extract this type of information is discussed in the context of membrane fusion and cellular uptake.

  10. Do Lipids Show State-dependent Affinity to the Voltage-gated Potassium Channel KvAP?*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Élise; Thompson, Christine; Blunck, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    As all integral membrane proteins, voltage-gated ion channels are embedded in a lipid matrix that regulates their channel behavior either by physicochemical properties or by direct binding. Because manipulation of the lipid composition in cells is difficult, we investigated the influence of different lipids on purified KvAP channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers of known composition. Lipids developed two distinct and independent effects on the KvAP channels; lipids interacting with the pore lowered the energy barriers for the final transitions, whereas voltage sensor-bound lipids shifted the midpoint of activation dependent on their electrostatic charge. Above all, the midpoint of activation was determined only by those lipids the channels came in contact with first after purification and can seemingly only be exchanged if the channel resides in the open state. The high affinity of the bound lipids to the binding site has implications not only on our understanding of the gating mechanism but also on the general experimental design of any lipid dependence study. PMID:24742679

  11. Effect of oral magnesium sulfate administration on blood pressure and lipid profile in streptozocin diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Manssor; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2007-04-10

    Approximately one-third of patients with type 1 diabetes develop a variety of complications as a result of mechanisms that are not completely understood. However, insufficient metabolic control seems to play a major role. Other factors such as magnesium (Mg) could also be of importance. We designed this study to elucidate the effect of oral magnesium administration on plasma lipid profile and mesenteric fat in male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups (n=10 in each group): one group served as control, while the other groups were made diabetic with a single i.v. injection of 40 mg/kg streptozocin. Animals in which the diabetic state lasted for 10 days were referred as acute diabetic rats, whereas those in which the diabetes lasted for 8 weeks were defined as chronic diabetics. Mg-treated chronic diabetic received 10 g/l of MgSO(4) added to the drinking water (0.46 g/24 h) for eight weeks following which the left common carotid artery was cannulated for continuous recording of blood pressure. Blood glucose, magnesium and lipid profiles levels were also determined. Diabetes induction caused plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations to increase, however plasma Mg level was decreased. Administration of MgSO(4) for eight weeks caused the return of the above factors to their normal levels. Mg concentrations also increased but failed to reach normal levels. Diabetes induction caused mesenteric fat/body weight ratio to increase, but administration of MgSO(4) reduced the ratio to normal levels. In addition, Mg administration returned systolic blood pressure to the normal level. Our results support the hypothesis that Mg may play a part in the management of diabetes and the prevention of its vascular complications in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and it may be useful in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in diabetic case. PMID:17292879

  12. [Effect of partially refined palm oil in lipid profile in rats].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Nancy; Márquez, Mercedes; Sutil, Rosalía; Pacheco, Emperatriz; Muñoz, Marielena; Gómez, Maria Esther

    2008-03-01

    Palm oil is rich in carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols. This oil is refined for its human consumption bringing as a consequence an alteration of their properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the partially refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD red) on the lipid profile and levels of vitamin A (retinol) and E (alpha tocopherol) in 4 groups of rats: B (commercial food Protinal for laboratory animals: ST + 5% egg yolk powder); C (ST + 5% egg yolk powder + 14 RBD red) both groups with induced hyperlipidemia; and D (ST + 14% RBD red), as compared with a control A (ST) during 35 days. The results were: the RBD red induced significative decreases of TC (total cholesterol) in groups C and D (81 +/- 11 mg/dL and 77 + 7 mg/dL), respectively, when compared with the control group (99 +/- 11 mg/dL) for 35 days experimentation. Additionally, an increment of the HDL-C (53 +/- 4 mg/dL) in the C group and in the D group (53 +/- 5 mg/dL) were observed when compared with group B (44 +/- 3 mg/dL), resulting in a lower ratio of TC/HDL-C (1.5 +/- 0.1). In the groups C and D, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in the serum concentrations of retinol (26 +/- 5 microg/dL and 58 +/- 18 microg/dL) and a tocopherol (165 +/- 58 microg/dL) and 445 +/- 65 microg/dL). These results allow to conclude that the supplementation with RBD red diminishes the TC, improving the ratio TC/HDL-C. The presence of a monosaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the high concentrations of micronutrients (a tocopherol and retinol) in RBD red palm oil, influence favorably the lipid profile of rats with induced hyperlipidemia.

  13. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Karen L.; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  14. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  15. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans. PMID:27163889

  16. Effect of iron and zinc supplementation and its discontinuation on lipid profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Joanna; Madej, Dawid

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether combined iron/zinc supplementation is more beneficial than iron supplementation alone from the perspective of the lipid profile in rats. The study was conducted on 6-week male Wistar rats in 3 stages: (1) 4-week adaptation to the diets: C (AIN-93M) and D (mineral mix without iron); (2) 4-week supplementation: 10-times more iron or iron and zinc compared to C; (3) 2-week post-supplementation period (the same diets as in the first stage). The iron and zinc content in serum was measured using ASA. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined. After 4-week supplementation (stage II) and post-supplementation (stage III) periods combined iron/zinc supplementation decreased HDL-C and increased non-HDL-C concentrations in control rats, and in contrast to iron supplementation alone TG concentration decreased. After stage II combined iron/zinc supplementation did not result in increased non-HDL-C and TG concentrations in iron deficient rats in contrast to iron supplementation alone. After stage III both iron and simultaneous iron/zinc supplementation were the cause of TC increase which was the result of the increase of non-HDL-C but not HDL-C concentration in iron deficient rats. In conclusion, there were no beneficial effects of simultaneous iron and zinc supplementation on the lipid profile of rats fed control and iron deficient diets. Combined iron and zinc supplementation may contribute to lower HDL-C and higher non-HDL-C concentrations.

  17. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA.

  18. Chondrocytes Utilize a Cholesterol-Dependent Lipid Translocator To Externalize Phosphatidylserine†

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Golub, Ellis; Otis, Linda; Harrison, Gerald; Phillips, Christine; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    During endochondral ossification, growth plate chondrocytes release plasma membrane (PM) derived matrix vesicles (MV), which are the site of initial hydroxyapatite crystal formation. MV constituents which facilitate the mineralization process include the integral membrane ectoenzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase (NPP1/PC-1), along with a phosphatidylserine- (PS-) rich membrane surface that binds annexins and calcium, resulting in enhanced calcium entry into MV. In this study, we determined that chick growth plate MV were highly enriched in membrane raft microdomains containing high levels of cholesterol, glycophosphatidylinositol- (GPI-) anchored ALPase, and phosphatidylserine (PS) localized to the external leaflet of the bilayer. To determine how such membrane microdomains arise during chondrocyte maturation, we explored the role of PM cholesterol-dependent lipid assemblies in regulating the activities of lipid translocators involved in the externalization of PS. We first isolated and determined the composition of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) from chondrocyte PM. DRMs isolated from chondrocyte PM were enhanced in ganglioside 1 (GM1) and cholesterol as well as GPI-anchored ALPase. Furthermore, these membrane domains were enriched in PS (localized to the external leaflet of the bilayer) and had significantly higher ALPase activity than non-cholesterol-enriched domains. To understand the role of cholesterol-dependent lipid assemblies in the externalization of PS, we measured the activities of two lipid transporters involved in PS externalization, aminophospholipid translocase (APLT) and phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR1), during maturation of a murine chondrocytic cell line, N1511. In this report, we provide the first evidence that maturing chondrocytes express PLSCR1 and have scramblase activity. We propose that redistribution of PS is dependent on an increase in phospholipid scramblase activity and a decrease

  19. Roles of lipid rafts in integrin-dependent adhesion and gp130 signalling pathway in mouse embryonic neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Taga, Tetsuya

    2004-09-01

    Neuronal and glial cells organizing the central nervous system are generated from common neural precursor cells present in the neuroepithelium during development. We tried to clarify functions of a cell surface microdomain, lipid raft, in neuroepithelial cells (NECs). NECs are suggested to adhere to fibronectin substratum dependently on integrin molecules. We found that beta1 integrin, a component of fibronectin receptors, was distributed in lipid rafts. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), an inhibitor of lipid raft formation, inhibited the integrin-fibronectin interaction-dependent adhesion of NECs. However, inhibition of synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSL), components of lipid rafts, did not affect NEC adhesion. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an interleukin 6 type cytokine, induces astrocyte differentiation of NECs via activation of a transcription factor STAT3. We detected gp130, JAK1 and Ras but not STAT3 and ERK2 molecules in lipid rafts of NECs. Disruption of lipid rafts by MBCD inhibited LIF-induced ERK activation but not STAT3 activation. It is thus suggested that LIF-downstream molecules have differential lipid raft-dependency in terms of activation upon LIF-stimulation. In this study, we found functions of lipid rafts in cell adhesion and signal transduction in NECs. This is the first report that characterized functions of lipid rafts in embryonic neural precursor cells.

  20. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The rats were divided into four groups (n=10): GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control), GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control), GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV, respectively, and an

  1. Lipid Profile in Adolescent Girls with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperandrogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Deja, Grazyna; Gawlik, Aneta; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Klimek, Katarzyna; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. The study aim was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may adversely influence lipid profile. Design and Participants. Lipid levels in 16 diabetic girls with biochemical hyperandrogenemia (T1DM-H) aged 16.3 ± 1.2 years were compared to 38 diabetic girls with normal androgen levels (T1DM-N) aged 15.8 ± 1.2 years. 15 healthy girls served as controls (CG). In all patients, anthropometric measurements were done, and androgens and SHBG were assessed. Results. In T1DM-H, total cholesterol (TC) and low density cholesterol (LDL-ch) were significantly higher than in CG (196.1 ± 41.2 versus 162.7 ± 31.7 mg/dL, p = 0.01; 117.3 ± 33.1 versus 91.3 ± 27.8 mg/dL, p = 0.01, resp.). Their LDL-ch, non-high density cholesterol (non-HDL-ch) concentrations, and LDL/HDL ratio were also significantly higher than in T1DM-N (117.3 ± 33.1 versus 97.7 ± 26.7 mg/dL, p = 0.03; 137.3 ± 42.9 versus 113.3 ± 40.4 mg/dL, p = 0.04; 2.8 ± 3.7 versus 1.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.04, resp.). In stepwise multiple linear regression, free androgen index (FAI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with TC (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0006), non-HDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0003), and LDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0008). Triglycerides and LDL/HDL ratio were (R2 = 0.7, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.6, p < 0.0003 resp.) related to testosterone, FAI, WHR, and mean HbA1c. Conclusion. Lipid profile in diabetic adolescent girls is adversely influenced by the androgens level, particularly in the group with higher WHR and poorer glycemic control. PMID:27239195

  2. Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  3. Lipid profiling and transcriptomic analysis reveals a functional interplay between estradiol and growth hormone in liver.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  4. A study on blood lipid profiles, aluminum and mercury levels in college students

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eunim; Hyun, Whajin; Ro, Yoona; Lee, Hongmie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES College students are in a period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, in which proper dietary habits and balanced nutritional intake are very important. However, improper dietary habits and lifestyles can bring several health problems. This study was performed to investigate blood lipid profiles, blood aluminum and mercury in college students and the relationships among them. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) in Gyeonggi-do. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipids, SGOT, SGPT, and blood aluminum and mercury of the subjects were measured and analyzed, and their relationship was studied. RESULTS The BMI was significantly higher in males, 23.69 ± 3.20 kg/m2, than in females, 20.38 ± 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). The blood pressure was significantly higher in males with 128.93 ± 12.92 mmHg systolic pressure and 77.14 ± 10.31 mmHg diastolic pressure compared to females with 109.78 ± 11.97 mmHg and 65.95 ± 6.92 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol in males, 61.88 ± 13.06 mg/dl, was lower than 64.73 ± 12.16 mg/dl in females, but other blood lipid levels were higher in males. Blood aluminum was significantly higher in males, 9.12 ± 2.11 µg/L, than in females, 8.03 ± 2.14 µg/L (P < 0.05), and blood mercury was higher in males, 3.08 ± 1.55 µg/L, than in females, 2.64 ± 1.49 µg/L. The blood lipids showed positive correlation with obesity and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The degree of obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were higher in males, suggesting possible association with chronic disease incidence such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Thus, it is considered that a systematic health education is needed for college students, especially for males. PMID:27478552

  5. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  6. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements. PMID:27192196

  7. Leptin induces macrophage lipid body formation by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Almeida, Patricia E; D'Avila, Heloisa; Martins, Aline S; Rezende, Ana Paula; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo; Bozza, Patricia T

    2008-01-25

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are emerging as dynamic organelles with roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Here we investigated the roles of leptin in signaling pathways involved in cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and leukotriene B(4) synthesis in macrophages. Our results demonstrated that leptin directly activated macrophages and induced the formation of adipose differentiation-related protein-enriched lipid bodies. Newly formed lipid bodies were sites of 5-lipoxygenase localization and correlated with an enhanced capacity of leukotriene B(4) production. We demonstrated that leptin-induced macrophage activation was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, since the lipid body formation was inhibited by LY294002 and was absent in the PI3K knock-out mice. Leptin induces phosphorylation of p70(S6K) and 4EBP1 key downstream signaling intermediates of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited leptin-induced lipid body formation, both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, rapamycin inhibited leptin-induced adipose differentiation-related protein accumulation in macrophages and lipid body-dependent leukotriene synthesis, demonstrating a key role for mTOR in lipid body biogenesis and function. Our results establish PI3K/mTOR as an important signaling pathway for leptin-induced cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and adipose differentiation-related protein accumulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized link between intracellular (mTOR) and systemic (leptin) nutrient sensors in macrophage lipid metabolism. Leptin-induced increased formation of cytoplasmic lipid bodies and enhanced inflammatory mediator production in macrophages may have implications for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18039669

  8. Down-regulation of lipid raft-associated onco-proteins via cholesterol-dependent lipid raft internalization in docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Un-Jung; Koo, Kyung Hee; Sung, Jee Young; Shim, Jaegal; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function.

  9. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment.

  10. Polarization-dependent fluorescence of proteins bound to nanopore-confined lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-Q.; Marek, A.; Smirnov, Alex I.; Grebel, H.

    2008-09-01

    Lipid bilayers are essential structural component of biological membranes of all the living species: from viruses and bacteria to plants and humans. Biophysical and biochemical properties of such membranes are important for understanding physical mechanisms responsible for drug targeting. Binding events between proteins and the membrane may be ascertained by introducing fluorescence markers (chromophores) to the proteins. Here we describe a novel biosensing platform designed to enhance signals of these fluorescence markers. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes with and without gold (Au) surface coating have been employed for optical detection of bound conjugated streptavidin to biotinylated lipid bilayers-a model system that mimics protein docking to the membrane surface. Unexpectedly, it was found that fluorescence signals from such structures vary when pumped with E-polarized and H-polarized incident optical beams. The origin of the observed polarization-dependent effects and the implications for enhanced fluorescence detection in a biochip format are being discussed.

  11. Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Lipid Deposition from Transcriptome Profiles of Pig Muscle Tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Li, Qinggang; Chamba, Yangzom; Zhang, Bo; Shang, Peng; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Changxin

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles established using high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used for screening genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RNA sequences (from RNA-seq) and microRNA sequences (from miRNA-seq) from the tissues of longissimus dorsi muscle of two indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Diannan Small-ear pig [DSP] and Tibetan pig [TP]) and two introduced pig breeds (Landrace [LL] and Yorkshire [YY]) were examined using HiSeq 2000 to identify and compare the differential expression of functional genes related to muscle growth and lipid deposition. We obtained 27.18 G clean data through the RNA-seq and detected that 18,208 genes were positively expressed and 14,633 of them were co-expressed in the muscle tissues of the four samples. In all, 315 DEGs were found between the Chinese pig group and the introduced pig group, 240 of which were enriched with functional annotations from the David database and significantly enriched in 27 Gene Ontology (GO) terms that were mainly associated with muscle fiber contraction, cadmium ion binding, response to organic substance and contractile fiber part. Based on functional annotation, we identified 85 DEGs related to growth traits that were mainly involved in muscle tissue development, muscle system process, regulation of cell development, and growth factor binding, and 27 DEGs related to lipid deposition that were mainly involved in lipid metabolic process and fatty acid biosynthetic process. With miRNA-seq, we obtained 23.78 M reads and 320 positively expressed miRNAs from muscle tissues, including 271 known pig miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs. In those 271 known miRNAs, 20 were higher and 10 lower expressed in DSP-TP than in LL-YY. The target genes of the 30 miRNAs were mainly participated in MAPK, GnRH, insulin and Calcium signaling pathway and others involved cell development, growth and proliferation, etc. Combining the DEGs and the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs, we drafted a network of 46 genes and 18

  12. Size-dependent, stochastic nature of lipid exchange between nano-vesicles and model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaei, Seyed R.; Gillissen, Jurriaan J. J.; Vafaei, Setareh; Groves, Jay T.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of nanoscale lipid vesicles with cell membranes is of fundamental importance for the design and development of vesicular drug delivery systems. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study vesicle-membrane interactions whereby we are able to probe the influence of nanoscale membrane properties on the dynamic adsorption, exchange, and detachment of vesicles. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we monitor these processes in real-time upon the electrostatically tuned attachment of individual, sub-100 nm vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer. The observed exponential vesicle detachment rate depends strongly on the vesicle size, but not on the vesicle charge, which suggests that lipid exchange occurs during a single stochastic event, which is consistent with membrane stalk formation. The fluorescence microscopy assay developed in this work may enable measuring of the probability of stalk formation in a controlled manner, which is of fundamental importance in membrane biology, offering a new tool to understand nanoscale phenomena in the context of biological sciences.The interaction of nanoscale lipid vesicles with cell membranes is of fundamental importance for the design and development of vesicular drug delivery systems. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study vesicle-membrane interactions whereby we are able to probe the influence of nanoscale membrane properties on the dynamic adsorption, exchange, and detachment of vesicles. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we monitor these processes in real-time upon the electrostatically tuned attachment of individual, sub-100 nm vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer. The observed exponential vesicle detachment rate depends strongly on the vesicle size, but not on the vesicle charge, which suggests that lipid exchange occurs during a single stochastic event, which is consistent with membrane stalk formation. The fluorescence microscopy assay developed

  13. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  14. Effects of Water Extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on Blood Pressure, Fasting Glucose, and Lipid Profiles of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Shu-Ju; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) on blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants with MS (n = 54) were randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 28) and WGP groups (n = 26), and the intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)), and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). FG, SBP, and LDL-C levels were significantly lower and HDL-C level and antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) were significantly higher after WGP supplementation. Blood pressure, FG, and lipid profiles were significantly correlated with antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles and an increase in antioxidant enzymes activities in subjects with MS after WGP supplementation. Taken together, the antioxidative capacity of WGP might exert a beneficial effect on MS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463748. PMID:24371832

  15. Effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profiles of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Shu-Ju; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) on blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants with MS (n = 54) were randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 28) and WGP groups (n = 26), and the intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)), and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). FG, SBP, and LDL-C levels were significantly lower and HDL-C level and antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) were significantly higher after WGP supplementation. Blood pressure, FG, and lipid profiles were significantly correlated with antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles and an increase in antioxidant enzymes activities in subjects with MS after WGP supplementation. Taken together, the antioxidative capacity of WGP might exert a beneficial effect on MS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463748.

