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Sample records for lipoprotein receptor promoter

  1. Particulate Matter Promotes In Vitro Receptor-Recognizable Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Dysfunction of Lipid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Sevilla-Tapia, Laura; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Serrano, Jesús; O’Neill, Marie S.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Quintana, Raúl; Vázquez-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter may promote cardiovascular disease, possibly as a consequence of its oxidative potential. Studies using susceptible animals indicate that particulate matter aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing lipid/macrophage content in plaques. Macrophage lipid uptake requires oxidized low-density lipoprotein and scavenger receptors; same receptors are involved in particulate matter uptake. We studied in vitro particulate matter potential to oxidize low-density lipoproteins and subsequent cell uptake through scavenger receptors. Particulate matter-induced low-density lipoproteins oxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid assay. Binding/internalization was tested in wild type and scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in RAW264.7 cells using fluorescently labeled low-density lipoproteins. Dose-dependent binding/internalization only occurred in scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and RAW264.7 cells. Competition binding/internalization using particles showed that particulate matter induced decreased binding (~50%) and internalization (~70%) of particle-oxidized low-density lipoproteins and native low-density lipoproteins. Results indicate that particulate matter was capable of oxidizing low-density lipoproteins, favoring macrophage internalization, and also altered scavenger and low-density lipoproteins receptor function. PMID:23297186

  2. [Lipoprotein receptors. Old acquaintances and newcomers].

    PubMed

    Ducobu, J

    1997-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptors are plasma membrane proteins of high affinity which interact with circulating lipoprotein particles. The well characterized LDL receptor continues to be analysed and some new findings on its intracellular mechanisms of action have emerged. New lipoprotein receptors have recently been described: the chylomicron remnant receptor or LDL-related protein (LRP), the lipolysis stimulated receptor (LSR), the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), the HDL receptor (HDLR) and the scavenger receptor (SR). The molecular details of the receptors will facilitate the development of new therapeutic means to improve receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins.

  3. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 abrogation causes resistance to inflammatory bone destruction in mice, despite promoting osteoclastogenesis in the steady state.

    PubMed

    Nakayachi, Mai; Ito, Junta; Hayashida, Chiyomi; Ohyama, Yoko; Kakino, Akemi; Okayasu, Mari; Sato, Takuya; Ogasawara, Toru; Kaneda, Toshio; Suda, Naoto; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Hakeda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Inflammatory bone diseases have been attributed to increased bone resorption by augmented and activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts in response to inflammation. Although the production of diverse proinflammatory cytokines is induced at the inflamed sites, the inflammation also generates reactive oxygen species that modify many biological compounds, including lipids. Among the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of multifactorial inflammatory atherosclerosis, was downregulated with osteoclast differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that LOX-1 negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation by basically suppressing the cell-cell fusion of preosteoclasts. The LOX-1-deleted (LOX-1(-/-)) mice consistently decreased the trabecular bone mass because of elevated bone resorption during the growing phase. In contrast, when the calvaria was inflamed by a local lipopolysaccharide-injection, the inflammation-induced bone destruction accompanied by the elevated expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes was reduced by LOX-1 deficiency. Moreover, the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), a trigger molecule for osteoclast differentiation, evoked by the inflammation was also abrogated in the LOX-1(-/-) mice. Osteoblasts, the major producers of RANKL, also expressed LOX-1 in response to proinflammatory agents, interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2. In the co-culture of LOX-1(-/-) osteoblasts and wild-type osteoclast precursors, the osteoclastogenesis induced by interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 decreased; this process occurred in parallel with the downregulation of osteoblastic RANKL expression. Collectively, LOX-1 abrogation results in resistance to inflammatory bone destruction, despite promoting osteoclastogenesis in the steady state. Our findings indicate the novel involvement of LOX-1 in physiological bone homeostasis and inflammatory bone diseases.

  4. Differential Complement Activation Pathways Promote C3b Deposition on Native and Acetylated LDL thereby Inducing Lipoprotein Binding to the Complement Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Klop, Boudewijn; van der Pol, Pieter; van Bruggen, Robin; Wang, Yanan; de Vries, Marijke A.; van Santen, Selvetta; O'Flynn, Joseph; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; de Man, Peter; Jukema, J. Wouter; Rabelink, Ton J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van Kooten, Cees; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins can induce complement activation resulting in opsonization and binding of these complexes to complement receptors. We investigated the binding of opsonized native LDL and acetylated LDL (acLDL) to the complement receptor 1 (CR1). Binding of complement factors C3b, IgM, C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and properdin to LDL and acLDL were investigated by ELISA. Subsequent binding of opsonized LDL and acLDL to CR1 on CR1-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells (CHO-CR1) was tested by flow cytometry. Both native LDL and acLDL induced complement activation with subsequent C3b opsonization upon incubation with normal human serum. Opsonized LDL and acLDL bound to CR1. Binding to CHO-CR1 was reduced by EDTA, whereas MgEGTA only reduced the binding of opsonized LDL, but not of acLDL suggesting involvement of the alternative pathway in the binding of acLDL to CR1. In vitro incubations showed that LDL bound C1q, whereas acLDL bound to C1q, IgM, and properdin. MBL did neither bind to LDL nor to acLDL. The relevance of these findings was demonstrated by the fact that ex vivo up-regulation of CR1 on leukocytes was accompanied by a concomitant increased binding of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to leukocytes without changes in LDL-receptor expression. In conclusion, CR1 is able to bind opsonized native LDL and acLDL. Binding of LDL to CR1 is mediated via the classical pathway, whereas binding of acLDL is mediated via both the classical and alternative pathways. Binding of lipoproteins to CR1 may be of clinical relevance due to the ubiquitous cellular distribution of CR1. PMID:25349208

  5. Lipoprotein Receptors Redundantly Participate in Entry of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Chikako; Uemura, Kentaro; Kawachi, Yukako; Shiokawa, Mai; Mori, Hiroyuki; Wada, Masami; Shima, Ryoichi; Okamoto, Toru; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Chayama, Kazuaki; Wakita, Takaji; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are known to be involved in entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV), but their precise roles and their interplay are not fully understood. In this study, deficiency of both SR-B1 and LDLR in Huh7 cells was shown to impair the entry of HCV more strongly than deficiency of either SR-B1 or LDLR alone. In addition, exogenous expression of not only SR-B1 and LDLR but also very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) rescued HCV entry in the SR-B1 and LDLR double-knockout cells, suggesting that VLDLR has similar roles in HCV entry. VLDLR is a lipoprotein receptor, but the level of its hepatic expression was lower than those of SR-B1 and LDLR. Moreover, expression of mutant lipoprotein receptors incapable of binding to or uptake of lipid resulted in no or slight enhancement of HCV entry in the double-knockout cells, suggesting that binding and/or uptake activities of lipid by lipoprotein receptors are essential for HCV entry. In addition, rescue of infectivity in the double-knockout cells by the expression of the lipoprotein receptors was not observed following infection with pseudotype particles bearing HCV envelope proteins produced in non-hepatic cells, suggesting that lipoproteins associated with HCV particles participate in the entry through their interaction with lipoprotein receptors. Buoyant density gradient analysis revealed that HCV utilizes these lipoprotein receptors in a manner dependent on the lipoproteins associated with HCV particles. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoprotein receptors redundantly participate in the entry of HCV. PMID:27152966

  6. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 mediates endocytic clearance of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and promotes its cytokine-like activities.

    PubMed

    Thevenard, Jessica; Verzeaux, Laurie; Devy, Jerôme; Etique, Nicolas; Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Hachet, Cathy; Ferracci, Géraldine; David, Marion; Martiny, Laurent; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions. PMID:25075518

  7. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Endocytic Clearance of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Promotes Its Cytokine-Like Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devy, Jerôme; Etique, Nicolas; Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Hachet, Cathy; Ferracci, Géraldine; David, Marion; Martiny, Laurent; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions. PMID:25075518

  8. Lipoproteins modulate expression of the macrophage scavenger receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Han, J.; Nicholson, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors (MSR) bind and internalize oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), a modified lipoprotein that is thought to be the proximal source of lipids that accumulate within cells of atherosclerotic lesions. The role of lipoproteins in modulating MSR expression are undetermined. We studied the effect of lipoproteins, native and modified LDL (acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and OxLDL) on the expression of the MSR in RAW cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Exposure to lipoproteins resulted in a marked induction of MSR mRNA expression (12- to 17-fold) with OxLDL and AcLDL having the greatest effects. Maximum induction occurred 1 hour after treatment with OxLDL and LDL. AcLDL induced a fourfold increase at 1 hour followed by a return to baseline and peak expression (sixfold) at 14 hours. Scavenger receptor function, as measured by 125I-AcLDL binding, was only modestly increased in response to lipoproteins. Incubation of macrophages with a cholesterol acceptor particle resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in MSR mRNA expression, which paralleled cholesterol loss from the cells. OxLDL did not affect MSR mRNA stability, implying that MSR mRNA was transcriptionally regulated by lipoproteins. Finally, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from mice following intraperitoneal injection of lipoproteins. Macrophage expression of MSR mRNA was significantly (16-fold) increased by LDL, AcLDL, or OxLDL relative to mice infused with phosphate-buffered saline. This demonstration that exposure to lipoproteins increases expression of the macrophage scavenger receptor implies that lipoproteins can further contribute to foam cell development in atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626069

  9. Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific effects on lipoprotein receptor processing

    PubMed Central

    Bachmeier, Corbin; Shackleton, Ben; Ojo, Joseph; Paris, Daniel; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an isoform-specific role for apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the elimination of beta-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain. ApoE is closely associated with various lipoprotein receptors, which contribute to Aβ brain removal via metabolic clearance or transit across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These receptors are subject to ectodomain shedding at the cell surface, which alters endocytic transport and mitigates Aβ elimination. To further understand the manner in which apoE influences Aβ brain clearance, these studies investigated the effect of apoE on lipoprotein receptor shedding. Consistent with prior reports, we observed an increased shedding of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) following Aβ exposure in human brain endothelial cells. When Aβ was co-treated with each apoE isoform, there was a reduction in Aβ-induced shedding with apoE2 and apoE3, while lipoprotein receptor shedding in the presence of apoE4 remained elevated. Likewise, intracranial administration of Aβ to apoE targeted replacement mice (expressing the human apoE isoforms) resulted in an isoform-dependent effect on lipoprotein receptor shedding in the brain (apoE4>apoE3>apoE2). Moreover, these results show a strong inverse correlation with our prior work in apoE transgenic mice in which apoE4 animals showed reduced Aβ clearance across the BBB compared to apoE3 animals. Based on these results, apoE4 appears less efficient than other apoE isoforms in regulating lipoprotein receptor shedding, which may explain the differential effects of these isoforms in removing Aβ from the brain. PMID:25015123

  10. Dot-blot assay for the low density lipoprotein receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Maggi, F.M.; Catapano, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a new method for detecting the interaction of low density lipoprotein with its receptor using unmodified nitrocellulose as support for membrane protein. The method is specific and sensitive down to 3 micrograms of membrane protein. Unlabeled LDL, but not HDL, competes with /sup 125/I-labeled LDL for binding, and binding is abolished by pretreatment of the membranes with pronase and is dependent upon the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, modification of arginine or lysine residues on LDL abolishes the lipoprotein interaction with the receptor protein supported on the nitrocellulose. When the membranes are solubilized with octyl glucoside, purification steps of the receptor can be directly followed with no interference of the detergent, therefore eliminating the need for its removal. The increased expression of LDL receptors on liver membranes from estradiol-treated rats was also demonstrated. We suggest, therefore, that this method can be used to detect the presence of LDL receptors on minute amounts of membrane protein.

  11. Subendothelial retention of lipoprotein (a). Evidence that reduced heparan sulfate promotes lipoprotein binding to subendothelial matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Pillarisetti, S; Paka, L; Obunike, J C; Berglund, L; Goldberg, I J

    1997-01-01

    Vessel wall subendothelial extracellular matrix, a dense mesh formed of collagens, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans, has important roles in lipid and lipoprotein retention and cell adhesion. In atherosclerosis, vessel wall heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are decreased and we therefore tested whether selective loss of HSPG affects lipoprotein retention. A matrix synthesized by aortic endothelial cells and a commercially available matrix (Matrigel; , Rutherford, NJ) were used. Treatment of matrix with heparinase/heparitinase (1 U/ml each) increased LDL binding by approximately 1.5-fold. Binding of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] to both subendothelial matrix and Matrigel(R) increased 2-10-fold when the HSPG were removed by heparinase treatment. Incubation of endothelial cells with oxidized LDL (OxLDL) or lysolecithin resulted in decreased matrix proteoglycans and increased Lp(a) retention by matrix. The effect of OxLDL or lysolecithin on endothelial PG was abolished in the presence of HDL. The decrease in matrix HSPG was associated with production of a heparanase-like activity by OxLDL-stimulated endothelial cells. To test whether removal of HSPG exposes fibronectin, a candidate Lp(a) binding protein in the matrix, antifibronectin antibodies were used. The increased Lp(a) binding after HSPG removal was inhibited 60% by antifibronectin antibodies. Similarly, the increased Lp(a) binding to matrix from OxLDL-treated endothelial cells was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. We hypothesize that atherogenic lipoproteins stimulate endothelial cell production of heparanase. This enzyme reduces HSPG which in turn promotes Lp(a) retention. PMID:9259586

  12. Phagocytosis of aggregated lipoprotein by macrophages: Low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent foam-cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; Chait, A.; Aviram, M.; Heinecke, J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by incubation with phospholipase C (PLC-LDL) aggregates in solution and is rapidly taken up and degraded by human and mouse macrophages, producing foam cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rabbit macrophages degraded {sup 125}I-labeled PLC-LDL ({sup 125}I-PLC-LDL) more rapidly than native {sup 125}I-labeled LDL ({sup 125}I-LDL), while nonphagocytic cells such as human fibroblasts and bovine aortic endothelial cells degraded {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL more slowly than {sup 125}I-LDL. This suggested the mechanism for internalization of PLC-LDL was phagocytosis. When examined by electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages appeared to be phagocytosing PLC-LDL. The uptake and degradation of {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL by human macrophages was inhibited >80% by the monoclonal antibody C7 (IgG2b) produced by hybridoma C7, which blocks the ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. Similarly, methylation of {sup 125}I-LDL ({sup 125}I-MeLDL) prior to treatment with phospholipase C decreased its subsequent uptake and degradation by human macrophages by >90%. The uptake and degradation of phospholipase C-modified {sup 125}I-MeLDL by macrophages could be restored by incubation of the methylated lipoprotein with apoprotein E, a ligand recognized by the LDL receptor. These results indicate that macrophages internalize PLC-LDL by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis.

  13. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  14. Clearance of amyloid-β by circulating lipoprotein receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay; Deane, Rashid; Bell, Robert D.; Johnson, Bradley; Hamm, Katie; Pendu, Ronan; Marky, Andrew; Lenting, Peter J.; Wu, Zhenhua; Zarcone, Troy; Goate, Alison; Mayo, Kevin; Perlmutter, David; Coma, Mireia; Zhong, Zhihui; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2010-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP) on brain capillaries clears amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) from brain. Here, we show that soluble circulating LRP (sLRP) provides key endogenous peripheral ‘sink’ activity for Aβ in humans. Recombinant LRP cluster IV (LRP-IV) bound Aβ in plasma in mice and in Alzheimer’s disease-affected humans with compromised sLRP-mediated Aβ binding, and reduced Aβ-related pathology and dysfunction in a mouse model of Alzheimer mice, suggesting LRP-IV can effectively replace native sLRP and clear Aβ. PMID:17694066

  15. The farnesoid X receptor induces very low density lipoprotein receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Audrey; Claudel, Thierry; Martin, Geneviève; Brozek, John; Kosykh, Vladimir; Darteil, Raphaël; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2004-05-21

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor activated by bile acids (BAs). In response to ligand-binding, FXR regulates many genes involved in BA, lipid, and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify new FXR target genes, microarray technology was used to profile total RNA extracted from HepG2 cells treated with the natural FXR agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Interestingly, a significant increase of transcript level of the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) was observed. Our data, resulting from selective FXR activation, FXR RNA silencing and FXR-deficient mice, clearly demonstrate that BAs up-regulate VLDLR transcript levels via a FXR-dependent mechanism in vitro in human and in vivo in mouse liver cells.

  16. More Than Cholesterol Transporters: Lipoprotein Receptors in CNS Function and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney E.; Philips, Gary T.; Herz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family have a diverse set of biological functions that transcend lipid metabolism. Lipoprotein receptors have broad effects in both the developing and adult brain and participate in synapse development, cargo trafficking, and signal transduction. In addition, several family members play key roles in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role lipoprotein receptors play in CNS function and AD pathology, with a special emphasis on amyloid-independent roles in endocytosis and synaptic dysfunction. PMID:25144875

  17. Lipoprotein binding and endosomal itinerary of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, H; Takahashi, K; Hamilton, R L; Havel, R J

    1989-01-01

    The high affinity of 45Ca binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and the LDL-R-related protein (LRP) was utilized to study the subcellular distribution of these two proteins in rat liver. Like the LDL-R, LRP was manyfold enriched in rat liver endosomal membranes with a relative distribution in early and late endosomal compartments consistent with recycling between endosomes and the cell surface. The high concentration of LRP in hepatic endosomal membranes greatly facilitated demonstration of Ca-dependent binding of apolipoprotein E- and B-containing lipoproteins in ligand blots. LRP was severalfold more abundant than the LDL-R in hepatic parenchymal cells, showed extensive degradation in hepatic endosomes, and was found in high concentrations in the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest a high rate of synthesis of LRP that appeared to be unaffected by treatment of rats with estradiol. The repeating cysteine-rich A-motif found in the ligand-binding domain of LRP appeared to be responsible for Ca binding by LRP, LDL-R, and complement factor C9 and accounted for immunological cross-reactivity among these proteins. Weaker ligand-blotting properties and an extraordinary susceptibility to proteolysis most likely contribute to the difficulty of detecting LRP in conventional assays for lipoprotein receptors. Our data suggest an extensive proteolytic processing of this protein and are consistent with a functional role of LRP in lipoprotein metabolism. Images PMID:2594771

  18. Membrane receptors for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, P.I.; Beck, G.; Zucker, S.

    1981-06-01

    Physiologic concentrations of human plasma very low density lipoproteins inhibit the DNA synthesis of lymphocytes stimulated by allogeneic cells or lectins. In this report reachers have compared the effects of isolated lipoproteins (very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL)) and lipoprotein-depleted plasma (LDP) on DNA synthesis by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. The relative potency for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was VLDL greater than LDL greater than HDL greater than LDP. Fifty percent inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed at a VLDL protein concentration of 1.5--2.0 microgram/ml. Researchers have further demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for VLDL on human lymphocytes. Native VLDL was more effective than LDL in competing for 125I-VLDL binding sites. Subsequent to binding to lymphocytes, 125I-VLDL was internalized and degraded to acid-soluble products. Based on a Scatchard analysis of VLDL binding at 4 degrees C, the number of VLDL receptors per lymphocyte was estimated at 28,000 +/- 1300. Based on an estimated mean binding affinity for the VLDL receptor complex at half saturation of approximately 8.8 X 10(7) liter/mole, it is estimated that 91% of lymphocyte VLDL receptors are occupied at physiologic VLDL concentrations in blood. Although the immune regulatory role of plasma lipoproteins is uncertain, researchers suggest tha VLDL and LDL-In may maintain circulating blood lymphocytes in a nonproliferative state via their respective cell receptor mechanisms.

  19. The myeloperoxidase product hypochlorous acid generates irreversible high-density lipoprotein receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Veronika; Ljubojevic, Senka; Haybaeck, Johannes; Holzer, Michael; El-Gamal, Dalia; Schicho, Rudolf; Pieske, Burkert; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) have been described in several chronic inflammatory diseases, like chronic renal insufficiency, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Recent findings revealed that AOPPs are inhibitors of the major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-BI). Here we investigated what oxidation induced structural alterations convert plasma albumin into an HDL-receptor inhibitor. Approach and Results Exposure of albumin to the physiological oxidant, hypochlorous acid, generated high affinity SR-BI ligands. Protection of albumin lysine-residues prior exposure to hypochlorous acid as well as regeneration of N-chloramines after oxidation of albumin completely prevented binding of oxidized albumin to SR-BI, indicating that modification of albumin lysine-residues is required to generate SR-BI ligands. Of particular interest, N-chloramines within oxidized albumin promoted irreversible binding to SR-BI, resulting in permanent receptor blockade. We observed that the SR-BI inhibitory activity of albumin isolated from chronic kidney disease patients correlated with the content of the myeloperoxidase-specific oxidation product 3-chlorotyrosine and was associated with alterations in the composition of HDL. Conclusion Given that several potential atheroprotective activities of HDL are mediated by SR-BI, the present results raise the possibility that oxidized plasma albumin, through permanent SR-BI blockade, contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23493288

  20. Hypercholesterolemia, low density lipoprotein receptor and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hong-mei; Zhang, Da-wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are positively correlated with the risk of atherosclerosis. High plasma LDL concentrations in patients with hypercholesterolemia lead to build-up of LDL in the inner walls of the arteries, which becomes oxidized and promotes the formation of foam cells, consequently initiating atherosclerosis. Plasma LDL is mainly cleared through the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Mutations in the LDLR cause familiar hypercholesterolemia and increase the risk of premature coronary heart disease. The expression of LDLR is regulated at the transcriptional level via the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and at the posttranslational levels mainly through proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the studies of PCSK9. PMID:26445568

  1. Induction kinetics and cell surface distribution of Escherichia coli lipoprotein under lac promoter control.

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, H; de Hoop, M J; Inouye, M; Witholt, B

    1986-01-01

    The induction kinetics and surface accessibility of the outer membrane lipoprotein were studied in an Escherichia coli strain with the lpp gene under control of the lac promoter. Free lipoprotein appeared rapidly after induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and reached a steady-state level after 30 min. The newly induced lipoprotein was slowly bound to the peptidoglycan layer. Immunological methods were developed to detect lipoprotein accessible at the cell surface after various pretreatments as well as peptidoglycan-bound lipoprotein at the surface of isolated peptidoglycan sacculi with specific antibodies in combination with 125I-protein A. With these methods an increase in lipoprotein molecules at the cell surface and bound to the peptidoglycan sacculus could be detected following induction. The topology of newly synthesized lipoprotein was examined in thin sections as well as at the cell surface and the surface of the peptidoglycan sacculus with immunoelectron microscopy. Ultrathin cell sections, whole cells, and isolated peptidoglycan sacculi showed lipoprotein distributed homogeneously over the entire surface. Images PMID:3531164

  2. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  3. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  4. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  5. The syndecan family of proteoglycans. Novel receptors mediating internalization of atherogenic lipoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Fuki, I V; Kuhn, K M; Lomazov, I R; Rothman, V L; Tuszynski, G P; Iozzo, R V; Swenson, T L; Fisher, E A; Williams, K J

    1997-01-01

    Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to participate in lipoprotein catabolism, but the roles of specific proteoglycan classes have not been examined previously. Here, we studied the involvement of the syndecan proteoglycan family. First, transfection of CHO cells with expression vectors for several syndecan core proteins produced parallel increases in the cell association and degradation of lipoproteins enriched in lipoprotein lipase, a heparan-binding protein. Second, a chimeric construct, FcR-Synd1, that consists of the ectodomain of the IgG Fc receptor Ia linked to the highly conserved transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of syndecan-1 directly mediated efficient internalization, in a process triggered by ligand clustering. Third, internalization of lipase-enriched lipoproteins via syndecan-1 and of clustered IgGs via the chimera showed identical kinetics (t1/2 = 1 h) and identical dose-response sensitivities to cytochalasin B, which disrupts microfilaments, and to genistein, which inhibits tyrosine kinases. In contrast, internalization of the receptor-associated protein, which proceeds via coated pits, showed a t1/2 < 15 min, limited sensitivity to cytochalasin B, and complete insensitivity to genistein. Thus, syndecan proteoglycans can directly mediate ligand catabolism through a pathway with characteristics distinct from coated pits, and might act as receptors for atherogenic lipoproteins and other ligands in vivo. PMID:9294130

  6. Apolipoprotein E on Hepatitis C Virion Facilitates Infection through Interaction with Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Owen, David M.; Huang, Hua; Ye, Jin; Gale, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. HCV associates with host apolipoproteins and enters hepatocytes through complex processes involving some combination of CD81, claudin-I, occludin, and scavenger receptor BI. Here we show that infectious HCV resembles very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and that entry involves co-receptor function of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R). Blocking experiments demonstrate that β-VLDL itself or anti-apolipoprotein E (apoE) antibody can block HCV entry. Knockdown of the LDL-R by treatment with 25-hydroxycholesterol or siRNA ablated ligand uptake and reduced HCV infection of cells, whereas infection was rescued upon cell ectopic LDL-R expression. Analyses of gradient-fractionated HCV demonstrate that apoE is associated with HCV virions exhibiting peak infectivity and dependence upon the LDL-R for cell entry. Our results define the LDL-R as a cooperative HCV co-receptor that supports viral entry and infectivity through interaction with apoE ligand present in an infectious HCV/lipoprotein complex comprising the virion. Disruption of HCV/LDL-R interactions by altering lipoprotein metabolism may therefore represent a focus for future therapy. PMID:19751943

  7. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Ping, Ling-Yan; Duong, Duc M; Gao, Xiao-Yan; He, Chun-Yan; Wei, Lei; Wu, Jun-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell‑mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native‑LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL‑stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label‑free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native‑LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native‑LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation.

  8. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: high density lipoprotein binding to liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, C.A.; Lei, K.Y.; Marchello, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    In copper-deficient rats, the observed hyperlipoproteinemia was mainly due to the elevation in high density lipoproteins (HDL). This study was designed to determine whether an impairment in the binding of HDL to liver membrane is responsible for the hyperlipoproteinemia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 treatments, namely copper (Cu) deficient and adequate (less than 1 and 8 mg Cu/kg of diet). After 8 weeks, plasma, heart and liver tissues were obtained. Reduction in liver Cu content and elevation in heart to body weight ratio and plasma cholesterol confirmed that rats fed the test diet were Cu-deficient. Plasma HDL isolated from both Cu-deficient and control rats were iodinated and bound to liver membranes prepared from rats of each treatment. Binding of /sup 125/I-HDL was competitively inhibited by unlabelled rat HDL from both treatments, but not by human LDL. Scatchard analysis of specific binding data showed that maximal /sup 125/I-HDL binding (per mg membrane protein) to membranes prepared from Cu-deficient rats was not lower than controls. Furthermore, the amount of /sup 125/I-HDL from deficient rats specifically bound to liver membranes prepared from either treatment was not less than the amount of /sup 125/I-HDL from control rats bound to the same membranes. The data suggest that the hyperlipoproteinemia in Cu-deficient rats may not have resulted from a decrease in the number of hepatic HDL binding sites.

