Science.gov

Sample records for lipid rafts reveals

  1. Spatial and temporal control of signaling through lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Golub, Tamara; Wacha, Stefan; Caroni, Pico

    2004-10-01

    Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-dependent microdomains (rafts) order proteins at biological membranes and have been implicated in most signaling processes at the cell surface, but the principles and mechanisms through which lipid rafts influence signaling are not well understood. Recent studies have revealed how lipid rafts are rapidly redistributed and assembled locally in response to extracellular signals, and how components of raft-based signaling domains undergo rapid and regulated rearrangements influencing signal quality, duration, and strength. These findings highlight the exquisitely dynamic properties of signaling domains based on lipid rafts, and suggest that processes of raft trafficking and assembly take central roles in mediating spatial and temporal control of signaling.

  2. The challenge of lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Pike, Linda J

    2009-04-01

    The Singer-Nicholson model of membranes postulated a uniform lipid bilayer randomly studded with floating proteins. However, it became clear almost immediately that membranes were not uniform and that clusters of lipids in a more ordered state existed within the generally disorder lipid milieu of the membrane. These clusters of ordered lipids are now referred to as lipid rafts. This review summarizes current thinking on the nature of lipid rafts focusing on the role of proteomics and lipidomics in understanding the structure of these domains. It also outlines the contribution of single-molecule methods in defining the forces that drive the formation and dynamics of these membrane domains. PMID:18955730

  3. A novel form of Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (LG-TIRFM) reveals different and independent lipid raft domains in living cells.

    PubMed

    Asanov, Alexander; Zepeda, Angélica; Vaca, Luis

    2010-02-01

    In the present study we have applied a novel form of Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (LG-TIRFM) in combination with fluorescently labeled cholera toxin to the study of lipid rafts dynamics in living cells. We demonstrate the usefulness of such approach by showing the dynamic formation/disaggregation of islands of cholera toxin on the surface of cells. Using multicolor LG-TIRFM with co-localization studies we show for the first time that two receptors previously identified as constituents of lipid rafts are found on different and independent "raft domains" on the cell plasma membrane. Furthermore, LG-TIRFM studies revealed limited association and dissociation of both domains overtime on different areas of the plasma membrane. The implications of different "raft domains" on cell physiology are discussed.

  4. RaftProt: mammalian lipid raft proteome database

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anup; Chen, David; Boda, Akash R.; Foster, Leonard J.; Davis, Melissa J.; Hill, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    RaftProt (http://lipid-raft-database.di.uq.edu.au/) is a database of mammalian lipid raft-associated proteins as reported in high-throughput mass spectrometry studies. Lipid rafts are specialized membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids thought to act as dynamic signalling and sorting platforms. Given their fundamental roles in cellular regulation, there is a plethora of information on the size, composition and regulation of these membrane microdomains, including a large number of proteomics studies. To facilitate the mining and analysis of published lipid raft proteomics studies, we have developed a searchable database RaftProt. In addition to browsing the studies, performing basic queries by protein and gene names, searching experiments by cell, tissue and organisms; we have implemented several advanced features to facilitate data mining. To address the issue of potential bias due to biochemical preparation procedures used, we have captured the lipid raft preparation methods and implemented advanced search option for methodology and sample treatment conditions, such as cholesterol depletion. Furthermore, we have identified a list of high confidence proteins, and enabled searching only from this list of likely bona fide lipid raft proteins. Given the apparent biological importance of lipid raft and their associated proteins, this database would constitute a key resource for the scientific community. PMID:25392410

  5. RaftProt: mammalian lipid raft proteome database.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anup; Chen, David; Boda, Akash R; Foster, Leonard J; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    RaftProt (http://lipid-raft-database.di.uq.edu.au/) is a database of mammalian lipid raft-associated proteins as reported in high-throughput mass spectrometry studies. Lipid rafts are specialized membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids thought to act as dynamic signalling and sorting platforms. Given their fundamental roles in cellular regulation, there is a plethora of information on the size, composition and regulation of these membrane microdomains, including a large number of proteomics studies. To facilitate the mining and analysis of published lipid raft proteomics studies, we have developed a searchable database RaftProt. In addition to browsing the studies, performing basic queries by protein and gene names, searching experiments by cell, tissue and organisms; we have implemented several advanced features to facilitate data mining. To address the issue of potential bias due to biochemical preparation procedures used, we have captured the lipid raft preparation methods and implemented advanced search option for methodology and sample treatment conditions, such as cholesterol depletion. Furthermore, we have identified a list of high confidence proteins, and enabled searching only from this list of likely bona fide lipid raft proteins. Given the apparent biological importance of lipid raft and their associated proteins, this database would constitute a key resource for the scientific community.

  6. Assessing the Nature of Lipid Raft Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Perttu S; Ollila, Samuli; Hyvönen, Marja T; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2007-01-01

    The paradigm of biological membranes has recently gone through a major update. Instead of being fluid and homogeneous, recent studies suggest that membranes are characterized by transient domains with varying fluidity. In particular, a number of experimental studies have revealed the existence of highly ordered lateral domains rich in sphingomyelin and cholesterol (CHOL). These domains, called functional lipid rafts, have been suggested to take part in a variety of dynamic cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the activity of membrane proteins. However, despite the proposed importance of these domains, their properties, and even the precise nature of the lipid phases, have remained open issues mainly because the associated short time and length scales have posed a major challenge to experiments. In this work, we employ extensive atom-scale simulations to elucidate the properties of ternary raft mixtures with CHOL, palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM), and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine. We simulate two bilayers of 1,024 lipids for 100 ns in the liquid-ordered phase and one system of the same size in the liquid-disordered phase. The studies provide evidence that the presence of PSM and CHOL in raft-like membranes leads to strongly packed and rigid bilayers. We also find that the simulated raft bilayers are characterized by nanoscale lateral heterogeneity, though the slow lateral diffusion renders the interpretation of the observed lateral heterogeneity more difficult. The findings reveal aspects of the role of favored (specific) lipid–lipid interactions within rafts and clarify the prominent role of CHOL in altering the properties of the membrane locally in its neighborhood. Also, we show that the presence of PSM and CHOL in rafts leads to intriguing lateral pressure profiles that are distinctly different from corresponding profiles in nonraft-like membranes. The results propose that the functioning of certain classes

  7. You Sank My Lipid Rafts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tessa N.

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane is the membrane that serves as a boundary between the interior of a cell and its extracellular environment. Lipid rafts are microdomains within a cellular membrane that possess decreased fluidity due to the presence of cholesterol, glycolipids, and phospholipids containing longer fatty acids. These domains are involved in many…

  8. Lipid rafts: heterogeneity on the high seas.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Linda J

    2004-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that are enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. They have been implicated in processes as diverse as signal transduction, endocytosis and cholesterol trafficking. Recent evidence suggests that this diversity of function is accompanied by a diversity in the composition of lipid rafts. The rafts in cells appear to be heterogeneous both in terms of their protein and their lipid content, and can be localized to different regions of the cell. This review summarizes the data supporting the concept of heterogeneity among lipid rafts and outlines the evidence for cross-talk between raft components. Based on differences in the ways in which proteins interact with rafts, the Induced-Fit Model of Raft Heterogeneity is proposed to explain the establishment and maintenance of heterogeneity within raft populations. PMID:14662007

  9. Exploring the Existence of Lipid Rafts in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY An interesting concept in the organization of cellular membranes is the proposed existence of lipid rafts. Membranes of eukaryotic cells organize signal transduction proteins into membrane rafts or lipid rafts that are enriched in particular lipids such as cholesterol and are important for the correct functionality of diverse cellular processes. The assembly of lipid rafts in eukaryotes has been considered a fundamental step during the evolution of cellular complexity, suggesting that bacteria and archaea were organisms too simple to require such a sophisticated organization of their cellular membranes. However, it was recently discovered that bacteria organize many signal transduction, protein secretion, and transport processes in functional membrane microdomains, which are equivalent to the lipid rafts of eukaryotic cells. This review contains the most significant advances during the last 4 years in understanding the structural and biological role of lipid rafts in bacteria. Furthermore, this review shows a detailed description of a number of molecular and genetic approaches related to the discovery of bacterial lipid rafts as well as an overview of the group of tentative lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions that give consistency to these sophisticated signaling platforms. Additional data suggesting that lipid rafts are widely distributed in bacteria are presented in this review. Therefore, we discuss the available techniques and optimized protocols for the purification and analysis of raft-associated proteins in various bacterial species to aid in the study of bacterial lipid rafts in other laboratories that could be interested in this topic. Overall, the discovery of lipid rafts in bacteria reveals a new level of sophistication in signal transduction and membrane organization that was unexpected for bacteria and shows that bacteria are more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:25652542

  10. The nutritional significance of lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    The structure, size, stability, and functionality of lipid rafts are still in debate, but recent techniques allowing direct visualization have characterized them in a wide range of cell types. Lipid rafts are potentially modifiable by diet, particularly (but not exclusively) by dietary fatty acids. However, it is not clear whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are incorporated into raft lipids or whether their low affinity to cholesterol disallows this and causes phase separation from rafts and displacement of raft proteins. This review examines the potential for dietary modification of raft structure and function in the immune system, brain and retinal tissue, the gut, and in cancer cells. Although there is increasing evidence to suggest that membrane microdomains, and their modulation, have an impact in health and disease, it is too early to judge whether modulation of lipid rafts is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of n-3 PUFA. In addition to dietary fatty acids, gangliosides and cholesterol may also modulate microdomains in a number of tissues, and recent work has highlighted sphingolipids in membrane microdomains as potential targets for inhibition of tumor growth by n-3 PUFA. The roles of fatty acids and gangliosides in cognitive development, age-related cognitive decline, psychiatric disorders, and Alzheimer's disease are poorly understood and require clarification, particularly with respect to the contribution of lipid rafts. The roles of lipid rafts in cancer, in microbial pathogenesis, and in insulin resistance are only just emerging, but compelling evidence indicates the growing importance of membrane microdomains in health and disease.

  11. Lipid rafts, cholesterol, and the brain

    PubMed Central

    Korade, Zeljka; Kenworthy, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Lipid rafts are specialized membrane microdomains that serve as organizing centers for assembly of signaling molecules, influence membrane fluidity and trafficking of membrane proteins, and regulate different cellular processes such as neurotransmission and receptor trafficking. In this article, we provide an overview of current methods for studying lipid rafts and models for how lipid rafts might form and function. Next, we propose a potential mechanism for regulating lipid rafts in the brain via local control of cholesterol biosynthesis by neurotrophins and their receptors. Finally, we discuss evidence that altered cholesterol metabolism and/or lipid rafts play a critical role in the pathophysiology of multiple CNS disorders, including Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Huntington, Alzheimer's, and Niemman-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:18402986

  12. The lipid raft proteome of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Alvaro; Pérez, Alberto; Coleman, James L; Benach, Jorge L

    2015-11-01

    Eukaryotic lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that have significant amounts of cholesterol and a selective set of proteins that have been associated with multiple biological functions. The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is one of an increasing number of bacterial pathogens that incorporates cholesterol onto its membrane, and form cholesterol glycolipid domains that possess all the hallmarks of eukaryotic lipid rafts. In this study, we isolated lipid rafts from cultured B. burgdorferi as a detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fraction on density gradients, and characterized those molecules that partitioned exclusively or are highly enriched in these domains. Cholesterol glycolipids, the previously known raft-associated lipoproteins OspA and OpsB, and cholera toxin partitioned into the lipid rafts fraction indicating compatibility with components of the DRM. The proteome of lipid rafts was analyzed by a combination of LC-MS/MS or MudPIT. Identified proteins were analyzed in silico for parameters that included localization, isoelectric point, molecular mass and biological function. The proteome provided a consistent pattern of lipoproteins, proteases and their substrates, sensing molecules and prokaryotic homologs of eukaryotic lipid rafts. This study provides the first analysis of a prokaryotic lipid raft and has relevance for the biology of Borrelia, other pathogenic bacteria, as well as for the evolution of these structures. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002365 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002365).

  13. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Ping, Ling-Yan; Duong, Duc M; Gao, Xiao-Yan; He, Chun-Yan; Wei, Lei; Wu, Jun-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell‑mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native‑LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL‑stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label‑free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native‑LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native‑LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation.

  14. Microdomains Associated to Lipid Rafts.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jonathan; Ramírez-Jarquín, Josué O; Vaca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Store Operated Ca(2+) Entry (SOCE), the main Ca(2+) influx mechanism in non-excitable cells, is implicated in the immune response and has been reported to be affected in several pathologies including cancer. The basic molecular constituents of SOCE are Orai, the pore forming unit, and STIM, a multidomain protein with at least two principal functions: one is to sense the Ca(2+) content inside the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum(ER) and the second is to activate Orai channels upon depletion of the ER. The link between Ca(2+) depletion inside the ER and Ca(2+) influx from extracellular media is through a direct association of STIM and Orai, but for this to occur, both molecules have to interact and form clusters where ER and plasma membrane (PM) are intimately apposed. In recent years a great number of components have been identified as participants in SOCE regulation, including regions of plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, the so called lipid rafts, which recruit a complex platform of specialized microdomains, which cells use to regulate spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals.

  15. Lipid Raft: A Floating Island Of Death or Survival

    PubMed Central

    George, Kimberly S.; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-01-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, and play an important role in the initiation of many pharmacological agent-induced signaling pathways and toxicological effects. The structure of lipid rafts is dynamic, resulting in an ever-changing content of both lipids and proteins. Cholesterol, as a major component of lipid rafts, is critical for the formation and configuration of lipid rafts microdomains, which provide signaling platforms capable of activating both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. A change of cholesterol level can result in lipid rafts disruption and activate or deactivate raft-associated proteins, such as death receptor proteins, protein kinases, and calcium channels. Several anti-cancer drugs are able to suppress growth and induce apoptosis of tumor cells through alteration of lipid raft contents via disrupting lipid raft integrity. PMID:22289360

  16. Lipid raft: A floating island of death or survival

    SciTech Connect

    George, Kimberly S.; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-03-15

    Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, and play an important role in the initiation of many pharmacological agent-induced signaling pathways and toxicological effects. The structure of lipid rafts is dynamic, resulting in an ever-changing content of both lipids and proteins. Cholesterol, as a major component of lipid rafts, is critical for the formation and configuration of lipid raft microdomains, which provide signaling platforms capable of activating both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. A change of cholesterol level can result in lipid raft disruption and activate or deactivate raft-associated proteins, such as death receptor proteins, protein kinases, and calcium channels. Several anti-cancer drugs are able to suppress growth and induce apoptosis of tumor cells through alteration of lipid raft contents via disrupting lipid raft integrity. -- Highlights: ► The role of lipid rafts in apoptosis ► The pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of lipid raft disruption ► Cancer treatments targeting lipid rafts.

  17. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  18. Structural determinants of protein partitioning into ordered membrane domains and lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Lorent, Joseph Helmuth; Levental, Ilya

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of lateral nanoscopic lipid domains in plasma membranes, known as lipid rafts. These domains preferentially recruit membrane proteins and lipids to facilitate their interactions and thereby regulate transmembrane signaling and cellular homeostasis. The functionality of raft domains is intrinsically dependent on their selectivity for specific membrane components; however, while the physicochemical determinants of raft association for lipids are known, very few systematic studies have focused on the structural aspects that guide raft partitioning of proteins. In this review, we describe biophysical and thermodynamic aspects of raft-mimetic liquid ordered phases, focusing on those most relevant for protein partitioning. Further, we detail the variety of experimental models used to study protein-raft interactions. Finally, we review the existing literature on mechanisms for raft targeting, including lipid post-translational modifications, lipid binding, and transmembrane domain features. We conclude that while protein palmitoylation is a clear raft-targeting signal, few other general structural determinants for raft partitioning have been revealed, suggesting that many discoveries lie ahead in this burgeoning field.

  19. Using NK Cell Lipid Raft Fractionation to Understand the Role of Lipid Rafts in NK Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts were first defined as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) due to their relative insolubility in non-ionic detergents. Although they should not be confused with lipid rafts, DRMs are a valuable starting point for the study of these membrane domains and the interactions of proteins with rafts.Here we describe the isolation of DRMs by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient, a method we have used to study the role of lipid rafts in NKG2D-mediated signaling. We also describe raft fractionation of NK cells involving the selective solubility of β-octylglucoside (β-OG). OG is a non-ionic detergent that efficiently dissolves DRMs but does not disrupt protein associations with the cytoskeleton. Using these two techniques may yield useful information about the proteins involved in receptor recruitment into lipid rafts and the interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with lipid rafts.

  20. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Silveira e Souza, Adriana Maria Mariano; Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization. PMID:21490812

  1. Cholesterol lipids and cholesterol-containing lipid rafts in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; London, Erwin

    2016-09-01

    Sterols are important components of eukaryotic membranes, but rare in bacteria. Some bacteria obtain sterols from their host or environment. In some cases, these sterols form membrane domains analogous the lipid rafts proposed to exist in eukaryotic membranes. This review describes the properties and roles of sterols in Borrelia and Helicobacter.

  2. Lipid rafts are disrupted in mildly inflamed intestinal microenvironments without overt disruption of the epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Rachel V; Donatello, Simona; Lyes, Clíona; Owens, Mark B; Babina, Irina S; Hudson, Lance; Walsh, Shaun V; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid P; Amu, Sylvie; Barry, Sean P; Fallon, Padraic G; Hopkins, Ann M

    2012-04-15

    Intestinal epithelial barrier disruption is a feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but whether barrier disruption precedes or merely accompanies inflammation remains controversial. Tight junction (TJ) adhesion complexes control epithelial barrier integrity. Since some TJ proteins reside in cholesterol-enriched regions of the cell membrane termed lipid rafts, we sought to elucidate the relationship between rafts and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Lipid rafts were isolated from Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells primed with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin as a positive control for raft disruption. Rafts were also isolated from the ilea of mice in which colitis had been induced in conjunction with in vivo intestinal permeability measurements, and lastly from intestinal biopsies of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with predominantly mild or quiescent disease. Raft distribution was analyzed by measuring activity of the raft-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase and by performing Western blot analysis for flotillin-1. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial resistance in cytokine-treated cells or in vivo permeability to fluorescent dextran in colitic mice. Raft and nonraft fractions were analyzed by Western blotting for the TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Our results revealed that lipid rafts were disrupted in IFN-γ-treated cells, in the ilea of mice with subclinical colitis, and in UC patients with quiescent inflammation. This was not associated with a clear pattern of occludin or ZO-1 relocalization from raft to nonraft fractions. Significantly, a time-course study in colitic mice revealed that disruption of lipid rafts preceded the onset of increased intestinal permeability. Our data suggest for the first time that lipid raft disruption occurs early in the inflammatory cascade in murine and human colitis and, we speculate, may contribute to

  3. Role of lipid rafts in neuronal differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Vincenzo; Santacroce, Costantino; Tasciotti, Vincenzo; Martellucci, Stefano; Santilli, Francesca; Manganelli, Valeria; Piccoli, Luca; Misasi, Roberta; Sorice, Maurizio; Garofalo, Tina

    2015-12-10

    Human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) are characterized by a typical fibroblast-like morphology. They express specific markers for mesenchymal stem cells and are capable of differentiation into osteoblasts, adipoblasts and neurons in vitro. Previous studies showed that gangliosides are involved in the induction of early neuronal differentiation of hDPSCs. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of lipid rafts in this process. Lipid rafts are signaling microdomains enriched in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, tyrosine kinase receptors, mono- or heterotrimeric G proteins and GPI-anchored proteins. We preliminary showed that established cells expressed multipotent mesenchymal stromal-specific surface antigens. Then, we analyzed the distribution of lipid rafts, revealing plasma membrane microdomains with GM2 and EGF-R enrichment. Following stimulation with EGF/bFGF, neuronal differentiation was observed. To analyze the functional role of lipid rafts in EGF/bFGF-induced hDPSCs differentiation, cells were preincubated with lipid raft affecting agents, i.e. [D]-PDMP or methyl-β-cyclodextrin. These compounds significantly prevented neuronal-specific antigen expression, as well as Akt and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, induced by EGF/bFGF, indicating that lipid raft integrity is essential for EGF/bFGF-induced hDPSCs differentiation. These results suggest that lipid rafts may represent specific chambers, where multimolecular signaling complexes, including lipids (gangliosides, cholesterol) and proteins (EGF-R), play a role in hDPSCs differentiation.

  4. Lipid rafts and detergent-resistant membranes in epithelial keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    McGuinn, Kathleen P; Mahoney, Mỹ G

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the plasma membrane has markedly increased since Singer and Nicolson proposed the fluid mosaic model in 1972. While their revolutionary theory of the lipid bilayer remains largely valid, it is now known that lipids and proteins are not randomly dispersed throughout the plasma membrane but instead may be organized within membrane microdomains, commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Lipid rafts are highly dynamic, detergent resistant, and enriched with both cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. The two main types are flotillin-rich planar lipid rafts and caveolin-rich caveolae. It is proposed that flotillin and caveolin proteins regulate cell communication by compartmentalizing and interacting with signal transduction proteins within their respective lipid microdomains. Consequently, membrane rafts play an important role in vital cellular functions including migration, invasion, and signaling; thus, alterations in their microenvironment can initiate signaling pathways that affect cellular function and behavior. Therefore, the identification of lipid rafts and their associated proteins is integral to the study of transmembrane signaling. Here, we review the current standard protocols and biochemical approaches used to isolate and define raft proteins from epithelial cells and tissues. Furthermore, in Section 3 of this chapter, detailed protocols are offered for isolating lipid rafts by subjection to detergent and sucrose density centrifugation, as well as an approach for selectively isolating caveolae. Methods to manipulate rafts with treatments such as methyl-β-cyclodextrin and flotillin III are also described.

  5. Sphingolipid symmetry governs membrane lipid raft structure.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Lipid domain formation in membranes underlies the concept of rafts but their structure is controversial because the key role of cholesterol has been challenged. The configuration of glycosphingolipid receptors for agonists, bacterial toxins and enveloped viruses in plasma membrane rafts appears to be an important factor governing ligand binding and infectivity but the details are as yet unresolved. I have used X-ray diffraction methods to examine how cholesterol affects the distribution of glycosphingolipid in aqueous dispersions of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and egg-sphingomyelin containing different proportions of glucosylceramide from human extracts. Three coexisting liquid-ordered bilayer structures are observed at 37°C in mixtures containing up to 20mol% glycosphingolipid. All the cholesterol was sequestered in one bilayer with the minimum amount of sphingomyelin (33mol%) to prevent formation of cholesterol crystals. The other two bilayers consisted of sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide. Asymmetric molecular species of glucosylceramide with N-acyl chains longer than 20 carbons form an equimolar complex with sphingomyelin in which the glycosidic residues are arranged in hexagonal array. Symmetric molecular species mix with sphingomyelin in proportions less than equimolar to form quasicrystalline bilayers. When the glycosphingolipid exceeds equimolar proportions with sphingomyelin cholesterol is incorporated into the structure and formation of a gel phase of glucosylceramide is prevented. The demonstration of particular structural features of ceramide molecular species combined with the diversity of sugar residues of glycosphingolipid classes paves the way for a rational approach to understanding the functional specificity of lipid rafts and how they are coupled across cell membranes.

  6. Lipid Rafts Disruption Increases Ochratoxin A Cytotoxicity to Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Qi, Xiaozhe; Zheng, Juanjuan; Luo, Yunbo; Zhao, Changhui; Hao, Junran; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2016-02-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains in plasma membrane and can mediate cytotoxicity. In this study, the role of lipid rafts in ochratoxin A-induced toxicity was investigated using Hepatoblastoma Cell Line HepG-2 cells. Disruption of cholesterol-containing lipid rafts enhanced Ochratoxin A (OTA) toxicity, as shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, increased reactive oxygen species level and reduction of superoxide dismutase activity in a time-dependent manner. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomics of the cell membranes showed that nearly 85.5% proteins were downregulated by OTA, indicating that OTA inhibited the membrane protein synthesis. Most of altered proteins were involved in Gene Ontology "transport", "cell adhesion" and "vesicle-mediated transport". In conclusion, lipid rafts play a key role in OTA-induced cytotoxicity. This study provides insight into how OTA toxicity is regulated by the plasma membrane, especially the lipid rafts.

  7. Lipid rafts in immune signalling: current progress and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Pallavi; Yadav, Vikas; Saini, Neeru

    2016-09-01

    Lipid rafts are dynamic assemblies of proteins and lipids that harbour many receptors and regulatory molecules and so act as a platform for signal transduction. They float freely within the liquid-disordered bilayer of cellular membranes and can cluster to form larger ordered domains. Alterations in lipid rafts are commonly found to be associated with the pathogenesis of several human diseases and recent reports have shown that the raft domains can also be perturbed by targeting raft proteins through microRNAs. Over the last few years, the importance of lipid rafts in modulating both innate and acquired immune responses has been elucidated. Various receptors present on immune cells like B cells, T cells, basophils and mast cells associate with lipid rafts on ligand binding and initiate signalling cascades leading to inflammation. Furthermore, disrupting lipid raft integrity alters lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion, IgE signalling, and B-cell and T-cell activation. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent progress in understanding the role of lipid rafts in the modulation of immune signalling and its related therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders.

  8. Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

    2014-08-21

    Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

  9. Localization and signaling of GPCRs in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Villar, Van Anthony M; Cuevas, Santiago; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of how biological membranes are organized and how they function has evolved. Instead of just serving as a medium in which certain proteins are found, portions of the lipid bilayer have been demonstrated to form specialized platforms that foster the assembly of signaling complexes by providing a microenvironment that is conducive for effective protein-protein interactions. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and relevant signaling molecules, including the heterotrimeric G proteins, key enzymes such as kinases and phosphatases, trafficking proteins, and secondary messengers, preferentially partition to these highly organized cell membrane microdomains, called lipid rafts. As such, lipid rafts are crucial for the trafficking and signaling of GPCRs. The study of GPCR biology in the context of lipid rafts involves the localization of the GPCR of interest in lipid rafts, at the basal state and upon receptor agonism, and the evaluation of the biological functions of the GPCR in appropriate cell lines. The lack of standardized methodology to study lipid rafts, in general, and of the workings of GPCRs in lipid rafts, in particular, and the inherent drawbacks of current methods have hampered the complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newer methodologies that allow the study of GPCRs in their native form are needed. The use of complementary approaches that produce mutually supportive results appear to be the best way for drawing conclusions with regards to the distribution and activity of GPCRs in lipid rafts. PMID:26928536

  10. Localization and signaling of GPCRs in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Villar, Van Anthony M; Cuevas, Santiago; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of how biological membranes are organized and how they function has evolved. Instead of just serving as a medium in which certain proteins are found, portions of the lipid bilayer have been demonstrated to form specialized platforms that foster the assembly of signaling complexes by providing a microenvironment that is conducive for effective protein-protein interactions. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and relevant signaling molecules, including the heterotrimeric G proteins, key enzymes such as kinases and phosphatases, trafficking proteins, and secondary messengers, preferentially partition to these highly organized cell membrane microdomains, called lipid rafts. As such, lipid rafts are crucial for the trafficking and signaling of GPCRs. The study of GPCR biology in the context of lipid rafts involves the localization of the GPCR of interest in lipid rafts, at the basal state and upon receptor agonism, and the evaluation of the biological functions of the GPCR in appropriate cell lines. The lack of standardized methodology to study lipid rafts, in general, and of the workings of GPCRs in lipid rafts, in particular, and the inherent drawbacks of current methods have hampered the complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newer methodologies that allow the study of GPCRs in their native form are needed. The use of complementary approaches that produce mutually supportive results appear to be the best way for drawing conclusions with regards to the distribution and activity of GPCRs in lipid rafts.

  11. Lipid raft involvement in yeast cell growth and death.

    PubMed

    Mollinedo, Faustino

    2012-01-01

    The notion that cellular membranes contain distinct microdomains, acting as scaffolds for signal transduction processes, has gained considerable momentum. In particular, a class of such domains that is rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, termed as lipid rafts, is thought to compartmentalize the plasma membrane, and to have important roles in survival and cell death signaling in mammalian cells. Likewise, yeast lipid rafts are membrane domains enriched in sphingolipids and ergosterol, the yeast counterpart of mammalian cholesterol. Sterol-rich membrane domains have been identified in several fungal species, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as well as the pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Yeast rafts have been mainly involved in membrane trafficking, but increasing evidence implicates rafts in a wide range of additional cellular processes. Yeast lipid rafts house biologically important proteins involved in the proper function of yeast, such as proteins that control Na(+), K(+), and pH homeostasis, which influence many cellular processes, including cell growth and death. Membrane raft constituents affect drug susceptibility, and drugs interacting with sterols alter raft composition and membrane integrity, leading to yeast cell death. Because of the genetic tractability of yeast, analysis of yeast rafts could be an excellent model to approach unanswered questions of mammalian raft biology, and to understand the role of lipid rafts in the regulation of cell death and survival in human cells. A better insight in raft biology might lead to envisage new raft-mediated approaches to the treatment of human diseases where regulation of cell death and survival is critical, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Lipid raft involvement in yeast cell growth and death

    PubMed Central

    Mollinedo, Faustino

    2012-01-01

    The notion that cellular membranes contain distinct microdomains, acting as scaffolds for signal transduction processes, has gained considerable momentum. In particular, a class of such domains that is rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, termed as lipid rafts, is thought to compartmentalize the plasma membrane, and to have important roles in survival and cell death signaling in mammalian cells. Likewise, yeast lipid rafts are membrane domains enriched in sphingolipids and ergosterol, the yeast counterpart of mammalian cholesterol. Sterol-rich membrane domains have been identified in several fungal species, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as well as the pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Yeast rafts have been mainly involved in membrane trafficking, but increasing evidence implicates rafts in a wide range of additional cellular processes. Yeast lipid rafts house biologically important proteins involved in the proper function of yeast, such as proteins that control Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, which influence many cellular processes, including cell growth and death. Membrane raft constituents affect drug susceptibility, and drugs interacting with sterols alter raft composition and membrane integrity, leading to yeast cell death. Because of the genetic tractability of yeast, analysis of yeast rafts could be an excellent model to approach unanswered questions of mammalian raft biology, and to understand the role of lipid rafts in the regulation of cell death and survival in human cells. A better insight in raft biology might lead to envisage new raft-mediated approaches to the treatment of human diseases where regulation of cell death and survival is critical, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23087902

  13. Lipid rafts as major platforms for signaling regulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mollinedo, Faustino; Gajate, Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling does not apparently occur randomly over the cell surface, but it seems to be integrated very often into cholesterol-rich membrane domains, termed lipid rafts. Membrane lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains that are enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and gangliosides, and behave as major modulators of membrane geometry, lateral movement of molecules, traffic and signal transduction. Because the lipid and protein composition of membrane rafts differs from that of the surrounding membrane, they provide an additional level of compartmentalization, serving as sorting platforms and hubs for signal transduction proteins. A wide number of signal transduction processes related to cell adhesion, migration, as well as to cell survival and proliferation, which play major roles in cancer development and progression, are dependent on lipid rafts. Despite lipid rafts harbor mainly critical survival signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, recent evidence suggests that these membrane domains can also house death receptor-mediated apoptotic signaling. Recruitment of this death receptor signaling pathway in membrane rafts can be pharmacologically modulated, thus opening up the possibility to regulate cell demise with a therapeutic use. The synthetic ether phospholipid edelfosine shows a high affinity for cholesterol and accumulates in lipid rafts in a number of malignant hematological cells, leading to an efficient in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity by inducing translocation of death receptors and downstream signaling molecules to these membrane domains. Additional antitumor drugs have also been shown to act, at least in part, by recruiting death receptors in lipid rafts. The partition of death receptors together with downstream apoptotic signaling molecules in membrane rafts has led us to postulate the concept of a special liquid-ordered membrane platform coined as

  14. Modeling Signal Transduction and Lipid Rafts in Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Ashok

    2011-03-01

    Experimental evidence increasingly suggests that lipid rafts are nanometer sized cholesterol dependent dynamic assemblies enriched in sphingolipids and associated proteins. Lipid rafts are dynamic structures that break-up and reform on a relatively short time-scale, and are believed to facilitate the interactions of raft-associated proteins. The role of these rafts in signaling has been controversial, partly due to controversies regarding the existence and nature of the rafts themselves. Experimental evidence has indicated that in several cell types, especially T cells, rafts do influence signal transduction and T cell activation. Given the emerging consensus on the biophysical character of lipid rafts, the question can be asked as to what roles they possibly play in signal transduction. Here we carry out simulations of minimal models of the signal transduction network that regulates Src-family kinase dynamics in T cells and other cell types. By separately treating raft-based biochemical interactions, we find that rafts can indeed putatively play an important role in signal transduction, and in particular may affect the sensitivity of signal transduction. This illuminates possible functional consequences of membrane heterogeneities on signal transduction and points towards mechanisms for spatial control of signaling by cells.

  15. Partitioning, diffusion, and ligand binding of raft lipid analogs in model and cellular plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Levental, Ilya; Grzybek, Michal; Schwarzmann, Günter; Mueller, Veronika; Honigmann, Alf; Belov, Vladimir N; Eggeling, Christian; Coskun, Unal; Simons, Kai; Schwille, Petra

    2012-07-01

    cellular plasma membranes consistently reveals a constant level of confined diffusion for raft lipid analogs that vary greatly in their partitioning behavior, suggesting different physicochemical bases for these phenomena.

  16. Dynamic Reorganization and Correlation among Lipid Raft Components.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Mónica M; Hovis, Jennifer S; Moss, Frank R; Boxer, Steven G

    2016-08-10

    Lipid rafts are widely believed to be an essential organizational motif in cell membranes. However, direct evidence for interactions among lipid and/or protein components believed to be associated with rafts is quite limited owing, in part, to the small size and intrinsically dynamic interactions that lead to raft formation. Here, we exploit the single negative charge on the monosialoganglioside GM1, commonly associated with rafts, to create a gradient of GM1 in response to an electric field applied parallel to a patterned supported lipid bilayer. The composition of this gradient is visualized by imaging mass spectrometry using a NanoSIMS. Using this analytical method, added cholesterol and sphingomyelin, both neutral and not themselves displaced by the electric field, are observed to reorganize with GM1. This dynamic reorganization provides direct evidence for an attractive interaction among these raft components into some sort of cluster. At steady state we obtain an estimate for the composition of this cluster.

  17. DJ-1 associates with lipid rafts by palmitoylation and regulates lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Suh, Young Ho; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang Myun

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disease. Several genes have been associated with familial type PD, providing tremendous insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Gathering evidence supports the view that these gene products may operate through common molecular pathways. Recent reports suggest that many PD-associated gene products, such as α-synuclein, LRRK2, parkin and PINK1, associate with lipid rafts and lipid rafts may be associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we observed that DJ-1 protein also associated with lipid rafts. Palmitoylation of three cysteine residues (C46/53/106) and C-terminal region of DJ-1 were required for this association. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the localization of DJ-1 into lipid rafts in astrocytes. The LPS-TLR4 signaling was more augmented in DJ-1 knock-out astrocytes by the impairment of TLR4 endocytosis. Furthermore, lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis including the endocytosis of CD14, which play a major role in regulating TLR4 endocytosis was also impaired, but clathrin-dependent endocytosis was not. This study provides a novel function of DJ-1 in lipid rafts, which may contribute the pathogenesis of PD. Moreover, it also provides the possibility that many PD-related proteins may operate through common molecular pathways in lipid rafts.

  18. Lipid Raft Alterations in Aged-Associated Neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Marin, Raquel; Fabelo, Noemí; Fernández-Echevarría, Cecilia; Canerina-Amaro, Ana; Rodríguez-Barreto, Deiene; Quinto-Alemany, David; Mesa-Herrera, Fátima; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains particularly enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids. These microstructures play a key role in a plethora of mechanisms involved in cell signaling, synapsis, cell-cell communication and cell survival. In the last years, increasing evidence indicate that lipid rafts may be altered in age-related neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease even at asymptomatic stages. In particular, important changes in raft lipid composition are observed with the progression of these diseases, then inducing alterations in their physicochemical properties. Furthermore, these phenomena contribute to neuropathological events related to amyloidogenesis, aberrant protein aggregation and toxic cell signalling. In this review, we discuss some relevant data on the age-related molecular changes occurring in lipid rafts since the first stages of these neurodegenerative diseases. Further characterization of specific parameters associated with alterations of these microdomains may provide potential tools of diagnosis and prediction of these neuropathologies.

  19. Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozini, Laura; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Armstrong, Clare L.; Yamani, Zahra; Kučerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2014-11-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules, we observe raftlike structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raftlike structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  20. Lipid rafts mediate chemotropic guidance of nerve growth cones.

    PubMed

    Guirland, Carmine; Suzuki, Shingo; Kojima, Masami; Lu, Bai; Zheng, James Q

    2004-04-01

    Axon guidance requires signal transduction of extracellular cues through the plasma membrane for directional motility. Here we present evidence that cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) mediate specific guidance responses of nerve growth cones. Disruption of lipid rafts by various approaches targeting cholesterol or gangliosides selectively abolished growth cone attraction and repulsion in BDNF and netrin-1 gradients, respectively, without affecting glutamate-induced attraction. Interestingly, local raft disruption on one side of the growth cone in bath BDNF or netrin-1 produced opposite turning responses to that induced by the gradients. Raft manipulation also blocked Semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone repulsion, inhibition, and collapse. Finally, guidance responses appeared to involve raft-dependent activation of p42/p44 MAPK and ligand-induced receptor recruitment to lipid rafts. Together with the observation of asymmetric receptor-raft associations at the growth cone in guidance gradients, our findings indicate that localized signaling through membrane rafts plays a role in mediating guidance actions of extracellular cues on developing axons. PMID:15066264

  1. The molecular face of lipid rafts in model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Risselada, H. Jelger; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2008-01-01

    Cell membranes contain a large number of different lipid species. Such a multicomponent mixture exhibits a complex phase behavior with regions of structural and compositional heterogeneity. Especially domains formed in ternary mixtures, composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids together with cholesterol, have received a lot of attention as they may resemble raft formation in real cells. Here we apply a simulation model to assess the molecular nature of these domains at the nanoscale, information that has thus far eluded experimental determination. We are able to show the spontaneous separation of a saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC)/unsaturated PC/cholesterol mixture into a liquid-ordered and a liquid-disordered phase with structural and dynamic properties closely matching experimental data. The near-atomic resolution of the simulations reveals remarkable features of both domains and the boundary domain interface. Furthermore, we predict the existence of a small surface tension between the monolayer leaflets that drives registration of the domains. At the level of molecular detail, raft-like lipid mixtures show a surprising face with possible implications for many cell membrane processes. PMID:18987307

  2. The molecular face of lipid rafts in model membranes.

    PubMed

    Risselada, H Jelger; Marrink, Siewert J

    2008-11-11

    Cell membranes contain a large number of different lipid species. Such a multicomponent mixture exhibits a complex phase behavior with regions of structural and compositional heterogeneity. Especially domains formed in ternary mixtures, composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids together with cholesterol, have received a lot of attention as they may resemble raft formation in real cells. Here we apply a simulation model to assess the molecular nature of these domains at the nanoscale, information that has thus far eluded experimental determination. We are able to show the spontaneous separation of a saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC)/unsaturated PC/cholesterol mixture into a liquid-ordered and a liquid-disordered phase with structural and dynamic properties closely matching experimental data. The near-atomic resolution of the simulations reveals remarkable features of both domains and the boundary domain interface. Furthermore, we predict the existence of a small surface tension between the monolayer leaflets that drives registration of the domains. At the level of molecular detail, raft-like lipid mixtures show a surprising face with possible implications for many cell membrane processes. PMID:18987307

  3. Proteomic Profiling of Detergent Resistant Membranes (Lipid Rafts) of Prostasomes.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Louise; Ronquist, Karl K Göran; Ek, Bo; Ronquist, Gunnar; Larsson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Prostasomes are exosomes derived from prostate epithelial cells through exocytosis by multivesicular bodies. Prostasomes have a bilayered membrane and readily interact with sperm. The membrane lipid composition is unusual with a high contribution of sphingomyelin at the expense of phosphatidylcholine and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are dominant. Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered domains that are more tightly packed than the surrounding nonraft phase of the bilayer. Lipid rafts are proposed to be highly dynamic, submicroscopic assemblies that float freely within the liquid disordered membrane bilayer and some proteins preferentially partition into the ordered raft domains. We asked the question whether lipid rafts do exist in prostasomes and, if so, which proteins might be associated with them. Prostasomes of density range 1.13-1.19g/ml were subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation in sucrose fabricated by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% Triton X-100 with capacity for banding at 1.10 g/ml, i.e. the classical density of lipid rafts. Prepared prostasomal lipid rafts (by gradient ultracentrifugation) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The clearly visible band on top of 1.10g/ml sucrose in the Triton X-100 containing gradient was subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem MS and more than 370 lipid raft associated proteins were identified. Several of them were involved in intraluminal vesicle formation, e.g. tetraspanins, ESCRTs, and Ras-related proteins. This is the first comprehensive liquid chromatography-tandem MS profiling of proteins in lipid rafts derived from exosomes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002163.

  4. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  5. Lipid rafts and their possible involvements in neuroimmunological disorders.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kunihiko; Ueda, Akihiro; Mutoh, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are presumed to be an autoimmune disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Although lipids are most abundant components in the nervous system, it has been believed that cellular and/or humoral immunity to various myelin proteins causes these neuroinflammatory diseases. Recent research advances enable us to study lipids in the membranes and some key molecules involved in various neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and prion disease, are localized in lipid rafts. In MS and NMO, the key molecules for the pathogenesis or the target molecules for the treatments of MS and NMO are also localized in lipid rafts. Here in this article, we highlight on the possible involvement of lipid rafts in the pathogenesis and treatment of MS and NMO and introduce our recent observation of aquaporin 4 regarding NMO.

  6. Lipid raft-dependent plasma membrane repair interferes with the activation of B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Heather; Castro-Gomes, Thiago; Corrotte, Matthias; Tam, Christina; Maugel, Timothy K; Andrews, Norma W; Song, Wenxia

    2015-12-21

    Cells rapidly repair plasma membrane (PM) damage by a process requiring Ca(2+)-dependent lysosome exocytosis. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) released from lysosomes induces endocytosis of injured membrane through caveolae, membrane invaginations from lipid rafts. How B lymphocytes, lacking any known form of caveolin, repair membrane injury is unknown. Here we show that B lymphocytes repair PM wounds in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Wounding induces lysosome exocytosis and endocytosis of dextran and the raft-binding cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Resealing is reduced by ASM inhibitors and ASM deficiency and enhanced or restored by extracellular exposure to sphingomyelinase. B cell activation via B cell receptors (BCRs), a process requiring lipid rafts, interferes with PM repair. Conversely, wounding inhibits BCR signaling and internalization by disrupting BCR-lipid raft coclustering and by inducing the endocytosis of raft-bound CTB separately from BCR into tubular invaginations. Thus, PM repair and B cell activation interfere with one another because of competition for lipid rafts, revealing how frequent membrane injury and repair can impair B lymphocyte-mediated immune responses.

  7. Antidepressants Accumulate in Lipid Rafts Independent of Monoamine Transporters to Modulate Redistribution of the G Protein, Gαs.

    PubMed

    Erb, Samuel J; Schappi, Jeffrey M; Rasenick, Mark M

    2016-09-16

    Depression is a significant public health problem for which currently available medications, if effective, require weeks to months of treatment before patients respond. Previous studies have shown that the G protein responsible for increasing cAMP (Gαs) is increasingly localized to lipid rafts in depressed subjects and that chronic antidepressant treatment translocates Gαs from lipid rafts. Translocation of Gαs, which shows delayed onset after chronic antidepressant treatment of rats or of C6 glioma cells, tracks with the delayed onset of therapeutic action of antidepressants. Because antidepressants appear to specifically modify Gαs localized to lipid rafts, we sought to determine whether structurally diverse antidepressants accumulate in lipid rafts. Sustained treatment of C6 glioma cells, which lack 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters, showed marked concentration of several antidepressants in raft fractions, as revealed by increased absorbance and by mass fingerprint. Closely related molecules without antidepressant activity did not concentrate in raft fractions. Thus, at least two classes of antidepressants accumulate in lipid rafts and effect translocation of Gαs to the non-raft membrane fraction, where it activates the cAMP-signaling cascade. Analysis of the structural determinants of raft localization may both help to explain the hysteresis of antidepressant action and lead to design and development of novel substrates for depression therapeutics.

  8. Association between tetrodotoxin resistant channels and lipid rafts regulates sensory neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Pristerà, Alessandro; Baker, Mark D; Okuse, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a key role in the initiation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. Na(V)1.8 is a tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistant VGSC expressed in nociceptors, peripheral small-diameter neurons able to detect noxious stimuli. Na(V)1.8 underlies the vast majority of sodium currents during action potentials. Many studies have highlighted a key role for Na(V)1.8 in inflammatory and chronic pain models. Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane highly enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts tune the spatial and temporal organisation of proteins and lipids on the plasma membrane. They are thought to act as platforms on the membrane where proteins and lipids can be trafficked, compartmentalised and functionally clustered. In the present study we investigated Na(V)1.8 sub-cellular localisation and explored the idea that it is associated with lipid rafts in nociceptors. We found that Na(V)1.8 is distributed in clusters along the axons of DRG neurons in vitro and ex vivo. We also demonstrated, by biochemical and imaging studies, that Na(V)1.8 is associated with lipid rafts along the sciatic nerve ex vivo and in DRG neurons in vitro. Moreover, treatments with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) led to the dissociation between rafts and Na(V)1.8. By calcium imaging we demonstrated that the lack of association between rafts and Na(V)1.8 correlated with impaired neuronal excitability, highlighted by a reduction in the number of neurons able to conduct mechanically- and chemically-evoked depolarisations. These findings reveal the sub-cellular localisation of Na(V)1.8 in nociceptors and highlight the importance of the association between Na(V)1.8 and lipid rafts in the control of nociceptor excitability. PMID:22870192

  9. Involvement of glycosphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts in inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are membrane components consisting of hydrophobic ceramide and hydrophilic sugar moieties. GSLs cluster with cholesterol in cell membranes to form GSL-enriched lipid rafts. Biochemical analyses have demonstrated that GSL-enriched lipid rafts contain several kinds of transducer molecules, including Src family kinases. Among the GSLs, lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17) can bind to various microorganisms, is highly expressed on the plasma membranes of human phagocytes, and forms lipid rafts containing the Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn. LacCer-enriched lipid rafts mediate immunological and inflammatory reactions, including superoxide generation, chemotaxis, and non-opsonic phagocytosis. Therefore, LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains are thought to function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed on microorganisms. LacCer also serves as a signal transduction molecule for functions mediated by CD11b/CD18-integrin (αM/β2-integrin, CR3, Mac-1), as well as being associated with several key cellular processes. LacCer recruits PCKα/ε and phospholipase A2 to stimulate PECAM-1 expression in human monocytes and their adhesion to endothelial cells, as well as regulating β1-integrin clustering and endocytosis on cell surfaces. This review describes the organizational and inflammation-related functions of LacCer-enriched lipid rafts. PMID:25553454

  10. Involvement of glycosphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts in inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are membrane components consisting of hydrophobic ceramide and hydrophilic sugar moieties. GSLs cluster with cholesterol in cell membranes to form GSL-enriched lipid rafts. Biochemical analyses have demonstrated that GSL-enriched lipid rafts contain several kinds of transducer molecules, including Src family kinases. Among the GSLs, lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17) can bind to various microorganisms, is highly expressed on the plasma membranes of human phagocytes, and forms lipid rafts containing the Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn. LacCer-enriched lipid rafts mediate immunological and inflammatory reactions, including superoxide generation, chemotaxis, and non-opsonic phagocytosis. Therefore, LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains are thought to function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed on microorganisms. LacCer also serves as a signal transduction molecule for functions mediated by CD11b/CD18-integrin (αM/β2-integrin, CR3, Mac-1), as well as being associated with several key cellular processes. LacCer recruits PCKα/ε and phospholipase A2 to stimulate PECAM-1 expression in human monocytes and their adhesion to endothelial cells, as well as regulating β1-integrin clustering and endocytosis on cell surfaces. This review describes the organizational and inflammation-related functions of LacCer-enriched lipid rafts.

  11. Lipid composition of membrane rafts, isolated with and without detergent, from the spleen of a mouse model of Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Hattersley, Kathryn J; Hein, Leanne K; Fuller, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Biological membranes are composed of functionally relevant liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains that coexist. Within the liquid-ordered domains are low-density microdomains known as rafts with a unique lipid composition that is crucial for their structure and function. Lipid raft composition is altered in sphingolipid storage disorders, and here we determined the lipid composition using a detergent and detergent-free method in spleen tissue, the primary site of pathology, in a mouse model of the sphingolipid storage disorder, Gaucher disease. The accumulating lipid, glucosylceramide, was 30- and 50-fold elevated in the rafts with the detergent and detergent-free method, respectively. Secondary accumulation of di- and trihexosylceramide resided primarily in the rafts with both methods. The phospholipids distributed differently with more than half residing in the rafts with the detergent-free method and less than 10% with the detergent method, with the exception of the fully saturated species that were primarily in the rafts. Individual isoforms of sphingomyelin correlated with detergent-free extraction and more than half resided in the raft fractions. However, this correlation was not seen with the detergent extraction method as sphingomyelin species were spread across both the raft and non-raft domains. Therefore caution must be exercised when interpreting phospholipid distribution in raft domains as it differs considerably depending on the method of isolation. Importantly, both methods revealed the same lipid alterations in the raft domains in the spleen of the Gaucher disease mouse model highlighting that either method is appropriate to determine membrane lipid changes in the diseased state.

  12. Activation of integrin α5 mediated by flow requires its translocation to membrane lipid rafts in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Fu, Yi; Gu, Mingxia; Zhang, Lu; Li, Dan; Li, Hongliang; Chien, Shu; Shyy, John Y-J; Zhu, Yi

    2016-01-19

    Local flow patterns determine the uneven distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Membrane lipid rafts and integrins are crucial for shear stress-regulated endothelial function. In this study, we investigate the role of lipid rafts and integrin α5 in regulating the inflammatory response in endothelial cells (ECs) under atheroprone versus atheroprotective flow. Lipid raft proteins were isolated from ECs exposed to oscillatory shear stress (OS) or pulsatile shear stress, and then analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Among 396 proteins redistributed in lipid rafts, integrin α5 was the most significantly elevated in lipid rafts under OS. In addition, OS increased the level of activated integrin α5 in lipid rafts through the regulation of membrane cholesterol and fluidity. Disruption of F-actin-based cytoskeleton and knockdown of caveolin-1 prevented the OS-induced integrin α5 translocation and activation. In vivo, integrin α5 activation and EC dysfunction were observed in the atheroprone areas of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, and knockdown of integrin α5 markedly attenuated EC dysfunction in partially ligated carotid arteries. Consistent with these findings, mice with haploinsufficency of integrin α5 exhibited a reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in the regions under atheroprone flow. The present study has revealed an integrin- and membrane lipid raft-dependent mechanotransduction mechanism by which atheroprone flow causes endothelial dysfunction.

  13. Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors From Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-Lipid Raft Microdomains.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San

    2016-04-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of ethanol has important health benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Overindulgence can cause many diseases, particularly alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms by which ethanol causes both beneficial and harmful effects on human health are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ethanol enhances TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity with a maximum of 0.5-1% (v/v) in Mv1Lu cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene containing Smad2-dependent elements. In Mv1Lu cells, 0.5% ethanol increases the level of P-Smad2, a canonical TGF-β signaling sensor, by ∼ 2-3-fold. Ethanol (0.5%) increases cell-surface expression of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II) by ∼ 2-3-fold from its intracellular pool, as determined by I(125) -TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence staining analyses reveal that ethanol (0.5% and 1%) also displaces cell-surface TβR-I and TβR-II from lipid rafts/caveolae and facilitates translocation of these receptors to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. These results suggest that ethanol enhances canonical TGF-β signaling by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain localization of the TGF-β receptors. Since TGF-β plays a protective role in ASCVD but can also cause ALD, the TGF-β enhancer activity of ethanol at low and high doses appears to be responsible for both beneficial and harmful effects. Ethanol also disrupts the location of lipid raft/caveolae of other membrane proteins (e.g., neurotransmitter, growth factor/cytokine, and G protein-coupled receptors) which utilize lipid rafts/caveolae as signaling platforms. Displacement of these membrane proteins induced by ethanol may result in a variety of pathologies in nerve, heart and other tissues.

  14. Down-regulation of lipid raft-associated onco-proteins via cholesterol-dependent lipid raft internalization in docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Un-Jung; Koo, Kyung Hee; Sung, Jee Young; Shim, Jaegal; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function.

  15. Aspirin inhibits formation of cholesterol rafts in fluid lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Toppozini, Laura; Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Harroun, Thad A; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-03-01

    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have a high affinity for phospholipid membranes, altering their structure and biophysical properties. Aspirin has been shown to partition into the lipid head groups, thereby increasing membrane fluidity. Cholesterol is another well known mediator of membrane fluidity, in turn increasing membrane stiffness. As well, cholesterol is believed to distribute unevenly within lipid membranes leading to the formation of lipid rafts or plaques. In many studies, aspirin has increased positive outcomes for patients with high cholesterol. We are interested if these effects may be, at least partially, the result of a non-specific interaction between aspirin and cholesterol in lipid membranes. We have studied the effect of aspirin on the organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes containing cholesterol. Through Langmuir-Blodgett experiments we show that aspirin increases the area per lipid and decreases compressibility at 32.5 mol% cholesterol, leading to a significant increase of fluidity of the membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry provides evidence for the formation of meta-stable structures in the presence of aspirin. The molecular organization of lipids, cholesterol and aspirin was studied using neutron diffraction. While the formation of rafts has been reported in binary DPPC/cholesterol membranes, aspirin was found to locally disrupt membrane organization and lead to the frustration of raft formation. Our results suggest that aspirin is able to directly oppose the formation of cholesterol structures through non-specific interactions with lipid membranes.

  16. Quantitative Profiling of Brain Lipid Raft Proteome in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Castillo, Catherine; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome, a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, arises from transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP can regulate the expression of approximately 4% of brain transcripts through its role in regulation of mRNA transport, stability and translation, thus providing a molecular rationale for its potential pleiotropic effects on neuronal and brain circuitry function. Several intracellular signaling pathways are dysregulated in the absence of FMRP suggesting that cellular deficits may be broad and could result in homeostatic changes. Lipid rafts are specialized regions of the plasma membrane, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, involved in regulation of intracellular signaling. Among transcripts targeted by FMRP, a subset encodes proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis and homeostasis, dysregulation of which could affect the integrity and function of lipid rafts. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach we analyzed the lipid raft proteome of Fmr1 knockout mice, an animal model of Fragile X syndrome, and identified candidate proteins that are differentially represented in Fmr1 knockout mice lipid rafts. Furthermore, network analysis of these candidate proteins reveals connectivity between them and predicts functional connectivity with genes encoding components of myelin sheath, axonal processes and growth cones. Our findings provide insight to aid identification of molecular and cellular dysfunctions arising from Fmr1 silencing and for uncovering shared pathologies between Fragile X syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25849048

  17. Caveolin interaction governs Kv1.3 lipid raft targeting.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Capera, Jesusa; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Camps, Marta; Comes, Núria; Tamkun, Michael M; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-03-02

    The spatial localization of ion channels at the cell surface is crucial for their functional role. Many channels localize in lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae, specific lipid rafts which concentrate caveolins, harbor signaling molecules and their targets becoming signaling platforms crucial in cell physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in such spatial localization are under debate. Kv1.3 localizes in lipid rafts and participates in the immunological response. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms of Kv1.3 surface targeting, which govern leukocyte physiology. Kv1 channels share a putative caveolin-binding domain located at the intracellular N-terminal of the channel. This motif, lying close to the S1 transmembrane segment, is situated near the T1 tetramerization domain and the determinants involved in the Kvβ subunit association. The highly hydrophobic domain (FQRQVWLLF) interacts with caveolin 1 targeting Kv1.3 to caveolar rafts. However, subtle variations of this cluster, putative ancillary associations and different structural conformations can impair the caveolin recognition, thereby altering channel's spatial localization. Our results identify a caveolin-binding domain in Kv1 channels and highlight the mechanisms that govern the regulation of channel surface localization during cellular processes.

  18. Lipid rafts both in cellular membrane and viral envelope are critical for PRRSV efficient infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Qiong; Tang, Jun; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2015-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represents a significantly economical challenge to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, we investigated the importance of cellular and viral lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. First, we demonstrated that PRRSV glycoproteins, Gp3 and Gp4, were associated with lipid rafts during viral entry, and disruption of cellular lipid rafts inhibited PRRSV entry. We also showed the raft-location of CD163, which might contribute to the glycoproteins-raft association. Subsequently, raft disruption caused a significant reduction of viral RNA production. Moreover, Nsp9 was shown to be distributed in rafts, suggesting that rafts probably serve as a platform for PRRSV replication. Finally, we confirmed that disassembly of rafts on the virus envelope may affect the integrity of PRRSV particles and cause the leakage of viral proteins, which impaired PRRSV infectivity. These findings might provide insights on our understanding of the mechanism of PRRSV infection.

  19. Lipid rafts and raft-mediated supramolecular entities in the regulation of CD95 death receptor apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Gajate, Consuelo; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2015-05-01

    Membrane lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and gangliosides that have the property to segregate and concentrate proteins. Lipid and protein composition of lipid rafts differs from that of the surrounding membrane, thus providing sorting platforms and hubs for signal transduction molecules, including CD95 death receptor-mediated signaling. CD95 can be recruited to rafts in a reversible way through S-palmitoylation following activation of cells with its physiological cognate ligand as well as with a wide variety of inducers, including several antitumor drugs through ligand-independent intracellular mechanisms. CD95 translocation to rafts can be modulated pharmacologically, thus becoming a target for the treatment of apoptosis-defective diseases, such as cancer. CD95-mediated signaling largely depends on protein-protein interactions, and the recruitment and concentration of CD95 and distinct downstream apoptotic molecules in membrane raft domains, forming raft-based supramolecular entities that act as hubs for apoptotic signaling molecules, favors the generation and amplification of apoptotic signals. Efficient CD95-mediated apoptosis involves CD95 and raft internalization, as well as the involvement of different subcellular organelles. In this review, we briefly summarize and discuss the involvement of lipid rafts in the regulation of CD95-mediated apoptosis that may provide a new avenue for cancer therapy.

  20. Evidence that the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase complex associates with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells: a proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Terence P.; Pitt, Andrew R.; Brown, Gaie; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Sugrue, Richard J. . E-mail: r.sugrue@vir.gla.ac.uk

    2004-12-05

    The interaction between the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) polymerase complex and lipid rafts was examined in HEp2 cells. Lipid-raft membranes were prepared from virus-infected cells and their protein content was analysed by Western blotting and mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed the presence of the N, P, L, M2-1 and M proteins. However, these proteins appeared to differ from one another in their association with these structures, with the M2-1 protein showing a greater partitioning into raft membranes compared to that of the N, P or M proteins. Determination of the polymerase activity profile of the gradient fractions revealed that 95% of the detectable viral enzyme activity was associated with lipid-raft membranes. Furthermore, analysis of virus-infected cells by confocal microscopy suggested an association between these proteins and the raft-lipid, GM1. Together, these results provide evidence that the RSV polymerase complex is able to associate with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells.