  16. Ameliorative potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumari, S.; Bhuvaneswari, P.; Rajeswari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most severe metabolic pandemic of the 21st century, affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every cell in the body. Indian literatures have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in serum and liver) in streptozotocin induced diabetic animals. The experimental animals were treated with methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis and the levels of marker enzymes and lipid profile were estimated. The ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels were increased in diabetic rats and restored to near normal levels after administration of plant extract. The lipid profile increased in diabetic group and after the treatment with the plant extract the levels were reverted to near normal. Thus the methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis has a potent ability to restore the marker enzymes and the lipid profile was reverted to near normal levels. PMID:22736887

  17. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  18. Temperature-dependent biphasic shrinkage of lipid-coated bubbles in ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cox, Debra J; Thomas, James L

    2013-04-01

    Lipid-coated microbubbles and emulsions are of interest as possible ultrasound-mediated drug delivery vehicles and for their interesting behaviors and fundamental properties. We and others have noted that bubbles coated with the long chain saturated phospholipid distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) rapidly shrink to a quasistable size when repeatedly insonated with short ultrasound pulses; such stability may adversely affect the bubble's subsequent ability to deliver its pharmacological cargo. Bubbles coated with the unsaturated lipid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) did not show stability but did undergo an abrupt change from rapid initial shrinkage to a slow persistent shrinkage, leading ultimately to dissolution or dispersion. As DOPC and DSPC differ not only in chain saturation but also phase behavior, we performed additional studies using dimyristoyl PC (DMPC) as a coat lipid and controlled the solution temperature to study bubble behavior on exposure to repeated ultrasound pulses for the same coat, in both fluid and gel phases. We find, first, that essentially all bubbles show an initially rapid shrinkage, in which gas loss exceeds the limit imposed by gas diffusion into the surrounding medium; this rapid shrinkage may be evidence of nanoscopic bubble fragmentation. Second, upon reaching a fraction of their initial size, bubbles begin a slower shrinkage with a shrinkage rate that depends on the resting phase state of the coat lipid: fluid DMPC monolayers give a more rapid shrinkage than gel phase. DOPC-coated bubbles showed no temperature-dependent responses in the same temperature range. The results are especially interesting in that bubble compression during the pulse is likely to adiabatically heat the bubble and fluidize the coat, regardless of its initial phase state; thus, some structural feature of the resting coat, such as defect lines in the gel phase, may be important in the subsequent response to the ~3 μs ultrasound pulse.

  19. Serum chemistry and lipid profiles in neonatal beagle puppies fed homemade milk replacer formulas.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Miller, E; Olson, P N; Ralston, S L

    1993-04-01

    Milk replacer formulas based on cow's milk and egg yolks are frequently recommended for use in neonatal puppies. These formulas are lower in protein, kilocalories, calcium, and phosphorus than bitch's milk. In addition, the cholesterol content is greater than bitch's milk. The effect of feeding these formulas on serum chemistry profiles, lipid profiles, and alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles of 5-week-old beagle puppies was studied. Three groups of beagle puppies were fed bitch's milk (control) (n = 18), a homemade milk-egg-oil formula (Formula 1) (n = 18), or a homemade milk-egg-oil formula supplemented with additional calcium and phosphorous (Formula 2) (n = 18). Concentrations of serum urea nitrogen, albumin, and total CO2 were lower (P < 0.05), and concentrations of serum phosphorus, globulins, sodium, chloride, and cholesterol were higher (P < 0.05) in formula-fed puppies than bitch-fed puppies. Serum potassium concentration was lower in the puppies fed Formula 1 than in the control puppies (P < 0.05), and serum potassium concentration in the puppies fed Formula 2 was not significantly different from that in puppies fed Formula 1 or the control puppies. Total triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein2 cholesterol (HDL2) concentrations were similar in all three groups of puppies but the combined high density lipoprotein1 (HDL1) plus low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in the formula-fed puppies and accounted for the majority of the increase in cholesterol. There were no differences (P < 0.05) in total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or bone-derived ALP (BALP) concentrations among the groups, however there was a higher (P < 0.05) serum concentration of liver-derived ALP (LALP) in the Formula 1-fed puppies. Feeding homemade egg and cow's milk-based puppy replacement formulas is not recommended for long term use. PMID:8467696

  20. Profiling the Essential Nature of Lipid Metabolism in Asexual Blood and Gametocyte Stages of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sonia; Ekland, Eric H.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Chan, Robin B.; Jayabalasingham, Bamini; Zhou, Bowen; Mantel, Pierre-Yves; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Spottiswoode, Natasha; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Hjelmqvist, Daisy; Worgall, Tilla S.; Marti, Matthias; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY During its life cycle, Plasmodium falciparum undergoes rapid proliferation fueled by de novo synthesis and acquisition of host cell lipids. Consistent with this essential role, Plasmodium lipid synthesis enzymes are emerging as potential drug targets. To explore their broader potential for therapeutic interventions, we assayed the global lipid landscape during P. falciparum asexual blood stage (ABS) and sexual development. Using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, we analyzed 304 lipids constituting 24 classes in ABS parasites, infected red blood cell (RBC)-derived microvesicles, gametocytes, and uninfected RBCs. Ten lipid classes were previously uncharacterized in P. falciparum and 70–75% of the lipid classes exhibited changes in abundance during ABS and gametocyte development. Utilizing compounds that target lipid metabolism, we affirmed the essentiality of major classes, including triacylglycerols. These studies highlight the interplay between host and parasite lipid metabolism and provide a comprehensive analysis of P. falciparum lipids with candidate pathways for drug discovery efforts. PMID:26355219

  1. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations. PMID:24940081

  2. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  3. Effects of kiwifruit consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2009-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important adult health problem in the world. Epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments have shown that fruit and vegetable consumption has protective effects against CVD. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of consumption of two kiwifruit per day on the lipid profile, antioxidants and markers of lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic adult men and women in Taiwan. Forty-three subjects who had hyperlipidemia, including 13 males and 30 females, participated in this study. They were asked to consume two kiwifruit per day for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were made. Before the intervention and at 4 and 8 weeks of the intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Additionally vitamin E and vitamin C, the malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal concentration, and the lag time of LDL oxidation were determined. No significant differences from baseline to 8 weeks of the intervention were detected for triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol. However, after 8 weeks of consumption of kiwifruit, the HDL-C concentration was significantly increased and the LDL cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio were significantly decreased. Vitamin C and vitamin E also increased significantly. In addition, the lag time of LDL oxidation and malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal had significantly changed at 4 and 8 weeks during the kiwifruit intervention. Regular consumption of kiwifruit might exert beneficial effects on the antioxidative status and the risk factors for CVD in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  4. Effects of Sitagliptin on Lipid Profiles in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Minhua; Li, Yuelan; Zhang, Shihong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sitagliptin has been reported to improve lipid profiles, but findings from these studies are conflicting. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of sitagliptin on serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We made a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP database until June 2015. Eligible studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of sitagliptin on serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Eleven RCTs with 2338 patients were identified. Compared with controls, sitagliptin alone or in combination significantly improved serum TG (weighted mean difference [WMD] −0.24 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.40 to −0.09; P = 0.002) and HDL-C (WMD 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02–0.07; P < 0.001).However, no statistical significances were observed in LDL-C (WMD −0.07 mmol/L; 95% CI −0.22 to 0.08; P = 0.337) and TC (WMD −0.14; 95% CI −0.33 to 0.06; P = 0.177). Subgroup analyses revealed that sitagliptin alone achieved greater improvement in serum TG, TC, and HDL-C levels. These findings suggested that sitagliptin alone or in combination significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26765417

  5. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  6. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  7. LIPID PROFILE OF POLISH PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS AGED 35-55 YEARS LIVING IN THE DISTRICT OF PLESZEW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Matyjaszczyk, Piotr; Zaporowska-STACHOWIAK, Iwona; Kostrzewska, Magdalena; Piorunek, Tomasz; Minczykowskp, Andrzej; Bryl, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, more than half of the adult population suffers from lipid disorders. Among the 18 million Polish people with hypercholesterolemia, over 10.8 million are unaware of this problem. To estimate the lipid profile of selected primary care patients in the district of Pleszew (Western Poland), general practitioners (GPs) recruited 681 patients aged 35-55 years in 2011. Fasting serum lipids were evaluated. We found statistically significant differences in all lipid parameters between all younger (35-45 years) and older (46-55 years) patients, between all female and male subjects, between women and men ages 35-45 years; in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) between younger and older female population; in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG between women and men ages 46-55 years. Dyslipidemia, both, newly detected and previously treated, was detected in 591 patients (86.8%): 322 females (84.3%) and 269 males (90.0%). The highest percentage of lipid disorders was found in males aged 46-55 years (91.9%) and the lowest among women aged 35-45 years (78.0%). Age and gender differences in the prevalence of dyslipidemia proved of statistical importance. Among 155 patients on lipid-lowering therapy, only 28 subjects (18.1%) reached the target value of serum lipids. The prevalence of lipid disorders among primary care patients aged 35-55 years in the district of Pleszew was significantly high, and it was proved that dyslipidemia is statistically prominent in males and older patients. Polish healthcare professionals should make more efforts to improve the detection and treatment of lipid disorders. PMID:27180447

  8. Bilayer registry in a multicomponent asymmetric membrane: Dependence on lipid composition and chain length

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, Anirban; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan E-mail: madan@ncbs.res.in

    2014-08-14

    A question of considerable interest to cell membrane biology is whether phase segregated domains across an asymmetric bilayer are strongly correlated with each other and whether phase segregation in one leaflet can induce segregation in the other. We answer both these questions in the affirmative, using an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the equilibrium statistical properties of a 3-component asymmetric lipid bilayer comprising an unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, a saturated sphingomyelin, and cholesterol with different composition ratios. Our simulations are done by fixing the composition of the upper leaflet to be at the coexistence of the liquid ordered (l{sub o})-liquid disordered (l{sub d}) phases, while the composition of the lower leaflet is varied from the phase coexistence regime to the mixed l{sub d} phase, across a first-order phase boundary. In the regime of phase coexistence in each leaflet, we find strong transbilayer correlations of the l{sub o} domains across the two leaflets, resulting in bilayer registry. This transbilayer correlation depends sensitively upon the chain length of the participating lipids and possibly other features of lipid chemistry, such as degree of saturation. We find that the l{sub o} domains in the upper leaflet can induce phase segregation in the lower leaflet, when the latter is nominally in the mixed (l{sub d}) phase.

  9. Size-dependent, stochastic nature of lipid exchange between nano-vesicles and model membranes.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Vafaei, Setareh; Groves, Jay T; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-07-21

    The interaction of nanoscale lipid vesicles with cell membranes is of fundamental importance for the design and development of vesicular drug delivery systems. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study vesicle-membrane interactions whereby we are able to probe the influence of nanoscale membrane properties on the dynamic adsorption, exchange, and detachment of vesicles. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we monitor these processes in real-time upon the electrostatically tuned attachment of individual, sub-100 nm vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer. The observed exponential vesicle detachment rate depends strongly on the vesicle size, but not on the vesicle charge, which suggests that lipid exchange occurs during a single stochastic event, which is consistent with membrane stalk formation. The fluorescence microscopy assay developed in this work may enable measuring of the probability of stalk formation in a controlled manner, which is of fundamental importance in membrane biology, offering a new tool to understand nanoscale phenomena in the context of biological sciences. PMID:27355613

  10. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Mauricio A

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO-through a lipid peroxide dependent process-can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control the

  11. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Mauricio A

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO-through a lipid peroxide dependent process-can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control the

  12. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO—through a lipid peroxide dependent process—can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control

  13. Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1) to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2) to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3) to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain). The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health problems, lipid

  14. The functional role of some tomato products on lipid profile and liver function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hoda Salama; Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali; El-din, Maha Mohamed Essam

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the functional role of lycopene obtained from powder prepared from fresh tomato, tomato paste, and ketchup that contained equal amounts of lycopene based on levels of intake on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes of hyperlipidemic rats. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into two main groups: the first group (n = 6 rats) was kept on the basal diet as a normal control, while the second group (n = 42 rats) was fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. The latter group was divided into seven subgroups: the first subgroup was the positive control group, while the others were supplemented with one of the tomato products at one of two levels (10 or 20 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). BWG, feed intake, and FER were calculated, and blood samples were collected to determine total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions, atherogenic index, and liver function in sera. Relative organ weights were also calculated. Results revealed that administration of various tomato products produced a significant reduction in feed intake except for the hyperlipidemic group that supplemented with the lower lycopene level from tomato paste. In addition, BWG and FER were not influenced by addition of tomato products at any level of intake. Hyperlipidemic rats supplemented with tomato powder, tomato paste, or ketchup showed significant improvement in almost all the parameters studied compared to the positive control group. Results showed that the higher lycopene level from tomato paste produced significant improvement in all lipid parameters, followed by 10 mg of lycopene/kg from tomato paste, which caused significant elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparable to that of the negative control group. The lowest atherogenic index was achieved by addition of the lower lycopene level from tomato paste followed by

  15. The Insertion and Transport of Anandamide in Synthetic Lipid Membranes Are Both Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Eric; Chahinian, Henri; Sanchez, Patrick; Fantini, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter which belongs to a class of molecules termed the endocannabinoids involved in multiple physiological functions. Anandamide is readily taken up into cells, but there is considerable controversy as to the nature of this transport process (passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer vs. involvement of putative proteic transporters). This issue is of major importance since anandamide transport through the plasma membrane is crucial for its biological activity and intracellular degradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cholesterol in membrane uptake and transport of anandamide. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular modeling simulations suggested that anandamide can adopt a shape that is remarkably complementary to cholesterol. Physicochemical studies showed that in the nanomolar concentration range, anandamide strongly interacted with cholesterol monolayers at the air-water interface. The specificity of this interaction was assessed by: i) the lack of activity of structurally related unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 50 nM) on cholesterol monolayers, and ii) the weak insertion of anandamide into phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin monolayers. In agreement with these data, the presence of cholesterol in reconstituted planar lipid bilayers triggered the stable insertion of anandamide detected as an increase in bilayer capacitance. Kinetics transport studies showed that pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers were weakly permeable to anandamide. The incorporation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers dose-dependently stimulated the translocation of anandamide. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cholesterol stimulates both the insertion of anandamide into synthetic lipid monolayers and bilayers, and its transport across bilayer membranes. In this respect, we suggest that besides putative anandamide protein-transporters, cholesterol could

  16. Effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Ahn, Chul-Min; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has been known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, short-term effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function have not been investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 77) were prospectively randomized into a group with black raspberry (n = 39, 750 mg/day) and a placebo group (n = 38) during a 12-week follow-up. Lipid profiles, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (baFMD), and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured at the baseline and at the 12-week follow-up. Decreases from the baseline in the total cholesterol level (-22.8 ± 30.4 mg/dL vs. -1.9 ± 31.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05, respectively) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (-0.31 ± 0.64 vs. 0.07 ± 0.58, p < 0.05, respectively) were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group. Increases in baFMD at the 12-week follow-up were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group (0.33 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.35 mm, p < 0.05, respectively). Decreases from the baseline in IL-6 (-0.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.0 pg/mL, p < 0.05, respectively) and TNF-α (-2.9 ± 4.7 pg/mL vs. 0.1 ± 3.6 pg/mL, p < 0.05, respectively) were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry. The use of black raspberry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level and inflammatory cytokines, thereby improving vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  17. Strain-dependent profile of misfolded prion protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Morales, Rodrigo; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moda, Fabio; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Chen, Baian; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Prions are composed of the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) organized in a variety of aggregates. An important question in the prion field has been to determine the identity of functional PrP(Sc) aggregates. In this study, we used equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients to separate PrP(Sc) aggregates from three hamster prion strains (Hyper, Drowsy, SSLOW) subjected to minimal manipulations. We show that PrP(Sc) aggregates distribute in a wide range of arrangements and the relative proportion of each species depends on the prion strain. We observed a direct correlation between the density of the predominant PrP(Sc) aggregates and the incubation periods for the strains studied. The relative presence of PrP(Sc) in fractions of different sucrose densities was indicative of the protein deposits present in the brain as analyzed by histology. Interestingly, no association was found between sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and aggregation profiles. Therefore, the organization of PrP molecules in terms of the density of aggregates generated may determine some of the particular strain properties, whereas others are independent from it. Our findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms of strain variation and the role of PrP(Sc) aggregates in prion-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:26877167

  18. Strain-dependent profile of misfolded prion protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Morales, Rodrigo; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moda, Fabio; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Chen, Baian; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Prions are composed of the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) organized in a variety of aggregates. An important question in the prion field has been to determine the identity of functional PrP(Sc) aggregates. In this study, we used equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients to separate PrP(Sc) aggregates from three hamster prion strains (Hyper, Drowsy, SSLOW) subjected to minimal manipulations. We show that PrP(Sc) aggregates distribute in a wide range of arrangements and the relative proportion of each species depends on the prion strain. We observed a direct correlation between the density of the predominant PrP(Sc) aggregates and the incubation periods for the strains studied. The relative presence of PrP(Sc) in fractions of different sucrose densities was indicative of the protein deposits present in the brain as analyzed by histology. Interestingly, no association was found between sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and aggregation profiles. Therefore, the organization of PrP molecules in terms of the density of aggregates generated may determine some of the particular strain properties, whereas others are independent from it. Our findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms of strain variation and the role of PrP(Sc) aggregates in prion-induced neurodegeneration.

  19. Strain-dependent profile of misfolded prion protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rodrigo; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moda, Fabio; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Chen, Baian; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Prions are composed of the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) organized in a variety of aggregates. An important question in the prion field has been to determine the identity of functional PrPSc aggregates. In this study, we used equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients to separate PrPSc aggregates from three hamster prion strains (Hyper, Drowsy, SSLOW) subjected to minimal manipulations. We show that PrPSc aggregates distribute in a wide range of arrangements and the relative proportion of each species depends on the prion strain. We observed a direct correlation between the density of the predominant PrPSc aggregates and the incubation periods for the strains studied. The relative presence of PrPSc in fractions of different sucrose densities was indicative of the protein deposits present in the brain as analyzed by histology. Interestingly, no association was found between sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and aggregation profiles. Therefore, the organization of PrP molecules in terms of the density of aggregates generated may determine some of the particular strain properties, whereas others are independent from it. Our findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms of strain variation and the role of PrPSc aggregates in prion-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:26877167

  20. Modulatory effects of curcumin and curcumin analog on circulatory lipid profiles during nicotine-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, C; Rajasekharan, K N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic component of cigarette smoke, plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In the present study, we have synthesized an analog of curcumin and biomonitored its influence over biochemical marker enzymes and lipid profiles on nicotine-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. The effects were compared with that of curcumin, a well-known antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic agent. Toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks), and curcumin (80 mg/kg) was given simultaneously along with nicotine by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. Measurements of activities of the biochemical marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase and of plasma lipid profiles were used to monitor the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of curcuminoids. In nicotine-treated rats, enhanced plasma marker enzymes and lipid profiles were observed. Administration of curcumin or curcumin analog to nicotine-treated rats significantly reduced the activity of marker enzymes and plasma lipid levels. Thus, our findings suggest that curcumin and its analog exert an anti-hyperlipidemic effect against nicotine-induced lung toxicity and may be a promising agent for treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  1. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  2. Effects of Rosiglitazone with Insulin Combination Therapy on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Left Ventricular Muscles of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kavak, Servet; Ayaz, Lokman; Emre, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rosiglitazone (RSG) with insulin is able to quench oxidative stress initiated by high glucose through prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods and Materials. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into an untreated control group (C), a diabetic group (D) that was treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mgkg−1), and rosiglitazone group that was treated with RSG twice daily by gavage and insulin once daily by subcutaneous injection (group B). HbA1c and blood glucose levels in the circulation and malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in left ventricular muscle were measured. Result. Treatment of D rats with group B resulted in a time-dependent decrease in blood glucose. We found that the lipid profile and HbA1c levels in group B reached the control group D rat values at the end of the treatment period. There was an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine levels in group D compared to group C. Malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were found to be decreased in group B compared to group D (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our data suggests that the treatment of diabetic rats with group B for 8 weeks may decrease the oxidative/nitrosative stress in left ventricular tissue of rats. Thus, in diabetes-related vascular diseases, group B treatment may be cardioprotective. PMID:22829806

  3. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  4. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs administered new generation lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Gregory; Kulkarni, Madhulika; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Stoll, Barbara; Ng, Kenneth; Martin, Camilia; Belmont, John; Hadsell, Darryl; Heird, William; Newgard, Christopher B; Olutoye, Oluyinka; van Goudoever, Johannes; Lauridsen, Charlotte; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Burrin, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT. The fatty acid and acyl-CoA content of the liver, muscle, brain, and plasma fatty acids reflected the composition of the dietary lipids administered. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine (ACT) levels were markedly reduced in the PN groups compared with ENT piglets. Genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were increased, whereas those associated with alternative pathways of fatty acid oxidation were decreased in all PN groups. Our results show that new generation lipid emulsions directly enrich tissue fatty acids, especially in the brain, and lead to improved growth and insulin sensitivity compared with a soybean lipid emulsion. In all total PN groups, carnitine levels are limiting to the formation of ACTs and gene expression reflects the stress of excess lipid on liver function. PMID:27474222

  5. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile[S

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Dharuri, Harish K.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S.; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the “biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids” pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

  6. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Komal; Balaraman, R; Amin, A H; Bafna, P A; Gulati, O D

    2003-06-01

    Rabbits were fed Moringa oleifera (200mg/kg/day, p.o.) or lovastatin (6mg/kg/day, p.o.) in banana pulp along with standard laboratory diet and hypercholesterolaemic diet for 120 days. Moringa oleifera and lovastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL ratio (HDL/HDL-total cholesterol) as compared to the corresponding control groups. Treatment with M. oleifera or lovastatin in normal rabbits decreased the HDL levels. However, HDL levels were significantly increased or decreased in M. oleifera- or lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits, respectively. Lovastatin- or M. oleifera-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits showed decrease in lipid profile of liver, heart and aorta while similar treatment of normal animals did not produce significant reduction in heart. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of faecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidaemic effect. PMID:12738086

  7. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants. PMID:26402939

  8. The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Markers and Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Ting, Hua; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and metabolic markers and whether the elevated risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 246 male bus drivers from one transportation company in Taiwan. Each participant was evaluated by a polysomnography (PSG) test and by blood lipids examination. Severity of OSA was categorized according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results The results showed that a 73.3% prevalence of MetS in OSA (AHI > 15) and a 80.0% prevalence of MetS in severe OSA (AHI > 30) were found. After adjusting for confounding variables, an increased level of Body-Mass Index (BMI) and two non-MetS cardiovascular risk factors, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with AHI in subjects with severe OSA. MetS was about three times to be present in subjects with severe OSA, even adjusted for BMI. Conclusions The findings showed a high prevalence of MetS in OSA among professional drivers, especially in the severe group category. BMI was the major contributing factor to OSA. However, the present study did not find a sensitive clinical marker of a detrimental metabolic profile in OSA patients. PMID:26115005

  9. [Physical activity and eating behavior: strategies for improving the serum lipid profile of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Halle, M; Bauer, S; Korsten-Reck, U; Keul, J

    1994-01-01

    Coronary risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinaemia and low physical fitness are often prevalent in childhood. In contrast, regular physical activity and healthy nutrition have been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. An increment in physical activity with concomitant weight loss has a profound influence on peripheral lipoprotein metabolism and has shown to improve the atherogenic lipoprotein profile. As risk factors often track from childhood into adulthood it seems inevitable to prevent or diminish risk factors as early as possible. Therefore, intervention programmes for prevention of coronary artery disease have to be conducted in childhood. Experience from an own intervention programme of obese children has shown that the combination of intensive dietary and physical education improves physical fitness, body composition as well as lipid metabolism. Whether short-term benefits will continue into adulthood and reduce coronary artery disease in midlife will have to be shown. Nonetheless, it seems out of question that children showing risk factors such as obesity or hypercholesterolaemia will benefit from early intervention programmes when changing dietary and exercise behaviours.