  9. ApoC-III inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through LDL family receptors.

    PubMed

    Gordts, Philip L S M; Nock, Ryan; Son, Ni-Huiping; Ramms, Bastian; Lew, Irene; Gonzales, Jon C; Thacker, Bryan E; Basu, Debapriya; Lee, Richard G; Mullick, Adam E; Graham, Mark J; Goldberg, Ira J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Witztum, Joseph L; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and plasma triglycerides (TGs) correlate strongly with plasma apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) for ApoC-III reduce plasma TGs in primates and mice, but the underlying mechanism of action remains controversial. We determined that a murine-specific ApoC-III-targeting ASO reduces fasting TG levels through a mechanism that is dependent on low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). ApoC-III ASO treatment lowered plasma TGs in mice lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, LDLR, or LRP1 and in animals with combined deletion of the genes encoding HSPG receptors and LDLRs or LRP1. However, the ApoC-III ASO did not lower TG levels in mice lacking both LDLR and LRP1. LDLR and LRP1 were also required for ApoC-III ASO-induced reduction of plasma TGs in mice fed a high-fat diet, in postprandial clearance studies, and when ApoC-III-rich or ApoC-III-depleted lipoproteins were injected into mice. ASO reduction of ApoC-III had no effect on VLDL secretion, heparin-induced TG reduction, or uptake of lipids into heart and skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that ApoC-III inhibits turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins primarily through a hepatic clearance mechanism mediated by the LDLR/LRP1 axis. PMID:27400128

  10. ApoC-III inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through LDL family receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gordts, Philip L.S.M.; Son, Ni-Huiping; Ramms, Bastian; Lew, Irene; Gonzales, Jon C.; Thacker, Bryan E.; Basu, Debapriya; Lee, Richard G.; Mullick, Adam E.; Graham, Mark J.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Witztum, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and plasma triglycerides (TGs) correlate strongly with plasma apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) for ApoC-III reduce plasma TGs in primates and mice, but the underlying mechanism of action remains controversial. We determined that a murine-specific ApoC-III–targeting ASO reduces fasting TG levels through a mechanism that is dependent on low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). ApoC-III ASO treatment lowered plasma TGs in mice lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, LDLR, or LRP1 and in animals with combined deletion of the genes encoding HSPG receptors and LDLRs or LRP1. However, the ApoC-III ASO did not lower TG levels in mice lacking both LDLR and LRP1. LDLR and LRP1 were also required for ApoC-III ASO–induced reduction of plasma TGs in mice fed a high-fat diet, in postprandial clearance studies, and when ApoC-III–rich or ApoC-III–depleted lipoproteins were injected into mice. ASO reduction of ApoC-III had no effect on VLDL secretion, heparin-induced TG reduction, or uptake of lipids into heart and skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that ApoC-III inhibits turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins primarily through a hepatic clearance mechanism mediated by the LDLR/LRP1 axis. PMID:27400128

  11. Baculovirus-mediated expression of human apolipoprotein E in Manduca sexta larvae generates particles that bind to the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gretch, D G; Sturley, S L; Friesen, P D; Beckage, N E; Attie, A D

    1991-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and mediates the catabolism of several classes of lipoprotein particles. Binding of apoE to the LDL receptor requires association of apoE with lipid in a vesicle or a lipoprotein particle. Because of this requirement, purified apoE or apoE derived directly from bacterial expression systems does not bind to the LDL receptor. To overcome this problem and to facilitate analysis of apoE structure, recombinant baculoviruses containing the human apoE cDNA fused to the polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus were constructed. The recombinant viruses were used to infect larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta in vivo. High levels of lipoprotein particles containing human apoE were present in the hemolymph of infected larvae. In contrast to apoE produced by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells in vitro, these particles were excellent ligands for the LDL receptor. Images PMID:1924311

  12. Lrp13 is a novel vertebrate lipoprotein receptor that binds vitellogenins in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Reading, Benjamin J; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Schilling, Justin; Molloy, Katelyn T; Glassbrook, Norm; Mizuta, Hiroko; Luo, Wenshu; Baltzegar, David A; Williams, Valerie N; Todo, Takashi; Hara, Akihiko; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-11-01

    Transcripts encoding a novel member of the lipoprotein receptor superfamily, termed LDL receptor-related protein (Lrp)13, were sequenced from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana) ovaries. Receptor proteins were purified from perch ovary membranes by protein-affinity chromatography employing an immobilized mixture of vitellogenins Aa and Ab. RT-PCR revealed lrp13 to be predominantly expressed in striped bass ovary, and in situ hybridization detected lrp13 transcripts in the ooplasm of early secondary growth oocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed peak lrp13 expression in the ovary during early secondary growth. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed peak Lrp13 protein levels in striped bass ovary during late-vitellogenesis, and immunohistochemistry localized Lrp13 to the oolemma and zona radiata of vitellogenic oocytes. Previously unreported orthologs of lrp13 were identified in genome sequences of fishes, chicken (Gallus gallus), mouse (Mus musculus), and dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) lrp13 loci are discrete and share genomic synteny. The Lrp13 appears to function as a vitellogenin receptor and may be an important mediator of yolk formation in fishes and other oviparous vertebrates. The presence of lrp13 orthologs in mammals suggests that this lipoprotein receptor is widely distributed among vertebrates, where it may generally play a role in lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:25217480

  13. Lrp13 is a novel vertebrate lipoprotein receptor that binds vitellogenins in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Reading, Benjamin J; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Schilling, Justin; Molloy, Katelyn T; Glassbrook, Norm; Mizuta, Hiroko; Luo, Wenshu; Baltzegar, David A; Williams, Valerie N; Todo, Takashi; Hara, Akihiko; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-11-01

    Transcripts encoding a novel member of the lipoprotein receptor superfamily, termed LDL receptor-related protein (Lrp)13, were sequenced from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana) ovaries. Receptor proteins were purified from perch ovary membranes by protein-affinity chromatography employing an immobilized mixture of vitellogenins Aa and Ab. RT-PCR revealed lrp13 to be predominantly expressed in striped bass ovary, and in situ hybridization detected lrp13 transcripts in the ooplasm of early secondary growth oocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed peak lrp13 expression in the ovary during early secondary growth. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed peak Lrp13 protein levels in striped bass ovary during late-vitellogenesis, and immunohistochemistry localized Lrp13 to the oolemma and zona radiata of vitellogenic oocytes. Previously unreported orthologs of lrp13 were identified in genome sequences of fishes, chicken (Gallus gallus), mouse (Mus musculus), and dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) lrp13 loci are discrete and share genomic synteny. The Lrp13 appears to function as a vitellogenin receptor and may be an important mediator of yolk formation in fishes and other oviparous vertebrates. The presence of lrp13 orthologs in mammals suggests that this lipoprotein receptor is widely distributed among vertebrates, where it may generally play a role in lipoprotein metabolism.

  14. Lrp13 is a novel vertebrate lipoprotein receptor that binds vitellogenins in teleost fishes[S

    PubMed Central

    Reading, Benjamin J.; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Schilling, Justin; Molloy, Katelyn T.; Glassbrook, Norm; Mizuta, Hiroko; Luo, Wenshu; Baltzegar, David A.; Williams, Valerie N.; Todo, Takashi; Hara, Akihiko; Sullivan, Craig V.

    2014-01-01

    Transcripts encoding a novel member of the lipoprotein receptor superfamily, termed LDL receptor-related protein (Lrp)13, were sequenced from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana) ovaries. Receptor proteins were purified from perch ovary membranes by protein-affinity chromatography employing an immobilized mixture of vitellogenins Aa and Ab. RT-PCR revealed lrp13 to be predominantly expressed in striped bass ovary, and in situ hybridization detected lrp13 transcripts in the ooplasm of early secondary growth oocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed peak lrp13 expression in the ovary during early secondary growth. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed peak Lrp13 protein levels in striped bass ovary during late-vitellogenesis, and immunohistochemistry localized Lrp13 to the oolemma and zona radiata of vitellogenic oocytes. Previously unreported orthologs of lrp13 were identified in genome sequences of fishes, chicken (Gallus gallus), mouse (Mus musculus), and dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) lrp13 loci are discrete and share genomic synteny. The Lrp13 appears to function as a vitellogenin receptor and may be an important mediator of yolk formation in fishes and other oviparous vertebrates. The presence of lrp13 orthologs in mammals suggests that this lipoprotein receptor is widely distributed among vertebrates, where it may generally play a role in lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:25217480

  15. Functional Differences of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Splice Variants in Regulating Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Takahashi, Yusuke; Oka, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) negatively regulates Wnt signaling. VLDLR has two major alternative splice variants, VLDLRI and VLDLRII, but their biological significance and distinction are unknown. Here we found that most tissues expressed both VLDLRI and VLDLRII, while the retina expressed only VLDLRII. The shed soluble VLDLR extracellular domain (sVLDLR-N) was detected in the conditioned medium of retinal pigment epithelial cells, interphotoreceptor matrix, and mouse plasma, indicating that ectodomain shedding of VLDLR occurs endogenously. VLDLRII displayed a higher ectodomain shedding rate and a more potent inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling than VLDLRI in vitro and in vivo. O-glycosylation, which is present in VLDLRI but not VLDLRII, determined the differential ectodomain shedding rates. Moreover, the release of sVLDLR-N was inhibited by a metalloproteinase inhibitor, TAPI-1, while it was promoted by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In addition, sVLDLR-N shedding was suppressed under hypoxia. Further, plasma levels of sVLDLR-N were reduced in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic mouse models. We concluded that VLDLRI and VLDLRII had differential roles in regulating Wnt signaling and that decreased plasma levels of sVLDLR-N may contribute to Wnt signaling activation in diabetic complications. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for intercellular regulation of Wnt signaling through VLDLR ectodomain shedding. PMID:27528615

  16. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Recruit the Lipoprotein LTP to the Plasma Membrane to Mediate Lipid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Míriam; Mejía-Morales, John E.; Culi, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Lipophorin, the main Drosophila lipoprotein, circulates in the hemolymph transporting lipids between organs following routes that must adapt to changing physiological requirements. Lipophorin receptors expressed in developmentally dynamic patterns in tissues such as imaginal discs, oenocytes and ovaries control the timing and tissular distribution of lipid uptake. Using an affinity purification strategy, we identified a novel ligand for the lipophorin receptors, the circulating lipoprotein Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP). We show that specific isoforms of the lipophorin receptors mediate the extracellular accumulation of LTP in imaginal discs and ovaries. The interaction requires the LA-1 module in the lipophorin receptors and is strengthened by a contiguous region of 16 conserved amino acids. Lipophorin receptor variants that do not interact with LTP cannot mediate lipid uptake, revealing an essential role of LTP in the process. In addition, we show that lipophorin associates with the lipophorin receptors and with the extracellular matrix through weak interactions. However, during lipophorin receptor-mediated lipid uptake, LTP is required for a transient stabilization of lipophorin in the basolateral plasma membrane of imaginal disc cells. Together, our data suggests a molecular mechanism by which the lipophorin receptors tether LTP to the plasma membrane in lipid acceptor tissues. LTP would interact with lipophorin particles adsorbed to the extracellular matrix and with the plasma membrane, catalyzing the exchange of lipids between them. PMID:26121667

  17. Lipoprotein(a) Catabolism Is Regulated by Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 through the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Romagnuolo, Rocco; Scipione, Corey A.; Boffa, Michael B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Seidah, Nabil G.; Koschinsky, Marlys L.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) have been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Plasma Lp(a) levels are reduced by monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). However, the mechanism of Lp(a) catabolism in vivo and the role of PCSK9 in this process are unknown. We report that Lp(a) internalization by hepatic HepG2 cells and primary human fibroblasts was effectively reduced by PCSK9. Overexpression of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) in HepG2 cells dramatically increased the internalization of Lp(a). Internalization of Lp(a) was markedly reduced following treatment of HepG2 cells with a function-blocking monoclonal antibody against the LDLR or the use of primary human fibroblasts from an individual with familial hypercholesterolemia; in both cases, Lp(a) internalization was not affected by PCSK9. Optimal Lp(a) internalization in both hepatic and primary human fibroblasts was dependent on the LDL rather than the apolipoprotein(a) component of Lp(a). Lp(a) internalization was also dependent on clathrin-coated pits, and Lp(a) was targeted for lysosomal and not proteasomal degradation. Our data provide strong evidence that the LDLR plays a role in Lp(a) catabolism and that this process can be modulated by PCSK9. These results provide a direct mechanism underlying the therapeutic potential of PCSK9 in effectively lowering Lp(a) levels. PMID:25778403

  18. The Role of Lipolysis Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor in Breast Cancer and Directing Breast Cancer Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reaves, Denise K.; Fagan-Solis, Katerina D.; Dunphy, Karen; Oliver, Shannon D.; Scott, David W.; Fleming, Jodie M.

    2014-01-01

    The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior. PMID:24637461

  19. Receptor-mediated delivery of photoprotective agents by low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, S.T.; Yang, Y.L.; Falck, J.R.; Anderson, R.G.W.

    1984-12-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been used to deliver toxic molecules to cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In these studies, the cholesteryl ester core of LDL was replaced with a lipophilic, toxic molecule. The authors report that photoprotective azo dyes can be stably incorporated into LDL, and that this reconstituted LDL protects cells from the photosensitizing action of pyrene methanol (PM) in a receptor-dependent process. The photoprotective action of the azo dye is due to its ability to scavenge singlet oxygen that is produced by the photosensitive agent in response to UV light.

  20. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis.

  1. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) in sickle cell disease vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingyi; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Xin; Nam, David; Ogbu-Nwobodo, Lucy; Archibald, Hannah; Joslin, Amelia; Wun, Ted; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Green, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL. Increased expression of LOX-1 has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions and diabetic vasculopathy. In this study, we investigate the expression of LOX-1 receptor in sickle cell disease (SCD) vasculopathy. Expression of LOX-1 in brain vascular endothelium is markedly increased and LOX-1 gene expression is upregulated in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells by incubation with SCD erythrocytes. Also, the level of circulating soluble LOX-1 concentration is elevated in the plasma of SCD patients. Increased LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SCD vasculopathy. Soluble LOX-1 concentration in SCD may provide a novel biomarker for risk stratification of sickle cell vascular complications. PMID:27519944

  2. Receptor mediated uptake of paclitaxel from a synthetic high density lipoprotein nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Mooberry, Linda K; Nair, Maya; Paranjape, Sulabha; McConathy, Walter J; Lacko, Andras G

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the mechanism(s) whereby paclitaxel (PTX), is taken up by cancer cells, once encapsulated into synthetic/reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL). The uptake of PTX was found to be facilitated by the scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) when drug-loaded rHDL particles were incubated with cells that express the SRB1 receptor. Studies with double-labeled, PTX containing rHDL nanoparticles showed that prostate cancer (PC-3) cells incorporated PTX primarily via a selective (SR-B1 type) uptake mechanism. In the presence of a 10-fold excess of plasma HDL, PTX uptake decreased to 30% of the control. These findings suggest that the incorporation of lipophilic drugs by cancer cells from rHDL nanoparticles is facilitated by a receptor mediated (SR-B1) mechanism.

  3. Gene transfer and disruption strategies to elucidate hepatic lipoprotein receptor functions.

    PubMed

    Herz, J; Willnow, T E

    1995-12-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled us to manipulate specific genes in laboratory animals in a specific predetermined manner. This has opened new areas of research on physiological processes not previously accessible to such precise experimental manipulation. Over-expression of genes by traditional transgenic techniques has recently been complemented by methods that allow the efficient transfer of exogenous genes into various somatic tissues of adult animals. The development of homologous recombination technology in embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the application of this technology to specifically disrupt a given gene of interest in the germline of a mouse has been particularly useful to determine the physiologically relevant processes in which these genes participate in vivo. Rather than introducing random mutations into the genome by chemical mutagenesis or by retroviral insertion, techniques that have been employed in the past, gene targeting not only allows us to disrupt any cloned gene, but also to specifically introduce single nucleotide changes into its genomic sequence. The past few years have witnessed an explosion of research reports in all areas of biological research that have employed these ground-breaking tools of modern genetics to study the physiological roles of a plethora of different genes in neurobiology immunology, endocrinology, development, etc. Our laboratory has also extensively used these new approaches to study the function of several genes that are involved in the metabolism of lipoproteins on the systemic as well as on the cellular level. In this article, we will review the various approaches we have used to define the roles of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) and the receptor-associated protein (RAP) in hepatic lipoprotein metabolism.

  4. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  5. Low density lipoprotein receptor-independent hepatic uptake of a synthetic, cholesterol-scavenging lipoprotein: implications for the treatment of receptor-deficient atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Rahman, I.U.; Donnelly, T.M.; Parker, T.S.; Weinrauch, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of infused /sup 111/In-labeled phospholipid liposomes was examined in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, which lack low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and in normal control rabbits. The half-times (t/sub 1/2/) for clearance of /sup 111/In and excess phospholipid from plasma were 20.8 +/- 0.9 hr and 20.3 +/- 4.6 hr in WHHL and 20.0 +/- 0.8 hr and 19.6 +/- 2.2 hr in the normal rabbits. By 6 hr postinfusion, the plasma concentration of unesterified cholesterol increased by 2.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter in WHHL and 2.1 +/- 0.04 mmol/liter in normal rabbits, presumably reflecting mobilization of tissue sores. Disappearance of excess plasma cholesterol was > 90% complete in both groups of rabbits by 70 hr postinfusion. By quantitative ..gamma.. camera imaging, hepatic trapping of /sup 111/In-labeled liposomes over time was indistinguishable between the two groups. At autopsy, the liver was the major organ of clearance. Aortic uptake of /sup 111/In was < 0.02%. Thus, mobilization of cholesterol and hepatic uptake of phospholipid liposomes do not require LDL receptors. Because phospholipid infusions produce rapid substantial regression of atherosclerosis in genetically normal animals, the results suggest that phospholipid liposomes or triglyceride phospholipid emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) might reduce atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and in humans with familial hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Elner, Victor M

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipase in situ, in vitro, and after challenge with phagocytic stimuli. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of fluorescently labeled native, aceto-acetylated, and oxidized LDL was studied in vitro and in vivo. LDL effects on RPE lysosomal enzymes were assessed. Lysosomal enzyme activity was compared in RPE cells from monkeys fed diets rich in fish oil to those from control animals and in cultured RPE cells exposed to sera from these monkeys. RESULTS: RPE acid lipase activity was substantial and comparable to that of mononuclear phagocytes. Acid lipase activity increased significantly following phagocytic challenge with photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of labeled lipoproteins was determined in vitro. Distinctive uptake of labeled lipoproteins occurred in RPE cells and mononuclear phagocytes in vivo. Native LDL enhanced RPE lysosomal enzyme activity. RPE lysosomal enzymes increased significantly in RPE cells from monkeys fed fish oil-rich diets and in cultured RPE cells exposed to their sera. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cells contain substantial acid lipase for efficient metabolism of lipids imbibed by POS phagocytosis and LDL uptake. Diets rich in fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids, by enhancing acid lipase, may reduce RPE lipofuscin accumulation, RPE oxidative damage, and the development of ARMD. PMID:12545699

  7. Anionic phospholipids inhibit apolipoprotein E--low-density lipoprotein receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Ryan, Robert O

    2007-03-16

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Lipid-free apoE is not recognized by LDLR, yet interaction with lipid confers receptor recognition properties. Although lipid interaction is known to induce a conformational change in apoE, it is not known if the lipid composition of the resulting complex influences binding. Using reconstituted lipoprotein particles of apoE3 N-terminal (NT) domain and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), maximal LDLR binding was observed at DMPC:apoE3-NT ratios >2.5:1 (w/w). ApoE3-NT lipid particles prepared with egg sphingomyelin were functional as LDLR ligands while complexes formed with the anionic phospholipids dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol or dimyristoylphosphatidylserine (DMPS) were not. In the case of apoE3-NT, lipid particles comprised of a mixture of DMPC and DMPS, a DMPS concentration dependent inhibition of LDLR binding activity was observed. Thus, in addition to affecting apoE conformational status, the lipid composition of ligand particles can modulate LDLR binding activity.

  8. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Related Proteins as Regulators of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Young, Kaylene M.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a highly organised structure. Many signalling systems work in concert to ensure that neural stem cells are appropriately directed to generate progenitor cells, which in turn mature into functional cell types including projection neurons, interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Herein we explore the role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, in particular family members LRP1 and LRP2, in regulating the behaviour of neural stem and progenitor cells during development and adulthood. The ability of LRP1 and LRP2 to bind a diverse and extensive range of ligands, regulate ligand endocytosis, recruit nonreceptor tyrosine kinases for direct signal transduction and signal in conjunction with other receptors, enables them to modulate many crucial neural cell functions. PMID:26949399

  9. Molecular studies of pH-dependent ligand interactions with the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Guigard, Emmanuel; Kay, Cyril M; Ryan, Robert O

    2008-11-01

    The release of ligand from the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has been postulated to involve a "histidine switch"-induced intramolecular rearrangement that discharges bound ligand. A recombinant soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor (sLDLR) was employed in ligand binding experiments with a fluorescently tagged variant apolipoprotein E N-terminal domain (apoE-NT). Binding was monitored as a function of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from excited Trp residues in sLDLR to an extrinsic fluorophore covalently attached to Trp-null apoE3-NT. In binding experiments with wild-type (WT) sLDLR, FRET-dependent AEDANS fluorescence decreased as the pH was lowered. To investigate the role of His190, His562, and His586 in sLDLR in pH-dependent ligand binding and discharge, site-directed mutagenesis studies were performed. Compared to WT sLDLR, triple His --> Ala mutant sLDLR displayed attenuated pH-dependent ligand binding and a decreased level of ligand release as a function of low pH. When these His residues were substituted for Lys, the positively charged side chain of which does not ionize over this pH range, ligand binding was nearly abolished at all pH values. When sequential His to Lys mutants were examined, the evidence suggested that His562 and His586 function cooperatively. Whereas the sedimentation coefficient for WT sLDLR increased when the pH was reduced from 7 to 5, no such change occurred in the case of the triple Lys mutant receptor or a His562Lys/His586Lys double mutant receptor. The data support the existence of a cryptic, histidine side chain ionization-dependent alternative ligand that modulates ligand discharge via conformational reorganization.

  10. Low density lipoprotein receptor-independent hepatic uptake of a synthetic, cholesterol-scavenging lipoprotein: implications for the treatment of receptor-deficient atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K J; Vallabhajosula, S; Rahman, I U; Donnelly, T M; Parker, T S; Weinrauch, M; Goldsmith, S J

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of infused 111In-labeled phospholipid liposomes was examined in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, which lack low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and in normal control rabbits. The half-times (t1/2) for clearance of 111In and excess phospholipid from plasma were 20.8 +/- 0.9 hr and 20.3 +/- 4.6 hr in WHHL and 20.0 +/- 0.8 hr and 19.6 +/- 2.2 hr in the normal rabbits (means +/- SEM; n = 4). By 6 hr postinfusion, the plasma concentration of unesterified cholesterol increased by 2.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter in WHHL and 2.1 +/- 0.04 mmol/liter in normal rabbits, presumably reflecting mobilization of tissue stores. Disappearance of excess plasma cholesterol was greater than 90% complete in both groups of rabbits by 70 hr postinfusion. By quantitative gamma camera imaging, hepatic trapping of 111In-labeled liposomes over time was indistinguishable between the two groups. At autopsy, the liver was the major organ of clearance, acquiring 22.0% +/- 1.7% (WHHL) and 16.8% +/- 1.0% (normal of total 111In. Aortic uptake of 111In was less than 0.02%. Thus, mobilization of cholesterol and hepatic uptake of phospholipid liposomes do not require LDL receptors. Because phospholipid infusions produce rapid substantial regression of atherosclerosis in genetically normal animals, our results suggest that phospholipid liposomes or triglyceride phospholipid emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) might reduce atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and in humans with familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:3422421

  11. Neuronal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 binds and endocytoses prion fibrils via receptor cluster 4

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Angela; Parkyn, Celia J.; Mootoosamy, Roy C.; Ford, Melanie J.; Warley, Alice; Liu, Qiang; Bu, Guojun; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Moestrup, Søren; McGuinness, Lindsay; Emptage, Nigel; Morris, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    For infectious prion protein (designated PrPSc) to act as a template to convert normal cellular protein (PrPC) to its distinctive pathogenic conformation, the two forms of prion protein (PrP) must interact closely. The neuronal receptor that rapidly endocytoses PrPC is the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We show here that on sensory neurons LRP1 is also the receptor that binds and rapidly endocytoses smaller oligomeric forms of infectious prion fibrils, and recombinant PrP fibrils. Although LRP1 binds two molecules of most ligands independently to its receptor clusters 2 and 4, PrPC and PrPSc fibrils bind only to receptor cluster 4. PrPSc fibrils out-compete PrPC for internalization. When endocytosed, PrPSc fibrils are routed to lysosomes, rather than recycled to the cell surface with PrPC. Thus, although LRP1 binds both forms of PrP, it traffics them to separate fates within sensory neurons. The binding of both to ligand cluster 4 should enable genetic modification of PrP binding without disrupting other roles of LRP1 essential to neuronal viability and function, thereby enabling in vivo analysis of the role of this interaction in controlling both prion and LRP1 biology. PMID:20048341

  12. Lipoprotein clearance mechanisms in LDL receptor-deficient "Apo-B48-only" and "Apo-B100-only" mice.

    PubMed Central

    Véniant, M M; Zlot, C H; Walzem, R L; Pierotti, V; Driscoll, R; Dichek, D; Herz, J; Young, S G

    1998-01-01

    The role of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in the clearance of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins and the role of the LDLR-related protein (LRP) in the removal of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins have not been clearly defined. To address these issues, we characterized LDLR-deficient mice homozygous for an "apo-B48-only" allele, an "apo-B100-only" allele, or a wild-type apo-B allele (Ldlr-/- Apob48/48, Ldlr-/-Apob100/100, and Ldlr-/-Apob+/+, respectively). The plasma apo-B48 and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in Ldlr-/-Apob48/48 mice than in Apob48/48 mice, indicating that the LDL receptor plays a significant role in the removal of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins. To examine the role of the LRP in the clearance of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins, we blocked hepatic LRP function in Ldlr-/-Apob100/100 mice by adenoviral-mediated expression of the receptor-associated protein (RAP). RAP expression did not change apo-B100 levels in Ldlr-/-Apob100/100 mice. In contrast, RAP expression caused a striking increase in plasma apo-B48 levels in Apob48/48 and Ldlr-/-Apob48/48 mice. These data imply that LRP is important for the clearance of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins but plays no significant role in the clearance of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:9788969

  13. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pires, L A; Hegg, R; Freitas, F R; Tavares, E R; Almeida, C P; Baracat, E C; Maranhão, R C

    2012-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  14. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pires, L.A.; Hegg, R.; Freitas, F.R.; Tavares, E.R.; Almeida, C.P.; Baracat, E.C.; Maranhão, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy. PMID:22570085

  15. Multiple, diverse senile plaque-associated proteins are ligands of an apolipoprotein E receptor, the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Rebeck, G W; Harr, S D; Strickland, D K; Hyman, B T

    1995-02-01

    Both apolipoprotein E and its receptor, the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), are associated with senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. We examined the relationship of other LRP-related molecules to senile plaques. LRP is a multifunctional receptor that binds and rapidly internalizes at least seven ligands: apolipoprotein E, activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, tissue and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipoprotein lipase, and lactoferrin. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that all of these ligands, representing a diverse group of otherwise apparently unrelated proteins, accumulate on senile plaques. We also studied expression of the receptor-associated protein, a physiological inhibitor of LRP, in the hippocampal formation from normal subjects and Alzheimer's disease patients. Receptor-associated protein colocalizes with LRP on neuronal soma, but not on neuronal processes or reactive astrocytes. It is not present on senile plaques. These results suggest that senile plaque-associated LRP can bind its ligands, but clearance of these compounds may be impaired in the vicinity of senile plaques.

  16. Antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 induce myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengyong; Lu, Yisheng; Zhang, Bin; Figueiredo, Dwight; Bean, Jonathan; Jung, Jiung; Wu, Haitao; Barik, Arnab; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood. PMID:24200689

  17. Inhibitory Action of Benzo[α]pyrene on Hepatic Lipoprotein Receptors In Vitro and on Liver Lipid Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Layeghkhavidaki, Hamed; Lanhers, Marie-Claire; Akbar, Samina; Gregory-Pauron, Lynn; Oster, Thierry; Grova, Nathalie; Appenzeller, Brice; Jasniewski, Jordane; Feidt, Cyril; Corbier, Catherine; Yen, Frances T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia associated with obesity often manifests as increased plasma LDL and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein levels suggesting changes in hepatic lipoprotein receptor status. Persistent organic pollutants have been recently postulated to contribute to the obesity etiology by increasing adipogenesis, but little information is available on their potential effect on hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the common environmental pollutant, benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) on two lipoprotein receptors, the LDL-receptor and the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) as well as the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) using cell and animal models. Results LSR, LDL-receptor as well as ABCA1 protein levels were significantly decreased by 26–48% in Hepa1-6 cells incubated (<2 h) in the presence of B[α]P (≤1 µM). Real-time PCR analysis and lactacystin studies revealed that this effect was due primarily to increased proteasome, and not lysosomal-mediated degradation rather than decreased transcription. Furthermore, ligand blots revealed that lipoproteins exposed to 1 or 5 µM B[α]P displayed markedly decreased (42–86%) binding to LSR or LDL-receptor. B[α]P-treated (0.5 mg/kg/48 h, i.p. 15 days) C57BL/6J mice displayed higher weight gain, associated with significant increases in plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and liver cholesterol content, and decreased hepatic LDL-receptor and ABCA1 levels. Furthermore, correlational analysis revealed that B[α]P abolished the positive association observed in control mice between the LSR and LDL-receptor. Interestingly, levels of other proteins involved in liver cholesterol metabolism, ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 and scavenger receptor-BI, were decreased, while those of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 and 2 were increased in B[α]P-treated mice. Conclusions B[α]P demonstrates inhibitory action on LSR and LDL-R, as well as ABCA1

  18. Long-term Physiologically Regulated Expression of the Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor In Vivo Using Genomic DNA Mini-gene Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Hibbitt, Olivia C; McNeil, Eileen; Lufino, Michele MP; Seymour, Len; Channon, Keith; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a condition caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Expression of LDLR is highly regulated and excess receptor expression is cytotoxic. To incorporate essential gene regulation into a gene therapy vector for FH, we generated vectors in which the expression of therapeutic human LDLR gene, or luciferase reporter gene, is driven by 10 kb of human LDLR genomic DNA encompassing the promoter region including elements essential for physiologically regulated expression. Using luciferase expression and specific LDL binding and internalization assays, we have shown in vitro that the genomic promoter element confers long-term, physiologically regulated gene expression and complementation of receptor deficiency in culture for 240 cell-generations. This was demonstrated in the presence of sterols or statins, modifiers of LDLR promoter activity. In vivo, we demonstrate efficient liver-specific delivery and expression of luciferase following hydrodynamic tail-vein injection and confirm that expression from the LDLR promoter element is sensitive to statin administration. We also demonstrate long-term LDLR expression from the 10-kb promoter element up to 9 months following delivery. The vector system that we describe provides the efficient delivery, long-term expression, and physiological regulation required for a successful gene therapy intervention for FH. PMID:19861949

  19. Expression of different lipoprotein receptors in natural killer cells and their effect on natural killer proliferative and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, J B; Blanca, I; Bianco, N E

    1995-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells take up chylomicrons (CM), very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), high density (HDL) and acetyl-modified low density (AcLDL) lipoproteins through different receptors, VLDL being the lipoprotein with the highest uptake and HDL the lowest. The uptake of LDL can be selectively blocked by the anti-LDL receptor, which does not affect the uptake of CM, VLDL, HDL and AcLDL. Although the uptake of lipoproteins assessed by flow cytometry using DiI is not very high, the lipoproteins are able to induce an increase in proliferative responses, VLDL, AcLDL and HDL being the most important ones with 12- and 17-fold increments, respectively. CM, VLDL and LDL at low concentrations increase NK cytotoxic activity, while HDL and AcLDL inhibit, in a dose-dependent fashion, the killing of NK cells against K562. These results suggest the presence of four different receptors that are responsible for the cytotoxic and proliferative responses observed. PMID:8550077

  20. Regulation of Rac1 activation by the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong; Thomas, Keena S; Webb, Donna J; Moravec, Radim; Salicioni, Ana Maria; Mars, Wendy M; Gonias, Steven L

    2002-12-23

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1) binds and mediates the endocytosis of multiple ligands, transports the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and other membrane proteins into endosomes, and binds intracellular adaptor proteins involved in cell signaling. In this paper, we show that in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and L929 cells, LRP-1 functions as a major regulator of Rac1 activation, and that this activity depends on uPAR. LRP-1-deficient MEFs demonstrated increased Rac1 activation compared with LRP-1-expressing MEFs, and this property was reversed by expressing the VLDL receptor, a member of the same gene family as LRP-1, with overlapping ligand-binding specificity. Neutralizing the activity of LRP-1 with receptor-associated protein (RAP) increased Rac1 activation and cell migration in MEFs and L929 cells. The same parameters were unaffected by RAP in uPAR-/- MEFs, prepared from uPAR gene knockout embryos, and in uPAR-deficient LM-TK- cells. Untreated uPAR+/+ MEFs demonstrated substantially increased Rac1 activation compared with uPAR-/- MEFs. In addition to Rac1, LRP-1 suppressed activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in MEFs; however, it was Rac1 (and not ERK) that was responsible for the effects of LRP-1 on MEF migration. Thus, LRP-1 regulates two signaling proteins in the same cell (Rac1 and ERK), both of which may impact on cell migration. In uPAR-negative cells, LRP-1 neutralization does not affect Rac1 activation, and other mechanisms by which LRP-1 may regulate cell migration are not unmasked.