  1. Effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on lipid raft model at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Uto, Takuhiro; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an interfacial behavior of the aglycon of glycyrrhizin (GC), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), with a lipid raft model consisting of equimolar ternary mixtures of N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (CHOL), Langmuir monolayer techniques were systematically conducted. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms showed that the adsorbed GA at the air/water interface was desorbed into the bulk upon compression of the lipid monolayer. In situ morphological analysis by Brewster angle microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the raft domains became smaller as the concentrations of GA in the subphase (CGA) increased, suggesting that GA promotes the formation of fluid networks related to various cellular processes via lipid rafts. In addition, ex situ morphological analysis by atomic force microscopy revealed that GA interacts with lipid raft by lying down at the surface. Interestingly, the distinctive striped regions were formed at CGA=5.0 μM. This phenomenon was observed to be induced by the interaction of CHOL with adsorbed GA and is involved in the membrane-disrupting activity of saponin and its aglycon. A quantitative comparison of GA with GC (Sakamoto et al., 2013) revealed that GA interacts more strongly with the raft model than GC in the monolayer state. Various biological activities of GA are known to be stronger than those of GC. This fact allows us to hypothesize that differences in the interactions of GA/GC with the model monolayer correlate to their degree of exertion for numerous activities.

  2. Generation of Stable Lipid Raft Microdomains in the Enterocyte Brush Border by Selective Endocytic Removal of Non-Raft Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, E. Michael; Hansen, Gert H.

    2013-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs), was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination. PMID:24124585

  3. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2013-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs), was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination.

  4. Lipid rafts direct macrophage motility in the tissue microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Previtera, Michelle L; Peterman, Kimberly; Shah, Smit; Luzuriaga, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Infiltrating leukocytes are exposed to a wide range of tissue elasticities. While we know the effects of substrate elasticity on acute inflammation via the study of neutrophil migration, we do not know its effects on leukocytes that direct chronic inflammatory events. Here, we studied morphology and motility of macrophages, the innate immune cells that orchestrate acute and chronic inflammation, on polyacrylamide hydrogels that mimicked a wide range of tissue elasticities. As expected, we found that macrophage spreading area increased as substrate elasticity increased. Unexpectedly, we found that morphology did not inversely correlate with motility. In fact, velocity of steady-state macrophages remained unaffected by substrate elasticity, while velocity of biologically stimulated macrophages was limited on stiff substrates. We also found that the lack of motility on stiff substrates was due to a lack of lipid rafts on the leading edge of the macrophages. This study implicates lipid rafts in the mechanosensory mechanism of innate immune cell infiltration. PMID:25269613

  5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 regulates cAMP signal within lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, Jin; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Takayuki; Egawa, Masato; Kawabe, Junichi; Umemura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-09-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are made of multiple subunits with diversified functions. The nAChR alpha 7-subunit has a property of high Ca2+ permeability and may have specific functions and localization within the plasma membrane as a signal transduction molecule. In PC-12 cells, fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed that nAChR alpha 7 existed in low-density, cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts where flotillin also exists. In contrast, nAChR alpha 5- and beta2-subunits were located in high-density fractions, out of the lipid rafts. Type 6 adenylyl cyclase (AC6), a calcium-inhibitable isoform, was also found in lipid rafts and was coimmunoprecipitated with nAChR alpha 7. Cholesterol depletion from plasma membranes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin redistributed nAChR alpha 7 and AC6 diffusely within plasma membranes. Nicotine stimulation reduced forskolin-stimulated AC activity by 35%, and this inhibition was negated by either treatment with alpha-bungarotoxin, a specific antagonist of nAChR alpha 7, or cholesterol depletion from plasma membranes. The effect of cholesterol depletion was negated by the addition of cholesterol. These data suggest that nAChR alpha 7 has a specific membrane localization relative to other nAChR subunits and that lipid rafts are necessary to localize nAChR alpha 7 with AC within plasma membranes. In addition, nAChR alpha 7 may regulate the AC activity via Ca2+ within lipid rafts.

  6. Complexity of Lipid Domains and Rafts in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Revealed by Combining Imaging and Microscopic and Macroscopic Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Borst, JanWillem; Fedorov, Alexander; Prieto, Manuel; Visser, Antonie J. W. G.

    2007-01-01

    The application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to study gel/fluid and raftlike lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) is demonstrated here. Different regions of the ternary dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol phase diagram were studied. The head-labeled phospholipid Rhodamine-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (Rhod-DOPE) was used as a fluorescent probe. Gel/fluid and liquid-ordered (lo)/liquid-disordered (ld) phase separation were clearly visualized upon two-photon excitation. Fluorescence intensity decays in different regions of a GUV were also obtained with the microscope in fixed laser-beam configuration. The ensemble behavior of the system was studied by obtaining fluorescence intensity decays of Rhod-DOPE in nongiant vesicle suspensions. The fingerprints for gel/fluid coexistence and for the presence of lo raftlike phase, based on fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy histograms and images, and on the fluorescence intensity decay parameters of Rhod-DOPE, are presented. The presence of three lipid phases in one single GUV is detected unequivocally. From the comparison of lifetime parameters, it can be concluded that the lo phase is formed in the binary dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol but not in the dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol mixture. The domains apparent in fluorescence intensity images have a more complex substructure revealed by analysis of the lifetime data. The potential applications of this combined imaging/microscopic/macroscopic methodology are discussed. PMID:17449668

  7. Functional role of lipid rafts in CD20 activity?

    PubMed

    Janas, Eva; Priest, Richard; Malhotra, Rajneesh

    2005-01-01

    CD20 is a B-lymphocyte-specific integral membrane protein, implicated in the regulation of transmembrane calcium conductance, cell-cycle progression and B-lymphocyte proliferation. CD20 is proposed to function as a SOCC (store-operated calcium channel). SOCCs are activated by receptor-stimulated calcium depletion of intracellular stores. Sustained calcium conductivity across the plasma membrane mediated by SOCC activity is required for long-term calcium-dependent processes, such as transcriptional control and gene expression. Cross-linking of CD20 by antibodies (e.g. Rituxan) has been reported to induce a rapid redistribution of CD20 into specialized microdomains at the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts. Recruitment of CD20 into lipid rafts and its homo-oligomerization are suggested to be crucial for CD20 activity and regulation. This review outlines recent biochemical studies characterizing the role of CD20 in calcium signalling in B-lymphocytes and evaluates an engagement of lipid rafts in the regulation of CD20-mediated calcium conductivity.

  8. Proteomics of MUC1-containing lipid rafts from plasma membranes and exosomes of human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Simon; Razawi, Hanieh; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2009-05-01

    Apically expressed human MUC1 is known to become endocytosed and either to re-enter the secretory pathway for recycling to the plasma membrane or to be exported by the cells via the formation of multi-vesicular bodies and the release of exosomes. By using recombinant fusion-tagged MUC1 as a bait protein we followed an anti-myc affinity-based approach for isolating subpopulations of lipid rafts from the plasma membranes and exosomes of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MUC1(+) lipid rafts were not only found to contain genuine raft proteins (flotillin-1, prohibitin, G protein, annexin A2), but also raft-associated proteins linking these to the cytoskeleton (ezrin/villin-2, profilin II, HSP27, gamma-actin, beta-actin) or proteins in complexes with raft proteins, including the bait protein (HSP60, HSP70). Major overlaps were revealed for the subproteomes of plasma membranous and exosomal lipid raft preparations, indicating that MUC1 is sorted into subpopulations of rafts for its trafficking via flotillin-dependent pathways and export via exosomes.

  9. Amyloid beta-protein and lipid rafts: focused on biogenesis and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Araki, Wataru; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is thought to play a key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three secretases (β-, γ-, and α-secretase) are proteases that control the production of Aβ from amyloid precursor protein. Increasing evidence suggests that cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains termed 'lipid rafts' are involved in the biogenesis and accumulation of Aβ as well as Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity. γ-Secretase is enriched in lipid rafts, which are considered an important site for Aβ generation. Additionally, Aβ-degrading peptidases located in lipid rafts, such as neprilysin, appear to play a role in Aβ catabolism. This mini-review focuses on the roles of lipid rafts in the biogenesis and catabolism of Aβ, covering recent research on the relationship between lipid rafts and the three secretases or Aβ-degrading peptidases. Furthermore, the significance of lipid rafts in Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity is briefly summarized.

  10. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts play an important role in the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 replication cycle.

    PubMed

    Brogden, Graham; Adamek, Mikołaj; Proepsting, Marcus J; Ulrich, Reiner; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2015-09-30

    The Cyprinus herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the new Alloherpesviridae virus family in the Herpesvirales order. CyHV-3 has been implicated in a large number of disease outbreaks in carp populations causing up to 100% mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the requirement of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in CyHV-3 entry and replication in carp cells. Plasma membrane cholesterol was depleted from common carp brain (CCB) cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Treated and non-treated cells were infected with CyHV-3 and virus binding and infection parameters were assessed using RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and virus titration. The effect of cholesterol reduction severely stunted virus entry in vitro, however after cholesterol replenishment virus entry and subsequent replication rates were similar to the control infection. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion did not significantly influence virus binding and the subsequent post-entry replication stage, however had an impact on virus egress. Comparative analysis of the lipid compositions of CyHV-3 and CCB membrane fractions revealed strong similarities between the lipid composition of the CyHV-3 and CCB lipid rafts. The results presented here show that cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are important for the CyHV-3 replication cycle especially during entry and egress.

  11. The influence of an antitumor lipid - erucylphosphocholine - on artificial lipid raft system modeled as Langmuir monolayer.

    PubMed

    Wnętrzak, Anita; Łątka, Kazimierz; Makyła-Juzak, Katarzyna; Zemla, Joanna; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja

    2015-01-01

    Outer layer of cellular membrane contains ordered domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, called 'lipid rafts', which play various biological roles, i.e., are involved in the induction of cell death by apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that these domains may constitute binding sites for selected drugs. For example alkylphosphocholines (APCs), which are new-generation antitumor agents characterized by high selectivity and broad spectrum of activity, are known to have their molecular targets located at cellular membrane and their selective accumulation in tumor cells has been hypothesized to be linked with the alternation of biophysical properties of lipid rafts. To get a deeper insight into this issue, interactions between representative APC: erucylphosphocholine, and artificial lipid raft system, modeled as Langmuir monolayer (composed of cholesterol and sphingomyelin mixed in 1:2 proportion) were investigated. The Langmuir monolayer experiments, based on recording surface pressure-area isotherms, were complemented with Brewster angle microscopy results, which enabled direct visualization of the monolayers structure. In addition, the investigated monolayers were transferred onto solid supports and studied with AFM. The interactions between model raft system and erucylphosphocholine were analyzed qualitatively (with mean molecular area values) as well as quantitatively (with ΔG(exc) function). The obtained results indicate that erucylphosphocholine introduced to raft-mimicking model membrane causes fluidizing effect and weakens the interactions between cholesterol and sphingomyelin, which results in phase separation at high surface pressures. This leads to the redistribution of cholesterol molecules in model raft, which confirms the results observed in biological studies.

  12. Severe alterations in lipid composition of frontal cortex lipid rafts from Parkinson's disease and incidental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson's disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  13. Edelfosine and miltefosine effects on lipid raft properties: membrane biophysics in cell death by antitumor lipids.

    PubMed

    Castro, Bruno M; Fedorov, Aleksander; Hornillos, Valentin; Delgado, Javier; Acuña, A Ulises; Mollinedo, Faustino; Prieto, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine) and miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine) are synthetic alkylphospholipids (ALPs) that are reported to selectively accumulate in tumor cell membranes, inducing Fas clustering and activation on lipid rafts, triggering apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism by which these lipids elicit these events is still not fully understood. Recent studies propose that their mode of action might be related with alterations of lipid rafts biophysical properties caused by these lipid drugs. To achieve a clear understanding of this mechanism, we studied the effects of pharmacologically relevant amounts of edelfosine and miltefosine in the properties of model and cellular membranes. The influence of these molecules on membrane order, lateral organization, and lipid rafts molar fraction and size were studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methods, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We found that the global membrane and lipid rafts biophysical properties of both model and cellular membranes were not significantly affected by both the ALPs. Nonetheless, in model membranes, a mild increase in membrane fluidity induced by both alkyl lipids was detected, although this effect was more noticeable for edelfosine than miltefosine. This absence of drastic alterations shows for the first time that ALPs mode of action is unlikely to be directly linked to alterations of lipid rafts biophysical properties caused by these drugs. The biological implications of this result are discussed in the context of ALPs effects on lipid metabolism, mitochondria homeostasis modulation, and their relationship with tumor cell death.

  14. Proteomic Characterization of Lipid Raft Proteins in ALS Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jianjun; Ström, Anna-Lena; Kilty, Renee; Venkatakrishnan, Priya; White, James; Everson, William V.; Smart, Eric J.; Zhu, Haining

    2009-01-01

    Summary Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been linked to mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. The mutant SOD1 protein exhibits a toxic gain-of-function that adversely affects the function of neurons. However, the mechanism of how mutant SOD1 initiates ALS is unclear. Lipid rafts are specialized microdomains of the plasma membrane that act as platforms for the organization and interaction of proteins involved in multiple functions including vesicular trafficking, neurotransmitter signaling and cytoskeletal rearrangements. In this study, we report a proteomic analysis using a widely used ALS mouse model to identify differences in spinal cord lipid raft proteomes between mice over-expressing wild-type (WT) and G93A mutant SOD1. A total of 413 and 421 proteins were identified in the lipid rafts isolated from WT and G93A mice, respectively. Further quantitative analysis revealed a consortium of proteins with altered levels between the WT and G93A samples. Functional classification of the 67 altered proteins revealed that the three most impacted subsets of proteins were involved in vesicular transport, neurotransmitter synthesis and release; cytoskeleton organization and linkage to plasma membrane; and metabolism. Other protein changes are correlated with alterations in microglia activation and inflammation; astrocyte and oligodendrocyte function; cell signaling; cellular stress response and apoptosis; and neuronal ion channels and neurotransmitter receptor functions. Changes of selected proteins were independently validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The significance of the lipid raft protein changes in motor neuron function and degeneration in ALS is discussed, particularly those involved in vesicular trafficking and neurotransmitter signaling, and the dynamics and regulation of plasma membrane-anchored cytoskeleton. PMID:19438725

  15. In Situ Visualization of Lipid Raft Domains by Fluorescent Glycol Chitosan Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yao-Wen; Guo, Hao-Yue; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Wang, Zhifei; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-07-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered small microdomains mainly composed of glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and protein receptors. Optically distinguishing lipid raft domains in cell membranes would greatly facilitate the investigations on the structure and dynamics of raft-related cellular behaviors, such as signal transduction, membrane transport (endocytosis), adhesion, and motility. However, current strategies about the visualization of lipid raft domains usually suffer from the low biocompatibility of the probes, invasive detection, or ex situ observation. At the same time, naturally derived biomacromolecules have been extensively used in biomedical field and their interaction with cells remains a long-standing topic since it is closely related to various fundamental studies and potential applications. Herein, noninvasive visualization of lipid raft domains in model lipid bilayers (supported lipid bilayers and giant unilamellar vesicles) and live cells was successfully realized in situ using fluorescent biomacromolecules: the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled glycol chitosan molecules. We found that the lipid raft domains in model or real membranes could be specifically stained by the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules, which could be attributed to the electrostatic attractive interaction and/or hydrophobic interaction between the probes and the lipid raft domains. Since the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules do not need to completely insert into the lipid bilayer and will not disturb the organization of lipids, they can more accurately visualize the raft domains as compared with other fluorescent dyes that need to be premixed with the various lipid molecules prior to the fabrication of model membranes. Furthermore, the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules were found to be able to resist cellular internalization and could successfully visualize rafts in live cells. The present work provides a new way to achieve the imaging of lipid rafts and also

  16. Dependency of Lipid Raft Diffusion on System Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ryan

    2009-11-01

    An inherit limitation in molecular dynamics is a finite system size. Although periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic an infinite space, minimizing the artificial effects created by the physical dimensions of the system still remains an issue. Here I will discuss the undesirable relationship between system properties and system size observed via a dissipative particle dynamics approach. In particular, results illustrate a strong dependence between the diffusion of a lipid raft along a membrane and the length of the axis perpendicular to it, even at relatively large system sizes. Methods for obtaining system properties independently of simulation size are crucial for accurate results.

  17. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Kurisaki, Tomohiro; Sato, Satoshi B.; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kondoh, Gen; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2009-10-15

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, {beta}-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  18. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S; Hazelwood, Lee D; Hill, Arnold D K; Nabi, Ivan R; Hopkins, Ann M

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  19. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thayanithy, Venugopal; Babatunde, Victor; Dickson, Elizabeth L.; Wong, Phillip; Oh, Sanghoon; Ke, Xu; Barlas, Afsar; Fujisawa, Sho; Romin, Yevgeniy; Moreira, André L.; Downey, Robert J.; Steer, Clifford J.; Subramanian, Subbaya; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A.S.; Lou, Emil

    2014-04-15

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 24–48 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.3–1.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells. - Highlights: • Exosomes derived from malignant cells can stimulate an increased rate in the formation of tunneling nanotubes. • Tunneling nanotubes can serve as conduits for intercellular transfer of these exosomes. • Most notably, exosomes derived from benign mesothelial cells had no effect on nanotube formation. • Cells forming nanotubes were enriched in lipid rafts at a greater number compared with cells not forming nanotubes. • Our findings suggest causal and potentially synergistic association of exosomes and

  20. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Thayanithy, Venugopal; Babatunde, Victor; Dickson, Elizabeth L; Wong, Phillip; Oh, Sanghoon; Ke, Xu; Barlas, Afsar; Fujisawa, Sho; Romin, Yevgeniy; Moreira, André L; Downey, Robert J; Steer, Clifford J; Subramanian, Subbaya; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A S; Lou, Emil

    2014-04-15

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 24-48 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.3-1.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells.

  1. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis and physiology-based cell membrane traffic models of doxorubicin liposomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghuan; Gao, Lei; Tan, Xi; Li, Feiyang; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-08-01

    The clathrin-mediated endocytosis is likely a major mechanism of liposomes' internalization. A kinetic approach was used to assess the internalization mechanism of doxorubicin (Dox) loaded cationic liposomes and to establish physiology-based cell membrane traffic mathematic models. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis, including dynamin-dependent or -independent endocytosis of noncaveolar structure, was a dominant process. The mathematic models divided Dox loaded liposomes binding lipid rafts (B) into saturable binding (SB) and nonsaturable binding (NSB) followed by energy-driven endocytosis. The intracellular trafficking demonstrated early endosome-late endosome-lysosome or early/late endosome-cytoplasm-nucleus pathways. The three properties of liposome structures, i.e., cationic lipid, fusogenic lipid, and pegylation, were investigated to compare their contributions to cell membrane and intracellular traffic. The results revealed great contribution of cationic lipid DOTAP and fusogenic lipid DOPE to cell membrane binding and internalization. The valid Dox in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with cationic liposomes containing 40mol% of DOPE were 1.2-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with liposomes containing 20mol% of DOPE, respectively, suggesting the dependence of cell type. This tendency was proportional to the increase of cell-associated total liposomal Dox. The mathematic models would be useful to predict intracellular trafficking of liposomal Dox.

  2. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis and physiology-based cell membrane traffic models of doxorubicin liposomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghuan; Gao, Lei; Tan, Xi; Li, Feiyang; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-08-01

    The clathrin-mediated endocytosis is likely a major mechanism of liposomes' internalization. A kinetic approach was used to assess the internalization mechanism of doxorubicin (Dox) loaded cationic liposomes and to establish physiology-based cell membrane traffic mathematic models. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis, including dynamin-dependent or -independent endocytosis of noncaveolar structure, was a dominant process. The mathematic models divided Dox loaded liposomes binding lipid rafts (B) into saturable binding (SB) and nonsaturable binding (NSB) followed by energy-driven endocytosis. The intracellular trafficking demonstrated early endosome-late endosome-lysosome or early/late endosome-cytoplasm-nucleus pathways. The three properties of liposome structures, i.e., cationic lipid, fusogenic lipid, and pegylation, were investigated to compare their contributions to cell membrane and intracellular traffic. The results revealed great contribution of cationic lipid DOTAP and fusogenic lipid DOPE to cell membrane binding and internalization. The valid Dox in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with cationic liposomes containing 40mol% of DOPE were 1.2-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with liposomes containing 20mol% of DOPE, respectively, suggesting the dependence of cell type. This tendency was proportional to the increase of cell-associated total liposomal Dox. The mathematic models would be useful to predict intracellular trafficking of liposomal Dox. PMID:27117641

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Lipid Raft-Like Detergent-Resistant Membranes of Lens Fiber Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Plasma membranes of lens fiber cells have high levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids—key components of lipid rafts. Thus, lipid rafts are expected to constitute a significant portion of fiber cell membranes and play important roles in lens biology. The purpose of this study was to characterize the lens lipid raft proteome. Methods Quantitative proteomics, both label-free and iTRAQ methods, were used to characterize lens fiber cell lipid raft proteins. Detergent-resistant, lipid raft membrane (DRM) fractions were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. To confirm protein localization to lipid rafts, protein sensitivity to cholesterol removal by methyl-β-cyclodextrin was quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Results A total of 506 proteins were identified in raft-like detergent-resistant membranes. Proteins identified support important functions of raft domains in fiber cells, including trafficking, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal organization. In cholesterol-sensitivity studies, 200 proteins were quantified and 71 proteins were strongly affected by cholesterol removal. Lipid raft markers flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 and a significant fraction of AQP0, MP20, and AQP5 were found in the DRM fraction and were highly sensitive to cholesterol removal. Connexins 46 and 50 were more abundant in nonraft fractions, but a small fraction of each was found in the DRM fraction and was strongly affected by cholesterol removal. Quantification of modified AQP0 confirmed that fatty acylation targeted this protein to membrane raft domains. Conclusions These data represent the first comprehensive profile of the lipid raft proteome of lens fiber cells and provide information on membrane protein organization in these cells. PMID:26747763

  4. Lipid rafts regulate cellular CD40 receptor localization in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Min; Wang Qing; Zhu Huilian; Ma Jing; Hou Mengjun; Tang Zhihong; Li Juanjuan; Ling Wenhua

    2007-09-28

    Cholesterol enriched lipid rafts are considered to function as platforms involved in the regulation of membrane receptor signaling complex through the clustering of signaling molecules. In this study, we tested whether these specialized membrane microdomains affect CD40 localization in vitro and in vivo. Here, we provide evidence that upon CD40 ligand stimulation, endogenous and exogenous CD40 receptor is rapidly mobilized into lipid rafts compared with unstimulated HAECs. Efficient binding between CD40L and CD40 receptor also increases amounts of CD40 protein levels in lipid rafts. Deficiency of intracellular conserved C terminus of the CD40 cytoplasmic tail impairs CD40 partitioning in raft. Raft disorganization after methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin treatment diminishes CD40 localization into rafts. In vivo studies show that elevation of circulating cholesterol in high-cholesterol fed rabbits increases the cholesterol content and CD40 receptor localization in lipid rafts. These findings identify a physiological role for membrane lipid rafts as a critical regulator of CD40-mediated signal transduction and raise the possibility that certain pathologic conditions may be treated by altering CD40 signaling with drugs affecting its raft localization.

  5. Prion Protein Accumulation in Lipid Rafts of Mouse Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Federica; Dotti, Carlos G.; Pérez-Cañamás, Azucena; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Benetti, Federico; Legname, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) is a normal constituent of neuronal cell membranes. The protein misfolding causes rare neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. These maladies can be sporadic, genetic or infectious. Sporadic prion diseases are the most common form mainly affecting aging people. In this work, we investigate the biochemical environment in which sporadic prion diseases may develop, focusing our attention on the cell membrane of neurons in the aging brain. It is well established that with aging the ratio between the most abundant lipid components of rafts undergoes a major change: while cholesterol decreases, sphingomyelin content rises. Our results indicate that the aging process modifies the compartmentalization of PrPC. In old mice, this change favors PrPC accumulation in detergent-resistant membranes, particularly in hippocampi. To confirm the relationship between lipid content changes and PrPC translocation into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), we looked at PrPC compartmentalization in hippocampi from acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) knockout (KO) mice and synaptosomes enriched in sphingomyelin. In the presence of high sphingomyelin content, we observed a significant increase of PrPC in DRMS. This process is not due to higher levels of total protein and it could, in turn, favor the onset of sporadic prion diseases during aging as it increases the PrP intermolecular contacts into lipid rafts. We observed that lowering sphingomyelin in scrapie-infected cells by using fumonisin B1 led to a 50% decrease in protease-resistant PrP formation. This may suggest an involvement of PrP lipid environment in prion formation and consequently it may play a role in the onset or development of sporadic forms of prion diseases. PMID:24040215

  6. Monte Carlo study of receptor-lipid raft formation on a cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Yang, Paul; Srinivas Reddy, A.; Raychaudhuri, Subhadip

    2012-02-01

    Receptors are cell surface molecules that bind with extracellular ligand molecules leading to propagation of downstream signals and cellular activation. Even though ligand binding-induced formation of receptor-lipid rafts has been implicated in such a process, the formation mechanism of such large stable rafts is not understood. We present findings from our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving (i) receptor interaction with the membrane lipids and (ii) lipid-lipid interactions between raft forming lipids. We have developed a hybrid MC simulation method that combines a probabilistic MC simulation with an explicit free energy-based MC scheme. Some of the lipid-mediated interactions, such as the cholesterol-lipid interactions, are simulated in an implicit way. We examine the effect of varying attractive interactions between raft forming lipids and ligand-bound receptors and show that strong coupling between receptor-receptor and receptor-sphingolipid molecules generate raft formation similar to that observed in recent biological experiments. We study the effect of variation of receptor affinity for ligands (as happens in adaptive immune cells) on raft formation. Such affinity dependence in receptor-lipid raft formation provides insight into important problems in B cell biology.

  7. A Role for Lipid Shells in Targeting Proteins to Caveolae, Rafts, and Other Lipid Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard G. W.; Jacobson, Ken

    2002-06-01

    The surface membrane of cells is studded with morphologically distinct regions, or domains, like microvilli, cell-cell junctions, and coated pits. Each of these domains is specialized for a particular function, such as nutrient absorption, cell-cell communication, and endocytosis. Lipid domains, which include caveolae and rafts, are one of the least understood membrane domains. These domains are high in cholesterol and sphingolipids, have a light buoyant density, and function in both endocytosis and cell signaling. A major mystery, however, is how resident molecules are targeted to lipid domains. Here, we propose that the molecular address for proteins targeted to lipid domains is a lipid shell.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipid rafts, and T cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-08-15

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation.

  9. Lipid raft-dependent uptake, signaling, and intracellular fate of Porphyromonas gingivalis in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains involved in cellular trafficking and implicated as portals for certain pathogens. We sought to determine whether the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis enters macrophages via lipid rafts, and if so, to examine the impact of raft entry on its intracellular fate. Using J774A.1 mouse macrophages, we found that P. gingivalis colocalizes with lipid rafts in a cholesterol-dependent way. Depletion of cellular cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in about 50% inhibition of P. gingivalis uptake, although this effect was reversed by cholesterol reconstitution. The intracellular survival of P. gingivalis was dramatically inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells relative to untreated or cholesterol-reconstituted cells, even when infections were adjusted to allow equilibration of the initial intracellular bacterial load. P. gingivalis thus appeared to exploit raft-mediated uptake for promoting its survival. Consistent with this, lipid raft disruption enhanced the colocalization of internalized P. gingivalis with lysosomes. In contrast, raft disruption did not affect the expression of host receptors interacting with P. gingivalis, although it significantly inhibited signal transduction. In summary, P. gingivalis uses macrophage lipid rafts as signaling and entry platforms, which determine its intracellular fate to the pathogen’s own advantage. PMID:18547335

  10. Evidence for the involvement of lipid rafts localized at the ER-mitochondria associated membranes in autophagosome formation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Tina; Matarrese, Paola; Manganelli, Valeria; Marconi, Matteo; Tinari, Antonella; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Faggioni, Alberto; Misasi, Roberta; Sorice, Maurizio; Malorni, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria. This membrane scrambling between ER and mitochondria appears to play a critical role in the earliest steps of autophagy. Recently, lipid microdomains, i.e. lipid rafts, have been identified as further actors of the autophagic process. In the present work, a series of biochemical and molecular analyses has been carried out in human fibroblasts with the specific aim of characterizing lipid rafts in MAMs and to decipher their possible implication in the autophagosome formation. In fact, the presence of lipid microdomains in MAMs has been detected and, in these structures, a molecular interaction of the ganglioside GD3, a paradigmatic "brick" of lipid rafts, with core-initiator proteins of autophagy, such as AMBRA1 and WIPI1, was revealed. This association seems thus to take place in the early phases of autophagic process in which MAMs have been hypothesized to play a key role. The functional activity of GD3 was suggested by the experiments carried out by knocking down ST8SIA1 gene expression, i.e., the synthase that leads to the ganglioside formation. This experimental condition results in fact in the impairment of the ER-mitochondria crosstalk and the subsequent hindering of autophagosome nucleation. We thus hypothesize that MAM raft-like microdomains could be pivotal in the initial organelle scrambling activity that finally leads to the formation of autophagosome.

  11. Raft Formation in Lipid Bilayers Coupled to Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Sina; Müller, Marcus; Vink, Richard L.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present computer simulations of a membrane in which the local composition is coupled to the local membrane curvature. At high temperatures (i.e., above the temperature of macroscopic phase separation), finite-sized transient domains are observed, reminiscent of lipid rafts. The domain size is in the range of hundred nanometers, and set by the membrane elastic properties. These findings are in line with the notion of the membrane as a curvature-induced microemulsion. At low temperature, the membrane phase separates. The transition to the phase-separated regime is continuous and belongs to the two-dimensional Ising universality class when the coupling to curvature is weak, but becomes first-order for strong curvature-composition coupling. PMID:25296311

  12. Raft formation in lipid bilayers coupled to curvature.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Sina; Müller, Marcus; Vink, Richard L C

    2014-10-01

    We present computer simulations of a membrane in which the local composition is coupled to the local membrane curvature. At high temperatures (i.e., above the temperature of macroscopic phase separation), finite-sized transient domains are observed, reminiscent of lipid rafts. The domain size is in the range of hundred nanometers, and set by the membrane elastic properties. These findings are in line with the notion of the membrane as a curvature-induced microemulsion. At low temperature, the membrane phase separates. The transition to the phase-separated regime is continuous and belongs to the two-dimensional Ising universality class when the coupling to curvature is weak, but becomes first-order for strong curvature-composition coupling.

  13. Alkyl ether lipids, ion channels and lipid raft reorganization in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Jaffrès, Paul-Alain; Gajate, Consuelo; Bouchet, Ana Maria; Couthon-Gourvès, Hélène; Chantôme, Aurélie; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe; Mollinedo, Faustino; Vandier, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Synthetic alkyl lipids, such as the ether lipids edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and ohmline (1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-β-lactose), are forming a class of antitumor agents that target cell membranes to induce apoptosis and to decrease cell migration/invasion, leading to the inhibition of tumor and metastasis development. In this review, we present the structure-activity relationship of edelfosine and ohmline, and we point out differences and similarities between these two amphiphilic compounds. We also discuss the mechanisms of action of these synthetic alkyl ether lipids (involving, among other structures and molecules, membrane domains, Fas/CD95 death receptor signaling, and ion channels), and highlight a key role for lipid rafts in the underlying process. The reorganization of lipid raft membrane domains induced by these alkyl lipids affects the function of death receptors and ion channels, thus leading to apoptosis and/or inhibition of cancer cell migration. The possible therapeutic use of these alkyl lipids and the clinical perspectives for these lipids in prevention or/and treatment of tumor development and metastasis are also discussed.

  14. Lipid raft aggregation during the formation of the immunological synapse: quantitative mapping and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador Kane, Suzanne; Adelman, Joshua; Lee, Mark; Punt, Jennifer; Ebert, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Lipid raft aggregation during formation of the immunological synapse in T-cells was explored using both experimental results from immunofluorescence imaging and computer simulations. Profiles of lipid raft distributions in the capping region relative to other protein species are presented, and compared for various experimental approaches. We also discuss a model for the dynamical formation of the synapse which incorporates different methods of transport for the lipid rafts themselves as well as other important species, including T-cell receptors and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/peptide complex, and we relate these to experimental findings.

  15. Lipid Rafts: Linking Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Production, Aggregation, and Toxicity at Neuronal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rushworth, Jo V.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains, enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, into which specific subsets of proteins and lipids partition, creating cell-signalling platforms that are vital for neuronal functions. Lipid rafts play at least three crucial roles in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), namely, in promoting the generation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, facilitating its aggregation upon neuronal membranes to form toxic oligomers and hosting specific neuronal receptors through which the AD-related neurotoxicity and memory impairments of the Aβ oligomers are transduced. Recent evidence suggests that Aβ oligomers may exert their deleterious effects through binding to, and causing the aberrant clustering of, lipid raft proteins including the cellular prion protein and glutamate receptors. The formation of these pathogenic lipid raft-based platforms may be critical for the toxic signalling mechanisms that underlie synaptic dysfunction and neuropathology in AD. PMID:21234417

  16. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces ligand-independent Fas activation via lipid raft disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Jae-Sung; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Cho, Bong-Rae; Kim, Hwan-Myung; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Ham, Young-Mi; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2009-07-24

    Lipid rafts are plasma membrane platforms mediating signal transduction pathways for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Here, we show that membrane fluidity was increased in HeLa cells following treatment with ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2), as determined by cell staining with carboxy-laurdan (C-laurdan), a two-photon dye designed for measuring membrane hydrophobicity. In the presence of Rh2, caveolin-1 appeared in non-raft fractions after sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. In addition, caveolin-1 and GM1, lipid raft landmarkers, were internalized within cells after exposure to Rh2, indicating that Rh2 might disrupt lipid rafts. Since cholesterol overloading, which fortifies lipid rafts, prevented an increase in Rh2-induced membrane fluidity, caveolin-1 internalization and apoptosis, lipid rafts appear to be essential for Rh2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Rh2-induced Fas oligomerization was abolished following cholesterol overloading, and Rh2-induced apoptosis was inhibited following treatment with siRNA for Fas. This result suggests that Rh2 is a novel lipid raft disruptor leading to Fas oligomerization and apoptosis.

  17. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD.

  18. Lenalidomide induces lipid raft assembly to enhance erythropoietin receptor signaling in myelodysplastic syndrome progenitors.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Kathy L; Basiorka, Ashley A; Johnson, Joseph O; Clark, Justine; Caceres, Gisela; Padron, Eric; Heaton, Ruth; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Wei, Sheng; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Anemia remains the principal management challenge for patients with lower risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Despite appropriate cytokine production and cellular receptor display, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) signaling is impaired. We reported that EpoR signaling is dependent upon receptor localization within lipid raft microdomains, and that disruption of raft integrity abolishes signaling capacity. Here, we show that MDS erythroid progenitors display markedly diminished raft assembly and smaller raft aggregates compared to normal controls (p = 0.005, raft number; p = 0.023, raft size). Because lenalidomide triggers raft coalescence in T-lymphocytes promoting immune synapse formation, we assessed effects of lenalidomide on raft assembly in MDS erythroid precursors and UT7 cells. Lenalidomide treatment rapidly induced lipid raft formation accompanied by EpoR recruitment into raft fractions together with STAT5, JAK2, and Lyn kinase. The JAK2 phosphatase, CD45, a key negative regulator of EpoR signaling, was displaced from raft fractions. Lenalidomide treatment prior to Epo stimulation enhanced both JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in UT7 and primary MDS erythroid progenitors, accompanied by increased STAT5 DNA binding in UT7 cells, and increased erythroid colony forming capacity in both UT7 and primary cells. Raft induction was associated with F-actin polymerization, which was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. These data indicate that deficient raft integrity impairs EpoR signaling, and provides a novel strategy to enhance EpoR signal fidelity in non-del(5q) MDS.

  19. Selective association of outer surface lipoproteins with the lipid rafts of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Alvaro; Crowley, Jameson T; Coleman, James L; LaRocca, Timothy J; Chiantia, Salvatore; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L

    2014-03-11

    Borrelia burgdorferi contains unique cholesterol-glycolipid-rich lipid rafts that are associated with lipoproteins. These complexes suggest the existence of macromolecular structures that have not been reported for prokaryotes. Outer surface lipoproteins OspA, OspB, and OspC were studied for their participation in the formation of lipid rafts. Single-gene deletion mutants with deletions of ospA, ospB, and ospC and a spontaneous gene mutant, strain B313, which does not express OspA and OspB, were used to establish their structural roles in the lipid rafts. All mutant strains used in this study produced detergent-resistant membranes, a common characteristic of lipid rafts, and had similar lipid and protein slot blot profiles. Lipoproteins OspA and OspB but not OspC were shown to be associated with lipid rafts by transmission electron microscopy. When the ability to form lipid rafts in live B. burgdorferi spirochetes was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), strain B313 showed a statistically significant lower level of segregation into ordered and disordered membrane domains than did the wild-type and the other single-deletion mutants. The transformation of a B313 strain with a shuttle plasmid containing ospA restored the phenotype shared by the wild type and the single-deletion mutants, demonstrating that OspA and OspB have redundant functions. In contrast, a transformed B313 overexpressing OspC neither rescued the FRET nor colocalized with the lipid rafts. Because these lipoproteins are expressed at different stages of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, their selective association is likely to have an important role in the structure of prokaryotic lipid rafts and in the organism's adaptation to changing environments. IMPORTANCE Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich clusters within the membranes of cells. Lipid rafts contain proteins that have functions in sensing the cell environment and transmitting signals. Although selective proteins are present in

  20. Regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter activity and trafficking by its association with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Leah K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Rylett, Rebecca Jane

    2014-03-01

    The sodium-coupled, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is responsible for transport of choline into cholinergic nerve terminals from the synaptic cleft following acetylcholine release and hydrolysis. In this study, we address regulation of CHT function by plasma membrane cholesterol. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in both SH-SY5Y cells and nerve terminals from mouse forebrain. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells expressing rat CHT with filipin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβC) or cholesterol oxidase significantly decreased choline uptake. In contrast, CHT activity was increased by addition of cholesterol to membranes using cholesterol-saturated MβC. Kinetic analysis of binding of [(3)H]hemicholinium-3 to CHT revealed that reducing membrane cholesterol with MβC decreased both the apparent binding affinity (KD) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax ); this was confirmed by decreased plasma membrane CHT protein in lipid rafts in cell surface protein biotinylation assays. Finally, the loss of cell surface CHT associated with lipid raft disruption was not because of changes in CHT internalization. In summary, we provide evidence that CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for transporter function and localization. Alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol cholinergic nerve terminals could diminish cholinergic transmission by reducing choline availability for acetylcholine synthesis. The sodium-coupled choline transporter CHT moves choline into cholinergic nerve terminals to serve as substrate for acetylcholine synthesis. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, and decreasing membrane cholesterol significantly reduces both choline uptake activity and cell surface CHT protein levels. CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for its function, and alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol could diminish cholinergic

  1. Myo1c regulates lipid raft recycling to control cell spreading, migration and Salmonella invasion

    PubMed Central

    Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2012-01-01

    A balance between endocytosis and membrane recycling regulates the composition and dynamics of the plasma membrane. Internalization and recycling of cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts is an actin-dependent process that is mediated by a specialized Arf6-dependent recycling pathway. Here, we identify myosin1c (Myo1c) as the first motor protein that drives the formation of recycling tubules emanating from the perinuclear recycling compartment. We demonstrate that the single-headed Myo1c is a lipid-raft-associated motor protein that is specifically involved in recycling of lipid-raft-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cargo proteins and their delivery to the cell surface. Whereas Myo1c overexpression increases the levels of these raft proteins at the cell surface, in cells depleted of Myo1c function through RNA interference or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant, these tubular transport carriers of the recycling pathway are lost and GPI-linked raft markers are trapped in the perinuclear recycling compartment. Intriguingly, Myo1c only selectively promotes delivery of lipid raft membranes back to the cell surface and is not required for recycling of cargo, such as the transferrin receptor, which is mediated by parallel pathways. The profound defect in lipid raft trafficking in Myo1c-knockdown cells has a dramatic impact on cell spreading, cell migration and cholesterol-dependent Salmonella invasion; processes that require lipid raft transport to the cell surface to deliver signaling components and the extra membrane essential for cell surface expansion and remodeling. Thus, Myo1c plays a crucial role in the recycling of lipid raft membrane and proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity, cell motility and pathogen entry. PMID:22328521

  2. The platelet receptor for type III collagen (TIIICBP) is present in platelet membrane lipid microdomains (rafts).

    PubMed

    Maurice, Pascal; Waeckel, Ludovic; Pires, Viviane; Sonnet, Pascal; Lemesle, Monique; Arbeille, Brigitte; Vassy, Jany; Rochette, Jacques; Legrand, Chantal; Fauvel-Lafève, Françoise

    2006-04-01

    Platelet interactions with collagen are orchestrated by the presence or the migration of platelet receptor(s) for collagen into lipid rafts, which are specialized lipid microdomains from the platelet plasma membrane enriched in signalling proteins. Electron microscopy shows that in resting platelets, TIIICBP, a receptor specific for type III collagen, is present on the platelet membrane and associated with the open canalicular system, and redistributes to the platelet membrane upon platelet activation. After platelet lysis by 1% Triton X-100 and the separation of lipid rafts on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, TIIICBP is recovered in lipid raft-containing fractions and Triton X-100 insoluble fractions enriched in cytoskeleton proteins. Platelet aggregation, induced by type III collagen, was inhibited after disruption of the lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion, whereas platelet adhesion under static conditions did not require lipid raft integrity. These results indicate that TIIICBP, a platelet receptor involved in platelet interaction with type III collagen, is localized within platelet lipid rafts where it could interact with other platelet receptors for collagen (GP VI and alpha2beta1 integrin) for efficient platelet activation. PMID:16205938

  3. Lipid Raft Association Restricts CD44-Ezrin Interaction and Promotion of Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S.; Hazelwood, Lee D.; Hill, Arnold D.K.; Nabi, Ivan R.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration. PMID:23031255

  4. MHC Class II Association with Lipid Rafts on the Antigen Presenting Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Howard A.; Roche, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules function by binding peptides derived from either self-or foreign proteins and expressing these peptides on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) for recognition by CD4 T cells. MHC-II is known to exist on clusters on the surface of APCs, and a variety of biochemical and functional studies have suggested that these clusters represent lipid raft microdomain-associated MHC-II. This review will summarize data exploring the biosynthesis of raft-associated MHC-II and the role that lipid raft association plays in regulating T cell activation by APCs. PMID:25261705

  5. Lipid rafts, caveolae, caveolin-1, and entry by Chlamydiae into host cells.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Elizabeth S; Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C

    2003-07-01

    Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Chlamydia are reported to enter host cells by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. We asked here how widespread raft-mediated entry might be among the Chlamydia. We show that C. pneumoniae, an important cause of respiratory infections in humans that additionally is associated with cardiovascular disease, and C. psittaci, an important pathogen in domestic mammals and birds that also infects humans, each enter host cells via cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains. Further, we show that C. trachomatis serovars E and F also use these domains to enter host cells. The involvement of these membrane domains in the entry of these organisms was indicated by the sensitivity of their entry to the raft-disrupting agents Nystatin and filipin, and by their intracellular association with caveolin-1, a 22-kDa protein associated with the formation of caveolae in rafts. In contrast, caveolin-marked lipid raft domains do not mediate entry of C. trachomatis serovars A, 36B, and C, nor of LGV serovar L2 and MoPn. Finally, we show that entry of each of these chlamydial strains is independent of cellular expression of caveolin-1. Thus, entry via the Nystatin and filipin-sensitive pathway is dependent on lipid rafts containing cholesterol, rather than invaginated caveolae per se.

  6. Gag Induces the Coalescence of Clustered Lipid Rafts and Tetraspanin-Enriched Microdomains at HIV-1 Assembly Sites on the Plasma Membrane ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Ian B.; Grover, Jonathan R.; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ono, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 structural protein Gag associates with two types of plasma membrane microdomains, lipid rafts and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), both of which have been proposed to be platforms for HIV-1 assembly. However, a variety of studies have demonstrated that lipid rafts and TEMs are distinct microdomains in the absence of HIV-1 infection. To measure the impact of Gag on microdomain behaviors, we took advantage of two assays: an antibody-mediated copatching assay and a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that measures the clustering of microdomain markers in live cells without antibody-mediated patching. We found that lipid rafts and TEMs copatched and clustered to a greater extent in the presence of membrane-bound Gag in both assays, suggesting that Gag induces the coalescence of lipid rafts and TEMs. Substitutions in membrane binding motifs of Gag revealed that, while Gag membrane binding is necessary to induce coalescence of lipid rafts and TEMs, either acylation of Gag or binding of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate is sufficient. Finally, a Gag derivative that is defective in inducing membrane curvature appeared less able to induce lipid raft and TEM coalescence. A higher-resolution analysis of assembly sites by correlative fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy showed that coalescence of clustered lipid rafts and TEMs occurs predominately at completed cell surface virus-like particles, whereas a transmembrane raft marker protein appeared to associate with punctate Gag fluorescence even in the absence of cell surface particles. Together, these results suggest that different membrane microdomain components are recruited in a stepwise manner during assembly. PMID:21813604

  7. Rapid multiplex analysis of lipid raft components with single-cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Schatzlmaier, Philipp; Supper, Verena; Göschl, Lisa; Zwirzitz, Alexander; Eckerstorfer, Paul; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Huppa, Johannes B; Stockinger, Hannes

    2015-09-22

    Lipid rafts, a distinct class of highly dynamic cell membrane microdomains, are integral to cell homeostasis, differentiation, and signaling. However, their quantitative examination is challenging when working with rare cells, developmentally heterogeneous cell populations, or molecules that only associate weakly with lipid rafts. We present a fast biochemical method, which is based on lipid raft components associating with the nucleus upon partial lysis during centrifugation through nonionic detergent. Requiring little starting material or effort, our protocol enabled the multidimensional flow cytometric quantitation of raft-resident proteins with single-cell resolution, thereby assessing the membrane components from a few cells in complex cell populations, as well as their dynamics resulting from cell signaling, differentiation, or genetic mutation.

  8. On ripples and rafts: Curvature induced nanoscale structures in lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Friederike; Dolezel, Stefan; Lenz, Olaf; Meinhardt, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    We develop an elastic theory that predicts the spontaneous formation of nanoscale structures in lipid bilayers which locally phase separate between two phases with different spontaneous monolayer curvature. The theory rationalizes in a unified manner the observation of a variety of nanoscale structures in lipid membranes: Rippled states in one-component membranes, lipid rafts in multicomponent membranes. Furthermore, we report on recent observations of rippled states and rafts in simulations of a simple coarse-grained model for lipid bilayers, which are compatible with experimental observations and with our elastic model.

  9. Sphingomyelin distribution in lipid rafts of artificial monolayer membranes visualized by Raman microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Jun; Kinoshita, Masanao; Cui, Jin; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Fujita, Katsumasa; Murata, Michio; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (chol)-rich domains in cell membranes, called lipid rafts, are thought to have important biological functions related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking. To visualize the distribution of SM in lipid rafts by means of Raman microscopy, we designed and synthesized an SM analog tagged with a Raman-active diyne moiety (diyne-SM). Diyne-SM showed a strong peak in a Raman silent region that is free of interference from intrinsic vibrational modes of lipids and did not appear to alter the properties of SM-containing monolayers. Therefore, we used Raman microscopy to directly visualize the distribution of diyne-SM in raft-mimicking domains formed in SM/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/chol ternary monolayers. Raman images visualized a heterogeneous distribution of diyne-SM, which showed marked variation, even within a single ordered domain. Specifically, diyne-SM was enriched in the central area of raft domains compared with the peripheral area. These results seem incompatible with the generally accepted raft model, in which the raft and nonraft phases show a clear biphasic separation. One of the possible reasons is that gradual changes of SM concentration occur between SM-rich and -poor regions to minimize hydrophobic mismatch. We believe that our technique of hyperspectral Raman imaging of a single lipid monolayer opens the door to quantitative analysis of lipid membranes by providing both chemical information and spatial distribution with high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution. PMID:25825736

  10. Sphingomyelin distribution in lipid rafts of artificial monolayer membranes visualized by Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ando, Jun; Kinoshita, Masanao; Cui, Jin; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Fujita, Katsumasa; Murata, Michio; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2015-04-14

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (chol)-rich domains in cell membranes, called lipid rafts, are thought to have important biological functions related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking. To visualize the distribution of SM in lipid rafts by means of Raman microscopy, we designed and synthesized an SM analog tagged with a Raman-active diyne moiety (diyne-SM). Diyne-SM showed a strong peak in a Raman silent region that is free of interference from intrinsic vibrational modes of lipids and did not appear to alter the properties of SM-containing monolayers. Therefore, we used Raman microscopy to directly visualize the distribution of diyne-SM in raft-mimicking domains formed in SM/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/chol ternary monolayers. Raman images visualized a heterogeneous distribution of diyne-SM, which showed marked variation, even within a single ordered domain. Specifically, diyne-SM was enriched in the central area of raft domains compared with the peripheral area. These results seem incompatible with the generally accepted raft model, in which the raft and nonraft phases show a clear biphasic separation. One of the possible reasons is that gradual changes of SM concentration occur between SM-rich and -poor regions to minimize hydrophobic mismatch. We believe that our technique of hyperspectral Raman imaging of a single lipid monolayer opens the door to quantitative analysis of lipid membranes by providing both chemical information and spatial distribution with high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution.

  11. C-type lectin like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) signals independently of lipid raft microdomains in platelets.

    PubMed

    Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Dangelmaier, Carol A; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2015-01-15

    C-type lectin like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) has been reported to activate platelets through a lipid raft-dependent manner. Secreted ADP potentiates CLEC-2-mediated platelet aggregation. We have investigated whether the decrease in CLEC-2-mediated platelet aggregation, previously reported in platelets with disrupted rafts, is a result of the loss of agonist potentiation by ADP. We disrupted platelet lipid rafts with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and measured signaling events downstream of CLEC-2 activation. Lipid raft disruption decreases platelet aggregation induced by CLEC-2 agonists. The inhibition of platelet aggregation by the disruption of lipid rafts was rescued by the exogenous addition of epinephrine but not 2-methylthioadenosine diphosphate (2MeSADP), which suggests that lipid raft disruption effects P2Y12-mediated Gi activation but not Gz. Phosphorylation of Syk (Y525/526) and PLCγ2 (Y759), were not affected by raft disruption in CLEC-2 agonist-stimulated platelets. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of the CLEC-2 hemi-ITAM was not effected when MβCD disrupts lipid rafts. Lipid rafts do not directly contribute to CLEC-2 receptor activation in platelets. The effects of disruption of lipid rafts in in vitro assays can be attributed to inhibition of ADP feedback that potentiates CLEC-2 signaling.

  12. Amyloid Oligomer Neurotoxicity, Calcium Dysregulation, and Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Paradisi, Silvia; Matteucci, Andrea; Frank, Claudio; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid proteins constitute a chemically heterogeneous group of proteins, which share some biophysical and biological characteristics, the principal of which are the high propensity to acquire an incorrect folding and the tendency to aggregate. A number of diseases are associated with misfolding and aggregation of proteins, although only in some of them—most notably Alzheimer's disease (AD) and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)—a pathogenetic link with misfolded proteins is now widely recognized. Lipid rafts (LRs) have been involved in the pathophysiology of diseases associated with protein misfolding at several levels, including aggregation of misfolded proteins, amyloidogenic processing, and neurotoxicity. Among the pathogenic misfolded proteins, the AD-related protein amyloid β (Aβ) is by far the most studied protein, and a large body of evidence has been gathered on the role played by LRs in Aβ pathogenicity. However, significant amount of data has also been collected for several other amyloid proteins, so that their ability to interact with LRs can be considered an additional, shared feature characterizing the amyloid protein family. In this paper, we will review the evidence on the role of LRs in the neurotoxicity of huntingtin, α-synuclein, prion protein, and calcitonin. PMID:21331330

  13. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-10-31

    Epithelial cells that fulfil high-throughput digestive/absorptive functions, such as small intestinal enterocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, are endowed with a dense apical brush border. It has long been recognized that the microvillar surface of the brush border is organized in cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains commonly known as lipid rafts. More recent studies indicate that microvillar rafts, in particular those of enterocytes, have some unusual properties in comparison with rafts present on the surface of other cell types. Thus, microvillar rafts are stable rather than transient/dynamic, and their core components include glycolipids and the divalent lectin galectin-4, which together can be isolated as "superrafts", i.e., membrane microdomains resisting solubilization with Triton X-100 at physiological temperature. These glycolipid/lectin-based rafts serve as platforms for recruitment of GPI-linked and transmembrane digestive enzymes, most likely as an economizing effort to secure and prolong their digestive capability at the microvillar surface. However, in addition to microvilli, the brush border surface also consists of membrane invaginations between adjacent microvilli, which are the only part of the apical surface sterically accessible for membrane fusion/budding events. Many of these invaginations appear as pleiomorphic, deep apical tubules that extend up to 0.5-1 microm into the underlying terminal web region. Their sensitivity to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggests them to contain cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts of a different type from the glycolipid-based rafts at the microvillar surface. The brush border is thus an example of a complex membrane system that harbours at least two different types of lipid raft microdomains, each suited to fulfil specialized functions. This conclusion is in line with an emerging, more varied view of lipid rafts being pluripotent microdomains capable of adapting in size, shape, and content to

  14. O-glycans direct selectin ligands to lipid rafts on leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bojing; Yago, Tadayuki; Setiadi, Hendra; Wang, Ying; Mehta-D'souza, Padmaja; Fu, Jianxin; Crocker, Paul R; Rodgers, William; Xia, Lijun; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-07-14

    Palmitoylated cysteines typically target transmembrane proteins to domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids (lipid rafts). P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), CD43, and CD44 are O-glycosylated proteins on leukocytes that associate with lipid rafts. During inflammation, they transduce signals by engaging selectins as leukocytes roll in venules, and they move to the raft-enriched uropods of polarized cells upon chemokine stimulation. It is not known how these glycoproteins associate with lipid rafts or whether this association is required for signaling or for translocation to uropods. Here, we found that loss of core 1-derived O-glycans in murine C1galt1(-/-) neutrophils blocked raft targeting of PSGL-1, CD43, and CD44, but not of other glycosylated proteins, as measured by resistance to solubilization in nonionic detergent and by copatching with a raft-resident sphingolipid on intact cells. Neuraminidase removal of sialic acids from wild-type neutrophils also blocked raft targeting. C1galt1(-/-) neutrophils or neuraminidase-treated neutrophils failed to activate tyrosine kinases when plated on immobilized anti-PSGL-1 or anti-CD44 F(ab')2. Furthermore, C1galt1(-/-) neutrophils incubated with anti-PSGL-1 F(ab')2 did not generate microparticles. In marked contrast, PSGL-1, CD43, and CD44 moved normally to the uropods of chemokine-stimulated C1galt1(-/-) neutrophils. These data define a role for core 1-derived O-glycans and terminal sialic acids in targeting glycoprotein ligands for selectins to lipid rafts of leukocytes. Preassociation of these glycoproteins with rafts is required for signaling but not for movement to uropods.

  15. Toward atomic force microscopy and mass spectrometry to visualize and identify lipid rafts in plasmodesmata

    PubMed Central

    Naulin, Pamela A.; Alveal, Natalia A.; Barrera, Nelson P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell-to-cell communication is mediated by nanopores called plasmodesmata (PDs) which are complex structures comprising plasma membrane (PM), highly packed endoplasmic reticulum and numerous membrane proteins. Although recent advances on proteomics have led to insights into mechanisms of transport, there is still an inadequate characterization of the lipidic composition of the PM where membrane proteins are inserted. It has been postulated that PDs could be formed by lipid rafts, however no structural evidence has shown to visualize and analyse their lipid components. In this perspective article, we discuss proposed experiments to characterize lipid rafts and proteins in the PDs. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry (MS) of purified PD vesicles it is possible to determine the presence of lipid rafts, specific bound proteins and the lipidomic profile of the PD under physiological conditions and after changing transport permeability. In addition, MS can determine the stoichiometry of intact membrane proteins inserted in lipid rafts. This will give novel insights into the role of membrane proteins and lipid rafts on the PD structure. PMID:24910637

  16. Development and thermodynamic evaluation of novel lipid raft stationary phase chromatography for screening potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shanshan; Sun, Chaonan; Cao, Xia; Zheng, Qianfeng; Zhang, Huiyun; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Feng, Yingshu; Yang, Yan; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing

    2014-12-01

    Novel lipid raft stationary phase chromatography (LRSC), with lipid rafts that contain abundant tropomyosin-related tyrosine kinase A receptors immobilized on the stationary phase, was developed for a high-throughput screening of potentially active antitumor agents. Lestaurtinib was used as a model compound to determine the operational parameters of the LRSC. Of all the factors considered, the particle size of column packing, the column temperature and the flow rate were of immense importance in determining the performance of the established LRSC system. In order to profoundly comprehend the binding interaction between the model drug and the receptors on the column, thermodynamic studies were employed. The results revealed that the interaction was spontaneous and exothermic, a typical enthalpy-driven process. Additionally, the primary forces were hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. In evaluating the applicability of the method, active extracts from Albizziae Cortex were screened out using the LRSC system under the optimized conditions. The bioactive components were successfully confirmed by the MTT assay. In conclusion, it could be said that the LRSC is a good model for screening potential antitumor agents because of its viability, rapid response and scalable features.

  17. Roles of lipid rafts in integrin-dependent adhesion and gp130 signalling pathway in mouse embryonic neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Taga, Tetsuya

    2004-09-01

    Neuronal and glial cells organizing the central nervous system are generated from common neural precursor cells present in the neuroepithelium during development. We tried to clarify functions of a cell surface microdomain, lipid raft, in neuroepithelial cells (NECs). NECs are suggested to adhere to fibronectin substratum dependently on integrin molecules. We found that beta1 integrin, a component of fibronectin receptors, was distributed in lipid rafts. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), an inhibitor of lipid raft formation, inhibited the integrin-fibronectin interaction-dependent adhesion of NECs. However, inhibition of synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSL), components of lipid rafts, did not affect NEC adhesion. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an interleukin 6 type cytokine, induces astrocyte differentiation of NECs via activation of a transcription factor STAT3. We detected gp130, JAK1 and Ras but not STAT3 and ERK2 molecules in lipid rafts of NECs. Disruption of lipid rafts by MBCD inhibited LIF-induced ERK activation but not STAT3 activation. It is thus suggested that LIF-downstream molecules have differential lipid raft-dependency in terms of activation upon LIF-stimulation. In this study, we found functions of lipid rafts in cell adhesion and signal transduction in NECs. This is the first report that characterized functions of lipid rafts in embryonic neural precursor cells.

  18. Lipid raft regulates the initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells by modulating β1 integrin clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruifei; Bi, Jiajia; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Ziyi; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xiaoru; Ba, Xueqing; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-08-01

    Cell adhesion and spreading require integrins-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Integrins function through binding to extracellular matrix and subsequent clustering to initiate focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Lipid raft, a liquid ordered plasma membrane microdomain, has been reported to play major roles in membrane motility by regulating cell surface receptor function. Here, we identified that lipid raft integrity was required for β1 integrin-mediated initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells on fibronectin. We found that lipid raft disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin led to the inability of focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by preventing β1 integrin clustering. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism by which lipid raft regulates β1 integrin clustering and demonstrated that intact lipid raft could recruit and modify some adaptor proteins, such as talin, α-actinin, vinculin, paxillin and FAK. Lipid raft could regulate the location of these proteins in lipid raft fractions and facilitate their binding to β1 integrin, which may be crucial for β1 integrin clustering. We also showed that lipid raft disruption impaired A375 cell migration in both transwell and wound healing models. Together, these findings provide a new insight for the relationship between lipid raft and the regulation of integrins.