  10. Lipid profile, BMI, body fat distribution, and aerobic fitness in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, A; Di Daniele, N; Ceccobelli, M; Ficara, A; Girasoli, C; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    Obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are wellknown components of metabolic syndrome and are associated to increased cardiovascular morbidity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, body fat distribution, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors. A total of 22 untrained subjects affected by one or more features of metabolic syndrome and without clinical history of cardiovascular disease were studied. Nondiabetic subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for glucose and insulin measurement; fasting glucose and insulin were measured in diabetic patients. Complete lipid profile, thyroid hormones, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in all subjects. Basal energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured using a K4 analyzer. Cardiorespiratory fitness ( VO(2max)/kg) was assessed using a treadmill graded exercise test. Peak aerobic capacity ( VO(2max)/kg) was predicted by body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity index, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ( p<0.001). A significant relationship was found between cardiorespiratory fitness ( VO(2max)/kg) and body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity index, and LDL cholesterol ( r=0.60, p<0.05; r=0.66, p<0.01 and r=0.54, p<0.05, respectively). Data demonstrated that aerobic fitness is related to metabolic parameters and to body fat distribution, and suggest that its modification may improve well-known predictors of coronary artery disease.

  11. Speed-dependent collisional width and shift parameters in spectral profiles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    Derivation of an expression for the spectral profile, termed a speed-dependent Voigt profile (SDVP), taking into account speed-dependent shift and width parameters which are calculated on the basis of an active atom-perturber interaction. It is shown that an analysis of line shapes in terms of simple Voigt profiles (rather than the SDVP) may lead to considerable errors in the determination of characteristic atomic parameters, especially in systems where the perturber to active atom mass ratio is large. It is also noted that the speed-dependent shift leads to an asymmetrical profile, and such a profile is displayed.

  12. Wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid predominantly improve the lipid profile of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-11-20

    In response to recent assertions that synthetic antioxidants may have the potential to cause toxic effects and to consumers' increased attention to consuming natural products, the poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants, alone or in combination with synthetic antioxidants that are currently being used by the industry. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol, and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidant enzymes, fatty acid profile, and serum biochemical profile of broiler blood. One-day-old (180) broiler birds were fed six different feeds varying in their antioxidant content: no addition (T1), natural α-tocopherol (wheat germ oil, T2), synthetic α-tocopherol (T3), α-lipoic acid (T4), α-lipoic acid together with natural α-tocopherol (T5), and α-lipoic acid together with synthetic α-tocopherol (T6). The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the breast and leg meat was positively influenced by the different dietary supplements. The content of fatty acid was significantly greater in broilers receiving T2 both in breast (23.92%) and in leg (25.82%) meat, whereas lower fatty acid levels was found in broilers receiving diets containing T6 in the breast (19.57%) and leg (21.30%) meat. Serum total cholesterol (113.42 mg/dL) and triglycerides (52.29 mg/dL) were lowest in the group given natural α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid. Wheat germ oil containing natural α-tocopherol alone or with α-lipoic acid was more effective than synthetic α-tocopherol in raising levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase while lowering plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein and plasma protein significantly. It was concluded that the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid is helpful in improving the lipid profile of broilers. PMID:24191686

  13. Glucose transport in Acholeplasma laidlawii B: dependence on the fluidity and physical state of membrane lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Read, B D; McElhaney, R N

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of D-glucose by Acholeplasma laidlawii B occurs via a mediated transport process, as shown by the following observations: (i) glucose permeates A. laidlawii B cells at a rate at least 100 times greater than would be expected if its entry occurred only by simple passive diffusion; (ii) the apparent activation energy for glucose uptake in A. laidlawii is significantly lower than that expected and observed for the passive permeation of this sugar; (iii) glucose uptake appears to be a saturable process; (iv) glucose uptake can be completely inhibited by low concentrations of phloretin and phlorizin; and (v) glucose uptake is markedly inhibited at temperatures above 45 C, whereas the passive entry of erythritol continues to increase logarithmically until at least 60 C. The metabolism of D-glucose by this organism is rapid and, at low glucose concentrations, the intracellular radioactivity derived from D-[14-C]glucose is at any given time a reflection of the net effect of glucose transport, glucose metabolism, and loss from the cell of radioactive metabolic products. Care must thus be taken when attempting to determine the rate of glucose transport by measuring the accumulation by the cells of the total radioactivity derived from D-[14-C]glucose. The rate of uptake of D-glucose by A. laidlawii B cells is markedly dependent on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of the plasma membrane and exhibits a direct dependence on the fluidity of the membrane lipids as measured by their reversible, thermotropic gel to liquie-crystalline phase transition temperatures. In contrast to the transport rates, the apparent activation energy for glucose uptake above the phase transition temperature is not dependent on membrane lipid composition. At the temperature range within the membrane lipid phase transition region, the apparent activation energy of glucose uptake is different from the activation energy observed at temperatures above the phase transition. This

  14. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  15. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA. PMID:26149189

  16. The synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is dependent on CD19-PI3K module and cytoskeleton remodeling molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liling; Auzins, Arturs; Sun, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinsheng; Harnischfeger, Fiona; Lu, Yun; Li, Zhanguo; Chen, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Wenjie; Liu, Wanli

    2015-08-01

    Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains are important in the initiation of BCR signaling. Although it is known that lipid rafts promote the coclustering of BCR and Lyn kinase microclusters within the B cell IS, the molecular mechanism of the recruitment of lipid rafts into the B cell IS is not understood completely. Here, we report that the synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is dependent on the cytoskeleton-remodeling proteins, RhoA and Vav. Such an event is also efficiently regulated by motor proteins, myosin IIA and dynein. Further evidence suggests the synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is, by principle, an event triggered by BCR signaling molecules and second messenger molecules. BCR-activating coreceptor CD19 potently enhances such an event depending on its cytoplasmic Tyr421 and Tyr482 residues. The enhancing function of the CD19-PI3K module in synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is also confirmed in human peripheral blood B cells. Thus, these results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the recruitment of lipid raft microdomains in B cell IS.

  17. Comparison of lipid profiles of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa and without clinical symptoms of disease.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Urszula; Siemieniuk, Magdalena; Pyrkowska, Aleksandra; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Bieganska, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Iwona; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Tylicki, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes, especially in animals. It becomes a problem also in medicine. It is considered that metabolic disorders as well as hormonal and immunological status of the host promote diseases caused by M. pachydermatis. Here we consider whether specific features of fungi could also favour infections. We checked whether there are differences in lipid profiles between strains obtained from dogs with otitis externa and strains obtained from healthy dogs. Lipid profiles were determined using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All analyses were carried out on 32 strains derived from dogs with otitis externa and 31 strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of disease. The results show that strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of otitis externa are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids. They contain significantly more behenic and lignoceric acids on medium without addition of lipids, and more oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids on medium with lipids supplementation. These strains have also a higher content of esters of ergosterol and triglycerides. Data obtained show differences which may be specific features of M. pachydermatis-specific strains related to the ability of infection, which could be not directly related of the host condition.

  18. Simultaneous tissue profiling of eicosanoid and endocannabinoid lipid families in a rat model of osteoarthritis[S

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Amy; Sagar, Devi R.; Ortori, Catharine A.; Kendall, David A.; Chapman, Victoria; Barrett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel LC method for the simultaneous and quantitative profiling of 43 oxylipins including eicosanoids, endocannabinoids, and structurally related bioactive lipids with modified acyl groups. The LC-MS/MS method uses switching at a defined time between negative and positive electrospray ionization modes to achieve optimal detection sensitivity for all the lipids. The validated method is linear over a range of 0.01–5 nmol/g (0.1–50 nmol/g for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) with intra- and interday precision and accuracy between 1.38 and 26.76% and 85.22 and 114.3%, respectively. The method successfully quantified bioactive lipids in different tissue types in the rat, including spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), knee joint, brain, and plasma. Distinct regional differences in the pattern of lipid measured between tissue types were observed using principle component analysis. The method was applied to analyze tissue samples from an established preclinical rat model of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and showed that levels of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were significantly increased in the OA rat knee joint compared with controls, and that 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was significantly increased in the DRGs in the model of OA compared with controls. The developed LC-MS/MS method has the potential to provide detailed pathway profiling in tissues and biofluids where the disruption of bioactive oxylipins may be involved in disease states. PMID:25062663

  19. Syntaxin and VAMP association with lipid rafts depends on cholesterol depletion in capacitating sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Shiue; De Vries, Klaas J; De Boer-Brouwer, Mieke; Garcia-Gil, Nuria; Van Gestel, Renske A; Colenbrander, Ben; Gadella, Bart M; Van Haeften, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Sperm cells represent a special exocytotic system since mature sperm cells contain only one large secretory vesicle, the acrosome, which fuses with the overlying plasma membrane during the fertilization process. Acrosomal exocytosis is believed to be regulated by activation of SNARE proteins. In this paper, we identified specific members of the SNARE protein family, i.e., the t-SNAREs syntaxin1 and 2, and the v-SNARE VAMP, present in boar sperm cells. Both syntaxins were predominantly found in the plasma membrane whereas v-SNAREs are mainly located in the outer acrosomal membrane of these cells. Under non-capacitating conditions both syntaxins and VAMP are scattered in well-defined punctate structures over the entire sperm head. Bicarbonate-induced in vitro activation in the presence of BSA causes a relocalization of these SNAREs to a more homogeneous distribution restricted to the apical ridge area of the sperm head, exactly matching the site of sperm zona binding and subsequent induced acrosomal exocytosis. This redistribution of syntaxin and VAMP depends on cholesterol depletion and closely resembles the previously reported redistribution of lipid raft marker proteins. Detergent-resistant membrane isolation and subsequent analysis shows that a significant proportion of syntaxin emerges in the detergent-resistant membrane (raft) fraction under such conditions, which is not the case under those conditions where cholesterol depletion is blocked. The v-SNARE VAMP displays a similar cholesterol depletion-dependent lateral and raft redistribution. Taken together, our results indicate that redistribution of syntaxin and VAMP during capacitation depends on association of these SNAREs with lipid rafts and that such a SNARE-raft association may be essential for spatial control of exocytosis and/or regulation of SNARE functioning.

  20. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: A Subcontract Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tornabene, T. G.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1984-09-01

    Well balanced cultivated cells that are healthy and unstressed produce the optimum cellular yield. All stress studies for lipids production should be conducted with the established cell mass and not be administered during active cultivation. Cells cultivated continually in suboptimum conditions produce lower cellular yields and continuous cultivation in suboptimum media and environmental conditions produce lower than normal lipid levels. Lipid triggers are preceded by a burst of carbohydrate synthesis and storage.

  1. Standard short-term diet ameliorates the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Cambri, L T; Ghezzi, A C; Arsa, G; Botezelli, J D; de Mello, M A R

    2015-08-01

    Markers of metabolic abnormalities are commonly found in rodents fed a fructose-rich diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of a short-term standard diet to rats is able to improve the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet. The male pups, immediately after birth, were divided in three groups according to the diet for 90 days. Standard diet: a standard diet for the whole experimental period; fructose (60% fructose-rich diet): fructose-rich diet during the entire experimental period; fructose/standard (FS): fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period up to 60 days of age and standard diet from 60 to 90 days of age. A fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period to 60 days reduced weight gain (P<0.05), as well as the weight of adipose tissues in all the regions analyzed (epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and posterior subcutaneous), and it altered the lipid profile (elevation of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol; P<0.05). When a standard diet was administered after the fructose-rich diet, it was able to partially reverse changes to the lipid profile, as total cholesterol levels were significantly different in all the groups (P<0.05), and triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were similar between the control and FS group. In summary, a fructose-rich diet altered the lipid profile, and a standard diet can partially reverse the changed parameters in short term.

  2. Study of plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile in elite women boxers during a six weeks' training progamme.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, P; Banerjee, A K; Majumdar, P; Chatterjee, P

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an objective to frame out the lipid profile of Indian Women Boxers. Women boxing is a newly recognized game and no work has been reported on elite female boxers in India till date. The study was based on a sample of 45 women boxers (age 17 ~ 24 years) attending Senior National Women Boxing Camp at Sports Authority of India. Each subject was evaluated for Lipid Profile variables at the beginning and end of the six weeks training camp. Fasting blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein by venipuncture. Before the samples drawn the subjects were asked to take rest for ten minutes. The blood sample was analyzed by HITACHI UV-2000 spectrophotometer (Japan). Standard techniques and procedures were followed for all the estimation. Volume and intensity of different components of training was measured by observational and physiological methods. Data were subjected to statistical treatment like mean and standard deviation. Test of significance't' - test (for paired sample) was applied to asses the difference in pre & post-test. Results reveal that mean (+/-SD) Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, HDL - Cholesterol and Cholesterol / HDL Cholesterol ratio was 144.7 +/- 3.6 mg%, 59.7 +/- 17.5 mg% 81.4 +/- 21.1 mg% 51.3 +/- 8.2 mg% and 2.8 +/- 0.5 respectively as found in the pre-test. Significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed in Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol level in the post-test. The study concludes that women who practice sport of boxing on regular basis have a favorable lipid profile. A significant change in lipid profile of the boxers was observed after 6 weeks' training program. PMID:17721559

  3. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  4. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shiftmore » in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.« less

  5. Alpha-synuclein lipid-dependent membrane binding and translocation through the α-hemolysin channel.

    PubMed

    Gurnev, Philip A; Yap, Thai Leong; Pfefferkorn, Candace M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Lee, Jennifer C; Parsegian, V Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2014-02-01

    Gauging the interactions of a natively unfolded Parkinson disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) with membranes and its pathways between and within cells is important for understanding its pathogenesis. Here, to address these questions, we use a robust β-barrel channel, α-hemolysin, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. Transient, ~95% blockage of the channel current by α-syn was observed when 1), α-syn was added from the membrane side where the shorter (stem) part of the channel is exposed; and 2), the applied potential was lower on the side of α-syn addition. While the on-rate of α-syn binding to the channel strongly increased with the applied field, the off-rate displayed a turnover behavior. Statistical analysis suggests that at voltages >50 mV, a significant fraction of the α-syn molecules bound to the channel undergoes subsequent translocation. The observed on-rate varied by >100 times depending on the bilayer lipid composition. Removal of the last 25 amino acids from the highly negatively charged C-terminal of α-syn resulted in a significant decrease in the binding rates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-barrel channels may serve as sensitive probes of α-syn interactions with membranes as well as model systems for studies of channel-assisted protein transport.

  6. Alpha-Synuclein Lipid-Dependent Membrane Binding and Translocation through the α-Hemolysin Channel

    PubMed Central

    Gurnev, Philip A.; Yap, Thai Leong; Pfefferkorn, Candace M.; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Lee, Jennifer C.; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2014-01-01

    Gauging the interactions of a natively unfolded Parkinson disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) with membranes and its pathways between and within cells is important for understanding its pathogenesis. Here, to address these questions, we use a robust β-barrel channel, α-hemolysin, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. Transient, ∼95% blockage of the channel current by α-syn was observed when 1), α-syn was added from the membrane side where the shorter (stem) part of the channel is exposed; and 2), the applied potential was lower on the side of α-syn addition. While the on-rate of α-syn binding to the channel strongly increased with the applied field, the off-rate displayed a turnover behavior. Statistical analysis suggests that at voltages >50 mV, a significant fraction of the α-syn molecules bound to the channel undergoes subsequent translocation. The observed on-rate varied by >100 times depending on the bilayer lipid composition. Removal of the last 25 amino acids from the highly negatively charged C-terminal of α-syn resulted in a significant decrease in the binding rates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-barrel channels may serve as sensitive probes of α-syn interactions with membranes as well as model systems for studies of channel-assisted protein transport. PMID:24507596

  7. AMPK-dependent modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by nesfatin-1.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Li, Ziru; Gao, Ling; Li, Yin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism by which peripheral nesfatin-1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism. Continuous peripheral infusion of nesfatin-1 reduced adiposity and plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol. In mice fed high fat diet, peripheral nesfatin-1 significantly decreased hepatic steatosis measured by triglyceride content and oil red staining area and diameter. These alterations were associated with a significant reduction in lipogenesis-related transcriptional factors PPARγ and SREBP1, as well as rate-limited enzyme genes such as acaca, fasn, gpam, dgat1 and dgat2. In primary hepatocytes, nesfatin-1 inhibited both basal and oleic acid stimulated triglyceride accumulation, which was accompanied by a decrement in lipogenesis-related genes and an increase in β-oxidation-related genes. In cultured hepatocytes, nesfatin-1 increased levels of AMPK phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK by compound C blocked the reduction of triglyceride content elicited by nesfatin-1. Our studies demonstrate that nesfatin-1 attenuates lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by an AMPK-dependent mechanism. PMID:26363221

  8. Low pH and Anionic Lipid-dependent Fusion of Uukuniemi Phlebovirus to Liposomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, David; Halldorsson, Steinar; Caputo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Many phleboviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are emerging as medically important viruses. These viruses enter target cells by endocytosis and low pH-dependent membrane fusion in late endosomes. However, the necessary and sufficient factors for fusion have not been fully characterized. We have studied the minimal fusion requirements of a prototypic phlebovirus, Uukuniemi virus, in an in vitro virus-liposome assay. We show that efficient lipid mixing between viral and liposome membranes requires close to physiological temperatures and phospholipids with negatively charged headgroups, such as the late endosomal phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. We further demonstrate that bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases Uukuniemi virus fusion beyond the lipid mixing stage. By using electron cryotomography of viral particles in the presence or absence of liposomes, we observed that the conformation of phlebovirus glycoprotein capsomers changes from the native conformation toward a more elongated conformation at a fusion permissive pH. Our results suggest a rationale for phlebovirus entry in late endosomes. PMID:26811337

  9. Nuclear pore targeting of the yeast Pom33 nucleoporin depends on karyopherin and lipid binding.

    PubMed

    Floch, Aurélie G; Tareste, David; Fuchs, Patrick F J; Chadrin, Anne; Naciri, Ikrame; Léger, Thibaut; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Palancade, Benoit; Doye, Valérie

    2015-01-15

    Pom33 is an integral membrane protein of the yeast nuclear pore complex (NPC), and it is required for proper NPC distribution and assembly. To characterize the Pom33 NPC-targeting determinants, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. This identified a new Pom33 partner, the nuclear import factor Kap123. In vitro experiments revealed a direct interaction between the Pom33 C-terminal domain (CTD) and Kap123. In silico analysis predicted the presence of two amphipathic α-helices within Pom33-CTD. Circular dichroism and liposome co-flotation assays showed that this domain is able to fold into α-helices in the presence of liposomes and preferentially binds to highly curved lipid membranes. When expressed in yeast, under conditions abolishing Pom33-CTD membrane association, this domain behaves as a Kap123-dependent nuclear localization signal (NLS). Although deletion of Pom33 C-terminal domain (Pom33(ΔCTD)-GFP) impaired Pom33 stability and NPC targeting, mutants affecting either Kap123 binding or the amphipathic properties of the α-helices did not display any detectable defect. However, combined impairment of lipid and Kap123 binding affects targeting of Pom33 to NPCs. These data highlight the requirement of multiple determinants and mechanisms for proper NPC localization of Pom33.