  1. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction improves the low density lipoprotein receptor gene expression in HepG{sub 2} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dongping; Li Xiaoyu; Sun, Ping; Tang Yibo; Chen Xiuying; Chen Qi; Fan Leming . E-mail: lmfan@njmu.edu.cn; Zang Bin; Shao Lizheng; Li Xiaorong

    2006-05-05

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction had been employed in gene delivery and promised great potential. Liver has unique features that make it attractive for gene therapy. However, it poses formidable obstacles to hepatocyte-specific gene delivery. This study was designed to test the efficiency of therapeutic gene transfer and expression mediated by ultrasound/microbubble strategy in HepG{sub 2} cell line. Air-filled albumin microbubbles were prepared and mixed with plasmid DNA encoding low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and green fluorescent protein. The mixture of the DNA and microbubbles was administer to cultured HepG{sub 2} cells under variable ultrasound conditions. Transfection rate of the transferred gene and cell viability were assessed by FACS analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, Western blot analysis and Trypan blue staining. The result demonstrated that microbubbles with ultrasound irradiation can significantly elevate exogenous LDLR gene expression and the expressed LDLRs were functional and active to uptake their ligands. We conclude that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction has the potential to promote safe and efficient LDLR gene transfer into hepatocytes. With further refinement, it may represent an effective nonviral avenue of gene therapy for liver-involved genetic diseases.

  2. Amino acid sequence and domain structure of entactin. Homology with epidermal growth factor precursor and low density lipoprotein receptor

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Entactin (nidogen), a 150-kD sulfated glycoprotein, is a major component of basement membranes and forms a highly stable noncovalent complex with laminin. The complete amino acid sequence of mouse entactin has been derived from sequencing of cDNA clones. The 5.9-kb cDNA contains a 3,735-bp open reading frame followed by a 3'- untranslated region of 2.2 kb. The open reading frame encodes a 1,245- residue polypeptide with an unglycosylated Mr of 136,500, a 28-residue signal peptide, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, and two potential Ca2+-binding sites. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence predicts that the molecule consists of two globular domains of 70 and 36 kD separated by a cysteine-rich domain of 28 kD. The COOH-terminal globular domain shows homology to the EGF precursor and the low density lipoprotein receptor. Entactin contains six EGF-type cysteine-rich repeat units and one copy of a cysteine-repeat motif found in thyroglobulin. The Arg-Gly-Asp cell recognition sequence is present in one of the EGF-type repeats, and a synthetic peptide from the putative cell-binding site of entactin was found to promote the attachment of mouse mammary tumor cells. PMID:3264556

  3. Acceleration of atherogenesis by COX-1-dependent prostanoid formation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Tillmann, C; Zhang, Z B; Li, H; FitzGerald, G A

    2001-03-13

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) product, prostacyclin (PGI(2)), inhibits platelet activation and vascular smooth-muscle cell migration and proliferation. Biochemically selective inhibition of COX-2 reduces PGI(2) biosynthesis substantially in humans. Because deletion of the PGI(2) receptor accelerates atherogenesis in the fat-fed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse, we wished to determine whether selective inhibition of COX-2 would accelerate atherogenesis in this model. To address this hypothesis, we used dosing with nimesulide, which inhibited COX-2 ex vivo, depressed urinary 2,3 dinor 6-keto PGF(1alpha) by approximately 60% but had no effect on thromboxane formation by platelets, which only express COX-1. By contrast, the isoform nonspecific inhibitor, indomethacin, suppressed platelet function and thromboxane formation ex vivo and in vivo, coincident with effects on PGI(2) biosynthesis indistinguishable from nimesulide. Indomethacin reduced the extent of atherosclerosis by 55 +/- 4%, whereas nimesulide failed to increase the rate of atherogenesis. Despite their divergent effects on atherogenesis, both drugs depressed two indices of systemic inflammation, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to a similar but incomplete degree. Neither drug altered serum lipids and the marked increase in vascular expression of COX-2 during atherogenesis. Accelerated progression of atherosclerosis is unlikely during chronic intake of specific COX-2 inhibitors. Furthermore, evidence that COX-1-derived prostanoids contribute to atherogenesis suggests that controlled evaluation of the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or aspirin on plaque progression in humans is timely.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Is Cleared from the Circulation by Hepatocytes via the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Topchiy, Elena; Cirstea, Mihai; Kong, HyeJin Julia; Boyd, John H.; Wang, Yingjin; Russell, James A.; Walley, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. While decreased Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) function improves clinical outcomes in murine and human sepsis, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin, is cleared from the circulation by hepatocyte Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors (LDLR)—receptors downregulated by PCSK9. We directly visualized LPS uptake and found that LPS is rapidly taken up by hepatocytes into the cell periphery. Over the course of 4 hours LPS is transported towards the cell center. We next found that clearance of injected LPS from the blood was reduced substantially in Ldlr knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice compared to wild type controls and, simultaneously, hepatic uptake of LPS was also reduced in Ldlr-/- mice. Specifically examining the role of hepatocytes, we further found that primary hepatocytes isolated from Ldlr-/- mice had greatly decreased LPS uptake. In the HepG2 immortalized human hepatocyte cell line, LDLR silencing similarly resulted in decreased LPS uptake. PCSK9 treatment reduces LDLR density on hepatocytes and, therefore, was another independent strategy to test our hypothesis. Incubation with PCSK9 reduced LPS uptake by hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hepatocytes clear LPS from the circulation via the LDLR and PCSK9 regulates LPS clearance from the circulation during sepsis by downregulation of hepatic LDLR. PMID:27171436

  5. Involvement of second messengers in regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Auwerx, J.H. . ECHEM Labs.); Chait, A.; Wolfbauer, G.; Deeb, S.S. . Dept. of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Transcription of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene in the human monocytic leukemic cell line THP-1 and in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep-G2 is regulated by second messengers of the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C (DAG-PKC), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-Ca/sup 2+/, and cyclic AMP pathways. Exogeneous phospholipase C (which releases DAG and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), PKC activators (phorbol esters and DAG), Ca/sup 2+/ ionophores, and a cyclic AMP analog all transiently induced accumulation of LDL-R mRNA. The effects of these three signal-transducing pathways were to a large extend additive. Furthermore, PKC stimulation effected an increase in LDL binding, which suggested that the increase in LDL-R mRNA resulted in an increase in functional cell surface receptor activity. These results suggest that uptake of cholesterol by these cells is under control of both intracellular cholesterol levels and external signals.

  6. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR).

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-05-29

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757-866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin.

  7. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR)*

    PubMed Central

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A.; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757–866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. PMID:25882847

  8. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a receptor for connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Segarini, P R; Nesbitt, J E; Li, D; Hays, L G; Yates, J R; Carmichael, D F

    2001-11-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and strong up-regulation occurs during wound healing; in situ hybridization data indicate that there are high levels of CTGF expression in fibrotic lesions. Recently the binding parameters of CTGF to both high and lower affinity cell surface binding components have been characterized. Affinity cross-linking and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated the binding of CTGF to a cell surface protein with a mass of approximately 620 kDa. We report here the purification of this protein by affinity chromatography on CTGF coupled to Sepharose and sequence information obtained by mass spectroscopy. The binding protein was identified as the multiligand receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP). The identification of LRP as a receptor for CTGF was validated by several studies: 1) binding competition with many ligands that bind to LRP, including receptor-associated protein; 2) immunoprecipitation of CTGF-receptor complex with LRP antibodies; and 3) cells that are genetically deficient for LRP were unable to bind CTGF. Last, CTGF is rapidly internalized and degraded and this process is LRP-dependent. In summary, our data indicate that LRP is a receptor for CTGF, and may play an important role in mediating CTGF biology.

  9. Increased uptake of alpha-hydroxy aldehyde-modified low density lipoprotein by macrophage scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, M; Heinecke, J W; Chait, A

    2000-07-01

    Reactive aldehydes can be formed during the oxidation of lipids, glucose, and amino acids and during the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified with malondialdehyde are taken up by scavenger receptors on macrophages. In the current studies we determined whether alpha-hydroxy aldehydes also modify LDL to a form recognized by macrophage scavenger receptors. LDL modified by incubation with glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, erythrose, arabinose, or glucose (alpha-hydroxy aldehydes that possess two, three, four, five, and six carbon atoms, respectively) exhibited decreased free amino groups and increased mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. The lower the molecular weight of the aldehyde used for LDL modification, the more rapid and extensive was the derivatization of free amino groups. Approximately 50-75% of free lysine groups in LDL were modified after incubation with glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde, or erythrose for 24-48 h. Less extensive reductions in free amino groups were observed when LDL was incubated with arabinose or glucose, even at high concentration for up to 5 days. LDL modified with glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde labeled with (125)I was degraded more extensively by human monocyte-derived macrophages than was (125)I-labeled native LDL. Conversely, LDL modified with (125)I-labeled erythrose, arabinose, or glucose was degraded less rapidly than (125)I-labeled native LDL. Competition for the degradation of LDL modified with (125)I-labeled glyceraldehyde was nearly complete with acetyl-, glycolaldehyde-, and glyceraldehyde-modified LDL, fucoidin, and advanced glycation end product-modified bovine serum albumin, and absent with unlabeled native LDL. These results suggest that short-chain alpha-hydroxy aldehydes react with amino groups on LDL to yield moieties that are important determinants of recognition by macrophage scavenger receptors.

  10. Structure and chromosomal assignment of the human lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, T; Sawamura, T; Furutani, Y; Matsuoka, R; Yoshida, M C; Fujiwara, H; Masaki, T

    1999-01-01

    We have reported the cDNA cloning of a modified low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, designated lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is postulated to be involved in endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we determined the organization of the human LOX-1 gene, including the 5'-regulatory region. The 5'-regulatory region contained several potential cis-regulatory elements, such as GATA-2 binding element, c-ets-1 binding element, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-responsive element and shear-stress-responsive elements, which may mediate the endothelium-specific and inducible expression of LOX-1. The major transcription-initiation site was found to be located 29 nucleotides downstream of the TATA box and 61 nucleotides upstream from the translation-initiation codon. The minor initiation site was found to be 5 bp downstream from the major site. Most of the promoter activity of the LOX-1 gene was ascribed to the region (-150 to -90) containing the GC and CAAT boxes. The coding sequence was divided into 6 exons by 5 introns. The first 3 exons corresponded to the different functional domains of the protein (cytoplasmic, transmembrane and neck domains), and the residual 3 exons encoded the carbohydrate-recognition domain similar to the case of other C-type lectin genes. The LOX-1 gene was a single-copy gene and assigned to the p12.3-p13.2 region of chromosome 12. Since the locus for a familial hypertension has been mapped to the overlapping region, LOX-1 might be the gene responsible for the hypertension. PMID:10085242

  11. Existence of B/E and E receptors on Hep-G2 cells: a study using colloidal gold- and /sup 125/I-labeled lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hesz, A.; Ingolic, E.; Krempler, F.; Kostner, G.M.

    1987-06-01

    The presence of specific receptors for apolipoprotein B (low-density lipoproteins) and apolipoprotein E (HDL-E) on Hep-G2 cells and human skin fibroblasts was studied by chemical methods and by electron microscopy using a differential gold labeling technique. Fibroblasts bound both types of lipoproteins to one and the same receptor (B/E receptor) as deduced from competition experiments with HDL-E and LDL. Labeled HDL-E, on the other hand, was only partially displaced by cold LDL but was completely displaced by unlabeled HDL-E. Scatchard analysis of lipoprotein binding to Hep-G2 cells revealed an approx 10 times higher binding affinity of apoE-containing lipoproteins as compared to apoB-containing ones. No differences between apoE- or apoB-containing lipoproteins with respect to the morphology of cell binding and intracellular processing were observed. The results are compatible with the concept that Hep-G2 cells possess two kinds of receptors, one specific for apoB- and apoE-containing lipoproteins (B/E receptor) and another specific for apoE only. From these studies we conclude that Hep-G2 cells may serve as a suitable model for studying the lipoprotein metabolism in the liver.

  12. Ethanol extract of propolis protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury by inhibiting lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongqi; Li, Jinguo; Ding, Mingde; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiajun; Jiao, Peng; Han, Ping; Wang, Jiafu; Yao, Shutong

    2014-12-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), as the primary oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) receptor on endothelial cells, plays a crucial role in endothelial injury, which is a driving force in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Our previous studies have shown that ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development. However, the protective effects of EEP against ox-LDL-induced injury in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that EEP attenuates ox-LDL-induced endothelial oxidative injury via modulation of LOX-1-mediated oxidative stress. Our results showed that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to ox-LDL (100 mg/L) led to the decrease in cell viability and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with EEP (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/L) protected against such damages in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EEP mitigated ox-LDL uptake by HUVECs and attenuated ox-LDL-upregulated LOX-1 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, EEP suppressed the ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress as assessed by decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Similar results were observed in the anti-LOX-1 antibody or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)-pretreated HUVECs. These data indicate that EEP may protect HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced injury and that the mechanism at least partially involves its ability to inhibit endothelial LOX-1 upregulation and subsequent oxidative stress.

  13. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Protects Against Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yinyuan; Xian, Xunde; Holland, William L; Tsai, Shirling; Herz, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional uptake receptor for chylomicron remnants in the liver. In vascular smooth muscle cells LRP1 controls reverse cholesterol transport through platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β) trafficking and tyrosine kinase activity. Here we show that LRP1 regulates hepatic energy homeostasis by integrating insulin signaling with lipid uptake and secretion. Somatic inactivation of LRP1 in the liver (hLRP1KO) predisposes to diet-induced insulin resistance with dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis. On a high-fat diet, hLRP1KO mice develop a severe Metabolic Syndrome secondary to hepatic insulin resistance, reduced expression of insulin receptors on the hepatocyte surface and decreased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) translocation. While LRP1 is also required for efficient cell surface insulin receptor expression in the absence of exogenous lipids, this latent state of insulin resistance is unmasked by exposure to fatty acids. This further impairs insulin receptor trafficking and results in increased hepatic lipogenesis, impaired fatty acid oxidation and reduced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride secretion. PMID:27322467

  14. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 is required for parathyroid hormone-induced Sost suppression.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Wang, Weishan; Xie, Liang; Luo, Xianghang; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppresses the expression of the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin (Sost) in osteocytes by inducing nuclear accumulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) to inhibit the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-dependent Sost bone enhancer. Previous studies revealed that lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) mediates the intracellular signaling activation and the anabolic bone effect of PTH. Here, we investigated whether LRP6 mediates the inhibitory effect of PTH on Sost using an osteoblast-specific Lrp6-knockout (LRP6-KO) mouse model. An increased level of Sost mRNA expression was detected in femur tissue from LRP6-KO mice, compared to wild-type littermates. The number of osteocytes expressing sclerostin protein was also increased in bone tissue of LRP6-KO littermates, indicating a negative regulatory role of LRP6 on Sost/sclerostin. In wild-type littermates, intermittent PTH treatment significantly suppressed Sost mRNA expression in bone and the number of sclerostin(+) osteocytes, while the effect of PTH was much less significant in LRP6-KO mice. Additionally, PTH-induced downregulation of MEF2C and 2D, as well as HDAC changes in osteocytes, were abrogated in LRP6-KO mice. These data indicate that LRP6 is required for PTH suppression of Sost expression.

  15. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L; Varughese, Kottayil I

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential. PMID:26578342

  16. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L; Varughese, Kottayil I

    2015-11-18

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential.

  17. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2015-11-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential.

  18. Polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Gang; Gu, Mingyong; Zhou, Zhenyu; Cao, Xuecheng

    2014-01-01

    Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP5) Ala1330Val polymorphism and fracture; however, the conclusions remained controversial. We therefore performed an extensive meta-analysis on 10 published studies with 184479 subjects. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models. LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; I(2) = 29%). We also found that this polymorphism increased fracture risk in Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis according to gender, women was significantly associated with risk of fracture. In the subgroup analysis by type of fracture, LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism showed increased osteoporotic fracture risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that an increased risk of fracture was associated with the LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism.

  19. High-Density Lipoproteins Rescue Diabetes-Impaired Angiogenesis via Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joanne T M; Prosser, Hamish C G; Dunn, Louise L; Vanags, Laura Z; Ridiandries, Anisyah; Tsatralis, Tania; Leece, Laura; Clayton, Zoë E; Yuen, Sui Ching G; Robertson, Stacy; Lam, Yuen Ting; Celermajer, David S; Ng, Martin K C; Bursill, Christina A

    2016-10-01

    Disordered neovascularization and impaired wound healing are important contributors to diabetic vascular complications. We recently showed that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) enhance ischemia-mediated neovascularization, and mounting evidence suggests HDL have antidiabetic properties. We therefore hypothesized that HDL rescue diabetes-impaired neovascularization. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice had reduced blood flow recovery and neovessel formation in a hindlimb ischemia model compared with nondiabetic mice. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusions in diabetic mice restored blood flow recovery and capillary density to nondiabetic levels. Topical rHDL application rescued diabetes-impaired wound closure, wound angiogenesis, and capillary density. In vitro, rHDL increased key mediators involved in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, Siah1, and Siah2, and suppressed the prolyl hydroxylases (PHD) 2 and PHD3. rHDL rescued high glucose-induced impairment of tubulogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A protein production, a finding associated with enhanced phosphorylation of proangiogenic mediators VEGF receptor 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Siah1/2 small interfering RNA knockdown confirmed the importance of HIF-1α stability in mediating rHDL action. Lentiviral short hairpin RNA knockdown of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in vitro and SR-BI(-/-) diabetic mice in vivo attenuated rHDL rescue of diabetes-impaired angiogenesis, indicating a key role for SR-BI. These findings provide a greater understanding of the vascular biological effects of HDL, with potential therapeutic implications for diabetic vascular complications. PMID:27284113

  20. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: Unique tissue-specific functions revealed by selective gene knockout studies

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Anna P.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2008-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (originally called LRP, but now referred to as LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. LRP1 is a member of the LDL receptor family that plays diverse roles in various biological processes including lipoprotein metabolism, degradation of proteases, activation of lysosomal enzymes and cellular entry of bacterial toxins and viruses. Deletion of the LRP1 gene leads to lethality in mice, revealing a critical, but as of yet, undefined role in development. Tissue-specific gene deletion studies reveal an important contribution of LRP1 in the vasculature, central nervous system, in macrophages and in adipocytes. Three important properties of LRP1 dictate its diverse role in physiology: first, its ability to recognize more than thirty distinct ligands; second, its ability to bind a large number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins via determinants located on its cytoplasmic domain in a phosphorylation-specific manner; and third, its ability to associate with and modulate the activity of other transmembrane receptors such as integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:18626063

  1. Biodistribution of AAV8 Vectors Expressing Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor in a Mouse Model of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Jen; Sanmiguel, Julio; Lock, Martin; McMenamin, Deirdre; Draper, Christine; Limberis, Maria P.; Kassim, Sadik H.; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Bell, Peter; Johnston, Julie C.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors based on serotype 8 (AAV8) transduce liver with superior tropism following intravenous (IV) administration. Previous studies conducted by our lab demonstrated that AAV8-mediated transfer of the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene driven by a strong liver-specific promoter (thyroxin-binding globulin [TBG]) leads to high level and persistent gene expression in the liver. The approach proved efficacious in reducing plasma cholesterol levels and resulted in the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in a murine model of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH). Prior to advancing this vector, called AAV8.TBG.hLDLR, to the clinic, we set out to investigate vector biodistribution in an hoFH mouse model following IV vector administration to assess the safety profile of this investigational agent. Although AAV genomes were present in all organs at all time points tested (up to 180 days), vector genomes were sequestered mainly in the liver, which contained levels of vector 3 logs higher than that found in other organs. In both sexes, the level of AAV genomes gradually declined and appeared to stabilize 90 days post vector administration in most organs although vector genomes remained high in liver. Vector loads in the circulating blood were high and close to those in liver at the early time point (day 3) but rapidly decreased to a level close to the limit of quantification of the assay. The results of this vector biodistribution study further support a proposed clinical trial to evaluate AAV8 gene therapy for hoFH patients. PMID:24070336

  2. Biodistribution of AAV8 vectors expressing human low-density lipoprotein receptor in a mouse model of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Jen; Sanmiguel, Julio; Lock, Martin; McMenamin, Deirdre; Draper, Christine; Limberis, Maria P; Kassim, Sadik H; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Bell, Peter; Johnston, Julie C; Rader, Daniel J; Wilson, James M

    2013-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors based on serotype 8 (AAV8) transduce liver with superior tropism following intravenous (IV) administration. Previous studies conducted by our lab demonstrated that AAV8-mediated transfer of the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene driven by a strong liver-specific promoter (thyroxin-binding globulin [TBG]) leads to high level and persistent gene expression in the liver. The approach proved efficacious in reducing plasma cholesterol levels and resulted in the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in a murine model of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH). Prior to advancing this vector, called AAV8.TBG.hLDLR, to the clinic, we set out to investigate vector biodistribution in an hoFH mouse model following IV vector administration to assess the safety profile of this investigational agent. Although AAV genomes were present in all organs at all time points tested (up to 180 days), vector genomes were sequestered mainly in the liver, which contained levels of vector 3 logs higher than that found in other organs. In both sexes, the level of AAV genomes gradually declined and appeared to stabilize 90 days post vector administration in most organs although vector genomes remained high in liver. Vector loads in the circulating blood were high and close to those in liver at the early time point (day 3) but rapidly decreased to a level close to the limit of quantification of the assay. The results of this vector biodistribution study further support a proposed clinical trial to evaluate AAV8 gene therapy for hoFH patients. PMID:24070336

  3. Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein induces macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress via toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shutong; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Sang, Hui; Tian, Hua; Miao, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun

    2012-07-01

    Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) induces intimal foam cell formation, which is promoted by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a cross-point to link cellular processes with multiple risk factors that exist in all stages of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether mm-LDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages involves ERS and its underlying mechanisms. We showed that mm-LDL induced the accumulation of lipid droplets in RAW264.7 macrophages with increased free cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with an antibody against toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Additionally, mm-LDL stimulated the transport of Cy3-labeled activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), a key sensor to the unfolded protein response (UPR), from cytoplasm into nucleus. The expression of phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1), another sensor to the UPR, and its two downstream molecules, X box binding protein 1 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), were significantly upregulated by mm-LDL. The alterations induced by mm-LDL were all significantly inhibited by antibodies against TLR4 or CD36. In addition, the upregulation of p-IRE1 and GRP78 and the nuclear translocation of ATF6 induced by mm-LDL were significantly attenuated by TLR4 siRNA. These results suggest that mm-LDL may induce free cholesterol accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently stimulate ERS and activate the UPR signaling pathway mediated by ATF6 and IRE1 in macrophages, a process that is potentially mediated by TLR4. PMID:22480542

  4. Lipoprotein-mediated lipid transport in insects: analogy to the mammalian lipid carrier system and novel concepts for the functioning of LDL receptor family members.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Kees W; Van der Horst, Dick J

    2005-09-01

    In all animals, lipoproteins are used to transport lipids through the aqueous circulation. Lipids are delivered to mammalian cells by two different mechanisms: via endocytic uptake of the complete lipoprotein particle mediated by members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family, or by selective delivery of lipoprotein-carried lipids at the cell surface, such as lipid uptake following the action of a lipoprotein lipase. Although many structural elements of the lipid transport system of insects are similar to those of mammals, insect lipoprotein-mediated lipid transport was thought to apply only to the latter concept, since the single lipoprotein acts as a reusable lipid shuttle. However, the recent identification of lipoprotein receptors of the LDLR family in insects suggests that lipid transport in these animals may also adopt the first concept. Yet, the endocytic properties of the insect LDLR homologue appear to deviate from those of the mammalian LDLR family members, resulting in the recycling of endocytosed lipoprotein in a transferrin-like manner. This indicates that a hitherto unknown as well as unexpected function can be added to the plethora of functions of LDLR family members. Analysis of the molecular mechanism of the ligand-recycling function of the insect receptor provides also new insight into the possible functioning of the mammalian family members. In the last several years, mammalian and insect lipoprotein-mediated lipid transport systems have been reviewed separately with respect to functioning and lipid delivery. This review, in which new and important developments in the insect field with respect to our understanding of lipid delivery are discussed with a particular focus on the involvement of the LDLR homologue, aims at comparing the two systems, also from an evolutionary biological perspective, and proposes that the two systems are more similar than assumed previously. PMID:16099208

  5. Oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 mediates oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: role of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-ping; Xun, Ke-li; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Tian-tai; Shi, Jing-shan; Du, Guan-hua

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) elicits both necrotic and apoptotic cell death and several mechanisms have been proposed. Ox-LDL induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), a second messenger that might be involved in apoptosis, formation in different types of cells including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). As lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) was the main receptor for ox-LDL, this study was designed to determine whether the apoptosis induced by ox-LDL was mediated by LOX-1 in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether there is an association between LOX-1 mediated apoptosis and the production of ROS. After exposure to ox-LDL (50,100, and 150 microg/ml for 18 h), HUVECs exhibit typical apoptotic characteristics as determined by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry analysis in a dose-dependent pattern. Ox-LDL increases intracellular ROS formation including superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with anti-LOX-1 mAb, Vitamin C, apocynin or catalase significantly reduced ROS production and prevented ox-LDL-induced apoptosis, while indomethacin or allopurinol had no effect. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells and that ROS production and NADPH oxidase might play an important role in ox-LDL-induced apoptosis.

  6. mRNA for low density lipoprotein receptor in brain and spinal cord of immature and mature rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.L.; Russell, D.W.; Goldstein, J.L.; Brown, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Hybridization studies with (/sup 32/P)cDNA probes revealed detectable amounts of mRNA for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the central nervous system (CNS) of rabbits. mRNA levels were highest in the medulla/pons and spinal cord, which were the most heavily myelinated regions that were studied. Lower, but detectable levels were present in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. In the medulla/pons and spinal cord, the levels of receptor mRNA were in a range comparable to that detected in the liver. The levels of receptor mRNA in whole brain were constant from 3 days of age to adulthood and, thus, did not vary in proportion to the rate of myelin synthesis. LDL receptor mRNA in the CNS was produced by the same gene that produced the liver and adrenal mRNA as revealed by the demonstration of a deletion in the neural mRNA of Watanabe-heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits identical to the deletion in the LDL receptor gene of these mutant animals. Using antibodies directed against the bovine LDL receptor, the authors showed that LDL receptor protein is present in the medulla/pons of adult cows. The cell types that express LDL receptors in the CNS and the functions of these receptors are unknown.

  7. FERM-dependent E3 ligase recognition is a conserved mechanism for targeted degradation of lipoprotein receptors.

    PubMed

    Calkin, Anna C; Goult, Benjamin T; Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Hong, Cynthia; Schwabe, John W R; Tontonoz, Peter

    2011-12-13

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDL receptor) regulates LDL receptor (LDLR)-dependent cholesterol uptake, but its mechanism of action, including the molecular basis for its stringent specificity, is poorly understood. Here we show that IDOL uses a singular strategy among E3 ligases for target recognition. The IDOL FERM domain binds directly to a recognition sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors. This physical interaction is independent of IDOL's really interesting new gene (RING) domain E3 ligase activity and its capacity for autoubiquitination. Furthermore, IDOL controls its own stability through autoubiquitination of a unique FERM subdomain fold not present in other FERM proteins. Key residues defining the IDOL-LDLR interaction and IDOL autoubiquitination are functionally conserved in their insect homologs. Finally, we demonstrate that target recognition by IDOL involves a tripartite interaction between the FERM domain, membrane phospholipids, and the lipoprotein receptor tail. Our data identify the IDOL-LDLR interaction as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of lipid uptake and suggest that this interaction could potentially be exploited for the pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism.