  19. Lipid raft regulates the initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells by modulating β1 integrin clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruifei; Bi, Jiajia; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Ziyi; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xiaoru; Ba, Xueqing; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-08-01

    Cell adhesion and spreading require integrins-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Integrins function through binding to extracellular matrix and subsequent clustering to initiate focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Lipid raft, a liquid ordered plasma membrane microdomain, has been reported to play major roles in membrane motility by regulating cell surface receptor function. Here, we identified that lipid raft integrity was required for β1 integrin-mediated initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells on fibronectin. We found that lipid raft disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin led to the inability of focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by preventing β1 integrin clustering. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism by which lipid raft regulates β1 integrin clustering and demonstrated that intact lipid raft could recruit and modify some adaptor proteins, such as talin, α-actinin, vinculin, paxillin and FAK. Lipid raft could regulate the location of these proteins in lipid raft fractions and facilitate their binding to β1 integrin, which may be crucial for β1 integrin clustering. We also showed that lipid raft disruption impaired A375 cell migration in both transwell and wound healing models. Together, these findings provide a new insight for the relationship between lipid raft and the regulation of integrins. PMID:23665237

  20. Lipid Raft Size and Lipid Mobility in Non-raft Domains Increase during Aging and Are Exacerbated in APP/PS1 Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Predictions from an Agent-Based Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guido; Díaz, Mario; Torres, Néstor V

    2016-01-01

    A connection between lipid rafts and Alzheimer's disease has been studied during the last decades. Mathematical modeling approaches have recently been used to correlate the effects of lipid composition changes in the physicochemical properties of raft-like membranes. Here we propose an agent based model to assess the effect of lipid changes in lipid rafts on the evolution and progression of Alzheimer's disease using lipid profile data obtained in an established model of familial Alzheimer's disease. We have observed that lipid raft size and lipid mobility in non-raft domains are two main factors that increase during age and are accelerated in the transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The consequences of these changes are discussed in the context of neurotoxic amyloid β production. Our agent based model predicts that increasing sterols (mainly cholesterol) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) (mainly DHA, docosahexaenoic acid) proportions in the membrane composition might delay the onset and progression of the disease.

  1. Lipid Raft Size and Lipid Mobility in Non-raft Domains Increase during Aging and Are Exacerbated in APP/PS1 Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Predictions from an Agent-Based Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guido; Díaz, Mario; Torres, Néstor V

    2016-01-01

    A connection between lipid rafts and Alzheimer's disease has been studied during the last decades. Mathematical modeling approaches have recently been used to correlate the effects of lipid composition changes in the physicochemical properties of raft-like membranes. Here we propose an agent based model to assess the effect of lipid changes in lipid rafts on the evolution and progression of Alzheimer's disease using lipid profile data obtained in an established model of familial Alzheimer's disease. We have observed that lipid raft size and lipid mobility in non-raft domains are two main factors that increase during age and are accelerated in the transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The consequences of these changes are discussed in the context of neurotoxic amyloid β production. Our agent based model predicts that increasing sterols (mainly cholesterol) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) (mainly DHA, docosahexaenoic acid) proportions in the membrane composition might delay the onset and progression of the disease. PMID:27014089

  2. Lipid Raft Size and Lipid Mobility in Non-raft Domains Increase during Aging and Are Exacerbated in APP/PS1 Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Predictions from an Agent-Based Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Guido; Díaz, Mario; Torres, Néstor V.

    2016-01-01

    A connection between lipid rafts and Alzheimer's disease has been studied during the last decades. Mathematical modeling approaches have recently been used to correlate the effects of lipid composition changes in the physicochemical properties of raft-like membranes. Here we propose an agent based model to assess the effect of lipid changes in lipid rafts on the evolution and progression of Alzheimer's disease using lipid profile data obtained in an established model of familial Alzheimer's disease. We have observed that lipid raft size and lipid mobility in non-raft domains are two main factors that increase during age and are accelerated in the transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The consequences of these changes are discussed in the context of neurotoxic amyloid β production. Our agent based model predicts that increasing sterols (mainly cholesterol) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) (mainly DHA, docosahexaenoic acid) proportions in the membrane composition might delay the onset and progression of the disease. PMID:27014089

  3. Critical role of the lipid rafts in caprine herpesvirus type 1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    The fusion machinery for herpesvirus entry in the host cells involves the interactions of viral glycoproteins with cellular receptors, although additional viral and cellular domains are required. Extensive areas of the plasma membrane surface consist of lipid rafts organized into cholesterol-rich microdomains involved in signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane transport and in many processes of viruses infection. Because of the extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to the lipid rafts, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) in three important phases of virus infection such as binding, entry and post-entry. MβCD treatment did not prejudice virus binding to cells, while a dose-dependent reduction of the virus yield was observed at the virus entry stage, and 30 mM MβCD reduced infectivity evidently. Treatment of MDBK after virus entry revealed a moderate inhibitory effect suggesting that cholesterol is mainly required during virus entry rather than during the post-entry stage. Alteration of the envelope lipid composition affected virus entry and a noticeable reduction in virus infectivity was detected in the presence of 15 mM MβCD. Considering that the recognition of a host cell receptor is a crucial step in the start-up phase of infection, these data are essential for the study of CpHV.1 pathogenesis. To date virus receptors for CpHV.1 have not yet been identified and further investigations are required to state that MβCD treatment affects the expression of the viral receptors.

  4. Interactive protein network of FXIII-A1 in lipid rafts of activated and non-activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Davani, Siamak

    2016-09-01

    Lipid-rafts are defined as membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids within platelet plasma membrane. Lipid raft-mediated clot retraction requires factor XIII and other interacting proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the proteins that interact with factor XIII in raft and non-raft domains of activated and non-activated platelet plasma membrane. By lipidomics analysis, we identified cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched areas as lipid rafts. Platelets were activated by thrombin. Proteomics analysis provided an overview of the pathways in which proteins of rafts and non-rafts participated in the interaction network of FXIII-A1, a catalytic subunit of FXIII. "Platelet activation" was the principal pathway among KEGG pathways for proteins of rafts, both before and after activation. Network analysis showed four types of interactions (activation, binding, reaction, and catalysis) in raft and non-raft domains in interactive network of FXIII-A1. FXIII-A1 interactions with other proteins in raft domains and their role in homeostasis highlight the specialization of the raft domain in clot retraction via the Factor XIII protein network.

  5. Deuterium NMR of Raft Model Membranes Reveals Domain-Specific Order Profiles and Compositional Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomokazu; Tsuchikawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Michio; Matsumori, Nobuaki

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we applied site-specifically deuterated N-stearoylsphingomyelins (SSMs) to raft-exhibiting ternary mixtures containing SSM, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (Chol) and successfully acquired deuterium quadrupole coupling profiles of SSM from liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) domains. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows detailed lipid chain dynamics separately and simultaneously obtained from coexisting Lo and Ld domains. We also found that the quadrupole profile of the Lo phase in the ternary system was almost identical to that in the SSM-Chol binary mixture, suggesting that the order profile of the binary system is essentially applicable to more complicated membrane systems in terms of the acyl chain order. We also demonstrated that 2H NMR spectroscopy, in combination with organic synthesis of deuterated components, could be used to reveal the accurate mole fractions of each component distributed in the Lo and Ld domains. As compared with the reported tie-line analysis of phase diagrams, the merit of our 2H NMR analysis is that the domain-specific compositional fractions are directly attainable without experimental complexity and ambiguity. The accurate compositional distributions as well as lipid order profiles in ternary mixtures are relevant to understanding the molecular mechanism of lipid raft formation. PMID:25992728

  6. Clathrin to Lipid Raft-Endocytosis via Controlled Surface Chemistry and Efficient Perinuclear Targeting of Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-09-17

    Nanoparticle interacts with live cells depending on their surface chemistry, enters into cell via endocytosis, and is commonly trafficked to an endosome/lysozome that restricts subcellular targeting options. Here we show that nanoparticle surface chemistry can be tuned to alter their cell uptake mechanism and subcellular trafficking. Quantum dot based nanoprobes of 20-30 nm hydrodynamic diameters have been synthesized with tunable surface charge (between +15 mV to -25 mV) and lipophilicity to influence their cellular uptake processes and subcellular trafficking. It is observed that cationic nanoprobe electrostatically interacts with cell membrane and enters into cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. At lower surface charge (between +10 mV to -10 mV), the electrostatic interaction with cell membrane becomes weaker, and additional lipid raft endocytosis is initiated. If a lipophilic functional group is introduced on a weakly anionic nanoparticle surface, the uptake mechanism shifts to predominant lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. In particular, the zwitterionic-lipophilic nanoprobe has the unique advantage as it weakly interacts with anionic cell membrane, migrates toward lipid rafts for interaction through lipophilic functional group, and induces lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. While predominate or partial clathrin-mediated entry traffics most of the nanoprobes to lysozome, predominate lipid raft-mediated entry traffics them to perinuclear region, particularly to the Golgi apparatus. This finding would guide in designing appropriate nanoprobe for subcellular targeting and delivery.

  7. Effects of acrylonitrile on lymphocyte lipid rafts and RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Li, B; Huang, J S; Shi, J M; Wang, P; Fan, W; Zhou, Y L

    2014-09-26

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used chemical in the production of plastics, resins, nitriles, acrylic fibers, and synthetic rubber. Previous epidemiological investigations and animal studies have confirmed that ACN affects the lymphocytes and spleen. However, the immune toxicity mechanism is unknown. Lipid rafts are cell membrane structures that are rich in cholesterol and involved in cell signal transduction. The B cell lymophoma-10 (Bcl10) protein is a joint protein that is important in lymphocyte development and signal pathways. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro effects of ACN. We separated lipid rafts, and analyzed Bcl10 protein and caveolin. Western blotting was used to detect mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK levels. The results indicated that with increasing ACN concentration, the total amount of Bcl10 remained stable, but was concentrated mainly in part 4 to part 11 in electrophoretic band district which is high density in gradient centrifugation. Caveolin-1 was evaluated as a lipid raft marker protein; caveolin-1 content and position were relatively unchanged. Western blotting showed that in a certain range, MAPK protein was secreted at a higher level. At some ACN exposure levels, MAPK protein secretion was significantly decreased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ACN can cause immune toxicity by damaging lipid raft structures, causing Bcl10 protein and lipid raft separation and restraining Ras-Raf-MAPK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

  8. Uncoupling Neogenin association with lipid rafts promotes neuronal survival and functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Shabanzadeh, A P; Tassew, N G; Szydlowska, K; Tymianski, M; Banerjee, P; Vigouroux, R J; Eubanks, J H; Huang, L; Geraerts, M; Koeberle, P D; Mueller, B K; Monnier, P P

    2015-05-07

    The dependence receptor Neogenin and its ligand, the repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa), regulate apoptosis and axonal growth in the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that this pathway has also a critical role in neuronal death following stroke, and that providing RGMa to neurons blocks Neogenin-induced death. Interestingly, the Neogenin pro-death function following ischemic insult depends on Neogenin association with lipid rafts. Thus, a peptide that prevents Neogenin association with lipid rafts increased neuronal survival in several in vitro stroke models. In rats, a pro-survival effect was also observed in a model of ocular ischemia, as well as after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Treatments that prevented Neogenin association with lipid rafts improved neuronal survival and the complexity of the neuronal network following occlusion of the middle artery. Toward the development of a treatment for stroke, we developed a human anti-RGMa antibody that also prevents Neogenin association with lipid rafts. We show that this antibody also protected CNS tissue from ischemic damage and that its application resulted in a significant functional improvement even when administrated 6 h after artery occlusion. Thus, our results draw attention to the role of Neogenin and lipid rafts as potential targets following stroke.

  9. Effects of acrylonitrile on lymphocyte lipid rafts and RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Li, B; Huang, J S; Shi, J M; Wang, P; Fan, W; Zhou, Y L

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used chemical in the production of plastics, resins, nitriles, acrylic fibers, and synthetic rubber. Previous epidemiological investigations and animal studies have confirmed that ACN affects the lymphocytes and spleen. However, the immune toxicity mechanism is unknown. Lipid rafts are cell membrane structures that are rich in cholesterol and involved in cell signal transduction. The B cell lymophoma-10 (Bcl10) protein is a joint protein that is important in lymphocyte development and signal pathways. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro effects of ACN. We separated lipid rafts, and analyzed Bcl10 protein and caveolin. Western blotting was used to detect mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK levels. The results indicated that with increasing ACN concentration, the total amount of Bcl10 remained stable, but was concentrated mainly in part 4 to part 11 in electrophoretic band district which is high density in gradient centrifugation. Caveolin-1 was evaluated as a lipid raft marker protein; caveolin-1 content and position were relatively unchanged. Western blotting showed that in a certain range, MAPK protein was secreted at a higher level. At some ACN exposure levels, MAPK protein secretion was significantly decreased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ACN can cause immune toxicity by damaging lipid raft structures, causing Bcl10 protein and lipid raft separation and restraining Ras-Raf-MAPK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. PMID:25299088

  10. Proteome analysis of Cry4Ba toxin-interacting Aedes aegypti lipid rafts using geLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Zhu, Xiang; Orlando, Ron; Adang, Michael J

    2012-12-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. Among their many functions, lipid rafts are involved in cell toxicity caused by pore forming bacterial toxins including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins. We isolated lipid rafts from brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of Aedes aegypti larvae as a detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fraction on density gradients. Cholesterol, aminopeptidase (APN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the raft marker flotillin were preferentially partitioned into the lipid raft fraction. When mosquitocidal Cry4Ba toxin was preincubated with BBMV, Cry4Ba localized to lipid rafts. A proteomic approach based on one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in-gel trypsin digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (geLC-MS/MS) identified a total of 386 proteins. Of which many are typical lipid raft marker proteins including flotillins and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Identified raft proteins were annotated in silico for functional and physicochemical characteristics. Parameters such as distribution of isoelectric point, molecular mass, and predicted post-translational modifications relevant to lipid raft proteins (GPI anchorage and myristoylation or palmitoylation) were analyzed for identified proteins in the DRM fraction. From a functional point of view, this study identified proteins implicated in Cry toxin interactions as well as membrane-associated proteins expressed in the mosquito midgut that have potential relevance to mosquito biology and vector management.

  11. Severe Alterations in Lipid Composition of Frontal Cortex Lipid Rafts from Parkinson’s Disease and Incidental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson’s disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  12. Cold induces micro- and nano-scale reorganization of lipid raft markers at mounds of T-cell membrane fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Qin, Jie; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W

    2009-01-01

    Whether and how cold causes changes in cell-membrane or lipid rafts remain poorly characterized. Using the NSOM/QD and confocal imaging systems, we found that cold caused microscale redistribution of lipid raft markers, GM1 for lipid and CD59 for protein, from the peripheral part of microdomains to the central part on Jurkat T cells, and that cold also induced the nanoscale size-enlargement (1/3- to 2/3-fold) of the nanoclusters of lipid raft markers and even the colocalization of GM1 and CD59 nanoclusters. These findings indicate cold-induced lateral rearrangement/coalescence of raft-related membrane heterogeneity. The cold-induced re-distribution of lipid raft markers under a nearly-natural condition provide clues for their alternations, and help to propose a model in which raft lipids associate themselves or interact with protein components to generate functional membrane heterogeneity in response to stimulus. The data also underscore the possible cold-induced artifacts in early-described cold-related experiments and the detergent-resistance-based analyses of lipid rafts at 4 degrees C, and provide a biophysical explanation for recently-reported cold-induced activation of signaling pathways in T cells. Importantly, our fluorescence-topographic NSOM imaging demonstrated that GM1/CD59 raft markers distributed and re-distributed at mounds but not depressions of T-cell membrane fluctuations. Such mound-top distribution of lipid raft markers or lipid rafts provides spatial advantage for lipid rafts or contact molecules interacting readily with neighboring cells or free molecules.

  13. Lipid Raft-Mediated Regulation of Hyaluronan–CD44 Interactions in Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays pivotal roles in inflammation and cancer. Hyaluronan oligomers are frequently found in these pathological conditions, in which they exert their effects via association with the transmembrane receptor CD44. Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains that may regulate membrane receptors while serving as platforms for transmembrane signaling at the cell surface. This article focuses on the recent discovery that lipid rafts regulate the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan, which depends largely on hyaluronan’s size. Lipid rafts regulate CD44’s ability to bind hyaluronan in T cells, control the rolling adhesion of lymphocytes on vascular endothelial cells, and regulate hyaluronan- and CD44-mediated cancer cell migration. The implications of these findings for preventing inflammatory disorders and cancer are also discussed. PMID:26347743

  14. Lipid Raft Is Required for PSGL-1 Ligation Induced HL-60 Cell Adhesion on ICAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tingshuang; Liu, Wenai; Luo, Jixian; Li, Chunfeng; Ba, Xueqing; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Wang, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-01-01

    P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and integrins are adhesion molecules that play critical roles in host defense and innate immunity. PSGL-1 mediates leukocyte rolling and primes leukocytes for integrin-mediated adhesion. However, the mechanism that PSGL-1 as a rolling receptor in regulating integrin activation has not been well characterized. Here, we investigate the function of lipid raft in regulating PSGL-1 induced β2 integrin-mediated HL-60 cells adhesion. PSGL-1 ligation with antibody enhances the β2 integrin activation and β2 integrin-dependent adhesion to ICAM-1. Importantly, with the treatment of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), we confirm the role of lipid raft in regulating the activation of β2 integrin. Furthermore, we find that the protein level of PSGL-1 decreased in raft fractions in MβCD treated cells. PSGL-1 ligation induces the recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a tyrosine kinase and Vav1 (the pivotal downstream effector of Syk signaling pathway involved in cytoskeleton regulation) to lipid raft. Inhibition of Syk activity with pharmacologic inhibitor strongly reduces HL-60 cells adhesion, implicating Syk is crucial for PSGL-1 mediated β2 integrin activation. Taken together, we report that ligation of PSGL-1 on HL-60 cells activates β2 integrin, for which lipid raft integrity and Syk activation are responsible. These findings have shed new light on the mechanisms that connect leukocyte initial rolling with subsequent adhesion. PMID:24312591

  15. A role for lipid rafts in the protection afforded by docosahexaenoic acid against ethanol toxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Aliche-Djoudi, Fatiha; Podechard, Normand; Collin, Aurore; Chevanne, Martine; Provost, Emilie; Poul, Martine; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Sergent, Odile

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid enhanced ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes via an increase in membrane fluidity and lipid raft clustering. In this context, another n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was tested with a special emphasis on physical and chemical alteration of lipid rafts. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with DHA reduced significantly ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death. DHA protection could be related to an alteration of lipid rafts. Indeed, rafts exhibited a marked increase in membrane fluidity and packing defects leading to the exclusion of a raft protein marker, flotillin. Furthermore, DHA strongly inhibited disulfide bridge formation, even in control cells, thus suggesting a disruption of protein-protein interactions inside lipid rafts. This particular spatial organization of lipid rafts due to DHA subsequently prevented the ethanol-induced lipid raft clustering. Such a prevention was then responsible for the inhibition of phospholipase C-γ translocation into rafts, and consequently of both lysosome accumulation and elevation in cellular low-molecular-weight iron content, a prooxidant factor. In total, the present study suggests that DHA supplementation could represent a new preventive approach for patients with alcoholic liver disease based upon modulation of the membrane structures.

  16. Altered lipid composition in cortical lipid rafts occurs at early stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and facilitates APP/BACE1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Marín, Raquel; Moreno, Dolores; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2014-08-01

    The presence of lipid alterations in lipid rafts from the frontal cortex in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we have isolated and analyzed the lipid composition of lipid rafts from different brain areas from control and AD subjects at initial neuropathologic stages. We have observed that frontal cortex lipid rafts are profoundly altered in AD brains from the earliest stages of AD, namely AD I/II. These changes in the lipid matrix of lipid rafts affected both lipid classes and fatty acids and were also detected in the entorhinal cortex, but not in the cerebellum from the same subjects. Paralleling these changes, lipid rafts from AD frontal and entorhinal cortices displayed higher anisotropy for environment-sensitive probes, indicating that lipid changes in AD lipid rafts increased membrane order and viscosity in these domains. The pathophysiological consequences of these alterations in the development and progression of AD were strengthened by the significant, and specific, accumulation of β-secretase within the lipid rafts of AD subjects even at the earliest stages. Our results provide a mechanistic connection between lipid alterations in these microdomains and amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein.

  17. Altered dynamics of a lipid raft associated protein in a kidney model of Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Labilloy, Anatália; Youker, Robert T; Bruns, Jennifer R; Kukic, Ira; Kiselyov, Kirill; Halfter, Willi; Finegold, David; do Monte, Semiramis Jamil Hadad; Weisz, Ora A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other neutral glycosphingolipids with galactosyl residues is the hallmark of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). These lipids are incorporated into the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes, with a preference for lipid rafts. Disruption of raft mediated cell processes is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, but little is known about the effects of the accumulation of glycosphingolipids on raft dynamics in the context of Fabry disease. Using siRNA technology, we have generated a polarized renal epithelial cell model of Fabry disease in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These cells present increased levels of Gb3 and enlarged lysosomes, and progressively accumulate zebra bodies. The polarized delivery of both raft-associated and raft-independent proteins was unaffected by α-gal A knockdown, suggesting that accumulation of Gb3 does not disrupt biosynthetic trafficking pathways. To assess the effect of α-gal A silencing on lipid raft dynamics, we employed number and brightness (N&B) analysis to measure the oligomeric status and mobility of the model glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein GFP-GPI. We observed a significant increase in the oligomeric size of antibody-induced clusters of GFP-GPI at the plasma membrane of α-gal A silenced cells compared with control cells. Our results suggest that the interaction of GFP-GPI with lipid rafts may be altered in the presence of accumulated Gb3. The implications of our results with respect to the pathogenesis of Fabry disease are discussed.

  18. Molecular targets of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): specificity and interaction with membrane lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Patra, S K; Rizzi, F; Silva, A; Rugina, D O; Bettuzzi, S

    2008-12-01

    Proteomic studies on anticancer activity of Green Tea Catechins (specifically EGCG) are suggesting a large set of protein targets that may directly interact with EGCG and alter the physiology of diseased cells, including cancer. Of notice, benign cells are usually left untouched. Lipid rafts have been recently recognized as signal processing hubs and suggested to be involved in drug uptake by means of endocytosis. These findings are suggesting new insights on the molecular mechanisms of anticancer drugs action. In the membrane, EGCG is hijacked by the laminin receptor (LamR), a lipid raft protein. Similar to aplidin and edelfosin, EGCG alters membrane domains composition also preventing EGF binding to EGFR, imerization of EGFR and relocation of phosphorylated EGFR to lipid rafts. In vitro studies have recently shown that EGCG also binds both DNA and RNA in GpC-rich regions. This event may importantly affect genes function. Moreover, EGCG was shown to inhibit telomerase, topoisomerase II and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), thus ultimately affecting chromatin maintenance and remodeling. But another important alternative pathway besides interaction with specific proteins may play an important role in EGCG action: direct targeting of bioactive membrane platforms, lipid rafts. Structural alteration of the platforms deeply impact (and often inactivates) important pathways involving MAP kinases. The key issue is that, important and specific differences in lipid rafts composition have been found in transformed versus benign cells and apoptotic versus non-apoptotic cells. We suggest here that the anticancer activity of Green Tea Catechins against different kind of cancers may find an explanation in direct targeting of lipid rafts by EGCG. PMID:19261982

  19. Dynamical clustering and a mechanism for raft-like structures in a model lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Starr, Francis W; Hartmann, Benedikt; Douglas, Jack F

    2014-05-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to examine the dynamical heterogeneity of a model single-component lipid membrane using a coarse-grained representation of lipid molecules. This model qualitatively reproduces the known phase transitions between disordered, ordered, and gel membrane phases, and the phase transitions are accompanied by significant changes in the nature of the lipid dynamics. In particular, lipid diffusion in the liquid-ordered phase is hindered by the transient trapping of molecules by their neighbors, similar to the dynamics of a liquid approaching its glass transition. This transient molecular caging gives rise to two distinct mobility groups within a single-component membrane: lipids that are transiently trapped, and lipids with displacements on the scale of the intermolecular spacing. Most significantly, lipids within these distinct mobility states spatially segregate, creating transient "islands" of enhanced mobility having a size and time scale compatible with lipid "rafts," dynamical structures thought to be important for cell membrane function. Although the dynamic lipid clusters that we observe do not themselves correspond to rafts (which are more complex, multicomponent structures), we hypothesize that such rafts may develop from the same universal mechanism, explaining why raft-like regions should arise, regardless of lipid structural or compositional details. These clusters are strikingly similar to the dynamical clusters found in glass-forming fluids, and distinct from phase-separation clusters. We also show that mobile lipid clusters can be dissected into smaller clusters of cooperatively rearranging molecules. The geometry of these clusters can be understood in the context of branched equilibrium polymers, related to percolation theory. We discuss how these dynamical structures relate to a range observations on the dynamics of lipid membranes.

  20. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, Adebowale Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  1. Lipid raft-associated β-adducin is required for PSGL-1-mediated neutrophil rolling on P-selectin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingshuang; Liu, Wenai; Yang, Chen; Ba, Xueqing; Wang, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong; Zeng, Xianlu

    2015-02-01

    Lipid rafts, a liquid-ordered plasma membrane microdomain, are related to cell-surface receptor function. PSGL-1, a major surface receptor protein for leukocyte, also acts as a signaling receptor in leukocyte rolling. To investigate the role of lipid raft in PSGL-1 signaling in human neutrophils, we quantitatively analyzed lipid raft proteome of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 cells and identified a lipid raft-associated protein β-adducin. PSGL-1 ligation induced dissociation of the raft-associated protein β-adducin from lipid rafts and actin, as well as phosphorylation of β-adducin, indicating a transient uncoupling of lipid rafts from the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of β-adducin greatly attenuated HL-60 cells rolling on P-selectin. We also showed that Src kinase is crucial for PSGL-1 ligation-induced β-adducin phosphorylation and relocation. Taken together, these results show that β-adducin is a pivotal lipid raft-associated protein in PSGL-1-mediated neutrophil rolling on P-selectin.

  2. Sphingolipids, Lipid Rafts, and Giardial Encystation: The Show Must Go On

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Tavis L.; De Chatterjee, Atasi; Duarte, Trevor; De Leon, Joaquin; Robles-Martinez, Leobarda

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are sphingosine-based phospholipids, which are present in the plasma and endomembranes of many eukaryotic cells. These lipids are involved in various cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (also called “lipid rafts”) contain a set of proteins and lipids, which take part in the signaling process in response to intra- or extracellular stimuli. Recent findings suggest that sphingolipids, especially glucosylceramide, play a critical role in inducing encystation and maintaining the cyst viability in Giardia. Similarly, the assembly/disassembly of lipid rafts modulates the encystation and cyst production of this ubiquitous enteric parasite. In this review article, we discuss the overall progress in the field and examine whether sphingolipids and lipid rafts can be used as novel targets for designing therapies to control infection by Giardia, which is rampant in developing countries, where children are especially vulnerable. PMID:26587369

  3. Dynamical Clustering and the Origin of Raft-like Structures in a Model Lipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Francis

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the dynamical heterogeneity of a model single-component lipid membrane using simulations of a coarse-grained representation of lipid molecules. In the liquid-ordered (LO) phase, lipid diffusion is hindered by the transient trapping of molecules by their neighbors, giving rise to two distinct mobility groups: low-mobility lipids which are temporarily ``caged'', and lipids with displacements on the scale of the intermolecular spacing. The lipid molecules within these distinct mobility states cluster, giving rise to transient ``islands'' of enhanced mobility having the size and time scale expected for lipid ``rafts''. These clusters are strikingly similar to the dynamical clusters found in glass-forming fluids, and distinct from phase-separation clusters. Such dynamic heterogeneity is ubiquitous in disordered condensed-phase systems. Thus, we hypothesize that rafts may originate from this universal mechanism, explaining why raft-like regions should arise, regardless of lipid structural or compositional details. This perspective provides a new approach to understand membrane transport.

  4. The association of thromboxane A2 receptor with lipid rafts is a determinant for platelet functional responses.

    PubMed

    Moscardó, A; Vallés, J; Latorre, A; Santos, M T

    2014-08-25

    We have investigated the presence of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor associated with lipid rafts in human platelets and the regulation of platelet function in response to TXA2 receptor agonists when lipid rafts are disrupted by cholesterol extraction. Platelet aggregation with TXA2 analogs U46619 and IBOP was almost blunted in cholesterol-depleted platelets, as well as αIIbβ3 integrin activation and P-selectin exposure. Raft disruption also inhibited TXA2-induced cytosolic calcium increase and nucleotide release, ruling out an implication of P2Y12 receptor. An important proportion of TXA2 receptor (40%) was colocalized at lipid rafts. The presence of the TXA2 receptor associated with lipid rafts in platelets is important for functional platelet responses to TXA2.

  5. Membrane lipid rafts, master regulators of hematopoietic stem cell retention in bone marrow and their trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, M Z; Adamiak, M

    2015-07-01

    Cell outer membranes contain glycosphingolipids and protein receptors, which are integrated into glycoprotein microdomains, known as lipid rafts, which float freely in the membrane bilayer. These structures have an important role in assembling signaling molecules (e.g., Rac-1, RhoH and Lyn) together with surface receptors, such as the CXCR4 receptor for α-chemokine stromal-derived factor-1, the α4β1-integrin receptor (VLA-4) for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the c-kit receptor for stem cell factor, which together regulate several aspects of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) biology. Here, we discuss the role of lipid raft integrity in the retention and quiescence of normal HSPCs in bone marrow niches as well as in regulating HSPC mobilization and homing. We will also discuss the pathological consequences of the defect in lipid raft integrity seen in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and the emerging evidence for the involvement of lipid rafts in hematological malignancies.

  6. Further evidence that paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria is a disorder of defective cell membrane lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Borkowska, Sylwia; Mierzejewska, Kasia; Kucia, Magda; Mendek-Czajkowska, Ewa; Suszynska, Malwina; Sharma, Vivek A; Deptala, Andrzej; Song, Wechao; Platzbecker, Uwe; Larratt, Loree; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Maciejewski, Jarek; Ratajczak, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-A) plays an important role in lipid raft formation, which is required for proper expression on the cell surface of two inhibitors of the complement cascade, CD55 and CD59. The absence of these markers from the surface of blood cells, including erythrocytes, makes the cells susceptible to complement lysis, as seen in patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). However, the explanation for why PNH-affected hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) expand over time in BM is still unclear. Here, we propose an explanation for this phenomenon and provide evidence that a defect in lipid raft formation in HSPCs leads to defective CXCR4- and VLA-4-mediated retention of these cells in BM. In support of this possibility, BM-isolated CD34(+) cells from PNH patients show a defect in the incorporation of CXCR4 and VLA-4 into membrane lipid rafts, respond weakly to SDF-1 stimulation, and show defective adhesion to fibronectin. Similar data were obtained with the GPI-A(-) Jurkat cell line. Moreover, we also report that chimeric mice transplanted with CD55(-/-)  CD59(-/-) BM cells but with proper GPI-A expression do not expand over time in transplanted hosts. On the basis of these findings, we propose that a defect in lipid raft formation in PNH-mutated HSPCs makes these cells more mobile, so that they expand and out-compete normal HSPCs from their BM niches over time.

  7. Juvenile-onset loss of lipid-raft domains in attractin-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Azouz, Abdallah; Gunn, Teresa M.; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S. . E-mail: Jonathan_Duke-Cohan@dfci.harvard.edu

    2007-02-15

    Mutations at the attractin (Atrn) locus in mice result in altered pigmentation on an agouti background, higher basal metabolic rate and juvenile-onset hypomyelination leading to neurodegeneration, while studies on human immune cells indicate a chemotaxis regulatory function. The underlying biochemical defect remains elusive. In this report we identify a role for attractin in plasma membrane maintenance. In attractin's absence there is a decline in plasma membrane glycolipid-enriched rafts from normal levels at 8 weeks to a complete absence by 24 weeks. The structural integrity of lipid rafts depends upon cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and can be identified by partitioning within of ganglioside GM{sub 1}. Despite a significant fall in cellular cholesterol with maturity, and a lesser fall in both membrane and total cellular GM{sub 1}, these parameters lag behind raft loss, and are normal when hypomyelination/neurodegeneration has already begun thus supporting consequence rather than cause. These findings can be recapitulated in Atrn-deficient cell lines propagated in vitro. Further, signal transduction through complex membrane receptor assemblies is not grossly disturbed despite the complete absence of lipid rafts. We find these results compatible with a role for attractin in plasma membrane maintenance and consistent with the proposal that the juvenile-onset hypomyelination and neurodegeneration represent a defect in attractin-mediated raft-dependent myelin biogenesis.

  8. Probing Lipid Membrane Rafts (Microdomains) with Fluorescent Phospholipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongwen; Mitchel, Drake

    2011-10-01

    Membrane rafts are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol, they exist in a more ordered state (the liquid-ordered phase; lo) than the bulk membrane (the liquid-disordered phase; ld). Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form membrane rafts over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes, NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions into the lo phase, and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions into the ld phase, to detect these two phases. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the size and stability of POPC/SPM/Chol membrane rafts. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of two fluorescent probes. Data were acquired via frequency-domain measurements from 5 to 250 MHz.

  9. The synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is dependent on CD19-PI3K module and cytoskeleton remodeling molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liling; Auzins, Arturs; Sun, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinsheng; Harnischfeger, Fiona; Lu, Yun; Li, Zhanguo; Chen, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Wenjie; Liu, Wanli

    2015-08-01

    Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains are important in the initiation of BCR signaling. Although it is known that lipid rafts promote the coclustering of BCR and Lyn kinase microclusters within the B cell IS, the molecular mechanism of the recruitment of lipid rafts into the B cell IS is not understood completely. Here, we report that the synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is dependent on the cytoskeleton-remodeling proteins, RhoA and Vav. Such an event is also efficiently regulated by motor proteins, myosin IIA and dynein. Further evidence suggests the synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is, by principle, an event triggered by BCR signaling molecules and second messenger molecules. BCR-activating coreceptor CD19 potently enhances such an event depending on its cytoplasmic Tyr421 and Tyr482 residues. The enhancing function of the CD19-PI3K module in synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is also confirmed in human peripheral blood B cells. Thus, these results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the recruitment of lipid raft microdomains in B cell IS.

  10. Lipid Peroxides Promote Large Rafts: Effects of Excitation of Probes in Fluorescence Microscopy and Electrochemical Reactions during Vesicle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ayuyan, Artem G.; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2006-01-01

    Raft formation and enlargement was investigated in liposomes and supported bilayers prepared from sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol, and unsaturated phospholipids; NBD-DPPE and rhodamine-(DOPE) were employed as fluorescent probes. Rafts were created by lowering temperature. Maintaining 20 mol % SM, fluorescence microscopy showed that, in the absence of photooxidation, large rafts did not form in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing 20 or more mol % cholesterol. But if photooxidation was allowed to proceed, large rafts were readily observed. In population, cuvette experiments, small rafts formed without photooxidation at high cholesterol concentrations. Thus, photooxidation was the cause of raft enlargement during microscopy experiments. Because photooxidation results in peroxidation at lipid double bonds, photosensitization experiments were performed to explicitly produce peroxides of SM and an unsaturated phospholipid. GUVs of high cholesterol content containing the breakdown products of SM-peroxide, but not phospholipid-peroxide, resulted in large rafts after lowering temperature. In addition, GUV production by electroswelling can result in peroxides that cause large raft formation. The use of titanium electrodes eliminates this problem. In conclusion, lipid peroxides and their breakdown products are the cause of large raft formation in GUVs containing biological levels of cholesterol. It is critical that experiments investigating rafts in bilayer membranes avoid the production of peroxides. PMID:16815906

  11. Cholesterol accumulation in Niemann Pick type C (NPC) model cells causes a shift in APP localization to lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kosicek, Marko; Malnar, Martina; Goate, Alison; Hecimovic, Silva

    2010-03-12

    It has been suggested that cholesterol may modulate amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) formation, a causative factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by regulating distribution of the three key proteins in the pathogenesis of AD ({beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP), {beta}-secretase (BACE1) and/or presenilin 1 (PS1)) within lipid rafts. In this work we tested whether cholesterol accumulation upon NPC1 dysfunction, which causes Niemann Pick type C disease (NPC), causes increased partitioning of APP into lipid rafts leading to increased CTF/A{beta} formation in these cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. To test this we used CHO NPC1{sup -/-} cells (NPC cells) and parental CHOwt cells. By sucrose density gradient centrifugation we observed a shift in fl-APP/CTF compartmentalization into lipid raft fractions upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC vs. wt cells. Furthermore, {gamma}-secretase inhibitor treatment significantly increased fl-APP/CTF distribution in raft fractions in NPC vs. wt cells, suggesting that upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC1-null cells increased formation of APP-CTF and its increased processing towards A{beta} occurs in lipid rafts. Our results support that cholesterol overload, such as in NPC disease, leads to increased partitioning of APP/CTF into lipid rafts resulting in increased amyloidogenic processing of APP in these cholesterol-rich membranes. This work adds to the mechanism of the cholesterol-effect on APP processing and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and supports the role of lipid rafts in these processes.

  12. Hypoxia reduces the efficiency of elisidepsin by inhibiting hydroxylation and altering the structure of lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Király, Anna; Váradi, Tímea; Hajdu, Tímea; Rühl, Ralph; Galmarini, Carlos M; Szöllősi, János; Nagy, Peter

    2013-12-02

    The mechanism of action of elisidepsin (PM02734, Irvalec®) is assumed to involve membrane permeabilization via attacking lipid rafts and hydroxylated lipids. Here we investigate the role of hypoxia in the mechanism of action of elisidepsin. Culturing under hypoxic conditions increased the half-maximal inhibitory concentration and decreased the drug's binding to almost all cell lines which was reversed by incubation of cells with 2-hydroxy palmitic acid. The expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase was strongly correlated with the efficiency of the drug and inversely correlated with the effect of hypoxia. Number and brightness analysis and fluorescence anisotropy experiments showed that hypoxia decreased the clustering of lipid rafts and altered the structure of the plasma membrane. Although the binding of elisidepsin to the membrane is non-cooperative, its membrane permeabilizing effect is characterized by a Hill coefficient of ~3.3. The latter finding is in agreement with elisidepsin-induced clusters of lipid raft-anchored GFP visualized by confocal microscopy. We propose that the concentration of elisidepsin needs to reach a critical level in the membrane above which elisidepsin induces the disruption of the cell membrane. Testing for tumor hypoxia or the density of hydroxylated lipids could be an interesting strategy to increase the efficiency of elisidepsin.

  13. Drug Uptake, Lipid Rafts, and Vesicle Trafficking Modulate Resistance to an Anticancer Lysophosphatidylcholine Analogue in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Marbán, Álvaro; Botet, Javier; Czyz, Ola; Cacharro, Luis M.; Gajate, Consuelo; Hornillos, Valentín; Delgado, Javier; Zhang, Hui; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; Acuña, A. Ulises; McMaster, Christopher R.; Revuelta, José Luis; Zaremberg, Vanina; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    The ether-phospholipid edelfosine, a prototype antitumor lipid (ATL), kills yeast cells and selectively kills several cancer cell types. To gain insight into its mechanism of action, we performed chemogenomic screens in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene-deletion strain collection, identifying edelfosine-resistant mutants. LEM3, AGP2, and DOC1 genes were required for drug uptake. Edelfosine displaced the essential proton pump Pma1p from rafts, inducing its internalization into the vacuole. Additional ATLs, including miltefosine and perifosine, also displaced Pma1p from rafts to the vacuole, suggesting that this process is a major hallmark of ATL cytotoxicity in yeast. Radioactive and synthetic fluorescent edelfosine analogues accumulated in yeast plasma membrane rafts and subsequently the endoplasmic reticulum. Although both edelfosine and Pma1p were initially located at membrane rafts, internalization of the drug toward endoplasmic reticulum and Pma1p to the vacuole followed different routes. Drug internalization was not dependent on endocytosis and was not critical for yeast cytotoxicity. However, mutants affecting endocytosis, vesicle sorting, or trafficking to the vacuole, including the retromer and ESCRT complexes, prevented Pma1p internalization and were edelfosine-resistant. Our data suggest that edelfosine-induced cytotoxicity involves raft reorganization and retromer- and ESCRT-mediated vesicular transport and degradation of essential raft proteins leading to cell death. Cytotoxicity of ATLs is mainly dependent on the changes they induce in plasma membrane raft-located proteins that lead to their internalization and subsequent degradation. Edelfosine toxicity can be circumvented by inactivating genes that then result in the recycling of internalized cell-surface proteins back to the plasma membrane. PMID:23335509

  14. Native ligands change integrin sequestering but not oligomerization in raft-mimicking lipid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Amanda P; Kimble-Hill, Ann; Garg, Sumit; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A

    2011-10-01

    Distinct lipid environments, including lipid rafts, are increasingly recognized as a crucial factor affecting membrane protein function in plasma membranes. Unfortunately, an understanding of their role in membrane protein activation and oligomerization has remained elusive due to the challenge of characterizing these often small and transient plasma membrane heterogeneities in live cells. To address this difficulty, we present an experimental model membrane platform based on polymer-supported lipid bilayers containing stable raft-mimicking domains (type I) and homogeneous cholesterol-lipid mixtures (type II) into which transmembrane proteins are incorporated (α(v)β(3) and α(5)β(1) integrins). These flexible lipid platforms enable the use of confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, including the photon counting histogram method, in tandem with epifluorescence microscopy to quantitatively probe the effect of the binding of native ligands from the extracellular matrix ligands (vitronectin and fibronectin for α(v)β(3) and α(5)β(1), respectively) on domain-specific protein sequestration and on protein oligomerization state. We found that both α(v)β(3) and α(5)β(1) sequester preferentially to nonraft domains in the absence of extracellular matrix ligands, but upon ligand addition, α(v)β(3) sequesters strongly into raft-like domains and α(5)β(1) loses preference for either raft-like or nonraft-like domains. A corresponding photon counting histogram analysis showed that integrins exist predominantly in a monomeric state. No change was detected in oligomerization state upon ligand binding in either type I or type II bilayers, but a moderate increase in oligomerization state was observed for increasing concentrations of cholesterol. The combined findings suggest a mechanism in which changes in integrin sequestering are caused by ligand-induced changes in integrin conformation and/or dynamics that affect integrin-lipid interactions without altering the integrin

  15. Lipid raft-mediated Fas/CD95 apoptotic signaling in leukemic cells and normal leukocytes and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Gajate, Consuelo; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2015-11-01

    Plasma membrane is now recognized to contain tightly packed cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich domains, known as lipid or membrane rafts, which are more ordered than the surrounding lipid bilayer. Lipid rafts are crucial for the compartmentalization of signaling processes in the membrane, mostly involved in cell survival and immune response. However, in the last 15 years, a large body of evidence has also identified raft platforms as scaffolds for the recruitment and clustering of death receptor Fas/CD95 and downstream signaling molecules, leading to the concept of death-promoting lipid rafts. This raft-Fas/CD95 coclustering was first described at the early 2000s as the underlying mechanism for the proapoptotic action of the alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine in leukemic cells, hence facilitating protein-protein interactions and conveying apoptotic signals independently of Fas/CD95 ligand. Edelfosine induces apoptosis in hematologic cancer cells and activated T-lymphocytes. Fas/CD95 raft coclustering is also promoted by Fas/CD95 ligand, agonistic Fas/CD95 antibodies, and additional antitumor drugs. Thus, death receptor recruitment in rafts is a physiologic process leading to cell demise that can be pharmacologically modulated. This redistribution and local accumulation of apoptotic molecules in membrane rafts, which are usually accompanied by displacement of survival signaling molecules, highlight how alterations in the apoptosis/survival signaling balance in specialized membrane regions modulate cell fate. Membrane rafts might also modulate apoptotic and nonapoptotic death receptor signaling. Here, we discuss the role of lipid rafts in Fas/CD95-mediated apoptotic cell signaling in hematologic cancer cells and normal leukocytes, with a special emphasis on their involvement as putative therapeutic targets in cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  16. Lipid rafts participate in aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta peptide in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Yang, Chun; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Peng; Yang, Huiying; Dai, Jingxing; Qu, Rongmei; Yuan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are found in Alzheimer's disease. The generation and deposition of amyloid-beta is one of the crucial factors for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Lipid rafts are glycolipid-rich liquid domains of the plasma membrane, where certain types of protein tend to aggregate and intercalate. Lipid rafts are involved in the generation of amyloid-beta oligomers and the formation of amyloid-beta peptides. In this paper, we review the mechanism by which lipid rafts disturb the aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta, which plays an important role in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, we describe this mechanism from the view of the Two-system Theory of fasciology and thus, suggest that lipid rafts may be a new target of Alzheimer's disease treatment. PMID:25206748

  17. Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2015-02-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have evolved complex relationships with their host cells, and modulate their lipid composition, lipid synthesis and signalling. Lipid rafts, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and associated proteins, are special plasma membrane microdomains involved in several processes in viral infections. The extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to lipid rafts. Because cholesterol-rich microdomains appear to be a general feature of the entry mechanism of non-eneveloped viruses and of several coronaviruses, the purpose of this study was to analyse the contribution of lipids to the infectivity of canine coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV life cycle is closely connected to plasma membrane cholesterol, from cell entry to viral particle production. The methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) was employed to remove cholesterol and to disrupt the lipid rafts. Cholesterol depletion from the cell membrane resulted in a dose-dependent reduction, but not abolishment, of virus infectivity, and at a concentration of 15 mM, the reduction in the infection rate was about 68 %. MβCD treatment was used to verify if cholesterol in the envelope was required for CCoV infection. This resulted in a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, and at a concentration of 9 mM MβCD, infectivity was reduced by about 73 %. Since viral entry would constitute a target for antiviral strategies, inhibitory molecules interacting with viral and/or cell membranes, or interfering with lipid metabolism, may have strong antiviral potential. It will be interesting in the future to analyse the membrane microdomains in the CCoV envelope.

  18. AFM of the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of lipid-raft-disrupted and/or cold-treated endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Huang, Jie; Yu, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Gan, Chaoye; Li, Ming; Chen, Yong

    2014-02-01

    The nonionic detergent extraction at 4 °C and the cholesterol-depletion-induced lipid raft disruption are the two widely used experimental strategies for lipid raft research. However, the effects of raft disruption and/or cold treatment on the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of cells are still unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of raft disruption and/or cold (4 °C) treatment on these properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At first, the cholesterol-depletion-induced raft disruption was visualized by confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in combination with fluorescent quantum dots. Next, the cold-induced cell contraction and the formation of end-branched filopodia were observed by confocal microscopy and AFM. Then, the cell-surface ultrastructures were imaged by AFM, and the data showed that raft disruption and cold treatment induced opposite effects on cell-surface roughness (a significant decrease and a significant increase, respectively). Moreover, the cell-surface mechanical properties (stiffness and adhesion force) of raft-disrupted- and/or cold-treated HUVECs were measured by the force measurement function of AFM. We found that raft disruption and cold treatment induced parallel effects on cell stiffness (increase) or adhesion force (decrease) and that the combination of the two treatments caused dramatically strengthened effects. Finally, raft disruption was found to significantly impair cell migration as previously reported, whereas temporary cold treatment only caused a slight but nonsignificant decrease in cell migration performed at physiological temperature. Although the mechanisms for causing these results might be complicated and more in-depth studies will be needed, our data may provide important information for better understanding the effects of raft disruption or cold treatment on cells and the two strategies for lipid raft research.

  19. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Huang, Q L; Zhao, C M; Tang, J L; Wang, Y L

    2011-06-01

    White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05) and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05). Injection of GM1 increased the content of GM1 in lipid rafts as well as NF155 expression and its lipid raft association in HIBD rat brains. GM1 may repair the structure of lipid rafts, promote the association of NF155 (or other important proteins) with lipid rafts, stabilize the structure of paranodes, and eventually prevent myelin sheath damage, suggesting a novel mechanism for its neuroprotective properties.

  20. Complex and Multidimensional Lipid Raft Alterations in a Murine Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Wayne; Brenneman, Randall; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Various animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been created to assist our appreciation of AD pathophysiology, as well as aid development of novel therapeutic strategies. Despite the discovery of mutated proteins that predict the development of AD, there are likely to be many other proteins also involved in this disorder. Complex physiological processes are mediated by coherent interactions of clusters of functionally related proteins. Synaptic dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of AD. Synaptic proteins are organized into multiprotein complexes in high-density membrane structures, known as lipid rafts. These microdomains enable coherent clustering of synergistic signaling proteins. We have used mass analytical techniques and multiple bioinformatic approaches to better appreciate the intricate interactions of these multifunctional proteins in the 3xTgAD murine model of AD. Our results show that there are significant alterations in numerous receptor/cell signaling proteins in cortical lipid rafts isolated from 3xTgAD mice. PMID:21151659

  1. Disruption of lipid rafts interferes with the interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with macrophages and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Karla Dias; Cruz, Thayana Araújo; Veras de Moraes, Gabriela; Paredes-Santos, Tatiana Christina; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can penetrate any warm-blooded animal cell. Conserved molecular assemblies of host cell plasma membranes should be involved in the parasite-host cell recognition. Lipid rafts are well-conserved membrane microdomains that contain high concentrations of cholesterol, sphingolipids, glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI-anchored proteins, and dually acylated proteins such as members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Disturbing lipid rafts of mouse peritoneal macrophages and epithelial cells of the lineage LLC-MK2 with methyl-beta cyclodextrin (M β CD) and filipin, which interfere with cholesterol or lidocaine, significantly inhibited internalization of T. gondii in both cell types, although adhesion remained unaffected in macrophages and decreased only in LLC-MK2 cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these observations. Results are discussed in terms of the original role of macrophages as professional phagocytes versus the LLC-MK2 cell lineage originated from kidney epithelial cells. PMID:24734239

  2. Disruption of Lipid Rafts Interferes with the Interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Karla Dias; Cruz, Thayana Araújo; Veras de Moraes, Gabriela; Paredes-Santos, Tatiana Christina; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can penetrate any warm-blooded animal cell. Conserved molecular assemblies of host cell plasma membranes should be involved in the parasite-host cell recognition. Lipid rafts are well-conserved membrane microdomains that contain high concentrations of cholesterol, sphingolipids, glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI-anchored proteins, and dually acylated proteins such as members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Disturbing lipid rafts of mouse peritoneal macrophages and epithelial cells of the lineage LLC-MK2 with methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) and filipin, which interfere with cholesterol or lidocaine, significantly inhibited internalization of T. gondii in both cell types, although adhesion remained unaffected in macrophages and decreased only in LLC-MK2 cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these observations. Results are discussed in terms of the original role of macrophages as professional phagocytes versus the LLC-MK2 cell lineage originated from kidney epithelial cells. PMID:24734239

  3. HIV-1 Vpu's lipid raft association is dispensable for counteraction of the particle release restriction imposed by CD317/Tetherin

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Joeelle V. Tibroni, Nadine Keppler, Oliver T. Fackler, Oliver T.

    2012-03-01

    HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the block to particle release mediated by CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Vpu and CD317 partially reside in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts where HIV-1 budding preferentially occurs. Here we find that lipid raft association of ectopically expressed or endogenous CD317 was unaltered upon co-expression with Vpu or following HIV-1 infection. Similarly, Vpu's lipid raft association remained unchanged upon expression of CD317. We identify amino acids V25 and Y29 of Vpu as crucial for microdomain partitioning and single substitution of these amino acids resulted in Vpu variants with markedly reduced or undetectable lipid raft association. These mutations did not affect Vpu's subcellular distribution and binding capacity to CD317, nor its ability to downmodulate cell surface CD317 and promote HIV-1 release from CD317-positive cells. We conclude that (i) lipid raft incorporation is dispensable for Vpu-mediated CD317 antagonism and (ii) Vpu does not antagonize CD317 by extraction from lipid rafts.

  4. Alterations in cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Ke; Tan, Liang; Chen, Yu-Hua; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the protein, cholesterol, and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and identify potential blood biomarkers of the disease. A total of 31 Chinese patients with AD and 31 aged-matched control subjects were selected. Lipid rafts were isolated from platelets using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. The protein content of lipid rafts was evaluated using Micro BCA assay, the cholesterol content using molecular probes, ganglioside GM1 content using colorimetry and dot-blotting analysis. The results showed that the cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts from platelets was significantly higher in patients with AD than aged-matched control subjects, whereas the protein content of lipid rafts did not show any differences between the 2 groups. These results indicate that the increases in the cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts from the platelets of patients with AD might serve as a biochemical adjunct to the clinical diagnosis of AD.

  5. The stromal cell-surface protease fibroblast activation protein-α localizes to lipid rafts and is recruited to invadopodia.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Julia D; Tholen, Stefan; Koczorowska, Maria M; De Wever, Olivier; Biniossek, Martin L; Schilling, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAPα) is a cell surface protease expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts in the microenvironment of most solid tumors. As there is increasing evidence for proteases having non-catalytic functions, we determined the FAPα interactome in cancer-associated fibroblasts using the quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown (QUICK) method. Complex formation with adenosin deaminase, erlin-2, stomatin, prohibitin, Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein, and caveolin-1 was further validated by immunoblotting. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) of the known stoichiometric FAPα binding partner dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV) corroborated the proteomic strategy. Reverse co-IPs validated the FAPα interaction with caveolin-1, erlin-2, and stomatin while co-IP upon RNA-interference mediated knock-down of DPPIV excluded adenosin deaminase as a direct FAPα interaction partner. Many newly identified FAPα interaction partners localize to lipid rafts, including caveolin-1, a widely-used marker for lipid raft localization. We hypothesized that this indicates a recruitment of FAPα to lipid raft structures. In density gradient centrifugation, FAPα co-fractionates with caveolin-1. Immunofluorescence optical sectioning microscopy of FAPα and lipid raft markers further corroborates recruitment of FAPα to lipid rafts and invadopodia. FAPα is therefore an integral component of stromal lipid rafts in solid tumors. In essence, we provide one of the first interactome analyses of a cell surface protease and translate these results into novel biological aspects of a marker protein for cancer-associated fibroblasts.

  6. Lipid rafts are required for GLUT4 internalization in adipose cells.

    PubMed

    Ros-Baro, A; Lopez-Iglesias, C; Peiro, S; Bellido, D; Palacin, M; Zorzano, A; Camps, M

    2001-10-01

    It has been recently reported that insulin recruits a novel signaling machinery to lipid rafts required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation [Baumann, A., Ribon, V., Kanzaki, M., Thurmond, D. C., Mora, S., Shigematsu, S., Bickel, P. E., Pessin, J. E. & Saltiel, A. R. (2001) Nature 407, 202-207, 2000; Chiang, S. H., Baumann, C. A., Kanzaki, M., Thurmond, D. C., Watson, R. T., Neudauer, C. L., Macara, I. G., Pessin, J. E. & Saltiel, A. R. (2001) Nature 410, 944-948]. We have assessed the role of lipid rafts on GLUT4 traffic in adipose cells. High GLUT4 levels were detected in caveolae from adipocytes by two approaches, the mechanical isolation of purified caveolae from plasma membrane lawns and the immunogold analysis of plasma membrane lawns followed by freeze-drying. The role of lipid rafts in GLUT4 trafficking was studied by adding nystatin or filipin at concentrations that specifically disrupt caveolae morphology and inhibit caveolae function without altering clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These caveolae inhibitors did not affect the insulin-stimulated glucose transport. However, they blocked both the GLUT4 internalization and the down-regulation of glucose transport triggered by insulin removal in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our data indicate that lipid rafts are crucial for GLUT4 internalization after insulin removal. Given that high levels of GLUT4 were detected in caveolae from insulin-treated adipose cells, this transporter may be internalized from caveolae or caveolae may operate as an obligatory transition station before internalization.

  7. Syntaxin and VAMP association with lipid rafts depends on cholesterol depletion in capacitating sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Shiue; De Vries, Klaas J; De Boer-Brouwer, Mieke; Garcia-Gil, Nuria; Van Gestel, Renske A; Colenbrander, Ben; Gadella, Bart M; Van Haeften, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Sperm cells represent a special exocytotic system since mature sperm cells contain only one large secretory vesicle, the acrosome, which fuses with the overlying plasma membrane during the fertilization process. Acrosomal exocytosis is believed to be regulated by activation of SNARE proteins. In this paper, we identified specific members of the SNARE protein family, i.e., the t-SNAREs syntaxin1 and 2, and the v-SNARE VAMP, present in boar sperm cells. Both syntaxins were predominantly found in the plasma membrane whereas v-SNAREs are mainly located in the outer acrosomal membrane of these cells. Under non-capacitating conditions both syntaxins and VAMP are scattered in well-defined punctate structures over the entire sperm head. Bicarbonate-induced in vitro activation in the presence of BSA causes a relocalization of these SNAREs to a more homogeneous distribution restricted to the apical ridge area of the sperm head, exactly matching the site of sperm zona binding and subsequent induced acrosomal exocytosis. This redistribution of syntaxin and VAMP depends on cholesterol depletion and closely resembles the previously reported redistribution of lipid raft marker proteins. Detergent-resistant membrane isolation and subsequent analysis shows that a significant proportion of syntaxin emerges in the detergent-resistant membrane (raft) fraction under such conditions, which is not the case under those conditions where cholesterol depletion is blocked. The v-SNARE VAMP displays a similar cholesterol depletion-dependent lateral and raft redistribution. Taken together, our results indicate that redistribution of syntaxin and VAMP during capacitation depends on association of these SNAREs with lipid rafts and that such a SNARE-raft association may be essential for spatial control of exocytosis and/or regulation of SNARE functioning.

  8. Multidrug resistance protein 1 localization in lipid raft domains and prostasomes in prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gomà, Alba; Mir, Roser; Martínez-Soler, Fina; Tortosa, Avelina; Vidal, August; Condom, Enric; Pérez–Tomás, Ricardo; Giménez-Bonafé, Pepita

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the problems in prostate cancer (CaP) treatment is the appearance of the multidrug resistance phenotype, in which ATP-binding cassette transporters such as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) play a role. Different localizations of the transporter have been reported, some of them related to the chemoresistant phenotype. Aim This study aimed to compare the localization of MRP1 in three prostate cell lines (normal, androgen-sensitive, and androgen-independent) in order to understand its possible role in CaP chemoresistance. Methods MRP1 and caveolae protein markers were detected using confocal microscopy, performing colocalization techniques. Lipid raft isolation made it possible to detect these proteins by Western blot analysis. Caveolae and prostasomes were identified by electron microscopy. Results We show that MRP1 is found in lipid raft fractions of tumor cells and that the number of caveolae increases with malignancy acquisition. MRP1 is found not only in the plasma membrane associated with lipid rafts but also in cytoplasmic accumulations colocalizing with the prostasome markers Caveolin-1 and CD59, suggesting that in CaP cells, MRP1 is localized in prostasomes. Conclusion We hypothesize that the presence of MRP1 in prostasomes could serve as a reservoir of MRP1; thus, taking advantage of the release of their content, MRP1 could be translocated to the plasma membrane contributing to the chemoresistant phenotype. The presence of MRP1 in prostasomes could serve as a predictor of malignancy in CaP. PMID:25525371

  9. Nanoarrays of tethered lipid bilayer rafts on poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Kuk; Lee, Hea Yeon; Kim, Pilnam; Suh, Kahp Y; Kawai, Tomoji

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains that function as platforms for signal transduction and other cellular processes. Tethered lipid bilayers have been proposed as a promising model to describe the structure and function of cell membranes. We report a nano(submicro) array of tethered lipid bilayer raft membranes (tLBRMs) comprising a biosensing platform. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel was directly patterned onto a solid substrate, using ultraviolet-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL), as an inert barrier to prevent biofouling. The robust structures of the nanopatterned PVA hydrogel were stable for up to three weeks in phosphate-buffered saline solution despite significant swelling (100% in height) by hydration. The PVA hydrogel strongly restricted the adhesion of vesicles, resulting in an array of highly selective hydrogel nanowells. tLBRMs were not formed by direct vesicle fusion, although raft vesicles containing poly(ethylene glycol) lipopolymer were selectively immobilized on gold substrates patterned with PVA hydrogel. The deposition of tLBRM nano(submicro) arrays was accomplished by a mixed, self-assembled monolayer-assisted vesicle fusion method. The monolayer was composed of a mixture of 2-mercaptoethanol and poly(ethylene glycol) lipopolymer, which promoted vesicle rupture. These results suggest that the fabrication of inert nanostructures and the site-selective modification of solid surfaces to induce vesicle rupture may be essential in the construction of tLBRM nano(submicro) arrays using stepwise self-assembly.