  10. Comparison between the Effect of Cow Ghee and Butter on Memory and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansude, Akshata Sanjay; Angadi, Eesha Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. Aim So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile Materials and Methods Nootropic activity of test drugs was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) model. Rats were divided into four groups namely control, Piracetam, cow ghee and butter. All drugs were given orally for 21 days. Transfer latency was measured in EPM model and probe test was done in MWM model. Results Cow ghee and butter group showed no significant effect on memory in EPM and MWM model. There was reduction in weight of animals in Cow Ghee group and increase in weight with Butter. In both the models there was a significant increase in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) levels of rats in butter groups and increase in TG and VLDL of rats with cow ghee in EPM model. Conclusion The result of experiment suggests that no beneficial effect cow ghee and butter on cognition was seen. However, ghee is relatively safer when compared to Butter in considering lipid profile. PMID:27790463

  11. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  12. Size dependence of gold nanoparticle interactions with a supported lipid bilayer: A QCM-D study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christina M; Kamaloo, Elaheh; Waterman, Kellie L; Wang, Kathleen F; Nagarajan, Ramanathan; Camesano, Terri A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of nanoparticle (NP)-membrane interactions is important to advances in nanomedicine as well as for determining the safety of NPs to humans and the ecosystem. This study focuses on a unique mechanism of cytotoxicity, cell membrane destabilization, which is principally dependent on the nanoparticle nature of the material rather than on its molecular properties. We investigated the interactions of 2, 5, 10, and 40nm gold NPs with supported lipid bilayer (SLB) of L-α-phosphatidylcholine using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Gold NPs were tested both in the absence of and in the presence of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), used to simulate the natural organic matter (NOM) in the environment. In the absence of PMAA, for all NP sizes, we observed only small mass losses (1 to 6ng) from the membrane. This small lipid removal may be a free energy lowering mechanism to relieve stresses induced by the adsorption of NPs, with the changes too small to affect the membrane integrity. In the presence of PMAA, we observed a net mass increase in the case of smaller NPs. We suggest that the increased adhesion between the NP and the bilayer, promoted by PMAA, causes sufficient NP adsorption on the bilayer to overcompensate for any loss of lipid. The most remarkable observation is the significant mass loss (60ng) for the case of 40nm NPs. We attribute this to the lipid bilayer engulfing the NP and leaving the crystal surface. We propose a simple phenomenological model to describe the competition between the particle-bilayer adhesion energy, the bilayer bending energy, and the interfacial energy at bilayer defect edges. The model shows that the larger NPs, which become more adhesive because of the polymer adsorption, are engulfed by the bilayer and leave the crystal surface, causing large mass loss and membrane disruption. The QCM-D measurements thus offer direct evidence that even if NPs are intrinsically not cytotoxic, they can become cytotoxic

  13. New insight into probe-location dependent polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces: comparison between gel- and fluid-phases of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Shweta, Him; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan

    2016-09-21

    Environment polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces play important roles in membrane biology, which are investigated here using a new homologous series of 4-aminophthalimide-based fluorescent molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) having different lipophilicities (octanol/water partition coefficient - log P). We show that 4AP-Cn molecules probe a peculiar stepwise polarity (E) profile at the lipid/water interface of the gel-phase (Lβ') DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature, which was not anticipated in earlier studies. However, the same molecules probe only a subtle but continuous polarity change at the interface of water and the fluid-phase (Lα) DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that solutes with different log P values adsorb at different depths across DPPC/water and DOPC/water interfaces, which correlate with the polarity profiles observed at the interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on eight probe-lipid systems (four in each of the DPPC and DOPC bilayers - a total run of 2.6 μs) support experimental results, providing further information on the relative position and angle distributions as well as hydration of probes at the interfaces. Simulation results indicate that besides positions, probe orientations also play an important role in defining the local dielectric environment by controlling the probes' exposure to water at the interfaces especially of the gel-phase DPPC bilayer. The results suggest that 4AP-Cn probes are well suited for studying solvation properties at lipid/water interfaces of gel- and fluid-phases simultaneously. PMID:27147404

  14. New insight into probe-location dependent polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces: comparison between gel- and fluid-phases of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Shweta, Him; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan

    2016-09-21

    Environment polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces play important roles in membrane biology, which are investigated here using a new homologous series of 4-aminophthalimide-based fluorescent molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) having different lipophilicities (octanol/water partition coefficient - log P). We show that 4AP-Cn molecules probe a peculiar stepwise polarity (E) profile at the lipid/water interface of the gel-phase (Lβ') DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature, which was not anticipated in earlier studies. However, the same molecules probe only a subtle but continuous polarity change at the interface of water and the fluid-phase (Lα) DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that solutes with different log P values adsorb at different depths across DPPC/water and DOPC/water interfaces, which correlate with the polarity profiles observed at the interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on eight probe-lipid systems (four in each of the DPPC and DOPC bilayers - a total run of 2.6 μs) support experimental results, providing further information on the relative position and angle distributions as well as hydration of probes at the interfaces. Simulation results indicate that besides positions, probe orientations also play an important role in defining the local dielectric environment by controlling the probes' exposure to water at the interfaces especially of the gel-phase DPPC bilayer. The results suggest that 4AP-Cn probes are well suited for studying solvation properties at lipid/water interfaces of gel- and fluid-phases simultaneously.

  15. Evaluation of Body Mass Index and Plasma Lipid Profile in Boerboel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, Rasheed Adetola; Ashogbon, Rashidat Oluwatobiloba; Adeniyi, Abisola Abosede

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW),height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while,body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained from the dogs for determinationof total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRIG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Datawere presented as means ± standard deviation and results were compared using analysis of variance. Relationship betweenBW, H and WC was determined using regression analysis. Value was accepted significant at p < 0.05. There were nosignificant differences (P > 0.05) in BW, WC, BMI and GAS between male and female Boerboels, however, H wassignificantly (P < 0.05) higher in male (62.0 ± 1.6 cm) than female Boerboels (57.0 ± 1.5 cm). BMI and HDL weresignificantly (P < 0.05) lower in Boerboels <23 months (112.4 ± 2.8 Kg/m2; 36.0 ± 2.4mg/dl) compared with those 24 - 47months (133.4 ± 1.8Kg/m2; 40.1 ± 2.2mg/dl) and >48 months (137.9 ± 1.6kg/m2; 45.8 ± 2.6mg/dl) respectively. However,there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in TC, TRIG, HDL and LDL between Boerboels with BCS > 5 compared tothose with BCS < 5. BMI linearly increased with decreasing H and WC in Boerboel dogs. It was concluded that BMI did notdiffer between sexes of Boerboel but differ between age categories. PMID:27574768

  16. Perturbations in the Lipid Profile of Individuals with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Lipidomics Analysis of a Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program Sample Subset

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Christina M.; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qibin; Alquier, Thierry; Zhao, Rui; Mueller, Patricia W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-08-01

    Objectives: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Design and methods: Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Results: Five hundred sixty lipid features differentiated (q < 0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing of individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization and lipotoxicity of pancreatic beta-cells.

  17. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  18. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J P; Costa, Tamara G F; Silva, Lilian N D; Renó, Cristiane O; Oliveira, Eneida S; Tilelli, Cristiane Q; Santos, Luciana L; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels.

  19. Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Jung, Ha Na; Kim, Ki Nam

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation. PMID:20126601

  20. Calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type calcium channels in planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Haack, J A; Rosenberg, R L

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ can inhibit the activity of voltage-gated Ca channels by modulating the rate of channel inactivation. Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of these channels may be a common negative feedback process important for regulating Ca2+ entry under physiological and pathological conditions. This article demonstrates that the inactivation of cardiac L-type Ca channels, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers and studied in the presence of a dihydropyridine agonist, is sensitive to Ca2+. The rates and extents of inactivation, determined from ensemble averages of unitary Ba2+ currents, decreased when the calcium concentration facing the intracellular surface of the channel ([Ca2+]i) was lowered from approximately 10 microM to 20 nM by the addition of Ca2+ chelators. The rates and extents of Ba2+ current inactivation could also be increased by subsequent addition of Ca2+ raising the [Ca2+]i to 15 microM, thus demonstrating that the Ca2+ dependence of inactivation could be reversibly regulated by changes in [Ca2+]i. In addition, reconstituted Ca channels inactivated more quickly when the inward current was carried by Ca2+ than when it was carried by Ba2+, suggesting that local increases in [Ca2+]i could activate Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. These data support models in which Ca2+ binds to the channel itself or to closely associated regulatory proteins to control the rate of channel inactivation, and are inconsistent with purely enzymatic models for channel inactivation. PMID:8038377

  1. Cylindrical diffuser axial detection profile is dependent on fiber design

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The axial emission and detection profiles of 1- and 2-cm cylindrical diffusing fibers based on concentration gradients of scatterers were measured. Based on these measurements, we describe a method for determination of the scatterer concentration gradient within the diffusers. Using a Monte Carlo model incorporating these concentrations, detection was simulated and found to agree with measurements. The measured and simulated detection profiles for these diffusers were found to be drastically different from those previously measured in an alternative diffuser design incorporating an end reflector. When using cylindrical diffusers as detection fibers, it is, therefore, important to understand the design of the fiber and characterize the detection behavior. PMID:25839428

  2. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  3. Transcript profiling reveals mechanisms for lipid conservation during diapause in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Julie A.; Poelchau, Monica F.; Rahman, Zahra; Armbruster, Peter A.; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a medically important invasive species whose geographic distribution has expanded dramatically during the past 20 years, and one of the key elements of its success is its capacity to survive long distance transport as a diapausing pharate first instar larva, encased within the chorion of the egg. We report that pharate larvae entering diapause are larger and contain 30% more lipid than their nondiapausing counterparts. To improve our understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism during diapause, we assessed the relative mRNA abundance of 21 genes using qRT-PCR. Elevated expression of lipid storage droplet protein 2 during embryonic development likely contributes to the higher amounts of lipid we noted in diapausing individuals. The conservation of lipids during diapause is reflected in downregulation of genes involved in lipid catabolism, including lipase 2, lipase 3, lipase 4, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 4, and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Two genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and modification, Δ(9)-desaturase, and fatty acyl-CoA elongase, were both upregulated in diapausing pharate larvae, suggesting roles for their gene products in generating unsaturated fatty acids to enhance membrane fluidity at low temperatures and generating precursors to the surface hydrocarbons needed to resist desiccation, respectively. Together, the results point to substantial distinctions in lipid metabolism within the embryo as a consequence of the diapause program, and these differences occur both before the actual onset of diapause as well as during the diapause state. PMID:22579567

  4. Stimulation-dependent gating of TRPM3 channel in planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Asuthkar, Swapna; Cohen, Alejandro; Tominaga, Makoto; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2016-03-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)-3 channel is critical for various physiologic processes. In somatosensory neurons, TRPM3 has been implicated in temperature perception and inflammatory hyperalgesia, whereas in pancreatic β-cells the channel has been linked to glucose-induced insulin release. As a typical representative of the TRP family, TRPM3 is highly polymodal. In cells, it is activated by heat and chemical agonists, including pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and nifedipine (Nif). To define the nuances of TRPM3 channel activity and its modulators, we succeeded in incorporating the TRPM3 protein into planar lipid bilayers. We found that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) or clotrimazole is necessary for channel opening by PS. Unlike PS, the presence of Nif alone sufficed to induce TRPM3 activity and demonstrated distinct gating behavior. We also performed an extensive thermodynamic analysis of TRPM3 activation and found that TRPM3 exhibited slight temperature sensitivity in the bilayers. In the absence of other agonists TRPM3 channels remained closed upon heat-induced stimulation, but opened in the presence of PIP2, although with only a low open-probability profile. Together, our results elucidate the details peculiar to TRPM3 channel function in an isolated system. We confirmed its direct gating by PS and PIP2, but found a lack of the strong intrinsic temperature sensitivity common to other thermosensitive TRP channels.

  5. A versatile ultra-high performance LC-MS method for lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Weberhofer, Bernd P; Eichmann, Thomas O; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2014-03-01

    A new UPLC-based untargeted lipidomic approach using a qTOF hybrid mass spectrometer is introduced. The applied binary gradient enables separations of lipid species including constitutional isomeric compounds and low abundant lipid classes such as phosphatidic acid (PA). Addition of phosphoric acid to the solvents improves peak shapes for acidic phospholipids. MS(E) scans allow simultaneous acquisition of full scan data and collision induced fragmentation to improve identification of lipid classes and to obtain structural information. The method was used to investigate the lipidome of yeast. PMID:24548922

  6. A versatile ultra-high performance LC-MS method for lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Weberhofer, Bernd P; Eichmann, Thomas O; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2014-03-01

    A new UPLC-based untargeted lipidomic approach using a qTOF hybrid mass spectrometer is introduced. The applied binary gradient enables separations of lipid species including constitutional isomeric compounds and low abundant lipid classes such as phosphatidic acid (PA). Addition of phosphoric acid to the solvents improves peak shapes for acidic phospholipids. MS(E) scans allow simultaneous acquisition of full scan data and collision induced fragmentation to improve identification of lipid classes and to obtain structural information. The method was used to investigate the lipidome of yeast.

  7. Purity matters: A workflow for the valid high-resolution lipid profiling of mitochondria from cell culture samples

    PubMed Central

    Kappler, Lisa; Li, Jia; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weigert, Cora; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Hoene, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular lipidomics is a novel field of research that requires the careful combination of several pre-analytical and analytical steps. To define a reliable strategy for mitochondrial lipid profiling, we performed a systematic comparison of different mitochondria isolation procedures by western blot analyses and comprehensive high-resolution lipidomics. Using liver-derived HepG2 cells, we compared three common mitochondria isolation methods, differential centrifugation (DC), ultracentrifugation (UC) and a magnetic bead-assisted method (MACS). In total, 397 lipid species, including 32 cardiolipins, could be quantified in only 100 μg (by protein) of purified mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated by UC showed the highest enrichment in the mitochondria-specific cardiolipins as well as their precursors, phosphatidylglycerols. Mitochondrial fractions obtained by the commonly used DC and the more recent MACS method contained substantial contaminations by other organelles. Employing these isolation methods when performing lipidomics analyses from cell culture mitochondria may lead to inaccurate results. To conclude, we present a protocol how to obtain reliable mitochondria-specific lipid profiles from cell culture samples and show that quality controls are indispensable when performing mitochondria lipidomics. PMID:26892142

  8. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  9. Computer simulation of the distribution of hexane in a lipid bilayer: spatially resolved free energy, entropy, and enthalpy profiles.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Justin L; Tieleman, D Peter

    2006-01-11

    The partitioning behavior of small molecules in lipid bilayers is important in a variety of areas including membrane protein folding and pharmacology. However, the inhomogeneous nature of lipid bilayers on a nanometer length scale complicates experimental studies of membrane partitioning. To gain more insight in the partitioning of a small molecule into the lipid bilayer, we have carried out atomistic computer simulations of hexane in a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine model membrane. We have been able to obtain spatially resolved free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity profiles based on umbrella sampling calculations at three different temperatures. In agreement with experiment, hexane partitions preferentially to the center of the bilayer. This process is driven almost entirely by a favorable entropy change, consistent with the hydrophobic effect. In contrast, partitioning to the densest region of the acyl chains is dominated by a favorable enthalpy change with a small entropy change, which is consistent with the "nonclassical" hydrophobic effect or "bilayer" effect. We explain the features of the entropy and enthalpy profiles in terms of density and free volume in the system. PMID:16390139

  10. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  11. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  13. Improvement of lipid profile by probiotic/protective cultures: study in a non-carcinogenic small intestinal cell model.

    PubMed

    Gorenjak, Mario; Gradišnik, Lidija; Trapečar, Martin; Pistello, Mauro; Kozmus, Carina Pinto; Škorjanc, Dejan; Skok, Pavel; Langerholc, Tomaž; Cencič, Avrelija

    2014-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Previous findings have shown that probiotic bacteria exert positive effects on hypercholesterolemia by lowering serum cholesterol and improving lipid profile that, in turn, leads to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Most of these studies were carried out with tumoral cell lines that have a metabolism quite different from that of normal cells and may thus respond differently to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate the beneficial effects of some probiotics on cholesterol levels and pathways in normal small intestinal foetal epithelial tissue cells. The results show that Lactobacillus plantarum strain PCS 26 efficiently removes cholesterol from media, exhibits bile salt hydrolase activity, and up-regulates several genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study suggests that Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 26 might act as a liver X receptor agonist and help to improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic patients or even dislipidemias in complex diseases such as the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  15. Spatiotemporal lipid profiling during early embryo development of Xenopus laevis using dynamic ToF-SIMS imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hua; Fletcher, John S.; Thuret, Raphael; Henderson, Alex; Papalopulu, Nancy; Vickerman, John C.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging has been used for the direct analysis of single intact Xenopus laevis embryo surfaces, locating multiple lipids during fertilization and the early embryo development stages with subcellular lateral resolution (∼4 μm). The method avoids the complicated sample preparation for lipid analysis of the embryos, which requires selective chemical extraction of a pool of samples and chromatographic separation, while preserving the spatial distribution of biological species. The results show ToF-SIMS is capable of profiling multiple components (e.g., glycerophosphocholine, SM, cholesterol, vitamin E, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol) in a single X. laevis embryo. We observe lipid remodeling during fertilization and early embryo development via time course sampling. The study also reveals the lipid distribution on the gamete fusion site. The methodology used in the study opens the possibility of studying developmental biology using high resolution imaging MS and of understanding the functional role of the biological molecules. PMID:24852167

  16. Optimization of a Nile Red method for rapid lipid determination in autotrophic, marine microalgae is species dependent.

    PubMed

    Balduyck, Lieselot; Veryser, Cedrick; Goiris, Koen; Bruneel, Charlotte; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have been conducted to develop rapid methods for quantification of lipid content in microalgae, as an alternative for time consuming gravimetric methods. Different studies showed that lipid staining with Nile Red in whole cell suspensions and subsequently quantification by the use of a spectrofluorometric device is a promising method, but a profound optimization and validation is rare. It has already been proven that the correlation curve for quantification is species dependent, but it has not yet been investigated whether this is also the case for the optimization of the Nile Red assay protocol. Therefore, two autotrophic, marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and T-Isochrysis lutea, strongly differing in e.g. cell wall structure, were selected in this study to investigate whether optimization of the Nile Red assay is species dependent. Besides this, it was checked for one of these species, Nannochloropsis, whether the lipid content, determined by the Nile Red assay, could indeed be correlated with the neutral and/or total lipid content determined by gravimetric methods. It was found that optimization of the Nile Red assay was strongly species dependent. Consequently, optimization has to be done for each species before using the assay. For Nannochloropsis, a good correlation was found between total and neutral lipid content obtained by the Nile Red assay and by gravimetric methods. PMID:26388510

  17. Optimization of a Nile Red method for rapid lipid determination in autotrophic, marine microalgae is species dependent.