  8. FERM-dependent E3 ligase recognition is a conserved mechanism for targeted degradation of lipoprotein receptors

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna C.; Goult, Benjamin T.; Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Hong, Cynthia; Schwabe, John W. R.; Tontonoz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDL receptor) regulates LDL receptor (LDLR)-dependent cholesterol uptake, but its mechanism of action, including the molecular basis for its stringent specificity, is poorly understood. Here we show that IDOL uses a singular strategy among E3 ligases for target recognition. The IDOL FERM domain binds directly to a recognition sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors. This physical interaction is independent of IDOL's really interesting new gene (RING) domain E3 ligase activity and its capacity for autoubiquitination. Furthermore, IDOL controls its own stability through autoubiquitination of a unique FERM subdomain fold not present in other FERM proteins. Key residues defining the IDOL–LDLR interaction and IDOL autoubiquitination are functionally conserved in their insect homologs. Finally, we demonstrate that target recognition by IDOL involves a tripartite interaction between the FERM domain, membrane phospholipids, and the lipoprotein receptor tail. Our data identify the IDOL–LDLR interaction as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of lipid uptake and suggest that this interaction could potentially be exploited for the pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:22109552

  9. Initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is unaffected but endocytosis is delayed in mice lacking the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Herz, J; Qiu, S Q; Oesterle, A; DeSilva, H V; Shafi, S; Havel, R J

    1995-01-01

    Two endocytic receptors, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein (LRP), are thought to act in concert in the hepatic uptake of partially metabolized dietary lipoproteins, the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants in normal mice and in LDLR-deficient [LDLR (-/-)] mice. The rate of chylomicron remnant removal by the liver was normal up to 30 min after intravenous injection of chylomicrons into LDLR (-/-) mice and was unaffected by receptor-associated protein (RAP), a potent inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP. In contrast, endocytosis of the remnants by the hepatocytes, measured by their accumulation in the endosomal fraction and by the rate of hydrolysis of component cholesteryl esters, was dramatically reduced in the absence of the LDLR. Coadministration of RAP prevented the continuing hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants in LDL (-/-) mice after 30 min, consistent with blockade of the slow endocytosis by a RAP-sensitive process. Taken together with previous studies, our results are consistent with a model in which the initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is primarily mediated by mechanisms that do not include LDLR or LRP, possibly involving glycosaminoglycan-bound hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein E. After the remnants bind to these alternative sites on the hepatocyte surface, endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the LDLR and also by a slower and less efficient backup process that is RAP sensitive and therefore most likely involves LRP. PMID:7753850

  10. Cilostazol prevents remnant lipoprotein particle-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by suppression of adhesion molecules and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression via lectin-like receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Park, So Youn; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Chi Dae; Rhim, Byung Yong; Lee, Won Suk; Hong, Ki Whan

    2005-03-01

    This study shows cilostazol effect to prevent remnant lipoprotein particle (RLP)-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Upon incubation of HUVECs with RLP (50 microg/ml), adherent monocytes significantly increased by 3.3-fold with increased cell surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Cilostazol ( approximately 1-100 microM) concentration dependently repressed these variables as did (E)3-[(4-t-butylphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-propenenitrile (BAY 11-7085) (10 microM), a specific nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor. Cilostazol effects were significantly antagonized by iberiotoxin (1 microM), a maxi-K channel blocker. RLP significantly increased expression of lectin-like receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (LOX-1) receptor protein. Upon transfection with antisense LOX-1 oligodeoxynucleotide (As-LOX-1), LOX-1 receptor expression was reduced, whereas HUVECs with sense LOX-1 oligodeoxynucleotide did express high LOX-1 receptor. RLP-stimulated superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were significantly lowered with decreased expression of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 by transfection with As-LOX-1 as did polyinosinic acid (10 microg/ml, a LOX-1 receptor inhibitor). RLP significantly degraded inhibitory kappaBalpha in the cytoplasm and activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 in the nucleus of HUVECs with increased luciferase activity of NF-kappaB, all of which were reversed by cilostazol (10 microM), BAY 11-7085, and polyinosinic acid. Together, cilostazol suppresses RLP-stimulated increased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of LOX-1 receptor-coupled NF-kappaB-dependent nuclear transcription via mediation of the maxi-K channel opening.

  11. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.; Hyman, B.T.

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-r mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 variants and dietary fatty acids: meta-analysis of European origin and African American studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor and signaling molecule that is expressed in adipose and the hypothalamus. Evidence for a role of LRP1 in adiposity is accumulating from animal and in vitro models, but data from human studies are limit...

  13. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and amyloid-β clearance in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain trigger the development of progressive neurodegeneration and dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Perturbation in Aβ clearance, rather than Aβ production, is likely the cause of sporadic, late-onset AD, which accounts for the majority of AD cases. Since cellular uptake and subsequent degradation constitute a major Aβ clearance pathway, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of Aβ has been intensely investigated. Among Aβ receptors, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is one of the most studied receptors. LRP1 is a large endocytic receptor for more than 40 ligands, including apolipoprotein E, α2-macroglobulin and Aβ. Emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that LRP1 is critically involved in brain Aβ clearance. LRP1 is highly expressed in a variety of cell types in the brain including neurons, vascular cells and glial cells, where LRP1 functions to maintain brain homeostasis and control Aβ metabolism. LRP1-mediated endocytosis regulates cellular Aβ uptake by binding to Aβ either directly or indirectly through its co-receptors or ligands. Furthermore, LRP1 regulates several signaling pathways, which also likely influences Aβ endocytic pathways. In this review, we discuss how LRP1 regulates the brain Aβ clearance and how this unique endocytic receptor participates in AD pathogenesis. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying LRP1-mediated Aβ clearance should enable the rational design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:24904407

  14. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fukudome, Takayasu; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ. PMID:27328992

  15. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fukudome, Takayasu; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ. PMID:27328992

  16. Deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase in Neurons Decreases AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Leads to Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Taussig, Matthew D.; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Astarita, Giuseppe; Piomelli, Daniele; Bergman, Bryan C.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.; Eckel, Robert H.; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions of this lipase in the CNS remain largely unknown. We developed mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency that became obese on chow by 16 wks in homozygous mutant mice (NEXLPL-/-) and 10 mo in heterozygous mice (NEXLPL+/-). In the present study, we show that 21 mo NEXLPL+/- mice display substantial cognitive function decline including poorer learning and memory, and increased anxiety with no difference in general motor activities and exploratory behavior. These neurobehavioral abnormalities are associated with a reduction in the 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1 and its phosphorylation, without any alterations in amyloid β accumulation. Importantly, a marked deficit in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the hippocampus precedes the development of the neurobehavioral phenotype of NEXLPL+/- mice. And, a diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA can improve the learning and memory of NEXLPL+/- mice at both 10 mo and 21 mo of age. We interpret these findings to indicate that LPL regulates the availability of PUFA in the CNS and, this in turn, impacts the strength of synaptic plasticity in the brain of aging mice through the modification of AMPA receptor and its phosphorylation. PMID:26263173

  17. Lipoprotein (a) upregulates ABCA1 in liver cells via scavenger receptor-B1 through its oxidized phospholipids[S

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monika; Von Zychlinski-Kleffmann, Anne; Porteous, Carolyn M.; Jones, Gregory T.; Williams, Michael J. A.; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are a well-established risk factor for developing CVD. While Lp(a) levels are thought to be independent of other plasma lipoproteins, some trials have reported a positive association between Lp(a) and HDL. Whether Lp(a) has a direct effect on HDL is not known. Here we investigated to determine whether Lp(a) had any effect on the ABCA1 pathway of HDL production in liver cells. Incubation of HepG2 cells with Lp(a) upregulated the PPARγ protein by 1.7-fold and the liver X receptor α protein by 3-fold. This was accompanied by a 1.8-fold increase in ABCA1 protein and a 1.5-fold increase in cholesterol efflux onto apoA1. We showed that Lp(a) was internalized by HepG2 cells, however, the ABCA1 response to Lp(a) was mediated by the selective uptake of oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) from Lp(a) via the scavenger receptor-B1 and not by Lp(a) internalization per se. We conclude that there is a biological connection between Lp(a) and HDL through the ability of Lp(a)’s oxPLs to upregulate HDL biosynthesis. PMID:25852127

  18. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  19. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL. PMID:25130461

  20. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J.

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detection of Tumor Cells by Targeting Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptors with Gd-Loaded Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles1

    PubMed Central

    Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Lanzardo, Stefania; Alberti, Diego; Belfiore, Simona; Ciampa, Anna; Giovenzana, Giovanni B; Lovazzano, Clara; Pagliarin, Roberto; Aime, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    Gd-DO3A-diph and Gd-AAZTAC17 are lipophilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents that display high affinity for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, on binding to LDL, Gd-DO3A-diph shows a decreased hydration that results in a lower enhancement of water proton relaxation rate. Conversely, Gd-AAZTAC17 displays a strong relaxation enhancement at the imaging fields. Each LDL particle can load up to 100 and 400 UNITS of Gd-DO3A-diph and Gd-AAZTAC17, respectively. Their LDL adducts are taken up by human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2) and melanoma B16 tumor cells when added to the incubation medium. T1 measurements of the labeled cells indicate that Gd-AAZTAC17 is significantly more efficient than Gd-DO3A-diph. Furthermore, it has been found that HepG2 hepatoma cells can internalize higher amounts of Gd-AAZTAC17 than B16 cells and the involvement of LDL receptors (LDLRs) has been demonstrated in competition assays with free LDL. Gd-AAZTAC17/LDL adduct proved to be an efficient probe in the magnetic resonance (MR) visualization of subcutaneous tumors in animal models obtained by injecting B16 melanoma cells into the right flank of mice. Finally, confocal microscopy validation of the distribution of LDL-based probes in the tumor has been obtained by doping the Gd-AAZTAC17/LDL adduct with a fluorescent phospholipid moiety. PMID:18084612

  2. Chlordecone, a mixed pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) agonist, alters cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Zhang Yuan; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-12-01

    Chlordecone (CD) is one of many banned organochlorine (OC) insecticides that are widespread persistent organic pollutants. OC insecticides alter lipid homeostasis in rodents at doses that are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic. Pretreatment of mice or rats with CD altered tissue distribution of a subsequent dose of [{sup 14}C]CD or [{sup 14}C]cholesterol (CH). Nuclear receptors regulate expression of genes important in the homeostasis of CH and other lipids. In this study, we report that CD suppresses in vitro reporter systems for human liver X receptors (LXRs) and activates those for human farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) in a concentration-dependent manner (0-50 {mu}M). Consistent with human PXR activation in vitro, three days after a single dose of CD (15 mg/kg) hepatic microsomal CYP3A11 protein increases in C57BL/6 mice. CD decreases hepatic CH ester content without altering total CH concentration. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) contents of hepatic lipoprotein-rich and microsomal fractions of CD-treated mice are higher than controls. There is a significant reduction in non-high density lipoprotein CH but not apolipoprotein B-48/100 (apoB-48/100) in plasma from CD-treated mice after a 4 h fast. At 14 days after 15 mg CD/kg apoA-I and apoB-100 proteins but not CYP3A11 protein in hepatic microsomes are similar to controls. This work indicates that altered CH homeostasis is a mode of OC insecticide action of relevance after a single dose. This at least partially explains altered CH tissue distribution in CD-pretreated mice.

  3. Adipose tissue deficiency results in severe hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyu; Gao, Mingming; Liao, Jiawei; Qi, Yanfei; Du, Ximing; Wang, Yuhui; Li, Ling; Liu, George; Yang, Hongyuan

    2016-05-01

    Adipose tissue can store over 50% of whole-body cholesterol; however, the physiological role of adipose tissue in cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis has not been directly assessed. Here, we examined lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis in a unique mouse model of severe lipodystrophy: the Seipin(-/-) mice, and also in mice deficient in both low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) and Seipin: the Ldlr(-/-)Seipin(-/-) mice. Plasma cholesterol was moderately increased in the Seipin(-/-) mice when fed an atherogenic diet. Strikingly, plasma cholesterol reached ~6000 mg/dl in the Seipin(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet, as compared to ~1000 mg/dl in the Ldlr(-/-) mice on the same diet. The Seipin(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice also developed spontaneous atherosclerosis on chow diet and severe atherosclerosis on an atherogenic diet. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the hypercholesterolemia of the Seipin(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice, and also alleviated the severity of atherosclerosis. Our results provide direct evidence, for the first time, that the adipose tissue plays a critical role in the clearance of plasma cholesterol. Our results also reveal a previously unappreciated strong link between adipose tissue and LDLR in plasma cholesterol metabolism.

  4. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  5. Structure of an LDLR-RAP Complex Reveals a General Mode for Ligand Recognition by Lipoprotein Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher,C.; Beglova, N.; Blacklow, s.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family are remarkable in their ability to bind an extremely diverse range of protein and lipoprotein ligands, yet the basis for ligand recognition is poorly understood. Here, we report the 1.26 Angstroms X-ray structure of a complex between a two-module region of the ligand binding domain of the LDLR and the third domain of RAP, an escort protein for LDLR family members. The RAP domain forms a three-helix bundle with two docking sites, one for each LDLR module. The mode of recognition at each site is virtually identical: three conserved, calcium-coordinating acidic residues from each LDLR module encircle a lysine side chain protruding from the second helix of RAP. This metal-dependent mode of electrostatic recognition, together with avidity effects resulting from the use of multiple sites, represents a general binding strategy likely to apply in the binding of other basic ligands to LDLR family proteins.

  6. Modified high-density lipoprotein modulates aldosterone release through scavenger receptors via extra cellular signal-regulated kinase and Janus kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarama; Graessler, Juergen; Schwarz, Peter E H; Goettsch, Claudia; Bornstein, Stefan R; Kopprasch, Steffi

    2012-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) manifest significant abnormalities in lipoprotein structure and function. The deleterious impact of oxidative and glycoxidative modifications on HDL-mediated atheroprotective, antiinflammatory, and antioxidative phenomena has been well established. However, the biological effects of modified HDL on adrenal steroidogenesis-which could reveal a pathophysiological link to the overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its adverse cardiovascular consequences often observed in T2D-are not well delineated. We studied the role of modified HDL on aldosterone release from adrenocortical carcinoma cells (NCI-H295R). In vitro modifications of native HDL were performed in the presence of glucose for glycoxidized HDL (glycoxHDL) and sodium hypochlorite for oxidized HDL. Angiotensin II (AngII)-sensitized H295R cells were treated with lipoproteins for 24 h, and supernatant was used to measure aldosterone release. Both native and modified HDL augmented the steroid release from AngII-sensitized cells, with glycoxHDL having the greatest impact. Both the modified forms of HDL induced a significant increase in scavenger receptor expression and employed protein kinase C as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase as downstream effectors of aldosterone release. Native HDL and modified HDL required Janus kinase-2 for combating increased demand in steroidogenesis. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that diabetes-induced modification of HDL may promote adrenocortical aldosterone secretion via different signal transduction pathways. This significant influence on multiple signaling mechanisms could be targeted for future research to implement novel therapeutic trials.

  7. Expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) gene in the mouse germ cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yasuka L; Tanaka, Satomi S; Kasa, Miyuki; Yasuda, Kunio; Tam, Patrick P L; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2006-08-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 gene (Lrp4) was identified by subtractive screening of cDNAs of the migratory primordial germ cells (PGCs) of E8.5-9.5 embryo and E3.5 blastocysts. Lrp4 is expressed in PGCs in the hindgut and the dorsal mesentery of E9.5 embryos, and in germ cells in the genital ridges of male and female E10.5-13.5 embryos. Lrp4 is also expressed in spermatogonia of the neonatal and adult testes and in the immature oocytes and follicular cells of the adult ovary. The absence of Lrp4 expression in the blastocyst, embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells suggests the Lrp4 is a molecular marker that distinguishes the germ cells from embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells. PMID:16434236

  8. Identification of the lectin-like receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human macrophages and its potential role as a scavenger receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, H; Kondratenko, N; Green, S; Steinberg, D; Quehenberger, O

    1998-01-01

    A new receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), has recently been cloned from bovine endothelial cells and human lung. A limited tissue-distribution study suggested that the protein was mainly produced by the vascular endothelium. In the present study we demonstrate that LOX-1 is also expressed in macrophages, where it may function as a scavenger receptor. LOX-1 was not detected in undifferentiated THP-1 cells or in freshly isolated human blood monocytes. However, mature human monocyte-derived macrophages and differentiated THP-1 cells showed high levels of LOX-1 transcripts. Consistent with these results, immunofluorescence staining and FACS analysis demonstrated that LOX-1 protein is expressed on the plasma membrane of macrophages. Western-blot analysis of membranes from macrophages (but not those from monocytes) identified a single band, with an apparent molecular mass of about 40 kDa, that displayed oxidized LDL-binding activity. These results suggest that differentiation induces the expression of LOX-1 in macrophages, where it may play a role as a scavenger receptor and/or a receptor for oxidized LDL. PMID:9693095

  9. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, Kenichi; Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  10. Lipoproteins and lipoprotein metabolism in periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Rachel; Barbour, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the incidence of atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with periodontitis – a chronic infection of the oral cavity. This article summarizes the evidence that suggests periodontitis shifts the lipoprotein profile to be more proatherogenic. LDL-C is elevated in periodontitis and most studies indicate that triglyceride levels are also increased. By contrast, antiatherogenic HDL tends to be low in periodontitis. Periodontal therapy tends to shift lipoprotein levels to a healthier profile and also reduces subclinical indices of atherosclerosis. In summary, periodontal disease alters lipoprotein metabolism in ways that could promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:20835400

  11. Use of an anti-low density lipoprotein receptor antibody to quantify the role of the LDL receptor in the removal of chylomicron remnants in the mouse in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, S Y; Fong, L G; Kirven, M J; Cooper, A D

    1991-01-01

    Lipoproteins are removed from the plasma by LDL receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. The relative contribution of these has been established for LDL by using modified lipoproteins, but this has not been possible for apoE-rich lipoproteins, such as chylomicron remnants. To do this, we used a monospecific antibody to the rat LDL receptor. The antibody was injected intravenously into mice followed by 125I-lipoproteins. Blood samples were obtained sequentially and radioactivity measured to determine the plasma clearance of the lipoproteins. The animals were then sacrificed and the tissues removed, dried, and the radioactivity measured to determine tissue uptake. An albumin space was also measured to correct for blood trapping. With 125I-human LDL, approximately 50% of the injected dose was cleared in 180 min. This was reduced to 30% by the antibody and this was identical to the disappearance of reductively methylated LDL. This is a lower estimate of LDL-mediated uptake (40%) than in other species. LDL uptake per gram tissue was similar for the liver and the adrenal gland and was approximately 50% LDL receptor-dependent in both tissues. With 125I-chylomicron remnants, clearance was much more rapid with approximately 50% cleared in 5 min. By agarose gel electrophoresis, radioactivity was not transferred from chylomicron remnants to other lipoprotein classes. Chylomicron remnants with label on only apoB or in 3H-cholesterol esters showed a similar pattern. Combining the estimates of the three labeling procedures, approximately 35% of the 30 s and 25% of the 5 min chylomicron remnant disappearance was LDL receptor dependent. The liver, per gram tissue, took up five times as much radioactivity as the adrenal gland. At 5 min, at least 50% of this was LDL receptor-dependent in liver and 65% in adrenal gland. We conclude that the LDL receptor plays a major, and somewhat similar quantitative role in the clearance of both LDL and chylomicron remnants in the mouse

  12. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Landowski, Lila M; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V; West, Adrian K; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-15

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system.

  13. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S.; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V.; West, Adrian K.; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system. PMID:26598525

  14. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: a physiological Aβ homeostatic mechanism with multiple therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay P.; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is the main cell surface receptor involved in brain and systemic clearance of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) toxin amyloid-beta (Aβ). In plasma, a soluble form of LRP1 (sLRP1) is the major transport protein for peripheral Aβ. LRP1 in brain endothelium and mural cells mediates Aβ efflux from brain by providing a transport mechanism for A across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). sLRP1 maintains a plasma ‘sink’ activity for Aβ through binding of peripheral Aβ which in turn inhibits re-entry of free plasma Aβ into the brain. LRP1 in the liver mediates systemic clearance of Aβ. In AD, LRP1 expression at the BBB is reduced and Aβ binding to circulating sLRP1 is compromised by oxidation. Cell surface LRP1 and circulating sLRP1 represent druggable targets which can be therapeutically modified to restore the physiological mechanisms of brain Aβ homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how increasing LRP1 expression at the BBB and liver with lifestyle changes, statins, plant-based active principles and/or gene therapy on one hand, and how replacing dysfunctional plasma sLRP1 on the other regulate Aβ clearance from brain ultimately controlling the onset and/or progression of AD. PMID:22820095

  15. Interplay between Basic Residues of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 with Viral Receptors, Neutralizing Antibodies and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Coto-Llerena, Mairene; Mensa, Laura; Crespo, Gonzalo; González, Patricia; Navasa, Miquel; Forns, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Positively-charged amino acids are located at specific positions in the envelope glycoprotein E2 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV): two histidines (H) and four arginines (R) in two conserved WHY and one RGERCDLEDRDR motifs, respectively. Additionally, the E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) is rich in basic amino acids. To investigate the role(s) of these residues in HCV entry, we subjected to comparative infection and sedimentation analysis cell culture-produced (HCVcc, genotype 2a) wild type virus, a panel of alanine single-site mutants and a HVR1-deletion variant. Initially, we analyzed the effects of these mutations on E2-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions. The positive milieu of the HVR1, formulated by its basic amino acids (key residues the conserved H386 and R408), and the two highly conserved basic residues H488 and R648 contributed to E2-HS interactions. Mutations in these residues did not alter the HCVcc-CD81 entry, but they modified the HCVcc-scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) dependent entry and the neutralization by anti-E2 or patients IgG. Finally, separation by density gradients revealed that mutant viruses abolished partially or completely the infectivity of low density particles, which are believed to be associated with lipoproteins. This study shows that there exists a complex interplay between the basic amino acids located in HVR1 and other conserved E2 motifs with the HS, the SR-BI, and neutralizing antibodies and suggests that HCV-associated lipoproteins are implicated in these interactions. PMID:23300734

  16. Interplay between basic residues of hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 with viral receptors, neutralizing antibodies and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Koutsoudakis, George; Dragun, Jakub; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Sofia; Coto-Llerena, Mairene; Mensa, Laura; Crespo, Gonzalo; González, Patricia; Navasa, Miquel; Forns, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Positively-charged amino acids are located at specific positions in the envelope glycoprotein E2 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV): two histidines (H) and four arginines (R) in two conserved WHY and one RGERCDLEDRDR motifs, respectively. Additionally, the E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) is rich in basic amino acids. To investigate the role(s) of these residues in HCV entry, we subjected to comparative infection and sedimentation analysis cell culture-produced (HCVcc, genotype 2a) wild type virus, a panel of alanine single-site mutants and a HVR1-deletion variant. Initially, we analyzed the effects of these mutations on E2-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions. The positive milieu of the HVR1, formulated by its basic amino acids (key residues the conserved H³⁸⁶ and R⁴⁰⁸), and the two highly conserved basic residues H⁴⁸⁸ and R⁶⁴⁸ contributed to E2-HS interactions. Mutations in these residues did not alter the HCVcc-CD81 entry, but they modified the HCVcc-scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) dependent entry and the neutralization by anti-E2 or patients IgG. Finally, separation by density gradients revealed that mutant viruses abolished partially or completely the infectivity of low density particles, which are believed to be associated with lipoproteins. This study shows that there exists a complex interplay between the basic amino acids located in HVR1 and other conserved E2 motifs with the HS, the SR-BI, and neutralizing antibodies and suggests that HCV-associated lipoproteins are implicated in these interactions. PMID:23300734

  17. Recombinant hepatitis C virus-envelope protein 2 interactions with low-density lipoprotein/CD81 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Afonso, Ana; Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Nogueira, Camila Tita; Tansini, Aline; Cappelini, Luciana Teresa Dias; Malagó, Wilson; da Silva, Flávio Henrique; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; da Costa, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 2 (E2) is involved in viral binding to host cells. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant E2B and E2Y HCV proteins in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively, and to study their interactions with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and CD81 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the ECV304 bladder carcinoma cell line. To investigate the effects of human LDL and differences in protein structure (glycosylated or not) on binding efficiency, the recombinant proteins were either associated or not associated with lipoproteins before being assayed. The immunoreactivity of the recombinant proteins was analysed using pooled serum samples that were either positive or negative for hepatitis C. The cells were immunophenotyped by LDLr and CD81 using flow cytometry. Binding and binding inhibition assays were performed in the presence of LDL, foetal bovine serum (FCS) and specific antibodies. The results revealed that binding was reduced in the absence of FCS, but that the addition of human LDL rescued and increased binding capacity. In HUVEC cells, the use of antibodies to block LDLr led to a significant reduction in the binding of E2B and E2Y. CD81 antibodies did not affect E2B and E2Y binding. In ECV304 cells, blocking LDLr and CD81 produced similar effects, but they were not as marked as those that were observed in HUVEC cells. In conclusion, recombinant HCV E2 is dependent on LDL for its ability to bind to LDLr in HUVEC and ECV304 cells. These findings are relevant because E2 acts to anchor HCV to host cells; therefore, high blood levels of LDL could enhance viral infectivity in chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:26018451

  18. Dietary herring improves plasma lipid profiles and reduces atherosclerosis in obese low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Britt G; Wikström, Johannes; Jakubowicz, Robert; Marmon, Sofia K; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Jansson, Nina; Gan, Li-Ming; Undeland, Ingrid; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2012-03-01

    Diet is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and high fish intake has been associated with vascular health in population studies. However, intervention studies have been inconclusive. In this study, male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were given 16-week high fat/high sucrose diets, supplemented with either minced herring fillets or minced beef. The diets were matched in total fat and cholesterol content; taurine content and fatty acid composition was analysed. Body weights were recorded throughout the study; plasma lipids were analysed at week 8 and 16. Body composition and adipocyte size were evaluated at study end. Atherosclerosis was evaluated at week 12 (ultrasound) and at termination (en face histology). Herring-fed mice had a higher proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hepatic triacylglycerides (TAG) and phospholipid fractions. The herring-fed mice had increased body weight (P=0.007), and reduced epididymal adipocyte size (P=0.009), despite similar food intake and body composition as the beef-fed mice. The herring-fed mice had lower plasma TAG and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol concentrations throughout the study (TAG; P=0.0012 and 0.004, VLDL-cholesterol; P=0.006 and 0.041, week 8 and 16, respectively). At week 16, the herring-fed had higher plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.004) and less atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic arch (P=0.007) compared with the beef-fed mice. In conclusion, dietary herring in comparison to beef markedly improved vascular health in this mouse model, suggesting that herring provides an added value beyond its content of macronutrients.

  19. Trans-9-octadecenoic acid is biologically neutral and does not regulate the low density lipoprotein receptor as the cis isomer does in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Woollett, L A; Daumerie, C M; Dietschy, J M

    1994-09-01

    The concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL-C) is primarily determined by the rate at which LDL-C is produced (Jt) and the rate at which the liver takes up this particle through receptor-dependent transport (Jm). The accumulation of specific dietary fatty acids in the liver profoundly alters these kinetic parameters and will either increase hepatic receptor activity or further suppress Jm, depending upon the particular fatty acid that enriches the various lipid pools. This study tests the thesis that the cellular effects of each fatty acid are determined by the ability of that lipid to act as an effective substrate for cholesteryl ester formation by examining the metabolic effects of either cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1(9c)), the preferred substrate for esterification, or trans-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1(9t)), a poor substrate for this reaction. When fed to hamsters for 30 days, the steady-state concentration of cholesteryl esters was markedly increased by the 18:1(9c), as compared to the 18:1(9t), compound. In animals receiving the 18:1(9c) fatty acid, hepatic receptor activity was significantly increased, LDL-C production was suppressed, and the steady-state LDL-C concentration was reduced. In contrast, the 18:1(9t) fatty acid did not significantly alter Jm, Jt, or the plasma LDL-C level from those values found in the control animals fed an isocaloric amount of a biologically neutral fatty acid, octanoic acid. Despite these different effects on the parameters of LDL metabolism, neither the cis nor trans fatty acid altered net cholesterol delivery to the liver from de novo sterol synthesis in any tissue in the body or from uptake of dietary cholesterol across the intestine. Therefore, these studies provide strong support for the thesis that fatty acids exert regulatory effects on hepatic LDL receptor activity by altering the distribution of cholesterol in the hepatocyte between a putative regulatory pool and the inert pool of

  20. Factor VIII Interacts with the Endocytic Receptor Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 via an Extended Surface Comprising "Hot-Spot" Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Madsen, Jesper J; Faber, Johan H; Zuurveld, Marleen G; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Olsen, Ole H; Stennicke, Henning R; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2015-07-01

    Lysine residues are implicated in driving the ligand binding to the LDL receptor family. However, it has remained unclear how specificity is regulated. Using coagulation factor VIII as a model ligand, we now study the contribution of individual lysine residues in the interaction with the largest member of the LDL receptor family, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1). Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and SPR interaction analysis on a library of lysine replacement variants as two independent approaches, we demonstrate that the interaction between factor VIII (FVIII) and LRP1 occurs over an extended surface containing multiple lysine residues. None of the individual lysine residues account completely for LRP1 binding, suggesting an additive binding model. Together with structural docking studies, our data suggest that FVIII interacts with LRP1 via an extended surface of multiple lysine residues that starts at the bottom of the C1 domain and winds around the FVIII molecule. PMID:25903134

  1. Factor VIII Interacts with the Endocytic Receptor Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 via an Extended Surface Comprising “Hot-Spot” Lysine Residues♦

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Madsen, Jesper J.; Faber, Johan H.; Zuurveld, Marleen G.; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Olsen, Ole H.; Stennicke, Henning R.; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Lysine residues are implicated in driving the ligand binding to the LDL receptor family. However, it has remained unclear how specificity is regulated. Using coagulation factor VIII as a model ligand, we now study the contribution of individual lysine residues in the interaction with the largest member of the LDL receptor family, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1). Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and SPR interaction analysis on a library of lysine replacement variants as two independent approaches, we demonstrate that the interaction between factor VIII (FVIII) and LRP1 occurs over an extended surface containing multiple lysine residues. None of the individual lysine residues account completely for LRP1 binding, suggesting an additive binding model. Together with structural docking studies, our data suggest that FVIII interacts with LRP1 via an extended surface of multiple lysine residues that starts at the bottom of the C1 domain and winds around the FVIII molecule. PMID:25903134

  2. Chronic Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lectin-Like Low Density Lipoprotein (LOX-1) Receptor Expression in Heart of Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Simin; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sobhani, Vahid; Ababzadeh, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overexpression of lectin-like low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) receptor plays an important role in hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications such as atherosclerosis. Based on the beneficial effects of exercise on preventing cardiovascular complications of diabetes, we aimed to examine the protective effects of aerobic exercise on expression of LOX-1 receptor and production of free radicals in the heart of diabetic rats. Methods: Four groups of rats were used: (n = 5 per group): sedentary normal, trained normal, sedentary diabetes and trained diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The exercise protocol was consisted of swimming 30 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Plasma glucose was evaluated at initiation, weeks 4 and 8 of experiment. At the end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and the heart was removed for determination of nitrate, malondialdehyde, and LOX-1 gene expression. Results: In normal non-diabetic rats, the blood glucose level was <150 mg/dl; however, the induction of diabetes resulted in levels more than >400 mg/dl. Gene expression of LOX-1 was increased in the heart of diabetic rats. Exercise reduced the gene expression of this protein in diabetic states without reducing the blood glucose. Finally, swimming exercise decreased the malondialdehyde and nitrate levels in heart tissue both in control and diabetic rats. Conclusion: Swimming exercise reduces heart expression of the LOX-1 receptor in accompany with reduction of free radicals production. Since these parameters are important in generation of diabetic complications, swimming exercise is a good candidate for reducing these complications. PMID:26432573

  3. Electric field-induced redistribution and postfield relaxation of low density lipoprotein receptors on cultured human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The lateral mobility of unliganded low density lipoprotein-receptor (LDL-R) on the surface of human fibroblasts has been investigated by studying the generation and relaxation of concentration differences induced by exposure of the cultured cells to steady electric fields. The topographic distribution of receptors was determined by fluorescence microscopy of cells labeled with the intensely fluorescent, biologically active LDL derivative dioctadecylindolcarbocyanine LDL (dil(3)-LDL), or with native LDL and anti-LDL indirect immunofluorescence. Exposure of the LDL-receptor- internalization defective J. D. cells (GM2408A) to an electric field of 10 V/cm for 1 h at 22 degrees C causes greater than 80% of the cells to have an asymmetric distribution of LDL-R; receptors accumulate at the more negative pole of the cell. In contrast, only 20% of LDL- internalization normal GM3348 cells exposed to identical conditions have asymmetrical distributions. Phase micrographs taken during electric-field exposure rule out cell movement as the responsible mechanism for the effect. In both cell types, postfield labeling with the F-actin-specific fluorescent probe nitrobenzoxadiazole-phallacidin shows that no topographic alteration of the actin cytoskeleton accompanies the redistribution of cell surface LDL-Rs, and indirect immunofluorescence labeling of the coat protein clathrin shows that coated pits do not redistribute asymmetrically. Measurements of the postfield relaxation in the percentage of GM2408A cells showing an asymmetric distribution allow an estimate of the effective postfield diffusion coefficient of the unliganded LDL-R. At 37 degrees C, D = 2.0 X 10(-9) cm2/s, decreasing to 1.1 X 10(-9) cm2/s at 22 degrees C, and D = 3.5 X 10(-10) cm2/s at 10 degrees C. These values are substantially larger than those measured by photobleaching methods for the LDL-R complexed with dil(3)-LDL on intact cells, but are comparable to those measured on membrane blebs, and are consistent

  4. C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor LOX-1 Promotes Dendritic Cell-Mediated Class-Switched B Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joo, HyeMee; Li, Dapeng; Dullaers, Melissa; Kim, Tae-Whan; Duluc, Dorothee; Upchurch, Katherine; Xue, Yaming; Zurawski, Sandy; Le Grand, Roger; Liu, Yong-Jun; Kuroda, Marcelo; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, SangKon

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a pattern recognition receptor for a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. However, LOX-1 function in the host immune response is not fully understood. Here, we report that LOX-1 expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells promotes humoral responses. On B cells LOX-1 signaling upregulated CCR7, promoting cellular migration towards lymphoid tissues. LOX-1 signaling on DCs licensed the cells to promote B cell differentiation into class-switched plasmablasts, and led to downregulation of chemokine receptor CXCR5 and upregulation of chemokine receptor CCR10 on plasmablasts, which enabled their exit from germinal centers and migration towards local mucosa and skin. Finally, we found that targeting influenza hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) subunit to LOX-1 elicited HA1-specific protective antibody responses in rhesus macaques. Thus, LOX-1 expressed on B cells and DC cells has complementary functions to promote humoral immune responses. PMID:25308333

  5. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. METHODS: Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30

  6. Induction of Experimental Arthritis by Borrelial Lipoprotein and CpG Motifs: Are Toll-Like Receptors 2, 4, 9 or CD-14 Involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Batsford, S.; Dunn, J.; Mihatsch, M.