  10. HTLV-1 Tax deregulates autophagy by recruiting autophagic molecules into lipid raft microdomains.

    PubMed

    Ren, T; Takahashi, Y; Liu, X; Loughran, T P; Sun, S-C; Wang, H-G; Cheng, H

    2015-01-15

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological factor that causes adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, has a crucial role in initiating T-lymphocyte transformation by inducing oncogenic signaling activation. We here report that Tax is a determining factor for dysregulation of autophagy in HTLV-1-transformed T cells and Tax-immortalized CD4 memory T cells. Tax facilitated autophagic process by activating inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex, which subsequently recruited an autophagy molecular complex containing Beclin1 and Bif-1 to the lipid raft microdomains. Tax engaged a crosstalk between IKK complex and autophagic molecule complex by directly interacting with both complexes, promoting assembly of LC3+ autophagosomes. Moreover, expression of lipid raft-targeted Bif-1 or Beclin1 was sufficient to induce formation of LC3+ autophagosomes, suggesting that Tax recruitment of autophagic molecules to lipid rafts is a dominant strategy to deregulate autophagy in the context of HTLV-1 transformation of T cells. Furthermore, depletion of autophagy molecules such as Beclin1 and PI3 kinase class III resulted in impaired growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, indicating a critical role of Tax-deregulated autophagy in promoting survival and transformation of virally infected T cells.

  11. Enhancement of Lytic Activity by Leptin Is Independent From Lipid Rafts in Murine Primary Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Collin, Aurore; Noacco, Audrey; Talvas, Jérémie; Caldefie-Chézet, Florence; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Farges, Marie-Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, is known as a regulator of food intake, but it is also involved in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, and survival. Leptin receptor is integrated inside cholesterol-rich microdomains called lipid rafts, which, if disrupted or destroyed, could lead to a perturbation of lytic mechanism. Previous studies also reported that leptin could induce membrane remodeling. In this context, we studied the effect of membrane remodeling in lytic activity modulation induced by leptin. Thus, primary mouse splenocytes were incubated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-MCD), a lipid rafts disrupting agent, cholesterol, a major component of cell membranes, or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a membrane stabilizer agent for 1 h. These treatments were followed by splenocyte incubation with leptin (absence, 10 and 100 ng/ml). Unlike β-MCD or cholesterol, UDCA was able to block leptin lytic induction. This result suggests that leptin increased the lytic activity of primary spleen cells against syngenic EO771 mammary cancer cells independently from lipid rafts but may involve membrane fluidity. Furthermore, natural killer cells were shown to be involved in the splenocyte lytic activity. To our knowledge it is the first publication in primary culture that provides the link between leptin lytic modulation and membrane remodeling. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 101-109, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hybrid and Nonhybrid Lipids Exert Common Effects on Membrane Raft Size and Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A; Doktorova, Milka; Goh, Shih Lin; Standaert, Robert F; Katsaras, John; Feigenson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Nanometer-scale domains in cholesterolrich model membranes emulate lipid rafts in cell plasma membranes (PMs). The physicochemical mechanisms that maintain a finite, small domain size are, however, not well understood. A special role has been postulated for chainasymmetric or hybrid lipids having a saturated sn-1 chain and an unsaturated sn-2 chain. Hybrid lipids generate nanodomains in some model membranes and are also abundant in the PM. It was proposed that they align in a preferred orientation at the boundary of ordered and disordered phases, lowering the interfacial energy and thus reducing domain size. We used small-angle neutron scattering and fluorescence techniques to detect nanoscopic and modulated liquid phase domains in a mixture composed entirely of nonhybrid lipids and cholesterol. Our results are indistinguishable from those obtained previously for mixtures containing hybrid lipids, conclusively showing that hybrid lipids are not required for the formation of nanoscopic liquid domains and strongly implying a common mechanism for the overall control of raft size and morphology. We discuss implications of these findings for theoretical descriptions of nanodomains.

  13. Recent progress on lipid lateral heterogeneity in plasma membranes: From rafts to submicrometric domains.

    PubMed

    Carquin, Mélanie; D'Auria, Ludovic; Pollet, Hélène; Bongarzone, Ernesto R; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2016-04-01

    The concept of transient nanometric domains known as lipid rafts has brought interest to reassess the validity of the Singer-Nicolson model of a fluid bilayer for cell membranes. However, this new view is still insufficient to explain the cellular control of surface lipid diversity or membrane deformability. During the past decades, the hypothesis that some lipids form large (submicrometric/mesoscale vs nanometric rafts) and stable (>min vs s) membrane domains has emerged, largely based on indirect methods. Morphological evidence for stable submicrometric lipid domains, well-accepted for artificial and highly specialized biological membranes, was further reported for a variety of living cells from prokaryot es to yeast and mammalian cells. However, results remained questioned based on limitations of available fluorescent tools, use of poor lipid fixatives, and imaging artifacts due to non-resolved membrane projections. In this review, we will discuss recent evidence generated using powerful and innovative approaches such as lipid-specific toxin fragments that support the existence of submicrometric domains. We will integrate documented mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of these domains, and provide a perspective on their relevance on membrane deformability and regulation of membrane protein distribution.

  14. Hybrid and nonhybrid lipids exert common effects on membrane raft size and morphology.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Frederick A; Doktorova, Milka; Goh, Shih Lin; Standaert, Robert F; Katsaras, John; Feigenson, Gerald W

    2013-10-01

    Nanometer-scale domains in cholesterol-rich model membranes emulate lipid rafts in cell plasma membranes (PMs). The physicochemical mechanisms that maintain a finite, small domain size are, however, not well understood. A special role has been postulated for chain-asymmetric or hybrid lipids having a saturated sn-1 chain and an unsaturated sn-2 chain. Hybrid lipids generate nanodomains in some model membranes and are also abundant in the PM. It was proposed that they align in a preferred orientation at the boundary of ordered and disordered phases, lowering the interfacial energy and thus reducing domain size. We used small-angle neutron scattering and fluorescence techniques to detect nanoscopic and modulated liquid phase domains in a mixture composed entirely of nonhybrid lipids and cholesterol. Our results are indistinguishable from those obtained previously for mixtures containing hybrid lipids, conclusively showing that hybrid lipids are not required for the formation of nanoscopic liquid domains and strongly implying a common mechanism for the overall control of raft size and morphology. We discuss implications of these findings for theoretical descriptions of nanodomains.

  15. Analysis of the interaction between respiratory syncytial virus and lipid-rafts in Hep2 cells during infection

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Gaie; Jeffree, Chris E.; McDonald, Terence; McL Rixon, Helen W.; Aitken, James D.; Sugrue, Richard J. . E-mail: r.sugrue@vir.gla.ac.uk

    2004-10-01

    The assembly of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in lipid-rafts was examined in Hep2 cells. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that during RSV assembly, the cellular distribution of the complement regulatory proteins, decay accelerating factor (CD55) and CD59, changes and high levels of these cellular proteins are incorporated into mature virus filaments. The detergent-solubility properties of CD55, CD59, and the RSV fusion (F) protein were found to be consistent with each protein being located predominantly within lipid-raft structures. The levels of these proteins in cell-released virus were examined by immunoelectronmicroscopy and found to account for between 5% and 15% of the virus attachment (G) glycoprotein levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that an intimate association exists between RSV and lipid-raft membranes and that significant levels of these host-derived raft proteins, such as those regulating complement activation, are subsequently incorporated into the envelope of mature virus particles.

  16. Lipid rafts, KCa/ClCa/Ca2+ channel complexes and EGFR signaling: Novel targets to reduce tumor development by lipids?

    PubMed

    Guéguinou, Maxime; Gambade, Audrey; Félix, Romain; Chantôme, Aurélie; Fourbon, Yann; Bougnoux, Philippe; Weber, Günther; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Vandier, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    Membrane lipid rafts are distinct plasma membrane nanodomains that are enriched with cholesterol, sphingolipids and gangliosides, with occasional presence of saturated fatty acids and phospholipids containing saturated acyl chains. It is well known that they organize receptors (such as Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor), ion channels and their downstream acting molecules to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. Among them are Ca2+ signaling pathways, which are modified in tumor cells and inhibited upon membrane raft disruption. In addition to protein components, lipids from rafts also contribute to the organization and function of Ca2+ signaling microdomains. This article aims to focus on the lipid raft KCa/ClCa/Ca2+ channel complexes that regulate Ca2+ and EGFR signaling in cancer cells, and discusses the potential modification of these complexes by lipids as a novel therapeutic approach in tumor development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  17. Nanoscopic substructures of raft-mimetic liquid-ordered membrane domains revealed by high-speed single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiao-Mei; Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Yen, Tzu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane nanodomains that facilitate important cell functions. Despite recent advances in identifying the biological significance of rafts, nature and regulation mechanism of rafts are largely unknown due to the difficulty of resolving dynamic molecular interaction of rafts at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate organization and single-molecule dynamics of rafts by monitoring lateral diffusion of single molecules in raft-containing reconstituted membranes supported on mica substrates. Using high-speed interferometric scattering (iSCAT) optical microscopy and small gold nanoparticles as labels, motion of single lipids is recorded via single-particle tracking (SPT) with nanometer spatial precision and microsecond temporal resolution. Processes of single molecules partitioning into and escaping from the raft-mimetic liquid-ordered (Lo) domains are directly visualized in a continuous manner with unprecedented clarity. Importantly, we observe subdiffusion of saturated lipids in the Lo domain in microsecond timescale, indicating the nanoscopic heterogeneous molecular arrangement of the Lo domain. Further analysis of the diffusion trajectory shows the presence of nano-subdomains of the Lo phase, as small as 10 nm, which transiently trap the lipids. Our results provide the first experimental evidence of non-uniform molecular organization of the Lo phase, giving a new view of how rafts recruit and confine molecules in cell membranes.

  18. Nanoscopic substructures of raft-mimetic liquid-ordered membrane domains revealed by high-speed single-particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsiao-Mei; Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Yen, Tzu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane nanodomains that facilitate important cell functions. Despite recent advances in identifying the biological significance of rafts, nature and regulation mechanism of rafts are largely unknown due to the difficulty of resolving dynamic molecular interaction of rafts at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate organization and single-molecule dynamics of rafts by monitoring lateral diffusion of single molecules in raft-containing reconstituted membranes supported on mica substrates. Using high-speed interferometric scattering (iSCAT) optical microscopy and small gold nanoparticles as labels, motion of single lipids is recorded via single-particle tracking (SPT) with nanometer spatial precision and microsecond temporal resolution. Processes of single molecules partitioning into and escaping from the raft-mimetic liquid-ordered (Lo) domains are directly visualized in a continuous manner with unprecedented clarity. Importantly, we observe subdiffusion of saturated lipids in the Lo domain in microsecond timescale, indicating the nanoscopic heterogeneous molecular arrangement of the Lo domain. Further analysis of the diffusion trajectory shows the presence of nano-subdomains of the Lo phase, as small as 10 nm, which transiently trap the lipids. Our results provide the first experimental evidence of non-uniform molecular organization of the Lo phase, giving a new view of how rafts recruit and confine molecules in cell membranes. PMID:26861908

  19. Nanoscopic substructures of raft-mimetic liquid-ordered membrane domains revealed by high-speed single-particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsiao-Mei; Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Yen, Tzu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2016-02-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane nanodomains that facilitate important cell functions. Despite recent advances in identifying the biological significance of rafts, nature and regulation mechanism of rafts are largely unknown due to the difficulty of resolving dynamic molecular interaction of rafts at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate organization and single-molecule dynamics of rafts by monitoring lateral diffusion of single molecules in raft-containing reconstituted membranes supported on mica substrates. Using high-speed interferometric scattering (iSCAT) optical microscopy and small gold nanoparticles as labels, motion of single lipids is recorded via single-particle tracking (SPT) with nanometer spatial precision and microsecond temporal resolution. Processes of single molecules partitioning into and escaping from the raft-mimetic liquid-ordered (Lo) domains are directly visualized in a continuous manner with unprecedented clarity. Importantly, we observe subdiffusion of saturated lipids in the Lo domain in microsecond timescale, indicating the nanoscopic heterogeneous molecular arrangement of the Lo domain. Further analysis of the diffusion trajectory shows the presence of nano-subdomains of the Lo phase, as small as 10 nm, which transiently trap the lipids. Our results provide the first experimental evidence of non-uniform molecular organization of the Lo phase, giving a new view of how rafts recruit and confine molecules in cell membranes.

  20. On scattered waves and lipid domains: detecting membrane rafts with X-rays and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A; Nickels, Jonathan D; Pabst, Georg; Katsaras, John

    2015-12-21

    In order to understand the biological role of lipids in cell membranes, it is necessary to determine the mesoscopic structure of well-defined model membrane systems. Neutron and X-ray scattering are non-invasive, probe-free techniques that have been used extensively in such systems to probe length scales ranging from angstroms to microns, and dynamics occurring over picosecond to millisecond time scales. Recent developments in the area of phase separated lipid systems mimicking membrane rafts will be presented, and the underlying concepts of the different scattering techniques used to study them will be discussed in detail.

  1. Sterol carrier protein 2 regulates proximal tubule size in the Xenopus pronephric kidney by modulating lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Débora M; Tran, Uyen; Romaker, Daniel; Abreu, José G; Wessely, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    The kidney is a homeostatic organ required for waste excretion and reabsorption of water, salts and other macromolecules. To this end, a complex series of developmental steps ensures the formation of a correctly patterned and properly proportioned organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the individual signaling pathways, the formation of higher order receptor complexes in lipid rafts is an equally important aspect. These membrane platforms are characterized by differences in local lipid and protein compositions. Indeed, the cells in the Xenopus pronephric kidney were positive for the lipid raft markers ganglioside GM1 and Caveolin-1. To specifically interfere with lipid raft function in vivo, we focused on the Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (scp2), a multifunctional protein that is an important player in remodeling lipid raft composition. In Xenopus, scp2 mRNA was strongly expressed in differentiated epithelial structures of the pronephric kidney. Knockdown of scp2 did not interfere with the patterning of the kidney along its proximo-distal axis, but dramatically decreased the size of the kidney, in particular the proximal tubules. This phenotype was accompanied by a reduction of lipid rafts, but was independent of the peroxisomal or transcriptional activities of scp2. Finally, disrupting lipid micro-domains by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis using Mevinolin phenocopied the defects seen in scp2 morphants. Together these data underscore the importance for localized signaling platforms in the proper formation of the Xenopus kidney.

  2. Interaction of methionine-enkephalins with raft-forming lipids: monolayers and BAM experiments.

    PubMed

    Tsanova, A; Jordanova, A; Dzimbova, T; Pajpanova, T; Golovinsky, E; Lalchev, Z

    2014-05-01

    Enkephalins (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met/Leu) are opioid peptides with proven antinociceptive action in organism. They interact with opioid receptors belonging to G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. It is known that these receptors are located preferably in membrane rafts composed mainly of sphingomyelin (Sm), cholesterol (Cho), and phosphatidylcholine. In the present work, using Langmuir's monolayer technique in combination with Wilhelmy's method for measuring the surface pressure, the interaction of synthetic methionine-enkephalin and its amidated derivative with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), Sm, and Cho, as well as with their double and triple mixtures, was studied. From the pressure/area isotherms measured, the compressional moduli of the lipids and lipid-peptide monolayers were determined. Our results showed that the addition of the synthetic enkephalins to the monolayers studied led to change in the lipid monolayers characteristics, which was more evident in enkephalinamide case. In addition, using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), the surface morphology of the lipid monolayers, before and after the injection of both enkephalins, was determined. The BAM images showed an increase in surface density of the mixed surface lipids/enkephalins films, especially with double and triple component lipid mixtures. This effect was more pronounced for the enkephalinamide as well. These observations showed that there was an interaction between the peptides and the raft-forming lipids, which was stronger for the amidated peptide, suggesting a difference in folding of both enkephalins. Our research demonstrates the potential of lipid monolayers for elegant and simple membrane models to study lipid-peptide interactions at the plane of biomembranes.

  3. Hydrostatic Pressure Promotes Domain Formation in Model Lipid Raft Membranes.

    PubMed

    Worcester, David L; Weinrich, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure promotes liquid-ordered (Lo) domain formation in lipid membranes prepared as both oriented multilayers and unilamellar vesicles made of a canonical ternary lipid mixture for which demixing transitions have been extensively studied. The results demonstrate an unusually large dependence of the mixing transition on hydrostatic pressure. Additionally, data at 28 °C show that the magnitude of increase in Lo caused by 10 MPa pressure is much the same as the decrease in Lo produced by twice minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of general anesthetics such as halothane, nitrous oxide, and xenon. Therefore, the results may provide a plausible explanation for the reversal of general anesthesia by hydrostatic pressure.

  4. Monolayer spontaneous curvature of raft-forming membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Heftberger, Peter; Rappolt, Michael; Pabst, Georg

    Monolayer spontaneous curvatures for cholesterol, DOPE, POPE, DOPC, DPPC, DSPC, POPC, SOPC, and egg sphingomyelin were obtained using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on inverted hexagonal phases (HII). Spontaneous curvatures of bilayer forming lipids were estimated by adding controlled amounts to a HII forming template following previously established protocols. Spontanous curvatures of both phosphatidylethanolamines and cholesterol were found to be at least a factor of two more negative than those of phosphatidylcholines, whose J0 are closer to zero. Interestingly, a significant positive J0 value (+0.1 1/nm) was retrieved for DPPC at 25 {\\deg}C. We further determined the temperature dependence of the spontaneous curvatures J0(T) in the range from 15 to 55 \\degC, resulting in a quite narrow distribution of -1 to -3 * 10^-3 1/nm{\\deg}C for most investigated lipids. The data allowed us to estimate the monolayer spontaneous curvatures of ternary lipid mixtures showing liquid ordered / liquid disordered phase coexistence. We report spontaneous curvature phase diagrams for DSPC/DOPC/Chol, DPPC/DOPC/Chol and SM/POPC/Chol and discuss effects on protein insertion and line tension.

  5. Antiproliferative effects of γ-tocotrienol are associated with lipid raft disruption in HER2-positive human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alawin, Osama A; Ahmed, Rayan A; Ibrahim, Baher A; Briski, Karen P; Sylvester, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    A large percentage of human breast cancers are characterized by excessive or aberrant HER2 activity. Lipid rafts are specialized microdomains within the plasma membrane that are required for HER2 activation and signal transduction. Since the anticancer activity of γ-tocotrienol is associated with suppression in HER2 signaling, studies were conducted to examine the effects of γ-tocotrienol on HER2 activation within the lipid raft microdomain in HER2-positive SKBR3 and BT474 human breast cancer cells. Treatment with 0-5μM γ-tocotrienol induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition in cancer cell growth after a 5-day culture period, and these growth inhibitory effects were associated with a reduction in HER2 dimerization and phosphorylation (activation). Phosphorylated HER2 was found to be primarily located in the lipid raft microdomain of the plasma membrane in vehicle-treated control groups, whereas γ-tocotrienol treatment significantly inhibited this effect. Assay of plasma membrane subcellular fractions showed that γ-tocotrienol also accumulates exclusively within the lipid raft microdomain. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is an agent that disrupts lipid raft integrity. Acute exposure to 3mM HPβCD alone had no effect, whereas an acute 24-h exposure to 20μM γ-tocotrienol alone significantly decreased SKBR3 and BT474 cell viability. However, combined treatment with these agents greatly reduced γ-tocotrienol accumulation in the lipid raft microdomain and cytotoxicity. In summary, these findings demonstrate that the anticancer effects of γ-tocotrienol are associated with its accumulation in the lipid raft microdomain and subsequent interference with HER2 dimerization and activation in SKBR3 and BT474 human breast cancer cells.

  6. The Bordetella type III secretion system effector BteA contains a conserved N-terminal motif that guides bacterial virulence factors to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher T; Panina, Ekaterina M; Yeh, Sylvia H; Griffith, Natasha; Arambula, Diego G; Miller, Jeff F

    2009-12-01

    The Bordetella type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein BteA is necessary and sufficient for rapid cytotoxicity in a wide range of mammalian cells. We show that BteA is highly conserved and functionally interchangeable between Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The identification of BteA sequences required for cytotoxicity allowed the construction of non-cytotoxic mutants for localization studies. BteA derivatives were targeted to lipid rafts and showed clear colocalization with cortical actin, ezrin and the lipid raft marker GM1. We hypothesized that BteA associates with the cytoplasmic face of lipid rafts to locally modulate host cell responses to Bordetella attachment. B. bronchiseptica adhered to host cells almost exclusively to GM1-enriched lipid raft microdomains and BteA colocalized to these same sites following T3SS-mediated translocation. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin protected cells from T3SS-induced cytotoxicity. Localization to lipid rafts was mediated by a 130-amino-acid lipid raft targeting domain at the N-terminus of BteA, and homologous domains were identified in virulence factors from other bacterial species. Lipid raft targeting sequences from a T3SS effector (Plu4750) and an RTX-type toxin (Plu3217) from Photorhabdus luminescens directed fusion proteins to lipid rafts in a manner identical to the N-terminus of BteA. PMID:19650828

  7. The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

    2015-01-29

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular

  8. Ligand Binding Alters Dimerization and Sequestering of Urokinase Receptors in Raft-Mimicking Lipid Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yifan; Siegel, Amanda P.; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid heterogeneities, such as lipid rafts, are widely considered to be important for the sequestering of membrane proteins in plasma membranes, thereby influencing membrane protein functionality. However, the underlying mechanisms of such sequestration processes remain elusive, in part, due to the small size and often transient nature of these functional membrane heterogeneities in cellular membranes. To overcome these challenges, here we report the sequestration behavior of urokinase receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, in a planar model membrane platform with raft-mimicking lipid mixtures of well-defined compositions using a powerful optical imaging platform consisting of confocal spectroscopy XY-scans, photon counting histogram, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses. This methodology provides parallel information about receptor sequestration, oligomerization state, and lateral mobility with single molecule sensitivity. Most notably, our experiments demonstrate that moderate changes in uPAR sequestration are not only associated with modifications in uPAR dimerization levels, but may also be linked to ligand-mediated allosteric changes of these membrane receptors. Our data show that these modifications in uPAR sequestration can be induced by exposure to specific ligands (urokinase plasminogen activator, vitronectin), but not via adjustment of the cholesterol level in the planar model membrane system. Good agreement of our key findings with published results on cell membranes confirms the validity of our model membrane approach. We hypothesize that the observed mechanism of receptor translocation in the presence of raft-mimicking lipid mixtures is also applicable to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. PMID:25418095

  9. Ligand binding alters dimerization and sequestering of urokinase receptors in raft-mimicking lipid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yifan; Siegel, Amanda P; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A

    2014-11-01

    Lipid heterogeneities, such as lipid rafts, are widely considered to be important for the sequestering of membrane proteins in plasma membranes, thereby influencing membrane protein functionality. However, the underlying mechanisms of such sequestration processes remain elusive, in part, due to the small size and often transient nature of these functional membrane heterogeneities in cellular membranes. To overcome these challenges, here we report the sequestration behavior of urokinase receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, in a planar model membrane platform with raft-mimicking lipid mixtures of well-defined compositions using a powerful optical imaging platform consisting of confocal spectroscopy XY-scans, photon counting histogram, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses. This methodology provides parallel information about receptor sequestration, oligomerization state, and lateral mobility with single molecule sensitivity. Most notably, our experiments demonstrate that moderate changes in uPAR sequestration are not only associated with modifications in uPAR dimerization levels, but may also be linked to ligand-mediated allosteric changes of these membrane receptors. Our data show that these modifications in uPAR sequestration can be induced by exposure to specific ligands (urokinase plasminogen activator, vitronectin), but not via adjustment of the cholesterol level in the planar model membrane system. Good agreement of our key findings with published results on cell membranes confirms the validity of our model membrane approach. We hypothesize that the observed mechanism of receptor translocation in the presence of raft-mimicking lipid mixtures is also applicable to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

  10. Effect of integral proteins in the phase stability of a lipid bilayer: Application to raft formation in cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc; Reigada, Ramon

    2010-04-01

    The existence of lipid rafts is a controversial issue. The affinity of cholesterol for saturated lipids is manifested in macroscopic phase separation in model membranes, and is believed to be the thermodynamic driving force for raft formation. However, there is no clear reason to explain the small (nanometric) size of raft domains in cell membranes. In a recent paper Yethiraj and Weisshaar [Biophys. J. 93, 3113 (2007)] proposed that the effect of neutral integral membrane proteins may prevent from the formation of large lipid domains. In this paper we extend this approach by studying the effect of the protein size, as well as the lipid-protein interaction. Depending on these factors, two different mechanisms for nanodomain stabilization are shown to be possible for static proteins. The application of these results to a biological context is discussed.

  11. The structural role of cholesterol in cell membranes: from condensed bilayers to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Krause, Martin R; Regen, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Defining the two-dimensional structure of cell membranes represents one of the most daunting challenges currently facing chemists, biochemists, and biophysicists. In particular, the time-averaged lateral organization of the lipids and proteins that make up these natural enclosures has yet to be established. As the classic Singer-Nicolson model of cell membranes has evolved over the past 40 years, special attention has focused on the structural role played by cholesterol, a key component that represents ca. 30% of the total lipids that are present. Despite extensive studies with model membranes, two fundamental issues have remained a mystery: (i) the mechanism by which cholesterol condenses low-melting lipids by uncoiling their acyl chains and (ii) the thermodynamics of the interaction between cholesterol and high- and low-melting lipids. The latter bears directly on one of the most popular notions in modern cell biology, that is, the lipid raft hypothesis, whereby cholesterol is thought to combine with high-melting lipids to form "lipid rafts" that float in a "sea" of low-melting lipids. In this Account, we first describe a chemical approach that we have developed in our laboratories that has allowed us to quantify the interactions between exchangeable mimics of cholesterol and low- and high-melting lipids in model membranes. In essence, this "nearest-neighbor recognition" (NNR) method involves the synthesis of dimeric forms of these lipids that contain a disulfide moiety as a linker. By means of thiolate-disulfide interchange reactions, equilibrium mixtures of dimers are then formed. These exchange reactions are initiated either by adding dithiothreitol to a liposomal dispersion to generate a small amount of thiol monomer or by including a small amount of thiol monomer in the liposomes at pH 5.0 and then raising the pH to 7.4. We then show how such NNR measurements have allowed us to distinguish between two very different mechanisms that have been

  12. Compartmentalisation of cAMP-dependent signalling in blood platelets: The role of lipid rafts and actin polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Zaher; Naseem, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibits blood platelets through the activation of membrane adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signalling. However, the molecular mechanism controlling cAMP signalling in blood platelet remains unclear, and in particular how individual isoforms of AC and protein kinase A (PKA) are coordinated to target distinct substrates in order to modulate platelet activation. In this study, we demonstrate that lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton may play a key role in regulating platelet responses to cAMP downstream of PGI2. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD) increased platelet sensitivity to PGI2 and forskolin, a direct AC cyclase activator, resulting in greater inhibition of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. In contrast, platelet inhibition by the direct activator of PKA, 8-CPT-6-Phe-cAMP was unaffected by MβCD treatment. Consistent with the functional data, lipid raft disruption increased PGI2-stimulated cAMP formation and proximal PKA-mediated signalling events. Platelet inhibition, cAMP formation and phosphorylation of PKA substrates in response to PGI2 were also increased in the presence of cytochalasin D, indicating a role for actin cytoskeleton in signalling in response to PGI2. A potential role for lipid rafts in cAMP signalling is strengthened by our finding that a pool of ACV/VI and PKA was partitioned into lipid rafts. Our data demonstrate partial compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling machinery in platelets, where lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton regulate the inhibitory effects induced by PGI2. The increased platelet sensitivity to cAMP-elevating agents signalling upon raft and cytoskeleton disruption suggests that these compartments act to restrain basal cAMP signalling.

  13. Translocation of cellular prion protein to non-lipid rafts protects human prion-mediated neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Moon, Myung-Hee; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2012-03-01

    Prions are the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, such as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Cellular prion proteins (PrPC) connect with cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-rich lipid rafts through association of their glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor with saturated raft lipids and interaction of their N-terminal regions. Our previous study showed that cellular cholesterol enrichment prevented PrP(106-126)-induced neuronal death. We have now studied the influence of membrane cholesterol in PrP(106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity and identified membrane domains involved in this activity. We found that PrPC is normally distributed in lipid rafts, but high membrane cholesterol levels as a result of cholesterol treatment led to the translocation of PrPC from lipid rafts to non-lipid rafts. Moreover, cholesterol-mediated PrPC translocation protects PrP(106-126)-mediated apoptosis and p-38 activation and caspase-3 activation. In a mitochondrial functional assay including mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cholesterol treatment prevented the loss of mitochondrial potential, translocation of Bax and cytochrome c by prion protein fragment. Our results indicate that modulation of the PrPC location appears to protect against neuronal cell death caused by prion peptides. The results of this study suggest that regulation of membrane cholesterol affects the translocation of PrPC, which in turn regulates PrP(106-126)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity.

  14. LIPID RAFTS, FLUID/FLUID PHASE SEPARATION, AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO PLASMA MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David

    2007-01-01

    Novel biophysical approaches combined with modeling and new biochemical data have helped to recharge the lipid raft field and have contributed to the generation of a refined model of plasma membrane organization. In this review, we summarize new information in the context of previous literature to provide new insights into the spatial organization and dynamics of lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells. Recent findings of large-scale separation of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases in plasma membrane vesicles demonstrate this capacity within the complex milieu of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. Roles for membrane heterogeneity and reorganization in immune cell activation are discussed in light of this new information. PMID:17764993

  15. PMP22 Is Critical for Actin-Mediated Cellular Functions and for Establishing Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyeon; Amici, Stephanie; Tavori, Hagai; Zeng, Waylon M.; Freeland, Steven; Fazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, a peripheral nerve lesion induced by minimal trauma or compression. As PMP22 is localized to cholesterol-enriched membrane domains that are closely linked with the underlying actin network, we asked whether the myelin instability associated with PMP22 deficiency could be mediated by involvement of the protein in actin-dependent cellular functions and/or lipid raft integrity. In peripheral nerves and cells from mice with PMP22 deletion, we assessed the organization of filamentous actin (F-actin), and actin-dependent cellular functions. Using in vitro models, we discovered that, in the absence of PMP22, the migration and adhesion capacity of Schwann cells and fibroblasts are similarly impaired. Furthermore, PMP22-deficient Schwann cells produce shortened myelin internodes, and display compressed axial cell length and collapsed lamellipodia. During early postnatal development, F-actin-enriched Schmidt-Lanterman incisures do not form properly in nerves from PMP22−/− mice, and the expression and localization of molecules associated with uncompacted myelin domains and lipid rafts, including flotillin-1, cholesterol, and GM1 ganglioside, are altered. In addition, we identified changes in the levels and distribution of cholesterol and ApoE when PMP22 is absent. Significantly, cholesterol supplementation of the culture medium corrects the elongation and migration deficits of PMP22−/− Schwann cells, suggesting that the observed functional impairments are directly linked with cholesterol deficiency of the plasma membrane. Our findings support a novel role for PMP22 in the linkage of the actin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane, likely through regulating the cholesterol content of lipid rafts. PMID:25429154

  16. TNAP, an Essential Player in Membrane Lipid Rafts of Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Ermonval, Myriam; Baychelier, Florence; Fonta, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored glycoprotein which exists under different forms and is expressed in different tissues. As the other members of the ecto-phosphatase family, TNAP is targeted to membrane lipid rafts. Such micro domains enriched in particular lipids, are involved in cell sorting, are in close contact with the cellular cytoskeleton and play the role of signaling platform. In addition to its location in functional domains, the extracellular orientation of TNAP and the fact this glycoprotein can be shed from plasma membranes, contribute to its different phosphatase activities by acting as a phosphomonoesterase on various soluble substrates (inorganic pyrophosphate -PPi-, pyridoxal phosphate -PLP-, phosphoethanolamine -PEA-), as an ectonucleotidase on nucleotide-phosphate and presumably as a phosphatase able to dephosphorylate phosphoproteins and phospholipids associated to cells or to extra cellular matrix. More and more data accumulate on an involvement of the brain TNAP both in physiological and pathological situations. This review will summarize what is known and expected from the TNAP localization in lipid rafts with a particular emphasis on the role of a neuronal microenvironment on its potential function in the central nervous system.

  17. Interaction of the human N-Ras protein with lipid raft model membranes of varying degrees of complexity.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Alexander; Nikolaus, Jörg; Weise, Katrin; Triola, Gemma; Waldmann, Herbert; Winter, Roland; Herrmann, Andreas; Huster, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Ternary lipid mixtures composed of cholesterol, saturated (frequently with sphingosine backbone), and unsaturated phospholipids show stable phase separation and are often used as model systems of lipid rafts. Yet, their ability to reproduce raft properties and function is still debated. We investigated the properties and functional aspects of three lipid raft model systems of varying degrees of biological relevance--PSM/POPC/Chol, DPPC/POPC/Chol, and DPPC/DOPC/Chol--using 2H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. While some minor differences were observed, the general behavior and properties of all three model mixtures were similar to previously investigated influenza envelope lipid membranes, which closely mimic the lipid composition of biological membranes. For the investigation of the functional aspects, we employed the human N-Ras protein, which is posttranslationally modified by two lipid modifications that anchor the protein to the membrane. It was previously shown that N-Ras preferentially resides in liquid-disordered domains and exhibits a time-dependent accumulation in the domain boundaries of influenza envelope lipid membranes. For all three model mixtures, we observed the same membrane partitioning behavior for N-Ras. Therefore, we conclude that even relatively simple models of raft membranes are able to reproduce many of their specific properties and functions.

  18. Cytomegalovirus Restructures Lipid Rafts via a US28/CDC42-Mediated Pathway, Enhancing Cholesterol Efflux from Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Low, Hann; Mukhamedova, Nigora; Cui, Huanhuan L; McSharry, Brian P; Avdic, Selmir; Hoang, Anh; Ditiatkovski, Michael; Liu, Yingying; Fu, Ying; Meikle, Peter J; Blomberg, Martin; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Miller, William E; Religa, Piotr; Bukrinsky, Michael; Soderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Slobedman, Barry; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2016-06-28

    Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contains cholesterol, but how HCMV interacts with host cholesterol metabolism is unknown. We found that, in human fibroblasts, HCMV infection increased the efflux of cellular cholesterol, despite reducing the abundance of ABCA1. Mechanistically, viral protein US28 was acting through CDC42, rearranging actin microfilaments, causing association of actin with lipid rafts, and leading to a dramatic change in the abundance and/or structure of lipid rafts. These changes displaced ABCA1 from the cell surface but created new binding sites for apolipoprotein A-I, resulting in enhanced cholesterol efflux. The changes also reduced the inflammatory response in macrophages. HCMV infection modified the host lipidome profile and expression of several genes and microRNAs involved in cholesterol metabolism. In mice, murine CMV infection elevated plasma triglycerides but did not affect the level and functionality of high-density lipoprotein. Thus, HCMV, through its protein US28, reorganizes lipid rafts and disturbs cell cholesterol metabolism.

  19. Recombinant VSV G proteins reveal a novel raft-dependent endocytic pathway in resorbing osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mulari, Mika T.K. Nars, Martin; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Kaisto, Tuula; Metsikkoe, Kalervo; Sun Yi; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo

    2008-05-01

    Transcytotic membrane flow delivers degraded bone fragments from the ruffled border to the functional secretory domain, FSD, in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Here we show that there is also a FSD-to-ruffled border trafficking pathway that compensates for the membrane loss during the matrix uptake process and that rafts are essential for this ruffled border-targeted endosomal pathway. Replacing the cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein with that of CD4 resulted in partial insolubility in Triton X-100 and retargeting from the peripheral non-bone facing plasma membrane to the FSD. Recombinant G proteins were subsequently endosytosed and delivered from the FSD to the peripheral fusion zone of the ruffled border, which were both rich in lipid rafts as suggested by viral protein transport analysis and visualizing the rafts with fluorescent recombinant cholera toxin. Cholesterol depletion by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin impaired the ruffled border-targeted vesicle trafficking pathway and inhibited bone resorption dose-dependently as quantified by measuring the CTX and TRACP 5b secreted to the culture medium and by measuring the resorbed area visualized with a bi-phasic labeling method using sulpho-NHS-biotin and WGA-lectin. Thus, rafts are vital for membrane recycling from the FSD to the late endosomal/lysosomal ruffled border and bone resorption.

  20. Aβ promotes VDAC1 channel dephosphorylation in neuronal lipid rafts. Relevance to the mechanisms of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Echevarria, C; Díaz, M; Ferrer, I; Canerina-Amaro, A; Marin, R

    2014-10-10

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a mitochondrial protein abundantly found in neuronal lipid rafts. In these membrane domains, VDAC is associated with a complex of signaling proteins that trigger neuroprotective responses. Loss of lipid raft integrity may result in disruption of multicomplex association and alteration of signaling responses that may ultimately promote VDAC activation. Some data have demonstrated that VDAC at the neuronal membrane may be involved in the mechanisms of amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity, through yet unknown mechanisms. Aβ is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), and is released to the extracellular space where it may undergo self-aggregation. Aβ aggregate deposition in the form of senile plaques may lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, although other pathological hallmarks (such as hyper-phosphorylated Tau deposition) also participate in this neurodegenerative process. The present study demonstrates that VDAC1 associates with APP and Aβ in lipid rafts of neurons. Interaction of VDAC1 with APP was observed in lipid rafts from the frontal and entorhinal cortex of human brains affected by AD at early stages (I-IV/0-B of Braak and Braak). Furthermore, Aβ exposure enhanced the dephosphorylation of VDAC1 that correlated with cell death. Both effects were reverted in the presence of tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. VDAC1 dephosphorylation was corroborated in lipid rafts of AD brains. These results demonstrate that Aβ is involved in alterations of the phosphorylation state of VDAC in neuronal lipid rafts. Modulation of this channel may contribute to the development and progression of AD pathology.

  1. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates. PMID:27230411

  2. Continuity of monolayer-bilayer junctions for localization of lipid raft microdomains in model membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ryu, Yong -Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng -Hun; Lee, Sang -Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang -Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin -Doo

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed betweenmore » the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Furthermore, our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.« less

  3. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates. PMID:27230411

  4. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.

  5. Saltatory conduction in unmyelinated axons: clustering of Na(+) channels on lipid rafts enables micro-saltatory conduction in C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A Aldo

    2014-01-01

    THE ACTION POTENTIAL (AP), THE FUNDAMENTAL SIGNAL OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, IS CARRIED BY TWO TYPES OF AXONS: unmyelinated and myelinated fibers. In the former the action potential propagates continuously along the axon as established in large-diameter fibers. In the latter axons the AP jumps along the nodes of Ranvier-discrete, anatomically specialized regions which contain very high densities of sodium ion (Na(+)) channels. Therefore, saltatory conduction is thought as the hallmark of myelinated axons, which enables faster and more reliable propagation of signals than in unmyelinated axons of same outer diameter. Recent molecular anatomy showed that in C-fibers, the very thin (0.1 μm diameter) axons of the peripheral nervous system, Nav1.8 channels are clustered together on lipid rafts that float in the cell membrane. This localized concentration of Na(+) channels resembles in structure the ion channel organization at the nodes of Ranvier, yet it is currently unknown whether this translates into an equivalent phenomenon of saltatory conduction or related-functional benefits and efficiencies. Therefore, we modeled biophysically realistic unmyelinated axons with both conventional and lipid-raft based organization of Na(+) channels. We find that APs are reliably conducted in a micro-saltatory fashion along lipid rafts. Comparing APs in unmyelinated fibers with and without lipid rafts did not reveal any significant difference in either the metabolic cost or AP propagation velocity. By investigating the efficiency of AP propagation over Nav1.8 channels, we find however that the specific inactivation properties of these channels significantly increase the metabolic cost of signaling in C-fibers. PMID:25352785

  6. From the Cover: Tetrachlorobenzoquinone Exerts Neurological Proinflammatory Activity by Promoting HMGB1 Release, Which Induces TLR4 Clustering within the Lipid Raft.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanli; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Liu, Zixuan; Wang, Yawen; Wang, Yuxin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a confirmed active metabolite of a well-known environmental pollutant pentachlorophenol (PCP). Unfortunately, there is insufficient knowledge present available on TCBQ's toxicity. Our previous studies indicated that TCBQ induces inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro; however, its exact mechanism needs further investigation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in conveying of inflammatory signaling, whilst high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a transcription-enhancing nuclear protein that regulates inflammation. Indeed, this study demonstrated that TCBQ induces the secretion/translocation of HMGB1, which in turn activates its receptors, TLR family gene (especially TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expressions. Consistently, the binding affinity of HMGB1 with its receptors also increased. In the case of HMGB1 or TLR4 deficiency, there were decreases in TCBQ-induced neuroinflammatory cytokine production and neuropathological changes, eg, neuronal loss, astrocyte and macrophage cells activation. Moreover, we found the mobilization of TLR4 into lipid rafts occurs in response to TCBQ exposure, lipid rafts disruptors weakened this effect, suggested lipid rafts play an essential role for TLR4-mediated signal transduction and target inflammatory cytokines expressions. In summary, our current findings revealed a previously unknown mechanism of TCBQ-induced neurological inflammation related to HMGB1-TLR4 signaling.

  7. Regulating the Size and Stabilization of Lipid Raft-Like Domains and Using Calcium Ions as Their Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raviv, Uri; Szekely, Or

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we apply means to probe, stabilize and control the size of lipid raft-like domains in vitro. In biomembranes the size of lipid rafts is ca. 10 - 30 nm. In vitro, mixing saturated and unsaturated lipids results in micro-domains, which are unstable and coalesce. Using solution X-ray scattering, we studied the structure of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of calcium ions. Three lipids were used: saturated, unsaturated and a hybrid (1-saturated-2-unsaturated) lipid that is predominant in the phospholipids of cellular membranes. Only membranes composed of the saturated lipid can adsorb calcium ions, become charged and therefore considerably swell. The selective calcium affinity was used to show that binary mixtures, containing the saturated lipid, phase separated into large-scale domains. Our data suggests that by introducing the hybrid lipid to a mixture of the saturated and unsaturated lipids, the size of the domains decreased with the concentration of the hybrid lipid, until the three lipids could completely mix. We attribute this behavior to the tendency of the hybrid lipid to act as a line-active co-surfactant that can easily reside at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated lipids and reduce the line-tension between them.

  8. Regulating the size and stabilization of lipid raft-like domains and using calcium ions as their probe.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Or; Schilt, Yaelle; Steiner, Ariel; Raviv, Uri

    2011-12-20

    We apply a means to probe, stabilize, and control the size of lipid raft-like domains in vitro. In biomembranes the size of lipid rafts is ca. 10-30 nm. In vitro, mixing saturated and unsaturated lipids results in microdomains, which are unstable and coalesce. This inconsistency is puzzling. It has been hypothesized that biological line-active surfactants reduce the line tension between saturated and unsaturated lipids and stabilize small domains in vivo. Using solution X-ray scattering, we studied the structure of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of calcium ions. Three lipids were used: saturated, unsaturated, and a hybrid (1-saturated-2-unsaturated) lipid that is predominant in the phospholipids of cellular membranes. Only membranes composed of the saturated lipid can adsorb calcium ions, become charged, and therefore considerably swell. The selective calcium affinity was used to show that binary mixtures, containing the saturated lipid, phase separated into large-scale domains. Our data suggests that by introducing the hybrid lipid to a mixture of the saturated and unsaturated lipids, the size of the domains decreased with the concentration of the hybrid lipid, until the three lipids could completely mix. We attribute this behavior to the tendency of the hybrid lipid to act as a line-active cosurfactant that can easily reside at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated lipids and reduce the line tension between them. These findings are consistent with a recent theory and provide insight into the self-organization of lipid rafts, their stabilization, and size regulation in biomembranes.

  9. Cutting Edge: Localization of linker for activation of T cells to lipid rafts is not essential in T cell activation and development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Shen, Shudan; Liu, Yan; Granillo, Olivia; Zhang, Weiguo

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that upon T cell activation, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), a transmembrane adaptor protein localized to lipid rafts, orchestrates formation of multiprotein complexes and activates signaling cascades in lipid rafts. However, whether lipid rafts really exist or function remains controversial. To address the importance of lipid rafts in LAT function, we generated a fusion protein to target LAT to nonraft fractions using the transmembrane domain from a nonraft protein, linker for activation of X cells (LAX). Surprisingly, this fusion protein functioned well in TCR signaling. It restored MAPK activation, calcium flux, and NFAT activation in LAT-deficient cells. To further study the function of this fusion protein in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express this protein. Analysis of these mice indicated that it was fully capable of replacing LAT in thymocyte development and T cell function. Our results demonstrate that LAT localization to lipid rafts is not essential during normal T cell activation and development.

  10. CRITICAL ROLE OF LIPID RAFT REDOX SIGNALING PLATFORMS IN ENDOSTATIN-INDUCED CORONARY ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Si; Zhang, Yang; Yi, Fan; Li, Pin-Lan

    2009-01-01

    Objective Endostatin (EST) was found to initiate a redox signaling cascade associated with activation of NADPH oxidase in endothelial cells (ECs). The present study tested whether EST stimulate clustering of ceramide-enriched lipid rafts (LR), which assembles and activates NADPH oxidase to form redox signaling platforms. Methods and Results Using confocal microscopy, we first demonstrated a co-localization of LR clusters with NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91phox and p47phox in the ECs membrane upon EST stimulation. Immunoblot analysis of floated detergent-resistant membrane fractions found that in LR fractions NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox and p47phox are enriched and that the activity of this enzyme increased dramatically, as measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. This EST-increased LR platform formation was shown to be attenuated by inhibition or RNA interference of acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase). Functionally, EST pretreatment significantly impaired bradykinin or A23187-induced vasodilation in isolated small coronary arteries, which could be partially reversed by LR disruptors. Conclusions The early injury effect of EST on the vascular endothelium is associated with the formation of redox signaling platforms via lipid raft clustering. Besides its proapototic effects, EST is also able to induce endothelial dysfunction. This early-stage action of EST is associated with LR clustering and consequent assembling and activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:18162606

  11. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Marco; Esposito, Alessandro; Camerini, Serena; Antonucci, Flavia; Ferrara, Silvia; Seghezza, Silvia; Catelani, Tiziano; Crescenzi, Marco; Marotta, Roberto; Canale, Claudio; Matteoli, Michela; Menna, Elisabetta; Chieregatti, Evelina

    2016-05-01

    Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase β Controls Recruitment of Lipid Rafts into the Immunological Synapse.

    PubMed

    Kallikourdis, Marinos; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Roselli, Giuliana; Muscolini, Michela; Porciello, Nicla; Tuosto, Loretta; Viola, Antonella

    2016-02-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is critical for T lymphocyte activation serving as a substrate for the generation of second messengers and the remodeling of actin cytoskeleton necessary for the clustering of lipid rafts, TCR, and costimulatory receptors toward the T:APC interface. Spatiotemporal analysis of PIP2 synthesis in T lymphocytes suggested that distinct isoforms of the main PIP2-generating enzyme, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), play a differential role on the basis of their distinct localization. In this study, we analyze the contribution of PIP5Kβ to T cell activation and show that CD28 induces the recruitment of PIP5Kβ to the immunological synapse, where it regulates filamin A and lipid raft accumulation, as well as T cell activation, in a nonredundant manner. Finally, we found that Vav1 and the C-terminal 83 aa of PIP5Kβ are pivotal for the PIP5Kβ regulatory functions in response to CD28 stimulation.

  13. HSL-knockout mouse testis exhibits class B scavenger receptor upregulation and disrupted lipid raft microdomains.

    PubMed

    Casado, María Emilia; Huerta, Lydia; Ortiz, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Crespo, Mirian; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Kraemer, Fredric B; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Busto, Rebeca; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia

    2012-12-01

    There is a tight relationship between fertility and changes in cholesterol metabolism during spermatogenesis. In the testis, class B scavenger receptors (SR-B) SR-BI, SR-BII, and LIMP II mediate the selective uptake of cholesterol esters from HDL, which are hydrolyzed to unesterified cholesterol by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). HSL is critical because HSL knockout (KO) male mice are sterile. The aim of the present work was to determine the effects of the lack of HSL in testis on the expression of SR-B, lipid raft composition, and related cell signaling pathways. HSL-KO mouse testis presented altered spermatogenesis associated with decreased sperm counts, sperm motility, and infertility. In wild-type (WT) testis, HSL is expressed in elongated spermatids; SR-BI, in Leydig cells and spermatids; SR-BII, in spermatocytes and spermatids but not in Leydig cells; and LIMP II, in Sertoli and Leydig cells. HSL knockout male mice have increased expression of class B scavenger receptors, disrupted caveolin-1 localization in lipid raft plasma membrane microdomains, and activated phospho-ERK, phospho-AKT, and phospho-SRC in the testis, suggesting that class B scavenger receptors are involved in cholesterol ester uptake for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis.

  14. Associations of B- and C-Raf with cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and lipid second messengers: preferential binding of Raf to artificial lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Hekman, Mirko; Hamm, Heike; Villar, Ana V; Bader, Benjamin; Kuhlmann, Jurgen; Nickel, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R

    2002-07-01

    The serine/threonine kinase C-Raf is a key mediator in cellular signaling. Translocation of Raf to membranes has been proposed to be facilitated by Ras proteins in their GTP-bound state. In this study we provide evidence that both purified B- and C-Raf kinases possess lipophilic properties and associate with phospholipid membranes. In the presence of phosphatidylserine and lipid second messengers such as phosphatidic acid and ceramides these associations were very specific with affinity constants (K(D)) in the range of 0.5-50 nm. Raf association with liposomes was accompanied by displacement of 14-3-3 proteins and inhibition of Raf kinase activities. Interactions of Raf with cholesterol are of particular interest, since cholesterol has been shown to be involved, together with sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids in the formation of specialized lipid microdomains called rafts. We demonstrate here that purified Raf proteins have moderate binding affinity for cholesterol. However, under conditions of lipid raft formation, Raf association with cholesterol (or rafts) increased dramatically. Since ceramides also support formation of rafts and interact with Raf we propose that Raf may be present at the plasma membrane in two distinct microdomains: in raft regions via association with cholesterol and ceramides and in non-raft regions due to interaction with phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. At either location Raf kinase activity was inhibited by lipid binding in the absence or presence of Ras. Ras-Raf interactions with full-length C-Raf were studied both in solution and in phospholipid environment. Ras association with Raf was GTP dependent as previously demonstrated for C-Raf-RBD fragments. In the presence of liposomes the recruitment of C-Raf by reconstituted Ras-farnesyl was only marginal, since almost 70% of added C-Raf was bound by the lipids alone. Thus Ras-Raf binding in response to activation of Ras-coupled receptors may utilize Raf protein that is

  15. Amyloid-beta Alzheimer targets - protein processing, lipid rafts, and amyloid-beta pores.

    PubMed

    Arbor, Sage C; LaFontaine, Mike; Cumbay, Medhane

    2016-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials. An atomic resolution understanding of Aβ aggregates, which appear to exist in multiple conformations, is most desirable for future therapeutic development. The investigative difficulties, structures of these small Aβ aggregates, and current therapeutics are summarized in this review. PMID:27505013

  16. Supramolecular Nanofibers Enhance Growth Factor Signaling by Increasing Lipid Raft Mobility.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Christina J; Sur, Shantanu; Lee, Sungsoo S; Yu, Jeong Min; Zhou, Yan; Snead, Malcolm L; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-05-11

    The nanostructures of self-assembling biomaterials have been previously designed to tune the release of growth factors in order to optimize biological repair and regeneration. We report here on the discovery that weakly cohesive peptide nanostructures in terms of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, when combined with low concentrations of osteogenic growth factor, enhance both BMP-2 and Wnt mediated signaling in myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells, respectively. Conversely, analogous nanostructures with enhanced levels of internal hydrogen bonding and cohesion lead to an overall reduction in BMP-2 signaling. We propose that the mechanism for enhanced growth factor signaling by the nanostructures is related to their ability to increase diffusion within membrane lipid rafts. The phenomenon reported here could lead to new nanomedicine strategies to mediate growth factor signaling for translational targets. PMID:27070195

  17. Membrane lipid raft organization is uniquely modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Harmony F.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has been shown to play a role in prevention of colon cancer. The effects of n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted, resulting in an incomplete understanding of their molecular mechanisms of action. Here, we focus on a highly conserved mechanism of n-3 PUFA, which is the alteration of the organization of the plasma membrane. We highlight recent work demonstrating that enrichment of n-3 PUFA in the plasma membrane alters the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts). This mechanism is central for n-3 PUFA regulation of downstream signaling, T-cell activation, transcriptional activation, and cytokine secretion. We conclude that these studies provide strong evidence for a predominant mechanism by which n-3 PUFA function in colon cancer prevention. PMID:22515942

  18. Amyloid-beta Alzheimer targets — protein processing, lipid rafts, and amyloid-beta pores

    PubMed Central

    Arbor, Sage C.; LaFontaine, Mike; Cumbay, Medhane

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials. An atomic resolution understanding of Aβ aggregates, which appear to exist in multiple conformations, is most desirable for future therapeutic development. The investigative difficulties, structures of these small Aβ aggregates, and current therapeutics are summarized in this review. PMID:27505013

  19. Supramolecular Nanofibers Enhance Growth Factor Signaling by Increasing Lipid Raft Mobility.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Christina J; Sur, Shantanu; Lee, Sungsoo S; Yu, Jeong Min; Zhou, Yan; Snead, Malcolm L; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-05-11

    The nanostructures of self-assembling biomaterials have been previously designed to tune the release of growth factors in order to optimize biological repair and regeneration. We report here on the discovery that weakly cohesive peptide nanostructures in terms of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, when combined with low concentrations of osteogenic growth factor, enhance both BMP-2 and Wnt mediated signaling in myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells, respectively. Conversely, analogous nanostructures with enhanced levels of internal hydrogen bonding and cohesion lead to an overall reduction in BMP-2 signaling. We propose that the mechanism for enhanced growth factor signaling by the nanostructures is related to their ability to increase diffusion within membrane lipid rafts. The phenomenon reported here could lead to new nanomedicine strategies to mediate growth factor signaling for translational targets.

  20. Tetraspan microdomains distinct from lipid rafts enrich select peptide-MHC class II complexes.

    PubMed

    Kropshofer, H; Spindeldreher, S; Röhn, T A; Platania, N; Grygar, C; Daniel, N; Wölpl, A; Langen, H; Horejsi, V; Vogt, A B

    2002-01-01

    Complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells but their molecular organization is unknown. Here we show that subsets of MHC class II molecules localize to membrane microdomains together with tetraspan proteins, the peptide editor HLA-DM and the costimulator CD86. Tetraspan microdomains differ from other membrane areas such as lipid rafts, as they enrich MHC class II molecules carrying a selected set of peptide antigens. Antigen-presenting cells deficient in tetraspan microdomains have a reduced capacity to activate CD4+ T cells. Thus, the organization of uniformly loaded peptide-MHC class II complexes in tetraspan domains may be a very early event that determines both the composition of the immunological synapse and the quality of the subsequent T helper cell response.

  1. Lipid rafts association and anti-apoptotic function of prohibitin in ultraviolet B light-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-08-01

    Upon UVB irradiation, an alternation of major lipid raft components can lead to the recruitment/activation of rafts-associated proteins and initiation of downstream apoptotic signalling pathways. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify potential regulators of UVB-induced apoptosis and mass spectrometry fingerprint analysis to identify proteins that are altered in the rafts after UVB irradiation. Our data show that levels of several proteins, including prohibitin (PHB), were changed in lipid rafts after UVB irradiation. We also demonstrate that while total PHB expression was not changed, the protein was enriched in lipid rafts after UVB irradiation. Reduced expression of PHB using siRNA knockdown resulted in an increase in cellular apoptosis after UVB irradiation. Based on these results, we propose that PHB protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis. PMID:22776003

  2. Candida albicans Targets a Lipid Raft/Dectin-1 Platform to Enter Human Monocytes and Induce Antigen Specific T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    de Turris, Valeria; Teloni, Raffaela; Chiani, Paola; Bromuro, Carla; Mariotti, Sabrina; Pardini, Manuela; Nisini, Roberto; Torosantucci, Antonella; Gagliardi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Several pathogens have been described to enter host cells via cholesterol-enriched membrane lipid raft microdomains. We found that disruption of lipid rafts by the cholesterol-extracting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin or by the cholesterol-binding antifungal drug Amphotericin B strongly impairs the uptake of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans by human monocytes, suggesting a role of raft microdomains in the phagocytosis of the fungus. Time lapse confocal imaging indicated that Dectin-1, the C-type lectin receptor that recognizes Candida albicans cell wall-associated β-glucan, is recruited to lipid rafts upon Candida albicans uptake by monocytes, supporting the notion that lipid rafts act as an entry platform. Interestingly disruption of lipid raft integrity and interference with fungus uptake do not alter cytokine production by monocytes in response to Candida albicans but drastically dampen fungus specific T cell response. In conclusion, these data suggest that monocyte lipid rafts play a crucial role in the innate and adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans in humans and highlight a new and unexpected immunomodulatory function of the antifungal drug Amphotericin B.