    PubMed

    Balduyck, Lieselot; Veryser, Cedrick; Goiris, Koen; Bruneel, Charlotte; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have been conducted to develop rapid methods for quantification of lipid content in microalgae, as an alternative for time consuming gravimetric methods. Different studies showed that lipid staining with Nile Red in whole cell suspensions and subsequently quantification by the use of a spectrofluorometric device is a promising method, but a profound optimization and validation is rare. It has already been proven that the correlation curve for quantification is species dependent, but it has not yet been investigated whether this is also the case for the optimization of the Nile Red assay protocol. Therefore, two autotrophic, marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and T-Isochrysis lutea, strongly differing in e.g. cell wall structure, were selected in this study to investigate whether optimization of the Nile Red assay is species dependent. Besides this, it was checked for one of these species, Nannochloropsis, whether the lipid content, determined by the Nile Red assay, could indeed be correlated with the neutral and/or total lipid content determined by gravimetric methods. It was found that optimization of the Nile Red assay was strongly species dependent. Consequently, optimization has to be done for each species before using the assay. For Nannochloropsis, a good correlation was found between total and neutral lipid content obtained by the Nile Red assay and by gravimetric methods.

  18. Kinetic analysis of the zinc-dependent deacetylase in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    McClerren, Amanda L; Zhou, Pei; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian R H; Rudolph, Johannes

    2005-02-01

    The first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria is catalyzed by the zinc-dependent hydrolase LpxC that removes an acetate from the nitrogen at the 2' '-position of UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Recent structural characterization by both NMR and X-ray crystallography provides many important details about the active site environment of LpxC from Aquifex aeolicus, a heat-stable orthologue that displays 32% sequence identity to LpxC from Escherichia coli. The detailed reaction mechanism and specific roles of active site residues for LpxC from A. aeolicus are further analyzed here. The pH dependencies of k(cat)/K(M) and k(cat) for the deacetylation of the substrate UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-GlcNAc are both bell-shaped. The ascending acidic limb (pK(1)) was fitted to 6.1 +/- 0.2 for k(cat) and 5.7 +/- 0.2 for k(cat)/K(M). The descending basic limb (pK(2)) was fitted to 8.0 +/- 0.2 for k(cat) and 8.4 +/- 0.2 for k(cat)/K(M). The pH dependence of the E73A mutant exhibits loss of the acidic limb, and the mutant retains only 0.15% activity versus the wild type. The pH dependencies of the other active site mutants H253A, K227A, H253A/K227A, and D234N remain bell-shaped, although their significantly lower activities (0.25%, 0.05%, 0.007%, and 0.57%, respectively) suggest that they contribute significantly to catalysis. Our cumulative data support a mechanism for LpxC wherein Glu73 serves as the general base for deprotonation and activation of the zinc-bound water. PMID:15667204

  19. Lipid composition of lactational diets influences the fatty acid profile of the progeny before and after suckling.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, C; Jensen, S K

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of adding no or 8% fat of varying sources (coconut oil, fish oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil) to diets for sows 1 week prior to farrowing and during lactation on the composition of fatty acids in plasma and tissues of the progeny while sucking and 3 weeks after weaning from the sow. A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets supplemented with 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were provided to lactating sows (n = 15), and during the post-weaning period the same weaner diet was provided to all piglets (n = 15 litters), which were housed litterwise. The dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids of the maternal diets largely influenced the progeny, as the ratio varying from 1.2 (fish oil) to 12.2 (sunflower oil) in the sow milk was reflected in plasma and adipose tissues of the sucking progeny. The liver showed similar variations according to dietary treatments, but a lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio. From day 4 to later on during the suckling period, the concentration of C14:0, C16:0 and C18:1 in the liver of the piglets decreased, irrespective of the dietary treatments of sows. In plasma and liver, the total concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) did not differ markedly in piglets sucking sows fed different dietary fatty acids, whereas the adipose tissue of piglets sucking sows fed sunflower oil and coconut oil showed the highest proportion of PUFA and SAFA, respectively. Weaning lowered the concentration of lipid-soluble extracts in plasma and the concentration of fatty acids in the liver of the piglets. Within the post-weaning period, dietary treatments of sows, rather than age of piglets, influenced the fatty acid composition of plasma and adipose tissue of the piglets, whereas the hepatic fatty acid profile was more affected by the age of the piglets during the post-weaning period. This

  20. Lipid composition of lactational diets influences the fatty acid profile of the progeny before and after suckling.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, C; Jensen, S K

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of adding no or 8% fat of varying sources (coconut oil, fish oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil) to diets for sows 1 week prior to farrowing and during lactation on the composition of fatty acids in plasma and tissues of the progeny while sucking and 3 weeks after weaning from the sow. A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets supplemented with 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were provided to lactating sows (n = 15), and during the post-weaning period the same weaner diet was provided to all piglets (n = 15 litters), which were housed litterwise. The dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids of the maternal diets largely influenced the progeny, as the ratio varying from 1.2 (fish oil) to 12.2 (sunflower oil) in the sow milk was reflected in plasma and adipose tissues of the sucking progeny. The liver showed similar variations according to dietary treatments, but a lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio. From day 4 to later on during the suckling period, the concentration of C14:0, C16:0 and C18:1 in the liver of the piglets decreased, irrespective of the dietary treatments of sows. In plasma and liver, the total concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) did not differ markedly in piglets sucking sows fed different dietary fatty acids, whereas the adipose tissue of piglets sucking sows fed sunflower oil and coconut oil showed the highest proportion of PUFA and SAFA, respectively. Weaning lowered the concentration of lipid-soluble extracts in plasma and the concentration of fatty acids in the liver of the piglets. Within the post-weaning period, dietary treatments of sows, rather than age of piglets, influenced the fatty acid composition of plasma and adipose tissue of the piglets, whereas the hepatic fatty acid profile was more affected by the age of the piglets during the post-weaning period. This

  1. Myeloperoxidase-dependent Lipid Peroxidation Promotes the Oxidative Modification of Cytosolic Proteins in Phagocytic Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P.; Magon, Nicholas J.; Harwood, D. Tim; Kettle, Anthony J.; Vissers, Margreet C.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Hampton, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  2. Characterization of a calcium- and lipid-dependent protein kinase associated with the plasma membrane of oat

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, G.E.; Sussman, M.R. ); Harmon, A.C. )

    1992-02-18

    A protein kinase that is activated by calcium and lipid has been partially purified from the plasma membrane of oat roots. This protein kinase cross-reacts with four monoclonal antibodies directed against a soluble calcium-dependent protein kinase from soybean described previously indicating that the oat enzyme is a member of this calcium-dependent protein kinase family. Immunoblots demonstrate that the membrane-derived protein kinase is slightly larger than that observed in the cytosolic fraction of oat. Limited digestion of the membrane-derived kinase with trypsin generates a smaller water-soluble kinase that is still activated by calcium but is no longer activated by lipid. When posthomogenization proteolysis is minimized, the bulk of the immunoreactive kinase material is localized in the membrane. These results suggest that a calcium-dependent protein kinase observed in the supernatant fraction of oat extracts may originate in situ from a calcium- and lipid-dependent protein kinase which is associated with the oat plasma membrane. They further indicate that, in contrast to animal cells, the predominant calcium- and lipid-dependent protein kinase associated with the plasma membrane of plant cells has biochemical properties and amino acid sequence unlike protein kinase C.

  3. Lipid profiles of oil from trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads, spines and viscera: trout by-products as a possible source of omega-3 lipids?

    PubMed

    Fiori, L; Solana, M; Tosi, P; Manfrini, M; Strim, C; Guella, G

    2012-09-15

    Lipid profiles of fish oil extracted from trout heads, spines and viscera using supercritical carbon dioxide and Randall extraction with hexane were measured. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids (as a percentage of total fatty acids) was within the range of 72.6-75.3% in all the substrates. A significant presence of the most important omega-3 fatty acids was detected. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in oil from spines, heads and viscera resulted to be 8.7% and 7.3%, 7.9% and 6.3%, and 6.4% and 6.0%, respectively. A low (≈3%), but worth noting, presence of lipids with omega-1 polyunsaturated fatty chains was observed in all the oils. Finally, significant differences were noticed in the relative amounts of triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG) and free fatty acids (FFA). Whereas oil from heads and spines was essentially composed of TAG (≈98%), in viscera oil the molar distribution ratio became TAG:DAG:FFA=87:8:5.

  4. Lipidomic profiling of bioactive lipids by mass spectrometry during microbial infections

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive lipid mediators play crucial roles in promoting the induction and resolution of inflammation. Eicosanoids and other related unsaturated fatty acids have long been known to induce inflammation. These signaling molecules can modulate the circulatory system and stimulate immune cell infiltration into the site of infection. Recently, DHA- and EPA-derived metabolites have been discovered to promote the resolution of inflammation, an active process. Not only do these molecules stop the further infiltration of immune cells, they prompt non-phlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, stimulating the tissue to return to homeostasis. After the rapid release of lipid precursors from the plasma membrane upon stimulation, families of enzymes in a complex network metabolize them to produce a large array of lipid metabolites. With current advances in mass spectrometry, the entire lipidome can be accurately quantified to assess the immune response upon microbial infection. In this review, we discuss the various lipid metabolism pathways in the context of the immune response to microbial pathogens, as well as their complex network interactions. With the advancement of mass spectrometry, these approaches have also been used to characterize the lipid mediator response of macrophages and neutrophils upon immune stimulation in vitro. Lastly, we describe the recent efforts to apply systems biology approaches to dissect the role of lipid mediators during bacterial and viral infections in vivo. PMID:24084369

  5. Evaluation of glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic Wistar rats treated with Malpighia emarginata juice.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.

  6. The dependence of the lipid bilayer membrane: buffer partition coefficient of pentobarbitone on pH and lipid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, K W; Yu, S C

    1977-01-01

    1 The membrane/buffer partition coefficient of [14C]-pentobarbitone has been determined as a function of the lipid composition of bilayer membranes. 2 A new technique based on ultrafiltration gave comparable results to conventional techniques but required less time for equilbration. 3 The membrane/buffer coefficient was independent of pentobarbitone concentration in the range studies. 4 The apparent partition coefficient varied with pH and was a linear function of the degree of dissociation of pentobarbition. 5 Both the charged and uncharged forms of pentobarbitone partitioned into the membrane, the latter to a much greater extent than the former. 6 At low pH the highest partition coefficient observed was in egg phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. 7 Incorporation of cholesterol or phosphatidic acid into phosphatidylcholine membranes greatly reduced the partition coefficient. 8 High pressures do not greatly change these partition coefficients. PMID:21013

  7. On one-dimensional velocity approximation for speed-dependent spectral line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    An application of one-dimensional velocity approach to calculation of speed-dependent spectral line profiles was considered. It was shown that a mean deviation of the line profile obtained within this approach from the line profile derived with integrating over three projections of an absorbing molecule's velocity does not exceed 1.1% at mass ratios of perturbing and absorbing molecules ≤9. Analytical approximate expressions for speed-dependent line profiles, including spectral line narrowing and mixing, were obtained for one- and three-dimensional velocity approaches.

  8. Lipase genes in Mucor circinelloides: identification, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling during growth and lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2016-10-01

    Lipases or triacylglycerol hydrolases are widely spread in nature and are particularly common in the microbial world. The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides is a potential lipase producer, as it grows well in triacylglycerol-contained culture media. So far only one lipase from M. circinelloides has been characterized, while the majority of lipases remain unknown in this fungus. In the present study, 47 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides WJ11 and 30 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 were identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. An overview of these lipases is presented, including several characteristics, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the lipase genes during growth and lipid accumulation. All of these proteins contained the consensus sequence for a classical lipase (GXSXG motif) and were divided into four types including α/β-hydrolase_1, α/β-hydrolase_3, class_3 and GDSL lipase (GDSL) based on gene annotations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that class_3 family and α/β-hydrolase_3 family were the conserved lipase family in M. circinelloides. Additionally, some lipases also contained a typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4-D, and these lipases may play a dual role in lipid metabolism, catalyzing both lipid hydrolysis and transacylation reactions. The differential expression of all lipase genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression profiling were analyzed to predict the possible biological roles of these lipase genes in lipid metabolism in M. circinelloides. We preliminarily hypothesized that lipases may be involved in triacylglycerol degradation, phospholipid synthesis and beta-oxidation. Moreover, the results of sub-cellular localization, the presence of signal peptide and transcriptional analyses of lipase genes indicated that four lipase in WJ11 most likely belong to extracellular lipases with a signal peptide. These findings provide a platform

  9. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  10. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  11. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Md.; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163). PMID:25685791

  12. Lipids in the diet and the fatty acid profile in beef: a review and recent patents on the topic.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Marcio M; Machado Neto, Otavio R; Chizzotti, Mario L; Oliveira, Dalton M; Chalfun Junior, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to report how the use of lipid sources in diets for ruminants can affect the fatty acid profile of beef. In addition, recent patents that can be utilized to alter the fatty acid profile in the meat, or which concern the synthesis of conjugated fatty acids will be reviewed. The industrial production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has already started and the commercial products present isomers cis-9, trans-11; trans-9, cis-11; and trans-10, cis-12. Patents on the biological synthesis of isomer C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 from the linoleic acid have also been published. However, the economic production of CLA in industrial scale is a difficult process. Most of the patents published for CLA production utilize bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Lipid supplementation, with the objective to improve the fatty acid profile of beef, can be done through the use of patented products, such as genetically modified oilseeds and calcium soaps of fatty acids.

  13. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft‐dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chlamydiae are Gram‐negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down‐stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473‐coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp‐2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp‐2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose‐dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473‐dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae. PMID:26780295

  14. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft-dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down-stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae.

  15. The lipoxygenase-dependent oxygenation of lipid body membranes is promoted by a patatin-type phospholipase in cucumber cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Maike; Schlereth, Armin; Körner, Martina; Feussner, Kirstin; Berndt, Ekkehardt; Melzer, Michael; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed germination is characterized by the mobilization of storage lipids as a carbon and energy source for embryonic growth. In addition to storage lipid degradation in germinating oilseeds via the direct action of a triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) on the storage lipids, a second degradation pathway that is dependent on a specific lipid body trilinoleate 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX) has been proposed in several plant species. The activity of this specific 13-LOX leads first to the formation of ester lipid hydroperoxides. These hydroperoxy fatty acids are then preferentially cleaved off by a TGL and serve as a substrate for glyoxysomal β-oxidation. As a prerequisite for triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, a partial degradation of the phospholipid monolayer and/or membrane proteins of the oil body has been discussed. Evidence has now been found for both processes: partial degradation of the proteins caleosin and oleosin was observed and simultaneously a patatin-like protein together with transient phospholipase (PLase) activity could be detected at the oil body membranes during germination. Moreover, in vitro experiments with isolated oil bodies from mature seeds revealed that the formation of 13-LOX-derived lipid peroxides in lipid body membranes is increased after incubation with the purified recombinant patatin-like protein. These experiments suggest that in vivo the degradation of storage lipids in cucumber cotyledons is promoted by the activity of a specific oil body PLase, which leads to an increased decomposition of the oil body membrane by the 13-LOX and thereby TAGs may be better accessible to LOX and TGL. PMID:21081663

  16. Rapana venosa consumption improves the lipid profiles and antioxidant capacities in serum of rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Leontowicz, Maria; Leontowicz, Hanna; Namiesnik, Jacek; Apak, Resat; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Moncheva, Snejana; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-07-01

    In the recent years, the consumption of seafood has increased. There are no results on the studies of Rapana venosa (Rv) as a supplementation to the diets. We hypothesized that Rv would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids, based on the composition of bioactive compounds and fatty acids. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo actions of Rv from contaminated (C) and non-C (NC) regions of collection on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and enzyme activities in serum of rats fed an atherogenic diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each and named control, cholesterol (Chol), Chol/RvC and Chol/RvNC. Rats of all 4 groups were fed the basal diet, which included wheat starch, casein, soybean oil, cellulose, vitamin (American Institute of Nutrition for laboratory animals vitamin mixtures), and mineral mixtures (American Institute of Nutrition for laboratory animals mineral mixtures). During 28 days of the experiment, the rats of the control group received the basal diet only, and the diets of the other 3 groups were supplemented with 1% of Chol, 1% of Chol, and 5% of Rv dry matter from C and NC areas. Dry matter from C and NC areas supplemented diets slightly hindered the rise in serum lipids vs. Chol group: total Chol, 13.18% and 11.63% and low-density lipoprotein Chol, 13.57% and 15.08%, respectively. Cholesterol significantly decreased the value of total antioxidant capacity. The supplementation of Rv to the Chol diet significantly affected the increase of antioxidant capacity in serum of rats, expressed by the 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) method. The water extracts of Rv exhibited high binding properties with bovine serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, atherogenic diets supplemented with Rv from C and NC areas hindered both the rise in serum lipids levels and the decrease in the antioxidant capacity. Based on fluorescence and

  17. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thurberg, Beth L; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Jones, Simon A; Schiano, Thomas D; Cox, Gerald F; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  18. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients.

  19. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  20. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  1. Spironolactone in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on clinical features, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Zulian, E; Sartorato, P; Benedini, S; Baro, G; Armanini, D; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical trial was designed to assess the effects of a long-term therapy with spironolactone, with and without dietary-induced weight-loss, on clinical features, lipid profile and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-five patients (range of age 16-32 yr; 13 lean and 12 overweight) fulfilling formal diagnostic criteria for PCOS (oligomenorrhea and/or amenorrhea, biochemical and/or clinical evidence of hyperadrogenism) were studied at baseline and then received oral spironolactone (100 mg/die) for 12 months; association with lifestyle modifications was recommended to all over-weight patients. Clinical, endocrine and metabolic parameters [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile] were measured at baseline and at the end of the antiandrogen treatment. The therapy was associated with a significant average decline of triglycerides in overweight subjects and with increased HDL-cholesterol levels in lean patients. The insulin levels at 60 min during OGTT, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and area under curve of insulin were significantly lowered in overweight women after 12 months of spironolactone and weight loss and no negative changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity were observed in PCOS women after pharmacological treatment alone. The efficacy of spironolactone on the androgenic clinical aspects of PCOS has been confirmed in this study. Furthermore, our data show that long-term treatment with spironolactone exerts no negative effects on lipoprotein profile and glucose metabolism; more relevant beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were observed when the antiandrogen was associated with weight loss in overweight PCOS women. PMID:15816371

  2. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Jones, Simon A.; Schiano, Thomas D.; Cox, Gerald F.; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  3. Feeding milk replacer instead of whole milk affects blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, A; Herosimczyk, A; Ożgo, M; Skrzypczak, W F

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding milk or milk-replacer on the blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in calves during the second week of life. Feeding milk-replacer significantly decreased the expression of plasma apoA-I. Age of calves affected apoA-I expression, which was higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day of life. A significant effect of interaction between diet and age was also observed. The expression of apoA-IV, was significantly affected by diet and was lower in calves fed milk replacer. Expression of this protein was significantly lower at the 8th day of life and was up-regulated in the calves fed milk-replacer at the second week of life. Calves fed milk-replacer had greater expression of haptoglobin, which differed significantly between days of blood sampling, being higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day. The interactive effect of diet and age affected haptoglobin expression, which was successively down-regulated in calves fed milk re- placer. Diet had a significant effect on the plasma lipid profile. Animals fed milk had a greater concentration of TC, HDLC and LDLC. The composition of milk-replacer, especially fat source, is probably the main factor that affects expression of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and level of components of lipid profile in calves fed formula. We claim that the initially increased level of haptoglobin, followed by its decrease during the second week of life in calves fed milk-replacer may indicate the presence of short-term stress induced by changes in the feeding system. PMID:25928915

  4. In situ characterizing membrane lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Li, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition in cell membrane is closely associated with cell characteristics. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to in situ determine membrane components of human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10 A) and six different breast cancer cell lines (i.e., BT-20, MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-361) without any lipid extraction and separation. Partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that changes in the levels of these membrane lipids were closely correlated with the types of breast cell lines. Elevated levels of polyunsaturated lipids in MCF-10 A cells relative to six breast cancer cells and in BT-20 cells relative to other breast cancer cell lines were detected. The Western blotting assays indicated that the expression of five lipogenesis-related enzymes (i.e., fatty acid synthase 1(FASN1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 (SCD5), choline kinase α (CKα), and sphingomyelin synthase 1) was associated with the types of the breast cells, and that the SCD1 level in MCF-7 cells was significantly increased relative to other breast cell lines. Our findings suggest that elevated expression levels of FASN1, SCD1, SCD5, and CKα may closely correlated with enhanced levels of saturated and monounsaturated lipids in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26061164

  5. Quantitative Profiling of Brain Lipid Raft Proteome in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Castillo, Catherine; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome, a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, arises from transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP can regulate the expression of approximately 4% of brain transcripts through its role in regulation of mRNA transport, stability and translation, thus providing a molecular rationale for its potential pleiotropic effects on neuronal and brain circuitry function. Several intracellular signaling pathways are dysregulated in the absence of FMRP suggesting that cellular deficits may be broad and could result in homeostatic changes. Lipid rafts are specialized regions of the plasma membrane, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, involved in regulation of intracellular signaling. Among transcripts targeted by FMRP, a subset encodes proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis and homeostasis, dysregulation of which could affect the integrity and function of lipid rafts. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach we analyzed the lipid raft proteome of Fmr1 knockout mice, an animal model of Fragile X syndrome, and identified candidate proteins that are differentially represented in Fmr1 knockout mice lipid rafts. Furthermore, network analysis of these candidate proteins reveals connectivity between them and predicts functional connectivity with genes encoding components of myelin sheath, axonal processes and growth cones. Our findings provide insight to aid identification of molecular and cellular dysfunctions arising from Fmr1 silencing and for uncovering shared pathologies between Fragile X syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25849048

  6. Effect of Tamarindus indica fruits on blood pressure and lipid-profile in human model: an in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Iftekhar, A S M Maruf; Rayhan, Israt; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Hasnat, Abul

    2006-04-01

    Fruits of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for their effects on lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body weight in human subjects. Dried and pulverized pulp of T. indica fruits, at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, was found to reduce total cholesterol level (p = 0.031) and LDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.004) to a significant extent. Though the fruits exerted no conspicuous effect on body weight and systolic blood pressure, it significantly reduced the diastolic pressure as confirmed by independent sample t-test at 5% significance level.