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins and CpG-DNA are ligands for Toll-Like-Receptors (TLR) 2 and 9 respectively. Both classes of molecules were reported to induce experimental arthritis in rodents following direct intra-articular injection. Here we studied: (1) whether arthritis induction by Outer surface (Lipo)protein A (OspA) (B.burgdorferi) involved the TLR-2 as well as the TLR-4 or the CD-14 receptors in addition, and (2) re-examined the arthritogenic potential of CpG-DNA motifs in mice. Following intra-articular injection of the test substances [20 {micro}g recombinant, lipidated OspA; 1nM(6 {micro}g) to 10nM(60 {micro}g) synthetic CpG-DNA], inflammation was monitored by {sup 99}Tc scintigraphy (ratio left/right knee joint uptake > 1.1 indicates inflammation) and by histology. Lipoprotein OspA induced severe, acute arthritis in TLR-2{sup +/+} w.t. but not in TLR-2{sup -/-} mice (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the severity of arthritis induced in TLR-4{sup +/+} w.t. and TLR-4{sup -/-} mutant mice, or between CD14{sup +/+} w.t. and CD14{sup -/-} mice. CpG-DNA (1or 10 nM) did not cause notable inflammation in C57BL/6 mice; {sup 99}Tc ratios were < 1.0 and histology showed only minimal changes. Induction of arthritis by the OspA lipoprotein of B.burgdorferi involves the TLR-2 receptor, no evidence for additional participation of TLR-4 or CD14 receptors was found. Intra-articular injection of CpG-DNA did not produce manifest joint injury in mice, at variance with previous reports.

  7. Expression of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 in human and murine macrophages: upregulated expression by TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, H; Kume, N; Kataoka, H; Murase, T; Nishi, E; Sawamura, T; Masaki, T; Kita, T

    1998-11-27

    Uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and subsequent foam cell transformation have been implicated in early atherogenesis. Although multiple molecules, including class A and B scavenger receptors, have been identified as Ox-LDL receptors, additional receptors may also be involved in this process. Here, we provide evidence that lectin-like Ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), a novel Ox-LDL receptor initially identified in vascular endothelial cells, is also expressed in macrophages in humans and mice. Expression of LOX-1 can be induced after macrophage-like differentiation in vitro in human peripheral blood monocytes and the related cell line THP-1 cells. Furthermore, LOX-1 expression can also be detected in resident peritoneal macrophages, and can be upregulated by an inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. These results suggest that LOX-1 in macrophages may play an important role in Ox-LDL uptake and subsequent foam cell formation in this cell type.

  8. Dysregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Pathway Is Involved in Lipid Disorder-Mediated Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Kun Ling; Ruan, Xiong Zhong; Liu, Bi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is a negative feedback system that plays important roles in the regulation of plasma and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. To maintain a cholesterol homeostasis, LDLR expression is tightly regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in transcriptional level and by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in posttranscriptional level. The dysregulation of LDLR expression results in abnormal lipid accumulation in cells and tissues, such as vascular smooth muscle cells, hepatic cells, renal mesangial cells, renal tubular cells and podocytes. It has been demonstrated that inflammation, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and hyperglycemia induce the disruption of LDLR pathway, which might contribute to lipid disorder-mediated organ injury (atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, kidney fibrosis, etc). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a critical mediator in the disruption of LDLR pathway caused by pathogenic factors. The mTOR complex1 activation upregulates LDLR expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, consequently resulting in lipid deposition. This paper mainly reviews the mechanisms for the dysregulation of LDLR pathway and its roles in lipid disorder-mediated organ injury under various pathogenic conditions. Understanding these mechanisms leading to the abnormality of LDLR expression contributes to find potential new drug targets in lipid disorder-mediated diseases. PMID:27019638

  9. Characterization of a receptor for oxidized low-density lipoproteins on rat Kupffer cells: similarity to macrosialin.

    PubMed Central

    Van Velzen, A G; Da Silva, R P; Gordon, S; Van Berkel, T J

    1997-01-01

    Rat liver Kupffer cell membranes contain a protein that recognizes specifically oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). Visualization after blotting under reducing conditions indicates that the receptor is a monomeric protein, with an estimated molecular mass of 115-120 kDa. N-Glycosidase F and endoglycosidase F treatment resulted in a fall in estimated molecular mass of 24 and 11 kDa respectively, whereas O-glycosidase was ineffective. No effect on the extent of interaction with oxLDL was noticed, suggesting that glycans are not essential for ligand recognition. Using a polyclonal antibody to mouse macrosialin, we visualized macrosialin on blot, and compared this glycoprotein with the oxLDL-binding protein. It appears that the two glycoproteins have a similar molecular mass and are comparably affected by treatment with the different glycosidases. Incubation with trypsin resulted in a reduction in the estimated molecular mass of about 25 kDa for both the oxLDL-binding protein and macrosialin. These results indicate that the oxLDL-binding protein and macrosialin are identical, suggesting a role for macrosialin in modified LDL catabolism. PMID:9065757

  10. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediated endocytosis of β1-integrin influences cell adhesion and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Rabiej, Verena K; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Wagner, Timo; Goetze, Kristina; Storck, Steffen E; Eble, Johannes A; Weggen, Sascha; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2016-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) has been shown to interact with β1-integrin and regulate its surface expression. LRP1 knock-out cells exhibit altered cytoskeleton organization and decreased cell migration. Here we demonstrate coupled endocytosis of LRP1 and β1-integrin and the involvement of the intracellular NPxY2 motif of LRP1 in this process. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts harboring a knock in replacement of the NPxY2 motif of LRP1 by a multiple alanine cassette (AAxA) showed elevated surface expression of β1-integrin and decreased β1-integrin internalization rates. As a consequence, cell spreading was altered and adhesion rates were increased in our cell model. Cells formed more focal adhesion complexes, whereby in vitro cell migration rates were decreased. Similar results could be observed in a corresponding mouse model, the C57Bl6 LRP1 NPxYxxL knock in mice, therefore, the biochemistry of cellular adhesion was altered in primary cortical neurons. In vivo cell migration experiments demonstrated a disturbance of neuroblast cell migration along the rostral migratory stream. In summary, our results indicate that LRP1 interacts with β1-integrin mediating integrin internalization and thus correlates with downstream signaling of β1-integrin such as focal adhesion dynamics. Consequently, the disturbance of this interaction resulted in a dysfunction in in vivo and in vitro cell adhesion and cell migration.

  11. Mutations in the very low-density lipoprotein receptor VLDLR cause cerebellar hypoplasia and quadrupedal locomotion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Tayfun; Akarsu, Nurten; Uz, Elif; Caglayan, Safak; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Onat, Onur Emre; Tan, Meliha; Tan, Uner

    2008-01-01

    Quadrupedal gait in humans, also known as Unertan syndrome, is a rare phenotype associated with dysarthric speech, mental retardation, and varying degrees of cerebrocerebellar hypoplasia. Four large consanguineous kindreds from Turkey manifest this phenotype. In two families (A and D), shared homozygosity among affected relatives mapped the trait to a 1.3-Mb region of chromosome 9p24. This genomic region includes the VLDLR gene, which encodes the very low-density lipoprotein receptor, a component of the reelin signaling pathway involved in neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Sequence analysis of VLDLR revealed nonsense mutation R257X in family A and single-nucleotide deletion c2339delT in family D. Both these mutations are predicted to lead to truncated proteins lacking transmembrane and signaling domains. In two other families (B and C), the phenotype is not linked to chromosome 9p. Our data indicate that mutations in VLDLR impair cerebrocerebellar function, conferring in these families a dramatic influence on gait, and that hereditary disorders associated with quadrupedal gait in humans are genetically heterogeneous. PMID:18326629

  12. Telmisartan increases lipoprotein lipase expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi Nan; Liu, Min; Jing, Dan Qing; Mu, Yi Ming; Lu, Ju Ming; Pan, Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their hypotensive properties, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert clinical antidyslipidemic effects. The mechanism underlying these ARB lipid metabolic effects remains unclear. Some ARBs, for example, telmisartan, activate peroxisome proliferator-activated activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). We hypothesized that PPAR-gamma-activating ARBs might exert antidyslipidemic effects via PPAR-alpha. In this study, we assessed the effect of telmisartan on the expression of PPAR-alpha and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). PPAR-alpha expression was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in HepG2 hepatocytes as well as differentiated C2C12 myocytes treated with increasing concentrations of telmisartan (0.1-10 μmol/L) for 48 h. Results showed that 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L telmisartan significantly increased the expression of PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells (p < 0.01). No effect was shown in differentiated C2C12 cells. Similarly, 1 µmol/L and 10 μmol/L telmisartan significantly increased the expression of LPL mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells (p < 0.01), and this increase was significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited by the PPAR-alpha-specific antagonist MK886. These results indicate that certain of the antidyslipidemic effects of telmisartan might be mediated via increased PPAR-alpha-dependent induction of LPL expression. PMID:24067162

  13. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willecke, Florian; Yuan, Chujun; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Hu, Yunying; Barnhart, Shelley; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD) containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR). After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD), showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states. PMID:26046657

  14. Lectin-like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LOX-1): A Chameleon Receptor for Oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Zeya, Bushra; Arjuman, Albina; Chandra, Nimai Chand

    2016-08-16

    LOX-1, one of the main receptors for oxLDL, is found mainly on the surface of endothelial cells. It is a multifacet 52 kDa type II transmembrane protein that structurally belongs to the C-type lectin family. It exists with short intracellular N-terminal and long extracellular C-terminal hydrophilic domains separated by a hydrophobic domain of 26 amino acids. LOX-1 acts like a bifunctional receptor either showing pro-atherogenicity by activating the NFκB-mediated down signaling cascade for gene activation of pro-inflammatory molecules or playing an atheroprotective agent by receptor-mediated uptake of oxLDL in the presence of an anti-inflammatory molecule like IL-10. Mildly, moderately, and highly oxidized LDL show their characteristic features upon LOX-1 activation and its ligand binding indenture. The polymorphic LOX-1 genes are intensively associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial diseases. The splicing variant LOX IN dimerizes with the native form of LOX-1 and protects cells from damage by oxidized LDL. In the developing field of regenerating medicine, LOX-1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Lectin-like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LOX-1): A Chameleon Receptor for Oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Zeya, Bushra; Arjuman, Albina; Chandra, Nimai Chand

    2016-08-16

    LOX-1, one of the main receptors for oxLDL, is found mainly on the surface of endothelial cells. It is a multifacet 52 kDa type II transmembrane protein that structurally belongs to the C-type lectin family. It exists with short intracellular N-terminal and long extracellular C-terminal hydrophilic domains separated by a hydrophobic domain of 26 amino acids. LOX-1 acts like a bifunctional receptor either showing pro-atherogenicity by activating the NFκB-mediated down signaling cascade for gene activation of pro-inflammatory molecules or playing an atheroprotective agent by receptor-mediated uptake of oxLDL in the presence of an anti-inflammatory molecule like IL-10. Mildly, moderately, and highly oxidized LDL show their characteristic features upon LOX-1 activation and its ligand binding indenture. The polymorphic LOX-1 genes are intensively associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial diseases. The splicing variant LOX IN dimerizes with the native form of LOX-1 and protects cells from damage by oxidized LDL. In the developing field of regenerating medicine, LOX-1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27419271

  16. Differential activation of the Toll-like receptor 2/6 complex by lipoproteins of Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 9.

    PubMed

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J; Rebel, Johanna M J; Smits, Mari A; van Putten, Jos P M; Smith, Hilde E

    2010-07-14

    Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. Worldwide, S. suis serotype 2 is most frequently isolated from diseased piglets, but the less virulent serotype 9 is emerging, at least in Europe. We compared the activation of human Toll-like receptors (hTLRs) by S. suis serotype 2 and 9 strains to better understand the role of the innate immune response in fighting S. suis infections. Neither live nor heat-killed log phase grown S. suis activated the hTLR1/2, hTLR2/6 and hTLR4/MD-2 complexes. However, the hTLR2/6 complex was specifically activated by both serotypes after disruption of the cell wall synthesis using penicillin. Activation levels of the hTLR2/6 complex were higher for serotype 9 strains compared to serotype 2 strains suggesting intrinsic differences in cell wall composition between both serotypes. The hTLR2/6 activating fractions decreased in molecular size after digestion with proteinase K and were sensitive for lipoprotein lipase digestion and NaOH hydrolysis, indicating lipoprotein(s) as active component(s). Overall, our results indicate that S. suis lipoproteins activate TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2 and that the clinically different serotypes 2 and 9 display differential release of TLR ligand when cell wall integrity is compromised.

  17. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6) Is a Novel Nutritional Therapeutic Target for Hyperlipidemia, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-woong

    2015-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and has a unique structure, which facilitates its multiple functions as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling and as a ligand receptor for endocytosis. The role LRP6 plays in metabolic regulation, specifically in the nutrient-sensing pathway, has recently garnered considerable interest. Patients carrying an LRP6 mutation exhibit elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose, which cooperatively constitute the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Since the discovery of this mutation, the general role of LRP6 in lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and atherosclerosis has been thoroughly researched. These studies have demonstrated that LRP6 plays a role in LDL receptor-mediated LDL uptake. In addition, when the LRP6 mutant impaired Wnt-LRP6 signaling, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis developed. LRP6 regulates lipid homeostasis and body fat mass via the nutrient-sensing mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, the mutant LRP6 triggers atherosclerosis by activating platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-dependent vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. This review highlights the exceptional opportunities to study the pathophysiologic contributions of LRP6 to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, which implicate LRP6 as a latent regulator of lipid metabolism and a novel therapeutic target for nutritional intervention. PMID:26046396

  18. Adenosine receptor agonists for promotion of dermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Valls, María D.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Montesinos, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process that involves a well coordinated, highly regulated series of events including inflammation, tissue formation, revascularization and tissue remodeling. However, this orderly sequence is impaired in certain pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes mellitus, venous insufficiency, chronic glucocorticoid use, aging and malnutrition. Together with proper wound care, promotion of the healing process is the primary objective in the management of chronic poorly healing wounds. Recent studies have demonstrated that A2A adenosine receptor agonists promote wound healing in normal and diabetic animals and one such agonist, Sonedenoson, is currently being evaluated as a prospective new therapy of diabetic foot ulcers. We will review the mechanisms by which adenosine receptor activation affects the function of the cells and tissues that participate in wound healing, emphasizing the potential beneficial impact of adenosine receptor agonists in diabetic impaired healing. PMID:19041853

  19. Effect of alcohol on hepatic receptor of high density lipoproteins (HDL)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.C.; Miller, B.M. V.A. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN )

    1991-03-11

    Moderate alcohol intake has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol and proteins. The seemingly protective effect' of moderate alcohol drinking against cardiovascular diseases has been attributed to an increase in serum HDL. In this study, the authors show that a receptor for HDL is present in rat liver. Rat liver membrane was prepared by stepwise ultracentrifugation. Apo Al was iodinated using {sup 125}I-NaI and IODO-beads. HDL was labeled by incubating with {sup 125}I-apo Al then refloated be centrifugation. Binding of {sup 125}I-HDL to rat liver membrane reached equilibrium by 2-3 h and was saturable at 37C. The binding was inhibited 80% by excess unlabeled HDL, but was inhibited only 25% by excess LDL. It could also be inhibited by preincubating HDL with anti-apo Al or anti-apo E antisera but not with anti-apo AIV or control sera. The binding affinity of HDL to the liver membrane of rats fed alcohol for 5 wk was 50% that of their pair-fed controls. Thus a decrease in the binding of HDL to liver membrane due to alcohol-drinking may result in a slower clearance of HDL by the liver and consequently a higher HDL concentration in the serum.

  20. Association between soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 levels and coronary slow flow phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Caglar, Ilker Murat; Ozde, Cem; Caglar, Fatma Nihan Turhan; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Ugurlucan, Murat; Karakaya, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) has been associated with myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, life-threatening arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and increased cardiovascular mortality similar to coronary artery disease (CAD). Possible underlying mechanisms of CSFP are endothelial dysfunction, chronic inflammation, microvascular dysfunction and diffuse atherosclerosis. Soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that sLOX-1 might be associated with CSFP, and aimed to research the relationship between sLOX-1 and CSFP. Material and methods Forty patients with angiographically proven CSFP and 43 patients with a normal coronary flow pattern (NCFP) were included in this study. Coronary blood flow was measured according to the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count method. sLOX-1 levels were measured in all study subjects. Results Serum levels of sLOX-1 were significantly higher in the CSFP group than the NCFP group (1061.80 ±422.20 ng/ml vs. 500.043 ±282.97 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis including sLOX-1, MPV, GGT and uric acid levels revealed a significant association between sLOX-1 levels and CSFP (Exp (B)/OR: 1.006, 95% CI: 1.002–1.010, p = 0.001). Conclusions The present study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with CSFP and there was a strong association between high sLOX-1 levels and CSFP. High serum sLOX-1 levels may have an important role in the pathogenesis of CSFP. Future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26925116

  1. Withania somnifera reverses Alzheimer's disease pathology by enhancing low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in liver

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Neha; Gupta, Alok; Valli, Rupanagudi Khader; Joshi, Shanker Datt; Mills, Jessica T.; Hamel, Edith; Khanna, Pankaj; Jain, Subhash Chand; Thakur, Suman S.; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    A 30-d course of oral administration of a semipurified extract of the root of Withania somnifera consisting predominantly of withanolides and withanosides reversed behavioral deficits, plaque pathology, accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and oligomers in the brains of middle-aged and old APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. It was similarly effective in reversing behavioral deficits and plaque load in APPSwInd mice (line J20). The temporal sequence involved an increase in plasma Aβ and a decrease in brain Aβ monomer after 7 d, indicating increased transport of Aβ from the brain to the periphery. Enhanced expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) in brain microvessels and the Aβ-degrading protease neprilysin (NEP) occurred 14–21 d after a substantial decrease in brain Aβ levels. However, significant increase in liver LRP and NEP occurred much earlier, at 7 d, and were accompanied by a rise in plasma sLRP, a peripheral sink for brain Aβ. In WT mice, the extract induced liver, but not brain, LRP and NEP and decreased plasma and brain Aβ, indicating that increase in liver LRP and sLRP occurring independent of Aβ concentration could result in clearance of Aβ. Selective down-regulation of liver LRP, but not NEP, abrogated the therapeutic effects of the extract. The remarkable therapeutic effect of W. somnifera mediated through up-regulation of liver LRP indicates that targeting the periphery offers a unique mechanism for Aβ clearance and reverses the behavioral deficits and pathology seen in Alzheimer's disease models. PMID:22308347

  2. Development of Accelerated Coronary Atherosclerosis Model Using Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knock-Out Swine with Balloon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Onishi, Akira; Tsuboi, Shuta; Wada, Hideki; Konishi, Hirokazu; Naito, Ryo; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Kojima, Yuko; Schwartz, Robert S.; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Several animal models have facilitated the evaluation and pathological understanding of atherosclerosis, but a definitive animal model of coronary atherosclerosis is not available. We therefore developed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-KO) pigs with hypercholesterolemia, a model which rapidly developed coronary atherosclerosis following balloon injury. Methods and Results We deleted LDLR exon regions from cultured porcine fetal fibroblasts and cloned LDLR knockout (LDLR-KO) embryos microinjecting fetal fibroblast nuclei into enucleated oocytes. Twelve LDLR-KO pigs were fed a 2.0% cholesterol and 20% fat diet. Baseline serum LDL cholesterol level was 510.0±86.1 mg/dL. Balloon injury was created in 46 coronary segments and necropsy were obtained 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. Coronary artery sections were reviewed to evaluate lesion progression. We found lipid accumulation with foam cells and inflammatory cells beginning four weeks after balloon injury. The mean ratio of macrophages to plaque area was significantly higher in the four- weeks and eight-week animals compared with those at 2-weeks (8.79% ± 5.98% and 17.00% ± 10.38% vs. 1.14% ± 1.88%, P < 0.0001). At 12 weeks the ratio decreased toward the level at 2 week level (4.00% ± 4.56%, P = 0.66 vs. baseline). Advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions contained lipid pools at eight-weeks with fibrous components beginning at 12 weeks. Conclusions We developed a model of rapid coronary atherosclerosis using LDLR KO pigs with balloon injury. This model may be useful for preclinical evaluation of medication or devices, and may also help investigate mechanisms of plaque progression. PMID:27631974

  3. Oxidized Lipoprotein Uptake Through the CD36 Receptor Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaguru, Gopalan; Choi, Ariel R.; Amarnani, Dhanesh; D'Amore, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accumulation of oxidized phospholipids/lipoproteins with age is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. We investigated the effect of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) on human RPE cells. Methods Primary human fetal RPE (hf-RPE) and ARPE-19 cells were treated with different doses of LDL or ox-LDL. Assessment of cell death was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release into the conditioned media. Barrier function of RPE was assayed by measuring transepithelial resistance. Lysosomal accumulation of ox-LDL was determined by immunostaining. Expression of CD36 was determined by RT-PCR; protein blot and function was examined by receptor blocking. NLRP3 inflammasome activation was assessed by RT-PCR, protein blot, caspase-1 fluorescent probe assay, and inhibitor assays. Results Treatment with ox-LDL, but not LDL, for 48 hours caused significant increase in hf-RPE and ARPE-19 (P < 0.001) cell death. Oxidized LDL treatment of hf-RPE cells resulted in a significant decrease in transepithelial resistance (P < 0.001 at 24 hours and P < 0.01 at 48 hours) relative to LDL-treated and control cells. Internalized ox-LDL was targeted to RPE lysosomes. Uptake of ox-LDL but not LDL significantly increased CD36 protein and mRNA levels by more than 2-fold. Reverse transcription PCR, protein blot, and caspase-1 fluorescent probe assay revealed that ox-LDL treatment induced NLRP3 inflammasome when compared with LDL treatment and control. Inhibition of NLRP3 activation using 10 μM isoliquiritigenin significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited ox-LDL induced cytotoxicity. Conclusions These data are consistent with the concept that ox-LDL play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD by NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation could attenuate RPE degeneration and AMD progression. PMID:27607416

  4. Activation of intestinal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α increases high-density lipoprotein production

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Sophie; Briand, Olivier; Touche, Véronique; Wouters, Kristiaan; Baron, Morgane; Pattou, François; Hanf, Rémy; Tailleux, Anne; Chinetti, Giulia; Staels, Bart; Lestavel, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Aims Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α is a transcription factor controlling lipid metabolism in liver, heart, muscle and macrophages. PPARα-activation increases plasma HDL-cholesterol and exerts hypotriglyceridemic actions via the liver. However, the intestine expresses PPARα, produces HDL and chylomicrons and is exposed to diet-derived PPARα ligands. Therefore, we examined the effects of PPARα-activation on intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Methods and Results The impact of PPARα-activation was evaluated in term of HDL-related gene expression in mice, ex-vivo in human jejunal biopsies and in Caco-2/TC7 cells. ApoAI/HDL secretion, cholesterol esterification and trafficking were also studied in-vitro. In parallel to improving plasma lipid profiles and increasing liver and intestinal expression of fatty-acid-oxidation genes, treatment with the dual PPARα/δ-ligand GFT505 resulted in a more pronounced increase of plasma HDL compared to fenofibrate in mice. GFT505, but not fenofibrate, increased the expression of HDL-production genes such as apolipoprotein-AI and ATP-Binding-Cassette-A1 transporter in murine intestines. A similar increase was observed upon PPARα-activation of human biopsies and Caco-2/TC7 cells. Additionally, HDL secretion by Caco-2/TC7 cells increased. Moreover, PPARα-activation decreased the cholesterol-esterification capacity of Caco-2/TC7 cells, modified cholesterol trafficking and reduced apolipoprotein-B secretion. Conclusions PPARα-activation reduces cholesterol esterification, suppresses chylomicron- and increases HDL-secretion by enterocytes. These results identify the intestine as a target organ of PPARα-ligands with entero-hepatic tropism to reduce atherogenic dyslipidemia. PMID:22843443

  5. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer. PMID:27036040

  6. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis.