  3. Candida albicans Targets a Lipid Raft/Dectin-1 Platform to Enter Human Monocytes and Induce Antigen Specific T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chiani, Paola; Bromuro, Carla; Mariotti, Sabrina; Pardini, Manuela; Nisini, Roberto; Torosantucci, Antonella; Gagliardi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Several pathogens have been described to enter host cells via cholesterol-enriched membrane lipid raft microdomains. We found that disruption of lipid rafts by the cholesterol-extracting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin or by the cholesterol-binding antifungal drug Amphotericin B strongly impairs the uptake of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans by human monocytes, suggesting a role of raft microdomains in the phagocytosis of the fungus. Time lapse confocal imaging indicated that Dectin-1, the C-type lectin receptor that recognizes Candida albicans cell wall-associated β-glucan, is recruited to lipid rafts upon Candida albicans uptake by monocytes, supporting the notion that lipid rafts act as an entry platform. Interestingly disruption of lipid raft integrity and interference with fungus uptake do not alter cytokine production by monocytes in response to Candida albicans but drastically dampen fungus specific T cell response. In conclusion, these data suggest that monocyte lipid rafts play a crucial role in the innate and adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans in humans and highlight a new and unexpected immunomodulatory function of the antifungal drug Amphotericin B. PMID:26562838

  4. A novel mechanism of regulating breast cancer cell migration via palmitoylation-dependent alterations in the lipid raft affiliation of CD44

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most breast cancer-related deaths result from metastasis, a process involving dynamic regulation of tumour cell adhesion and migration. The adhesion protein CD44, a key regulator of cell migration, is enriched in cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts. We recently reported that raft affiliation of CD44 negatively regulates interactions with its migratory binding partner ezrin. Since raft affiliation is regulated by post-translational modifications including palmitoylation, we sought to establish the contribution of CD44 palmitoylation and lipid raft affiliation to cell migration. Methods Recovery of CD44 and its binding partners from raft versus non-raft membrane microdomains was profiled in non-migrating and migrating breast cancer cell lines. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce single or double point mutations into both CD44 palmitoylation sites (Cys286 and Cys295), whereupon the implications for lipid raft recovery, phenotype, ezrin co-precipitation and migratory behaviour was assessed. Finally CD44 palmitoylation status and lipid raft affiliation was assessed in primary cultures from a small panel of breast cancer patients. Results CD44 raft affiliation was increased during migration of non-invasive breast cell lines, but decreased during migration of highly-invasive breast cells. The latter was paralleled by increased CD44 recovery in non-raft fractions, and exclusive non-raft recovery of its binding partners. Point mutation of CD44 palmitoylation sites reduced CD44 raft affiliation in invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, increased CD44-ezrin co-precipitation and accordingly enhanced cell migration. Expression of palmitoylation-impaired (raft-excluded) CD44 mutants in non-invasive MCF-10a cells was sufficient to reversibly induce the phenotypic appearance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and to increase cell motility. Interestingly, cell migration was associated with temporal reductions in CD44 palmitoylation in

  5. Sustained Epigenetic Drug Delivery Depletes Cholesterol-Sphingomyelin Rafts from Resistant Breast Cancer Cells, Influencing Biophysical Characteristics of Membrane Lipids.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay; Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Morisada, Megan; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-10-27

    Cell-membrane lipid composition can greatly influence biophysical properties of cell membranes, affecting various cellular functions. We previously showed that lipid synthesis becomes altered in the membranes of resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR); they form a more rigid, hydrophobic lipid monolayer than do sensitive cell membranes (MCF-7). These changes in membrane lipids of resistant cells, attributed to epigenetic aberration, significantly affected drug transport and endocytic function, thus impacting the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The present study's objective was to determine the effects of the epigenetic drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), delivered in sustained-release nanogels (DAC-NGs), on the composition and biophysical properties of membrane lipids of resistant cells. Resistant and sensitive cells were treated with DAC in solution (DAC-sol) or DAC-NGs, and cell-membrane lipids were isolated and analyzed for lipid composition and biophysical properties. In resistant cells, we found increased formation of cholesterol-sphingomyelin (CHOL-SM) rafts with culturing time, whereas DAC treatment reduced their formation. In general, the effect of DAC-NGs was greater in changing the lipid composition than with DAC-sol. DAC treatment also caused a rise in levels of certain phospholipids and neutral lipids known to increase membrane fluidity, while reducing the levels of certain lipids known to increase membrane rigidity. Isotherm data showed increased lipid membrane fluidity following DAC treatment, attributed to decrease levels of CHOL-SM rafts (lamellar beta [Lβ] structures or ordered gel) and a corresponding increase in lipids that form lamellar alpha-structures (Lα, liquid crystalline phase). Sensitive cells showed marginal or insignificant changes in lipid profile following DAC-treatment, suggesting that epigenetic changes affecting lipid biosynthesis are more specific to resistant cells. Since membrane fluidity plays a major role in drug transport

  6. Ethanol effects on binary and ternary supported lipid bilayers with gel/fluid domains and lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Marquês, Joaquim T; Viana, Ana S; De Almeida, Rodrigo F M

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol-lipid bilayer interactions have been a recurrent theme in membrane biophysics, due to their contribution to the understanding of membrane structure and dynamics. The main purpose of this study was to assess the interplay between membrane lateral heterogeneity and ethanol effects. This was achieved by in situ atomic force microscopy, following the changes induced by sequential ethanol additions on supported lipid bilayers formed in the absence of alcohol. Binary phospholipid mixtures with a single gel phase, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol, gel/fluid phase coexistence DPPC/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol, mimicking lipid rafts (DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol and DOPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol), i.e., with liquid ordered/liquid disordered (ld/lo) phase separation, were investigated. For all compositions studied, and in two different solid supports, mica and silicon, domain formation or rearrangement accompanied by lipid bilayer thinning and expansion was observed. In the case of gel/fluid coexistence, low ethanol concentrations lead to a marked thinning of the fluid but not of the gel domains. In the case of ld/lo all the bilayer thins simultaneously by a similar extent. In both cases, only the more disordered phase expanded significantly, indicating that ethanol increases the proportion of disordered domains. Water/bilayer interfacial tension variation and freezing point depression, inducing acyl chain disordering (including opening and looping), tilting, and interdigitation, are probably the main cause for the observed changes. The results presented herein demonstrate that ethanol influences the bilayer properties according to membrane lateral organization. PMID:20955684

  7. Freely turning over palmitate in erythrocyte membrane proteins is not responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton: a study with bio-orthogonal chemical probes.

    PubMed

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Hannoush, Rami N; Risso, Angela; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2013-03-01

    Erythrocyte lipid rafts are anchored to the underlying spectrin membrane skeleton [A. Ciana, C. Achilli, C. Balduini, G. Minetti, On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (2011) 183-190]. The nature of this linkage and the molecules involved are poorly understood. The interaction is sensitive to the increase in pH and ionic strength induced by carbonate. Given the role of palmitoylation in modulating the partitioning of certain proteins between various sub-cellular compartments and the plasma membrane, we asked whether palmitoylation of p55, a peripheral protein located at the junctional complex between spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that anchors the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer via the transmembrane protein glycophorin C, could contribute to the anchoring of lipid rafts to the membrane skeleton. We adopted a new, non-radioactive method for studying protein palmitoylation, based on bio-orthogonal chemical analogues of fatty acids, containing an omega-alkynyl group, to metabolically label cell proteins, which are then revealed by a "click chemistry" reaction of the alkynyl moiety with an azide-containing reporter tag. We show that the membrane localization and palmitoylation levels of p55 did not change after carbonate treatment. 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin, two known palmitoylation inhibitors, completely inhibited p55 palmitoylation, and protein palmitoyl thioesterase-1 (PPT1) reduced it, without affecting the association between lipid rafts and membrane-skeleton, indicating, on the one hand, that p55 palmitoylation is enzymatic, and, on the other, that it is not involved in the modulation of the linkage of lipid rafts to the membrane-skeleton.

  8. Super-Resolution Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Protein/Lipid Raft Clustering Mediated by Cell-Surface Self-Assembly of Hybrid Nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jonathan M; Chu, Te-Wei; Peterson, Eric M; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Jiyuan; Harris, Joel; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2015-08-17

    Super-resolution imaging was used to quantify organizational changes in the plasma membrane after treatment with hybrid nanoconjugates. The nanoconjugates crosslinked CD20 on the surface of malignant B cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. Super-resolution images were analyzed by using pair-correlation analysis to determine cluster size and to count the average number of molecules in the clusters. The role of lipid rafts was investigated by pre-treating cells with a cholesterol chelator and actin destabilizer to prevent lipid raft formation. Lipid raft cluster size correlated with apoptosis induction after treatment with the nanoconjugates. Lipid raft clusters had radii of ∼ 200 nm in cells treated with the hybrid nanoconjugates. Super-resolution images provided precise molecule location coordinates that could be used to determine density of bound conjugates, cluster size, and number of molecules per cluster.

  9. Ceramide inhibits PKCθ by regulating its phosphorylation and translocation to lipid rafts in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Hamze, Asmaa B; El-Hed, Aimée F; Attieh, Randa; Kozhaya, Lina; Kabbani, Sarah; Dbaibo, Ghassan

    2016-08-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a novel, calcium-independent member of the PKC family of kinases that was identified as a central player in T cell signaling and proliferation. Upon T cell activation by antigen-presenting cells, PKCθ gets phosphorylated and activated prior to its translocation to the immunological synapse where it couples with downstream effectors. PKCθ may be regulated by ceramide, a crucial sphingolipid that is known to promote differentiation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. To further investigate the mechanism, we stimulated human Jurkat T cells with either PMA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies following induction of ceramide accumulation by adding exogenous ceramide, bacterial sphingomyelinase, or Fas ligation. Our results suggest that ceramide regulates the PKCθ pathway through preventing its critical threonine 538 (Thr538) phosphorylation and subsequent activation, thereby inhibiting the kinase's translocation to lipid rafts. Moreover, this inhibition is not likely to be a generic effect of ceramide on membrane reorganization. Other lipids, namely dihydroceramide, palmitate, and sphingosine, did not produce similar effects on PKCθ. Addition of the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A reversed the inhibition exerted by ceramide, and this suggests involvement of a ceramide-activated protein phosphatase. Such previously undescribed mechanism of regulation of PKCθ raises the possibility that ceramide, or one of its derivatives, and may prove valuable in novel therapeutic approaches for disorders involving autoimmunity or excessive inflammation-where PKCθ plays a critical role. PMID:26798039

  10. Structure of Cholesterol/Ceramide Monolayer Mixtures: Implications to the Molecular Organization of Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Luana; Solomonov, Inna; Weygand, Markus Jan; Kjaer, Kristian; Leiserowitz, Leslie; Addadi, Lia

    2005-01-01

    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two components within a range of compositions of cholesterol/ceramide between 100:0 and 67:33. The mixed phase coexists with the ceramide crystalline phase in the range of compositions between 50:50 and 30:70; between 30:70 and 0:100 only the highly crystalline phase of ceramide was detected. The latter was determined and modeled. Immunolabeling was performed with an antibody specific to the cholesterol monohydrate crystalline arrangement. The antibody recognizes crystalline cholesterol monolayers, but does not interact with crystalline ceramide. Immunofluorescence and atomic force microscopy data show that in uncompressed ceramide monolayers, the highly crystalline phase coexists with a disordered loosely packed phase. In contrast, no disordered phase coexists with the new crystalline mixed phase. We conclude that the new mixed phase represents a stable homogeneous arrangement of cholesterol with ceramide. As ceramide incorporates the lipid backbone common to all sphingolipids, this arrangement may be relevant to the understanding of the molecular organization of lipid rafts. PMID:15722431

  11. Ceramide inhibits PKCθ by regulating its phosphorylation and translocation to lipid rafts in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Hamze, Asmaa B; El-Hed, Aimée F; Attieh, Randa; Kozhaya, Lina; Kabbani, Sarah; Dbaibo, Ghassan

    2016-08-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a novel, calcium-independent member of the PKC family of kinases that was identified as a central player in T cell signaling and proliferation. Upon T cell activation by antigen-presenting cells, PKCθ gets phosphorylated and activated prior to its translocation to the immunological synapse where it couples with downstream effectors. PKCθ may be regulated by ceramide, a crucial sphingolipid that is known to promote differentiation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. To further investigate the mechanism, we stimulated human Jurkat T cells with either PMA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies following induction of ceramide accumulation by adding exogenous ceramide, bacterial sphingomyelinase, or Fas ligation. Our results suggest that ceramide regulates the PKCθ pathway through preventing its critical threonine 538 (Thr538) phosphorylation and subsequent activation, thereby inhibiting the kinase's translocation to lipid rafts. Moreover, this inhibition is not likely to be a generic effect of ceramide on membrane reorganization. Other lipids, namely dihydroceramide, palmitate, and sphingosine, did not produce similar effects on PKCθ. Addition of the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A reversed the inhibition exerted by ceramide, and this suggests involvement of a ceramide-activated protein phosphatase. Such previously undescribed mechanism of regulation of PKCθ raises the possibility that ceramide, or one of its derivatives, and may prove valuable in novel therapeutic approaches for disorders involving autoimmunity or excessive inflammation-where PKCθ plays a critical role.

  12. Membrane lipid rafts and neurobiology: age-related changes in membrane lipids and loss of neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Junji; Pearn, Matthew L; Lemkuil, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of the cellular physiological role that plasma membrane lipids, fatty acids and sterols play in various cellular systems may yield more insight into how cellular and whole organ function is altered during the ageing process. Membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) within the plasma membrane of most cells serve as key organizers of intracellular signalling and tethering points of cytoskeletal components. MLRs are plasmalemmal microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and scaffolding proteins; they serve as a platform for signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Within MLRs are the scaffolding and cholesterol binding proteins named caveolin (Cav). Cavs not only organize a multitude of receptors including neurotransmitter receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors), signalling proteins that regulate the production of cAMP (G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs)), and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth (Trk), but also interact with components that modulate actin and tubulin cytoskeletal dynamics (e.g. RhoGTPases and actin binding proteins). MLRs are essential for the regulation of the physiology of organs such as the brain, and age-related loss of cholesterol from the plasma membrane leads to loss of MLRs, decreased presynaptic vesicle fusion, and changes in neurotransmitter release, all of which contribute to different forms of neurodegeneration. Thus, MLRs provide an active membrane domain that tethers and reorganizes the cytoskeletal machinery necessary for membrane and cellular repair, and genetic interventions that restore MLRs to normal cellular levels may be exploited as potential therapeutic means to reverse the ageing and neurodegenerative processes.

  13. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  14. Proteomic Analysis of ABCA1-Null Macrophages Reveals a Role for Stomatin-Like Protein-2 in Raft Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saiful M; Zhu, Xuewei; Aloor, Jim J; Azzam, Kathleen M; Gabor, Kristin A; Ge, William; Addo, Kezia A; Tomer, Kenneth B; Parks, John S; Fessler, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Lipid raft membrane microdomains organize signaling by many prototypical receptors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. Raft-localization of proteins is widely thought to be regulated by raft cholesterol levels, but this is largely on the basis of studies that have manipulated cell cholesterol using crude and poorly specific chemical tools, such as β-cyclodextrins. To date, there has been no proteome-scale investigation of whether endogenous regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1 lipid efflux transporter, regulate targeting of proteins to rafts. Abca1(-/-) macrophages have cholesterol-laden rafts that have been reported to contain increased levels of select proteins, including TLR4, the lipopolysaccharide receptor. Here, using quantitative proteomic profiling, we identified 383 proteins in raft isolates from Abca1(+/+) and Abca1(-/-) macrophages. ABCA1 deletion induced wide-ranging changes to the raft proteome. Remarkably, many of these changes were similar to those seen in Abca1(+/+) macrophages after lipopolysaccharide exposure. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2, a member of the stomatin-prohibitin-flotillin-HflK/C family of membrane scaffolding proteins, was robustly and specifically increased in Abca1(-/-) rafts. Pursuing SLP-2 function, we found that rafts of SLP-2-silenced macrophages had markedly abnormal composition. SLP-2 silencing did not compromise ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux but reduced macrophage responsiveness to multiple TLR ligands. This was associated with reduced raft levels of the TLR co-receptor, CD14, and defective lipopolysaccharide-induced recruitment of the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, to rafts. Taken together, we show that the lipid transporter ABCA1 regulates the protein repertoire of rafts and identify SLP-2 as an ABCA1-dependent regulator of raft composition and of the innate immune response.

  15. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. PMID:26080028

  16. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs.

  17. Keratin impact on PKCδ- and ASMase-mediated regulation of hepatocyte lipid raft size - implication for FasR-associated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stéphane; Loranger, Anne; Omary, M Bishr; Marceau, Normand

    2016-09-01

    Keratins are epithelial cell intermediate filament (IF) proteins that are expressed as pairs in a cell-differentiation-regulated manner. Hepatocytes express the keratin 8 and 18 pair (denoted K8/K18) of IFs, and a loss of K8 or K18, as in K8-null mice, leads to degradation of the keratin partner. We have previously reported that a K8/K18 loss in hepatocytes leads to altered cell surface lipid raft distribution and more efficient Fas receptor (FasR, also known as TNFRSF6)-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate here that the absence of K8 or transgenic expression of the K8 G62C mutant in mouse hepatocytes reduces lipid raft size. Mechanistically, we find that the lipid raft size is dependent on acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase, also known as SMPD1) enzyme activity, which is reduced in absence of K8/K18. Notably, the reduction of ASMase activity appears to be caused by a less efficient redistribution of surface membrane PKCδ toward lysosomes. Moreover, we delineate the lipid raft volume range that is required for an optimal FasR-mediated apoptosis. Hence, K8/K18-dependent PKCδ- and ASMase-mediated modulation of lipid raft size can explain the more prominent FasR-mediated signaling resulting from K8/K18 loss. The fine-tuning of ASMase-mediated regulation of lipid rafts might provide a therapeutic target for death-receptor-related liver diseases. PMID:27422101

  18. Keratin impact on PKCδ- and ASMase-mediated regulation of hepatocyte lipid raft size - implication for FasR-associated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stéphane; Loranger, Anne; Omary, M Bishr; Marceau, Normand

    2016-09-01

    Keratins are epithelial cell intermediate filament (IF) proteins that are expressed as pairs in a cell-differentiation-regulated manner. Hepatocytes express the keratin 8 and 18 pair (denoted K8/K18) of IFs, and a loss of K8 or K18, as in K8-null mice, leads to degradation of the keratin partner. We have previously reported that a K8/K18 loss in hepatocytes leads to altered cell surface lipid raft distribution and more efficient Fas receptor (FasR, also known as TNFRSF6)-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate here that the absence of K8 or transgenic expression of the K8 G62C mutant in mouse hepatocytes reduces lipid raft size. Mechanistically, we find that the lipid raft size is dependent on acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase, also known as SMPD1) enzyme activity, which is reduced in absence of K8/K18. Notably, the reduction of ASMase activity appears to be caused by a less efficient redistribution of surface membrane PKCδ toward lysosomes. Moreover, we delineate the lipid raft volume range that is required for an optimal FasR-mediated apoptosis. Hence, K8/K18-dependent PKCδ- and ASMase-mediated modulation of lipid raft size can explain the more prominent FasR-mediated signaling resulting from K8/K18 loss. The fine-tuning of ASMase-mediated regulation of lipid rafts might provide a therapeutic target for death-receptor-related liver diseases.

  19. Lipid Raft-Mediated Membrane Tethering and Delivery of Hydrophobic Cargos from Liquid Crystal-Based Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Nag, Okhil K; Naciri, Jawad; Oh, Eunkeu; Spillmann, Christopher M; Delehanty, James B

    2016-04-20

    A main goal of bionanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery (NMDD) continues to be the development of novel biomaterials that can controllably modulate the activity of the NP-associated therapeutic cargo. One of the desired subcellular locations for targeted delivery in NMDD is the plasma membrane. However, the controlled delivery of hydrophobic cargos to the membrane bilayer poses significant challenges including cargo precipitation and lack of specificity. Here, we employ a liquid crystal NP (LCNP)-based delivery system for the controlled partitioning of a model dye cargo from within the NP core into the plasma membrane bilayer. During synthesis of the NPs, the water-insoluble model dye cargo, 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO), was efficiently incorporated into the hydrophobic LCNP core as confirmed by multiple spectroscopic analyses. Conjugation of a PEGylated cholesterol derivative to the NP surface (DiO-LCNP-PEG-Chol) facilitated the localization of the dye-loaded NPs to lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane in HEK 293T/17 cell. Analysis of DiO cellular internalization kinetics revealed that when delivered as a LCNP-PEG-Chol NP, the half-life of DiO membrane residence time (30 min) was twice that of free DiO (DiO(free)) (15 min) delivered from bulk solution. Time-resolved laser scanning confocal microscopy was employed to visualize the passive efflux of DiO from the LCNP core and its insertion into the plasma membrane bilayer as confirmed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. Finally, the delivery of DiO as a LCNP-PEG-Chol complex resulted in the attenuation of its cytotoxicity; the NP form of DiO exhibited ∼30-40% less toxicity compared to DiO(free). Our data demonstrate the utility of the LCNP platform as an efficient vehicle for the combined membrane-targeted delivery and physicochemical modulation of molecular cargos using lipid raft-mediated tethering.

  20. Biophysical alterations in lipid rafts from human cerebral cortex associate with increased BACE1/AβPP interaction in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Ferrer, Isidre; Gómez, Tomás; Marín, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have assessed the biophysical properties of lipid rafts from different brain areas in subjects exhibiting early neuropathological stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). By means of steady-state fluorescence polarization analyses using two environment-sensitive fluorescent probes, we demonstrate that lipid rafts from cerebellum, and frontal and entorhinal cortices, exhibit different biophysical behaviors depending on the stage of the disease. Thus, while membrane anisotropies were similar in the cerebellum along stages, lipid rafts from frontal and entorhinal cortices at AD stages I/II and AD III were significantly more liquid-ordered than in control subjects, both at the aqueous interface and hydrophobic core of the raft membrane. Thermotropic analyses demonstrated the presence of Arrhenius breakpoints between 28.3-32.0 °C, which were not influenced by the disease stage. However, analyses of membrane microviscosity (ηapp) demonstrate that frontal and entorhinal lipid rafts are notably more viscous and liquid-ordered all across the membrane from early stages of the disease. These physicochemical alterations in lipid rafts do not correlate with changes in cholesterol or sphingomyelin levels, but to reduced unsaturation index and increased saturate/polyunsaturated ratios in phospholipid acyl chains. Moreover, we demonstrate that β-secretase/AβPP (amyloid-β protein precursor) interaction and lipid raft microviscosity are strongly, and positively, correlated in AD frontal and entorhinal cortices. These observations strengthens the hypothesis that physical properties of these microdomains modulate the convergence of amyloidogenic machinery toward lipid rafts, and also points to a critical role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in amyloidogenic processing of AβPP.

  1. CHOLINE PARTIALLY PREVENTS THE IMPACT OF ETHANOL ON THE LIPID RAFT DEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ningfeng; Bamford, Penny; Jones, Jace; He, Min; Kane, Maureen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, the leading known cause of mental retardation, is caused by alcohol exposure during pregnancy. One mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity is the disruption of the function of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1). These functions include enhancement of neurite outgrowth, trafficking through lipid rafts, and signal transduction. Recent data have shown that choline supplementation of rat pups reduces the effects of ethanol on neurobehavior. We sought to determine if choline could prevent the effect of ethanol on L1 function using a simple experimental system. Methods Cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from postnatal day 6 rat pups were cultured with and without supplemental choline, and the effects on L1 signaling, lipid raft distribution and neurite outgrowth were measured in the presence or absence of ethanol. Results Choline significantly reduced the effect of ethanol on L1 signaling, the distribution of L1 in lipid rafts and L1 mediated neurite outgrowth. However, choline supplemented ethanol exposed cultures remained significantly different than controls. Conclusions Choline pretreatment of CGN significantly reduces the disruption of L1 function by ethanol, but does not completely return L1 function to baseline. This experimental system will enable discovery of the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of choline. PMID:25421509

  2. Diminished Lipid Raft SNAP23 Increases Blood Pressure by Inhibiting the Membrane Fluidity of Vascular Smooth-Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi So; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Jung, Seung Hyo; Lee, Kang Pa; Jung, Dongju; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) is involved in microvesicle trafficking and exocytosis in various cell types, but its functional role in blood pressure (BP) regulation has not yet been defined. Here, we found that lipid raft SNAP23 expression was much lower in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in those from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This led us to investigate the hypothesis that this lower expression may be linked to the spontaneous hypertension found in SHR. The expression level of lipid raft SNAP23 and the fluidity in the plasma membrane of VSMCs were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. Cholesterol content in the VSMC membrane was higher, but the secreted cholesterols found in VSMC-conditioned medium and in the blood serum were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. SNAP23 knockdown in WKY rat VSMCs reduced the membrane fluidity and increased the membrane cholesterol level. Systemic overexpression of SNAP23 in SHR resulted in an increase of cholesterol content in their serum, a decrease in cholesterol in their aorta and the reduction of their BP. Our findings suggest that the low expression of the lipid raft SNAP23 in VSMCs might be a potential cause for the characteristic hypertension of SHR.

  3. Suppressive effects of the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin on the accumulation of lipid rafts after signal transduction via receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiro; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Seki, Yoko; Kawaguchi, Kiichiro; Kumazawa, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Quercetin (QUER) and luteolin (LUTE) are dietary flavonoids capable of regulating the production of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In lipopolysaccharide-triggered (LPS)-triggered signaling via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), QUER and LUTE suppresses not only the degradation of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB), with resultant activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but also the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt in bone marrow-derived macrophages that have been stimulated with LPS. We report here that, in TNF-alpha-induced signaling, QUER and LUTE significantly suppressed the production of IL-6 and activation of NF-kappaB. Accumulation of lipid rafts, the initial step in the signaling pathway, was significantly inhibited when macrophages were treated with QUER or with LUTE prior to exposure to LPS. Similarly, the accumulation of lipid rafts was inhibited by the flavonoids when B cells were activated via the membrane IgM and when T cells were activated via CD3. In contrast, QUER and LUTE did not inhibit the activation of phorbol myristate acetate-induced NF-kappaB in macrophages. Our observations suggest that QUER and LUTE interact with receptors on the cell surface and suppress the accumulation of lipid rafts that occurs downstream of the activation of the receptors.

  4. Caveolin-rich lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of mature cerebellar granule neurons are microcompartments for calcium/reactive oxygen and nitrogen species cross-talk signaling.

    PubMed

    Marques-da-Silva, D; Gutierrez-Merino, C

    2014-08-01

    In previous works, we have shown that L-type voltage-operated calcium channels, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAr), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cytochrome b5 reductase (Cb5R) co-localize within the same lipid rafts-associated nanodomains in mature cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). In this work, we show that the calcium transport systems of the plasma membrane extruding calcium from the cytosol, plasma membrane calcium pumps (PMCA) and sodium-calcium exchangers (NCX), are also associated with these nanodomains. All these proteins were found to co-immunoprecipitate with caveolin-1 after treatment with 25mM methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a lipid rafts solubilizing agent. However, the treatment of CGN with methyl-β-cyclodextrin largely attenuated the rise of cytosolic calcium induced by l-glutamate through NMDAr. Fluorescence energy transfer imaging revealed that all of them are present in sub-microdomains of a size smaller than 200nm, with a peripheral distribution of the calcium extrusion systems PMCA and NCX. Fluorescence microscopy images analysis revealed high calcium dynamic sub-microcompartments near the plasma membrane in fura-2-loaded CGN at short times after addition of l-glutamate. In addition, the close proximity between sources of nitric oxide (nNOS) and superoxide anion (Cb5R) suggests that these nanodomains are involved in the fast and efficient cross-talk between calcium and redox signaling in neurons. PMID:24996880

  5. Evidence for the role of lipid rafts and sphingomyelin in Ca2+-gating of Transient Receptor Potential channels in trigeminal sensory neurons and peripheral nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Sághy, Éva; Szőke, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Börzsei, Rita; Erostyák, János; Jánosi, Tibor Zoltán; Sétáló, György; Szolcsányi, János

    2015-10-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels, such as TRP Vanilloid 1 and TRP Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1) are nocisensors playing important role to signal pain. Two "melastatin" TRP receptors, like TRPM8 and TRPM3 are also expressed in a subgroup of primary sensory neurons. These channels serve as thermosensors with unique thermal sensitivity ranges and are activated also by several exogenous and endogenous chemical ligands inducing conformational changes from various allosteric ("multisteric") sites. We analysed the role of plasma membrane microdomains of lipid rafts on isolated trigeminal (TRG) neurons and TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line by measuring agonist-induced Ca2+ transients with ratiometric technique. Stimulation-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sensory nerve endings of the isolated rat trachea by radioimmunoassay was also measured. Lipid rafts were disrupted by cleaving sphingomyelin (SM) with sphingomyelinase (SMase), cholesterol depletion with methyl β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and ganglioside breakdown with myriocin. It has been revealed that intracellular Ca2+ increase responses evoked by the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the TRPA1 agonsits allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and formaldehyde as well as the TRPM8 activator icilin were inhibited after SMase, MCD and myriocin incubation but the response to the TRPM3 agonist pregnenolon sulphate was not altered. Extracellular SMase treatment did not influence the thapsigargin-evoked Ca2+-release from intracellular stores. Besides the cell bodies, SMase also inhibited capsaicin- or AITC-evoked CGRP release from peripheral sensory nerve terminals, this provides the first evidence for the importance of lipid raft integrity in TRPV1 and TRPA1 gating on capsaicin-sensitive nerve terminals. SM metabolites, ceramide and sphingosine, did not influence TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation on TRG neurons, TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line, and nerve terminals. We suggest, that the hydrophobic

  6. Effect of Receptor Dimerization on Membrane Lipid Raft Structure Continuously Quantified on Single Cells by Camera Based Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weixiang; Pralle, Arnd

    2015-01-01

    Membrane bound cell signaling is modulated by the membrane ultra-structure, which itself may be affected by signaling. However, measuring the interaction of membrane proteins with membrane structures in intact cells in real-time poses considerable challenges. In this paper we present a non-destructive fluorescence method that quantifies these interactions in single cells, and is able to monitor the same cell continuously to observe small changes. This approach combines total internal fluorescence microscopy with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure the protein’s diffusion and molecular concentration in different sized areas simultaneously. It correctly differentiates proteins interacting with membrane fences from proteins interacting with cholesterol-stabilized domains, or lipid rafts. This method detects small perturbations of the membrane ultra-structure or of a protein’s tendency to dimerize. Through continuous monitoring of single cells, we demonstrate how dimerization of GPI-anchored proteins increases their association with the structural domains. Using a dual-color approach we study the effect of dimerization of one GPI-anchored protein on another type of GPI-anchored protein expressed in the same cell. Scans over the cell surface reveal a correlation between cholesterol stabilized domains and membrane cytoskeleton. PMID:25811483

  7. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Adebowale; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca(2+)]i chelator; KN-93, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca(2+)]i-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. PMID:24662198

  8. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic apoptosis via lipid raft/PTEN/Akt1/mTOR mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ping-Ping; Li, Wen-Jing; Chang, Fen; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy, evoked by diverse stresses including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), profoundly affects the development of heart failure. However, the specific molecular basis of autophagy remains to be elucidated. Here we report that sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), a bioactive sphingolipid, significantly suppressed apoptosis and induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Blocking this SPC evoked autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA)-sensitized cardiomyocytes to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Subsequent studies revealed that SPC downregulated the phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4EBP1 (two substrates of mTOR) but enhanced that of JNK when inducing autophagy. We identified SPC as a switch for the activity of Akt1, a supposed upstream modulator of both mTOR and JNK. Furthermore, β-cyclodextrin, which destroys membrane cholesterol, abolished the SPC-reduced phosphorylation of both Akt and PTEN, thus inhibiting SPC-induced autophagy. In conclusion, SPC is a novel molecule protecting cardiomyocytes against apoptosis by promoting autophagy. The lipid raft/PTEN/Akt1/mTOR signal pathway is the underlying mechanism and might provide novel targets for cardiac failure therapy.

  9. Effects of Leucin-Enkephalins on Surface Characteristics and Morphology of Model Membranes Composed of Raft-Forming Lipids.

    PubMed

    Tsanova, Asya; Jordanova, A; Lalchev, Z

    2016-06-01

    During the last decades opioid peptides, like enkephalins (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met/Leu) are subject to extensive studies due to their antinociceptive action in organism. According to the membrane catalysis theory, in order to adopt a proper conformation for binding to their receptors, opioid peptides interact with the lipid phase of the membrane receptor surrounding. With this regard, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of synthetic leucine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalinamide on surface characteristics and morphology of lipid monolayers, composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol alone and with their mixtures. The lipids were chosen to represent a model of a membrane raft, since it is known that G-protein-coupled receptors, including opioid receptors, are located preferably in membrane rafts. By using Langmuir's monolayer method, the change in surface pressure of the model membranes before and after the addition of the synthetic enkephalins was studied, and the compressional moduli of the lipids and lipid-peptides monolayers were determined. In addition, by Brewster angle microscopy, the surface morphology of the lipid monolayers alone and after the injection of both enkephalins was monitored. Our results showed that both leucine-enkephalins affected the lipid monolayers surface characteristics, and led to an increase in surface density of the mixed surface lipids/enkephalins films at loose lipid packing. This effect was more pronounced for the enkephalinamide, suggesting a different mechanism of interaction for the amidated enkephalin with the lipid phase, as compared to leucine-enkephalin.

  10. Lipid rafts: linking prion protein to zinc transport and amyloid-β toxicity in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Nicole T.; Griffiths, Heledd H.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of neuronal zinc homeostasis plays a major role in many processes related to brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, despite the critical role of zinc in neuronal function, the cellular mechanisms underpinning its homeostatic control are far from clear. We reported that the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is involved in the uptake of zinc into neurons. This PrPC-mediated zinc influx required the metal-binding octapeptide repeats in PrPC and the presence of the zinc permeable AMPA channel with which PrPC directly interacted. Together with the observation that PrPC is evolutionarily related to the ZIP family of zinc transporters, these studies indicate that PrPC plays a key role in neuronal zinc homeostasis. Therefore, PrPC could contribute to cognitive health and protect against age-related zinc dyshomeostasis but PrPC has also been identified as a receptor for amyloid-β oligomers which accumulate in the brains of those with AD. We propose that the different roles that PrPC has are due to its interaction with different ligands and/or co-receptors in lipid raft-based signaling/transport complexes. PMID:25364748

  11. The Deleterious Effects of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Palmitoylation, Membrane Lipid Rafts and Lipid-Based Cellular Signalling: New Drug Targets in Neuroimmune Disorders.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; Puri, Basant K; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is causatively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and depression. Many of the consequences stemming from O&NS, including damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, are well known, whereas the effects of O&NS on lipoprotein-based cellular signalling involving palmitoylation and plasma membrane lipid rafts are less well documented. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in lipid-based signalling, including palmitoylation, membrane/lipid raft (MLR) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) functions, the effects of O&NS processes on these processes and their role in the abovementioned diseases. S-palmitoylation is a post-translational modification, which regulates protein trafficking and association with the plasma membrane, protein subcellular location and functions. Palmitoylation and MRLs play a key role in neuronal functions, including glutamatergic neurotransmission, and immune-inflammatory responses. Palmitoylation, MLRs and n-3 PUFAs are vulnerable to the corruptive effects of O&NS. Chronic O&NS inhibits palmitoylation and causes profound changes in lipid membrane composition, e.g. n-3 PUFA depletion, increased membrane permeability and reduced fluidity, which together lead to disorders in intracellular signal transduction, receptor dysfunction and increased neurotoxicity. Disruption of lipid-based signalling is a source of the neuroimmune disorders involved in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases. n-3 PUFA supplementation is a rational therapeutic approach targeting disruptions in lipid-based signalling.

  12. Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Impairs Bacterial Phagocytosis in Macrophages by Modulating CFTR Dependent Lipid-Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Inzer; Ji, Changhoon; Vij, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction First/Second-hand cigarette-smoke (FHS/SHS) exposure weakens immune defenses inducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Hence, we evaluated if SHS induced changes in membrane/lipid-raft (m-/r)-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression/activity is a potential mechanism for impaired bacterial phagocytosis in COPD. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to freshly prepared CS-extract (CSE) containing culture media and/or Pseudomonas-aeruginosa-PA01-GFP for phagocytosis (fluorescence-microscopy), bacterial survival (colony-forming-units-CFU), and immunoblotting assays. The CFTR-expression/activity and lipid-rafts were modulated by transient-transfection or inhibitors/inducers. Next, mice were exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS or room-air (5-days/3-weeks) and infected with PA01-GFP, followed by quantification of bacterial survival by CFU-assay. Results We investigated the effect of CSE treatment on RAW264.7 cells infected by PA01-GFP and observed that CSE treatment significantly (p<0.01) inhibits PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the controls. We also verified this in murine model, exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS and found significant (p<0.05, p<0.02) increase in bacterial survival in the SHS-exposed lungs as compared to the room-air controls. Next, we examined the effect of impaired CFTR ion-channel-activity on PA01-GFP infection of RAW264.7 cells using CFTR172-inhibitor and found no significant change in phagocytosis. We also similarly evaluated the effect of a CFTR corrector-potentiator compound, VRT-532, and observed no significant rescue of CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis although it significantly (p<0.05) decreases CSE induced bacterial survival. Moreover, induction of CFTR expression in macrophages significantly (p<0.03) improves CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the control. Next, we verified the link between m

  13. Segregation of leading-edge and uropod components into specific lipid rafts during T cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Moutón, Concepción; Abad, Jose Luis; Mira, Emilia; Lacalle, Rosa Ana; Gallardo, Eduard; Jiménez-Baranda, Sonia; Illa, Isabel; Bernad, Antonio; Mañes, Santos; Martínez-A., Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Redistribution of specialized molecules in migrating cells develops asymmetry between two opposite cell poles, the leading edge and the uropod. We show that acquisition of a motile phenotype in T lymphocytes results in the asymmetric redistribution of ganglioside GM3- and GM1-enriched raft domains to the leading edge and to the uropod, respectively. This segregation to each cell pole parallels the specific redistribution of membrane proteins associated to each raft subfraction. Our data suggest that raft partitioning is a major determinant for protein redistribution in polarized T cells, as ectopic expression of raft-associated proteins results in their asymmetric redistribution, whereas non-raft-partitioned mutants of these proteins are distributed homogeneously in the polarized cell membrane. Both acquisition of a migratory phenotype and SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis are cholesterol depletion-sensitive. Finally, GM3 and GM1 raft redistribution requires an intact actin cytoskeleton, but is insensitive to microtubule disruption. We propose that membrane protein segregation not only between raft and nonraft domains but also between distinct raft subdomains may be an organizational principle that mediates redistribution of specialized molecules needed for T cell migration. PMID:11493690

  14. Membrane lipid rafts and neurobiology: age-related changes in membrane lipids and loss of neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Junji; Pearn, Matthew L; Lemkuil, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of the cellular physiological role that plasma membrane lipids, fatty acids and sterols play in various cellular systems may yield more insight into how cellular and whole organ function is altered during the ageing process. Membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) within the plasma membrane of most cells serve as key organizers of intracellular signalling and tethering points of cytoskeletal components. MLRs are plasmalemmal microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and scaffolding proteins; they serve as a platform for signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Within MLRs are the scaffolding and cholesterol binding proteins named caveolin (Cav). Cavs not only organize a multitude of receptors including neurotransmitter receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors), signalling proteins that regulate the production of cAMP (G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs)), and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth (Trk), but also interact with components that modulate actin and tubulin cytoskeletal dynamics (e.g. RhoGTPases and actin binding proteins). MLRs are essential for the regulation of the physiology of organs such as the brain, and age-related loss of cholesterol from the plasma membrane leads to loss of MLRs, decreased presynaptic vesicle fusion, and changes in neurotransmitter release, all of which contribute to different forms of neurodegeneration. Thus, MLRs provide an active membrane domain that tethers and reorganizes the cytoskeletal machinery necessary for membrane and cellular repair, and genetic interventions that restore MLRs to normal cellular levels may be exploited as potential therapeutic means to reverse the ageing and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26332795

  15. L-plastin is involved in NKG2D recruitment into lipid rafts and NKG2D-mediated NK cell migration.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Brdička, Tomáš; Hoøejši, Václav; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Membrane rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane that have multiple biological functions. The involvement of these structures in the biology of T cells, namely in signal transduction by the TCR, has been widely studied. However, the role of membrane rafts in immunoreceptor signaling in NK cells is less well known. We studied the distribution of the activating NKG2D receptor in lipid rafts by isolating DRMs in a sucrose density gradient or by raft fractionation by β-OG-selective solubility in the NKL cell line. We found that the NKG2D-DAP10 complex and pVav are recruited into rafts upon receptor stimulation. Qualitative proteomic analysis of these fractions showed that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in this process. In particular, we found that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin plays an important role in the clustering of NKG2D into lipid rafts. Moreover, coengagement of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A partially disrupted NKG2D recruitment into rafts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that L-plastin participates in NKG2D-mediated inhibition of NK cell chemotaxis.

  16. Resistance to alkyl-lysophospholipid-induced apoptosis due to downregulated sphingomyelin synthase 1 expression with consequent sphingomyelin- and cholesterol-deficiency in lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Van der Luit, Arnold H.; Budde, Marianne; Zerp, Shuraila; Caan, Wendy; Klarenbeek, Jeffrey B.; Verheij, Marcel; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    The ALP (alkyl-lysophospholipid) edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine; Et-18-OCH3) induces apoptosis in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. To this end, ALP is internalized by lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and inhibits phosphatidylcholine synthesis. A variant cell-line, S49AR, which is resistant to ALP, was shown previously to be unable to internalize ALP via this lipid raft pathway. The reason for this uptake failure is not understood. In the present study, we show that S49AR cells are unable to synthesize SM (sphingomyelin) due to down-regulated SMS1 (SM synthase 1) expression. In parental S49 cells, resistance to ALP could be mimicked by small interfering RNA-induced SMS1 suppression, resulting in SM deficiency and blockage of raft-dependent internalization of ALP and induction of apoptosis. Similar results were obtained by treatment of the cells with myriocin/ISP-1, an inhibitor of general sphingolipid synthesis, or with U18666A, a cholesterol homoeostasis perturbing agent. U18666A is known to inhibit Niemann–Pick C1 protein-dependent vesicular transport of cholesterol from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane. U18666A reduced cholesterol partitioning in detergent-resistant lipid rafts and inhibited SM synthesis in S49 cells, causing ALP resistance similar to that observed in S49AR cells. The results are explained by the strong physical interaction between (newly synthesized) SM and available cholesterol at the Golgi, where they facilitate lipid raft formation. We propose that ALP internalization by lipid-raft-dependent endocytosis represents the retrograde route of a constitutive SMS1- and lipid-raft-dependent membrane vesicular recycling process. PMID:17049047

  17. Oral PEG 15–20 protects the intestine against radiation: role of lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborina, Olga; Long, Jason; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Wang, Junru; Holbrook, Christopher; Zaborin, Alexander; Drabik, Kenneth; Katdare, Mukta; Mauceri, Helena; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Firestone, Millicent A.; Lee, Ka Yee; Chang, Eugene B.; Matthews, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15–20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15–20 (n = 9–13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15–20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15–20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15–20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15–20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation. PMID:19833862

  18. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    SciTech Connect

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  19. Role of lipid rafts in innate immunity and phagocytosis of polystyrene latex microspheres.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Goshi; Ishii, Kazuo; Hirota, Keiji; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Understanding of the association of phagocytosis of polymers with signaling of innate immunity of macrophages is the major purpose of this study. Polymer conjugates have been utilized for clinical therapy of cancer and infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as effective vectors of drug-delivery systems. They are incorporated through phagocytosis into macrophages and activate innate immunity signaling, which plays a crucial role in its therapeutic and side effects. Macrophage phagocytosis of polystyrene latex microspheres was examined and assayed by treatment of macrophages with the cholesterol depletor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) or the sphingolipid depletor n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP). Expressions of various mRNAs during phagocytosis were quantified by real-time PCR. Phagocytosis of polystyrene latex microspheres by various macrophages, such as murine monocyte-derived macrophage J774, rat alveolar macrophage NR8383, and murine Kupffer cell KC13-2, was suppressed by treatment with MβCD or OGP in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of mRNAs of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL10 genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was not suppressed by treatment with MβCD in J774 cells. Moreover, genes that were induced by LPS were up-regulated even in the absence of LPS by the phagocytosis of polymer conjugates, but such up-regulations were not suppressed by the treatment with MβCD. It was shown that lipid rafts play a significant role in incorporation of polymer conjugates through phagocytosis of macrophages, but their association with signal transduction in innate immunity is very limited.

  20. Visfatin-Induced Lipid Raft Redox Signaling Platforms and Dysfunction in Glomerular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Han, Wei-Qing; Brimson, Christopher; Poklis, Justin L.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2010-01-01

    Adipokines have been reported to contribute to glomerular injury during obesity or diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanisms mediating the actions of various adipokines on the kidney remained elusive. The present study was performed to determine whether acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-ceramide associated lipid raft (LR) clustering is involved in local oxidative stress in glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) induced by adipokines such as visfatin and adiponectin. Using confocal microscopy, visfatin but not adiponectin was found to increase LRs clustering in the membrane of GECs in a dose and time dependent manner. Upon visfatin stimulation ASMase activity was increased, and an aggregation of ASMase product, ceramide and NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91phox and p47phox were observed in the LR clusters, forming a LR redox signaling platform. The formation of this signaling platform was blocked by prior treatment with LR disruptor filipin, ASMase inhibitor amitriptyline, ASMase siRNA, gp91phox siRNA and adiponectin. Corresponding to LR clustering and aggregation of NADPH subunits, superoxide (O2•−) production was significantly increased (2.7 folds) upon visfatin stimulation, as measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Functionally, visfatin significantly increased the permeability of GEC layer in culture and disrupted microtubular networks, which were blocked by inhibition of LR redox signaling platform formation. In conclusion, the injurious effect of visfatin, but not adiponectin on the glomerular endothelium is associated with the formation of LR redox signaling platforms via LR clustering, which produces local oxidative stress resulting in the disruption of microtubular networks in GECs and increases the glomerular permeability. PMID:20858552

  1. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft-dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down-stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae.

  2. Probing lipid-cholesterol interactions in DOPC/eSM/Chol and DOPC/DPPC/Chol model lipid rafts with DSC and (13)C solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Fritzsching, Keith J; Kim, Jihyun; Holland, Gregory P

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between cholesterol (Chol) and phospholipids in bilayers was investigated for the ternary model lipid rafts, DOPC/eSM/Chol and DOPC/DPPC/Chol, with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state NMR. The enthalpy and transition temperature (Tm) of the Lα liquid crystalline phase transition from DSC was used to probe the thermodynamics of the different lipids in the two systems as a function of Chol content. The main chain (13)C (CH2)n resonance is resolved in the (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra for the unsaturated (DOPC) and saturated (eSM or DPPC) chain lipid in the ternary lipid raft mixtures. The (13)C chemical shift of this resonance can be used to detect differences in chain ordering and overall interactions with Chol for the different lipid constituents in the ternary systems. The combination of DSC and (13)C CP-MAS NMR results indicate that there is a preferential interaction between SM and Chol below Tm for the DOPC/eSM/Chol system when the Chol content is ≤20mol%. In contrast, no preferential interaction between Chol and DPPC is observed in the DOPC/DPPC/Chol system above or below Tm. Finally, (13)C CP-MAS NMR resolves two Chol environments in the DOPC/eSM/Chol system below Tm at Chol contents >20mol% while, a single Chol environment is observed for DOPC/DPPC/Chol at all compositions.

  3. Push and pull forces in lipid raft formation: the push can be as important as the pull.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Krause, Martin R; Regen, Steven L

    2015-01-21

    Nearest-neighbor recognition measurements have been made using exchangeable mimics of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in the liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) states. In the ld phase, the net interaction between these two lipids is repulsive. In the lo phase, their interactions are neither attractive nor repulsive. These results, together with previous nearest-neighbor measurements, imply that the overall driving force for lipid domain formation in bilayers composed of high-melting lipids, low-melting lipids, and cholesterol, corresponds to a strong pull (attraction) between the high-melting lipids and cholesterol, a significant push (repulsion) between the low-melting and high-melting lipids, and a significant push between the low-melting lipids and cholesterol. In a broader context, these results provide strong support for the notion that repulsive forces play a major role in the formation of lipid rafts.

  4. Lipid Rafts Are Physiologic Membrane Microdomains Necessary for the Morphogenic and Developmental Functions of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Cynthia C; Gabreski, Nicole A; Hein, Sarah J; Pierchala, Brian A

    2015-09-23

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes PNS development and kidney morphogenesis via a receptor complex consisting of the glycerophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored, ligand binding receptor GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1) and the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret. Although Ret signal transduction in vitro is augmented by translocation into lipid rafts via GFRα1, the existence and importance of lipid rafts in GDNF-Ret signaling under physiologic conditions is unresolved. A knock-in mouse was produced that replaced GFRα1 with GFRα1-TM, which contains a transmembrane (TM) domain instead of the GPI anchor. GFRα1-TM still binds GDNF and promotes Ret activation but does not translocate into rafts. In Gfrα1(TM/TM) mice, GFRα1-TM is expressed, trafficked, and processed at levels identical to GFRα1. Although Gfrα1(+/TM) mice are viable, Gfrα1(TM/TM) mice display bilateral renal agenesis, lack enteric neurons in the intestines, and have motor axon guidance deficits, similar to Gfrα1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the recruitment of Ret into lipid rafts by GFRα1 is required for the physiologic functions of GDNF in vertebrates. Significance statement: Membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts have been proposed to be unique subdomains in the plasma membrane that are critical for the signaling functions of multiple receptor complexes. Their existence and physiologic relevance has been debated. Based on in vitro studies, lipid rafts have been reported to be necessary for the function of the Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of neurotrophic factors. The receptor for GDNF comprises the lipid raft-resident, glycerophosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1) and the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret. Here we demonstrate, using a knock-in mouse model in which GFRα1 is no longer located in lipid rafts, that the developmental functions of GDNF in the periphery require the translocation of the GDNF receptor complex

  5. D1-like receptors regulate NADPH oxidase activity and subunit expression in lipid raft microdomains of renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hewang; Han, Weixing; Villar, Van Anthony M; Keever, Lindsay B; Lu, Quansheng; Hopfer, Ulrich; Quinn, Mark T; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Yu, Peiying

    2009-06-01

    NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that oxidase subunits are differentially regulated in renal proximal tubules from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Basal Nox2 and Nox4, but not Rac1, in immortalized renal proximal tubule cells and brush border membranes were greater in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. However, more Rac1 was expressed in lipid rafts in cells from hypertensive rats than in cells from normotensive rats; the converse was observed with Nox4, whereas Nox2 expression was similar. The D(1)-like receptor agonist fenoldopam decreased Nox2 and Rac1 protein in lipid rafts to a greater extent in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. Basal oxidase activity was 3-fold higher in hypertensive than in normotensive rats but was inhibited to a greater extent by fenoldopam in normotensive (58+/-3.3%) than in hypertensive rats (31+/-5.2%; P<0.05; n=6 per group). Fenoldopam decreased the amount of Nox2 that coimmunoprecipitated with p67(phox) in cells from normotensive rats. D(1)-like receptors may decrease oxidase activity by disrupting the distribution and assembly of oxidase subunits in cell membrane microdomains. The cholesterol-depleting reagent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin decreased oxidase activity and cholesterol content to a greater extent in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The greater basal levels of Nox2 and Nox4 in cell membranes and Nox2 and Rac1 in lipid rafts in hypertensive rats than in normotensive rats may explain the increased basal oxidase activity in hypertensive rats. PMID:19380616

  6. Signaling Active CD95 Receptor Molecules Trigger Co-translocation of Inactive CD95 Molecules into Lipid Rafts*

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Isabell; Fick, Andrea; Schäfer, Viktoria; Giner, Tina; Siegmund, Daniela; Wajant, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The capability of soluble CD95L trimers to trigger CD95-associated signaling pathways is drastically increased by oligomerization. The latter can be achieved, for example, by antibodies recognizing a N-terminal epitope tag in recombinant CD95L variants or by genetic engineering-enforced formation of hexamers. Using highly sensitive and accurate binding studies with recombinant CD95L variants equipped with a Gaussia princeps luciferase reporter domain, we found that oligomerization of CD95L has no major effect on CD95 occupancy. This indicates that the higher activity of oligomerized CD95L trimers is not related to an avidity-related increase in apparent affinity and points instead to a crucial role of aggregation of initially formed trimeric CD95L-CD95 complexes in CD95 activation. Furthermore, binding of soluble CD95L trimers was found to be insufficient to increase the association of CD95 with the lipid raft-containing membrane fraction. However, when Gaussia princeps luciferase-CD95L trimers were used as tracers to “mark” inactive CD95 molecules, increased association of these inactive receptors was observed upon activation of the remaining CD95 molecules by help of highly active hexameric Fc-CD95L or membrane CD95L. Moreover, in cells expressing endogenous CD95 and chimeric CD40-CD95 receptors, triggering of CD95 signaling via endogenous CD95 resulted in co-translocation of CD40-CD95 to the lipid raft fraction, whereas vice versa activation of CD95-associated pathways with Fc-CD40L via CD40-CD95 resulted in co-translocation of endogenous CD95. In sum, this shows that signaling-active CD95 molecules not only enhance their own association with the lipid raft-containing membrane fraction but also those of inactive CD95 molecules. PMID:22645131

  7. By activating Fas/ceramide synthase 6/p38 kinase in lipid rafts, stichoposide D inhibits growth of leukemia xenografts.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seon; Shin, Sung-Won; Ju, Mi-Ha; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Stonik, Valentin A; Kwak, Jong-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2015-09-29

    Stichoposide D (STD) is a marine triterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of STD in human leukemia cells. The role of Fas (CD95), ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis was examined in human leukemia cells. In addition, the antitumor effects of STD in K562 and HL-60 leukemia xenograft models were investigated. We found that STD induces Fas translocation to lipid rafts, and thus mediates cell apoptosis. We also observed the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis. The use of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin to disrupt lipid rafts prevents the clustering of Fas and the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase, and also inhibits STD-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibition by Fas, CerS6, and p38 kinase siRNA transfection partially blocked STD-induced apoptosis. In addition, STD has antitumor activity through the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase without displaying any toxicity in HL-60 and K562 xenograft models. We observed that the anti-tumor effect of STD is partially prevented in CerS6 shRNA-silenced xenograft models. We first report that Fas/CerS6/p38 kinase activation in lipid rafts by STD is involved in its anti-leukemic activity. We also established that STD is able to enhance the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to etoposide or Ara-C. These data suggest that STD may be used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat leukemia.

  8. Cytoskeleton keratin regulation of FasR signaling through modulation of actin/ezrin interplay at lipid rafts in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stéphane; Loranger, Anne; Lavoie, Josée N; Marceau, Normand

    2012-08-01

    FasR stimulation by Fas ligand leads to rapid formation of FasR microaggregates, which become signaling protein oligomerization transduction structures (SPOTS), through interactions with actin and ezrin, a structural step that triggers death-inducing signaling complex formation, in association with procaspase-8 activation. In some cells, designated as type I, caspase 8 directly activates effector caspases, whereas in others, known as type II, the caspase-mediated death signaling is amplified through mitochondria. Keratins are the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), the hallmark of all simple epithelia. We have shown recently that in comparison to type II wild-type (WT) mouse hepatocytes, the absence of K8/K18 IFs in K8-null hepatocytes leads to more efficient FasR-mediated apoptosis, in link with a type II/type I-like switch in FasR-death signaling. Here, we demonstrate that the apoptotic process occurring in type I-like K8-null hepatocytes is associated with accelerated SPOTS elaboration at surface membrane, along with manifestation of FasR cap formation and internalization. In addition, the lipid raft organization is altered in K8-null hepatocytes. While lipid raft inhibition impairs SPOTS formation in both WT and K8-null hepatocytes, the absence of K8/K18 IFs in the latter sensitizes SPOTS to actin de-polymerization, and perturbs ezrin compartmentalization. Overall, the results indicate that the K8/K18 IF loss in hepatocytes alters the initial FasR activation steps through perturbation of ezrin/actin interplay and lipid raft organization, which leads to a type II/type I switch in FasR-death signaling.

  9. The active metabolite of Clopidogrel disrupts P2Y12 receptor oligomers and partitions them out of lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Pierre; Zachayus, Jean-Luc; Delesque-Touchard, Nathalie; Labouret, Catherine; Hervé, Caroline; Uzabiaga, Marie-Françoise; Pereillo, Jean-Marie; Culouscou, Jean-Michel; Bono, Françoise; Ferrara, Pascual; Herbert, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    P2Y12, a G protein-coupled receptor that plays a central role in platelet activation has been recently identified as the receptor targeted by the antithrombotic drug, clopidogrel. In this study, we further deciphered the mechanism of action of clopidogrel and of its active metabolite (Act-Met) on P2Y12 receptors. Using biochemical approaches, we demonstrated the existence of homooligomeric complexes of P2Y12 receptors at the surface of mammalian cells and in freshly isolated platelets. In vitro treatment with Act-Met or in vivo oral administration to rats with clopidogrel induced the breakdown of these oligomers into dimeric and monomeric entities in P2Y12 expressing HEK293 and platelets respectively. In addition, we showed the predominant association of P2Y12 oligomers to cell membrane lipid rafts and the partitioning of P2Y12 out of rafts in response to clopidogrel and Act-Met. The raft-associated P2Y12 oligomers represented the functional form of the receptor, as demonstrated by binding and signal transduction studies. Finally, using a series of receptors individually mutated at each cysteine residue and a chimeric P2Y12/P2Y13 receptor, we pointed out the involvement of cysteine 97 within the first extracellular loop of P2Y12 in the mechanism of action of Act-Met. PMID:16835302

  10. Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; D'Agostino, Riccardo; Trigari, Silvana; Serratì, Simona; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Luciani, Cristina; Chillà, Anastasia; Andreucci, Elena; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Margheri, Giancarlo; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis. PMID:25313007

  11. Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; D'Agostino, Riccardo; Trigari, Silvana; Serratì, Simona; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Luciani, Cristina; Chillà, Anastasia; Andreucci, Elena; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Margheri, Giancarlo; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis. PMID:25313007

  12. Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; D'Agostino, Riccardo; Trigari, Silvana; Serratì, Simona; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Luciani, Cristina; Chillà, Anastasia; Andreucci, Elena; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Margheri, Giancarlo; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis.

  13. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Naoki; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko; Nomoto, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1) in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft. PMID:27626438

  14. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Naoki; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko; Nomoto, Akio

    2016-09-10

    The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1) in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft.

  15. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Naoki; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko; Nomoto, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1) in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft. PMID:27626438

  16. Oxidized LDL lipids increase β-amyloid production by SH-SY5Y cells through glutathione depletion and lipid raft formation.

    PubMed

    Dias, Irundika H K; Mistry, Jayna; Fell, Shaun; Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M; Polidori, Maria C; Lip, Gregory Y H; Griffiths, Helen R

    2014-10-01

    Elevated total cholesterol in midlife has been associated with increased risk of dementia in later life. We have previously shown that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is more oxidized in the plasma of dementia patients, although total cholesterol levels are not different from those of age-matched controls. β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which accumulates in Alzheimer disease (AD), arises from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase-1 (BACE1). BACE1 activity is regulated by membrane lipids and raft formation. Given the evidence for altered lipid metabolism in AD, we have investigated a mechanism for enhanced Aβ production by SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells exposed to oxidized LDL (oxLDL). The viability of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 4μg oxLDL and 25µM 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH-C) was decreased significantly. Lipids, but not proteins, extracted from oxLDL were more cytotoxic than oxLDL. In parallel, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione was decreased at sublethal concentrations of lipids extracted from native and oxLDL. GSH loss was associated with an increase in acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity and lipid raft formation, which could be inhibited by the ASMase inhibitor desipramine. 27OH-C and total lipids from LDL and oxLDL independently increased Aβ production by SH-SY5Y cells, and Aβ accumulation could be inhibited by desipramine and by N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest a mechanism whereby oxLDL lipids and 27OH-C can drive Aβ production by GSH depletion, ASMase-driven membrane remodeling, and BACE1 activation in neuronal cells.