  7. Evaluation of Usefulness of Serum Insulin as Sensitive Predictor of Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Obese Individuals with Normal Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bavikar, Jayashree S.; Asegaonkar, Shilpa B.; Bardapurkar, Jayashree S.; Domple, Vijay; Rai, Pooja SK; Pawar, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of obesity and its subsequent cardiometabolic complications is on exponential rise. Hyperinsulinemia develops in obese individuals long before other metabolic derangements of obesity take place and may be a common pathophysiological factor tying together various components of cardiometabolic dysfunction. Aim: Present study was aimed at evaluating the role of insulin as a sensitive and independent cardiovascular risk marker in apparently healthy overweight and obese individuals with normal lipid profile. Settings and design: This was an opd based case Control study including 100 overweight and obese individuals with normal lipid profile & 100 age and sex matched normal weight healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants were evaluated based on detailed history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Blood samples were collected after overnight fast. Serum insulin was estimated by chemiluminescence method, glucose and lipid profile (CHOLESTEROL, HDL, TG, LDL) by chemical assays on a fully automated analyser system. Statistical analysis: Results were analyzed by unpaired t-test, p-value was determined & Correlation coefficient was calculated amongst various parameters. Results: Significant difference was noted in mean values of BMI (29.69±1.28 VS 23.47±1.09), waist / hip ratio (0.91±0.07 VS 0.79±0.05) and serum insulin (10.54±2.5 VS 5.94±1.53) (p<0.01) in cases as compared to controls respectively. Glucose levels were high in cases (89.58±8.0 mg/dl) as compared to controls (88.8±7.56 mg/dl) but the difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.11). Hyperinsulinemia was observed in 41 cases & 4 controls. Serum insulin highly correlated with Waist/ hip ratio (R=0.53) than BMI (R=0.26). Conclusion: Study suggests Insulin; a simple, sensitive & independent cardiovascular risk predictor in obesity even with normal lipid profile with a potential to reveal hidden burden of metabolic dysfunction and offers a hope that

  8. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds), pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute). Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:23111146

  9. Maternal Blood Lipid Profile during Pregnancy and Associations with Child Adiposity: Findings from the ROLO Study

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Aisling A.; Alberdi, Goiuri; O’Sullivan, Elizabeth J.; O’Brien, Eileen C.; Crosbie, Brenda; Twomey, Patrick J.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The in-utero environment affects fetal development; it is vital to understand how maternal diet during pregnancy influences childhood body composition. While research indicates that triglycerides in hyperglycaemic women may increase birth weight, little is known about this relationship in euglycemic women. This study examines the relationship between maternal blood lipid status and infant adiposity up to 2 years of age. Methods Data from 331 mother-child pairs from the ROLO longitudinal birth cohort study was analysed. Maternal dietary intakes were recorded and fasting blood lipids, leptin and HOMA were measured in early and late pregnancy and cord blood. Infant anthropometric measurements and skin-fold thicknesses were recorded at birth, 6 months and 2 years. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore associations between maternal blood lipid status and infant adiposity. Results All maternal blood lipids increased significantly during pregnancy. Maternal dietary fat intake was positively associated with total cholesterol levels in early pregnancy. Late pregnancy triglycerides were positively associated with birth weight (P = 0.03) while cord blood triglycerides were negatively associated with birth weight (P = 0.01). Cord HDL-C was negatively associated with infant weight at 6 months (P = 0.005). No other maternal blood lipids were associated with infant weight or adiposity up to 2 years of age. Conclusion Maternal and fetal triglycerides were associated with birth weight and cord HDL-C with weight at 6 months. Thus, maternal lipid concentrations may exert in-utero influences on infant body composition. There may be potential to modulate infant body composition through alteration of maternal diet during pregnancy. PMID:27560495

  10. Non-linear imaging techniques visualize the lipid profile of C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Meropi; Petanidou, Barbara; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Fotakis, Costas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Filippidis, George

    2015-07-01

    The non-linear techniques Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG, THG) have been employed simultaneously to record three dimensional (3D) imaging and localize the lipid content of the muscular areas (ectopic fat) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Simultaneously, Two-Photon Fluorescence (TPEF) was used initially to localize the stained lipids with Nile Red, but also to confirm the THG potential to image lipids successfully. In addition, GFP labelling of the somatic muscles, proves the initial suggestion of the existence of ectopic fat on the muscles and provides complementary information to the SHG imaging of the pharynx. The ectopic fat may be related to a complex of pathological conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the molecular path leading to the development of metabolic syndrome is a vital issue with high biological significance and necessitates accurate methods competent of monitoring lipid storage distribution and dynamics in vivo. THG microscopy was employed as a quantitative tool to monitor the lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues in the pharyngeal muscles of 12 unstained specimens while the SHG imaging revealed the anatomical structure of the muscles. The ectopic fat accumulation on the pharyngeal muscles increases in wild type (N2) C. elegans between 1 and 9 days of adulthood. This suggests a correlation of the ectopic fat accumulation with the aging. Our results can provide new evidence relating the deposition of ectopic fat with aging, but also validate SHG and THG microscopy modalities as new, non-invasive tools capable of localizing and quantifying selectively lipid accumulation and distribution.

  11. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P < 0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH2 asymmetric stretching peak height, CH2 symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  12. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH(3) asymmetric, CH(2) asymmetric, CH(3) symmetric and CH(2) symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (CC) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (CO) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P<0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH(2) asymmetric stretching peak height, CH(2) symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH(2) to CH(3) symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH(2) to CH(3) symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  13. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  14. Manipulating membrane lipid profiles to restore T-cell function in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kirsty E; Jury, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    Plasma membrane lipid rafts are heterogeneous cholesterol and glycosphingolipid (GSL)-enriched microdomains, within which the tight packing of cholesterol with the saturated-acyl chains of GSLs creates a region of liquid-order relative to the surrounding disordered membrane. Thus lipid rafts govern the lateral mobility and interaction of membrane proteins and regulate a plethora of signal transduction events, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling. The pathways regulating homoeostasis of membrane cholesterol and GSLs are tightly controlled and alteration of these metabolic processes coincides with immune cell dysfunction as is evident in atherosclerosis, cancer and autoimmunity. Indeed, membrane lipid composition is emerging as an important factor influencing the ability of cells to respond appropriately to microenvironmental stimuli. Consequently, there is increasing interest in targeting membrane lipids or their metabolic control as a novel therapeutic approach to modulate immune cell behaviour and our recent work demonstrates that this is a promising strategy in T-cells from patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PMID:26551723

  15. Relationship of body composition and cardiovascular fitness to lipoprotein lipid profiles in master athletes and sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Yataco, A R; Busby-Whitehead, J; Drinkwater, D T; Katzel, L I

    1997-01-01

    A number of studies demonstrate that highly conditioned older athletes are leaner than their sedentary counterparts, and have lipoprotein profiles similar to that of young individuals. It is not clear whether the high maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) or lean body habitus is the major determinant of the favorable lipoprotein lipid profiles present in older athletes. The objective of this study was to determine whether body composition or VO2max was the major determinant of lipoprotein lipid profiles among 61 master (age 63 +/- 6 years, mean +/- SD) athletes (VO2max > 40 mL/kg/min), 39 age-matched lean (% body fat < 25%), and 51 obese (% body fat > 25%) sedentary men. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were 25% higher in that athletes than in the lean sedentary men, and 42% higher than in the obese sedentary men. Triglyceride (TG) concentrations were 24% lower in the master athletes than in the lean sedentary men, and 51% lower than in the obese sedentary group. Plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were 9% lower in the athletes than in the other groups of sedentary individuals. In stepwise multiple regression analysis the percent body fat was the major independent predictor of HDL-C and TG levels accounting for 29% and 41% of the variation in these levels, respectively. The VO2max accounted for an additional 6% of the variance in HDL-C levels and 2% of the variance in TG levels. These cross-sectional results suggest that the favorable lipoprotein profile of master athletes is largely due to their lean body habitus, with a small independent contribution from their higher levels of cardiovascular fitness. Thus, regular vigorous aerobic exercise and maintenance of low body fat may prevent the commonly observed age-associated deterioration in lipoprotein concentrations.

  16. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  17. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  18. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  19. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  20. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. Although the contribution of dysregulated Akt/mTORC1 signaling to cancer has been investigated extensively and altered lipid metabolism is observed in many tumors, the exact role of SREBPs in the control of biosynthetic processes required for Akt-dependent cell growth and their contribution to tumorigenesis remains unclear. Results We first investigated the effects of loss of SREBP function in non-transformed cells. Combined ablation of SREBP1 and SREBP2 by siRNA-mediated gene silencing or chemical inhibition of SREBP activation induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and engaged the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, specifically under lipoprotein-deplete conditions in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Induction of ER-stress led to inhibition of protein synthesis through increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. This demonstrates for the first time the importance of SREBP in the coordination of lipid and protein biosynthesis, two processes that are essential for cell growth and proliferation. SREBP ablation caused major changes in lipid composition characterized by a loss of mono- and poly-unsaturated lipids and induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Alterations in lipid composition and increased ROS levels, rather than overall changes to lipid synthesis rate, were required for ER-stress induction. Next, we analyzed the effect of SREBP ablation in a panel of cancer cell lines. Importantly, induction of apoptosis following SREBP depletion was restricted to lipoprotein-deplete conditions. U87 glioblastoma cells were highly susceptible to silencing of either SREBP isoform, and apoptosis induced by SREBP1 depletion in these cells was rescued by antioxidants or by restoring the levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, silencing of SREBP1

  1. In Situ Characterizing Membrane Lipid Phenotype of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines Using Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Ren, Junling; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolisms are closely associated with cancers. In this study, mass spectrometry was employed to in situ investigate the associations of membrane lipid phenotypes of six human lung cancer cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, H1975 from adenocarcinoma, H157 and H1703 from squamous cell carcinomas, and H460 from a large cell carcinoma) with cancer cell types and finally total 230 lipids were detected. Based these 230 lipids, partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that fifteen lipids (i.e., PE 18:0_18:1, PI 18:0_20:4, SM 42:2, PE 16:0_20:4, PE 36:2, PC 36:2, SM 34:1, PA 38:3,C18:0, C22:4, PA 34:2, C20:5, C20:2, C18:2, and CerP 36:2) with variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of > 1.0 could be used to differentiate six cancer cell lines with the Predicted Residual Sum of Square (PRESS) score of 0.1974. Positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., C20:4, C22:4, C22:5, and C22:6) and polyunsaturated phospholipids (PE 16:0_20:4, PE 38:4, and PI 18:0_20:4) was observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells, especially for H1975 cells. Three adenocarcinoma cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, and H1975) could be differentiated from other lung cancer cell lines based on the expression of C18:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5, and C22:6. PMID:27162539

  2. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  3. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Bélanger; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurélie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O’Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; van Hulst, Andraea; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999–2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999–2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007–08 and 2011–12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  4. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca).

  5. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  6. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  7. Blood lipids profile in hyperlipidemic children undergoing different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Agostoni, Carlo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Banderali, Giuseppe; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the effect size of different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations on blood lipid profile in children with primary hyperlipidemia. Thirty-six children (8-13 years) were recruited. After an 8-week stabilization period on the Step I diet, they were randomized to additionally receive for a 16-week period one capsule (500 mg) daily of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or a DHA plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) mixture (45.6% DHA; 41.6% EPA) or wheat germ oil (control). An effect size (as percentage change from baseline) of +8%, -12% and -16% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and triglycerides was observed in children supplemented with DHA, compared to +2%, -8% and -12%, respectively, in children supplemented with DHA plus EPA. This preliminary study suggests powered trials appear feasible and are warranted to evaluate efficacy of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary supplementations on the blood lipid profile of children with primary hyperlipidemia.

  8. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André Dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85-105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20-30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60-70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  9. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  10. Influence of oily vehicles on fetal testis and lipid profile of rats exposed to di-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, A C S; Gomes, C; Boareto, A C; Mueller, R P; Nihi, F; Andrade, L F; Trindade, E S; Coelho, I; Naliwaiko, K; Morais, R N; Martino-Andrade, A J

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that oils containing high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as canola and fish oil, could counteract some of the adverse effects induced by phthalates. In the present study, the influence of different oily vehicles on di-butyl phthalate (DBP)-induced testicular toxicity and lipid profile was investigated. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated by oral gavage from gestation days 13 to 20 with DBP (500 mg/kg/day) diluted in three different vehicles: corn, canola or fish oil. Male fetuses were analyzed on gestation day 20. DBP exposure lowered intratesticular testosterone levels and anogenital distance, regardless of the vehicle used. The percentage of seminiferous cords containing multinucleated gonocytes and cord diameter was increased in DBP-exposed groups, compared with vehicle controls, with no difference between the three DBP-exposed groups. Clustering of Leydig cells was seen in all DBP groups. Lipid profile indicated that administration of canola and fish oil can increase the content of omega-3 fatty acids in rat testis. However, content of omega-3 was diminished in DBP-treated groups. Overall, our results indicate that different oily vehicles did not alter fetal rat testicular toxicity induced by a high DBP dose.

  11. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

  12. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control.

  13. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  14. Safety and efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Lawsonia inermis leaves on lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Verma, Nishikant; Karwasra, Ritu; Kalra, Prerna; Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common risk factor for cardiac-related disorders in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein and elevated low density lipoprotein concentration. Aim: To explore the effect of Lawsonia inermis hydroalcoholic extract (LIHE) for diabetic dyslipidemic activity along with its safety profile. Materials and Methods: LIHE administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin (1 IU/kg), glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg), and metformin (100 mg/kg) were used as positive control and 1% gum acacia as normal control. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's t-test. Results: The percentage reduction in blood glucose level of LIHE at dose of 400 mg/kg was 39.08% on day 21 when compared to baseline (day 0), which is comparable to glibenclamide (44.77%) and metformin (46.30%). Decrease in blood glucose level exhibited significant improvement in lipid profile, plasma albumin, total plasma protein and serum creatinine. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that LIHE significantly improved lipid and lipoprotein pattern observed in diabetic rats and this could be due to improvement in insulin secretion or action, thus has potential to be used in treatment of diabetes mellitus associated dyslipidemia. PMID:26730149

  15. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  16. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition.

  17. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  18. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  19. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work. PMID:25211097

  20. [Effect of sacha inchi oil (plukenetia volúbilis l) on the lipid profile of patients with hyperlipoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Fausto; Pando, Rosa; Ronceros, Gerardo

    2011-12-01

    We performed a pilot, experimental, open study in order to know the effect, effective dosage and secondary effects of sacha inchi´s (Plukenetia Huallabamba) [corrected] oil on the lipid profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia. We included 24 patients of ages 35 to 75, to whom we measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL, triglycerides (Tg), glucose (G), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin (I) levels in blood, then we randomized them to receive sacha inchi oil orally 5 ml or 10 ml of a suspension of sacha inchi oil (2gr/5ml) for four months. The oil intake produced a decrease in the mean values of TC, and NEFA, and a rise in HDL in both subgroups. The subgroup receiving 10 ml was associated to an increase in the insulin levels. Sacha inchi oil appears to have beneficial effects on the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, but their efficacy and security should be evaluated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:22241259

  1. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition. PMID:20127879

  2. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Beigi, Mohammad Ali Babaei; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis patient. Materials and Methods: This study was a 2-month clinical randomized trial. Ninety atherosclerotic patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis who were referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February to march 2011 were selected if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants were randomly classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA or 1 920 mg/d ω3 or placebo for 2 months. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol were measured before and after the intervention. This study was a two-month clinical randomized trial. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, version19). Although CLA did not appear to have a significant effect on TG, ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level. Consumption of CLA and ω3 supplementation did not significantly affect HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. Conclusions: ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level but CLA and ω3 did not show significant changes in other indices of lipid profile in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:24600599

  3. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  4. Cholesterol forms and traditional lipid profile for projection of atherogenic dyslipidemia: lipoprotein subfractions and erythrocyte membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Uydu, Hüseyin Avni; Bostan, Mehmet; Atak, Mehtap; Yılmaz, Adnan; Demir, Adem; Akçan, Buket; Sümer, Fatih; Baltaş, Nimet; Karadağ, Zakir; Uğurlu, Yavuz; Orem, Asım

    2014-02-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by abnormal changes in plasma lipid profile such as low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased triglyceride (TG) levels is strongly associated with atherosclerotic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the levels of pro- and antiatherogenic lipids and erythrocyte membrane cholesterol (EMC) content in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects to investigate whether EMC content could be a useful marker for clinical presentation of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL and their subfraction levels and erythrocyte lipid content were determined in 64 normolipidemic (NLs), 42 hypercholesterolemic (HCs) and 42 mixed-type dyslipidemic subjects (MTDs). Plasma atherogenic lipid indices [small-dense LDL (sdLDL)/less-dense HDL (LHDL), TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and Apo B/AI] were higher in MTDs compared to NLs (p < 0.001). The highest sdLDL level was observed in HCs (p < 0.01). Despite a slight increase in EMC level in dyslipidemic subgroups, the difference was not statistically significant. A significant negative correlation, however, was observed between EMC and sdLDL/LHDL in HCs (p < 0.035, r = -0.386). Receiver operating characteristic curves to predict sdLDL level showed that TG and EMC levels had higher area under curve values compared to other parameters in HCs. We showed that diameters of larger LDL and HDL particles tend to shift toward smaller values in MTDs. Our results suggest that EMC content and TG levels may be a useful predictor for sdLDL level in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  5. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  6. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  7. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  8. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  9. The phosphorylation-dependent regulation of nuclear SREBP1 during mitosis links lipid metabolism and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Bengoechea-Alonso, Maria Teresa; Ericsson, Johan

    2016-10-17

    The SREBP transcription factors are major regulators of lipid metabolism. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are at the core of several health issues facing modern society, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of lipid metabolism in cancer cell growth is receiving increased attention. Transcriptionally active SREBP molecules are unstable and rapidly degraded in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by Fbw7, a ubiquitin ligase that targets several cell cycle regulatory proteins for degradation. We have previously demonstrated that active SREBP1 is stabilized during mitosis. We have now delineated the mechanisms involved in the stabilization of SREBP1 in mitotic cells. This process is initiated by the phosphorylation of a specific serine residue in nuclear SREBP1 by the mitotic kinase Cdk1. The phosphorylation of this residue creates a docking site for a separate mitotic kinase, Plk1. Plk1 interacts with nuclear SREBP1 in mitotic cells and phosphorylates a number of residues in the C-terminal domain of the protein, including a threonine residue in close proximity of the Fbw7 docking site in SREBP1. The phosphorylation of these residues by Plk1 blocks the interaction between SREBP1 and Fbw7 and attenuates the Fbw7-dependent degradation of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division. Inactivation of SREBP1 results in a mitotic defect, suggesting that SREBP1 could regulate cell division. We propose that the mitotic phosphorylation and stabilization of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division provides a link between lipid metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, the current study provides additional support for the emerging hypothesis that SREBP-dependent lipid metabolism may be important for cell growth.