  7. N-Succinyl-chitosan nanoparticles coupled with low-density lipoprotein for targeted osthole-loaded delivery to low-density lipoprotein receptor-rich tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-ge; Zhu, Qiao-ling; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei-liang; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Shu-di; Zhou, Xiao-feng; Zhu, Ai-jun; Zhang, Xue-nong; Jin, Yong

    2014-01-01

    N-Succinyl-chitosan (NSC) was synthesized and NSC nanoparticles (NPs) with loaded osthole (Ost) (Ost/NSC-NPs) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion. Subsequently, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated NSC-NPs with loaded Ost (Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs) were obtained by coupling LDL with Ost/NSC-NPs through amide linkage. The average particle size of Ost/NSC-NPs was approximately 145 nm, the entrapment efficiency was 78.28%±2.06%, and the drug-loading amount was 18.09%±0.17%. The release of Ost from Ost/NSC-NPs in vitro showed a more evident sustained effect than the native material. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs was only 16.23% that of the free Ost at 24 hours in HepG2 cells. Ost inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation by arresting cells in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle and by triggering apoptosis. Cellular uptake and subcellular localization in vitro and near-infrared fluorescence real-time imaging in vivo showed that Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs had high targeting efficacy. Therefore, LDL-NSC-NPs are a promising system for targeted Ost delivery to liver tumor. PMID:24966673

  8. Effect of flax supplementation and growth promotants on lipoprotein lipase and glycogenin messenger RNA concentrations in finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Waylan, A T; Dunn, J D; Johnson, B J; Kayser, J P; Sissom, E K

    2004-06-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerols into monoacylglycerol and fatty acids, which are taken up by tissues and used for energy. Glycogenin is the core protein on which glycogen molecules are synthesized. There is one molecule of glycogenin per molecule of glycogen in skeletal muscle; therefore, glycogen storage is limited by the amount of glycogenin present in muscle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed, a source of PUFA, and administering a growth promoter on steady-state LPL and glycogenin mRNA content of muscle in finishing cattle. Sixteen crossbred steers (initial BW = 397 kg), given ad libitum access to a 92% concentrate diet for 28 d, were used in a four-treatment, 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with flaxseed supplementation (0 or 5% of dietary DM) and implanting (not implanted or implanted with Revalor-S) as the main effects. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the LM at 0, 14, and 28 d, and used to quantify LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations using real-time quantitative PCR. Implanting with Revalor-S did not affect LPL (P = 0.13) or glycogenin (P = 0.98) mRNA concentrations. A day x flaxseed interaction (P < 0.001) was observed for both LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed between 0 and 5% flaxseed supplemented steers; however, at 28 d, nonflaxseed-fed steers had 4.1- and 5.7-fold increases (P < 0.001) over flaxseed steers for LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations, respectively. To further evaluate the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LA) on LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations, muscle satellite cells were isolated from five finishing steers, and different alpha-LA concentrations were applied in culture. The RNA was isolated from the bovine satellite cells. Addition of alpha-LA numerically increased (P = 0.16) the LPL mRNA concentration 48% at 1 microM alpha-LA compared with the control. The expression of glycogenin was increased (P < 0.05) 50% at 1

  9. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is upregulated in epicardial fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and correlates with glucose and triglyceride plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Nasarre, L; Juan-Babot, O; Gastelurrutia, P; Llucia-Valldeperas, A; Badimon, L; Bayes-Genis, A; Llorente-Cortés, V

    2014-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptor expression plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of adipose tissue in in vivo models of diabetes. However, there are no studies in diabetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression in epicardial and subcutaneous fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with nondiabetic patients and (b) the possible correlation between the expression of these receptors and plasmatic parameters. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained from diabetic (n = 54) and nondiabetic patients (n = 22) undergoing cardiac surgery before the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adipose LRP1 and VLDLR expression was analyzed at mRNA level by real-time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Adipose samples were also subjected to lipid extraction, and fat cholesterol ester, triglyceride, and free cholesterol contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. LRP1 expression was higher in epicardial fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (mRNA 17.63 ± 11.37 versus 7.01 ± 4.86; P = 0.02; protein 11.23 ± 7.23 versus 6.75 ± 5.02, P = 0.04). VLDLR expression was also higher in epicardial fat from diabetic patients but only at mRNA level (231.25 ± 207.57 versus 56.64 ± 45.64, P = 0.02). No differences were found in the expression of LRP1 or VLDLR in the subcutaneous fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Epicardial LRP1 and VLDLR mRNA overexpression positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01 and R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.03, respectively) and epicardial LRP1 also correlated with plasma glucose levels (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.03). These results suggest that epicardial overexpression of certain lipoprotein receptors such as LRP1 and VLDLR expression may play a key role in the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Serum Lectin-Like Oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 and Adiponectin Levels Are Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Accompanied With Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Zhao, Zhenyu; Guo, Lanyan; Li, Fei; Deng, Xu; Deng, Hai; Xia, Ke; Yang, Tianlun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major public health problem for developed and developing countries and is the single leading cause of death worldwide. Objectives: There is very few evidence regarding changes of both serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and adiponectin in patients with CAD accompanied with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we aimed to evaluate serum levels of LOX-1 and adiponectin in patients with CAD accompanied with MS. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with coronary artery disease without metabolic syndrome, 30 patients with coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome, 30 ones with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. For all subjects, a questionnaire was filled to collect data, and peripheral blood samples were collected aseptically from the antecubital vein to measure serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 and adiponectin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Serum LOX-1 level was highest in CAD + MS group; the difference between control and disease groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Adiponectin level had the lowest value in CAD + MS group; the difference between control and disease groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1and adiponectin in patients with different ages and gender. Serum LOX-1 level was changed negatively and linearly (R2 = 0.721) correlated with adiponectin level in different groups. Conclusions: Patient with CAD and MS had higher risk than those with only CAD because of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities. Combination measurements of serum LOX-1 and adiponectin levels may be helpful to evaluate the severity of CAD together with MS. PMID:25389471

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the ligand-binding domain of human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Tomoko; Ohki, Izuru; Oyama, Takuji; Machida, Sachiko; Morikawa, Kousuke; Tate, Shin-ichi

    2005-05-01

    Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. One crystal form contains the disulfide-linked dimer, which is the form of the molecule present on the cell surface; the other contains a monomeric form of the receptor that lacks the cysteine residue necessary to form disulfide-linked homodimers. The crystal of the monomeric ligand-binding domain belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.79, b = 67.57, c = 79.02 Å. The crystal of the dimeric form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.86, b = 49.56, c = 76.73 Å, β = 98.59°. Data for the dimeric form of the LOX-1 ligand-binding domain have been collected to 2.4 Å. For the monomeric form of the ligand-binding domain, native, heavy-atom derivative and SeMet-derivative crystals have been obtained; their diffraction data have been measured to 3.0, 2.4 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively.

  12. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  13. Scavenger receptor-independent stimulation of cholesterol esterification in macrophages by low density lipoprotein extracted from human aortic intima.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, U P; Lougheed, M

    1992-05-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the artery wall may contribute to atherogenesis. A number of physiologically plausible modifications have been studied in vitro, including oxidation, aggregation, formation of complexes with glycosaminoglycans, and generation of LDL-immune complexes. Several studies of the properties of LDL extracted from the aortic intima have been published, but these indicate disagreement about both the nature and the extent of modification of LDL in the artery wall. The objectives of the present study were to determine the nature and extent of modification of LDL extracted from both normal and diseased human aortic intimas and to correlate this with the rate of LDL uptake in cultured cells. Analyses were performed on LDLs isolated from aortic intimas obtained at autopsy or at the time of organ harvest from 33 subjects. LDL from normal intima showed no clear evidence of oxidation but had slightly increased electrophoretic mobility compared with native plasma LDL, whereas LDL from plaques or fatty streaks exhibited variable but usually modest signs of oxidative change. Aortic LDL was more rapidly degraded by cultured macrophages than was plasma LDL and resulted in a greater stimulation of cholesterol esterification. The degree of stimulation of cholesterol esterification was correlated with the extent of modification of LDL as reflected by the degree of apolipoprotein B fragmentation. However, in all aortic LDLs the extent of oxidative change, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility or other physical parameters, was less than that required for scavenger receptor-mediated uptake. In all cases where sufficient amounts of LDL were recovered to permit degradation experiments, the uptake of aortic LDL was nonsaturable and could not be inhibited by polyinosinic acid or acetylated LDL. Chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B showed that most LDLs isolated from plaque contained a fraction

  14. A Lipoprotein Receptor Cluster IV Mutant Preferentially Binds Amyloid-β and Regulates Its Clearance from the Mouse Brain*

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay P.; Bell, Robert D.; Srivastava, Alaka; Sengillo, Jesse D.; Singh, Itender; Nishida, Yoichiro; Chow, Nienwen; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (sLRP1) binds ∼70% of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in human plasma. In Alzheimer disease (AD) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment converting to AD, plasma sLRP1 levels are reduced and sLRP1 is oxidized, which results in diminished Aβ peripheral binding and higher levels of free Aβ in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that free circulating Aβ re-enters the brain and that sLRP1 and/or its recombinant wild type cluster IV (WT-LRPIV) prevent Aβ from entering the brain. Treatment of Alzheimer APPsw+/0 mice with WT-LRPIV has been shown to reduce brain Aβ pathology. In addition to Aβ, LRPIV binds multiple ligands. To enhance LRPIV binding for Aβ relative to other LRP1 ligands, we generated a library of LRPIV-derived fragments and full-length LRPIV variants with glycine replacing aspartic acid residues 3394, 3556, and 3674 in the calcium binding sites. Compared with WT-LRPIV, a lead LRPIV-D3674G mutant had 1.6- and 2.7-fold higher binding affinity for Aβ40 and Aβ42 in vitro, respectively, and a lower binding affinity for other LRP1 ligands (e.g. apolipoprotein E2, E3, and E4 (1.3–1.8-fold), tissue plasminogen activator (2.7-fold), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (4.1-fold), and Factor Xa (3.8-fold)). LRPIV-D3674G cleared mouse endogenous brain Aβ40 and Aβ42 25–27% better than WT-LRPIV. A 3-month subcutaneous treatment of APPsw+/0 mice with LRPIV-D3674G (40 μg/kg/day) reduced Aβ40 and Αβ42 levels in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid by 60–80% and improved cerebral blood flow responses and hippocampal function at 9 months of age. Thus, LRPIV-D3674G is an efficient new Aβ clearance therapy. PMID:23580652

  15. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein/Apolipoprotein E receptor and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9pter-p23[sup 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gafvels, M.E.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Caird, M.; Patterson, D. ); Britt, D.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors report the cloning of a 3656-bp cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor. The gene encoding this protein was mapped to chromosome 9pter-p23. Northern analysis of human RNA identified cognate mRNAs of 6.0 and 3.8 kb with most abundant expression in heart and skeletal muscle, followed by kidney, placenta, pancreas, and brain. The pattern of expression generally paralleled that of lipoprotein lipase mRNA but differed from that of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/[alpha][sub 2]-macroglobulin receptor (LRP), which are members of the same gene family. VLDL/ApoE receptor message was not detected in liver, whereas mRNAs for both LDL receptor and LRP were found in hepatic tissue. In mouse 3T3-L1 cells, VLDL/ApoE receptor mRNA was induced during the transformation of the cells into adipocytes. Expression was also detected in human choriocarcinoma cells, suggesting that at least part of the expression observed in placenta may be in trophoblasts, cells which would be exposed to maternal blood. Expression in brain may be related to high levels of ApoE expression in that organ, an observation of potential relevance to the recently hypothesized role for ApoE in late onset Alzheimer disease. The results suggest that the putative VLDL/ApoE receptor could play a role in the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles by specific organs including striated and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue and in the transport of maternal lipids across the placenta. The findings presented here, together with recent observations from other laboratories, bring up the possibility that a single gene, the VLDL/ApoE receptor, may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and obesity.

  16. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Koki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hirase, Tetsuaki; Node, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  17. Human cytomegalovirus increases modified low density lipoprotein uptake and scavenger receptor mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y F; Guetta, E; Yu, Z X; Finkel, T; Epstein, S E

    1996-01-01

    Evidence suggests a possible role for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the development of arteriosclerosis. One of the earliest events in plaque formation is the accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells, derived from macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The lipid accumulation that occurs depends upon the uptake of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), a process in which the scavenger receptor (SR) has been postulated to play an important role. We therefore examined the effects of HCMV on this process. We demonstrate that HCMV infection of human SMCs increases modified LDL uptake and stimulates class A SR gene (SR-A) mRNA expression. In addition, infection of rat SMCs with HCMV, which causes immediate early gene expression (IE72/IE84), but no early or late HCMV gene products and no cytopathic effects, also increases SMC uptake of Ox-LDL and acetylated LDL, with either effect blocked by an excess of either cold Ox-LDL or acetylated-LDL, and by fucoidin, an SR competitor. Cotransfection of an IE72, but not an IE84, expression plasmid and a plasmid containing a Class A SR promoter/reporter gene construct enhances SR promoter activity. Since increased Ox-LDL uptake is believed to play an important role in arteriosclerosis, these results provide a link between HCMV infection and arteriosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:8903333

  18. Six DNA polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene: their genetic relationship and an example of their use for identifying affected relatives of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, S; King-Underwood, L; Gudnason, V; Seed, M; Delattre, S; Clavey, V; Fruchart, J C

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the relative allele frequency and estimated linkage disequilibrium between six DNA polymorphisms of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected using the enzymes SfaNI, TaqI, StuI, HincII, AvaII, and NcoI after DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Strong linkage disequilibrium was detected between many of the pair wise comparisons in a sample of 60 patients heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Using the enzymes HincII, NcoI, and SfaNI, 85% of patients were heterozygous for at least one polymorphism and thus potentially informative for cosegregation studies. The polymorphisms were used to follow the inheritance of the defective allele of the LDL receptor gene in the relatives of a patient with FH. Assays of LDL receptor activity on lymphoblastoid cell lines from two members of the family was used to confirm that the proband, but not the hypercholesterolaemic brother, had a defect in the LDL receptor. In the family, none of the children had inherited the allele of the LDL receptor gene inferred to be defective. The problems associated with this cosegregation approach to identify relatives of patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH are discussed. PMID:8098067

  19. Phorbol esters promote alpha 1-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and receptor uncoupling from inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Leeb-Lundberg, L M; Cotecchia, S; Lomasney, J W; DeBernardis, J F; Lefkowitz, R J; Caron, M G

    1985-01-01

    DDT1 MF-2 cells, which are derived from hamster vas deferens smooth muscle, contain alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (54,800 +/- 2700 sites per cell) that are coupled to stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. Incubation of these cells with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, which stimulate calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, leads to a marked attenuation of the ability of alpha 1-receptor agonists such as norepinephrine to stimulate the turnover of inositol phospholipids. This turnover was measured by determining the 32P content of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid after prelabeling of the cellular ATP pool with 32Pi. These phorbol ester-treated cells also displayed a decrease in binding affinity of cellular alpha 1 receptors for agonists with no change in antagonist affinity. By using affinity chromatography on the affinity resin Affi-Gel-A55414, the alpha 1 receptors were purified approximately equal to 300-fold from control and phorbol ester-treated 32Pi-prelabeled cells. As assessed by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the Mr 80,000 alpha 1-receptor ligand-binding subunit is a phosphopeptide containing 1.2 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha 1 receptor. After phorbol ester treatment this increased to 3.6 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha 1 receptor. The effect of phorbol esters on norepinephrine-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover and alpha 1-receptor phosphorylation showed the same rapid time course with a t1/2 less than 2 min. These results indicate that calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase may play an important role in regulating the function of receptors that are coupled to the inositol phospholipid cycle by phosphorylating and deactivating them. Images PMID:2994039

  20. Recognition of oxidized low density lipoprotein by the scavenger receptor of macrophages results from derivatization of apolipoprotein B by products of fatty acid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, U P; Lougheed, M; Kwan, W C; Dirks, M

    1989-09-15

    Uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins by macrophages in the arterial intima is believed to be an important step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. There are a number of possible mechanisms by which macrophages might accumulate cholesterol, and one that has attracted much interest recently involves the uptake of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) via a specific cell surface receptor, termed the scavenger or acetyl-LDL receptor. Previous studies have shown that chemical derivatization of LDL with reagents that result in neutralization of the charge of lysine amino groups also allows recognition by this receptor. As well, it has been shown that oxidation of LDL is accompanied by a decrease in free lysine groups and binding of lipid products to apolipoprotein B. The present studies were done to further characterize the receptor-binding domain on oxidized LDL. It was found that LDL could be modified by incubation with water-soluble products derived from autoxidized unsaturated fatty acids under conditions that inhibited oxidation of the LDL itself. The LDL modified in this way had increased electrophoretic mobility but showed no evidence of the oxidative damage that typifies LDL oxidized by exposure to metal ions. Furthermore, the oxidation product-modified LDL was rapidly degraded by cultured macrophages through the scavenger receptor pathway. Bovine albumin modified by oxidation products also showed greatly accelerated degradation by macrophages. When analyzed by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, the reactive oxidation products appeared less polar than fatty acids or simple medium-chain aldehydes. When treated with the carbonyl reagent 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, the reactive fractions yielded derivatives, some of which were identified by mass spectrometry as hydrazones of nonenal, heptenal, pentenal, and crotonaldehyde. A series of 2-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein to 2-nonenal) were all found to modify LDL, but none of

  1. Generation of a Potent Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Antagonist by Engineering a Stable Form of the Receptor-associated Protein (RAP) D3 Domain.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Joni M; Migliorini, Mary; Galisteo, Rebeca; Strickland, Dudley K

    2015-07-10

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family and plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Expression of LRP1 requires the receptor-associated protein (RAP), a molecular chaperone that binds LRP1 and other low density lipoprotein receptor family members in the endoplasmic reticulum and traffics with them to the Golgi where the acidic environment causes its dissociation. Exogenously added RAP is a potent LRP1 antagonist and binds to LRP1 on the cell surface, preventing ligands from binding. Following endocytosis, RAP dissociates in the acidic endosome, allowing LRP1 to recycle back to the cell surface. The acid-induced dissociation of RAP is mediated by its D3 domain, a relatively unstable three-helical bundle that denatures at pH <6.2 due to protonation of key histidine residues on helices 2 and 3. To develop an LRP1 inhibitor that does not dissociate at low pH, we introduced a disulfide bond between the second and third helices in the RAP D3 domain. By combining this disulfide bond with elimination of key histidine residues, we generated a stable RAP molecule that is resistant to both pH- and heat-induced denaturation. This molecule bound to LRP1 with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH and proved to be a potent inhibitor of LRP1 function both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that our stable RAP molecule may be useful in multiple pathological settings where LRP1 blockade has been shown to be effective.

  2. Innate immunity receptor CD36 promotes cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Laibaik; Zhou, Joan; Zhou, Ping; Pistick, Rose; El Jamal, Sleiman; Younkin, Linda; Pierce, Joseph; Arreguin, Andrea; Anrather, Josef; Younkin, Steven G.; Carlson, George A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in cerebral arteries, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), occurs both in the setting of Alzheimer’s disease and independent of it, and can cause cerebrovascular insufficiency and cognitive deficits. The mechanisms leading to CAA have not been established, and no therapeutic targets have been identified. We investigated the role of CD36, an innate immunity receptor involved in Aβ trafficking, in the neurovascular dysfunction, cognitive deficits, and amyloid accumulation that occurs in mice expressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576). We found that Tg2576 mice lacking CD36 have a selective reduction in Aβ1-40 and CAA. This reduced vascular amyloid deposition was associated with preservation of the Aβ vascular clearance receptor LRP-1, and protection from the deleterious effects of Aβ on cerebral arterioles. These beneficial vascular effects were reflected by marked improvements in neurovascular regulation and cognitive performance. Our data suggest that CD36 promotes vascular amyloid deposition and the resulting cerebrovascular damage, leading to neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive deficits. These findings identify a previously unrecognized role of CD36 in the mechanisms of vascular amyloid deposition, and suggest that this scavenger receptor is a putative therapeutic target for CAA and related conditions. PMID:23382216

  3. The use of low density lipoprotein receptor activity of lymphocytes to determine the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia in a rural South African community.

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, K; Weight, M J; Dando, B R; Christopher, K J; Rossouw, J E

    1989-01-01

    The diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in three rural South African communities in which hypercholesterolaemia is very prevalent could be confirmed by the measurement of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in circulating lymphocytes. A nominal cut off point could be proposed which separated the LDL receptor activity of 24 clinically diagnosed heterozygous FH patients and 31 healthy people. LDL receptor activity was measured as total degradation of 125I-LDL and expressed as ng LDL/mg cell protein/6 hours. The cut off point was set at 970 ng/mg protein/6 hours. This proposed cut off point was tested by assaying the LDL receptor of three homozygous FH patients and seven of their obligate heterozygous FH first degree relatives. The three homozygous FH patients showed no receptor activity and the activity of the seven obligate heterozygous first degree relatives fell below the proposed cut off point. To determine the prevalence of FH in the study population, all persons aged 15 to 24 years whose total cholesterol levels fell above the 80th centile for their age and sex, as well as their families, were approached (n = 114). The LDL receptor activity in lymphocytes of 77 of these persons aged 15 to 24 years was determined after applying the exclusion criteria. Ten of the 77 participants had LDL receptor activity below 970 ng LDL/mg protein/6 hours and were therefore diagnosed as being heterozygous FH patients. The calculation of the prevalence (corrected for exclusions) revealed that one in 71 of the 15 to 24 year old permanent residents in the predominantly Afrikaans speaking community suffered from heterozygous FH. This is higher than any FH prevalence previously reported for any group. PMID:2918524

  4. Human Serum Amyloid A3 (SAA3) Protein, Expressed as a Fusion Protein with SAA2, Binds the Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Takeshi; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Maru, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) possesses characteristics distinct from the other serum amyloid A isoforms, SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4. High density lipoprotein contains the latter three isoforms, but not SAA3. The expression of mouse SAA3 (mSAA3) is known to be up-regulated extrahepatically in inflammatory responses, and acts as an endogenous ligand for the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. We previously reported that mSAA3 plays an important role in facilitating tumor metastasis by attracting circulating tumor cells and enhancing hyperpermeability in the lungs. On the other hand, human SAA3 (hSAA3) has long been regarded as a pseudogene, which is in contrast to the abundant expression levels of the other isoforms. Although the nucleotide sequence of hSAA3 is very similar to that of the other SAAs, a single oligonucleotide insertion in exon 2 causes a frame-shift to generate a unique amino acid sequence. In the present study, we identified that hSAA3 was transcribed in the hSAA2-SAA3 fusion transcripts of several human cell lines. In the fusion transcript, hSAA2 exon 3 was connected to hSAA3 exon 1 or hSAA3 exon 2, located approximately 130kb downstream from hSAA2 exon 3 in the genome, which suggested that it is produced by alternative splicing. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting and isolating hSAA3 protein for the first time by an immunoprecipitation-enzyme linked immune assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize the hSAA3 unique amino acid sequence. We also demonstrated that hSAA3 bound oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor (oxLDL receptor, LOX-1) and elevated the phosphorylation of ERK, the intracellular MAP-kinase signaling protein. PMID:25738827

  5. Identification of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein-1 Interactome in Central Nervous System Myelin Suggests a Role in the Clearance of Necrotic Cell Debris*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Arandjelovic, Sanja; Stiles, Travis L.; Schlobach, Ryan K.; Mowen, Kerri A.; Gonias, Steven L.; Gaultier, Alban

    2013-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), fast neuronal signals are facilitated by the oligodendrocyte-produced myelin sheath. Oligodendrocyte turnover or injury generates myelin debris that is usually promptly cleared by phagocytic cells. Failure to remove dying oligodendrocytes leads to accumulation of degraded myelin, which, if recognized by the immune system, may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We recently identified low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) as a novel phagocytic receptor for myelin debris. Here, we report characterization of the LRP1 interactome in CNS myelin. Fusion proteins were designed corresponding to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of LRP1. LRP1 partners were isolated by affinity purification and characterized by mass spectrometry. We report that LRP1 binds intracellular proteins via its extracellular domain and functions as a receptor for necrotic cells. Peptidyl arginine deiminase-2 and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase are novel LRP1 ligands identified in our screen, which interact with full-length LRP1. Furthermore, the extracellular domain of LRP1 is a target of peptidyl arginine deiminase-2-mediated deimination in vitro. We propose that LRP1 functions as a receptor for endocytosis of intracellular components released during cellular damage and necrosis. PMID:23264627

  6. Role of hepatic lipase and scavenger receptor BI in clearing phospholipid/free cholesterol-rich lipoproteins in PLTP-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Koichi; Qin, Shucun; Vieu, Claude; Collet, Xavier; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2002-07-11

    Phospholipid transfer protein knock-out (PLTP0) mice have defective transfer of phospholipids (PL) from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) into high-density lipoproteins (HDL). In this study, we examined the role of diet, hepatic lipase (HL) and scavenger receptor BI (SRBI) in determining the accumulation of excess PL and free cholesterol (FC, "surface remnants") in plasma of PLTP0 mice. PL and FC accumulated in the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-LDL region of PLTP0 mice on a highly saturated, coconut oil-based diet, but not on chow or milk-fat based Western diets. Accumulation of PL and FC was dramatically increased in PLTP0/HL0 mice, compared to PLTP0 mice, but only on the coconut oil diet. Turnover studies indicated that the coconut oil diet was associated with delayed catabolism of PL of PL/FC-rich particles. Incubation of these particles with primary hepatocytes in the presence of SRBI neutralizing antibody indicated that SRBI was primarily responsible for removal of FC and PL on the Western diet. In hepatocytes of coconut oil-fed mice, removal of FC and PL from these particles by SRBI was markedly reduced, even though SRBI protein expression levels were unchanged. These studies indicate that HL and SRBI both have major role in the clearance of PL and FC of surface remnants in PLTP0 mice. SRBI appears to be dysfunctional in coconut oil diet-fed animals, possibly related to changes in hepatocyte membrane fatty acid composition. PMID:12117557

  7. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Evidence for integrated co-receptor function betwenn LRP and the PDGF.

    PubMed

    Loukinova, Elena; Ranganathan, Sripriya; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Gorlatova, Natalia; Migliorini, Mary M; Loukinov, Dmitri; Ulery, Paula G; Mikhailenko, Irina; Lawrence, Daniel A; Strickland, Dudley K

    2002-05-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) functions in the catabolism of numerous ligands including proteinases, proteinase inhibitor complexes, and lipoproteins. In the current study we provide evidence indicating an expanded role for LRP in modulating cellular signaling events. Our results show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB induces a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of the LRP cytoplasmic domain in a process dependent on PDGF receptor activation and c-Src family kinase activity. Other growth factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, were unable to mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of LRP. The basis for this selectivity may result from the ability of LRP to bind PDGFBB, because surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that only PDGF, and not basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or insulin-like growth factor-1, bound to purified LRP immobilized on a sensor chip. The use of LRP mini-receptor mutants as well as in vitro phosphorylation studies demonstrated that the tyrosine located within the second NPXY motif found in the LRP cytoplasmic domain is the primary site of tyrosine phosphorylation by Src and Src family kinases. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PDGF-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of LRPs cytoplasmic domain results in increased association of the adaptor protein Shc with LRP and that Shc recognizes the second NPXY motif within LRPs cytoplasmic domain. In the accompanying paper, Boucher et al. (Boucher, P., Liu, P. V., Gotthardt, M., Hiesberger, T., Anderson, R. G. W., and Herz, J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 15507-15513) reveal that LRP is found in caveolae along with the PDGF receptor. Together, these studies suggest that LRP functions as a co-receptor that modulates signal transduction pathways initiated by the PDGF receptor. PMID:11854294

  8. Brain lipoprotein metabolism and its relation to neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Danik, M; Champagne, D; Petit-Turcotte, C; Beffert, U; Poirier, J

    1999-01-01

    Lipoproteins are macromolecular complexes composed of lipids and proteins. The role of these complexes is to provide cells of the organism with lipids to be used as a source of energy, building blocks for biomembrane synthesis, and lipophilic molecules (e.g., steroid hormones and vitamin E) for other physiological purposes, such as cell signaling and antioxidative mechanisms. Lipoproteins also promote the cellular efflux of cholesterol for its disposal into bile. Thus, lipoproteins play an important role in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis throughout the organism. Accordingly, lipoprotein particles have been found circulating in blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Despite the existence of the blood-brain barrier, lipoprotein particles have been shown to be also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although a portion of their protein components may filter through the barrier from the vascular compartment, experimental evidence indicates that these particles originate from the nervous tissue. The other protein components include apolipoproteins E, J, and D, and these have been shown to be synthesized by cells within the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, it was shown that lipoprotein particles can be isolated from the conditioned medium of astrocytic cultures. The differences in size, structure, and composition of in vitro assembled particles compared with those isolated from the CSF suggest that the particles are modified following their secretion in vivo. This is supported by observations that lipoprotein-modifying enzymes and transfer proteins are also present within CNS tissue and CSF. The fate of CSF lipoproteins is unclear but is probably related to the turnover and clearance of lipids from the CNS or, alternatively, the particles may be recaptured and recycled back into the CNS tissue. The presence of several cell surface receptors for apoE-containing lipoproteins on ependymal cells, as well as on neurons and glial cells, supports this

  9. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  10. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  11. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes across species

    PubMed Central

    Eckers, Anna; Jakob, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goy, Christine; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Sansone, Roberto; Esser, Charlotte; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Altschmied, Joachim; Ventura, Natascia; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces drug metabolizing enzymes as well as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Certain AhR ligands promote atherosclerosis, an age-associated vascular disease. Therefore, we investigated the role of AhR in vascular functionality and aging. We report a lower pulse wave velocity in young and old AhR-deficient mice, indicative of enhanced vessel elasticity. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) showed increased activity in the aortas of these animals, which was reflected in increased NO production. Ex vivo, AhR activation reduced the migratory capacity of primary human endothelial cells. AhR overexpression as well as treatment with a receptor ligand, impaired eNOS activation and reduced S-NO content. All three are signs of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, AhR expression in blood cells of healthy human volunteers positively correlated with vessel stiffness. In the aging model Caenorhabditis elegans, AhR-deficiency resulted in increased mean life span, motility, pharynx pumping and heat shock resistance, suggesting healthier aging. Thus, AhR seems to have a negative impact on vascular and organismal aging. Finally, our data from human subjects suggest that AhR expression levels could serve as an additional, new predictor of vessel aging. PMID:26790370

  13. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion. PMID:27102288

  14. Low Density Lipoprotein-Receptor Related Protein 1 Is Differentially Expressed by Neuronal and Glial Populations in the Developing and Mature Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Auderset, Loic; Cullen, Carlie L.; Young, Kaylene M.

    2016-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein-receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic cell surface receptor that is known to interact with a variety of ligands, intracellular adaptor proteins and other cell surface receptors to regulate cellular behaviours ranging from proliferation to cell fate specification, migration, axon guidance, and lipid metabolism. A number of studies have demonstrated that LRP1 is expressed in the brain, yet it is unclear which central nervous system cell types express LRP1 during development and in adulthood. Herein we undertake a detailed study of LRP1 expression within the mouse brain and spinal cord, examining a number of developmental stages ranging from embryonic day 13.5 to postnatal day 60. We report that LRP1 expression in the brain peaks during postnatal development. On a cellular level, LRP1 is expressed by radial glia, neuroblasts, microglia, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), astrocytes and neurons, with the exception of parvalbumin+ interneurons in the cortex. Most cell populations exhibit stable expression of LRP1 throughout development; however, the proportion of OPCs that express LRP1 increases significantly from ~69% at E15.5 to ~99% in adulthood. We also report that LRP1 expression is rapidly lost as OPCs differentiate, and is absent from all oligodendrocytes, including newborn oligodendrocytes. While LRP1 function has been primarily examined in mature neurons, these expression data suggest it plays a more critical role in glial cell regulation–where expression levels are much higher. PMID:27280679

  15. Neuronal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) enhances the anti-apoptotic effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lok, Ker Zhing; Manzanero, Silvia; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2016-08-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional and multi-ligand endocytic receptor abundantly expressed in neurons. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a purified preparation of plasma-derived human immunoglobulin used for the treatment of several neurological inflammatory disorders, and proposed for the treatment of stroke for its potent neuroprotective effects. LRP1 has been shown to be involved in the transcytosis of IVIg, and IVIg-LRP1 interaction leads to LRP1 tyrosine phosphorylation, which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIg. However, the question remains whether IVIg could induce its neuroprotective effects via LRP1 in neurons under ischemic stroke conditions. In cultured neurons and in a transient ischemic mouse model, ischemia decrease LRP1 levels and phosphorylation, and IVIg blocks these effects. In ischemic neurons, LRP1 antagonism by receptor associated protein (RAP) enhances the activation of pro-death signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and caspase-3, and IVIg reduces these effects. When applied to ischemic neuronal cultures, RAP induces a dramatic drop in Akt activation, and IVIg reverses this effect, as it does with the decrease in Bcl-2 levels caused by ischemic injury in the presence of RAP. Altogether, these results show evidence of LRP1 expression and activity modulation by IVIg, and support the role of LRP1 as a partner of IVIg in the execution of its neuroprotective effects. PMID:27181517

  16. The role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) in Alzheimer's A beta generation: development of a cell-based model system.