  17. Saikosaponin a inhibits lipopolysaccharide-oxidative stress and inflammation in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells via preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-12-01

    Saikosaponin a (SSa), the major triterpenoid saponin derivatives from Radix bupleuri (RB), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SSa on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of SSa. The levels of TNF-α and IL-8 were detected by ELISA. The expression of COX-2 and iNOS, NF-κB and IκB protein were determined by Western blotting. To investigate the protective mechanisms of SSa, TLR4 expression was detected by Western blotting and membrane lipid rafts were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-TLR4 antibody. The results showed that SSa dose-dependently inhibited the production of ROS, TNF-α, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. Western blot analysis showed that SSa suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation. SSa did not affect the expression of TLR4 induced by LPS. However, translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and oligomerization of TLR4 induce by LPS was inhibited by SSa. Furthermore, SSa disrupted the formation of lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol. Moreover, SSa activated LXRα-ABCA1 signaling pathway, which could induce cholesterol efflux from lipid rafts. Knockdown of LXRα abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of SSa. In conclusion, the effects of SSa is associated with activating LXRα-ABCA1 signaling pathway which results in disrupting lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol and reducing translocation of TLR4 to lipid rafts and oligomerization of TLR4, thereby attenuating LPS mediated oxidative and inflammatory responses. PMID:26475038

  18. Saikosaponin a inhibits lipopolysaccharide-oxidative stress and inflammation in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells via preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-12-01

    Saikosaponin a (SSa), the major triterpenoid saponin derivatives from Radix bupleuri (RB), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SSa on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of SSa. The levels of TNF-α and IL-8 were detected by ELISA. The expression of COX-2 and iNOS, NF-κB and IκB protein were determined by Western blotting. To investigate the protective mechanisms of SSa, TLR4 expression was detected by Western blotting and membrane lipid rafts were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-TLR4 antibody. The results showed that SSa dose-dependently inhibited the production of ROS, TNF-α, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. Western blot analysis showed that SSa suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation. SSa did not affect the expression of TLR4 induced by LPS. However, translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and oligomerization of TLR4 induce by LPS was inhibited by SSa. Furthermore, SSa disrupted the formation of lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol. Moreover, SSa activated LXRα-ABCA1 signaling pathway, which could induce cholesterol efflux from lipid rafts. Knockdown of LXRα abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of SSa. In conclusion, the effects of SSa is associated with activating LXRα-ABCA1 signaling pathway which results in disrupting lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol and reducing translocation of TLR4 to lipid rafts and oligomerization of TLR4, thereby attenuating LPS mediated oxidative and inflammatory responses.

  19. Dataset of differential lipid raft and global proteomes of SILAC-labeled cystic fibrosis cells upon TNF -α stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chhuon, C; Pranke, I; Borot, F; Tondelier, D; Lipecka, J; Fritsch, J; Chanson, M; Edelman, A; Ollero, M; Guerrera, I C

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), F508del-CFTR being the most frequent. Lipid raft-like microdomains (LRM) are regions of the plasma membrane that present a high cholesterol content and are insoluble to non-ionic detergents. LRM are essential functional and structural platforms that play an important role in the inflammatory response. CFTR is a known modulator of inflammation in LRM. Here we provide mass spectrometry data on the global impact of CFTR mutation and TNF-a stimulation on the LRM proteome. We used the Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) approach to quantify and identify 332 proteins in LRM upon TNF-a stimulation in CF cells and 1381 for the global proteome. We report two detailed tables containing lists of proteins obtained by mass spectrometry and the immunofluorescence validation results for one of these proteins, the G-protein coupled receptor 5A. These results are associated with the article "Changes in lipid raft proteome upon TNF-α stimulation of cystic fibrosis cells" (Chhuon et al., in press [1]). PMID:27626054

  20. HSL-knockout mouse testis exhibits class B scavenger receptor upregulation and disrupted lipid raft microdomains[S

    PubMed Central

    Casado, María Emilia; Huerta, Lydia; Ortiz, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Crespo, Mirian; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Busto, Rebeca; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    There is a tight relationship between fertility and changes in cholesterol metabolism during spermatogenesis. In the testis, class B scavenger receptors (SR-B) SR-BI, SR-BII, and LIMP II mediate the selective uptake of cholesterol esters from HDL, which are hydrolyzed to unesterified cholesterol by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). HSL is critical because HSL knockout (KO) male mice are sterile. The aim of the present work was to determine the effects of the lack of HSL in testis on the expression of SR-B, lipid raft composition, and related cell signaling pathways. HSL-KO mouse testis presented altered spermatogenesis associated with decreased sperm counts, sperm motility, and infertility. In wild-type (WT) testis, HSL is expressed in elongated spermatids; SR-BI, in Leydig cells and spermatids; SR-BII, in spermatocytes and spermatids but not in Leydig cells; and LIMP II, in Sertoli and Leydig cells. HSL knockout male mice have increased expression of class B scavenger receptors, disrupted caveolin-1 localization in lipid raft plasma membrane microdomains, and activated phospho-ERK, phospho-AKT, and phospho-SRC in the testis, suggesting that class B scavenger receptors are involved in cholesterol ester uptake for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis. PMID:22988039

  1. Dataset of differential lipid raft and global proteomes of SILAC-labeled cystic fibrosis cells upon TNF -α stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chhuon, C; Pranke, I; Borot, F; Tondelier, D; Lipecka, J; Fritsch, J; Chanson, M; Edelman, A; Ollero, M; Guerrera, I C

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), F508del-CFTR being the most frequent. Lipid raft-like microdomains (LRM) are regions of the plasma membrane that present a high cholesterol content and are insoluble to non-ionic detergents. LRM are essential functional and structural platforms that play an important role in the inflammatory response. CFTR is a known modulator of inflammation in LRM. Here we provide mass spectrometry data on the global impact of CFTR mutation and TNF-a stimulation on the LRM proteome. We used the Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) approach to quantify and identify 332 proteins in LRM upon TNF-a stimulation in CF cells and 1381 for the global proteome. We report two detailed tables containing lists of proteins obtained by mass spectrometry and the immunofluorescence validation results for one of these proteins, the G-protein coupled receptor 5A. These results are associated with the article "Changes in lipid raft proteome upon TNF-α stimulation of cystic fibrosis cells" (Chhuon et al., in press [1]).

  2. Targeting Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts by Stoichiometric Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles With a Sphingolipid-Binding Domain Peptide.

    PubMed

    Paramelle, David; Nieves, Daniel; Brun, Benjamin; Kraut, Rachel S; Fernig, David G

    2015-04-22

    A non-membrane protein-based nanoparticle agent for the tracking of lipid rafts on live cells is produced by stoichiometric functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a previously characterized sphingolipid- and cell membrane microdomain-binding domain peptide (SBD). The SBD peptide is inserted in a self-assembled monolayer of peptidol and alkane thiol ethylene glycol, on gold nanoparticles surface. The stoichiometric functionalization of nanoparticles with the SBD peptide, essential for single molecule tracking, is achieved by means of non-affinity nanoparticle purification. The SBD-nanoparticles have remarkable long-term resistance to electrolyte-induced aggregation and ligand-exchange and have no detectable non-specific binding to live cells. Binding and diffusion of SBD-nanoparticles bound to the membrane of live cells is measured by real-time photothermal microscopy and shows the dynamics of sphingolipid-enriched microdomains on cells membrane, with evidence for clustering, splitting, and diffusion over time of the SBD-nanoparticle labeled membrane domains. The monofunctionalized SBD-nanoparticle is a promising targeting agent for the tracking of lipid rafts independently of their protein composition and the labelling requires no prior modification of the cells. This approach has potential for further functionalization of the particles to manipulate the organization of, or targeting to microdomains that control signaling events and thereby lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutics.

  3. Distribution of C16:0, C18:0, C24:1, and C24:0 sulfatides in central nervous system lipid rafts by quantitative ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Ana Lis; Li, Guannan; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Månsson, Jan-Eric; van Breemen, Richard B; Givogri, Maria Irene

    2014-12-15

    Sulfated galactosylceramides (sulfatides) are glycosphingolipids associated with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) and are highly expressed in brain tissue. Although it is known that sulfatide species show heterogeneity in their fatty acid acyl group composition throughout brain development, their lipid raft distribution and biological relevance is poorly understood. We validated a fast and sensitive ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to measure developmentally regulated sulfatide species (C16:0, C18:0, C24:1, and C24:0) in central nervous system (CNS) lipid rafts isolated without using detergent. Our UHPLC-MS/MS assay showed good accuracy and precision with a linear range of 5 to 1,000 nM for C18:0 and C24:1 sulfatides and 10 to 1,000 nM for C16:0 and C24:0 sulfatides. We applied this quantitative analysis to detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from wild-type mice and arylsulfatase A-deficient (ASA knockout) mice that accumulate sulfatides. All four sulfatide species were more abundant in raft membranes than in non-raft membranes, with a significant increase in lipid rafts isolated from ASA knockout mice. This is the first description of an analytical method to study these sulfatide species in raft and non-raft membranes and has the potential to be applied to preparations from other tissues.

  4. Oleic and docosahexaenoic acid differentially phase separate from lipid raft molecules: a comparative NMR, DSC, AFM, and detergent extraction study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Dumaual, Alfred C; Castillo, Alicia; LoCascio, Daniel; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Stillwell, William; Wassall, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    We have previously suggested that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may in part function by enhancing membrane lipid phase separation into lipid rafts. Here we further tested for differences in the molecular interactions of an oleic (OA) versus DHA-containing phospholipid with sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (CHOL) utilizing (2)H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, and detergent extractions in model bilayer membranes. (2)H NMR and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) established the phase behavior of the OA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-18:1PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) and the DHA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-22:6PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) in the absence and presence of equimolar CHOL. CHOL was observed to affect the OA-containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) more than the DHA-containing PE, as exemplified by >2 x greater increase in order measured for the perdeuterated palmitic chain in 16:0-18:1PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) compared to 16:0-22:6PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments showed less lateral phase separation between 16:0-18:1PE-rich and SM/CHOL-rich raft domains in 16:0-18:1PE/SM/CHOL (1:1:1) bilayers than was observed when 16:0-22:6PE replaced 16:0-18:1PE. Differences in the molecular interaction of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-22:6PE with SM/CHOL were also found using biochemical detergent extractions. In the presence of equimolar SM/CHOL, 16:0-18:1PE showed decreased solubilization in comparison to 16:0-22:6PE, indicating greater phase separation with the DHA-PE. Detergent experiments were also conducted with cardiomyocytes fed radiolabeled OA or DHA. Although both OA and DHA were found to be largely detergent solubilized, the amount of OA that was found to be associated with raft-rich detergent-resistant membranes exceeded DHA by

  5. Lipid rafts facilitate the interaction of PECAM-1 with the glycoprotein VI-FcR gamma-chain complex in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fiona A; van Lier, Marjolijn; Relou, Ingrid A M; Foley, Loraine; Akkerman, Jan-Willem N; Heijnen, Harry F G; Farndale, Richard W

    2006-12-22

    Glycoprotein (GP) VI, the main signaling receptor for collagen on platelets, is expressed in complex with the FcR gamma-chain. The latter contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, which becomes phosphorylated, initiating a signaling cascade leading to the rapid activation and aggregation of platelets. Previous studies have shown that signaling by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing receptors is counteracted by signals from receptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. Here we show, by immunoprecipitation, that the GPVI-FcR gamma-chain complex associates with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-containing receptor, PECAM-1. In platelets stimulated with collagen-related peptide (CRP-XL), tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 precedes that of the FcR gamma-chain, implying direct regulation of the former. The GPVI-FcR gamma-chain complex and PECAM-1 were present in both lipid raft and soluble fractions in human platelets; this distribution was unaltered by activation with CRP-XL. Their association occurred in lipid rafts and was lost after lipid raft depletion using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. We propose that lipid raft clustering facilitates the interaction of PECAM-1 with the GPVI-FcR gamma-chain complex, leading to the down-regulation of the latter. PMID:17068334

  6. GM1 and GD1a gangliosides modulate toxic and inflammatory effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide by preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Bayunova, Lubov; Sokolova, Tatyana; Vlasova, Yulia; Bachteeva, Vera; Avrova, Natalia; Parnova, Rimma

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous gangliosides are known to inhibit the effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different cells exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. The mechanisms underlying ganglioside action are not fully understood. Because LPS recognition and receptor complex formation occur in lipid rafts, and gangliosides play a key role in their maintenance, we hypothesize that protective effects of exogenous gangliosides would depend on inhibition of LPS signaling via prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. The effect of GM1 and GD1a gangliosides on LPS-induced toxic and inflammatory reactions in PC12 cells, and in epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder, was studied. In PC12 cells, GD1a and GM1 significantly reduced the effect of LPS on the decrease of cell survival and on stimulation of reactive oxygen species production. In epithelial cells, gangliosides decreased LPS-stimulated iNOS expression, NO, and PGE2 production. Subcellular fractionation, in combination with immunoblotting, showed that pretreatment of cells with GM1, GD1a, or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, completely eliminated the effect of LPS on translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ganglioside-induced prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts could be a mechanism of protection against LPS in various cells.

  7. Possible Protective Effect of Membrane Lipid Rafts against Interleukin-1β-Mediated Anti-Proliferative Effect in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chentouf, Myriam; Guzman, Caroline; Hamze, Moustafa; Gross, René; Lajoix, Anne Dominique; Peraldi-Roux, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that pancreatic islets from pre-diabetic rats undergo an inflammatory process in which IL-1β takes part and controls β-cell function. In the present study, using the INS-1 rat pancreatic β-cell line, we investigated the potential involvement of membrane-associated cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts in IL-1β signaling and biological effects on insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation and apoptosis. We show that, INS-1 cells exposure to increasing concentrations of IL-1β leads to a progressive inhibition of insulin release, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and a dose-dependent decrease in pancreatic β-cell proliferation. Disruption of membrane lipid rafts markedly reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but did not affect either cell apoptosis or proliferation rate, demonstrating that membrane lipid raft integrity is essential for β-cell secretory function. In the same conditions, IL-1β treatment of INS-1 cells led to a slight further decrease in insulin secretion for low concentrations of the cytokine, and a more marked one, similar to that observed in normal cells for higher concentrations. These effects occurred together with an increase in iNOS expression and surprisingly with an upregulation of tryptophane hydroxylase and protein Kinase C in membrane lipid rafts suggesting that compensatory mechanisms develop to counteract IL-1β inhibitory effects. We also demonstrate that disruption of membrane lipid rafts did not prevent cytokine-induced cell death recorded after exposure to high IL-1β concentrations. Finally, concerning cell proliferation, we bring strong evidence that membrane lipid rafts exert a protective effect against IL-1β anti-proliferative effect, possibly mediated at least partly by modifications in ERK and PKB expression/activities. Our results 1) demonstrate that IL-1β deleterious effects do not require a cholesterol-dependent plasma membrane compartmentalization of IL-1R1 signaling and 2) confer to

  8. The structure of the CD3 ζζ transmembrane dimer in POPC and raft-like lipid bilayer: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Petruk, Ariel Alcides; Varriale, Sonia; Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Mazzarella, Lelio; Merlino, Antonello; Oreste, Umberto

    2013-11-01

    Plasma membrane lipids significantly affect assembly and activity of many signaling networks. The present work is aimed at analyzing, by molecular dynamics simulations, the structure and dynamics of the CD3 ζζ dimer in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer (POPC) and in POPC/cholesterol/sphingomyelin bilayer, which resembles the raft membrane microdomain supposed to be the site of the signal transducing machinery. Both POPC and raft-like environment produce significant alterations in structure and flexibility of the CD3 ζζ with respect to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) model: the dimer is more compact, its secondary structure is slightly less ordered, the arrangement of the Asp6 pair, which is important for binding to the Arg residue in the alpha chain of the T cell receptor (TCR), is stabilized by water molecules. Different interactions of charged residues with lipids at the lipid-cytoplasm boundary occur when the two environments are compared. Furthermore, in contrast to what is observed in POPC, in the raft-like environment correlated motions between transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions are observed. Altogether the data suggest that when the TCR complex resides in the raft domains, the CD3 ζζ dimer assumes a specific conformation probably necessary to the correct signal transduction.

  9. Glypican-1 regulates myoblast response to HGF via Met in a lipid raft-dependent mechanism: effect on migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Via the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exerts key roles involving skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are critical modulators of HGF activity, but the role of specific HSPGs in HGF regulation is poorly understood. Glypican-1 is the only HSPG expressed in myoblasts that localize in lipid raft membrane domains, controlling cell responses to extracellular stimuli. We determined if glypican-1 in these domains is necessary to stabilize the HGF-Met signaling complex and myoblast response to HGF. Methods C2C12 myoblasts and a derived clone (C6) with low glypican-1 expression were used as an experimental model. The activation of Met, ERK1/2 and AKT in response to HGF was evaluated. The distribution of Met and its activated form in lipid raft domains, as well as its dependence on glypican-1, were characterized by sucrose density gradient fractionation in both cell types. Rescue experiments reexpressing glypican-1 or a chimeric glypican-1 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of mouse syndecan-1 or myoblast pretreatment with MβCD were conducted. In vitro and in vivo myoblast migration assays in response to HGF were also performed. Results Glypican-1 localization in membrane raft domains was required for a maximum cell response to HGF. It stabilized Met and HGF in lipid raft domains, forming a signaling complex where the active phospho-Met receptor was concentrated. Glypican-1 also stabilized CD44 in a HGF-dependent manner. In addition, glypican-1 was required for in vitro and in vivo HGF-dependent myoblast migration. Conclusions Glypican-1 is a regulator of HGF-dependent signaling via Met in lipid raft domains. PMID:24517345

  10. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine promotes the differentiation of resident Sca-1 positive cardiac stem cells to cardiomyocytes through lipid raft/JNK/STAT3 and β-catenin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Liu, Honghong; Liu, Pingping; Yin, Deling; Zhang, Shangli; Zhao, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Resident cardiac Sca-1-positive (+) stem cells may differentiate into cardiomyocytes to improve the function of damaged hearts. However, little is known about the inducers and molecular mechanisms underlying the myogenic conversion of Sca-1(+) stem cells. Here we report that sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), a naturally occurring bioactive lipid, induces the myogenic conversion of Sca-1(+) stem cells, as evidenced by the increased expression of cardiac transcription factors (Nkx2.5 and GATA4), structural proteins (cardiac Troponin T), transcriptional enhancer (Mef2c) and GATA4 nucleus translocation. First, SPC activated JNK and STAT3, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or STAT3 inhibitor stattic impaired the SPC-induced expression of cardiac transcription factors and GATA4 nucleus translocation, which suggests that JNK and STAT3 participated in SPC-promoted cardiac differentiation. Moreover, STAT3 activation was inhibited by SP600125, whereas JNK was inhibited by β-cyclodextrin as a lipid raft breaker, which indicates a lipid raft/JNK/STAT3 pathway involved in SPC-induced myogenic transition. β-Catenin, degraded by activated GSK3β, was inhibited by SPC. Furthermore, GSK3β inhibitors weakened but the β-catenin inhibitor promoted SPC-induced differentiation. We found no crosstalk between the lipid raft/JNK/STAT3 and β-catenin pathway. Our study describes a lipid, SPC, as an endogenic inducer of myogenic conversion in Sca-1(+) stem cells with low toxicity and high efficiency for uptake.

  11. Modulation of cell surface transport and lipid raft localization by the cytoplasmic tail of the influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Silvia; Imkeller, Katharina; Jolmes, Fabian; Veit, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas; Schwarzer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Viral glycoproteins are highly variable in their primary structure, but on the other hand feature a high functional conservation to fulfil their versatile tasks during the pathogenic life cycle. Typically, all protein domains are optimized in that indispensable functions can be assigned to small conserved motifs or even individual amino acids. The cytoplasmic tail of many viral spike proteins, although of particular relevance for the virus biology, is often only insufficiently characterized. Hemagglutinin (HA), the receptor-binding protein of the influenza virus comprises a short cytoplasmic tail of 13 amino acids that exhibits three highly conserved palmitoylation sites. However, the particular importance of these modifications and the tail in general for intracellular trafficking and lateral membrane organization remains elusive. In this study, we generated HA core proteins consisting of transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic tail and a minor part of the ectodomain, tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Different mutation and truncation variants of these chimeric proteins were investigated using confocal microscopy, to characterize the role of cytoplasmic tail and palmitoylation for the intracellular trafficking to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus. In addition, we assessed raft partitioning of the variants by Foerster resonance energy transfer with an established raft marker. We revealed a substantial influence of the cytoplasmic tail length on the intracellular distribution and surface exposure of the proteins. A complete removal of the tail hampers a physiological trafficking of the protein, whereas a partial truncation can be compensated by cytoplasmic palmitoylations. Plasma membrane raft partitioning on the other hand was found to imperatively require palmitoylations, and the cysteine at position 551 turned out to be of most relevance. Our data shed further light on the tight interconnection between cytoplasmic elements and intracellular trafficking and

  12. Model of a Raft in Both Leaves of an Asymmetric Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Shlomovitz, Roie; Schick, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a theory of inhomogeneities in the plasma membrane, or rafts, that can exist in both leaves of the plasma membrane. We note that although neither of the major phospholipid components of the outer leaf, sphingomyelin (SM) nor phosphatidylcholine (PC), evinces a tendency to form phases characterized by nonzero curvature, one of the major components of the inner leaf, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), displays a strong tendency to do so whereas the other, phosphatidylserine (PS), does not. Therefore, we posit that the concentration difference of PS and PE couples to height fluctuations of the plasma membrane bilayer. This brings about a microemulsion in the inner leaf. Coupling of the concentration difference between PS and PE in the inner leaf and SM and PC in the outer leaf propagates the microemulsion to that leaf as well. The characteristic size of the inhomogeneities is equal to the square-root of the ratio of the bending modulus of the bilayer to its surface tension, a size which is ∼100 nm for the plasma membrane. If the coupling between leaves were to be provided by the interchange of cholesterol, then our model raft would consist of SM and cholesterol in the outer leaf and PS and cholesterol in the inner leaf floating in a sea of PC and PE in both leaves. PMID:24047992

  13. Association of membrane/lipid rafts with the platelet cytoskeleton and the caveolin PY14: participation in the adhesion process.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Maldonado-García, Deneb; Hernández-González, Enrique; Winder, Steve J

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are the most prominent elements of blood tissue involved in hemostasis at sites of blood vessel injury. Platelet cytoskeleton is responsible for their shape modifications observed during activation and adhesion to the substratum; therefore the interactions between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane are critical to modulate blood platelet functions. Several cytoskeletal components and binding partners, as well as enzymes that regulate the cytoskeleton, localize to membrane/lipid rafts (MLR) and regulate lateral diffusion of membrane proteins and lipids. Resting, thrombin-activated, and adherent human platelets were processed for biochemical studies including western-blot and immunprecipitation assays and confocal analysis were performed to characterize the interaction of MLR with the main cytoskeleton elements and β-dystroglycan as well as with the association of caveolin-1 PY14 with focal adhesion proteins. We transfected a megakaryoblast cell line (Meg-01) to deplete β-dystroglycan, subsequent to their differentiation to the platelet progenitors. Our data showed a direct interaction of the MLR with cytoskeleton to regulate platelet shape, while an association of caveolin-1 PY14 with vinculin is needed to establish focal adhesions, which are modulated for β-dystroglycan. In conclusion, caveolin-1 PY14 in association with platelet cytoskeleton participate in focal adhesions dynamics.

  14. Lipid raft facilitated ligation of K-{alpha}1-tubulin by specific antibodies on epithelial cells: Role in pathogenesis of chronic rejection following human lung transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Angaswamy, Nataraju; Weber, Joseph; Mohanakumar, T.

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Addition of KAT Abs (+) sera to NHBE culture causes upregulation of growth factors. {yields} Cholesterol depletion causes down regulation of growth factor expression. {yields} Cholesterol depletion is accompanied by loss of membrane bound caveolin. {yields} Thus, we demonstrate lipid raft are critical for efficient ligation of the KAT Abs. -- Abstract: Long term function of human lung allografts is hindered by development of chronic rejection manifested as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). We have previously identified the development of antibodies (Abs) following lung transplantation to K-{alpha}1-tubulin (KAT), an epithelial surface gap junction cytoskeletal protein, in patients who develop BOS. However, the biochemical and molecular basis of the interactions and signaling cascades mediated by KAT Abs are yet to be defined. In this report, we investigated the biophysical basis of the epithelial cell membrane surface interaction between KAT and its specific Abs. Towards this, we analyzed the role of the lipid raft-domains in the membrane interactions which lead to cell signaling and ultimately increased growth factor expression. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, upon specific ligation with Abs to KAT obtained either from the serum of BOS(+) patients or monoclonal KAT Abs, resulted in upregulation of growth factors VEGF, PDGF, and bFGF (6.4 {+-} 1.1-, 3.2 {+-} 0.9-, and 3.4 {+-} 1.1-fold increase, respectively) all of which are important in the pathogenesis of BOS. To define the role for lipid raft in augmenting surface interactions, we analyzed the changes in the growth factor expression pattern upon depletion and enrichment with lipid raft following the ligation of the epithelial cell membranes with Abs specific for KAT. NHBE cells cultured in the presence of {beta}-methyl cyclodextran ({beta}MCD) had significantly reduced growth factor expression (1.3 {+-} 0.3, vs {beta}MCD untreated being 6.4 {+-} 1.1-fold

  15. Suppressing the formation of lipid raft-associated Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling complexes by curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced invasion of human esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Yi; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a ligand for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which contributes to the metastasis of cancer cells by promoting cell migration. Here, we show that the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis can significantly increase invasion of esophageal carcinoma (EC) cells. We accomplished this by examining the effects of CXCR4 knockdown as well as treatment with a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody and the CXCR4-specific inhibitor AMD3100. Curcumin suppressed SDF-1α-induced cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) promoter activity, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, and lipid raft-associated ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α/Akt signaling. Curcumin inhibited SDF-1α-induced cell invasion by suppressing the Rac1-PI3K signaling complex at lipid rafts but did not abrogate lipid raft formation. We further demonstrate that the attenuation of lipid raft-associated Rac1 activity by curcumin was critical for the inhibition of SDF-1α-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-κB activation, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, MMP-2 promoter activity, and cell invasion. Collectively, our results indicate that curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced EC cell invasion by suppressing the formation of the lipid raft-associated Rac1-PI3K-Akt signaling complex, the localization of CXCR4 with lipid rafts at the cell surface, and MMP-2 promoter activity, likely through the inhibition of Rac1 activity.

  16. Lipocalin 2 binds to membrane phosphatidylethanolamine to induce lipid raft movement in a PKA-dependent manner and modulates sperm maturation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hitomi; Takeo, Toru; Tojo, Hiromasa; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Berger, Thorsten; Nakagata, Naomi; Mak, Tak W; Kondoh, Gen

    2014-05-01

    Mammalian sperm undergo multiple maturation steps after leaving the testis in order to become competent for fertilization, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. In terms of identifying factors crucial for these processes in vivo, we found that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), which is known as an innate immune factor inhibiting bacterial and malarial growth, can modulate sperm maturation. Most sperm that migrated to the oviduct of wild-type females underwent lipid raft reorganization and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein shedding, which are signatures of sperm maturation, but few did so in Lcn2 null mice. Furthermore, we found that LCN2 binds to membrane phosphatidylethanolamine to reinforce lipid raft reorganization via a PKA-dependent mechanism and promotes sperm to acquire fertility by facilitating cholesterol efflux. These observations imply that mammals possess a mode for sperm maturation in addition to the albumin-mediated pathway.

  17. Mechanism of PKA-dependent and lipid-raft independent stimulation of Connexin43 expression by oxytoxin in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seung Pil; Park, Su Shin; Ryu, Jung Min; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Mi Ok; Lee, Jang-Hern; Han, Ho Jae

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies shows that connexins appear very early during murine embryo development, the gap junctional intercellular communication found in the inner cell mass of early embryo is also maintained in embryonic stem cells (ESC), and expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) is developmentally regulated at early embryonic development. However, effect of oxytocin (OT) on the regulation of the connexin43 (Cx43) and maintenance of undifferentiation is not fully understood in stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of OT on Cx43 expression and related signaling cascades in mouse ESC. OT increased Cx43 expression that was inhibited by the OTR inhibitor atosiban. In experiments to examine whether the effect of OT depends on lipid rafts, caveolin-1 (cav-1), cav-2, and flotillin-2, but not OTR, were detected in lipid raft fractions. Also, colocalization of OTR, cav-1, and cav-2 was not detected. Moreover, the lipid raft disruptor methyl-β-cyclodextrin did not attenuate OT-induced Cx43 expression. In experiments to examine related signaling pathways, OT activated cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) which was inhibited by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536 and PKA inhibitor PKI. OT increased nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) phosphorylation which was inhibited by PKI. OT also increased cAMP response element-binding (CREB)/CREB-binding protein (CBP) expression in the nucleus and induced the formation of CREB1/NF-κB/CBP complexes, which was blocked by the NF-κB-specific small interfering RNA, NF-κB inhibitors, SN50, and bay11-7082. Complex disruption by NF-κB inhibitors decreased OT-induced Cx43 expression. In conclusion, OT stimulates Cx43 expression through the NF-κB/CREB/CBP complex via the lipid raft-independent OTR-mediated cAMP/PKA in mouse ESC.

  18. ESeroS-GS modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation by impairing the assembly of TLR-4 complexes in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenjuan; Zhou, Juefei; Zhang, Shen; Zhao, Kai; Zhao, Lijing; Ogata, Kazumi; Sakaue, Takahiro; Mori, Akitane; Wei, Taotao

    2011-05-01

    The binding of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to macrophages results in inflammatory responses. In extreme cases it can lead to endotoxic shock, often resulting in death. A broad range of antioxidants, including tocopherols, can reduce LPS activity in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of their action, we investigated the effect of the sodium salt of γ-L-glutamyl-S-[2-[[[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl]oxy]carbonyl]-3-[[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]-3-oxopropyl]-L-cysteinylglycine (ESeroS-GS), a novel α-tocopherol derivative, on LPS-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. ESeroS-GS reduced the transcription of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS genes in a dose-dependent manner in RAW264.7 macrophages, and inhibited the release of these inflammatory factors. In addition, ESeroS-GS inhibited LPS-induced mortality in a mouse sepsis model. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and reporter gene assays revealed that ESeroS-GS down-regulated the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. By analyzing the partitioning of CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in cell membrane microdomains, we found that ESeroS-GS attenuates the binding of LPS to RAW264.7 cells via interfering with the relocation of CD14 and TLR-4 to lipid rafts, blocking the activation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), and inhibiting the consequent phosphorylation of TAK1 and IKKα/β, which together account for the suppression of NF-κB activation. Taken together, our data suggest that ESeroS-GS can modulate LPS signaling in macrophages by impairing TLR-4 complex assembly via a lipid raft dependent mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:21276822

  19. Two-photon probes for intracellular free metal ions, acidic vesicles, and lipid rafts in live tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwan Myung; Cho, Bong Rae

    2009-07-21

    Optical imaging with fluorescence microscopy is a vital tool in the study of living systems. The most common method for cell imaging, one-photon microscopy (OPM), uses a single photon of higher energy to excite the fluorophore. However, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which uses two photons of lower energy as the excitation source, is growing in popularity among biologists because of several distinct advantages. Using TPM, researchers can image intact tissue for a long period of time with minimum interference from tissue preparation artifacts, self-absorption, autofluorescence, photobleaching, and photodamage. However, to make TPM a more versatile tool in biology, researchers need a wider variety of two-photon probes for specific applications. In this Account, we describe a series of two-photon probes that we developed that can visualize the distribution of intracellular metal ions, acidic vesicles, and lipid rafts in living cells and tissues. The development of these probes requires a significant two-photon cross section for the bright image and receptors (sensing moieties) that triggers the emission of the two-photon excited fluorescence upon binding with the ions or membrane in the living system. These probes also must be sensitive to the polarity of the environment to allow selective detection of cytosolic and membrane-bound probes. In addition, they need to be cell-permeable, water-soluble for the staining of cells and tissues, and highly photostable for long-term imaging. The resulting probes-AMg1 (Mg(2+)), ACa1-ACa3 (Ca(2+)), AZn1 and AZn2 (Zn(2+)), AH1, AH2, and AL1 (acidic vesicles), and CL2 (membrane)-use 2-acetyl-6-aminonaphthalene as the fluorophore and receptors for the target ions or membrane. All of these two-photon turn-on probes can detect the intracellular free metal ions, acidic vesicles, and lipid rafts at 100-300 microm depth in live tissues. Moreover, with ACa1-AM, we could simultaneously visualize the spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in the somas of

  20. Vibrio vulnificus VvhA induces autophagy-related cell death through the lipid raft-dependent c-Src/NOX signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Ju; Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Hyeon Su; Kim, Jun Sung; Jang, Kyung Ku; Choi, Sang Ho; Han, Ho Jae

    2016-01-01

    VvhA, a virulent factor of Vibrio (V.) vulnificus, induces acute cell death in a destructive manner. Autophagy plays an important role in cell death, but the functional role of VvhA in autophagy-related cell death has not been elucidated yet. We found that rVvhA significantly increased LC3 puncta formation and autophagic flux in promoting the cell death of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The cell death induced by rVvhA was independent of lysosomal permeabilizaton and caspase activation. rVvhA induced rapid phosphorylation of c-Src in the membrane lipid raft, which resulted in an increased interaction between lipid raft molecule caveolin-1 and NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex Rac1 for ROS production. NOX-mediated ROS signaling induced by rVvhA increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) which are required for mRNA expression of Atg5 and Atg16L1 involved in autophagosome formation. In an in vivo model, VvhA increased autophagy activation and paracellular permeabilization in intestinal epithelium. Collectively, the results here show that VvhA plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and dissemination of V. vulnificus by autophagy upregulation, through the lipid raft-mediated c-Src/NOX signaling pathway and ERK/eIF2α activation. PMID:27250250

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I Attenuates Palmitate-Mediated NF-κB Activation by Reducing Toll-Like Receptor-4 Recruitment into Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Sanshiro; Schwartz, Jay; Tang, Chongren; Mitra, Poulami; Oram, John F.; Chait, Alan; Kim, Francis

    2012-01-01

    While high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is known to protect against a wide range of inflammatory stimuli, its anti-inflammatory mechanisms are not well understood. Furthermore, HDL's protective effects against saturated dietary fats have not been previously described. In this study, we used endothelial cells to demonstrate that while palmitic acid activates NF-κB signaling, apolipoprotein A–I, (apoA-I), the major protein component of HDL, attenuates palmitate-induced NF-κB activation. Further, vascular NF-κB signaling (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α) and macrophage markers (CD68, CD11c) induced by 24 weeks of a diabetogenic diet containing cholesterol (DDC) is reduced in human apoA-I overexpressing transgenic C57BL/6 mice compared to age-matched WT controls. Moreover, WT mice on DDC compared to a chow diet display increased gene expression of lipid raft markers such as Caveolin-1 and Flotillin-1, and inflammatory Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR4) in the vasculature. However apoA-I transgenic mice on DDC show markedly reduced expression of these genes. Finally, we show that in endothelial cells TLR4 is recruited into lipid rafts in response to palmitate, and that apoA-I prevents palmitate-induced TLR4 trafficking into lipid rafts, thereby blocking NF-κB activation. Thus, apoA-I overexpression might be a useful therapeutic tool against vascular inflammation. PMID:22479476

  2. Vibrio vulnificus VvhA induces autophagy-related cell death through the lipid raft-dependent c-Src/NOX signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Ju; Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Hyeon Su; Kim, Jun Sung; Jang, Kyung Ku; Choi, Sang Ho; Han, Ho Jae

    2016-06-02

    VvhA, a virulent factor of Vibrio (V.) vulnificus, induces acute cell death in a destructive manner. Autophagy plays an important role in cell death, but the functional role of VvhA in autophagy-related cell death has not been elucidated yet. We found that rVvhA significantly increased LC3 puncta formation and autophagic flux in promoting the cell death of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The cell death induced by rVvhA was independent of lysosomal permeabilizaton and caspase activation. rVvhA induced rapid phosphorylation of c-Src in the membrane lipid raft, which resulted in an increased interaction between lipid raft molecule caveolin-1 and NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex Rac1 for ROS production. NOX-mediated ROS signaling induced by rVvhA increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) which are required for mRNA expression of Atg5 and Atg16L1 involved in autophagosome formation. In an in vivo model, VvhA increased autophagy activation and paracellular permeabilization in intestinal epithelium. Collectively, the results here show that VvhA plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and dissemination of V. vulnificus by autophagy upregulation, through the lipid raft-mediated c-Src/NOX signaling pathway and ERK/eIF2α activation.

  3. Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates angiotensin II-induced lipid raft clustering in mesenteric endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei-Qing; Chen, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that intracellular Ca2+ is involved in lysosome fusion and membrane repair in skeletal cells. Given that angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and that lysosome fusion is a crucial mediator of lipid raft (LR) clustering, we hypothesized that Ang II induces lysosome fusion and activates LR formation in rat mesenteric endothelial cells (MECs). We found that Ang II acutely increased intracellular Ca2+ content, an effect that was inhibited by the extracellular Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced Ca2+ release inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Further study showed that EGTA almost completely blocked Ang II-induced lysosome fusion, the translocation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) to LR clusters, ASMase activation and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activation. In contrast, 2-APB had a slight inhibitory effect. Functionally, both the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and the ASMase inhibitor amitriptyline reversed Ang II-induced impairment of vasodilation. We conclude that Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates the Ang II-induced regulation of the LR-redox signaling pathway and mesenteric endothelial dysfunction.

  4. ß1 Integrin Binding Phosphorylates Ezrin at T567 to Activate a Lipid Raft Signalsome Driving Invadopodia Activity and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Antelmi, Ester; Cardone, Rosa A.; Greco, Maria R.; Rubino, Rosa; Di Sole, Francesca; Martino, Nicola A.; Casavola, Valeria; Carcangiu, MariaLuisa; Moro, Loredana; Reshkin, Stephan J.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a critical process in tumor cell invasion and requires matrix degrading protrusions called invadopodia. The Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) has recently been shown to be fundamental in the regulation of invadopodia actin cytoskeleton dynamics and activity. However, the structural link between the invadopodia cytoskeleton and NHE1 is still unknown. A candidate could be ezrin, a linker between the NHE1 and the actin cytoskeleton known to play a pivotal role in invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanistic basis for its role remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ezrin phosphorylated at T567 is highly overexpressed in the membrane of human breast tumors and positively associated with invasive growth and HER2 overexpression. Further, in the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, p-ezrin was almost exclusively expressed in invadopodia lipid rafts where it co-localized in a functional complex with NHE1, EGFR, ß1-integrin and phosphorylated-NHERF1. Manipulation by mutation of ezrins T567 phosphorylation state and/or PIP2 binding capacity or of NHE1s binding to ezrin or PIP2 demonstrated that p-ezrin expression and binding to PIP2 are required for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation and invasion and identified NHE1 as the membrane protein that p-ezrin regulates to induce invadopodia formation and activity. PMID:24086451

  5. The size of lipid rafts: an atomic force microscopy study of ganglioside GM1 domains in sphingomyelin/DOPC/cholesterol membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chunbo; Furlong, Jennifer; Burgos, Pierre; Johnston, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the distribution of ganglioside GM1 in model membranes composed of ternary lipid mixtures that mimic the composition of lipid rafts. The results demonstrate that addition of 1% GM1 to 1:1:1 sphingomyelin/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol monolayers leads to the formation of small ganglioside-rich microdomains (40-100 nm in size) that are localized preferentially in the more ordered sphingomyelin/cholesterol-rich phase. With 5% GM1 some GM1 microdomains are also detected in the dioleoylphosphatidylcholine-rich phase. A similar preferential localization of GM1 in the ordered phase is observed for bilayers with the same ternary lipid mixture in the upper leaflet. The small GM1-rich domains observed in these experiments are similar to the sizes for lipid rafts in natural membranes but considerably smaller than the ordered bilayer domains that have been shown to be enriched in GM1 in recent fluorescence microscopy studies of lipid bilayers. The combined data from a number of studies of model membranes indicate that lateral organization occurs on a variety of length scales and mimics many of the properties of natural membranes. PMID:11964241

  6. Recombinant viral capsid protein VP1 suppresses migration and invasion of human cervical cancer by modulating phosphorylated prohibitin in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ching-Feng; Peng, Jei-Ming; Hung, Shao-Wen; Liang, Chi-Ming; Liang, Shu-Mei

    2012-07-28

    Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits invasion/metastasis of cancer cells. Here we studied its mechanism of action on human cervical cancer cells. The inhibition of cell invasion by rVP1 was accompanied with reduction in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3), phospho-Akt S473, phosphorylated prohibitin (phospho-PHB) T258 in lipid rafts, dissociation of phospho-PHB T258 with Raf-1 and the inactivation of Raf-1/ERK. Addition of PIP3 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt and raft-anchored PHB T258 but not PHB T258I mutant protein reversed the inhibitory effects of rVP1. rVP1 inhibited cervical tumor growth and metastasis, and prolonged survival in xenograft mouse models. These results suggest that rVP1 inhibits cancer metastasis via de-phosphorylation of Akt and PHB T258 in lipid rafts to downregulate Raf/ERK signaling.

  7. Revealing model dependencies in "Assessing the RAFT equilibrium constant via model systems: an EPR study".

    PubMed

    Junkers, Thomas; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Coote, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    In a recent article (W. Meiser, M. Buback, Assessing the RAFT Equilibrium Constant via Model Systems: An EPR Study, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2011, 18, 1490-1494), it is claimed that evidence is found that unequivocally proves that quantum mechanical calculations assessing the equilibrium constant and fragmentation rate coefficients in dithiobenzoate-mediated reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) systems are beset with a considerable uncertainty. In the present work, we show that these claims made by Meiser and Buback are beset with a model dependency, as a critical key parameter in their data analysis - the addition rate coefficient of the radicals attacking the C=S double bond in the dithiobenzoate - induces a model insensitivity into the data analysis. Contrary to the claims made by Meiser and Buback, their experimental results can be brought into agreement with the quantum chemical calculations if a lower addition rate coefficient of cyanoisopropyl radicals (CIP) to the CIP dithiobenzoate (CPDB) is assumed. To resolve the model dependency, the addition rate coefficient of CIP radicals to CPDB needs to be determined as a matter of priority.

  8. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro-inflammatory signalling and

  9. Lateral Diffusion of Gαs in the Plasma Membrane Is Decreased after Chronic but not Acute Antidepressant Treatment: Role of Lipid Raft and Non-Raft Membrane Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Czysz, Andrew H; Schappi, Jeffrey M; Rasenick, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    GPCR signaling is modified both in major depressive disorder and by chronic antidepressant treatment. Endogenous Gαs redistributes from raft- to nonraft-membrane fractions after chronic antidepressant treatment. Modification of G protein anchoring may participate in this process. Regulation of Gαs signaling by antidepressants was studied using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of GFP-Gαs. Here we find that extended antidepressant treatment both increases the half-time of maximum recovery of GFP-Gαs and decreases the extent of recovery. Furthermore, this effect parallels the movement of Gαs out of lipid rafts as determined by cold detergent membrane extraction with respect to both dose and duration of drug treatment. This effect was observed for several classes of compounds with antidepressant activity, whereas closely related molecules lacking antidepressant activity (eg, R-citalopram) did not produce the effect. These results are consistent with previously observed antidepressant-induced translocation of Gαs, but also suggest an alternate membrane attachment site for this G protein. Furthermore, FRAP analysis provides the possibility of a relatively high-throughput screening tool for compounds with putative antidepressant activity. PMID:25249058

  10. Lateral diffusion of Gαs in the plasma membrane is decreased after chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment: role of lipid raft and non-raft membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Czysz, Andrew H; Schappi, Jeffrey M; Rasenick, Mark M

    2015-02-01

    GPCR signaling is modified both in major depressive disorder and by chronic antidepressant treatment. Endogenous Gαs redistributes from raft- to nonraft-membrane fractions after chronic antidepressant treatment. Modification of G protein anchoring may participate in this process. Regulation of Gαs signaling by antidepressants was studied using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of GFP-Gαs. Here we find that extended antidepressant treatment both increases the half-time of maximum recovery of GFP-Gαs and decreases the extent of recovery. Furthermore, this effect parallels the movement of Gαs out of lipid rafts as determined by cold detergent membrane extraction with respect to both dose and duration of drug treatment. This effect was observed for several classes of compounds with antidepressant activity, whereas closely related molecules lacking antidepressant activity (eg, R-citalopram) did not produce the effect. These results are consistent with previously observed antidepressant-induced translocation of Gαs, but also suggest an alternate membrane attachment site for this G protein. Furthermore, FRAP analysis provides the possibility of a relatively high-throughput screening tool for compounds with putative antidepressant activity. PMID:25249058

  11. Dynamin2, Clathrin, and Lipid Rafts Mediate Endocytosis of the Apical Na/K/2Cl Cotransporter NKCC2 in Thick Ascending Limbs*

    PubMed Central

    Ares, Gustavo R.; Ortiz, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Steady-state surface levels of the apical Na/K/2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 regulate NaCl reabsorption by epithelial cells of the renal thick ascending limb (THAL). We reported that constitutive endocytosis of NKCC2 controls NaCl absorption in native THALs; however, the pathways involved in NKCC2 endocytosis are unknown. We hypothesized that NKCC2 endocytosis at the apical surface depends on dynamin-2 and clathrin. Measurements of steady-state surface NKCC2 and the rate of NKCC2 endocytosis in freshly isolated rat THALs showed that inhibition of endogenous dynamin-2 with dynasore blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 56 ± 11% and increased steady-state surface NKCC2 by 67 ± 27% (p < 0.05). Expression of the dominant negative Dyn2K44A in THALs slowed the rate of NKCC2 endocytosis by 38 ± 8% and increased steady-state surface NKCC2 by 37 ± 8%, without changing total NKCC2 expression. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with chlorpromazine blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 54 ± 6%, while preventing clathrin from interacting with synaptojanin also blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 52 ± 5%. Disruption of lipid rafts blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 39 ± 4% and silencing caveolin-1 by 29 ± 4%. Simultaneous inhibition of clathrin- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis completely blocked NKCC2 internalization. We concluded that dynamin-2, clathrin, and lipid rafts mediate NKCC2 endocytosis and maintain steady-state apical surface NKCC2 in native THALs. These are the first data identifying the endocytic pathway for apical NKCC2 endocytosis. PMID:22977238

  12. Chemokine-containing exosomes are released from heat-stressed tumor cells via lipid raft-dependent pathway and act as efficient tumor vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Taoyong; Guo, Jun; Yang, Mingjin; Zhu, Xuhui; Cao, Xuetao

    2011-02-15

    Exosomes derived from dendritic cells or tumor cells are a population of nanometer-sized membrane vesicles that can induce specific antitumor immunity. During investigation of the effects of hyperthermia on antitumor immune response, we found that exosomes derived from heat-stressed tumor cells (HS-TEX) could chemoattract and activate dendritic cells (DC) and T cells more potently than that by conventional tumor-derived exosomes. We show that HS-TEX contain chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CCL20, and the chemokine-containing HS-TEX are functionally competent in chemoattracting CD11c(+) DC and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the production of chemokine-containing HS-TEX could be inhibited by ATP inhibitor, calcium chelator, and cholesterol scavenger, indicating that the mobilization of chemokines into exosomes was ATP- and calcium-dependent and via a lipid raft-dependent pathway. We consistently found that the intracellular chemokines could be enriched in lipid rafts after heat stress. Accordingly, intratumoral injection of HS-TEX could induce specific antitumor immune response more efficiently than that by tumor-derived exosomes, thus inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice more significantly. Therefore, our results demonstrate that exosomes derived from HS-TEX represent a kind of efficient tumor vaccine and can chemoattract and activate DC and T cells, inducing more potent antitumor immune response. Release of chemokines through exosomes via lipid raft-dependent pathway may be a new method of chemokine exocytosis.

  13. Pantethine Alters Lipid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Membrane Rafts, With Down-Regulation of CXCL12-Induced T Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    van Gijsel-Bonnello, Manuel; Acar, Niyazi; Molino, Yves; Bretillon, Lionel; Khrestchatisky, Michel; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra

    2015-10-01

    Pantethine, a natural low-molecular-weight thiol, shows a broad activity in a large range of essential cellular pathways. It has been long known as a hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic agent. We have recently shown that it exerts a neuroprotective action in mouse models of cerebral malaria and Parkinson's disease through multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we looked at its effects on membrane lipid rafts that serve as platforms for molecules engaged in cell activity, therefore providing a target against inappropriate cell response leading to a chronic inflammation. We found that pantethine-treated cells showed a significant change in raft fatty acid composition and cholesterol content, with ultimate downregulation of cell adhesion, CXCL12-driven chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration of various T cell types, including human Jurkat cell line and circulating effector T cells. The mechanisms involved include the alteration of the following: (i) CXCL12 binding to its target cells; (ii) membrane dynamics of CXCR4 and CXCR7, the two CXCL12 receptors; and (iii) cell redox status, a crucial determinant in the regulation of the chemokine system. In addition, we considered the linker for activation of T cells molecule to show that pantethine effects were associated with the displacement from the rafts of the acylated signaling molecules which had their palmitoylation level reduced.. In conclusion, the results presented here, together with previously published findings, indicate that due to its pleiotropic action, pantethine can downregulate the multifaceted process leading to pathogenic T cell activation and migration.

  14. Lateral diffusion, function, and expression of the slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome αC418W nicotinic receptor mutation with changes in lipid raft components.

    PubMed

    Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Ballester, Leomar; Baéz-Pagán, Carlos A; Martínez, Hernán L; Vélez-Arroyo, Karla P; Quesada, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2015-10-30

    Lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains in the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, are hot spots for a number of important cellular processes. The novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutation αC418W, the first lipid-exposed mutation identified in a patient that causes slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome was shown to be cholesterol-sensitive and to accumulate in microdomains rich in the membrane raft marker protein caveolin-1. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the mechanism by which lateral segregation into specialized raft membrane microdomains regulates the activable pool of nAChRs. We performed fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), quantitative RT-PCR, and whole cell patch clamp recordings of GFP-encoding Mus musculus nAChRs transfected into HEK 293 cells to assess the role of cholesterol and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in the diffusion, expression, and functionality of the nAChR (WT and αC418W). Our findings support the hypothesis that a cholesterol-sensitive nAChR might reside in specialized membrane microdomains that upon cholesterol depletion become disrupted and release the cholesterol-sensitive nAChRs to the pool of activable receptors. In addition, our results in HEK 293 cells show an interdependence between CAV-1 and αC418W that could confer end plates rich in αC418W nAChRs to a susceptibility to changes in cholesterol levels that could cause adverse drug reactions to cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins. The current work suggests that the interplay between cholesterol and CAV-1 provides the molecular basis for modulating the function and dynamics of the cholesterol-sensitive αC418W nAChR.

  15. Defect in lipid rafts results in failed tolerance induction at the maternal-fetal interface: a possible cause for the recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Juan; Zhou, Hao; Zou, Li

    2008-08-01

    The pregnancy is the successful induction and maintenance of maternal tolerance to semi-allogeneic fetus. As a failure result, recurrent spontaneous abortion occurs in about 1-2% of women of reproductive age, defined as the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies. The mechanism of recurrent spontaneous abortion is often elusive. Recently, mounting evidence suggests that HLA-G induced suppressive uterine natural killer (uNK) cells play an important role in the maternal-fetal tolerance and their abnormalities are responsible for recurrent spontaneous abortion. However, there are some clinical cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion could not be detected of the HLA-G alterations, while their uNK cells showed considerable cytolytic activities against fetus. Thus we hypothesize that lipid rafts, specialized micro-domains in plasma membrane, is of vital importance in the HLA-G-NK cells interactions and the accompanied suppressive induction process. We further hypothesize that the defect in lipid rafts may result in failed tolerance induction at the maternal-fetal interface, which would be a novel explanation for the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous abortion. The hypothesis can be practically evaluated by in vitro experiments and clinical tests. To sum up, this hypothesis proposes a new mechanism in the NK cells suppressive induction. Also the hypothesis may provide new vision in the drug development and disease control of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  16. Taraxasterol inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-induced TLR4 trafficking to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Xueshibojie, Liu; Duo, Yu; Tiejun, Wang

    2016-10-15

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of taraxasterol against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of taraxasterol on CS-induced lung inflammation in mice. CS-induced mouse lung inflammation model was used to investigate the protective effects of taraxasterol in vivo. Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were used to investigate the protective mechanism of taraxasterol in vitro. The results showed that taraxasterol attenuated CS-induced lung pathological changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production. Taraxasterol also up-regulated CS-induced glutathione (GSH) production. In vitro, taraxasterol was found to inhibit CS-induced reactive oxygen species production, recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 production. Furthermore, our results showed that antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited CS-induced recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts as well as IL-8 production. In conclusion, our results suggested that taraxasterol had protective effects of CS-induced lung inflammation. PMID:27477353

  17. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youhong; Chen, Lin; Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-02-20

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future. PMID:25605010

  18. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  19. STIM1 converts TRPC1 from a receptor-operated to a store-operated channel: moving TRPC1 in and out of lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Alicia, Sampieri; Angélica, Zepeda; Carlos, Saldaña; Alfonso, Salgado; Vaca, Luis

    2008-11-01

    While the role of members from the TRPC family of channels as receptor-operated channels (ROC) is well established and supported by numerous studies, the role of this family of channels as store-operated channels (SOC) has been the focus of a heated controversy over the last few years. In the present study, we have explored the modulation of STIM1 on human TRPC1 channel. We show that the association of STIM1 to TRPC1 favors the insertion of TRPC1 into lipid rafts, where TRPC1 functions as a SOC. In the absence of STIM1, TRPC1 associates to other members from the TRPC family of channels to form ROCs. A novel TIRFM-FRET method illustrates the relevance of the dynamic association between STIM1 and TRPC1 for the activation of SOC and the lipid raft localization of the STIM1-TRPC1 complex. This study provides new evidence about the dual activity of TRPC1 (forming ROC or SOC) and the partners needed to determine TRPC1 functional fate. It highlights also the role of plasma membrane microdomains and ER-PM junctions in modulating TRPC1 channel function and its association to STIM1.

  20. Vibrio vulnificus VvpE inhibits mucin 2 expression by hypermethylation via lipid raft-mediated ROS signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S-J; Jung, Y H; Oh, S Y; Jang, K K; Lee, H S; Choi, S H; Han, H J

    2015-01-01

    Mucin is an important physical barrier against enteric pathogens. VvpE is an elastase encoded by Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus; however, the functional role of VvpE in intestinal mucin (Muc) production is yet to be elucidated. The recombinant protein (r) VvpE significantly reduced the level of Muc2 in human mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells. The repression of Muc2 induced by rVvpE was highly susceptible to the knockdown of intelectin-1b (ITLN) and sequestration of cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin. We found that rVvpE induces the recruitment of NADPH oxidase 2 and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 into the membrane lipid rafts coupled with ITLN to facilitate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The bacterial signaling of rVvpE through ROS production is uniquely mediated by the phosphorylation of ERK, which was downregulated by the silencing of the PKCδ. Moreover, rVvpE induced region-specific methylation in the Muc2 promoter to promote the transcriptional repression of Muc2. In two mouse models of V. vulnificus infection, the mutation of the vvpE gene from V. vulnificus exhibited an increased survival rate and maintained the level of Muc2 expression in intestine. These results demonstrate that VvpE inhibits Muc2 expression by hypermethylation via lipid raft-mediated ROS signaling in the intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26086960

  1. Exogenous heat shock protein 70 binds macrophage lipid raft microdomain and stimulates phagocytosis, processing, and MHC-II presentation of antigens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruibo; Kovalchin, Joseph T; Muhlenkamp, Peggy; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2006-02-15

    The extracellular presence of endotoxin-free heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enhances the rate and capacity of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis at 6 times the basal rate. It is protein-specific, dose- and time-dependent and involves the internalization of inert microspheres, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Structurally, exogenous HSP70 binds the macrophage plasma membrane, specifically on its lipid raft-microdomain. Disruption of lipid rafts, HSP70-LR interaction, or denaturing HSP70 abrogates the HSP-mediated increase in phagocytosis. Further, HSP70-mediated phagocytosis directly enhances the processing and presentation of internalized antigens via the endocytic MHC class-II pathway to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Modulating the HSP70-LR interaction presents an opportunity to intervene at the level of host-pathogen interface: a therapeutic tool for emerging infections, especially when conventional treatment with antibiotics is ineffective (antibiotic resistance) or unavailable (rapidly spreading, endemic). These results identify a new role for HSP70, a highly conserved molecule in stimulating phagocytosis: a primordial macrophage function, thereby influencing both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  2. Taraxasterol inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-induced TLR4 trafficking to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Xueshibojie, Liu; Duo, Yu; Tiejun, Wang

    2016-10-15

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of taraxasterol against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of taraxasterol on CS-induced lung inflammation in mice. CS-induced mouse lung inflammation model was used to investigate the protective effects of taraxasterol in vivo. Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were used to investigate the protective mechanism of taraxasterol in vitro. The results showed that taraxasterol attenuated CS-induced lung pathological changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production. Taraxasterol also up-regulated CS-induced glutathione (GSH) production. In vitro, taraxasterol was found to inhibit CS-induced reactive oxygen species production, recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 production. Furthermore, our results showed that antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited CS-induced recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts as well as IL-8 production. In conclusion, our results suggested that taraxasterol had protective effects of CS-induced lung inflammation.

  3. The binding of Aβ1-42 to lipid rafts of RBC is enhanced by dietary docosahexaenoic acid in rats: Implicates to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Katakura, Masanori; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Shido, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Once amyloid β peptides (Aβs) of the Alzheimer's disease build up in blood circulation, they are capable of binding to red blood cell (RBC) and inducing hemolysis of RBC. The mechanisms of the interactions between RBC and Aβ are largely unknown; however, it is very important for the therapeutic target of Aβ-induced hemolysis. In the present study, we investigated whether Aβ1-42 interacts with caveolin-1-containing detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of RBC and whether the interaction could be modulated by dietary pre-administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA pre-administration to rats inhibited hemolysis by Aβ1-42. This activity was accompanied by increased DHA levels and membrane fluidity and decreased cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species in the RBCs of the DHA-pretreated rats, suggesting that the antioxidative property of DHA may rescue RBCs from oxidative damage by Aβ1-42. The level of caveolin-1 was augmented in the DRMs of DHA-pretreated rats. Binding between Aβ1-42 and DRMs of RBC significantly increased in DHA-rats. When fluorescently labeled Aβ1-42 (TAMRA-Aβ1-42) was directly infused into the bloodstream, it again occupied the caveolin-1-containing DRMs of the RBCs from the DHA-rats to a greater extent, indicating that circulating Aβs interact with the caveolin-1-rich lipid rafts of DRMs and the interaction is stronger in the DHA-enriched RBCs. The levels of TAMRA-Aβ1-42 also increased in liver DRMs, whereas it decreased in plasma of DHA-pretreated rats. DHA might help clearance of circulating Aβs by increased lipid raft-dependent degradation pathways and implicate to therapies in Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Membrane-lipid therapy in operation: the HSP co-inducer BGP-15 activates stress signal transduction pathways by remodeling plasma membrane rafts.

    PubMed

    Gombos, Imre; Crul, Tim; Piotto, Stefano; Güngör, Burcin; Török, Zsolt; Balogh, Gábor; Péter, Mária; Slotte, J Peter; Campana, Federica; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Hunya, Akos; Tóth, Noémi; Literati-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Vígh, László; Glatz, Attila; Brameshuber, Mario; Schütz, Gerhard J; Hevener, Andrea; Febbraio, Mark A; Horváth, Ibolya; Vígh, László

    2011-01-01

    Aging and pathophysiological conditions are linked to membrane changes which modulate membrane-controlled molecular switches, causing dysregulated heat shock protein (HSP) expression. HSP co-inducer hydroxylamines such as BGP-15 provide advanced therapeutic candidates for many diseases since they preferentially affect stressed cells and are unlikely have major side effects. In the present study in vitro molecular dynamic simulation, experiments with lipid monolayers and in vivo ultrasensitive fluorescence microscopy showed that BGP-15 alters the organization of cholesterol-rich membrane domains. Imaging of nanoscopic long-lived platforms using the raft marker glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored monomeric green fluorescent protein diffusing in the live Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell plasma membrane demonstrated that BGP-15 prevents the transient structural disintegration of rafts induced by fever-type heat stress. Moreover, BGP-15 was able to remodel cholesterol-enriched lipid platforms reminiscent of those observed earlier following non-lethal heat priming or membrane stress, and were shown to be obligate for the generation and transmission of stress signals. BGP-15 activation of HSP expression in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells involves the Rac1 signaling cascade in accordance with the previous observation that cholesterol affects the targeting of Rac1 to membranes. Finally, in a human embryonic kidney cell line we demonstrate that BGP-15 is able to inhibit the rapid heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) acetylation monitored during the early phase of heat stress, thereby promoting a prolonged duration of HSF1 binding to heat shock elements. Taken together, our results indicate that BGP-15 has the potential to become a new class of pharmaceuticals for use in 'membrane-lipid therapy' to combat many various protein-misfolding diseases associated with aging.