  10. The phosphorylation-dependent regulation of nuclear SREBP1 during mitosis links lipid metabolism and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Bengoechea-Alonso, Maria Teresa; Ericsson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The SREBP transcription factors are major regulators of lipid metabolism. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are at the core of several health issues facing modern society, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of lipid metabolism in cancer cell growth is receiving increased attention. Transcriptionally active SREBP molecules are unstable and rapidly degraded in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by Fbw7, a ubiquitin ligase that targets several cell cycle regulatory proteins for degradation. We have previously demonstrated that active SREBP1 is stabilized during mitosis. We have now delineated the mechanisms involved in the stabilization of SREBP1 in mitotic cells. This process is initiated by the phosphorylation of a specific serine residue in nuclear SREBP1 by the mitotic kinase Cdk1. The phosphorylation of this residue creates a docking site for a separate mitotic kinase, Plk1. Plk1 interacts with nuclear SREBP1 in mitotic cells and phosphorylates a number of residues in the C-terminal domain of the protein, including a threonine residue in close proximity of the Fbw7 docking site in SREBP1. The phosphorylation of these residues by Plk1 blocks the interaction between SREBP1 and Fbw7 and attenuates the Fbw7-dependent degradation of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division. Inactivation of SREBP1 results in a mitotic defect, suggesting that SREBP1 could regulate cell division. We propose that the mitotic phosphorylation and stabilization of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division provides a link between lipid metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, the current study provides additional support for the emerging hypothesis that SREBP-dependent lipid metabolism may be important for cell growth. PMID:27579997

  11. Temperature-dependent lipid metabolism in the blow fly Lucilia sericata.

    PubMed

    Muntzer, A; Montagne, C; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of how arthropods use energy is fundamental to explaining their diverse life histories and adaptation to specific environments. It is also of importance when attempting to predict the impacts of environmental change on patterns of development and phenology. Here, lipid use by the economically important agent of ovine myiasis, Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was quantified at a range of temperatures. During pupation, at temperatures above the minimum temperature required for development (9 °C), pupae depleted an average of 30% of their total lipid over the course of pupation regardless of temperature. There was no detectable loss of lipid during pupation at temperatures below 9 °C. In general, larger individuals had the same relative amounts of lipid as smaller individuals. Newly emerged adults metabolized about 16% of the lipid reserves with which they emerged in the first 24 h during flight-related activity. Starved adults, with access to water but without sucrose or protein, depleted their lipid reserves and died within about 4 days of emergence. However, adults with access to protein and/or carbohydrate were able to maintain a stored lipid content of about 2.38% of their total body mass for at least 14 days after emergence, irrespective of sex. This finding is similar to that in field-caught individuals, in which lipid content was found to be a mean of 3% of body mass. The data suggest that warmer environmental conditions, within the temperature limits tested here, although shortening the time required for development and altering the patterns of seasonal abundance of L. sericata, are unlikely to impact on fly survival because of greater metabolic demands during non-feeding stages of the lifecycle.

  12. A nutritional program improved lipid profiles and weight in 28 chiropractic patients: a retrospective case series☆

    PubMed Central

    Powell, James P.; Leonard, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study retrospectively examined the effects of a 21-day nutritional intervention program, which included fruit and vegetable consumption, energy restriction, and nutritional supplements, on serum lipid measures in 28 chiropractic patients. Methods Medical records were reviewed for 28 chiropractic patients who had completed a commercially available 21-day nutritional intervention program between April 2005 and August 2007 and for whom complete serum lipid and weight measures immediately pre- and postintervention were available. The primary outcome was change in serum lipids, and change in body weight was a secondary outcome variable. Results Significant reductions in total, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed. Serum triglycerides decreased from 116.3 ± 54.6 (mean ± SD) to 88.6 ± 40.5 mg/dL (P < .01). Total cholesterol decreased from 223.3 ± 40.7 to 176.2 ± 30.0 mg/dL (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 145.7 ± 36.8 to 110.9 ± 25.3 mg/dL (P < .0001). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 54.3 ± 14.6 to 47.6 ± 10.5 mg/dL (P < .001). Weight for patients decreased from 191.2 ± 38.8 to 182.2 ± 36.3 lb (P < .0001). Conclusions This retrospective case series supports the hypothesis that a nutritional purification intervention program emphasizing fruit and vegetable consumption, energy restriction, and nutritional supplements reduces serum lipids and weight. PMID:19646370

  13. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR lipid profiles of human renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, V; Bottura, G; Fini, G; Reggiani, A; Tinti, A; Trinchero, A; Tosi, M R

    2003-01-01

    Lipids from human renal tissues are studied by means of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The total lipid fractions obtained from healthy kidneys, malignant renal cell carcinomas, and benign oncocytomas are characterized and analyzed to elucidate the main differences between the functional and neoplastic tissues. In all cases the lipid components are well identified. The healthy kidney is characterized by high amounts of triglycerides and the presence of cholesterol in its free form. On the contrary, renal cell carcinomas contain high amounts of cholesterol that are almost completely esterified as oleate, suggesting an intracellular localization of the cholesteryl esters synthesis. Cholesteryl esters are considered markers of renal cell carcinomas, thus supporting recent theories that these compounds play a leading role in cell proliferation. Oncocytomas are particularly rich in phosphatidylcholine and, analogous to the healthy kidney, are completely lacking in cholesteryl esters. Healthy kidneys and oncocytomas appear to have other similarities if compared with renal cell carcinomas: a very high fatty acyl/cholesterol ratio, the presence of dolichols, and a higher grade of unsaturation. The (13)C data suggest a new method for the direct evaluation of the saturated/unsaturated fatty acyl ratio.

  14. Profiling Metal Oxides with Lipids: Magnetic Liposomal Nanoparticles Displaying DNA and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yibo; Lin, Zhi Yuan William; Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2016-09-19

    Metal oxides include many important materials with various surface properties. For biomedical and analytical applications, it is desirable to engineer their biocompatible interfaces. Herein, a phosphocholine liposome (DOPC) and its headgroup dipole flipped counterpart (DOCP) were mixed with ten common oxides. Using the calcein leakage assay, cryo-TEM, and ζ-potential measurement, these oxides were grouped into three types. The type 1 oxides (Fe3 O4 , TiO2 , ZrO2 , Y2 O3 , ITO, In2 O3 , and Mn2 O3 ) form supported bilayers only with DOCP. Type 2 (SiO2 ) forms supported bilayers only with DOPC; type 3 (ZnO and NiO) are cationic and damage lipid membranes. Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were further studied for conjugation of fluorophores, proteins, and DNA to the supported DOCP bilayers via lipid headgroup labeling, covalent linking, or lipid insertion. Delivery of the conjugates to cells and selective DNA hybridization were demonstrated. This work provides a general solution for coating the type 1 oxides with a simple mixing in water, facilitating applications in biosensing, separation, and nanomedicine. PMID:27539511

  15. Diabetic nephropathy induces alterations in the glomerular and tubule lipid profiles1[S

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Kerri J.; Voziyan, Paul A.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Suwan; Paueksakon, Paisit; Harris, Raymond C.; Hudson, Billy G.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major life-threatening complication of diabetes. Renal lesions affect glomeruli and tubules, but the pathogenesis is not completely understood. Phospholipids and glycolipids are molecules that carry out multiple cell functions in health and disease, and their role in DN pathogenesis is unknown. We employed high spatial resolution MALDI imaging MS to determine lipid changes in kidneys of eNOS−/− db/db mice, a robust model of DN. Phospholipid and glycolipid structures, localization patterns, and relative tissue levels were determined in individual renal glomeruli and tubules without disturbing tissue morphology. A significant increase in the levels of specific glomerular and tubular lipid species from four different classes, i.e., gangliosides, sulfoglycosphingolipids, lysophospholipids, and phosphatidylethanolamines, was detected in diabetic kidneys compared with nondiabetic controls. Inhibition of nonenzymatic oxidative and glycoxidative pathways attenuated the increase in lipid levels and ameliorated renal pathology, even though blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Our data demonstrate that the levels of specific phospho- and glycolipids in glomeruli and/or tubules are associated with diabetic renal pathology. We suggest that hyperglycemia-induced DN pathogenic mechanisms require intermediate oxidative steps that involve specific phospholipid and glycolipid species. PMID:24864273

  16. Profiling Metal Oxides with Lipids: Magnetic Liposomal Nanoparticles Displaying DNA and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yibo; Lin, Zhi Yuan William; Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2016-09-19

    Metal oxides include many important materials with various surface properties. For biomedical and analytical applications, it is desirable to engineer their biocompatible interfaces. Herein, a phosphocholine liposome (DOPC) and its headgroup dipole flipped counterpart (DOCP) were mixed with ten common oxides. Using the calcein leakage assay, cryo-TEM, and ζ-potential measurement, these oxides were grouped into three types. The type 1 oxides (Fe3 O4 , TiO2 , ZrO2 , Y2 O3 , ITO, In2 O3 , and Mn2 O3 ) form supported bilayers only with DOCP. Type 2 (SiO2 ) forms supported bilayers only with DOPC; type 3 (ZnO and NiO) are cationic and damage lipid membranes. Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were further studied for conjugation of fluorophores, proteins, and DNA to the supported DOCP bilayers via lipid headgroup labeling, covalent linking, or lipid insertion. Delivery of the conjugates to cells and selective DNA hybridization were demonstrated. This work provides a general solution for coating the type 1 oxides with a simple mixing in water, facilitating applications in biosensing, separation, and nanomedicine.

  17. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  18. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini, Daniela; Jovenasso Manzoni, Marla Simone; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Saes Parra Abdalla, Dulcinéia; Aparecida Pinto, Roseli; Rosetto, Daniella; Roberto Valentini, Sandro; Antonio Rossi, Elizeu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in

  19. Defects of Lipid Synthesis Are Linked to the Age-Dependent Demyelination Caused by Lamin B1 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Hernandez, Marylens; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Nmezi, Bruce C.; Lu, Yue; Estécio, Marcos R. H.; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Junda; He, Rong-Rong; Gong, Pin; Rigatti, Lora H.; Dupree, Jeffrey; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina and plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear architecture, regulating gene expression and modulating chromatin positioning. We have previously shown that LMNB1 gene duplications cause autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disease. The mechanisms by which increased LMNB1 levels cause ADLD are unclear. To address this, we used a transgenic mouse model where Lamin B1 overexpression is targeted to oligodendrocytes. These mice showed severe vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord white matter together with marked astrogliosis, microglial infiltration, and secondary axonal damage. Oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice revealed alterations in histone modifications favoring a transcriptionally repressed state. Chromatin changes were accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis pathways, many of which are known to play important roles in myelin regulation and are preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes. Decreased lipogenic gene expression resulted in a significant reduction in multiple classes of lipids involved in myelin formation. Many of these gene expression changes and lipid alterations were observed even before the onset of the phenotype, suggesting a causal role. Our findings establish, for the first time, a link between LMNB1 and lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes, and provide a mechanistic framework to explain the age dependence and white matter involvement of the disease phenotype. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and may also shed light on the regulation of lipid synthesis pathways in myelin maintenance and turnover. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is fatal neurological disorder caused by increased levels of the nuclear protein, Lamin B1. The disease is characterized by an age-dependent loss of myelin, the fatty sheath that covers nerve fibers. We have studied a mouse model where Lamin B

  20. The comparison of two speed-dependent Voigt line profile models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasevich, A. E.

    2013-07-01

    Numerical calculations of the ratio of line width and maximum value of two speed-dependent Voigt line profiles to the respective values of their speed-independent analogs are performed in the high-pressure limit. The intercomparison demonstrates considerable disagreement between different speed-dependent models.

  1. Cell proliferation and progesterone synthesis depend on lipid metabolism in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-03-15

    In dairy cows, lipids are essential to support energy supplies for all biological functions, especially during early lactation. Lipid metabolism is crucial for sustaining proper reproductive function. Alteration of lipid metabolism impacts follicular development and affects oocyte developmental competence. Indeed, nonesterified fatty acids are able to decrease granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and affect estradiol synthesis, thus potentially affecting follicular growth and viability. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of lipid metabolism on bovine GCs, through the use of the lipid metabolism inhibitors etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid (FA) oxidation through inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), and C75, an inhibitor of FA synthesis through inhibition of fatty acid synthase. We showed that etomoxir and C75 significantly inhibited DNA synthesis in vitro; C75 also significantly decreased progesterone synthesis. Both inhibitors significantly reduced AMPK (5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Etomoxir also affected the AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway. Combined, these data suggest that both FA oxidation and synthesis are important for the bovine GCs to express a proliferative and steroidogenic phenotype and, thus, for sustaining follicular growth. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the changes caused by the inhibitors of FA metabolism on GCs in vitro are globally mild, suggesting that lipid metabolism is not as critical in GCs as was observed in the oocyte-cumulus complex. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms by which lipid metabolism interacts with GC functions.

  2. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers Among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kadavanu, Tony Mathew; Green, Siva Ranganathan; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Hemachandar, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandrappa, Arun Kumar; Tiwari, Shashank Rakesh; Govindasamy, Ezhumalai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lipid abnormalities and increase in inflammatory markers are common among patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and it tends to persist/worsen even after initiating Intermittent Haemodialysis (IHD). The cardiovascular mortality and morbidity remains significantly high in this population. Aim The present study was carried out to assess the pattern of lipid abnormality in our population and to find its association with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational study on ESRD patients undergoing Haemodialysis (HD) in comparison with age and sex matched healthy individuals in a tertiary care hospital. About 40 adult male and female patients aged >18 years, undergoing chronic HD for more than 6 months were enrolled in Group A. Patients who were alcoholics, tobacco consumers and those on steroids and hypolipidemic drugs were excluded. Group B consisted of healthy, age and sex matched controls. Serum lipid profile, lipoprotein A, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and apo B/A1 ratio, serum uric acid, homocysteine, hs-CRP and testosterone levels were estimated among patients undergoing intermittent HD and healthy individuals. Chi-square/Fisher’s-exact test was used for comparing ratios. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Non-HDL High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in HD patients as compared to control group with all the three parameters attaining statistical significance (p<0.005). The mean lipoprotein A level was significantly higher (p=0.037), while Apo A1 was found to be significantly lower (p=0.001) in patients receiving HD. Inflammatory markers like uric acid was high (p<0.005) and serum testotsterone level in male HD patient was significantly low (p<0.005). Conclusion The mean values of traditional serum lipid profile remained lower in HD patients than the control group. The

  3. Metabolomics profiling of the free and total oxidised lipids in urine by LC-MS/MS: application in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junzeng; Schoeman, Johannes C; Harms, Amy C; van Wietmarschen, Herman A; Vreeken, Rob J; Berger, Ruud; Cuppen, Bart V J; Lafeber, Floris P J G; van der Greef, Jan; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Oxidised lipids, covering enzymatic and auto-oxidation-synthesised mediators, are important signalling metabolites in inflammation while also providing a readout for oxidative stress, both of which are prominent physiological processes in a plethora of diseases. Excretion of these metabolites via urine is enhanced through the phase-II conjugation with glucuronic acid, resulting in increased hydrophilicity of these lipid mediators. Here, we developed a bovine liver-β-glucuronidase hydrolysing sample preparation method, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to analyse the total urinary oxidised lipid profile including the prostaglandins, isoprostanes, dihydroxy-fatty acids, hydroxy-fatty acids and the nitro-fatty acids. Our method detected more than 70 oxidised lipids biosynthesised from two non-enzymatic and three enzymatic pathways in urine samples. The total oxidised lipid profiling method was developed and validated for human urine and was demonstrated for urine samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pro-inflammatory mediators PGF2α and PGF3α and oxidative stress markers iPF2α- IV, 11-HETE and 14-HDoHE were positively associated with improvement of disease activity score. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory nitro-fatty acids were negatively associated with baseline disease activity. In conclusion, the developed methodology expands the current metabolic profiling of oxidised lipids in urine, and its application will enhance our understanding of the role these bioactive metabolites play in health and disease. PMID:27405874

  4. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells. PMID:27603212

  5. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.

  6. A reversed-phase capillary ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qibin; Meng, Da; Issac, Giorgis; Zhao, Rui; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chu, Rosey K.; Zhou, Jianying; Tang, Keqi; Hu, Zeping; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2012-01-01

    Lipidomics is a critical part of metabolomics and aims to study all the lipids within a living system. We present here the development and evaluation of a sensitive capillary UPLC-MS method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling. Three different stationary phases were evaluated in terms of peak capacity, linearity, reproducibility, and limit of quantification (LOQ) using a mixture of lipid standards representative of the lipidome. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak abundances of the lipid standards were 0.29% and 7.7%, respectively, when using the optimized method. The linearity was acceptable at >0.99 over 3 orders of magnitude, and the LOQs were sub-fmol. To demonstrate the performance of the method in the analysis of complex samples, we analyzed lipids extracted from a human cell line, rat plasma, and a model human skin tissue, identifying 446, 444, and 370 unique lipids, respectively. Overall, the method provided either higher coverage of the lipidome, greater measurement sensitivity, or both, when compared to other approaches of global, untargeted lipid profiling based on chromatography coupled with MS. PMID:22354571

  7. Differential Lipid Profiles of Normal Human Brain Matter and Gliomas by Positive and Negative Mode Desorption Electrospray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pirro, Valentina; Hattab, Eyas M.; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization—mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging was used to analyze unmodified human brain tissue sections from 39 subjects sequentially in the positive and negative ionization modes. Acquisition of both MS polarities allowed more complete analysis of the human brain tumor lipidome as some phospholipids ionize preferentially in the positive and others in the negative ion mode. Normal brain parenchyma, comprised of grey matter and white matter, was differentiated from glioma using positive and negative ion mode DESI-MS lipid profiles with the aid of principal component analysis along with linear discriminant analysis. Principal component–linear discriminant analyses of the positive mode lipid profiles was able to distinguish grey matter, white matter, and glioma with an average sensitivity of 93.2% and specificity of 96.6%, while the negative mode lipid profiles had an average sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.4%. The positive and negative mode lipid profiles provided complementary information. Principal component–linear discriminant analysis of the combined positive and negative mode lipid profiles, via data fusion, resulted in approximately the same average sensitivity (94.7%) and specificity (97.6%) of the positive and negative modes when used individually. However, they complemented each other by improving the sensitivity and specificity of all classes (grey matter, white matter, and glioma) beyond 90% when used in combination. Further principal component analysis using the fused data resulted in the subgrouping of glioma into two groups associated with grey and white matter, respectively, a separation not apparent in the principal component analysis scores plots of the separate positive and negative mode data. The interrelationship of tumor cell percentage and the lipid profiles is discussed, and how such a measure could be used to measure residual tumor at surgical margins. PMID:27658243

  8. Orientation of paramecium swimming in a static magnetic field: Dependence on membrane lipid fluidity.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Yasuo; Itoh, Junya; Shimizu, Kikuo

    2011-01-01

    We studied the swimming orientation of the ciliated protozoan Paramecium aurelia in a static magnetic field (0.78 T). P. aurelia is a complex of species termed syngens, whose cell morphology appears similar on microscopic examination. In the magnetic field, the cells of some syngens gradually changed their swimming orientation so that they were swimming perpendicular or parallel to the magnetic field, although such sensitivity to magnetic fields differs between syngens. When the temperature of the cell suspension was raised, the magnetic sensitivity of the cells was decreased. On the other hand, when the cells were cultured beforehand at a high temperature, their magnetic sensitivity was increased. These results raise the possibility that membrane lipid fluidity, which is inversely proportional to the membrane lipid order, contributes to the magnetic orientation of syngens. In this study, measurements of membrane lipid fluidity obtained using fluorescence image analysis with the lipophilic dye, laurdan (6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene), showed that the degree of membrane lipid fluidity was correlated with the differences in magnetic orientation between syngens. That is, the syngens with decreased membrane fluidity showed an increased degree of magnetic orientation. Therefore, the membrane lipid order is a key factor in the magnetic orientation of Paramecium swimming.