    PubMed

    Goto, Joy J; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2002-01-01

    The clearance and degradation of extracellular A beta is critical for regulating beta-amyloid deposition, a major hallmark of brains of patients with A beta in Alzheimer's Disease. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, LRP1, is a large endocytic receptor that significantly contributes to the balance between degradation and production of A beta. An extracellular portion of the LRP, known as the cluster II region can bind to the secreted form of APP (sAPP-KPI). We show here that a GST fusion protein containing the cluster II region of LRP can be used as a 'mini-receptor' that specifically binds to sAPP-KPI from conditioned cultured medium. The binding between the GST-LRP-cluster II fusion protein and sAPP-KPI can be inhibited with the strong binding ligand of LRP1, called receptor-associated protein (RAP). Furthermore, a cell-based in vitro assay system has been developed to monitor the production of total A beta and A beta(1-42) in the presence and absence of RAP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines both deficient in LRP and expressing LRP. A 3-day treatment of the L2 (CHO cells deficient in LRP and overexpressing APP751) and L3 (CHO cells expressing LRP and overexpressing APP751) cell lines with RAP showed a decrease in total A beta and, interestingly, also a decrease in the ratio of A beta42/A beta(total). This cell-based model system and LRP-cluster II mini-receptor will be very useful for screening novel compounds that can reduce A beta accumulation by inhibiting binding of APP-KPI to LRP1. PMID:12212791

  17. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  18. Dissection of androgen receptor-promoter interactions: steroid receptors partition their interaction energetics in parallel with their phylogenetic divergence.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Rolando W; Yang, Qin; Miura, Michael T; Bain, David L

    2013-11-15

    Steroid receptors comprise a homologous family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The members include androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and progesterone receptor (PR). Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that AR, GR, MR, and PR are most closely related, falling into subgroup 3C. ER is more distantly related, falling into subgroup 3A. To determine the quantitative basis by which receptors generate their unique transcriptional responses, we are systematically dissecting the promoter-binding energetics of all receptors under a single "standard state" condition. Here, we examine the self-assembly and promoter-binding energetics of full-length AR and a mutant associated with prostate cancer, T877A. We first demonstrate that both proteins exist only as monomers, showing no evidence of dimerization. Although this result contradicts the traditional understanding that steroid receptors dimerize in the absence of DNA, it is fully consistent with our previous work demonstrating that GR and two PR isoforms either do not dimerize or dimerize only weakly. Moreover, both AR proteins exhibit substantial cooperativity between binding sites, again as seen for GR and PR. In sharp contrast, the more distantly related ER-α dimerizes so strongly that energetics can only be measured indirectly, yet cooperativity is negligible. Thus, homologous receptors partition their promoter-binding energetics quite differently. Moreover, since receptors most closely related by phylogeny partition their energetics similarly, such partitioning appears to be evolutionarily conserved. We speculate that such differences in energetics, coupled with different promoter architectures, serve as the basis for generating receptor-specific promoter occupancy and thus function.

  19. Oxidized or acetylated low density lipoproteins are rapidly cleared by the liver in mice with disruption of the scavenger receptor class A type I/II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Lougheed, M; Suzuki, H; Buchan, A; Kodama, T; Steinbrecher, U P

    1997-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and acetyl LDL are recognized by the scavenger receptor class A type I/II (SR-AI/II) on macrophages and liver endothelial cells. Several investigators have suggested that there are additional receptors specific for oxidized LDL, but characterization of these alternate receptors for oxidized LDL and evaluation of their quantitative importance in uptake of oxidized LDL has been difficult because of overlapping ligand specificity with SR-AI/II. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of SR-AI/II in the removal of modified LDL from the bloodstream in vivo. The clearance rate of oxidized LDL from plasma in normal mice was very rapid, and > 90% of injected dose was removed from the blood within 5 min. Clearance rates of oxidized LDL were equally high in SR-AI/II knockout mice, indicating that this receptor is not required for removal of oxidized LDL from plasma. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the clearance rate of acetyl LDL in wild-type and SR-AI/II knockout animals. The plasma clearance of radioiodinated acetyl LDL was almost fully blocked by a 50-fold excess of unlabeled acetyl LDL, but the latter only inhibited oxidized LDL clearance by approximately 5%. Both modified LDLs were cleared mostly by the liver, and there was no difference in the tissue distribution of modified LDL in control and knockout mice. Studies in isolated nonparenchymal liver cells showed that Kupffer cells accounted for most of the uptake of oxidized LDL. Extensively oxidized LDL and LDL modified by exposure to fatty acid peroxidation products were efficient competitors for the uptake of labeled oxidized LDL by SR-AI/II-deficient Kupffer cells, while acetyl LDL and malondialdehyde-modified LDL were relatively poor competitors. PMID:9218499

  20. A role for apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-I, and low density lipoprotein receptors in cholesterol transport during regeneration and remyelination of the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, J K; Zoellner, C D; Anderson, L J; Kosik, L M; Pitas, R E; Weisgraber, K H; Hui, D Y; Mahley, R W; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Ignatius, M J

    1989-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that apo E secretion and accumulation increase in the regenerating peripheral nerve. The fact that apoE, in conjunction with apoA-I and LDL receptors, participates in a well-established lipid transfer system raised the possibility that apoE is also involved in lipid transport in the injured nerve. In the present study of the crushed rat sciatic nerve, a combination of techniques was used to trace the cellular associations of apoE, apoA-I, and the LDL receptor during nerve repair and to determine the distribution of lipid at each stage. After a crush injury, as axons died and Schwann cells reabsorbed myelin, resident and monocyte-derived macrophages produced large quantities of apoE distal to the injury site. As axons regenerated in the first week, their tips contained a high concentration of LDL receptors. After axon regeneration, apoE and apoA-I began to accumulate distal to the injury site and macrophages became increasingly cholesterol-loaded. As remyelination began in the second and third weeks after injury, Schwann cells exhausted their cholesterol stores, then displayed increased LDL receptors. Depletion of macrophage cholesterol stores followed over the next several weeks. During this stage of regeneration, apoE and apoA-I were present in the extracellular matrix as components of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Our results demonstrate that the regenerating peripheral nerve possesses the components of a cholesterol transfer mechanism, and the sequence of events suggests that this mechanism supplies the cholesterol required for rapid membrane biogenesis during axon regeneration and remyelination. Images PMID:2493483

  1. The P2Y2 receptor mediates uptake of matrix-retained and aggregated low density lipoprotein in primary vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Dissmore, Tixieanna; Seye, Cheikh I.; Medeiros, Denis M.; Weisman, Gary A.; Bardford, Barry; Mamedova, Laman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The internalization of aggregated low-density lipoproteins (agLDL) mediated by low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP1) may involve the actin cytoskeleton in ways that differ from the endocytosis of soluble LDL by the LDL receptor (LDLR). This study aims to define novel mechanisms of agLDL uptake through modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, to identify molecular targets involved in foam cell formation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The critical observation that formed the basis for these studies is that under pathophysiological conditions, nucleotide release from blood-derived and vascular cells activates SMC P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) leading to rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that P2Y2R activation mediates agLDL uptake by VSMCs. Methods Primary VSMCs were isolated from aortas of wild type (WT) C57BL/6 and.P2Y2R−/− mice to investigate whether P2Y2R activation modulates LRP1 expression. Cells were transiently transfected with cDNA encoding a hemagglutinin-tagged (HA-tagged) WT P2Y2R, or a mutant P2Y2R that unlike the WT P2Y2R does not bind the cytoskeletal actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLN-A). Results P2Y2R activation significantly increased agLDL uptake, and LRP1 mRNA expression decreased in P2Y2R−/− VSMCs versus WT. SMCs, expressing P2Y2R defective in FLN-A binding, exhibit 3-fold lower LDLR expression levels than SMCs expressing WT P2Y2R, while cells transfected with WT P2Y2R show greater agLDL uptake in both WT and P2Y2R−/− VSMCs versus cells transfected with the mutant P2Y2R. Conclusions Together, these results show that both LRP1 and LDLR expression and agLDL uptake are regulated by P2Y2R in VSMCs, and that agLDL uptake due to P2Y2R activation is dependent upon cytoskeletal reorganization mediated by P2Y2R binding to FLN-A. PMID:27522265

  2. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Griffith, Malachi; Krysiak, Kilannin; Skidmore, Zachary L; Hundal, Jasreet; Allen, Julie A; Arthur, Cora D; Runci, Daniele; Bugatti, Mattia; Miceli, Alexander P; Schmidt, Heather; Trani, Lee; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Fulton, Robert S; Vermi, William; Wilson, Richard K; Schreiber, Robert D; Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-09-27

    Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation. PMID:27681435

  3. Identification of a point mutation in growth factor repeat C of the low density lipoprotein-receptor gene in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Soutar, A.K.; Knight, B.L.; Patel, D.D. )

    1989-06-01

    The coding region of the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor gene from a patient (MM) with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has been sequenced from six overlapping 500-base-pair amplified fragments of the cDNA from cultured skin fibroblasts. Two separate single nucleotide base changes from the normal sequence were detected. The first involved substitution of guanine for adenine in the third position of the codon for amino acid residue Cys-27 and did not affect the protein sequence. The second mutation was substitution of thymine for cytosine in the DNA for the codon for amino acid residue 664, changing the codon from CCG (proline) to CTG (leucine) and introducing a new site for the restriction enzyme PstI. MM is a true homozygote with two identical genes, and the mutation cosegregated with clinically diagnosed FH in his family in which first cousin marriages occurred frequently. LDL receptors in MM's skin fibroblasts bind less LDL than normal and with reduced affinity. Thus this naturally occurring single point mutation affects both intracellular transport of the protein and ligand binding and occurs in growth factor-like repeat C, a region that has not previously been found to influence LDL binding.

  4. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-02-19

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. The {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3{beta} phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated {beta}-catenin. Nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  5. Antiatherogenic effects of cilostazol and probucol alone, and in combination in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed with a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Mitani, K; Kotosai, K; Nozako, M; Miyakoda, G; Yabuuchi, Y

    2008-07-01

    Cilostazol, an antiplatelet drug, and probucol, a cholesterol-lowering drug, are reported to ameliorate atherosclerosis in animal models. However, their combined effect on atherosclerosis is unclear. We therefore evaluated their combined effect on atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Male LDL receptor-deficient mice were fed a high fat diet with or without cilostazol alone, probucol alone, or with cilostazol and probucol in combination, for 8 weeks. Body weight and plasma lipid levels were measured before and during treatment. At the end of treatment, the size distribution of plasma lipoproteins was analyzed by HPLC and then plasma HDL cholesterol levels and en face aortic atherosclerotic lesion areas were measured. Probucol alone significantly decreased both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, while cilostazol alone did not decrease total cholesterol, but significantly increased HDL cholesterol. Both cilostazol alone and probucol alone significantly decreased atherosclerotic lesion areas, and their combined administration showed more significant decreases than when each drug was administered singly. The combination of cilostazol and probucol was more effective in preventing atherosclerotic lesion formation than the administration of each drug alone; this may provide us with a new strategy for treating atherosclerosis.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  7. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cole, Laura K; Vance, Jean E; Vance, Dennis E

    2012-05-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major phospholipid component of all plasma lipoprotein classes. PC is the only phospholipid which is currently known to be required for lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Impaired hepatic PC biosynthesis significantly reduces the levels of circulating very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and high density lipoproteins (HDLs). The reduction in plasma VLDLs is due in part to impaired hepatic secretion of VLDLs. Less PC within the hepatic secretory pathway results in nascent VLDL particles with reduced levels of PC. These particles are recognized as being defective and are degraded within the secretory system by an incompletely defined process that occurs in a post-endoplasmic reticulum compartment, consistent with degradation directed by the low-density lipoprotein receptor and/or autophagy. Moreover, VLDL particles are taken up more readily from the circulation when the PC content of the VLDLs is reduced, likely due to a preference of cell surface receptors and/or enzymes for lipoproteins that contain less PC. Impaired PC biosynthesis also reduces plasma HDLs by inhibiting hepatic HDL formation and by increasing HDL uptake from the circulation. These effects are mediated by elevated expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and hepatic scavenger receptor class B type 1, respectively. Hepatic PC availability has recently been linked to the progression of liver and heart disease. These findings demonstrate that hepatic PC biosynthesis can regulate the amount of circulating lipoproteins and suggest that hepatic PC biosynthesis may represent an important pharmaceutical target. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.

  8. Apolipoprotein E LDL receptor-binding domain-containing high-density lipoprotein: a nanovehicle to transport curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-amyloid bioflavonoid.

    PubMed

    Khumsupan, Panupon; Ramirez, Ricardo; Khumsupan, Darin; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioflavonoid that has been recently identified as an anti-amyloid agent as well. To make it more available in its potent form as a potential amyloid disaggregation agent, we employed high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are lipid-protein complexes that transport plasma cholesterol, to transport curcumin. The objective of this study was to employ reconstituted HDL containing human apoE3 N-terminal (NT) domain, as a vehicle to transport curcumin. The NT domain serves as a ligand to mediate binding and uptake of lipoprotein complexes via the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) family of proteins located at the cell surface. Reconstituted HDL was prepared with phospholipids and recombinant apoE3-NT domain in the absence or presence of curcumin. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the molecular mass and Stokes' diameter of HDL bearing curcumin were ~670kDa and ~17nm, respectively, while electron microscopy revealed the presence of discoidal particles. Fluorescence emission spectra of HDL bearing (the intrinsically fluorescent) curcumin indicated that the wavelength of maximal fluorescence emission (λ(max)) of curcumin was ~495nm, which is highly blue-shifted compared to λ(max) of curcumin in solvents of varying polarity (λ(max) ranging from 515-575nm) or in aqueous buffers. In addition, an enormous enhancement in fluorescence emission intensity was noted in curcumin-containing HDL compared to curcumin in aqueous buffers. Curcumin fluorescence emission was quenched to a significant extent by lipid-based quenchers but not by aqueous quenchers. These observations indicate that curcumin has partitioned efficiently into the hydrophobic milieu of the phospholipid bilayer of HDL. Functional assays indicated that the LDLr-binding ability of curcumin-containing HDL with apoE3-NT is similar to that of HDL without curcumin. Taken together, we report that apoE-containing HDL has a tremendous

  9. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter-2 (ABCA2) Regulates Cholesterol Homeostasis and Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Metabolism in N2a Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) has been identified as a possible regulator of lipid metabolism. ABCA2 is most highly expressed in the brain but its effects on cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal-type cells have not been characterized. It is important to study the role of ABCA2 in regulating cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal-type cells because ABCA2 has been identified as a possible genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, the effects of ABCA2 expression on cholesterol homeostasis were examined in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. ABCA2 reduced total, free- and esterified cholesterol levels as well as membrane cholesterol but did not perturb cholesterol distribution in organelle or lipid raft compartments. ABCA2 did not modulate de novo cholesterol biosynthesis from acetate. Cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane was not affected by ABCA2 but efflux to the physiological acceptor ApoE3 and mobilization of plasma membrane cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum for esterification were reduced by ABCA2. ABCA2 reduced esterification of serum and low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol but not 25-hydroxycholesterol. ABCA2 decreased low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein levels and increased its turnover rate. The surface expression of LDLR as well as the uptake of fluroresecent DiI-LDL was also reduced by ABCA2. Reduction of endogenous ABCA2 expression by RNAi treatment of N2a cells and rat primary cortical neurons produced the opposite effects of over-expression of ABCA2, increasing LDLR protein levels. This report identifies ABCA2 as a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR metabolism in neuronal cells. PMID:21810484

  10. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Low Density Lipoproteins Promote Unstable Calcium Handling Accompanied by Reduced SERCA2 and Connexin-40 Expression in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Llach, Anna; Vallmitjana, Alexander; Benítez, Raúl; Badimon, Lina; Cinca, Juan; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    The damaging effects of high plasma levels of cholesterol in the cardiovascular system are widely known, but little attention has been paid to direct effects on cardiomyocyte function. We therefore aimed at testing the hypothesis that Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol affects calcium dynamics and signal propagation in cultured atrial myocytes. For this purpose, mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and intracellular calcium was visualized in fluo-4 loaded atrial HL-1 myocyte cultures subjected to field stimulation. At low stimulation frequencies all cultures had uniform calcium transients at all tested LDL concentrations. However, 500 µg LDL/mL maximally reduced the calcium transient amplitude by 43% from 0.30±0.04 to 0.17±0.02 (p<0.05). Moreover, LDL-cholesterol dose-dependently increased the fraction of alternating and irregular beat-to-beat responses observed when the stimulation interval was shortened. This effect was linked to a concurrent reduction in SERCA2, RyR2, IP3RI and IP3RII mRNA levels. SERCA2 protein levels were also reduced by 43% at 200 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05) and SR calcium loading was reduced by 38±6% (p<0.001). By contrast, HDL-cholesterol had no significant effect on SERCA expression or SR calcium loading. LDL-cholesterol also slowed the conduction velocity of the calcium signal from 3.2+0.2 mm/s without LDL to 1.7±0.1 mm/s with 500 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05). This coincided with a reduction in Cx40 expression (by 44±3%; p<0.05 for mRNA and by 79±2%; p<0.05 for Cx40 protein at 200 µg/ml LDL) whereas the Cx-43 expression did not significantly change. In conclusion, LDL-cholesterol destabilizes calcium handling in cultured atrial myocytes subjected to rapid pacing by reducing SERCA2 and Cx40 expression and by slowing the conduction velocity of the calcium signal. PMID:23516438

  12. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic Variation Promotes Human Trust Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Iyengar, Vijeth; Thornburg, Matthew; Weel, Jaap; Lin, Mingkuan; Clarke, Ellen; McCabe, Kevin; Lipsky, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Given that human trust behavior is heritable and intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances trust, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene is an excellent candidate to investigate genetic contributions to individual variations in trust behavior. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A)/guanine (G) transition (rs53576) has been associated with socio-emotional phenotypes, its link to trust behavior is unclear. We combined genotyping of healthy male students (n = 108) with the administration of a trust game experiment. Our results show that a common occurring genetic variation (rs53576) in the OXTR gene is reliably associated with trust behavior rather than a general increase in trustworthy or risk behaviors. Individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG) showed higher trust behavior than individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG). Although the molecular functionality of this polymorphism is still unknown, future research should clarify how the OXTR gene interacts with other genes and the environment in promoting socio-emotional behaviors. PMID:22347177

  13. Activated Scavenger Receptor A Promotes Glial Internalization of Aβ

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei-wei; Wang, Shao-wei; Xu, Peng-xin; Yu, Xiao-lin; Liu, Rui-tian

    2014-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates have a pivotal role in pathological processing of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The clearance of Aβ monomer or aggregates is a causal strategy for AD treatment. Microglia and astrocytes are the main macrophages that exert critical neuroprotective roles in the brain. They may effectively clear the toxic accumulation of Aβ at the initial stage of AD, however, their functions are attenuated because of glial overactivation. In this study, we first showed that heptapeptide XD4 activates the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) on the glia by increasing the binding of Aβ to SR-A, thereby promoting glial phagocytosis of Aβ oligomer in microglia and astrocytes and triggering intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Moreover, XD4 enhances the internalization of Aβ monomers to microglia and astrocytes through macropinocytosis or SR-A-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, XD4 significantly inhibits Aβ oligomer-induced cytotoxicity to glial cells and decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may provide a novel strategy for AD treatment by activating SR-A. PMID:24718459

  14. Cutting Edge: IL-36 Receptor Promotes Resolution of Intestinal Damage.

    PubMed

    Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Harusato, Akihito; Nishio, Hikaru; Flannigan, Kyle L; Ngo, Vu; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Geem, Duke; Lili, Loukia N; Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Parkos, Charles A; Towne, Jennifer E; Nusrat, Asma; Denning, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    IL-1 family members are central mediators of host defense. In this article, we show that the novel IL-1 family member IL-36γ was expressed during experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Germ-free mice failed to induce IL-36γ in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced damage, suggesting that gut microbiota are involved in its induction. Surprisingly, IL-36R-deficient (Il1rl2(-/-)) mice exhibited defective recovery following DSS-induced damage and impaired closure of colonic mucosal biopsy wounds, which coincided with impaired neutrophil accumulation in the wound bed. Failure of Il1rl2(-/-) mice to recover from DSS-induced damage was associated with a profound reduction in IL-22 expression, particularly by colonic neutrophils. Defective recovery of Il1rl2(-/-) mice could be rescued by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, which was sufficient to restore IL-22 expression and promote full recovery from DSS-induced damage. These findings implicate the IL-36/IL-36R axis in the resolution of intestinal mucosal wounds.

  15. Receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein by B16 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Versluis, A. J.; van Geel, P. J.; Oppelaar, H.; van Berkel, T. J.; Bijsterbosch, M. K.

    1996-01-01

    Selective delivery of cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs can diminish the severe side-effects associated with these drugs. Many malignant tumours express high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on their membranes. Therefore, LDL may be used as a carrier to obtain selective delivery of anti-neoplastic drugs to tumours. The present study was performed to investigate the feasibility of the murine B16 tumour/mouse model for the evaluation of LDL-mediated tumour therapy. LDL binds with high affinity to LDL receptors on cultured B16 cells (Kd, 5.9 +/- 2.3 micrograms ml-1; Bmax 206 +/- 23 ng LDL mg-1 cell protein). After binding and internalisation, LDL was very efficiently degraded: 724 +/- 19 ng LDL mg-1 cell protein h-1. Chloroquine and ammonium chloride completely inhibited the degradation of LDL by the B16 cells, indicating involvement of lysosomes. LDL receptors were down-regulated by 70% after preincubation of B16 cells with 300 micrograms ml-1 LDL, indicating that their expression is regulated by intracellular cholesterol. To evaluate the uptake of LDL by the B16 tumour in vivo, tissue distribution studies were performed in C57/B1 mice inoculated with B16 tumours. For these experiments, LDL was radiolabelled with tyramine cellobiose, a non-degradable label, which is retained in cells after uptake. At 24 h after injection of LDL, the liver, adrenals and the spleen were found to be the major organs involved in LDL uptake, with tissue-serum (T/S) ratios of 0.82 +/- 0.08, 1.17 +/- 0.20 and 0.69 +/- 0.08 respectively. Of all the other tissues, the tumour showed the highest uptake of LDL (T/S ratio of 0.40 +/- 0.07). A large part of the LDL uptake was receptor mediated, as the uptake of methylated LDL was much lower. Although the LDL uptake by the liver, spleen and adrenals is higher than that by the tumour, the LDL receptor-mediated uptake by these organs may be selectively down-regulated by methods that do not affect the expression of LDL receptors on

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) binds triacylated glycolipid agonists of Toll-like receptor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drage, Michael G.; Tsai, Han-Chun; Pecora, Nicole D.; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Arida, Ahmad R.; Shukla, Supriya; Rojas, Roxana E.; Seshadri, Chetan; Moody, D. Branch; Boom, W. Henry; Sacchettini, James C.; Harding, Clifford V.

    2010-09-27

    Knockout of lprG results in decreased virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. MTB lipoprotein LprG has TLR2 agonist activity, which is thought to be dependent on its N-terminal triacylation. Unexpectedly, here we find that nonacylated LprG retains TLR2 activity. Moreover, we show LprG association with triacylated glycolipid TLR2 agonists lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (which share core structures). Binding of triacylated species was specific to LprG (not LprA) and increased LprG TLR2 agonist activity; conversely, association of glycolipids with LprG enhanced their recognition by TLR2. The crystal structure of LprG in complex with phosphatidylinositol mannoside revealed a hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the three alkyl chains of the ligand. In conclusion, we demonstrate a glycolipid binding function of LprG that enhances recognition of triacylated MTB glycolipids by TLR2 and may affect glycolipid assembly or transport for bacterial cell wall biogenesis.

  17. Onion peel extract increases hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 messenger RNA expressions in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Chung, Ji Hyung; Lee, Kyung-Hea; Cha, Yong-Jun; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we hypothesized that onion peel extract (OPE) alters hepatic gene expression to improve blood cholesterol profiles. To investigate the effect of OPE to test our hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with the control, high-fat diet (HFD) or the high-fat diet with 0.2% OPE supplementations (HFD + OPE). Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of genes in cholesterol metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were examined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The OPE in HFD reverted high fat-induced reduction in mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase genes in the liver comparable with the levels of the control group. Onion peel extract slightly increased stearoyl-coA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) expression compared with high-fat feeding. However, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase were not affected by high-fat or OPE feeding. Onion peel extract also enhanced expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 and scavenger receptor class B type I genes when compared with high-fat feeding. However, OPE did not influence high fat-triggered changes in apolipoprotein A1 mRNA levels and liver X receptor α were not affected by either high-fat or OPE feeding. Our results suggest that OPE changes the expression of genes associated with cholesterol metabolism in favor of lowering blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and enhancing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol through increasing mRNA abundance of low-density lipoprotein receptor and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 genes. PMID:22464808

  18. Impact of Concanavalin-A-Mediated Cytoskeleton Disruption on Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Internalization and Cell Surface Expression in Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Samuel Burke; Pratt, Jonathan; Beauchemin, David; Haidara, Khadidja; Annabi, Borhane

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a multiligand endocytic receptor, which plays a pivotal role in controlling cytoskeleton dynamics during cancer cell migration. Its rapid endocytosis further allows efficient clearance of extracellular ligands. Concanavalin-A (ConA) is a lectin used to trigger in vitro physiological cellular processes, including cytokines secretion, nitric oxide production, and T-lymphocytes activation. Given that ConA exerts part of its effects through cytoskeleton remodeling, we questioned whether it affected LRP-1 expression, intracellular trafficking, and cell surface function in grade IV U87 glioblastoma cells. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we found that loss of the cell surface 600-kDa mature form of LRP-1 occurs upon ConA treatment. Consequently, internalization of the physiological α2-macroglobulin and the synthetic angiopep-2 ligands of LRP-1 was also decreased. Silencing of known mediators of ConA, such as the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and the Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and TLR-6 was unable to rescue ConA-mediated LRP-1 expression decrease, implying that the loss of LRP-1 was independent of cell surface relayed signaling. The ConA-mediated reduction in LRP-1 expression was emulated by the actin cytoskeleton-disrupting agent cytochalasin-D, but not by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole, and required both lysosomal- and ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation. Our study implies that actin cytoskeleton integrity is required for proper LRP-1 cell surface functions and that impaired trafficking leads to specialized compartmentation and degradation. Our data also strengthen the biomarker role of cell surface LRP-1 functions in the vectorized transport of therapeutic angiopep bioconjugates into brain cancer cells. PMID:27226736

  19. Identification of a Small Peptide That Inhibits PCSK9 Protein Binding to the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingnan; Eigenbrot, Charles; Zhou, Lijuan; Shia, Steven; Li, Wei; Quan, Clifford; Tom, Jeffrey; Moran, Paul; Di Lello, Paola; Skelton, Nicholas J.; Kong-Beltran, Monica; Peterson, Andrew; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is a negative regulator of the hepatic LDL receptor, and clinical studies with PCSK9-inhibiting antibodies have demonstrated strong LDL-c-lowering effects. Here we screened phage-displayed peptide libraries and identified the 13-amino acid linear peptide Pep2-8 as the smallest PCSK9 inhibitor with a clearly defined mechanism of inhibition that has been described. Pep2-8 bound to PCSK9 with a KD of 0.7 μm but did not bind to other proprotein convertases. It fully restored LDL receptor surface levels and LDL particle uptake in PCSK9-treated HepG2 cells. The crystal structure of Pep2-8 bound to C-terminally truncated PCSK9 at 1.85 Å resolution showed that the peptide adopted a strand-turn-helix conformation, which is remarkably similar to its solution structure determined by NMR. Consistent with the functional binding site identified by an Ala scan of PCSK9, the structural Pep2-8 contact region of about 400 Å2 largely overlapped with that contacted by the EGF(A) domain of the LDL receptor, suggesting a competitive inhibition mechanism. Consistent with this, Pep2-8 inhibited LDL receptor and EGF(A) domain binding to PCSK9 with IC50 values of 0.8 and 0.4 μm, respectively. Remarkably, Pep2-8 mimicked secondary structural elements of the EGF(A) domain that interact with PCSK9, notably the β-strand and a discontinuous short α-helix, and it engaged in the same β-sheet hydrogen bonds as EGF(A) does. Although Pep2-8 itself may not be amenable to therapeutic applications, this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing peptidic inhibitors to functionally relevant sites on PCSK9. PMID:24225950

  20. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  1. Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 reduces cardiac fibroblast proliferation by suppressing GATA Binding Protein 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Ning-Ning; Liu, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Shuang-Wei; Zhang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Ai-Qun; Liu, Shi-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4) are important for the growth of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). When deregulated, LOX-1 and GATA4 can cause cardiac remodeling. In the present study, we found novel evidence that GATA4 was required for the LOX-1 regulation of CF proliferation. The inhibition of LOX-1 by RNA interference LOX-1 lentivirus resulted in the loss of PI3K/Akt activation and GATA4 protein expression. The overexpression of LOX-1 by lentivirus rescued CF proliferation, PI3K/Akt activation, and GATA4 protein expression. Moreover, GATA4 overexpression enhanced CF proliferation with LOX-1 inhibition. We also found that the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and protein level of GATA4. In summary, GATA4 may play an important role in the LOX-1 and PI3K/Akt regulation of CF proliferation. PMID:27216460

  2. Danhong inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced immune maturation of dentritic cells via a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Wang, Shijun; Sun, Aijun; Huang, Dong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chunyu; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is effective in the treatment of atherosclerosis (AS)-related diseases. It is widely recognized that AS is a complex inflammatory disease of the arterial wall and the dendritic cells (DCs) is a major player in the pathogenesis of AS via mediating atherosclerotic antigen presenting and T lymphocytes. Here, we determined the effect and possible mechanism of DHI on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced maturation and immune function of DCs. Human monocyte-derived DCs were incubated with DHI or ciglitazone and were subsequently stimulated with ox-LDL to induce maturation. Similar to ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonist, DHI, could significantly reduce ox-LDL-induced expressions of mature markers, enhance the endocytotic function, and inhibit secretions of cytokine on DCs. These effects of DHI could be partly reversed by silencing the PPARγ. In conclusion, DHI could inhibit ox-LDL-induced maturation of DCs partly through activating a PPARγ-mediated signaling pathway.