  5. Cell confluence induces switching from proliferation to migratory signaling by site-selective phosphorylation of PDGF receptors on lipid raft platforms.

    PubMed

    Szöőr, Árpád; Ujlaky-Nagy, László; Tóth, Gábor; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György

    2016-02-01

    Platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) play an important role in tumor pathogenesis and are frequently overexpressed in glioblastoma. Earlier we have shown that only confluent glioblastoma cell cultures exhibit a biphasic calcium transient upon PDGF stimulation. Here, we examined how the change in cell density leads to differential cellular responses to the same PDGF stimulus. PDGF beta receptors and their specific phosphotyrosine residues were fluorescently co-labeled on A172 and T98G glioblastoma cells. The distribution in cell membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) and the phosphorylation state of PDGFR was measured by confocal microscopy and quantitated by digital image processing. Corresponding bulk data were obtained by Western blotting. Activation of relevant downstream signaling pathways was assessed by immunofluorescence in confocal microscopy and by Western blot analysis. Functional outcomes were confirmed with bulk and single cell proliferation assays and motility measurements. In non-confluent (sparse) cultures PDGF-BB stimulation significantly increased phosphorylation of Tyr716 specific for the Ras/MAPK pathway and Tyr751 specific for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. As cell monolayers reached confluence, Tyr771 and Tyr1021 were the prominently phosphorylated residues. Tyr771 serves as adaptor for Ras-GAP, which inactivates the MAPK pathway, and Tyr1021 feeds into the phospholipase C-gamma/PKC pathway. Coherent with this, MAPK phosphorylation, Ki-67 positivity and proliferation dominated in dispersed cells, and could be abolished with inhibitors of the MAPK pathway. At the same time, RhoA activation, redistribution of cortactin to leading edges, and increased motility were the prominent output features in confluent cultures. Importantly, the stimulus-evoked confluence-specific changes in the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues occurred mainly in GM1-rich lipid microdomains (rafts). These observations suggest that the same stimulus is

  6. Cell confluence induces switching from proliferation to migratory signaling by site-selective phosphorylation of PDGF receptors on lipid raft platforms.

    PubMed

    Szöőr, Árpád; Ujlaky-Nagy, László; Tóth, Gábor; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György

    2016-02-01

    Platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) play an important role in tumor pathogenesis and are frequently overexpressed in glioblastoma. Earlier we have shown that only confluent glioblastoma cell cultures exhibit a biphasic calcium transient upon PDGF stimulation. Here, we examined how the change in cell density leads to differential cellular responses to the same PDGF stimulus. PDGF beta receptors and their specific phosphotyrosine residues were fluorescently co-labeled on A172 and T98G glioblastoma cells. The distribution in cell membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) and the phosphorylation state of PDGFR was measured by confocal microscopy and quantitated by digital image processing. Corresponding bulk data were obtained by Western blotting. Activation of relevant downstream signaling pathways was assessed by immunofluorescence in confocal microscopy and by Western blot analysis. Functional outcomes were confirmed with bulk and single cell proliferation assays and motility measurements. In non-confluent (sparse) cultures PDGF-BB stimulation significantly increased phosphorylation of Tyr716 specific for the Ras/MAPK pathway and Tyr751 specific for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. As cell monolayers reached confluence, Tyr771 and Tyr1021 were the prominently phosphorylated residues. Tyr771 serves as adaptor for Ras-GAP, which inactivates the MAPK pathway, and Tyr1021 feeds into the phospholipase C-gamma/PKC pathway. Coherent with this, MAPK phosphorylation, Ki-67 positivity and proliferation dominated in dispersed cells, and could be abolished with inhibitors of the MAPK pathway. At the same time, RhoA activation, redistribution of cortactin to leading edges, and increased motility were the prominent output features in confluent cultures. Importantly, the stimulus-evoked confluence-specific changes in the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues occurred mainly in GM1-rich lipid microdomains (rafts). These observations suggest that the same stimulus is

  7. Toll like receptor 2 and CC chemokine receptor 5 cluster in the lipid raft enhances the susceptibility of Leishmania donovani infection in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Bhattacharya, Parna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumder, Saikat; Banerjee, Sayantan; Majumdar, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    In experimental visceral leishmaniasis the causative obligate protozoan parasite, L. donovani invades and multiplies inside of macrophages, one of the sentries of the mammalian immune system. The initial host-parasite interaction between the Leishmania promastigote and the macrophage takes place at the plasma membrane interface. To trace any possible interaction between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) during early Leishmania-macrophage interactions, it was observed that the expression of both TLR2 and CCR5 were significantly increased, along with their recruitment to the lipid raft. TLR2 silencing attenuates CCR5 expression and restricts L. donovani infection, indicating a regulatory role of TLR2 and CCR5 during infection. Silencing of CCR5 and TLR2 markedly reduced the number of intracellular parasites in macrophages by host protective cytokine responses, while raft disruption using beta-MCD affected TLR2/CCR5 cross-talk and resulted in a significant reduction in parasite invasion. In vivo RNA interference of TLR2 and CCR5 using shRNA plasmids rendered protection in Leishmania donovani-infected mice. Thus, this study for the first time demonstrates the importance of TLR2/CCR5 crosstalk as a significant determinant of Leishmania donovani entry in host macrophages.

  8. Phase separation of myelin sheath in Triton X-114 solution: predominant localization of the 21.5-kDa isoform of myelin basic protein in the lipid raft-associated domain.

    PubMed

    Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugawa, Makoto; Matsuura, Keiko; Sato, Yurie; Seiwa, Chika; Watanabe, Kenji; Aiso, Sadakazu; Asou, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) isoforms in the myelin sheath are known to have distinct intracellular expression patterns, which are profoundly related to functional specificity. Determining the differential localization of MBP isoforms is therefore important for understanding their pathophysiological roles. In this study, we have developed a new method for phase separation of myelin. The non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 is used to solubilize myelin sheath which then undergoes phase separation to yield four fractions. The lipid raft-associated proteins and lipids in each fraction were analysed by immunoblotting and lipid analysis, respectively. The present method gives two lipid raft-enriched fractions, one of them was found to contain only lipid raft-associated galactocerebroside and cholesterol as the major lipids. The 21.5-kDa MBP isoforms (21.5 MBP), both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated, were exclusively contained in this fraction. Phosphorylated 21.5 MBP (21.5 pMBP) has been shown to specifically disappear from demyelinated loci. The present analytical method clearly indicated that disappearance of 21.5 pMBP corresponded to demyelination and its reappearance corresponded to prevention of demyelination. Demyelination was also associated with aging and was prevented by the myelin-protecting herbal medicine, Chinpi, a type of dried citrus peel.

  9. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo; Komiya, Eriko; Dang, Nam H; Iwao, Noriaki; Ohnuma, Kei; Morimoto, Chikao

    2016-05-20

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulating the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis.

  10. Lipid Clustering Correlates with Membrane Curvature as Revealed by Molecular Simulations of Complex Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Koldsø, Heidi; Shorthouse, David; Hélie, Jean; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes are complex multicomponent systems, which are highly heterogeneous in the lipid distribution and composition. To date, most molecular simulations have focussed on relatively simple lipid compositions, helping to inform our understanding of in vitro experimental studies. Here we describe on simulations of complex asymmetric plasma membrane model, which contains seven different lipids species including the glycolipid GM3 in the outer leaflet and the anionic lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphophate (PIP2), in the inner leaflet. Plasma membrane models consisting of 1500 lipids and resembling the in vivo composition were constructed and simulations were run for 5 µs. In these simulations the most striking feature was the formation of nano-clusters of GM3 within the outer leaflet. In simulations of protein interactions within a plasma membrane model, GM3, PIP2, and cholesterol all formed favorable interactions with the model α-helical protein. A larger scale simulation of a model plasma membrane containing 6000 lipid molecules revealed correlations between curvature of the bilayer surface and clustering of lipid molecules. In particular, the concave (when viewed from the extracellular side) regions of the bilayer surface were locally enriched in GM3. In summary, these simulations explore the nanoscale dynamics of model bilayers which mimic the in vivo lipid composition of mammalian plasma membranes, revealing emergent nanoscale membrane organization which may be coupled both to fluctuations in local membrane geometry and to interactions with proteins. PMID:25340788

  11. Expression of GM1, a marker of lipid rafts, defines two subsets of human monocytes with differential endocytic capacity and lipopolysaccharide responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Altamirano, M Maximina Bertha; Aguilar-Carmona, Israel; Sánchez-García, F Javier

    2007-01-01

    Monocytes constitute 5–10% of total human peripheral blood leucocytes and remain in circulation for several days before replenishing the tissue macrophage populations. Monocytes display heterogeneity in size, granularity and nuclear morphology, and in the expression of cell membrane molecules, such as CD14, CD16, CD32, CD64, major histocompatibility complex class II, CCR2, CCR5, among others. This has led to the suggestion that individual monocyte/macrophage populations have specialized functions within their microenvironments. This study provides evidence for the occurrence of two peripheral blood monocyte subpopulations on the basis of their differential expression of GM1, a sphingolipid found mostly in lipid rafts, a CD14+ GM1low population and a CD14+ GM1high population comprising about 97·5% and 2·5% of total CD14+ cells, respectively. GM1 expression correlates with functional differences in terms of endocytic activity, susceptibility to mycobacterial infection, and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (modulation of Toll-like receptor-4 expression). CD14+ GM1low cells proved to be less endocytic and more responsive to LPS, whereas CD14+ GM1high cells are more endocytic and less responsive to LPS. In addition, during monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vitro, the percentage of CD14+ GM1high cells increases from about 2·5% at day 1 to more than 50% at day 7 of culture. These results suggest that GM1low and GM1high monocytes in peripheral blood, represent either different stages of maturation or different subsets with specialized activities. The expression of CD16 on GM1high favours the first possibility and, on the other hand that up-regulation of GM1 expression and probably lipid rafts function is involved in the monocyte to macrophage differentiation process. PMID:17250589

  12. Linker for activation of T-cell family member2 (LAT2) a lipid raft adaptor protein for AKT signaling, is an early mediator of alkylphospholipid anti-leukemic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Carolina H; dos Santos, Guilherme A; Ferreira, Germano A; Scheucher, Priscila S; Izumi, Clarice; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Simão, Ana Maria; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Chin, Alice; Hanash, Samir M; Falcão, Roberto P; Rego, Eduardo M; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M

    2012-12-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy.

  13. Linker for Activation of T-cell Family Member2 (LAT2) a Lipid Raft Adaptor Protein for AKT Signaling, Is an Early Mediator of Alkylphospholipid Anti-leukemic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Carolina H.; dos Santos, Guilherme A.; Ferreira, Germano A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Izumi, Clarice; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Simão, Ana Maria; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Kleber T.; Chin, Alice; Hanash, Samir M.; Falcão, Roberto P.; Rego, Eduardo M.; Greene, Lewis J.; Faça, Vitor M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:23001822

  14. Very long-chain fatty acid-containing lipids rather than sphingolipids per se are required for raft association and stable surface transport of newly synthesized plasma membrane ATPase in yeast.

    PubMed

    Gaigg, Barbara; Toulmay, Alexandre; Schneiter, Roger

    2006-11-10

    The proton-pumping H+-ATPase, Pma1p, is an abundant and very long lived polytopic protein of the yeast plasma membrane. Pma1p constitutes a major cargo of the secretory pathway and thus serves as a model to study plasma membrane biogenesis. Pma1p associates with detergent-resistant membrane domains (lipid "rafts") already in the ER, and a lack of raft association correlates with mistargeting of the protein to the vacuole, where it is degraded. We are analyzing the role of specific lipids in membrane domain formation and have previously shown that surface transport of Pma1p is independent of newly synthesized sterols but that sphingolipids with C26 very long chain fatty acid are crucial for raft association and surface transport of Pma1p (Gaigg, B., Timischl, B., Corbino, L., and Schneiter, R. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 22515-22522). We now describe a more detailed analysis of the function that sphingolipids play in this process. Using a yeast strain in which the essential function of sphingolipids is substituted by glycerophospholipids containing C26 very long chain fatty acids, we find that sphingolipids per se are dispensable for raft association and surface delivery of Pma1p but that the C26 fatty acid is crucial. We thus conclude that the essential function of sphingolipids for membrane domain formation and stable surface delivery of Pma1p is provided by the C26 fatty acid that forms part of the yeast ceramide.

  15. Role of lipid raft components and actin cytoskeleton in fibronectin-binding, surface expression, and de novo synthesis of integrin subunits in PGE2- or 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated mastocytoma P-815 cells.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasuyo; Nishikawa, Jyun-ichi; Semma, Masanori; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors essential for adhesion of non-adherent cells to extracellular ligands such as extracellular matrix components. The affinity of integrins for ligands is regulated through a process termed integrin activation and de novo synthesis. Integrin activation is regulated by lipid raft components and the actin structure. However, there is little information on the relationship between integrin activation and its de novo synthesis. Cancerous mouse mast cells, mastocytoma P-815 cells (P-815 cells) are known to bind to fibronectin through de novo synthesis of integrin subtypes by prostaglandin (PG) E2 stimulation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between lipid raft components and the actin cytoskeleton, and PGE2-induced P-815 cells adhesion to fibronectin and the increase in surface expression and mRNA and protein levels of αvβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrins. Cholesterol inhibitor 6-O-α-maltosyl-β cyclodextrin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins inhibitor phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and actin inhibitor cytochalasin D inhibited PGE2-induced cell adhesion to fibronectin, but did not regulate the surface expression and mRNA and protein levels of αv and αIIb, and β3 integrin subunits. In addition, inhibitor of integrin modulate protein CD47 had no effect on PGE2- and 8-Br-cAMP-induced cell adhesion. These results suggest that lipid raft components and the actin cytoskeleton are directly involved in increasing of adhesion activity of integrin αIIb, αv and β3 subunits to fibronectin but not in stimulating of de novo synthesis of them in PGE2-stimulated P-815 cells. The modulation of lipid rafts and the actin structure is essential for P-815 cells adhesion to fibronectin.

  16. Insulin-mimetic signaling by the sulfonylurea glimepiride and phosphoinositolglycans involves distinct mechanisms for redistribution of lipid raft components.

    PubMed

    Müller, G; Jung, C; Wied, S; Welte, S; Frick, W

    2001-12-01

    The insulin signal transduction cascade provides a number of sites downstream of the insulin receptor (IR) for cross-talk from other signaling pathways. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR substrates IRS-1/2 and metabolic insulin-mimetic activity in insulin-responsive cells can be provoked by soluble phosphoinositolglycans (PIG), which trigger redistribution from detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (DIGs) to other areas of the plasma membrane and thereby activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTK) [Müller, G., Jung, C., Wied, S., Welte, S., Jordan, H., and Frick, W. (2001) Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 4553-4567]. Here we describe that stimulation of glucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes by a different stimulus, the sulfonylurea glimepiride, is also based on IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream insulin-mimetic signaling involving activation of the NRTK, pp59(Lyn), and pp125(Fak), as well as tyrosine phosphoryation of the DIGs component caveolin. As is the case for PIG 41, glimepiride causes the concentration-dependent dissociation of pp59(Lyn) from caveolin and release of this NRTK and the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins, Gce1 and 5'-nucleotidase, from total and anti-caveolin-immunoisolated DIGs. This results in their movement to detergent-insoluble raft domains of higher buoyant density (non-DIGs areas). IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose transport activation by both glimepiride and PIG are blocked by introduction into adipocytes of the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide which mimicks the negative effect of caveolin on pp59(Lyn) activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NRTK, IRS-1/2, and caveolin as well as release of the NRTK and GPI proteins from DIGs and their redistribution into non-DIGs areas in response to PIG is also inhibited by treatment of intact adipocytes with either trypsin plus salt or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In contrast, the putative trypsin/salt/NEM-sensitive cell surface component

  17. Synthetic Bichalcone TSWU-BR23 Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells by p53-Mediated Mitochondrial Oligomerization of BAX/BAK and Lipid Raft Localization of CD95/FADD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Chen, Shih-Shun; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-10-01

    A synthetic bichalcone analog, (E)-1-(3-((4-(4-acetylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (TSWU-BR23), has been shown to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells involving the induction of CD95 and FAS-associated protein death domain (FADD), but its precise mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Using cell-surface biotinylation and sucrose density-gradient-based membrane flotation techniques, we showed that the disruption of TSWU-BR23-induced lipid raft localization of CD95/FADD by cholesterol-depleting agent (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) was reversed by cholesterol replenishment. Blockade of p53 expression by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppressed oligomeric Bcl-2-associated x protein (BAX)/Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (BAK)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis but did not inhibit lipid raft localization of CD95/FADD and pro-caspase-8 cleavage induced by TSWU-BR23. Co-expression of p53 shRNA and dominant-negative mutant of FADD completely inhibited TSWU-BR32-induced mitochondrial apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TSWU-BR23 leads to HT-29 cell apoptosis by inducing p53-mediated mitochondrial oligomerization of BAX/BAK and the localization of CD95/FADD with lipid rafts at the cell surface.

  18. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yijun; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Song, Cheng; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Gang

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  19. Energetic modeling and single-molecule verification of dynamic regulation on receptor complexes by actin corrals and lipid raft domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien Y.; Huang, Jung Y.; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-12-01

    We developed an energetic model by integrating the generalized Langevin equation with the Cahn-Hilliard equation to simulate the diffusive behaviors of receptor proteins in the plasma membrane of a living cell. Simulation results are presented to elaborate the confinement effects from actin corrals and protein-induced lipid domains. Single-molecule tracking data of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) acquired on live HeLa cells agree with the simulation results and the mechanism that controls the diffusion of single-molecule receptors is clarified. We discovered that after ligand binding, EGFR molecules move into lipid nanodomains. The transition rates between different diffusion states of liganded EGFR molecules are regulated by the lipid domains. Our method successfully captures dynamic interactions of receptors at the single-molecule level and provides insight into the functional architecture of both the diffusing EGFR molecules and their local cellular environment.

  20. Energetic modeling and single-molecule verification of dynamic regulation on receptor complexes by actin corrals and lipid raft domains.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien Y; Huang, Jung Y; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-12-01

    We developed an energetic model by integrating the generalized Langevin equation with the Cahn-Hilliard equation to simulate the diffusive behaviors of receptor proteins in the plasma membrane of a living cell. Simulation results are presented to elaborate the confinement effects from actin corrals and protein-induced lipid domains. Single-molecule tracking data of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) acquired on live HeLa cells agree with the simulation results and the mechanism that controls the diffusion of single-molecule receptors is clarified. We discovered that after ligand binding, EGFR molecules move into lipid nanodomains. The transition rates between different diffusion states of liganded EGFR molecules are regulated by the lipid domains. Our method successfully captures dynamic interactions of receptors at the single-molecule level and provides insight into the functional architecture of both the diffusing EGFR molecules and their local cellular environment. PMID:25481171

  1. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  2. Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbès Putzel, G.; Schick, M.

    2011-07-01

    We construct a simple phenomenological theory of phase separation in ternary mixtures of cholesterol and saturated and unsaturated lipids. Such separation is relevant to the formation of 'rafts' in the plasma membrane. We also show how simple cross-linking of proteins which prefer one form of lipid to the other can trigger raft-formation, the first step in a signaling pathway.

  3. Raft coalescence and FcγRIIA activation upon sphingomyelin clustering induced by lysenin.

    PubMed

    Kulma, Magdalena; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna; Sobota, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    Activation of immunoreceptor FcγRIIA by cross-linking with antibodies is accompanied by coalescence of sphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membrane rafts leading to the formation of signaling platforms of the receptor. In this report we examined whether clustering of the raft lipid sphingomyelin can reciprocally induce partition of FcγRIIA to rafts. To induce sphingomyelin clustering, cells were exposed to non-lytic concentrations of GST-lysenin which specifically recognizes sphingomyelin. The lysenin/sphingomyelin complexes formed microscale assemblies composed of GST-lysenin oligomers engaging sphingomyelin of rafts. Upon sphingomyelin clustering, non-cross-linked FcγRIIA associated with raft-derived detergent-resistant membrane fractions as revealed by density gradient centrifugation. Pretreatment of cells with GST-lysenin also increased the size of detergent-insoluble molecular complexes of activated FcγRIIA. Sphingomyelin clustering triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor and its accompanying proteins, Cbl and NTAL, in the absence of receptor ligands and enhanced phosphorylation of these proteins in the ligand presence. These data indicate that clustering of plasma membrane sphingomyelin induces coalescence of rafts and triggers signaling events analogous to those caused by FcγRIIA activation.

  4. Influenza Virus Assembly and Lipid Raft Microdomains: a Role for the Cytoplasmic Tails of the Spike Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Pekosz, Andrew; Lamb, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Influenza viruses encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins with deletions in one or both cytoplasmic tails (HAt− or NAt−) have a reduced association with detergent-insoluble glycolipids (DIGs). Mutations which eliminated various combinations of the three palmitoylation sites in HA exhibited reduced amounts of DIG-associated HA in virus-infected cells. The influenza virus matrix (M1) protein was also found to be associated with DIGs, but this association was decreased in cells infected with HAt− or NAt− virus. Regardless of the amount of DIG-associated protein, the HA and NA glycoproteins were targeted primarily to the apical surface of virus-infected, polarized cells. The uncoupling of DIG association and apical transport was augmented by the observation that the influenza A virus M2 protein as well as the influenza C virus HA-esterase-fusion glycoprotein were not associated with DIGs but were apically targeted. The reduced DIG association of HAt− and NAt− is an intrinsic property of the glycoproteins, as similar reductions in DIG association were observed when the proteins were expressed from cDNA. Examination of purified virions indicated reduced amounts of DIG-associated lipids in the envelope of HAt− and NAt− viruses. The data indicate that deletion of both the HA and NA cytoplasmic tails results in reduced DIG association and changes in both virus polypeptide and lipid composition. PMID:10775599

  5. Identification of Novel Raft Marker Protein, FlotP in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Vikas K.; Aggarwal, Somya; Singh, Damini; Prasad, Tulika; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are dynamic, nanoscale assemblies of specific proteins and lipids, distributed heterogeneously on eukaryotic membrane. Flotillin-1, a conserved eukaryotic raft marker protein (RMP) harbor SPFH (Stomatin, Prohibitin, Flotillin, and HflK/C) and oligomerization domains to regulate various cellular processes through its interactions with other signaling or transport proteins. Rafts were thought to be absent in prokaryotes hitherto, but recent report of its presence and significance in physiology of Bacillus subtilis prompted us to investigate the same in pathogenic bacteria (PB) also. In prokaryotes, proteins of SPFH2a subfamily show highest identity to SPFH domain of Flotillin-1. Moreover, bacterial genome organization revealed that Flotillin homolog harboring SPFH2a domain exists in an operon with an upstream gene containing NFeD domain. Here, presence of RMP in PB was initially investigated in silico by analyzing the presence of SPFH2a, oligomerization domains in the concerned gene and NfeD domain in the adjacent upstream gene. After investigating 300 PB, four were found to harbor RMP. Among them, domains of Bas0525 (FlotP) of Bacillus anthracis (BA) showed highest identity with characteristic domains of RMP. Considering the global threat of BA as the bioterror agent, it was selected as a model for further in vitro characterization of rafts in PB. In silico and in vitro analysis showed significant similarity of FlotP with numerous attributes of Flotillin-1. Its punctate distribution on membrane with exclusive localization in detergent resistant membrane fraction; strongly favors presence of raft with RMP FlotP in BA. Furthermore, significant effect of Zaragozic acid (ZA), a raft associated lipid biosynthesis inhibitor, on several patho-physiological attributes of BA such as growth, morphology, membrane rigidity etc., were also observed. Specifically, a considerable decrease in membrane rigidity, strongly recommended presence of an unknown raft associated

  6. Identification of Novel Raft Marker Protein, FlotP in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Somani, Vikas K; Aggarwal, Somya; Singh, Damini; Prasad, Tulika; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are dynamic, nanoscale assemblies of specific proteins and lipids, distributed heterogeneously on eukaryotic membrane. Flotillin-1, a conserved eukaryotic raft marker protein (RMP) harbor SPFH (Stomatin, Prohibitin, Flotillin, and HflK/C) and oligomerization domains to regulate various cellular processes through its interactions with other signaling or transport proteins. Rafts were thought to be absent in prokaryotes hitherto, but recent report of its presence and significance in physiology of Bacillus subtilis prompted us to investigate the same in pathogenic bacteria (PB) also. In prokaryotes, proteins of SPFH2a subfamily show highest identity to SPFH domain of Flotillin-1. Moreover, bacterial genome organization revealed that Flotillin homolog harboring SPFH2a domain exists in an operon with an upstream gene containing NFeD domain. Here, presence of RMP in PB was initially investigated in silico by analyzing the presence of SPFH2a, oligomerization domains in the concerned gene and NfeD domain in the adjacent upstream gene. After investigating 300 PB, four were found to harbor RMP. Among them, domains of Bas0525 (FlotP) of Bacillus anthracis (BA) showed highest identity with characteristic domains of RMP. Considering the global threat of BA as the bioterror agent, it was selected as a model for further in vitro characterization of rafts in PB. In silico and in vitro analysis showed significant similarity of FlotP with numerous attributes of Flotillin-1. Its punctate distribution on membrane with exclusive localization in detergent resistant membrane fraction; strongly favors presence of raft with RMP FlotP in BA. Furthermore, significant effect of Zaragozic acid (ZA), a raft associated lipid biosynthesis inhibitor, on several patho-physiological attributes of BA such as growth, morphology, membrane rigidity etc., were also observed. Specifically, a considerable decrease in membrane rigidity, strongly recommended presence of an unknown raft associated

  7. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone down-regulates MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling by inhibiting endotoxin-induced trafficking of TLR4 to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaomin; Fu, Juanli; Song, Xiufang; Shi, Qiong; Su, Chuanyang; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a lethal clinical syndrome characterized by the activation of macrophages and the increased production of inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), a widely-used low caloric artificial sweetener against FHF. An FHF experimental model was established in mice by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (d-GalN) (400mg/kg)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (10 μg/kg). Mice were orally administered NHDC for 6 continuous days and at 1h before d-GalN/LPS administration. RAW264.7 macrophages were used as an in vitro model. Cells were pre-treated with NHDC for 1h before stimulation with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 6h. d-GalN/LPS markedly increased the serum transaminase activities and levels of oxidative and inflammatory markers, which were significantly attenuated by NHDC. Mechanistic analysis indicated that NHDC inhibited LPS-induced myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR-containing adapter molecule (TRIF)-dependent signaling. Transient transfection of TLR4 or MyD88 siRNA inhibited the downstream inflammatory signaling. This effect could also be achieved by the pretreatment with NHDC. The fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry results suggested that NHDC potently inhibited the binding of LPS to TLR4 in RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, the inhibitory effect of NHDC on LPS-induced translocation of TLR4 into lipid raft domains played an important role in the amelioration of production of downstream pro-inflammatory molecules. Furthermore, the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) by NHDC inhibited TLR4 signaling. In conclusion, our results suggest that NHDC attenuates d-GalN/LPS-induced FHF by inhibiting the TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathway, demonstrating a new application of NHDC as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:26453923

  8. A New Membrane Lipid Raft Gene SpFLT-1 Facilitating the Endocytosis of Vibrio alginolyticus in the Crab Scylla paramamosain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangyi; Bo, Jun; Ma, Xiaowan; Dong, Lixia; Shan, Zhongguo; Cui, Qian; Chen, Huiyun; Wang, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens can enter their host cells by way of endocytosis in which the membrane lipid raft gene flotillins are probably involved in the invasion process and this is an important way to cause infection. In this study, a new gene SpFLT-1 was identified in Scylla paramamosain, which shared high identity with the flotillin-1 of other species. The SpFLT-1 gene was widely distributed in tissues and showed the highest level of mRNA transcripts in the hemocytes. This gene might be a maternal gene based on the evident results that it was highly expressed in maternal ovaries and in the early developmental stages of the zygote and early embryo stage whereas it gradually decreased in zoea 1. SpFLT-1 positively responded to the challenge of Vibrio alginolyticus with a significantly increased level of mRNA expression in the hemocytes and gills at 3 hours post infection (hpi). The SpFLT-1 protein was detected densely in the same fraction layer where the Vibrio protein was most present in the hemocytes and gills at 3 hpi. Furthermore, it was found that the expression of SpFLT-1 decreased to the base level following disappearance of the Vibrio protein at 6 hpi in the gills. Silencing SpFLT-1 inhibited the endocytosis rate of V. alginolyticus but overexpression of the gene could facilitate bacterial entry into the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells. Our study indicated that SpFLT-1 may act as a key protein involved in the process of bacterial infection and this sheds light on clarifying the pathogenesis of pathogens infecting S. paramamosain. PMID:26186350

  9. A New Membrane Lipid Raft Gene SpFLT-1 Facilitating the Endocytosis of Vibrio alginolyticus in the Crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangyi; Bo, Jun; Ma, Xiaowan; Dong, Lixia; Shan, Zhongguo; Cui, Qian; Chen, Huiyun; Wang, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens can enter their host cells by way of endocytosis in which the membrane lipid raft gene flotillins are probably involved in the invasion process and this is an important way to cause infection. In this study, a new gene SpFLT-1 was identified in Scylla paramamosain, which shared high identity with the flotillin-1 of other species. The SpFLT-1 gene was widely distributed in tissues and showed the highest level of mRNA transcripts in the hemocytes. This gene might be a maternal gene based on the evident results that it was highly expressed in maternal ovaries and in the early developmental stages of the zygote and early embryo stage whereas it gradually decreased in zoea 1. SpFLT-1 positively responded to the challenge of Vibrio alginolyticus with a significantly increased level of mRNA expression in the hemocytes and gills at 3 hours post infection (hpi). The SpFLT-1 protein was detected densely in the same fraction layer where the Vibrio protein was most present in the hemocytes and gills at 3 hpi. Furthermore, it was found that the expression of SpFLT-1 decreased to the base level following disappearance of the Vibrio protein at 6 hpi in the gills. Silencing SpFLT-1 inhibited the endocytosis rate of V. alginolyticus but overexpression of the gene could facilitate bacterial entry into the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells. Our study indicated that SpFLT-1 may act as a key protein involved in the process of bacterial infection and this sheds light on clarifying the pathogenesis of pathogens infecting S. paramamosain.

  10. Evidence that a lipolytic enzyme—hematopoietic-specific phospholipase C-β2—promotes mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells by decreasing their lipid raft-mediated bone marrow retention and increasing the promobilizing effects of granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Adamiak, M; Poniewierska-Baran, A; Borkowska, S; Schneider, G; Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Suszynska, M; Abdel-Latif, A; Kucia, M; Ratajczak, J; Ratajczak, M Z

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and are retained there by the interaction of membrane lipid raft-associated receptors, such as the α-chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the α4β1-integrin (VLA-4, very late antigen 4 receptor) receptor, with their respective specific ligands, stromal-derived factor 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, expressed in BM stem cell niches. The integrity of the lipid rafts containing these receptors is maintained by the glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-A). It has been reported that a cleavage fragment of the fifth component of the activated complement cascade, C5a, has an important role in mobilizing HSPCs into the peripheral blood (PB) by (i) inducing degranulation of BM-residing granulocytes and (ii) promoting their egress from the BM into the PB so that they permeabilize the endothelial barrier for subsequent egress of HSPCs. We report here that hematopoietic cell-specific phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2) has a crucial role in pharmacological mobilization of HSPCs. On the one hand, when released during degranulation of granulocytes, it digests GPI-A, thereby disrupting membrane lipid rafts and impairing retention of HSPCs in BM niches. On the other hand, it is an intracellular enzyme required for degranulation of granulocytes and their egress from BM. In support of this dual role, we demonstrate that PLC-β2-knockout mice are poor mobilizers and provide, for the first time, evidence for the involvement of this lipolytic enzyme in the mobilization of HSPCs. PMID:26582648

  11. Evidence that a lipolytic enzyme--hematopoietic-specific phospholipase C-β2--promotes mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells by decreasing their lipid raft-mediated bone marrow retention and increasing the promobilizing effects of granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, M; Poniewierska-Baran, A; Borkowska, S; Schneider, G; Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Suszynska, M; Abdel-Latif, A; Kucia, M; Ratajczak, J; Ratajczak, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and are retained there by the interaction of membrane lipid raft-associated receptors, such as the α-chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the α4β1-integrin (VLA-4, very late antigen 4 receptor) receptor, with their respective specific ligands, stromal-derived factor 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, expressed in BM stem cell niches. The integrity of the lipid rafts containing these receptors is maintained by the glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-A). It has been reported that a cleavage fragment of the fifth component of the activated complement cascade, C5a, has an important role in mobilizing HSPCs into the peripheral blood (PB) by (i) inducing degranulation of BM-residing granulocytes and (ii) promoting their egress from the BM into the PB so that they permeabilize the endothelial barrier for subsequent egress of HSPCs. We report here that hematopoietic cell-specific phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2) has a crucial role in pharmacological mobilization of HSPCs. On the one hand, when released during degranulation of granulocytes, it digests GPI-A, thereby disrupting membrane lipid rafts and impairing retention of HSPCs in BM niches. On the other hand, it is an intracellular enzyme required for degranulation of granulocytes and their egress from BM. In support of this dual role, we demonstrate that PLC-β2-knockout mice are poor mobilizers and provide, for the first time, evidence for the involvement of this lipolytic enzyme in the mobilization of HSPCs.

  12. Fusion of raft-like lipid bilayers operated by a membranotropic domain of the HSV-type I glycoprotein gH occurs through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Falanga, Annarita; Petruk, Ariel Alcides; Merlino, Antonello; Fragneto, Giovanna; Paduano, Luigi; Galdiero, Stefania; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2015-04-21

    A wealth of evidence indicates that lipid rafts are involved in the fusion of the viral lipid envelope with the target cell membrane. However, the interplay between these sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched ordered domains and viral fusion glycoproteins has not yet been clarified. In this work we investigate the molecular mechanism by which a membranotropic fragment of the glycoprotein gH of the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type I (gH625) drives fusion of lipid bilayers formed by palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC)-sphingomyelin (SM)-cholesterol (CHOL) (1 : 1 : 1 wt/wt/wt), focusing on the role played by each component. The comparative analysis of the liposome fusion assays, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), spectrofluorimetry, Neutron Reflectivity (NR) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) experiments, and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations shows that CHOL is fundamental for liposome fusion to occur. In detail, CHOL stabilizes the gH625-bilayer association by specific interactions with the peptide Trp residue. The interaction with gH625 causes an increased order of the lipid acyl chains, whose local rotational motion is significantly hampered. SM plays only a minor role in the process, favoring the propagation of lipid perturbation to the bilayer inner core. The stiffening of the peptide-interacting bilayer leaflet results in an asymmetric perturbation of the membrane, which is locally destabilized thus favoring fusion events. Our results show that viral fusion glycoproteins are optimally suited to exert a high fusogenic activity on lipid rafts and support the relevance of cholesterol as a key player of membrane-related processes.

  13. Flagellar membranes are rich in raft-forming phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Serricchio, Mauro; Schmid, Adrien W.; Steinmann, Michael E.; Sigel, Erwin; Rauch, Monika; Julkowska, Daria; Bonnefoy, Serge; Fort, Cécile; Bastin, Philippe; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The observation that the membranes of flagella are enriched in sterols and sphingolipids has led to the hypothesis that flagella might be enriched in raft-forming lipids. However, a detailed lipidomic analysis of flagellar membranes is not available. Novel protocols to detach and isolate intact flagella from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to determine the phospholipid composition of flagellar membranes relative to whole cells. Our analyses revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, ceramide and the sphingolipids inositol phosphorylceramide and sphingomyelin are enriched in flagella relative to whole cells. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol are strongly depleted in flagella. Within individual glycerophospholipid classes, we observed a preference for ether-type over diacyl-type molecular species in membranes of flagella. Our study provides direct evidence for a preferential presence of raft-forming phospholipids in flagellar membranes of T. brucei. PMID:26276100

  14. Localization of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 in lipid rafts and modulation of outward K+ currents by membrane cholesterol content in rat left ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Rudakova, Elena; Wagner, Michael; Frank, Magdalena; Volk, Tilmann

    2015-02-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains of the cell membrane. Here we investigate the localization of the pore forming K(+)-channel α-subunit Kv4.2 and the β-subunit KChIP2, underlying the transient outward K(+) current (I to), in lipid rafts in left ventricular myocytes. Furthermore, we explored the impact of membrane cholesterol depletion (using 20 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD)) on K(+) outward currents. Cholesterol-saturated MBCD (20 mM) served as control. Myocytes were isolated from the left ventricular free wall of Wistar rats. The Triton X-100 (4 °C) insoluble fraction of whole cell protein was analyzed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by Western blot. Kv4.2 and KChIP2 were partially detected in low-density fractions (lipid rafts). MBCD treatment (5 min) resulted in a shift of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 towards high-density fractions. K(+) currents were assessed by whole-cell patch-clamp. MBCD treatment resulted in a 29 ± 3 % decrease in I to (20.0 ± 1.6pApF(-1) vs. 28.5 ± 2.0pApF(-1), n = 15, p < 0.001, V Pip = 40 mV) within 5 min. Control solution resulted in a significantly smaller reduction in I to (17 ± 3 %, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 compared with MBCD). MBCD induced a 38 ± 9 % increase in the non-inactivating current component (I sus) (10.1 ± 0.6pApF(-1) vs. 7.6 ± 0.4pApF(-1), n = 15, p < 0.001). This effect was absent in control solution. The increase in I sus was not sensitive to 100 μM 4-aminopyridine or 20 mM tetraethylammonium, making a contribution of Kv1.5 or Kv2.1 unlikely. In conclusion, in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, a fraction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 is localized in lipid rafts. Membrane cholesterol depletion results in ~12 % net reduction of I to, a redistribution of the channel proteins Kv4.2 and KChIP2 and an increased delayed rectifier current.

  15. Influence of nonequilibrium lipid transport, membrane compartmentalization, and membrane proteins on the lateral organization of the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jun; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Haataja, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Compositional lipid domains (lipid rafts) in plasma membranes are believed to be important components of many cellular processes. The mechanisms by which cells regulate the sizes, lifetimes, and spatial localization of these domains are rather poorly understood at the moment. We propose a robust mechanism for the formation of finite-sized lipid raft domains in plasma membranes, the competition between phase separation in an immiscible lipid system and active cellular lipid transport processes naturally leads to the formation of such domains. Simulations of a continuum model reveal that the raft size distribution is broad and the average raft size is strongly dependent on the rates of cellular and interlayer lipid transport processes. We demonstrate that spatiotemporal variations in the recycling may enable the cell to localize larger raft aggregates at specific parts along the membrane. Moreover, we show that membrane compartmentalization may further facilitate spatial localization of the raft domains. Finally, we demonstrate that local interactions with immobile membrane proteins can spatially localize the rafts and lead to further clustering.

  16. Solution Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Reveals Structural Details of Lipid Domains in Ternary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, J.; Kiss, A; Pramudya, Y; Nguyen, L; Hirst, L

    2009-01-01

    The influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayer structure is significant and the effect of cholesterol on lipid sorting and phase separation in lipid-raft-forming model membrane systems has been well investigated by microscopy methods on giant vesicles. An important consideration however is the influence of fluorescence illumination on the phase state of these lipids and this effect must be carefully minimized. In this paper, we show that synchrotron x-ray scattering on solution lipid mixtures is an effective alternative technique for the identification and characterization of the l o (liquid ordered) and l d (liquid disordered) phases. The high intensity of synchrotron x rays allows the observation of up to 5 orders of diffraction from the l o phase, whereas only two are clearly visible when the l d phase alone is present. This data can be collected in approximately 1 min/sample, allowing rapid generation of phase data. In this paper, we measure the lamellar spacing in both the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases simultaneously, as a function of cholesterol concentration in two different ternary mixtures. We also observe evidence of a third gel-phaselike population at 10-12 mol % cholesterol and determine the thickness of the bilayer for this phase. Importantly we are able to look at phase coexistence in the membrane independent of photoeffects.

  17. Solution synchrotron x-ray diffraction reveals structural details of lipid domains in ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing; Kiss, Alexander; Pramudya, Yohanes H.; Nguyen, Lam T.; Hirst, Linda S.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayer structure is significant and the effect of cholesterol on lipid sorting and phase separation in lipid-raft-forming model membrane systems has been well investigated by microscopy methods on giant vesicles. An important consideration however is the influence of fluorescence illumination on the phase state of these lipids and this effect must be carefully minimized. In this paper, we show that synchrotron x-ray scattering on solution lipid mixtures is an effective alternative technique for the identification and characterization of the lo (liquid ordered) and ld (liquid disordered) phases. The high intensity of synchrotron x rays allows the observation of up to 5 orders of diffraction from the lo phase, whereas only two are clearly visible when the ld phase alone is present. This data can be collected in ˜1min/sample , allowing rapid generation of phase data. In this paper, we measure the lamellar spacing in both the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases simultaneously, as a function of cholesterol concentration in two different ternary mixtures. We also observe evidence of a third gel-phaselike population at 10-12mol% cholesterol and determine the thickness of the bilayer for this phase. Importantly we are able to look at phase coexistence in the membrane independent of photoeffects.

  18. Involvement of Raft Aggregates Enriched in Fas/CD95 Death-Inducing Signaling Complex in the Antileukemic Action of Edelfosine in Jurkat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gajate, Consuelo; Gonzalez-Camacho, Fernando; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that co-clustering of Fas/CD95 death receptor and lipid rafts plays a major role in death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings By a combination of genetic, biochemical, and ultrastructural approaches, we provide here compelling evidence for the involvement of lipid raft aggregates containing recruited Fas/CD95 death receptor, Fas-associated death domain-containing protein (FADD), and procaspase-8 in the induction of apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells by the antitumor drug edelfosine, the prototype compound of a promising family of synthetic antitumor lipids named as synthetic alkyl-lysophospholipid analogues. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that edelfosine induced the generation of the so-called death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), made up of Fas/CD95, FADD, and procaspase-8, in lipid rafts. Electron microscopy analyses allowed to visualize the formation of raft clusters and their co-localization with DISC components Fas/CD95, FADD, and procaspase-8 following edelfosine treatment of Jurkat cells. Silencing of Fas/CD95 by RNA interference, transfection with a FADD dominant-negative mutant that blocks Fas/CD95 signaling, and specific inhibition of caspase-8 prevented the apoptotic response triggered by edelfosine, hence demonstrating the functional role of DISC in drug-induced apoptosis. By using radioactive labeled edelfosine and a fluorescent analogue, we found that edelfosine accumulated in lipid rafts, forming edelfosine-rich membrane raft clusters in Jurkat leukemic T-cells. Disruption of these membrane raft domains abrogated drug uptake and drug-induced DISC assembly and apoptosis. Thus, edelfosine uptake into lipid rafts was critical for the onset of both co-aggregation of DISC in membrane rafts and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Conclusions/Significance This work shows the involvement of DISC clusters in lipid raft aggregates as a supramolecular and physical entity

  19. Fish oil increases raft size and membrane order of B cells accompanied by differential effects on function.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Melton, Mark; Williams, Justin; Wassall, Stephen R; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2012-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) targets lipid microdomain organization to suppress T-cell and macrophage function; however, little is known about this relationship with B cells, especially at the animal level. We previously established that a high FO dose diminished mouse B-cell lipid raft microdomain clustering induced by cross-linking GM1. To establish relevance, here we tested a FO dose modeling human intake on B-cell raft organization relative to a control. Biochemical analysis revealed more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporated into phosphatidylcholines than phosphatidylethanolamines of detergent-resistant membranes, consistent with supporting studies with model membranes. Subsequent imaging experiments demonstrated that FO increased raft size, GM1 expression, and membrane order upon cross-linking GM1 relative to no cross-linking. Comparative in vitro studies showed some biochemical differences from in vivo measurements but overall revealed that DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), increased membrane order. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that disrupting rafts with FO would suppress B-cell responses ex vivo. FO enhanced LPS-induced B-cell activation but suppressed B-cell stimulation of transgenic naive CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, our studies with B cells support an emerging model that FO increases raft size and membrane order accompanied by functional changes; furthermore, the results highlight differences in EPA and DHA bioactivity.

  20. Fish oil increases raft size and membrane order of B cells accompanied by differential effects on function[S

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Melton, Mark; Williams, Justin; Wassall, Stephen R.; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) targets lipid microdomain organization to suppress T-cell and macrophage function; however, little is known about this relationship with B cells, especially at the animal level. We previously established that a high FO dose diminished mouse B-cell lipid raft microdomain clustering induced by cross-linking GM1. To establish relevance, here we tested a FO dose modeling human intake on B-cell raft organization relative to a control. Biochemical analysis revealed more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporated into phosphatidylcholines than phosphatidylethanolamines of detergent-resistant membranes, consistent with supporting studies with model membranes. Subsequent imaging experiments demonstrated that FO increased raft size, GM1 expression, and membrane order upon cross-linking GM1 relative to no cross-linking. Comparative in vitro studies showed some biochemical differences from in vivo measurements but overall revealed that DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), increased membrane order. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that disrupting rafts with FO would suppress B-cell responses ex vivo. FO enhanced LPS-induced B-cell activation but suppressed B-cell stimulation of transgenic naive CD4+ T cells. Altogether, our studies with B cells support an emerging model that FO increases raft size and membrane order accompanied by functional changes; furthermore, the results highlight differences in EPA and DHA bioactivity. PMID:22315394

  1. Intracellular lipid flux and membrane microdomains as organizing principles in inflammatory cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Michael B; Parks, John S

    2011-08-15

    Lipid rafts and caveolae play a pivotal role in organization of signaling by TLR4 and several other immune receptors. Beyond the simple cataloguing of signaling events compartmentalized by these membrane microdomains, recent studies have revealed the surprisingly central importance of dynamic remodeling of membrane lipid domains to immune signaling. Simple interventions upon membrane lipid, such as changes in cholesterol loading or crosslinking of raft lipids, are sufficient to induce micrometer-scale reordering of membranes and their protein cargo with consequent signal transduction. In this review, using TLR signaling in the macrophage as a central focus, we discuss emerging evidence that environmental and genetic perturbations of membrane lipid regulate protein signaling, illustrate how homeostatic flow of cholesterol and other lipids through rafts regulates the innate immune response, and highlight recent attempts to harness these insights toward therapeutic development.

  2. Microbial lipids reveal carbon assimilation patterns on hydrothermal sulfide chimneys.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Eoghan P; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Pjevac, Petra; Goldenstein, Nadine I; Peplies, Jörg; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Bach, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-11-01

    Sulfide 'chimneys' characteristic of seafloor hydrothermal venting are diverse microbial habitats. ¹³C/¹²C ratios of microbial lipids have rarely been used to assess carbon assimilation pathways on these structures, despite complementing gene- and culture-based approaches. Here, we integrate analyses of the diversity of intact polar lipids (IPL) and their side-chain δ¹³C values (δ¹³ C(lipid)) with 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny to examine microbial carbon flow on active and inactive sulfide structures from the Manus Basin. Surficial crusts of active structures, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, yield bacterial δ¹³C(lipid) values higher than biomass δ¹³C (total organic carbon), implicating autotrophy via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our data also suggest δ¹³C(lipid) values vary on individual active structures without accompanying microbial diversity changes. Temperature and/or dissolved substrate effects - likely relating to variable advective-diffusive fluxes to chimney exteriors - may be responsible for differing ¹³C fractionation during assimilation. In an inactive structure, δ¹³C(lipid) values lower than biomass δ¹³C and a distinctive IPL and 16S rRNA gene diversity suggest a shift to a more diverse community and an alternate carbon assimilation pathway after venting ceases. We discuss here the potential of IPL and δ¹³C(lipid) analyses to elucidate carbon flow in hydrothermal structures when combined with other molecular tools.

  3. Lipidomics Analyses Reveal Temporal and Spatial Lipid Organization and Uncover Daily Oscillations in Intracellular Organelles.

    PubMed

    Aviram, Rona; Manella, Gal; Kopelman, Naama; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Zwighaft, Ziv; Elimelech, Meytar; Adamovich, Yaarit; Golik, Marina; Wang, Chunyan; Han, Xianlin; Asher, Gad

    2016-05-19

    Cells have evolved mechanisms to handle incompatible processes through temporal organization by circadian clocks and by spatial compartmentalization within organelles defined by lipid bilayers. Recent advances in lipidomics have led to identification of plentiful lipid species, yet our knowledge regarding their spatiotemporal organization is lagging behind. In this study, we quantitatively characterized the nuclear and mitochondrial lipidome in mouse liver throughout the day, upon different feeding regimens, and in clock-disrupted mice. Our analyses revealed potential connections between lipid species within and between lipid classes. Remarkably, we uncovered diurnal oscillations in lipid accumulation in the nucleus and mitochondria. These oscillations exhibited opposite phases and readily responded to feeding time. Furthermore, we found that the circadian clock coordinates the phase relation between the organelles. In summary, our study provides temporal and spatial depiction of lipid organization and reveals the presence and coordination of diurnal rhythmicity in intracellular organelles. PMID:27161994

  4. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P < 0.05). The lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of splenocyte PL was consistent with the lower mitogen-stimulated interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-1beta production by cells from obese rats (P < 0.05). Obese rats fed the FO diet had lower mitogen-stimulated Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine responses, but IL-2 production (concanavalin A; ConA) did not differ (P < 0.05). The HFO diet was more effective in lowering IL-1beta and increasing IL-10 production (ConA, P < 0.05). This lower IL-1beta production was accompanied by a lower proportion of major histocompatability complex class II-positive cells and a higher incorporation of DHA into lipid rafts. This is the first study to demonstrate impaired responses to mitogen stimulation and altered fatty acid incorporation into the membrane PL of JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  5. Detergent-Based Isolation of Yeast Membrane Rafts: An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Series for the Undergraduate Cell Biology or Biochemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhite, D. Grant; Wright, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in numerous cellular processes including cell signaling, endocytosis, and even viral infection. Isolation of these lipid rafts often involves detergent treatment of the membrane to dissolve nonraft components followed by separation of raft regions in a density gradient. We present here an inquiry-based lab series…

  6. Oxysterols: Influence on plasma membrane rafts microdomains and development of ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Filomenko, Rodolphe; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Bretillon, Lionel; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène

    2015-07-01

    Oxidation of cholesterol into oxysterols is a major way of elimination of cholesterol from the liver and extrahepatic tissues, including the brain and the retina. Oxysterols are involved in various cellular processes. Numerous links have been established between oxysterols and several disorders such as neurodegenerative pathologies, retinopathies and atherosclerosis. Different components of the lipid layer such as sphingolipids, sterols and proteins participate to membrane fluidity and forme lipid rafts microdomains. Few data are available on the links between lipids rafts and oxysterols. The purpose of this review is to suggest the potential role of lipid rafts microdomains in the development of retinopathies with special emphasis and opening perspectives of their interactions with oxysterols. Actually cholesterol oxidation mechanism may have deleterious effect on its ability to support rafts formation .This review suggest that the effect of oxysterols of lipid rafts would probably depend on the oxysterol molecule and cell type.

  7. The ant raft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlot, Nathan; Hu, David; Equabai, Solomon

    2009-11-01

    To survive floods, fire ants link their arms together to assemble a raft with their own bodies. Because ants are nearly as dense as water, this cooperative behavior requires that a portion of the ant colony must sacrifice itself by remaining underwater to support the colony's weight. Surprisingly, few ants drown during this process due to a striking metamorphosis of the raft: as we show using time-lapse photography, the raft morphs from a spherical to a pancake shape. This pancake configuration--a monolayer of floating ants supporting their dry counterparts--allows all ants to both breathe and remain united as a colony. Data is presented in the form of the dimensions and the rates of formation of the ant raft. We use the statics of small floating bodies to account for the equilibrium raft size as a function of the initial mass and density of the ants.

  8. Lights on: Dye dequenching reveals polymersome fusion with polymer, lipid and stealth lipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Collins, Aaron M.; Quintana, Hope A.; Montaño, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Julio A.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2015-12-13

    In this study, we develop a quantitative dye dequenching technique for the measurement of polymersome fusion, using it to characterize the salt mediated, mechanically-induced fusion of polymersomes with polymer, lipid, and so-called stealth lipid vesicles. While dye dequenching has been used to quantitatively explore liposome fusion in the past, this is the first use of dye dequenching to measure polymersome fusion of which we are aware. In addition to providing quantitative results, dye dequenching is ideal for detecting fusion in instances where DLS results would be ambiguous, such as low yield levels and size ranges outside the capabilities of DLS. The dye chosen for this study was a cyanine derivative, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR), which proved to provide excellent data on the extent of polymersome fusion. Using this technique, we have shown the limited fusion capabilities of polymersome/liposome heterofusion, notably DOPC vesicles fusing with polymersomes at half the efficiency of polymersome homofusion and DPPC vesicles showing virtually no fusion. In addition to these key heterofusion experiments, we determined the broad applicability of dye dequenching in measuring kinetic rates of polymersome fusion; and showed that even at elevated temperatures or over multiple weeks' time, no polymersome fusion occurred without agitation. Stealth liposomes formed from DPPC and PEO-functionalized lipid, however, fused with polymersomes and stealth liposomes with relatively high efficiency, lending support to our hypothesis that the response of the PEO corona to salt is a key factor in the fusion process. This last finding suggests that although the conjugation of PEO to lipids increases vesicle biocompatibility and enables their longer circulation times, it also renders the vesicles subject to destabilization under high salt and shear (e.g. in the circulatory system) that may lead to, in this case, fusion.

  9. Lights on: Dye dequenching reveals polymersome fusion with polymer, lipid and stealth lipid vesicles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henderson, Ian M.; Collins, Aaron M.; Quintana, Hope A.; Montaño, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Julio A.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2015-12-13

    In this study, we develop a quantitative dye dequenching technique for the measurement of polymersome fusion, using it to characterize the salt mediated, mechanically-induced fusion of polymersomes with polymer, lipid, and so-called stealth lipid vesicles. While dye dequenching has been used to quantitatively explore liposome fusion in the past, this is the first use of dye dequenching to measure polymersome fusion of which we are aware. In addition to providing quantitative results, dye dequenching is ideal for detecting fusion in instances where DLS results would be ambiguous, such as low yield levels and size ranges outside the capabilities of DLS.more » The dye chosen for this study was a cyanine derivative, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR), which proved to provide excellent data on the extent of polymersome fusion. Using this technique, we have shown the limited fusion capabilities of polymersome/liposome heterofusion, notably DOPC vesicles fusing with polymersomes at half the efficiency of polymersome homofusion and DPPC vesicles showing virtually no fusion. In addition to these key heterofusion experiments, we determined the broad applicability of dye dequenching in measuring kinetic rates of polymersome fusion; and showed that even at elevated temperatures or over multiple weeks' time, no polymersome fusion occurred without agitation. Stealth liposomes formed from DPPC and PEO-functionalized lipid, however, fused with polymersomes and stealth liposomes with relatively high efficiency, lending support to our hypothesis that the response of the PEO corona to salt is a key factor in the fusion process. This last finding suggests that although the conjugation of PEO to lipids increases vesicle biocompatibility and enables their longer circulation times, it also renders the vesicles subject to destabilization under high salt and shear (e.g. in the circulatory system) that may lead to, in this case, fusion.« less

  10. Self Righting Life Raft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

  11. Nanoparticles induce raft formation in phospholipid liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Liangfang; Granick, Steve

    2007-03-01

    Motivated by general interests in endocytosis, virus transfection and utilization of nanoparticles as cargo for drug delivery, this study focuses on the binding of nanoparticles to model lipid bilayers and the interactions between them. Exploring not only on the ensemble level, with the help of calorimetry, but also on the single-molecule level using fluorescence probes and single-molecule detection, we conclude the following. First, adsorbates capture and slave dynamically the lipids underneath, which results in lipid packing fluctuations, thereby producing rafts in the bilayers. Second, competition between neighboring particles causes further recomposition of heterogeneous lipid distribution. Bearing this insight in mind, we expect coupled motions of lipid and nanoparticles to occur, and confirm this with direct measurements. Going further, collective responses of lipid molecules cast light on the crucial role of support membranes in determining how membrane-based sensors respond to an external stimulus.

  12. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  13. Rafting in superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nabarro, F.R.N.

    1996-03-01

    The phenomenon of rafting in superalloys is described, with particular reference to modern superalloys with a high volume fraction of the particulate {gamma}{prime} phase. It is shown that in the elastic regime, the thermodynamic driving force for rafting is proportional to the applied stress, to the difference between the lattice parameters of the {gamma} matrix and the {gamma}{prime} particles, and to the difference of their elastic constants. A qualitative argument gives the sign of this driving force, which agrees with that determined by Pineau for a single isolated particle. Drawing on the work of Pollock and Argon and of Socrate and Parks, it is shown that after a plastic strain of the sample of order 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, the driving force is proportional to the product of the applied stress and the lattice misfit, in agreement with the results of the calculations of Socrate and Parks. The rate of rafting is controlled by the diffusion of alloying elements. Here, the tendency of large atoms to move from regions of high hydrostatic pressure to those of low may outweigh the influence of concentration gradients. The deformation of the sample directly produced by rafting is small, of order 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. The rafted structure is resistant to creep under low stresses at high temperatures. Under most experimental conditions at relatively high stresses, rafting accelerates creep; this effect may be less pronounced at the small strains acceptable under operational conditions.

  14. Rafting in Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabarro, Frank R. N.

    1996-03-01

    The phenomenon of rafting in superalloys is described, with particular reference to modern superalloys with a high volume fraction of the particulate γ’ phase. It is shown that in the elastic regime, the thermodynamic driving force for rafting is proportional to the applied stress, to the difference between the lattice parameters of the γ matrix and the γ’ particles, and to the difference of their elastic constants. A qualitative argument gives the sign of this driving force, which agrees with that determined by Pineau for a single isolated particle. Drawing on the work of Pollock and Argon and of Socrate and Parks, it is shown that after a plastic strain of the sample of order 2 × 10-4, the driving force is proportional to the product of the applied stress and the lattice misfit, in agreement with the results of the calculations of Socrate and Parks. The rate of rafting is controlled by the diffusion of alloying elements. Here, the tendency of large atoms to move from regions of high hydrostatic pressure to those of low may outweigh the influence of concentration gradients. The deformation of the sample directly produced by rafting is small, of order 4.5 × 10-4. The rafted structure is resistant to creep under low stresses at high temperatures. Under most experimental conditions at relatively high stresses, rafting accelerates creep; this effect may be less pronounced at the small strains acceptable under operational conditions.

  15. NMR spectroscopy reveals the presence and association of lipids and keratin in adhesive gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Stark, Alyssa Y; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-04-22

    Lipid and protein aggregates are one of the fundamental materials of biological systems. Examples include cell membranes, insect cuticle, vertebrate epidermis, feathers, hair and adhesive structures known as 'setae' on gecko toes. Until recently gecko setae were assumed to be composed entirely of keratin, but analysis of footprints left behind by geckos walking on surfaces revealed that setae include various kinds of lipids. However, the arrangement and molecular-level behavior of lipids and keratin in the setae is still not known. In the present study we demonstrate, for the first time, the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques to confirm the presence of lipids and investigate their association with keratin in 'pristine' sheds, or natural molts of the adhesive toe pad and non-adhesive regions of the skin. Analysis was also carried on the sheds after they were 'delipidized' to remove surface lipids. Our results show a distribution of similar lipids in both the skin and toe shed but with different dynamics at a molecular level. The present study can help us understand the gecko system both biologically and for design of synthetic adhesives, but the findings may be relevant to the characteristics of lipid-protein interactions in other biological systems.