  9. Fatty acid profiles of blood lipids in a population group in Tibet: correlations with diet and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Risé, Patrizia; Marangoni, Franca; Martiello, Antonella; Colombo, Claudio; Manzoni, Cristina; Marconi, Claudio; Cattabeni, Flaminio; Galli, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare blood fatty acid profiles of two population groups: Italian and Tibetan, differing with regard to ethnic, life style and environmental aspects. Additionally the collection of two staple foods provided the opportunity to analyze typical Tibetan dishes. A new, simple, rapid, and substantially non invasive method for fatty acid (FA) analysis of blood lipids was applied to healthy Italian (n=14) and Tibetan (n=13) subjects. Blood drops obtained from the ear lobe of Tibetans or the fingertip of Italians were adsorbed by a special strip of paper and processed for fatty acid analysis. The fatty acid profiles of the two groups are different, and environmental factors, such as dietary fats and altitudes of Milan, Italy (a low altitude site), and Lhasa, Tibet (a high altitude site) appear to contribute to these differences. More specifically, in Ti-betans higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, including the 22 and 24 carbon molecules, were found. This appears to be derived mainly from locally consumed fats (mustard seed oil), and are associated with lower levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher levels of selected omega 3 fatty acids, when compared to the Italians. These relatively higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids may also indicate means of adaptation to local prooxidant conditions. The observed differences in blood fatty acid profiles in Tibetans vs. Italians appear to result both from dietary factors and adaptation to local environmental conditions such as the high altitude of the Tibetan location.

  10. Detection and Quantification of Rotenoids from Clitoria fairchildiana and its Lipids Profile.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rauldenis A F; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration. The activity against brine shrimp revealed that the root extract (LD50 = 158 ppm) was the more active. PMID:27319136

  11. Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin Binds to Membrane Lipids and Its Cytotoxic Action Depends on Sulfatide.

    PubMed

    Gil, Carles; Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Blasi, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) is one of the major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, being the causal agent of fatal enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. Etx is synthesized as a non-active prototoxin form (proEtx) that becomes active upon proteolytic activation. Etx exhibits a cytotoxic effect through the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane of selected cell targets where Etx specifically binds due to the presence of specific receptors. However, the identity and nature of host receptors of Etx remain a matter of controversy. In the present study, the interactions between Etx and membrane lipids from the synaptosome-enriched fraction from rat brain (P2 fraction) and MDCK cell plasma membrane preparations were analyzed. Our findings show that both Etx and proEtx bind to lipids extracted from lipid rafts from the two different models as assessed by protein-lipid overlay assay. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Binding of proEtx to sulfatide, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol (3)-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (5)-phosphate was detected. Removal of the sulphate groups via sulfatase treatment led to a dramatic decrease in Etx-induced cytotoxicity, but not in proEtx-GFP binding to MDCK cells or a significant shift in oligomer formation, pointing to a role of sulfatide in pore formation in rafts but not in toxin binding to the target cell membrane. These results show for the first time the interaction between Etx and membrane lipids from host tissue and point to a major role for sulfatides in C. perfringens epsilon toxin pathophysiology.

  12. The protein and lipid composition of the membrane of milk fat globules depends on their size.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Anggrek, Jeni; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper Arthur

    2016-06-01

    In bovine milk, fat globules (MFG) have a heterogeneous size distribution with diameters ranging from 0.1 to 15 µm. Although efforts have been made to explain differences in lipid composition, little is known about the protein composition of MFG membranes (MFGM) in different sizes of MFG. In this study, protein and lipid analyses were combined to study MFG formation and secretion. Two different sized MFG fractions (7.6±0.9 µm and 3.3±1.2 µm) were obtained by centrifugation. The protein composition of MFGM in the large and small MFG fractions was compared using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics techniques. The lipid composition and fatty acid composition of MFG was determined using HPLC-evaporative light-scattering detector and gas chromatography, respectively. Two frequently studied proteins in lipid droplet biogenesis, perilipin-2 and TIP47, were increased in the large and small MFG fractions, respectively. In the large MFG fraction, besides perilipin-2, cytoplasmic vesicle proteins (heat shock proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and Rabs), microfilaments and intermediate filament-related proteins (actin and vimentin), host defense proteins (cathelicidins), and phosphatidylinositol were higher in concentration. On the other hand, cholesterol synthesis enzymes [lanosterol synthase and sterol-4-α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)], cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine were, besides TIP47, higher in concentration in the small MFG fraction. These results suggest that vesicle proteins, microfilaments and intermediate filaments, cholesterol, and specific phospholipids play an important role in lipid droplet growth, secretion, or both. The observations from this study clearly demonstrated the difference in protein and lipid composition between small and large MFG fractions. Studying the role of these components in more detail in future experiments may lead to a better understanding of fat globule formation and secretion.

  13. The Water Permeability and Pore Entrance Structure of Aquaporin-4 Depend on Lipid Bilayer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jihong; Wu, Zhe; Briggs, Margaret M; Schulten, Klaus; McIntosh, Thomas J

    2016-07-12

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the primary water channel in glial cells of the mammalian brain, plays a critical role in water transport in the central nervous system. Previous experiments have shown that the water permeability of AQP4 depends on the cholesterol content in the lipid bilayer, but it was not clear whether changes in permeability were due to direct cholesterol-AQP4 interactions or to indirect effects caused by cholesterol-induced changes in bilayer elasticity or bilayer thickness. To determine the effects resulting only from bilayer thickness, here we use a combination of experiments and simulations to analyze AQP4 in cholesterol-free phospholipid bilayers with similar elastic properties but different hydrocarbon core thicknesses previously determined by x-ray diffraction. The channel (unit) water permeabilities of AQP4 measured by osmotic-gradient experiments were 3.5 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s (mean ± SE), 3.0 ± 0.3 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, 2.5 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.9 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in bilayers containing (C22:1)(C22:1)PC, (C20:1)(C20:1)PC, (C16:0)(C18:1)PC, and (C13:0)(C13:0)PC, respectively. Channel permeabilities obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were 3.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s and 2.5 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in (C22:1)(C22:1)PC and (C14:0)(C14:0)PC bilayers, respectively. Both the osmotic-gradient and MD-simulation results indicated that AQP4 channel permeability decreased with decreasing bilayer hydrocarbon thickness. The MD simulations also suggested structural modifications in AQP4 in response to changes in bilayer thickness. Although the simulations showed no appreciable changes to the radius of the pore located in the hydrocarbon region of the bilayers, the simulations indicated that there were changes in both pore length and α-helix organization near the cytoplasmic vestibule of the channel. These structural changes, caused by mismatch between the hydrophobic length of AQP4 and the bilayer hydrocarbon

  14. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization.

  15. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (P<0.05). Mean peak systolic velocity values before and after the pistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  16. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  17. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l(-1) and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l(-1) day(-1), with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  18. Impact of some commonly used Egyptian diets on plasma lipids profiles of rats.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, O M; al-Okbi, S Y; Abbas, A E

    1993-09-01

    Seven types of diets commonly consumed in Egypt were studied in hyperlipemic rats. Each of the seven diets were fed to a group of hyperlipemic rats. The diets contain white beans and whole wheat bread (Diet 1); cabbage and peas (2); spinach and carrots (3); whole wheat bread and bean sprouts (4); whole wheat bread, white beans and peas (5); white beans and carrots (6) and the last diet contains peas and carrots (7). The experiment continued for 5 weeks, at the end of which different plasma lipids and biological parameters were compared to hyperlipemic rats fed the control diet for 5 weeks. Results showed that plasma total cholesterol of rats of all groups showed significant decrease, except in rats fed diet 6 in which no significant change was noticed. Plasma total lipids of rats fed diet 5 decreased significantly. Plasma phospholipids of rats fed diets 3 and 7 increased significantly. Rats fed diet 3 showed decreased levels of plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Body weight gain of rats fed diets 1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly. Total food intake was noticed to decrease on feeding diets 1 and 6. Significant decrease was produced in food efficiency ratio of rats fed diets 1, 5 and 6. Feeding any type of the previous seven diets produced significant increase of feces weight.

  19. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors. PMID:26889364

  20. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-15

    A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l(-1) and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l(-1) day(-1), with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production.

  1. Comparative Proteomics Profile of Lipid-Cumulating Oleaginous Yeast: An iTRAQ-Coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts. PMID:24386479

  2. Comparative proteomics profile of lipid-cumulating oleaginous yeast: an iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts.

  3. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  4. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.

  5. Neil3-dependent base excision repair regulates lipid metabolism and prevents atherosclerosis in Apoe-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Skarpengland, Tonje; Holm, Sverre; Scheffler, Katja; Gregersen, Ida; Dahl, Tuva B.; Suganthan, Rajikala; Segers, Filip M.; Østlie, Ingunn; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Luna, Luisa; Ketelhuth, Daniel F. J.; Lundberg, Anna M.; Neurauter, Christine G.; Hildrestrand, Gunn; Skjelland, Mona; Bjørndal, Bodil; Svardal, Asbjørn M.; Iversen, Per O.; Hedin, Ulf; Nygård, Ståle; Olstad, Ole K.; Krohg-Sørensen, Kirsten; Slupphaug, Geir; Eide, Lars; Kuśnierczyk, Anna; Folkersen, Lasse; Ueland, Thor; Berge, Rolf K.; Hansson, Göran K.; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Halvorsen, Bente; Bjørås, Magnar; Aukrust, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative DNA damage accumulates in atherosclerosis. Recently, we showed that a genetic variant in the human DNA repair enzyme NEIL3 was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Here, we explored the role of Neil3/NEIL3 in atherogenesis by both clinical and experimental approaches. Human carotid plaques revealed increased NEIL3 mRNA expression which significantly correlated with mRNA levels of the macrophage marker CD68. Apoe−/−Neil3−/− mice on high-fat diet showed accelerated plaque formation as compared to Apoe−/− mice, reflecting an atherogenic lipid profile, increased hepatic triglyceride levels and attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity. Apoe−/−Neil3−/− mice showed marked alterations in several pathways affecting hepatic lipid metabolism, but no genotypic alterations in genome integrity or genome-wide accumulation of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a novel role for the DNA glycosylase Neil3 in atherogenesis in balancing lipid metabolism and macrophage function, potentially independently of genome-wide canonical base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage. PMID:27328939

  6. Neil3-dependent base excision repair regulates lipid metabolism and prevents atherosclerosis in Apoe-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Skarpengland, Tonje; Holm, Sverre; Scheffler, Katja; Gregersen, Ida; Dahl, Tuva B; Suganthan, Rajikala; Segers, Filip M; Østlie, Ingunn; Otten, Jeroen J T; Luna, Luisa; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Lundberg, Anna M; Neurauter, Christine G; Hildrestrand, Gunn; Skjelland, Mona; Bjørndal, Bodil; Svardal, Asbjørn M; Iversen, Per O; Hedin, Ulf; Nygård, Ståle; Olstad, Ole K; Krohg-Sørensen, Kirsten; Slupphaug, Geir; Eide, Lars; Kuśnierczyk, Anna; Folkersen, Lasse; Ueland, Thor; Berge, Rolf K; Hansson, Göran K; Biessen, Erik A L; Halvorsen, Bente; Bjørås, Magnar; Aukrust, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative DNA damage accumulates in atherosclerosis. Recently, we showed that a genetic variant in the human DNA repair enzyme NEIL3 was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Here, we explored the role of Neil3/NEIL3 in atherogenesis by both clinical and experimental approaches. Human carotid plaques revealed increased NEIL3 mRNA expression which significantly correlated with mRNA levels of the macrophage marker CD68. Apoe(-/-)Neil3(-/-) mice on high-fat diet showed accelerated plaque formation as compared to Apoe(-/-) mice, reflecting an atherogenic lipid profile, increased hepatic triglyceride levels and attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity. Apoe(-/-)Neil3(-/-) mice showed marked alterations in several pathways affecting hepatic lipid metabolism, but no genotypic alterations in genome integrity or genome-wide accumulation of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a novel role for the DNA glycosylase Neil3 in atherogenesis in balancing lipid metabolism and macrophage function, potentially independently of genome-wide canonical base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage. PMID:27328939

  7. Proteomic analysis of Nrf2 deficient transgenic mice reveals cellular defence and lipid metabolism as primary Nrf2-dependent pathways in the liver.

    PubMed

    Kitteringham, Neil R; Abdullah, Azman; Walsh, Joanne; Randle, Laura; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Sison, Rowena; Goldring, Christopher E P; Powell, Helen; Sanderson, Christopher; Williams, Samantha; Higgins, Larry; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John; Park, B Kevin

    2010-06-16

    The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates expression of multiple cellular defence proteins through the antioxidant response element (ARE). Nrf2-deficient mice (Nrf2(-/-)) are highly susceptible to xenobiotic-mediated toxicity, but the precise molecular basis of enhanced toxicity is unknown. Oligonucleotide array studies suggest that a wide range of gene products is altered constitutively, however no equivalent proteomics analyses have been conducted. To define the range of Nrf2-regulated proteins at the constitutive level, protein expression profiling of livers from Nrf2(-/-) and wild type mice was conducted using both stable isotope labelling (iTRAQ) and gel electrophoresis methods. To establish a robust reproducible list of Nrf2-dependent proteins, three independent groups of mice were analysed. Correlative network analysis (MetaCore) identified two predominant groups of Nrf2-regulated proteins. As expected, one group comprised proteins involved in phase II drug metabolism, which were down-regulated in the absence of Nrf2. Surprisingly, the most profound changes were observed amongst proteins involved in the synthesis and metabolism of fatty acids and other lipids. Importantly, we show here for the first time, that the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, responsible for acetyl-CoA production, is negatively regulated by Nrf2. This latter finding suggests that Nrf2 is a major regulator of cellular lipid disposition in the liver.

  8. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation.

  9. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036

  10. Alterations in lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic function in rat fed with saccharin and methyl-salicylates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal Adel; AlMuzafar, Hessah Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food additives attract consumers, improve foods quality, control weight, and replace sugar in foods, while it may affect seriously children and adults health. Aim: To investigate the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function, and oxidative stress/antioxidant (lipid peroxidation, Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues). Methods: 46 young male albino rats were used. Saccharin and methylsalicylate were giving orally as low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd low and high saccharin-treated groups and 4th and 5th low and high methylsalicylate-treated group. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were decreased in saccharin high dose compared to control. Rats ingested high dose of saccharin presented a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Saccharin high dose induce a significant decline in hepatic GSH levels, catalase and SOD activities while increased in hepatic MDA level. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, saccharin affects harmfully and alters biochemical markers in hepatic and renal tissues not only at greater doses but also at low doses. Whereas uses of metylsalicylates would not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26131217

  11. Amino acid, mineral, and polyphenolic profiles of black vinegar, and its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung-Hsi; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Deng-Jye; Wu, Yi-Hsieng Samuel; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Black vinegar (BV) contains abundant essential and hydrophobic amino acids, and polyphenolic contents, especially catechin and chlorogenic acid via chemical analyses. K and Mg are the major minerals in BV, and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Se are also measured. After a 9-week experiment, high-fat/cholesterol-diet (HFCD) fed hamsters had higher (p<0.05) weight gains, relative visceral-fat sizes, serum/liver lipids, and serum cardiac indices than low-fat/cholesterol diet (LFCD) fed ones, but BV supplementation decreased (p<0.05) them which may resulted from the higher (p<0.05) faecal TAG and TC contents. Serum ALT value, and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hepatic TNF-α and IL-1β contents in HFCD-fed hamsters were reduced (p<0.05) by supplementing BV due to increased (p<0.05) hepatic glutathione (GSH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels, and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Taken together, the component profiles of BV contributed the lipid lowering and antioxidant effects on HFCD fed hamsters.

  12. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-mediated alterations in cell permeability, lipid and protein profiles of steroid-transforming Arthrobacter simplex.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanbing; Liang, Jingting; Li, Huanan; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) enhances steroid 1-dehydrogenation biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex. In this work, HP-β-CD-induced improvement of A. simplex CPCC 140451 cell envelope permeability which had positive effects on the steroid bioconversion was confirmed by a comparative investigation which showed a lower dehydrogenase activity and higher cell permeability of the cells after being incubated with HP-β-CD. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs showed that HP-β-CD altered the size, sharpness, and surface structure of the cell envelope. The analysis of lipid composition revealed that the proportion of extractable lipids decreased and the fatty acids profile was considerably altered. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids were reduced by 11.77 and 14.98%, respectively. The total leakage of protein level increased to 8%. Proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and major facilitator superfamily were observed outside the cell. These alterations can explain the change of permeability on the molecular level under HP-β-CD treatment. Results showed the material basis and mechanisms underlying the cellular changes, thus most likely contributing to the conversion rate in addition to cyclodextrins known effects on substrate solubility. PMID:25277411

  13. Lipid profiles and inflammatory markers after periodontal treatment in children with congenital heart disease and at risk for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bresolin, Adriana Chassot; Pronsatti, Mariana Menegassi; Pasqualotto, Larissa Nicole; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer; Jorge, Alex Sandro; da Silva, Edson Antonio Alves; Nassar, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Due to the biological associations between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the fact that atherosclerosis begins in childhood, behavior based on oral health care and metabolic control from an early age is essential for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of full-mouth scaling and root planing on the reduction of periodontal disease in children with congenital heart disease. In this study, treatments were related to clinical periodontal parameters and also to blood ones, such as lipid profile and inflammatory markers. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=17), scaling and root planing; and group 2 (n=16), full-mouth scaling and root planing. The results showed a significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameters (P<0.05) in both groups. Considering lipid parameters, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein parameters showed significant improvement (P<0.05). There was also an improvement in C-reactive protein (ultrasensitive) in the group treated with scaling and root planing (P<0.05). Fibrinogen and interleukin-6 parameters improved (P<0.05) in both groups. We suggest that both periodontal treatments were effective in children with congenital heart disease, though neither demonstrated superiority. PMID:24250224

  14. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Water-holding Capacity, Color, and Lipid Profiles of Pork.

    PubMed

    Yang, FengQi; Kim, Ji-Han; Yeon, Su Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary processed sulfur supplementation on water-holding capacity, color, and lipid profiles of pork according to the level of dietary processed sulfur (0%, CON; 0.3%, S). The pigs were slaughtered at an average final weight of 120 kg, and the longissimus dorsi muscles were collected from the carcasses. As results, pork processed with sulfur had significantly higher moisture and ash contents compared to those of CON but lower crude fat, pH, expressible drip, lower redness and yellowness, and greater lightness. Pork processed with sulfur showed significantly lower total lipid content, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis index but significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Feeding processed sulfur significantly lowered myristic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and stearic acid contents, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acids were significantly higher compared to those in the CON. Higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were observed in the pork processed with sulfur than that of the CON. Therefore, supplementing pigs with dietary sulfur improved nutrient and meat quality. PMID:26877643

  15. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Water-holding Capacity, Color, and Lipid Profiles of Pork

    PubMed Central

    Yang, FengQi; Kim, Ji-Han; Yeon, Su Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary processed sulfur supplementation on water-holding capacity, color, and lipid profiles of pork according to the level of dietary processed sulfur (0%, CON; 0.3%, S). The pigs were slaughtered at an average final weight of 120 kg, and the longissimus dorsi muscles were collected from the carcasses. As results, pork processed with sulfur had significantly higher moisture and ash contents compared to those of CON but lower crude fat, pH, expressible drip, lower redness and yellowness, and greater lightness. Pork processed with sulfur showed significantly lower total lipid content, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis index but significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Feeding processed sulfur significantly lowered myristic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and stearic acid contents, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acids were significantly higher compared to those in the CON. Higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were observed in the pork processed with sulfur than that of the CON. Therefore, supplementing pigs with dietary sulfur improved nutrient and meat quality. PMID:26877643

  16. Generalized inverse analysis for fins of different profiles with all temperature-dependent parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

    2016-08-01

    An inverse analysis is done to predict unknown and optimal dimensions of a fin satisfying either a given temperature or maximizing heat transfer rate. The profile simulating many geometries involves all temperature-dependent heat transfer modes. A hybrid algorithm is used to estimate relevant fin parameters. The present study shall be useful in selecting optimal dimensions to achieve either a particular temperature distribution or maximize heat transfer rate on various profiles.

  17. Dose-response efficacy of caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and its prevention is of great interest throughout the world. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of different doses of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis. Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups and were fed a modified pellet diet for the whole of 30 weeks. To induce colon cancer, rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) (based on body weight) for the first 15 weeks. Caraway was supplemented every day orally at doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg kg(-1) for different groups of rats for the total period of 30 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks, the colons were examined visually for masses and were subsequently evaluated histologically. The results showed diminished levels of intestinal, colonic and caecal LPO products, such as conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) in DMH treated rats, which were significantly reversed (P<0.05) on caraway supplementation. Moreover, enhanced activi