  16. Cholesterol overload induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells through the up regulation of flotillin-2 in the lipid raft and the activation of BDNF/Trkb signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Ning; Lin, Ching-I; Liao, Hsiang; Liu, Chin-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hua; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-07-22

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. It has been indicated that the cholesterol concentration in the brain of AD patients is higher than that in normal people. In this study, we investigated the effects of cholesterol concentrations, 0, as the control, 3.125, 12.5, and 25μM, on cholesterol metabolism, neuron survival, AD-related protein expressions, and cell morphology and apoptosis using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expressions of cholesterol hydroxylase (Cyp46), flotillin-2 (a marker of lipid raft content), and truncated tyrosine kinase B (TrkBtc) increased, while expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and full-length TrkB (TrkBfl) decreased as the concentration of cholesterol loading increased. Down-regulation of the PI3K-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β cascade and cell apoptosis were also observed at higher concentrations of cholesterol, along with elevated levels of β-amyloid (Aβ), β-secretase (BACE), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, we found that cholesterol overload in neuronal cells imbalanced the cholesterol homeostasis and increased the protein expressions causing cell apoptosis, which illustrates the neurodegenerative pathology of abnormally elevated cholesterol concentrations found in AD patients.

  17. Properties of HIV-1 associated cholesterol in addition to raft formation are important for virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David; Jones, Kate L; Smyth, Redmond P; Pereira, Cândida F; Bittman, Robert; Jaworowski, Anthony; Mak, Johnson

    2015-12-01

    The overall HIV-1 membrane lipid contents resemble lipid rafts, and we have previously demonstrated that raft-promoting properties of virus-associated cholesterol (with modifications in either the 3β-OH group or AB rings) are important for HIV-1 infectivity. As cholesterol is present in both rafts and non-rafts domains of HIV-1 membrane, we question whether the interpretation of rafts property of virus-associated cholesterol being an absolute requirement for HIV-1 function is too simplistic. The carbon side chain of cholesterol is the third component of cholesterol that can affect the fluidity of membrane depending on its context within the lipid membrane bilayers. In this work, we have used synthetic cholesterol analogues that have different lengths of carbon side chain for our investigation. In contrast to our previous report, we have found that cholesterol side chain analogues that lack in vitro defined raft promoting-property is able to support HIV-1 replication. More specifically, cholesterol analogues with side chains of intermediate length have greater capacity to support HIV-1 infection, suggesting HIV-1 is able to maintain function using cholesterol variants that promote a range of non-rafts- to rafts-properties. Our data demonstrate cholesterol properties other than raft-promoting function also contribute to the infectivity of HIV-1.

  18. With or without rafts? Alternative views on cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Sevcsik, Eva; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2016-02-01

    The fundamental mechanisms of protein and lipid organization at the plasma membrane have continued to engage researchers for decades. Among proposed models, one idea has been particularly successful which assumes that sterol-dependent nanoscopic phases of different lipid chain order compartmentalize proteins, thereby modulating protein functionality. This model of membrane rafts has sustainably sparked the fields of membrane biophysics and biology, and shifted membrane lipids into the spotlight of research; by now, rafts have become an integral part of our terminology to describe a variety of cell biological processes. But is the evidence clear enough to continue supporting a theoretical concept which has resisted direct proof by observation for nearly twenty years? In this essay, we revisit findings that gave rise to and substantiated the raft hypothesis, discuss its impact on recent studies, and present alternative mechanisms to account for plasma membrane heterogeneity.

  19. Inflammation-related alterations of lipids after spinal cord injury revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamosaityte, Sandra; Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Koch, Maria; Later, Robert; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers several lipid alterations in nervous tissue. It is characterized by extensive demyelination and the inflammatory response leads to accumulation of activated microglia/macrophages, which often transform into foam cells by accumulation of lipid droplets after engulfment of the damaged myelin sheaths. Using an experimental rat model, Raman microspectroscopy was applied to retrieve the modifications of the lipid distribution following SCI. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and endogenous two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) microscopies were used for the detection of lipid-laden inflammatory cells. The Raman mapping of CH2 deformation mode intensity at 1440 cm-1 retrieved the lipid-depleted injury core. Preserved white matter and inflammatory regions with myelin fragmentation and foam cells were localized by specifically addressing the distribution of esterified lipids, i.e., by mapping the intensity of the carbonyl Raman band at 1743 cm-1, and were in agreement with CARS/TPEF microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the inflammatory regions are notably rich in saturated fatty acids. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy enabled to specifically detect inflammation after SCI and myelin degradation products.

  20. The Lipid-Droplet Proteome Reveals that Droplets Are a Protein-Storage Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Cermelli, Silvia; Guo, Yi; Gross, Steven P.; Welte, Michael

    2006-09-19

    Lipid droplets are ubiquitous organelles that are among the basic building blocks of eukaryotic cells. Despite central roles for cholesterol homeostasis and lipid metabolism, their function and protein composition are poorly understood. Results: We purified lipid droplets from Drosophila embryos and analyzed the associated proteins by capillary LC-MS-MS. Important functional groups include enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, signaling molecules, and proteins related to membrane trafficking. Unexpectedly, histones H2A, H2Av, and H2B were present. Using biochemistry, genetics, real-time imaging, and cell biology, we confirm that roughly 50% of certain embryonic histones are physically attached to lipid droplets, a localization conserved in other fly species. Histone association with droplets starts during oogenesis and is prominent in early embryos, but it is undetectable in later stages or in cultured cells. Histones on droplets are not irreversibly trapped; quantitation of droplet histone levels and transplantation experiments suggest that histones are transferred from droplets to nuclei as development proceeds. When this maternal store of histones is unavailable because lipid droplets are mislocalized, zygotic histone production starts prematurely. Conclusions: Because we uncover a striking proteomic similarity of Drosophila droplets to mammalian lipid droplets, Drosophila likely provides a good model for understanding droplet function in general. Our analysis also reveals a new function for these organelles; the massive nature of histone association with droplets and its developmental time-course suggest that droplets sequester maternally provided proteins until they are needed. We propose that lipid droplets can serve as transient storage depots for proteins that lack appropriate binding partners in the cell. Such sequestration may provide a general cellular strategy for handling excess proteins.

  1. Energetic modeling and single-molecule verification of dynamic regulation on receptor protein diffusion by actin corrals and lipid raft domains receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien Yu; Huang, Jung Y.; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2015-03-01

    To faithfully estimate a signal that varies in both space and time, the optimization strategy used by a live cell is to organize a collection of distributed and mobile receptors into a mobile active clustering. However, living eukaryotic cells are highly heterogeneous and stochastically dynamic. It is therefore important to develop an energetic model based on fundamental laws to verify that the underlying processes are energetically favorable. We developed an energetic model based on the generalized Langevin equation and the Cahn-Hilliard equation to simulate the diffusive behaviors of receptor proteins in the plasma membrane with a hierarchical structure of actin corrals, lipid domains, and receptor proteins. Single-molecule tracking data of EGFR acquired on live HeLa cells agrees with the simulation results. We discovered that after ligand binding, EGFR molecules move into lipid nanodomains. The transition rates between different diffusion states of liganded EGFR molecules are regulated by the lipid domains. Our method captures both the sensitivity of single-molecule processes, statistic accuracy of data analysis, and the hierarchical structure of plasma membranes.

  2. Disrupting membrane raft domains by alkylphospholipids.

    PubMed

    Gomide, A B; Thomé, C H; dos Santos, G A; Ferreira, G A; Faça, V M; Rego, E M; Greene, L J; Stabeli, R G; Ciancaglini, P; Itri, R

    2013-05-01

    Using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy we study the influence of the alkylphospholipid, ALP, 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate, ODPC, in giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs, composed of DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), brain sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). The results show that adding 100μM ODPC (below CMC) to the outer solution of GUVs promotes DOPC membrane disruption over a period of 1h of continuous observation. On the other hand, the presence of SM and Chol in homogeneous fluid lipid bilayers protects the membrane from disruption. Interestingly, by adding 100μM ODPC to GUVs containing DOPC:SM:Chol (1:1:1), which display liquid ordered (Lo)-liquid disordered (Ld) phase coexistence, the domains rapidly disappear in less than 1min of ODPC contact with the membrane. The lipids are subsequently redistributed to liquid domains within a time course of 14-18min, reflecting that the homogenous phase was not thermodynamically stable, followed by rupture of the GUVs. A similar mechanism of action is also observed for perifosine, although to a larger extent. Therefore, the initial stage of lipid raft disruption by both ODPC and perifosine, and maybe other ALPS, by promoting lipid mixing, may be correlated with their toxicity upon neoplastic cells, since selective (dis)association of essential proteins within lipid raft microdomains must take place in the plasma membrane. PMID:23376656

  3. Differential Association of the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) Family of Adaptor Proteins with the Raft-and the Non-Raft Brush Border Membrane Fractions of NHE3

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Ayesha; Luo, Min; Yu, Qin; Riederer, Brigitte; Xia, Weiliang; Chen, Mingmin; Lissner, Simone; Gessner, Johannes E.; Donowitz, Mark; Yun, C. Chris; deJonge, Hugo; Lamprecht, Georg; Seidler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Trafficking, brush border membrane (BBM) retention, and signal-specific regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 is regulated by the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of PDZ-adaptor proteins, which enable the formation of multiprotein complexes. It is unclear, however, what determines signal specificity of these NHERFs. Thus, we studied the association of NHE3, NHERF1 (EBP50), NHERF2 (E3KARP), and NHERF3 (PDZK1) with lipid rafts in murine small intestinal BBM. Methods Detergent resistant membranes (“lipid rafts”) were isolated by floatation of Triton X-incubated small intestinal BBM from a variety of knockout mouse strains in an Optiprep step gradient. Acid-activated NHE3 activity was measured fluorometrically in BCECF-loaded microdissected villi, or by assessment of CO2/HCO3− mediated increase in fluid absorption in perfused jejunal loops of anethetized mice. Results NHE3 was found to partially associate with lipid rafts in the native BBM, and NHE3 raft association had an impact on NHE3 transport activity and regulation in vivo. NHERF1, 2 and 3 were differentially distributed to rafts and non-rafts, with NHERF2 being most raft-associated and NHERF3 entirely non-raft associated. NHERF2 expression enhanced the localization of NHE3 to membrane rafts. The use of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, which have altered membrane lipid as well as lipid raft composition, allowed us to test the validity of the lipid raft concept in vivo. Conclusions The differential association of the NHERFs with the raft-associated and the non-raft fraction of NHE3 in the brush border membrane is one component of the differential and signal-specific NHE3 regulation by the different NHERFs. PMID:24297041

  4. Raft-Like Membrane Domains in Pathogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Farnoud, Amir M.; Toledo, Alvaro M.; Konopka, James B.; Del Poeta, Maurizio; London, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is thought to be compartmentalized by the presence of lipid-protein microdomains. In eukaryotic cells, microdomains composed of sterols and sphingolipids packed in a liquid-ordered state, commonly known as lipid rafts, are believed to exist. While less studied in bacterial cells, reports on the presence of sterol or protein-mediated microdomains in bacterial cell membranes are also appearing with increasing frequency. Recent efforts have been focused on addressing the biophysical and biochemical properties of lipid rafts. However, most studies have been focused on synthetic membranes, mammalian cells, and/or model, non-pathogenic microorganisms. Much less is known about microdomains in the plasma membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of lipid rafts in pathogenic fungi and the developing field of microdomains in pathogenic bacteria. The current literature on the structure and function and of microdomains is reviewed and the potential role of microdomains in growth, pathogenesis, and drug resistance of pathogens are discussed. Better insight into the structure and function of membrane microdomains in pathogenic microorganisms might lead to a better understanding of the process of pathogenesis and development of raft-mediated approaches for new methods of therapy. PMID:26015285

  5. Hydrodynamic Propulsion of Liposomes Electrostatically Attracted to a Lipid Membrane Reveals Size-Dependent Conformational Changes.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Block, Stephan; Höök, Fredrik; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-09-27

    The efficiency of lipid nanoparticle uptake across cellular membranes is strongly dependent on the very first interaction step. Detailed understanding of this step is in part hampered by the large heterogeneity in the physicochemical properties of lipid nanoparticles, such as liposomes, making conventional ensemble-averaging methods too blunt to address details of this complex process. Here, we contribute a means to explore whether individual liposomes become deformed upon binding to fluid cell-membrane mimics. This was accomplished by using hydrodynamic forces to control the propulsion of nanoscale liposomes electrostatically attracted to a supported lipid bilayer. In this way, the size of individual liposomes could be determined by simultaneously measuring both their individual drift velocity and diffusivity, revealing that for a radius of ∼45 nm, a close agreement with dynamic light scattering data was observed, while larger liposomes (radius ∼75 nm) displayed a significant deformation unless composed of a gel-phase lipid. The relevance of being able to extract this type of information is discussed in the context of membrane fusion and cellular uptake. PMID:27603118

  6. Hydrodynamic Propulsion of Liposomes Electrostatically Attracted to a Lipid Membrane Reveals Size-Dependent Conformational Changes.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Block, Stephan; Höök, Fredrik; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-09-27

    The efficiency of lipid nanoparticle uptake across cellular membranes is strongly dependent on the very first interaction step. Detailed understanding of this step is in part hampered by the large heterogeneity in the physicochemical properties of lipid nanoparticles, such as liposomes, making conventional ensemble-averaging methods too blunt to address details of this complex process. Here, we contribute a means to explore whether individual liposomes become deformed upon binding to fluid cell-membrane mimics. This was accomplished by using hydrodynamic forces to control the propulsion of nanoscale liposomes electrostatically attracted to a supported lipid bilayer. In this way, the size of individual liposomes could be determined by simultaneously measuring both their individual drift velocity and diffusivity, revealing that for a radius of ∼45 nm, a close agreement with dynamic light scattering data was observed, while larger liposomes (radius ∼75 nm) displayed a significant deformation unless composed of a gel-phase lipid. The relevance of being able to extract this type of information is discussed in the context of membrane fusion and cellular uptake.

  7. Myelin, DIGs, and membrane rafts in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dupree, Jeffrey L; Pomicter, Anthony D

    2010-04-01

    Over the past 40 years our understanding of the organization of cell membranes has changed dramatically. Membranes are no longer viewed as a homogenous sea of phospholipids studded with randomly positioned islands of proteins. Our current view of the membrane involves the formation of small lipid clusters, comprised mainly of cholesterol and sphingolipids, known as membrane rafts. These lipid clusters apparently include and exclude specific proteins leading to the hypothesis that these domains (1) regulate cellular polarity and compartmentalization through trafficking and sorting, (2) provide platforms for cellular signaling and adhesion, and (3) function as cellular gate keepers. Tremendous controversy surrounds the concept of membrane rafts primarily because these small, highly dynamic entities are too small to be observed with traditional microscopic methods and the most utilized approach for raft analysis relies on poorly quantified, inconsistent biochemical extractions. New analytical approaches are being developed and applied to the study of membrane rafts and these techniques provide great promise for furthering our understanding of these enigmatic domains. In this review we will provide a brief summary of the current understanding of membrane rafts, utilizing the CNS myelin literature for illustrative purposes, and present caveats that should be considered when studying these domains. PMID:19379822

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Regulation of Gene Expression for Lipid Catabolism in Young Broilers by Butyrate Glycerides

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fugui; Yu, Hai; Lepp, Dion; Shi, Xuejiang; Yang, Xiaojian; Hu, Jielun; Leeson, Steve; Yang, Chengbo; Nie, Shaoping; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    indicated that dietary BG intervention induced 79 and 205 characterized DEGs in the jejunum and liver, respectively. In addition, 255 and 165 TSEGs were detected in the liver and jejunum of BG-fed group, while 162 and 211 TSEGs genes were observed in the liver and jejunum of BD-fed birds, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis with both IPA and DAVID-BR further revealed a significant enrichment of DEGs and TSEGs in the biological processes for reducing the synthesis, storage, transportation and secretion of lipids in the jejunum, while those in the liver were for enhancing the oxidation of ingested lipids and fatty acids. In particular, transcriptional regulators of THRSP and EGR-1 as well as several DEGs involved in the PPAR-α signaling pathway were significantly induced by dietary BG intervention for lipid catabolism. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that BG reduces body fat deposition via regulation of gene expression, which is involved in the biological events relating to the reduction of synthesis, storage, transportation and secretion, and improvement of oxidation of lipids and fatty acids. PMID:27508934

  9. Genetic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Impaired in Plastid Lipid Import Reveals a Role of Membrane Lipids in Chloroplast Division

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.

    2011-03-01

    The biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes in plants relies largely on lipid import from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and this lipid transport process is mediated by TGD proteins in Arabidopsis. Such a dependency of chloroplast biogenesis on ER-to-plastid lipid transport was recently exemplified by analyzing double mutants between tgd1-1 or tgd4-3 and fad6 mutants. The fad6 mutants are defective in the desaturation of membrane lipids in chloroplasts and therefore dependent on import of polyunsaturated lipid precursors from the ER for constructing a competent thylakoid membrane system. In support of a critical role of TGD proteins in ER-to-plastid lipid trafficking, we showed that the introduction of the tgd mutations into fad6 mutant backgrounds led to drastic reductions in relative amounts of thylakoid lipids. Moreover, the tgd1-1 fad6 and tgd4-3 fad6 double mutants were deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids, and severely compromised in the biogenesis of photosynthetic membrane systems. Here we report that these double mutants are severely impaired in chloroplast division. The possible role of membrane lipids in chloroplast division is discussed.

  10. A mechanism of raft formation on both plasma membrane layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornbundit, Kan; Modchang, Charin; Triampo, Wannapong; Triampo, Darapond; Nuttavut, Narin

    2013-10-01

    A double-layered membrane model is proposed to explain raft formation and induction on extracellular (outer) and cytoplasmic (inner) leaflets of plasma membranes in a situation where only the outer layer has a tendency to phase-separate. In the model, lipid exchange with the surrounding medium is allowed on both layers, but lipid exchange between layers is not allowed. Simulations display domain stabilization on both layers. The effect of the lipid recycling frequencies on stationary domain sizes is also investigated. It is found that stationary domain sizes decrease when lipid recycling frequencies are stronger. Linear stability analysis is used to verify the results.

  11. Differential proteomic analysis of STAT6 knockout mice reveals new regulatory function in liver lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Iff, Joël; Wang, Wei; Sajic, Tatjana; Oudry, Nathalie; Gueneau, Estelle; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Szanto, Ildiko

    2009-10-01

    Increased inflammatory signaling is a key feature of metabolic disorders. In this context, the role of increased pro-inflammatory signals has been extensively studied. By contrast, no efforts have been dedicated to study the contrasting scenario: the attenuation of anti-inflammatory signals and their role in metabolic homeostasis. IL-4 and IL-13 are anti-inflammatory cytokines signaling through the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6). Our study was aimed at evaluating the lack of STAT6 signaling on liver homeostasis. To this end we analyzed the liver proteome of wild type and STAT6 knock-out mice using 2D nanoscale LC-MS/MS with iTRAQ labeling technique. The coordinated changes in proteins identified by this quantitative proteome analysis indicated disturbed lipid homeostasis and a state of hepatocellular stress. Most significantly, the expression of the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) was increased in the knock-out mice. In line with the elevated FABP1 expression we found latent liver lipid accumulation in the STAT6-deficient mice which was further aggravated when mice were challenged by a high fat diet. In conclusion, our study revealed a so far uncharacterized role for STAT6 in regulating liver lipid homeostasis and demonstrates the importance of anti-inflammatory signaling in the defense against the development of liver steatosis.

  12. Structure and dynamics of nano-sized raft-like domains on the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Fernando E.; Pantano, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell membranes are constitutively composed of thousands of different lipidic species, whose specific organization leads to functional heterogeneities. In particular, sphingolipids, cholesterol and some proteins associate among them to form stable nanoscale domains involved in recognition, signaling, membrane trafficking, etc. Atomic-detail information in the nanometer/second scale is still elusive to experimental techniques. In this context, molecular simulations on membrane systems have provided useful insights contributing to bridge this gap. Here we present the results of a series of simulations of biomembranes representing non-raft and raft-like nano-sized domains in order to analyze the particular structural and dynamical properties of these domains. Our results indicate that the smallest (5 nm) raft domains are able to preserve their distinctive structural and dynamical features, such as an increased thickness, higher ordering, lower lateral diffusion, and specific lipid-ion interactions. The insertion of a transmembrane protein helix into non-raft, extended raft-like, and raft-like nanodomain environments result in markedly different protein orientations, highlighting the interplay between the lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions.

  13. Lipids and Membrane Lateral Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically) popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts). Today, a PubMed search using the key word “lipid rafts” returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, “ceramide” returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews), and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as “lipid raft-dependent.” However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells has been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasizes multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompass their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes. PMID:21423393

  14. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barbaglia, Allison M.; Tamot, Banita; Greve, Veronica; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2016-04-28

    Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho-) lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and thatmore » they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012). Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I) a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II) a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III) and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein), a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while all

  15. Phloem Proteomics Reveals New Lipid-Binding Proteins with a Putative Role in Lipid-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barbaglia, Allison M.; Tamot, Banita; Greve, Veronica; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho-) lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012). Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I) a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II) a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III) and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein), a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while all three

  16. Cryptococcus neoformans cryoultramicrotomy and vesicle fractionation reveals an intimate association between membrane lipids and glucuronxylomannan

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Débora L.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Miranda, Kildare; Frases, Susana; Faull, Kym F.; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic fungus. The cryptococcal capsule is composed of polysaccharides and is necessary for virulence. It has been previously reported that glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular component, is synthesized in cytoplasmic compartments and transported to the extracellular space in vesicles, but knowledge on the organelles involved in polysaccharide synthesis and traffic is extremely limited. In this paper we report the GXM distribution in C. neoformans cells sectioned by cryoultramicrotomy and visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polysaccharide immunogold staining. Cryosections of fungal cells showed high preservation of intracellular organelles and cell wall structure. Incubation of cryosections with an antibody to GXM revealed that cytoplasmic structures associated to vesicular compartments and reticular membranes are in close proximity to the polysaccharide. GXM was generally found in association with the membrane of intracellular compartments and within different layers of the cell wall. Analysis of extracellular fractions from cryptococcal supernatants by transmission electron microscopy in combination with serologic, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods revealed fractions containing GXM and lipids. These results indicate an intimate association of GXM and lipids in both intracellular and extracellular spaces consistent with polysaccharide synthesis and transport in membrane-associated structures. PMID:19747978

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans cryoultramicrotomy and vesicle fractionation reveals an intimate association between membrane lipids and glucuronoxylomannan.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Débora L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Miranda, Kildare; Frases, Susana; Faull, Kym F; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2009-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic fungus. The cryptococcal capsule is composed of polysaccharides and is necessary for virulence. It has been previously reported that glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular component, is synthesized in cytoplasmic compartments and transported to the extracellular space in vesicles, but knowledge on the organelles involved in polysaccharide synthesis and traffic is extremely limited. In this paper we report the GXM distribution in C. neoformans cells sectioned by cryoultramicrotomy and visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polysaccharide immunogold staining. Cryosections of fungal cells showed high preservation of intracellular organelles and cell wall structure. Incubation of cryosections with an antibody to GXM revealed that cytoplasmic structures associated to vesicular compartments and reticular membranes are in close proximity to the polysaccharide. GXM was generally found in association with the membrane of intracellular compartments and within different layers of the cell wall. Analysis of extracellular fractions from cryptococcal supernatants by transmission electron microscopy in combination with serologic, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods revealed fractions containing GXM and lipids. These results indicate an intimate association of GXM and lipids in both intracellular and extracellular spaces consistent with polysaccharide synthesis and transport in membrane-associated structures.

  18. Interaction of chiral rafts in self-assembled colloidal membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Sheng; Hagan, Michael F.; Pelcovits, Robert A.

    2016-03-01

    Colloidal membranes are monolayer assemblies of rodlike particles that capture the long-wavelength properties of lipid bilayer membranes on the colloidal scale. Recent experiments on colloidal membranes formed by chiral rodlike viruses showed that introducing a second species of virus with different length and opposite chirality leads to the formation of rafts—micron-sized domains of one virus species floating in a background of the other viruses [Sharma et al., Nature (London) 513, 77 (2014), 10.1038/nature13694]. In this article we study the interaction of such rafts using liquid crystal elasticity theory. By numerically minimizing the director elastic free energy, we predict the tilt angle profile for both a single raft and two rafts in a background membrane, and the interaction between two rafts as a function of their separation. We find that the chiral penetration depth in the background membrane sets the scale for the range of the interaction. We compare our results with the experimental data and find good agreement for the strength and range of the interaction. Unlike the experiments, however, we do not observe a complete collapse of the data when rescaled by the tilt angle at the raft edge.

  19. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  20. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-06-15

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  1. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  2. Carbon sources in the Beaufort Sea revealed by molecular lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, I.; Fiorini, S.; Gasser, B.; Martín, J.; Miquel, J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular lipid biomarkers (hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and fatty acids) and compound specific isotope analysis of suspended particulate organic matter (SPM) and surface sediments of the Mackenzie Shelf and slope (Southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean), were studied in summer 2009. The concentrations of the molecular lipid markers, characteristic of known organic matter sources, were grouped and used as proxies to evaluate the relative importance of fresh algal, detrital algal, fossil, C3 terrestrial plants, bacterial and zooplankton material in the sedimentary organic matter (OM). Fossil and detrital algal contributions were the major fractions of the freshwater SPM from the Mackenzie River with ~34% each of the total molecular biomarkers. Fresh algal, C3 terrestrial, bacterial and zooplanktonic components represented much lower percentages, 17, 10, 4 and < 1%, respectively. In marine SPM from the Mackenzie slope, the major contributions were fresh and detrital algal components (> 80%) with a minor contribution of fossil and C3 terrestrial biomarkers. Characterization of the sediments revealed a major sink of refractory algal material mixed with some fresh algal material, fossil hydrocarbons and a small input of C3 terrestrial sources. In particular, the sediments from the shelf and at the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf presented the highest contribution of detrital algal material (60-75%) whereas those from the slope contained the highest proportion of fossil (40%) and C3 terrestrial plant material (10%). Overall, considering that the detrital algal material is marine derived, autochthonous sources contributed more than allochthonous sources to the OM lipid pool. Using the ratio of an allochthonous biomarker (normalized to total organic carbon, TOC) found in the sediments to those measured at the river mouth water, we estimated that the fraction of terrestrial material preserved in the sediments accounted for 30-40% of the total carbon in the inner shelf sediments

  3. Methyl Substitution of a Rexinoid Agonist Improves Potency and Reveals Site of Lipid Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    (2E,4E,6Z,8E)-8-(3′,4′-Dihydro-1′(2′H)-naphthalen-1′-ylidene)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid, 9cUAB30, is a selective rexinoid that displays substantial chemopreventive capacity with little toxicity. 4-Methyl-UAB30, an analogue of 9cUAB30, is a potent RXR agonist but caused increased lipid biosynthesis unlike 9cUAB30. To evaluate how methyl substitution influenced potency and lipid biosynthesis, we synthesized four 9cUAB30 homologues with methyl substitutions at the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-position of the tetralone ring. The syntheses and biological evaluations of these new analogues are reported here along with the X-ray crystal structures of each homologue bound to the ligand binding domain of hRXRα. We demonstrate that each homologue of 9cUAB30 is a more potent agonist, but only the 7-methyl-9cUAB30 caused severe hyperlipidemia in rats. On the basis of the X-ray crystal structures of these new rexinoids and bexarotene (Targretin) bound to hRXRα-LBD, we reveal that each rexinoid, which induced hyperlipidemia, had methyl groups that interacted with helix 7 residues of the LBD. PMID:24801499

  4. Study of Raft Domains in Model Membrane of DPPC/PE/Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2010-10-01

    Raft domains in bilayer membrane are thought to play an important role in many cell functions such as cell signaling or trans-membrane protein activation. Here we use a model membrane consisting of DPPC/PE/cholesterol to examine the structure of membrane rafts and phase interactions. In particular we are interested in lipids containing the highly polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA. We use both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy to obtain information on the structural properties of raft regions and track cholesterol. As expected, we find phase separation of raft regions between saturated and unsaturated lipids. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains change with varying cholesterol concentration possibly due to overpacking. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in bilayer membrane leading towards a better knowledge of cell membranes.

  5. Contribution of PIP-5 kinase I{alpha} to raft-based Fc{gamma}RIIA signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanska, Ewelina; Korzeniowski, Marek; Raynal, Patrick; Sobota, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2009-04-01

    Receptor Fc{gamma}IIA (Fc{gamma}RIIA) associates with plasma membrane rafts upon activation to trigger signaling cascades leading to actin polymerization. We examined whether compartmentalization of PI(4,5)P{sub 2} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2}-synthesizing PIP5-kinase I{alpha} to rafts contributes to Fc{gamma}RIIA signaling. A fraction of PIP5-kinase I{alpha} was detected in raft-originating detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) isolated from U937 monocytes and other cells. The DRM of U937 monocytes contained also a major fraction of PI(4,5)P{sub 2}. PIP5-kinase I{alpha} bound PI(4,5)P{sub 2}, and depletion of the lipid displaced PIP5-kinase I{alpha} from the DRM. Activation of Fc{gamma}RIIA in BHK transfectants led to recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and enrichment of DRM in PI(4,5)P{sub 2}. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that in resting cells the kinase was associated with the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic vesicles and the nucleus. After Fc{gamma}RIIA activation, PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2} co-localized transiently with the activated receptor at distinct cellular locations. Immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed that PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2} were present at the edges of electron-dense assemblies containing activated Fc{gamma}RIIA in their core. The data suggest that activation of Fc{gamma}RIIA leads to membrane rafts coalescing into signaling platforms containing PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2}.

  6. Capillary rafts and their destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protiere, Suzie; Abkarian, Manouk; Aristoff, Jeffrey; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. The study of such particle-laden interfaces is therefore of practical as well as fundamental importance. Here we report experiments on the self-assembly of spherical particles into capillary rafts at an oil-water interface and elucidate how such rafts sink. We characterize different types of sinking behavior and show that it is possible to obtain "armored droplets," whereby the sinking oil is encapsulated within a shell of particles.

  7. A superconducting raft in the Fermi sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sajida; Latt, Kyaw-Zin; Chang, Hao; Hassanien, Abdou; Hla, Saw-Wai

    2014-03-01

    We report a new organization of nanoscale molecular clusters that exhibit superconducting properties on Ag(111) below 8K substrate temperature. These small two dimensional crystallites are composed of a few molecular chains formed by polymerized BETS (donors) and GaCl4 (acceptor). In STM images, these molecular clusters appear as ordered parallel chains resembling the `rafts'. Using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) manipulation, small molecular clusters having a few donor-acceptor chains are laterally manipulated to bare surface area. From the tip height signals, the dynamics of molecular clusters during their movements across the surface has been unveiled. Repeated manipulation experiments reveal that the rafts move only along [211] surface directions with single atomic site hops. Then by means of tunneling spectroscopy, interaction of two dimensional surface state electrons with these two dimensional clusters are investigated at the molecule-metal boundary regions. The results provide how electrons interact with the superconducting clusters in addition to the electronic and mechanical properties of these superconducting rafts. This work is financially supported by the US DOE, BES grant number: DE-FG02-02ER46012.

  8. The tension raft jacket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, P.; Nygaard, C.; Greiner, W.; Johnson, B.; Datta, B.; Dove, P.G.S.; Souza, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Concept level engineering has been performed for a promising new deepwater platform design. The tension raft jacket (TRJ) employs a fairly conventional fixed platform-type jacket and deck supported by a deeply submerged buoyant concrete raft. The raft is founded to the sea bottom by vertically tensioned tendons similar to conventional TLPs. Tensioned drilling and production risers are used. A TRJ design is discussed for a medium-size deck payload and a water depth of about 1,500 feet. Work to date includes preliminary sizing of the deck, jacket, raft and tendons; global response analysis; development of potential fabrication and installation methods; and development of preliminary schedules and costs. The TRJ concept is expected to compete with compliant tower platforms in shallow water depths and with large drilling TLPs in deep water. The primary benefits of the TRJ concept are simplicity of design, constructability with existing Gulf of Mexico (GOM) infrastructure, lower capital costs, and shorter development schedules.

  9. Roles of lipid metabolism in keloid development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenyu; Ogawa, Rei

    2013-05-01

    Keloids are common cutaneous pathological scars that are characterised by the histological accumulation of fibroblasts, collagen fibres, and clinically significant invasive growth. Although increasing lines of research on keloids have revealed genetic and environmental factors that contribute to their formation, the etiology of these scars remains unclear. Several studies have suggested the involvement of lipid metabolism, from a nutritional point of view. However, the role that lipid metabolism plays in the pathogenesis and progression of keloids has not previously been reviewed. The progress that has been made in understanding the roles of the pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in inflammation, and how they relate to the formation and progression of keloids, is also outlined. In particular, the possible relationships between mechanotransduction and lipid metabolites in keloids are explored. Mechanotransduction is the process by which physical forces are converted into biochemical signals that are then integrated into cellular responses. It is possible that lipid rafts and caveolae provide the location of lipid signaling and interactions between these signaling pathways and mechanotransduction. Moreover, interactions between lipid signaling pathway molecules and mechanotransduction molecules have been observed. A better understanding of the lipid profile changes and the functional roles lipid metabolism plays in keloids will help to identify target molecules for the development of novel interventions that can prevent, reduce, or even reverse pathological scar formation and/or progression.

  10. TRPV1 structures in nanodiscs reveal mechanisms of ligand and lipid action.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Cao, Erhu; Julius, David; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-06-16

    When integral membrane proteins are visualized in detergents or other artificial systems, an important layer of information is lost regarding lipid interactions and their effects on protein structure. This is especially relevant to proteins for which lipids have both structural and regulatory roles. Here we demonstrate the power of combining electron cryo-microscopy with lipid nanodisc technology to ascertain the structure of the rat TRPV1 ion channel in a native bilayer environment. Using this approach, we determined the locations of annular and regulatory lipids and showed that specific phospholipid interactions enhance binding of a spider toxin to TRPV1 through formation of a tripartite complex. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol lipids occupy the binding site for capsaicin and other vanilloid ligands, suggesting a mechanism whereby chemical or thermal stimuli elicit channel activation by promoting the release of bioactive lipids from a critical allosteric regulatory site. PMID:27281200

  11. MALDI imaging MS reveals candidate lipid markers of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Hermelindis; Salonikios, Theresia; Fuchser, Jens; Schwartz, Matthias; Sticht, Carsten; Hochheim, Christina; Wirnitzer, Bernhard; Gretz, Norbert; Hopf, Carsten

    2013-10-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a severe, monogenetically inherited kidney and liver disease. PCK rats carrying the orthologous mutant gene serve as a model of human disease, and alterations in lipid profiles in PCK rats suggest that defined subsets of lipids may be useful as molecular disease markers. Whereas MALDI protein imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has become a promising tool for disease classification, widely applicable workflows that link MALDI lipid imaging and identification as well as structural characterization of candidate disease-classifying marker lipids are lacking. Here, we combine selective MALDI imaging of sulfated kidney lipids and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) of imaging data sets for identification of candidate markers of progressive disease in PCK rats. Our study highlights strong increases in lower mass lipids as main classifiers of cystic disease. Structure determination by high-resolution mass spectrometry identifies these altered lipids as taurine-conjugated bile acids. These sulfated lipids are selectively elevated in the PCK rat model but not in models of related hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases, suggesting that they be molecular markers of the disease and that a combination of MALDI imaging with high-resolution MS methods and Fisher discriminant data analysis may be applicable for lipid marker discovery.

  12. Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Reveals Lipid Metabolism of Individual Oocytes and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    González-Serrano, Andrés Felipe; Pirro, Valentina; Ferreira, Christina R.; Oliveri, Paolo; Eberlin, Livia S.; Heinzmann, Julia; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Niemann, Heiner; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Alteration of maternal lipid metabolism early in development has been shown to trigger obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life in humans and animal models. Here, we set out to determine (i) lipid composition dynamics in single oocytes and preimplantation embryos by high mass resolution desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), using the bovine species as biological model, (ii) the metabolically most relevant lipid compounds by multivariate data analysis and (iii) lipid upstream metabolism by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of several target genes (ACAT1, CPT 1b, FASN, SREBP1 and SCAP). Bovine oocytes and blastocysts were individually analyzed by DESI-MS in both positive and negative ion modes, without lipid extraction and under ambient conditions, and were profiled for free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PL), cholesterol-related molecules, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), performed for the first time on DESI-MS fused data, allowed unequivocal discrimination between oocytes and blastocysts based on specific lipid profiles. This analytical approach resulted in broad and detailed lipid annotation of single oocytes and blastocysts. Results of DESI-MS and transcript regulation analysis demonstrate that blastocysts produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts differed significantly in the homeostasis of cholesterol and FFA metabolism. These results should assist in the production of viable and healthy embryos by elucidating in vivo embryonic lipid metabolism. PMID:24073231

  13. Dysregulated signaling hubs of liver lipid metabolism reveal hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunjae; Mardinoglu, Adil; Zhang, Cheng; Lee, Doheon; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate and early detection of HCC is crucial for the application of effective treatment strategies. HCC is typically caused by either viral hepatitis infection or by fatty liver disease. To diagnose and treat HCC it is necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. As a major cause for development of HCC is fatty liver disease, we here investigated anomalies in regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver. We applied a tailored network-based approach to identify signaling hubs associated with regulation of this part of metabolism. Using transcriptomics data of HCC patients, we identified significant dysregulated expressions of lipid-regulated genes, across many different lipid metabolic pathways. Our findings, however, show that viral hepatitis causes HCC by a distinct mechanism, less likely involving lipid anomalies. Based on our analysis we suggest signaling hub genes governing overall catabolic or anabolic pathways, as novel drug targets for treatment of HCC that involves lipid anomalies. PMID:27216817

  14. New EMBO members' review: actin cytoskeleton regulation through modulation of PI(4,5)P(2) rafts.

    PubMed

    Caroni, P

    2001-08-15

    The phosphoinositide lipid PI(4,5)P(2) is now established as a key cofactor in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton and in vesicle trafficking. PI(4,5)P(2) accumulates at membrane rafts and promotes local co-recruitment and activation of specific signaling components at the cell membrane. PI(4,5)P(2) rafts may thus be platforms for local regulation of morphogenetic activity at the cell membrane. Raft PI(4,5)P(2) is regulated by lipid kinases (PI5-kinases) and lipid phosphatases (e.g. synaptojanin). In addition, GAP43-like proteins have recently emerged as a group of PI(4,5)P(2) raft-modulating proteins. These locally abundant proteins accumulate at inner leaflet plasmalemmal rafts where they bind to and co-distribute with PI(4,5)P(2), and promote actin cytoskeleton accumulation and dynamics. In keeping with their proposed role as positive modulators of PI(4,5)P(2) raft function, GAP43-like proteins confer competence for regulated morphogenetic activity on cells that express them. Their function has been investigated extensively in the nervous system, where their expression promotes neurite outgrowth, anatomical plasticity and nerve regeneration. Extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors may thus converge to modulate PI(4,5)P(2) rafts, upstream of regulated activity at the cell surface.

  15. Reorganization of Lipid Diffusion by Myelin Basic Protein as Revealed by STED Nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Steshenko, Olena; Andrade, Débora M; Honigmann, Alf; Mueller, Veronika; Schneider, Falk; Sezgin, Erdinc; Hell, Stefan W; Simons, Mikael; Eggeling, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Myelin is a multilayered membrane that ensheathes axonal fibers in the vertebrate nervous system, allowing fast propagation of nerve action potentials. It contains densely packed lipids, lacks an actin-based cytocortex, and requires myelin basic protein (MBP) as its major structural component. This protein is the basic constituent of the proteinaceous meshwork that is localized between adjacent cytoplasmic membranes of the myelin sheath. Yet, it is not clear how MBP influences the organization and dynamics of the lipid constituents of myelin. Here, we used optical stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to assess the characteristics of diffusion of different fluorescent lipid analogs in myelin membrane sheets of cultured oligodendrocytes and in micrometer-sized domains that were induced by MBP in live epithelial PtK2 cells. Lipid diffusion was significantly faster and less anomalous both in oligodendrocytes and inside the MBP-rich domains of PtK2 cells compared with undisturbed live PtK2 cells. Our data show that MBP reorganizes lipid diffusion, possibly by preventing the buildup of an actin-based cytocortex and by preventing most membrane proteins from entering the myelin sheath region. Yet, in contrast to myelin sheets in oligodendrocytes, the MBP-induced domains in epithelial PtK2 cells demonstrate no change in lipid order, indicating that segregation of long-chain lipids into myelin sheets is a process specific to oligodendrocytes. PMID:27276262

  16. New Insights into Nisin's Antibacterial Mechanism Revealed by Binding Studies with Synthetic Lipid II Analogues.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Peter; Oppedijk, Sabine F; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-01-12

    Nisin is the preeminent lantibiotic, and to date its antibacterial mechanism has been investigated using a variety of techniques. While nisin's lipid II-mediated mode of action is well-established, a detailed analysis of the thermodynamic parameters governing this interaction has not been previously reported. We here describe an approach employing isothermal titration calorimetry to directly measure the affinity of nisin for lipid II and a number of synthetic lipid II precursors and analogues. Our measurements confirm the pyrophosphate unit of lipid II as the primary site of nisin binding and also indicate that the complete MurNAc moiety is required for a high-affinity interaction. Additionally, we find that while the pentapeptide unit of the lipid II molecule is not required for strong binding by nisin, it does play an important role in stabilizing the subsequently formed nisin-lipid II pore complex, albeit at an entropic cost. The anchoring of lipid II in a membrane environment was also found to play a significant role in enhancing nisin binding and is required in order to achieve a high-affinity interaction. PMID:26653142

  17. Reorganization of Lipid Diffusion by Myelin Basic Protein as Revealed by STED Nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Steshenko, Olena; Andrade, Débora M; Honigmann, Alf; Mueller, Veronika; Schneider, Falk; Sezgin, Erdinc; Hell, Stefan W; Simons, Mikael; Eggeling, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Myelin is a multilayered membrane that ensheathes axonal fibers in the vertebrate nervous system, allowing fast propagation of nerve action potentials. It contains densely packed lipids, lacks an actin-based cytocortex, and requires myelin basic protein (MBP) as its major structural component. This protein is the basic constituent of the proteinaceous meshwork that is localized between adjacent cytoplasmic membranes of the myelin sheath. Yet, it is not clear how MBP influences the organization and dynamics of the lipid constituents of myelin. Here, we used optical stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to assess the characteristics of diffusion of different fluorescent lipid analogs in myelin membrane sheets of cultured oligodendrocytes and in micrometer-sized domains that were induced by MBP in live epithelial PtK2 cells. Lipid diffusion was significantly faster and less anomalous both in oligodendrocytes and inside the MBP-rich domains of PtK2 cells compared with undisturbed live PtK2 cells. Our data show that MBP reorganizes lipid diffusion, possibly by preventing the buildup of an actin-based cytocortex and by preventing most membrane proteins from entering the myelin sheath region. Yet, in contrast to myelin sheets in oligodendrocytes, the MBP-induced domains in epithelial PtK2 cells demonstrate no change in lipid order, indicating that segregation of long-chain lipids into myelin sheets is a process specific to oligodendrocytes.

  18. Transcript profiling reveals mechanisms for lipid conservation during diapause in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Julie A.; Poelchau, Monica F.; Rahman, Zahra; Armbruster, Peter A.; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a medically important invasive species whose geographic distribution has expanded dramatically during the past 20 years, and one of the key elements of its success is its capacity to survive long distance transport as a diapausing pharate first instar larva, encased within the chorion of the egg. We report that pharate larvae entering diapause are larger and contain 30% more lipid than their nondiapausing counterparts. To improve our understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism during diapause, we assessed the relative mRNA abundance of 21 genes using qRT-PCR. Elevated expression of lipid storage droplet protein 2 during embryonic development likely contributes to the higher amounts of lipid we noted in diapausing individuals. The conservation of lipids during diapause is reflected in downregulation of genes involved in lipid catabolism, including lipase 2, lipase 3, lipase 4, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 4, and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Two genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and modification, Δ(9)-desaturase, and fatty acyl-CoA elongase, were both upregulated in diapausing pharate larvae, suggesting roles for their gene products in generating unsaturated fatty acids to enhance membrane fluidity at low temperatures and generating precursors to the surface hydrocarbons needed to resist desiccation, respectively. Together, the results point to substantial distinctions in lipid metabolism within the embryo as a consequence of the diapause program, and these differences occur both before the actual onset of diapause as well as during the diapause state. PMID:22579567

  19. A Model of Lipid-Free Apolipoprotein A-I Revealed by Iterative Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipid-free apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation. PMID:25793886

  20. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.

  1. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  2. Lipid composition of multilamellar bodies secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum reveals their amoebal origin.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Valérie E; Lessire, René; Domergue, Frédéric; Fouillen, Laetitia; Filion, Geneviève; Sedighi, Ahmadreza; Charette, Steve J

    2013-10-01

    When they are fed with bacteria, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs), which are composed of membranous material. It has been proposed that MLBs are a waste disposal system that allows D. discoideum to eliminate undigested bacterial remains. However, the real function of MLBs remains unknown. Determination of the biochemical composition of MLBs, especially lipids, represents a way to gain information about the role of these structures. To allow these analyses, a protocol involving various centrifugation procedures has been developed to purify secreted MLBs from amoeba-bacterium cocultures. The purity of the MLB preparation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence using H36, an antibody that binds to MLBs. The lipid and fatty acid compositions of pure MLBs were then analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively, and compared to those of amoebae as well as bacteria used as a food source. While the bacteria were devoid of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), these two polar lipid species were major classes of lipids in MLBs and amoebae. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of MLBs and amoebae was characterized by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while cyclic fatty acids were found only in bacteria. These results strongly suggest that the lipids constituting the MLBs originate from the amoebal metabolism rather than from undigested bacterial membranes. This opens the possibility that MLBs, instead of being a waste disposal system, have unsuspected roles in D. discoideum physiology.

  3. Lipid Composition of Multilamellar Bodies Secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum Reveals Their Amoebal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Valérie E.; Lessire, René; Domergue, Frédéric; Fouillen, Laetitia; Filion, Geneviève; Sedighi, Ahmadreza

    2013-01-01

    When they are fed with bacteria, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs), which are composed of membranous material. It has been proposed that MLBs are a waste disposal system that allows D. discoideum to eliminate undigested bacterial remains. However, the real function of MLBs remains unknown. Determination of the biochemical composition of MLBs, especially lipids, represents a way to gain information about the role of these structures. To allow these analyses, a protocol involving various centrifugation procedures has been developed to purify secreted MLBs from amoeba-bacterium cocultures. The purity of the MLB preparation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence using H36, an antibody that binds to MLBs. The lipid and fatty acid compositions of pure MLBs were then analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively, and compared to those of amoebae as well as bacteria used as a food source. While the bacteria were devoid of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), these two polar lipid species were major classes of lipids in MLBs and amoebae. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of MLBs and amoebae was characterized by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while cyclic fatty acids were found only in bacteria. These results strongly suggest that the lipids constituting the MLBs originate from the amoebal metabolism rather than from undigested bacterial membranes. This opens the possibility that MLBs, instead of being a waste disposal system, have unsuspected roles in D. discoideum physiology. PMID:23748431

  4. Membrane rafts in Alzheimer’s disease beta-amyloid production

    PubMed Central

    Thinakaran, Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common age-associated dementing disorder, is pathologically manifested by progressive cognitive dysfunction concomitant with the accumulation of senile plaques consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregates in the brain of affected individuals. Aβ is derived from a type I transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP), by the sequential proteolytic events mediated by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated cholesterol and cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, termed lipid rafts in the amyloidogenic processing of APP. In this review, we summarize the cell biology of APP, β- and γ-secretases and the data on their association with lipid rafts. Then, we will discuss potential raft targeting signals identified in the secretases and their importance on amyloidogenic processing of APP. PMID:20303415

  5. Euphol from Euphorbia tirucalli Negatively Modulates TGF-β Responsiveness via TGF-β Receptor Segregation inside Membrane Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Lin; Chen, Ying-Pin; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Duh, Tsai-Hui; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, Wei-Chiang; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) responsiveness in cultured cells can be modulated by TGF-β partitioning between lipid raft/caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathways. Lipid rafts are plasma membrane microdomains with an important role in cell survival signaling, and cholesterol is necessary for the lipid rafts’ structure and function. Euphol is a euphane-type triterpene alcohol that is structurally similar to cholesterol and has a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In the present study, euphol suppressed TGF-β signaling by inducing TGF-β receptor movement into lipid-raft microdomains and degrading TGF-β receptors. PMID:26448474

  6. Gene expression profiling reveals Nef induced deregulation of lipid metabolism in HIV-1 infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Surya; Trivedi, Jay; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-03-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on landscape of cellular transcriptome favoring HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have tried to explore effect of Nef on cellular gene expression profile in conjunction with rest of HIV-1 proteins. Our results show that 237 genes are differentially regulated due to the presence of Nef during infection, which belong to several broad categories like "signaling", "apoptosis", "transcription" and "lipid metabolism" in gene ontology analysis. Furthermore, our results show that Nef causes disruption of lipid content in HIV-1 infected T cells. Molecular inhibitors of lipid metabolism like Atorvastatin and Ranolazine were found to have profound effect on wild type virus as compared to nef-deleted HIV-1. Thus our results suggest that interference in lipid metabolism is a potential mechanism through which Nef contributes in enhancing HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26915805

  7. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Oliver E.; Steele, Val J.; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H.; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D. Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  8. Unprecedented staining of polar lipids by a luminescent rhenium complex revealed by FTIR microspectroscopy in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bader, C A; Carter, E A; Safitri, A; Simpson, P V; Wright, P; Stagni, S; Massi, M; Lay, P A; Brooks, D A; Plush, S E

    2016-06-21

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and confocal imaging have been used to demonstrate that the neutral rhenium(i) tricarbonyl 1,10-phenanthroline complex bound to 4-cyanophenyltetrazolate as the ancillary ligand is able to localise in regions with high concentrations of polar lipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin, sphingosphine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in mammalian adipocytes. PMID:27170554

  9. Mass spectrometry reveals synergistic effects of nucleotides, lipids, and drugs binding to a multidrug resistance efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Julien; Wang, Sheila C; Politis, Argyris; Reading, Eamonn; Ma, Jerome; Biggin, Philip C; Zhou, Min; Tao, Houchao; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey; Morgner, Nina; Robinson, Carol V

    2013-06-11

    Multidrug resistance is a serious barrier to successful treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, wherein chemotherapeutics are exported from target cells by membrane-embedded pumps. The most prevalent of these pumps, the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), consists of two homologous halves each comprising one nucleotide-binding domain and six transmembrane helices. The transmembrane region encapsulates a hydrophobic cavity, accessed by portals in the membrane, that binds cytotoxic compounds as well as lipids and peptides. Here we use mass spectrometry (MS) to probe the intact P-gp small molecule-bound complex in a detergent micelle. Activation in the gas phase leads to formation of ions, largely devoid of detergent, yet retaining drug molecules as well as charged or zwitterionic lipids. Measuring the rates of lipid binding and calculating apparent KD values shows that up to six negatively charged diacylglycerides bind more favorably than zwitterionic lipids. Similar experiments confirm binding of cardiolipins and show that prior binding of the immunosuppressant and antifungal antibiotic cyclosporin A enhances subsequent binding of cardiolipin. Ion mobility MS reveals that P-gp exists in an equilibrium between different states, readily interconverted by ligand binding. Overall these MS results show how concerted small molecule binding leads to synergistic effects on binding affinities and conformations of a multidrug efflux pump.

  10. Scanning STED-FCS reveals spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lipid interaction in the plasma membrane of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honigmann, Alf; Mueller, Veronika; Ta, Haisen; Schoenle, Andreas; Sezgin, Erdinc; Hell, Stefan W.; Eggeling, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of lipids and proteins plays an important role in plasma membrane bioactivity, and much can be learned from their diffusion characteristics. Here we present the combination of super-resolution STED microscopy with scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (scanning STED-FCS, sSTED-FCS) to characterize the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of lipid interactions. sSTED-FCS reveals transient molecular interaction hotspots for a fluorescent sphingolipid analogue. The interaction sites are smaller than 80 nm in diameter and lipids are transiently trapped for several milliseconds in these areas. In comparison, newly developed fluorescent phospholipid and cholesterol analogues with improved phase-partitioning properties show more homogenous diffusion, independent of the preference for liquid-ordered or disordered membrane environments. Our results do not support the presence of nanodomains based on lipid-phase separation in the basal membrane of our cultured nonstimulated cells, and show that alternative interactions are responsible for the strong local trapping of our sphingolipid analogue.

  11. Brij detergents reveal new aspects of membrane microdomain in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Bruna Renata; De Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Riske, Karin A; Barbosa, Raquel De Melo; De Paula, Eneida; Domingues, Cleyton Crepaldi

    2014-09-01

    Membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids (rafts), and specific proteins are involved in important physiological functions. However their structure, size and stability are still controversial. Given that detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) are in the liquid-ordered state and are rich in raft-like components, they might correspond to rafts at least to some extent. Here we monitor the lateral order of biological membranes by characterizing DRMs from erythrocytes obtained with Brij-98, Brij-58, and TX-100 at 4 °C and 37 °C. All DRMs were enriched in cholesterol and contained the raft markers flotillin-2 and stomatin. However, sphingomyelin (SM) was only found to be enriched in TX-100-DRMs - a detergent that preferentially solubilizes the membrane inner leaflet - while Band 3 was present solely in Brij-DRMs. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra showed that the acyl chain packing of Brij-DRMs was lower than TX-100-DRMs, providing evidence of their diverse lipid composition. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the SM fraction of the DRMs was enriched in lignoceric acid, which should specifically contribute to the resistance of SM to detergents. These results indicate that lipids from the outer leaflet, particularly SM, are essential for the formation of the liquid-ordered phase of DRMs. At last, the differential solubilization process induced by Brij-98 and TX-100 was monitored using giant unilamellar vesicles. This study suggests that Brij and TX-100-DRMs reflect different degrees of lateral order of the membrane microdomains. Additionally, Brij DRMs are composed by both inner and outer leaflet components, making them more physiologically relevant than TX-100-DRMs to the studies of membrane rafts.

  12. Mechanistic insights into EGFR membrane clustering revealed by super-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Ye; Cai, Mingjun; Pan, Yangang; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Ji, Hongbin; Wang, Hongda

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of membrane receptors such as EGFR is critical for various biological processes, for example cell signaling and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, we used a super resolution imaging technique, which has shattered the longstanding resolution barrier of light diffraction, to investigate the distribution of membrane EGFR on apical or basal surfaces of COS-7 cells and on the surface of suspended COS-7 cells. Our data show that more and larger EGFR clusters are detected on the apical surface in comparison with those on the basal surface and this difference is not affected by the EGFR activation state, whereas suspended COS-7 cells exhibit a moderate clustering state and a homogeneous distribution pattern, indicating that the external environment surrounding the cell membrane is the decisive factor in the EGFR clustering pattern. A dual-color dSTORM image reveals the significant colocalization of EGFR and lipid rafts; interestingly MβCD treatment leads to a dramatic decrease of the amount and size of EGFR clusters on both apical and basal surfaces, highlighting a key role of lipid rafts in EGFR cluster formation. Altogether, our results illustrate the distribution pattern of EGFR in polarized cells and uncover the essential role of lipid rafts in EGFR cluster maintenance.The clustering of membrane receptors such as EGFR is critical for various biological processes, for example cell signaling and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, we used a super resolution imaging technique, which has shattered the longstanding resolution barrier of light diffraction, to investigate the distribution of membrane EGFR on apical or basal surfaces of COS-7 cells and on the surface of suspended COS-7 cells. Our data show that more and larger EGFR clusters are detected on the apical surface in comparison with those on the basal surface and this difference is not affected by the EGFR

  13. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  14. Comparative genome analysis of the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans reveals its potential applications in lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Chen, Yue; Jin, Danfeng; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Trichosporon fermentans CICC 1368, which has been shown to accumulate cellular lipids efficiently using industry-agricultural wastes, was subjected to preliminary genome analysis, yielding a genome size of 31.3 million bases and 12,702 predicted protein-coding genes. Our analysis also showed a high degree of gene duplications and unique genes compared with those observed in other oleaginous yeasts, with 3-4-fold more genes related to fatty acid elongation and degradation compared with those in Rhodosporidium toruloides NP11 and Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122. Phylogenetic analysis with other oleaginous microbes suggested that the lipogenic capacity of T. fermentans was obtained during evolution after the divergence of genera. Thus, our study provided the first draft genome and comparative analysis of T. fermentans, laying the foundation for its genetic improvement to facilitate cost-effective lipid production. PMID:27664738

  15. Comparative genome analysis of the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans reveals its potential applications in lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Chen, Yue; Jin, Danfeng; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Trichosporon fermentans CICC 1368, which has been shown to accumulate cellular lipids efficiently using industry-agricultural wastes, was subjected to preliminary genome analysis, yielding a genome size of 31.3 million bases and 12,702 predicted protein-coding genes. Our analysis also showed a high degree of gene duplications and unique genes compared with those observed in other oleaginous yeasts, with 3-4-fold more genes related to fatty acid elongation and degradation compared with those in Rhodosporidium toruloides NP11 and Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122. Phylogenetic analysis with other oleaginous microbes suggested that the lipogenic capacity of T. fermentans was obtained during evolution after the divergence of genera. Thus, our study provided the first draft genome and comparative analysis of T. fermentans, laying the foundation for its genetic improvement to facilitate cost-effective lipid production.

  16. Metabolomics analysis reveals 6‐benzylaminopurine as a stimulator for improving lipid and DHA accumulation of Aurantiochytriumsp.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin‐Jun; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian‐Yong; Sun, Ya‐Qi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Phytohormones are chemical messengers that have a positive effect on biodiesel production of microalgae at low concentrations. However, the effect of phytohormone 6‐benzylaminopurine on lipid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production in marine DHA‐producer Aurantiochytrium has never been reported. In this study, a GC‐MS‐based metabolomics method combined with a multivariate analysis is applied to reveal the metabolic mechanism of 6‐benzylaminopurine enhancing production of lipid and DHA in Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. RESULTS In total, 71 metabolites were identified by GC‐MS. The PCA model revealed that 76.9% of metabolite variation was related to 6‐benzylaminopurine treatment, and overall metabolomics profiles between the 6‐benzylaminopurine and control groups were clearly discriminated. Forty‐six metabolites identified by the PLS‐DA model were responsible for responding to 6‐benzylaminopurine. Metabolic analysis showed that 6‐benzylaminopurine could accelerate the rate of utilization of glucose in Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70, and the metabolic flux from glycolysis, TCA cycle and mevalonate pathway to fatty acids biosynthesis was promoted. Moreover, the anti‐stress mechanism in Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 might be induced by 6‐benzylaminopurine. CONCLUSION Metabolomics is a suitable tool to discover the metabolic mechanism for improving lipid and DHA accumulation in a microorganism. 6‐benzylaminopurine has the potential to stimulate lipid and DHA production of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 for industrial purposes. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27065509

  17. Equilibrium microphase separation in the