  3. Exon organization of the mouse entactin gene corresponds to the structural domains of the polypeptide and has regional homology to the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, M.E.; Chung, A.E.; Wewer, U.M.

    1995-03-20

    Entactin is a widespread basement membrane protein of 150 kDa that binds to type IV collagen and laminin. The complete exon-intron structure of the mouse entactin gene has been determined from {lambda} genomic DNA clones. The gene spans at least 65 kb and contains 20 exons. The exon organization of the mouse entactin gene closely corresponds to the organization of the polypeptide into distinct structural and functional domains. The two amino-terminal globular domains are encoded by three exons each. Single exons encode the two protease-sensitive, O-glycosylated linking regions. The six EGF-like repeats and the single thyroglobulin-type repeat are each encoded by separate exons. The carboxyl-terminal half of entactin displays sequence homology to the growth factor-like region of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, and in both genes this region is encoded by eight exons. The positions of four introns are also conserved in the homologous region of the two genes. These observations suggest that the entactin gene has evolved via exon shuffling. Finally, several sequence polymorphisms useful for gene linkage analysis were found in the 3{prime} noncoding region of the last exon. 52 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

  5. The association of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) haplotypes with egg production indicates VLDLR is a candidate gene for modulating egg production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZhePeng; Meng, GuoHua; Li, Na; Yu, MingFen; Liang, XiaoWei; Min, YuNa; Liu, FuZhu; Gao, YuPeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) transports egg yolk precursors into oocytes. However, our knowledge of the distribution patterns of VLDLR variants among breeds and their relationship to egg production is still incomplete. In this study, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that account for 87% of all VLDLR variants were genotyped in Nick Chick (NC, n=91), Lohmann Brown (LohB, n=50) and Lueyang (LY, n=381) chickens, the latter being an Chinese indigenous breed. Egg production by NC and LY chickens was recorded from 17 to 50 weeks. Only four similar haplotypes were found in NC and LohB, of which two accounted for 100% of all NC haplotypes and 92.5% of LohB haplotypes. In contrast, there was considerable haplotypic diversity in LY. Comparison of egg production in LY showed that hens with NC-like haplotypes had a significantly higher production (p < 0.05) than those without the haplotypes. However, VLDLR expression was not significantly different between the haplotypes. These findings indicate a divergence in the distribution of VLDLR haplotypes between selected and non-selected breeds and suggest that the near fixation of VLDLR variants in NC and LohB is compatible with signature of selection. These data also support VLDLR as a candidate gene for modulating egg production. PMID:27560838

  6. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment. PMID:27424515

  7. Effects of soy pinitol on the pro-inflammatory cytokines and scavenger receptors in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-treated THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Won-Ha; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kang, Mi Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Yong Bok; Jeon, Seon-Min

    2007-12-01

    Pinitol, a methylated form of D-chiro-inositol, acts as a insulin mediator. We investigated the effects of soy pinitol on the factors involved in foam cell formation using differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Pinitol slightly inhibited the lipid-laden foam cell formation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in a dose-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 releases were significantly reduced by pinitol treatment (0.05-0.5 mM), whereas interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 secretions were significantly reduced in low-dose pinitol (0.05 or 0.1 mM) and 0.5 mM pinitol-treated cells, respectively, compared to no pinitol-treated cells. Gene expressions of CD36 and CD68 were significantly down-regulated by 0.05-0.5 mM pinitol compared to the oxLDL-treated control cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression was significantly decreased in 0.05-0.5 mM pinitol-treated cells compared to the no pinitol-treated macrophages. We conclude that pinitol has some inhibitory effects on foam cell formation by reducing lipid accumulation, secretion, and expression of some cytokines and macrophage scavenger receptor expression via its insulin-like action.

  8. The association of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) haplotypes with egg production indicates VLDLR is a candidate gene for modulating egg production.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZhePeng; Meng, GuoHua; Li, Na; Yu, MingFen; Liang, XiaoWei; Min, YuNa; Liu, FuZhu; Gao, YuPeng

    2016-01-01

    The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) transports egg yolk precursors into oocytes. However, our knowledge of the distribution patterns of VLDLR variants among breeds and their relationship to egg production is still incomplete. In this study, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that account for 87% of all VLDLR variants were genotyped in Nick Chick (NC, n=91), Lohmann Brown (LohB, n=50) and Lueyang (LY, n=381) chickens, the latter being an Chinese indigenous breed. Egg production by NC and LY chickens was recorded from 17 to 50 weeks. Only four similar haplotypes were found in NC and LohB, of which two accounted for 100% of all NC haplotypes and 92.5% of LohB haplotypes. In contrast, there was considerable haplotypic diversity in LY. Comparison of egg production in LY showed that hens with NC-like haplotypes had a significantly higher production (p < 0.05) than those without the haplotypes. However, VLDLR expression was not significantly different between the haplotypes. These findings indicate a divergence in the distribution of VLDLR haplotypes between selected and non-selected breeds and suggest that the near fixation of VLDLR variants in NC and LohB is compatible with signature of selection. These data also support VLDLR as a candidate gene for modulating egg production.

  9. The association of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) haplotypes with egg production indicates VLDLR is a candidate gene for modulating egg production.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZhePeng; Meng, GuoHua; Li, Na; Yu, MingFen; Liang, XiaoWei; Min, YuNa; Liu, FuZhu; Gao, YuPeng

    2016-01-01

    The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) transports egg yolk precursors into oocytes. However, our knowledge of the distribution patterns of VLDLR variants among breeds and their relationship to egg production is still incomplete. In this study, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that account for 87% of all VLDLR variants were genotyped in Nick Chick (NC, n=91), Lohmann Brown (LohB, n=50) and Lueyang (LY, n=381) chickens, the latter being an Chinese indigenous breed. Egg production by NC and LY chickens was recorded from 17 to 50 weeks. Only four similar haplotypes were found in NC and LohB, of which two accounted for 100% of all NC haplotypes and 92.5% of LohB haplotypes. In contrast, there was considerable haplotypic diversity in LY. Comparison of egg production in LY showed that hens with NC-like haplotypes had a significantly higher production (p < 0.05) than those without the haplotypes. However, VLDLR expression was not significantly different between the haplotypes. These findings indicate a divergence in the distribution of VLDLR haplotypes between selected and non-selected breeds and suggest that the near fixation of VLDLR variants in NC and LohB is compatible with signature of selection. These data also support VLDLR as a candidate gene for modulating egg production. PMID:27560838

  10. A novel class of antihyperlipidemic agents with low density lipoprotein receptor up-regulation via the adaptor protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shigehiro; Ban, Hitoshi; Tsuboya, Norie; Uno, Shinsaku; Kino, Kouichi; Ioriya, Katsuhisa; Kitano, Masafumi; Ueno, Yoshihide

    2010-04-22

    We have previously reported compound 2 as a inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and up-regulator of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression. In this study we focused on compound 2, a unique LDL-R up-regulator, and describe the discovery of a novel class of up-regulators of LDL-R. Replacement the methylene urea linker in compound 2 with an acylsulfonamide linker kept a potent LDL-R up-regulatory activity, and subsequent optimization work gave compound 39 as a highly potent LDL-R up-regulator (39; EC(25) = 0.047 microM). Compound 39 showed no ACAT inhibitory activity even at 1 microM. The sodium salts of compound 39 reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner in an experimental animal model of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, we revealed in this study using RNA interference that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), an adaptor protein of LDL-R, is essential for compound 39 up-regulation of LDL-R expression. PMID:20356098

  11. Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 and Sortilin Do Not Regulate the PCSK9 Convertase-mediated Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Degradation but Interact with Each Other*

    PubMed Central

    Butkinaree, Chutikarn; Canuel, Maryssa; Essalmani, Rachid; Poirier, Steve; Benjannet, Suzanne; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Roubtsova, Anna; Hamelin, Josée; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chamberland, Ann; Guillemot, Johann; Mayer, Gaétan; Sisodia, Sangram S.; Jacob, Yves; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) and sortilin were reported to individually bind the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and regulate its activity on the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). The data presented herein demonstrate that mRNA knockdowns of APLP2, sortilin, or both in the human hepatocyte cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 do not affect the ability of extracellular PCSK9 to enhance the degradation of the LDLR. Furthermore, mice deficient in APLP2 or sortilin do not exhibit significant changes in liver LDLR or plasma total cholesterol levels. Moreover, cellular overexpression of one or both proteins does not alter PCSK9 secretion, or its activity on the LDLR. We conclude that PCSK9 enhances the degradation of the LDLR independently of either APLP2 or sortilin both ex vivo and in mice. Interestingly, when co-expressed with PCSK9, both APLP2 and sortilin were targeted for lysosomal degradation. Using chemiluminescence proximity and co-immunoprecipitation assays, as well as biosynthetic analysis, we discovered that sortilin binds and stabilizes APLP2, and hence could regulate its intracellular functions on other targets. PMID:26085104

  12. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ithnin, Hairuszah

    2013-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR) on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies. PMID:23671850

  13. Altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction in human skin fibroblasts during in vitro aging: differential expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Bose, Chhanda; Bhuvaneswaran, Chidambaram; Udupa, Kodetthoor B

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in fibroblasts after serial passage in vitro. We used early-passage ( approximately 20 mean population division, MPD) and late-passage ( approximately 60 MPD) human skin fibroblasts to study the LDLr expression and MAPK at basal and after interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulation. We found a reduced LDLr expression in late-passage fibroblasts in comparison with early-passage fibroblasts, and late-passage fibroblasts showed a delayed induction of MAPK after IL-1beta stimulation, confirmed by the delay in translocation of MAPK from cytoplasmic to nuclear fraction. Using two specific inhibitors of MAPK, we could show a reduced LDLr expression in early-passage fibroblasts, indicating a direct relationship between MAPK signaling and LDLr expression. We conclude that one of the reasons for reduced LDLr gene expression in late passage fibroblast is related to MAPK signaling.

  14. Oxidized low density lipoprotein induces bone morphogenetic protein-2 in coronary artery endothelial cells via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Ao, Lihua; Shi, Yi; Johnson, Thomas R; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong

    2011-04-01

    Vascular calcification is a common complication in atherosclerosis. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) plays an important role in atherosclerotic vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on BMP-2 protein expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (CAECs), the roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in oxLDL-induced BMP-2 expression, and the signaling pathways involved. Human CAECs were stimulated with oxLDL. The roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in oxLDL-induced BMP-2 expression were determined by pretreatment with neutralizing antibody, siRNA, and overexpression. Stimulation with oxLDL increased cellular BMP-2 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner (40-160 μg/ml). Pretreatment with neutralizing antibodies against TLR2 and TLR4 or silencing of these two receptors reduced oxLDL-induced BMP-2 expression. Overexpression of TLR2 and TLR4 enhanced the cellular BMP-2 response to oxLDL. Furthermore, oxLDL was co-localized with TLR2 and TLR4. BMP-2 expression was associated with activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Inhibition of NF-κB and ERK1/2 reduced BMP-2 expression whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In conclusion, oxLDL induces BMP-2 expression through TLR2 and TLR4 in human CAECs. The NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in the signaling mechanism. These findings underscore an important role for TLR2 and TLR4 in mediating the BMP-2 response to oxLDL in human CAECs and indicate that these two immunoreceptors contribute to the mechanisms underlying atherosclerotic vascular calcification. PMID:21325271

  15. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator Response Element Modulates Hepatic Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Transcription in Response to PPARδ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Vikram R.; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    The hepatic expression of LDLR gene is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level by a sterol-regulatory element (SRE) in its proximal promoter region which is the site of action of SRE-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). However whether additional cis-regulatory elements contribute to LDLR transcription has not been fully explored. We investigated the function of a putative PPAR-response element (PPRE) sequence motif located at −768 to −752 bases upstream of the transcription start site of human LDLR gene in response to PPARδ activation. Promoter luciferase reporter analyses showed that treating HepG2 cells with PPARδ agonist L165041 markedly increased the activity of a full-length LDLR promoter construct (pLDLR-1192) without any effects on the shorter promoter reporter pLDLR-234 that contains only the core regulatory elements SRE-1 and SP1 sites. Importantly, mutation of the PPRE sequence greatly attenuated the induction of the full-length LDLR promoter activity by L165041 without affecting rosuvastatin mediated transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed the binding of PPARδ to the LDLR-PPRE site. Treating HepG2 cells with L165041 elevated the mRNA and protein expressions of LDLR without affecting the LDLR mRNA decay rate. The induction of LDLR expression by PPARδ agonist was further observed in liver tissue of mice and hamsters treated with L165041. Altogether, our studies identify a novel PPRE-mediated regulatory mechanism for LDLR transcription and suggest that combined treatment of statin with PPARδ agonists may have advantageous effects on LDLR expression. PMID:26443862

  16. A single lysine of the two-lysine recognition motif of the D3 domain of receptor-associated protein is sufficient to mediate endocytosis by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Sellink, Erica; Klein Gebbinck, Jacqueline W T M; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2011-03-01

    Ligand binding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family is mediated by complement-type repeats (CR) each comprising a binding pocket for a single basic amino acid residue. It has been proposed that at least two CRs are required for high-affinity interaction by utilising two spatially distinct lysine residues on the ligand surface. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) mediates the cellular uptake of a multitude of ligands, some of which bind LRP with a relatively low affinity suggesting a suboptimal positioning of the two critical lysines. We now addressed the role of the two critical lysines not only in LRP binding but also in LRP-dependent endocytosis. Variants of the third domain (D3) of receptor-associated protein (RAP) were created carrying lysine to alanine or arginine replacements at the putative contact residues K253, K256 and K270. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that replacement of K253 did not affect high-affinity LRP binding at all, whereas replacement of either K256 or K270 markedly reduced the affinity by approximately 10-fold. Binding was abolished when both lysines were replaced. Substitution by either alanine or arginine exerted an almost identical effect on LRP binding. This suggests that despite their positive charge, arginine residues do not support receptor binding at all. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies surprisingly revealed that the single mutants were still taken up and still competed for the uptake of full length RAP despite their receptor binding defect. We therefore propose that the presence of only one of the two critical lysines is sufficient to drive endocytosis. PMID:21144910

  17. A constitutive promoter directs expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, A.; Patil, N.; Chao, M.

    1988-08-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor receptor is normally restricted to cells derived from the neural crest in a developmentally regulated manner. The authors analyzed promoter sequences for the human nerve growth factor receptor gene and found that the receptor promoter resembles others which are associated with constitutively expressed genes that have housekeeping and growth-related functions. Unlike these other genes, the initiation of transcription occurred at one major site rather than at multiple sites. The constitutive nature of the nerve growth factor receptor promoter may account for the ability of this gene to be transcribed in a diverse number of heterologous cells after gene transfer. The intron-exon structure of the receptor gene indicated that structural features are precisely divided into discrete domains.

  18. Lipoprotein(a) levels in familial hipercholesterolaemia: an important predictor for cardiovascular disease independent of the type of LDL-receptor mutation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the relationship between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients. Lipoprotein(a) is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. Nevertheless, the role of Lp(a) as a predictor of CVD in FH has been...

  19. Development and application of a nonradioactive binding assay of oxidized low-density lipoprotein to macrophage scavenger receptors

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Erica N.; Boullier, Agnès; Almazan, Felicidad; Binder, Christoph J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Hartvigsen, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis in part through excessive uptake of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) via scavenger receptors. Binding of OxLDL to macrophages has traditionally been assessed using radiolabeled OxLDL. To allow more efficient and convenient measurements, we developed a nonradioactive binding assay in which biotinylated OxLDL (Bt-OxLDL) is added to macrophages in 96-well microtiter culture plates under various conditions and the extent of binding is determined using solid phase chemiluminescent immunoassay techniques. As examples, we show that Bt-OxLDL displayed high and saturable binding to macrophages in contrast to Bt-LDL, which showed very low binding. In competition assays, unlabeled OxLDL and the anti-OxLDL monoclonal antibody E06 inhibited Bt-OxLDL binding to macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Specific binding of Bt-OxLDL to ApoE/SR-A/CD36 triple knockout macrophages was reduced by 80% as compared with binding to macrophages from ApoE knockout mice. Binding of Bt-OxLDL to CD36 transfected COS-7 cells showed enhanced saturable binding compared with mock-transfected cells. This assay avoids the use of radioactivity and uses small amounts of materials. It can be used to study binding of OxLDL to macrophages and factors that influence this binding. The techniques described should be readily adaptable to study of other ligands, receptors, and cell types. PMID:23997238

  20. Common polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette transporter A1, including a functional promoter polymorphism, associated with plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Williamson, David W; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W

    2005-12-01

    The role of high levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in protection against development of atherosclerosis is generally attributed to its role in reverse cholesterol transport, and the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key element of this process. We examined polymorphisms in ABCA1 in Turks, a population characterized by very low HDL-C levels. We discovered 36 variations in ABCA1 and genotyped informative polymorphisms in over 2,300 subjects. The rare alleles of C-14T and V771M polymorphisms were associated with higher HDL-C levels in men and, in combination with the rare alleles of R219K and I883M, respectively, with higher HDL-C in both sexes. Rare alleles of the C-14T and V771M polymorphisms were more frequent in the high HDL-C (>OR=40mg/dl) than in the low HDL-C group (promoter and coding region of ABCA1 separately. Analysis of the promoter haplotype block supported the association with the C-14T polymorphism. The C-14T and R219K polymorphisms were on different haplotype blocks. Analysis of the coding region structure revealed that the rare M allele of V771M was distributed predominantly among three common haplotypes, but the sum of their frequencies comprise only two-thirds of the frequency of the M allele. The rare alleles of the V771M and the I883M polymorphisms do not exist together on any of the common haplotypes. In conclusion, we describe a functional promoter polymorphism (C-14T) and a coding sequence variant (V771M) of ABCA1 and their interactions with two other variants (R219K and I883M) on plasma HDL-C levels in Turks.

  1. Lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenneth K; Lovell, Jonathan F; Zheng, Gang

    2011-10-18

    Over hundreds of millions of years, animals have evolved endogenous lipoprotein nanoparticles for shuttling hydrophobic molecules to different parts of the body. In the last 70 years, scientists have developed an understanding of lipoprotein function, often in relationship to lipid transport and heart disease. Such biocompatible, lipid-protein complexes are also ideal for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents, which means that lipoprotein and lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles also offer opportunities for cancer theranostics. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the nanocarrier can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. The small size (less than 30 nm) of the low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) classes of lipoproteins allows them to maneuver deeply into tumors. Furthermore, lipoproteins can be targeted to their endogenous receptors, when those are implicated in cancer, or to other cancer receptors. In this Account, we review the field of lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles related to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapy agents. LDL has innate cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate diverse hydrophobic molecules and deliver them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL in atherosclerosis provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins beyond its narrow purview. Although LDL has shown promise as a drug nanocarrier for cancer imaging and therapy, increasing evidence indicates that HDL, the smallest lipoprotein, may also be of use for drug targeting and uptake into cancer cells. We also discuss how synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles, which do not include human or recombinant proteins, can deliver molecules directly to the cytoplasm of certain cancer cells, effectively bypassing the endosomal compartment. This strategy could allow HDL-like nanoparticles to be used to

  2. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  3. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) in hippocampal neurons does not proportionately reduce, or otherwise alter, amyloid deposition in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) and its family members have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple susceptibility factors converge to metabolic pathways that involve LRP1, including modulation of the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the clearance of Aβ peptide. Methods We used the Cre-lox system to lower LRP1 levels in hippocampal neurons of mice that develop Alzheimer-type amyloid by crosses between mice that express Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the GFAP promoter, mice that harbor loxp sites in the LRP1 gene, and the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic model. We compared amyloid plaque numbers in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice lacking LRP1 expression in hippocampus (n = 13) to mice with normal levels of LRP1 (n = 12). Student t-test was used to test whether there were significant differences in plaque numbers and amyloid levels between the groups. A regression model was used to fit two regression lines for these groups, and to compare the rates of Aβ accumulation. Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated efficient elimination of LRP1 expression in the CA fields and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Within hippocampus, we observed no effect on the severity of amyloid deposition, the rate of Aβ40/42 accumulation, or the architecture of amyloid plaques when LRP1 levels were reduced. Conclusions Expression of LRP1 by neurons in proximity to senile amyloid plaques does not appear to play a major role in modulating the formation of these proximal deposits or in the appearance of the associated neuritic pathology. PMID:22537779

  4. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles*

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. PMID:26018414

  5. Cilostazol reduces atherosclerosis by inhibition of superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed high cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Oh, Goo Taeg; Park, So Youn; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Gil; Kim, Chi Dae; Lee, Won Suk; Rhim, Byung Yong; Shin, Yung Woo; Hong, Ki Whan

    2005-05-01

    This study shows that 6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl) butoxy]-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (cilostazol) suppresses the atherosclerotic lesion formation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)-null mice. Ldlr-null mice fed a high cholesterol diet showed multiple plaque lesions in the proximal ascending aorta including aortic sinus, accompanied by increased macrophage accumulation with increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Supplementation of cilostazol (0.2% w/w) in diet significantly decreased the plaque lesions with reduced macrophage accumulation and suppression of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in situ. Increased superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production were significantly lowered by cilostazol in situ as well as in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TNF-alpha-induced increased inhibitory kappaBalpha degradation in the cytoplasm and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 activation in the nuclei of HUVECs were reversed by cilostazol (1 approximately 100 microM) as well as by (E)-3[(4-t-butylphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-propenenitrile (BAY 11-7085) (10 microM), suggesting that cilostazol strongly inhibits NF-kappaB activation and p65 translocation into the nuclei. Furthermore, in gel shift and DNA-binding assay, cilostazol inhibited NF-kappaB/DNA complex and nuclear DNA-binding activity of the NF-kappaB in the nuclear extracts of the RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, it is suggested that the anti-atherogenic effect of cilostazol in cholesterol-fed Ldlr-null mice is ascribed to its property to suppress superoxide and TNF-alpha formation, and thereby reducing NF-kappaB activation/transcription, VCAM-1/MCP-1 expressions, and monocyte recruitments.

  6. Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A Comparison with Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Maslak, Edyta; Gasior-Glogowska, Marlena; Baranska, Malgorzata; Sitek, Barbara; Kostogrys, Renata; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Walczak, Maria; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), the major endogenous metabolite of nicotinic acid (NicA), may partially contribute to the vasoprotective properties of NicA. Here we compared the antiatherosclerotic effects of MNA and NicA in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice. ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were treated with MNA or NicA (100 mg/kg). Plaque size, macrophages, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery, endothelial function in the aorta, systemic inflammation, platelet activation, as well as the concentration of MNA and its metabolites in plasma and urine were measured. MNA and NicA reduced atherosclerotic plaque area, plaque inflammation, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery. The antiatherosclerotic actions of MNA and NicA were associated with improved endothelial function, as evidenced by a higher concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 α and nitrite/nitrate in the aortic ring effluent, inhibition of platelets (blunted thromboxane B2 generation), and inhibition of systemic inflammation (lower plasma concentration of serum amyloid P, haptoglobin). NicA treatment resulted in an approximately 2-fold higher concentration of MNA and its metabolites in urine and a 4-fold higher nicotinamide/MNA ratio in plasma, compared with MNA treatment. In summary; MNA displays pronounced antiatherosclerotic action in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, an effect associated with an improvement in prostacyclin- and nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function, inhibition of platelet activation, inhibition of inflammatory burden in plaques, and diminished systemic inflammation. Despite substantially higher MNA availability after NicA treatment, compared with an equivalent dose of MNA, the antiatherosclerotic effect of NicA was not stronger. We suggest that detrimental effects of NicA or its metabolites other than MNA may limit beneficial effects of NicA-derived MNA.

  7. Two novel susceptibility loci for non-small cell lung cancer map to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongjun; Fang, Meiyu; Bao, Wenglong; Deng, Dehou

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for genotyping of 11 SNPs of LRP5. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Eleven Tag SNPs were detected. The frequency of the LRP5 rs3736228 T allele (18.9% in male NSCLC cases and 23.9% in male controls) was statistically different between male NSCLCs and male controls (P=0.03), and the T allele was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (OR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.56–0.67), whereas the C/C homozygous genotype and the LRP5 rs64843 T/T genotype were associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively (OR=1.43 and 1.77, respectively). Using Haploview software, the frequency of the haplotypes of rs312009/rs3120015/rs3120014 CCC was was significantly higher in female SCC cases compared with female controls (0.064 vs. 0.009, P=0.04). LRP5 rs3736228 and rs64843 SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and SCC, respectively. Further studies are required to investigate the functional changes in LRP5 expression and activity in NSCLC in vitro.

  8. Two novel susceptibility loci for non-small cell lung cancer map to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongjun; Fang, Meiyu; Bao, Wenglong; Deng, Dehou

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for genotyping of 11 SNPs of LRP5. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Eleven Tag SNPs were detected. The frequency of the LRP5 rs3736228 T allele (18.9% in male NSCLC cases and 23.9% in male controls) was statistically different between male NSCLCs and male controls (P=0.03), and the T allele was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (OR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.56–0.67), whereas the C/C homozygous genotype and the LRP5 rs64843 T/T genotype were associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively (OR=1.43 and 1.77, respectively). Using Haploview software, the frequency of the haplotypes of rs312009/rs3120015/rs3120014 CCC was was significantly higher in female SCC cases compared with female controls (0.064 vs. 0.009, P=0.04). LRP5 rs3736228 and rs64843 SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and SCC, respectively. Further studies are required to investigate the functional changes in LRP5 expression and activity in NSCLC in vitro. PMID:27698794

  9. Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A Comparison with Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Maslak, Edyta; Gasior-Glogowska, Marlena; Baranska, Malgorzata; Sitek, Barbara; Kostogrys, Renata; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Walczak, Maria; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), the major endogenous metabolite of nicotinic acid (NicA), may partially contribute to the vasoprotective properties of NicA. Here we compared the antiatherosclerotic effects of MNA and NicA in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice. ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were treated with MNA or NicA (100 mg/kg). Plaque size, macrophages, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery, endothelial function in the aorta, systemic inflammation, platelet activation, as well as the concentration of MNA and its metabolites in plasma and urine were measured. MNA and NicA reduced atherosclerotic plaque area, plaque inflammation, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery. The antiatherosclerotic actions of MNA and NicA were associated with improved endothelial function, as evidenced by a higher concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 α and nitrite/nitrate in the aortic ring effluent, inhibition of platelets (blunted thromboxane B2 generation), and inhibition of systemic inflammation (lower plasma concentration of serum amyloid P, haptoglobin). NicA treatment resulted in an approximately 2-fold higher concentration of MNA and its metabolites in urine and a 4-fold higher nicotinamide/MNA ratio in plasma, compared with MNA treatment. In summary; MNA displays pronounced antiatherosclerotic action in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, an effect associated with an improvement in prostacyclin- and nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function, inhibition of platelet activation, inhibition of inflammatory burden in plaques, and diminished systemic inflammation. Despite substantially higher MNA availability after NicA treatment, compared with an equivalent dose of MNA, the antiatherosclerotic effect of NicA was not stronger. We suggest that detrimental effects of NicA or its metabolites other than MNA may limit beneficial effects of NicA-derived MNA. PMID:26631491

  10. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Single Domain Antibodies Are Potent Inhibitors of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Degradation.

    PubMed

    Weider, Elodie; Susan-Resiga, Delia; Essalmani, Rachid; Hamelin, Josée; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Nimesh, Surendra; Ashraf, Yahya; Wycoff, Keith L; Zhang, Jianbing; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G

    2016-08-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) correspond to the antigen-binding domains of camelid antibodies. They have the same antigen-binding properties and specificity as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) but are easier and cheaper to produce. We report here the development of sdAbs targeting human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) as an alternative to anti-PCSK9 mAbs. After immunizing a llama with human PCSK9, we selected four sdAbs that bind PCSK9 with a high affinity and produced them as fusion proteins with a mouse Fc. All four sdAb-Fcs recognize the C-terminal Cys-His-rich domain of PCSK9. We performed multiple cellular assays and demonstrated that the selected sdAbs efficiently blocked PCSK9-mediated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) degradation in cell lines, in human hepatocytes, and in mouse primary hepatocytes. We further showed that the sdAb-Fcs do not affect binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR but rather block its induced cellular LDLR degradation. Pcsk9 knock-out mice expressing a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgene were generated, resulting in plasma levels of ∼300 ng/ml human PCSK9. Mice were singly or doubly injected with the best sdAb-Fc and analyzed at day 4 or 11, respectively. After 4 days, mice exhibited a 32 and 44% decrease in the levels of total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and ∼1.8-fold higher liver LDLR protein levels. At 11 days, the equivalent values were 24 and 46% and ∼2.3-fold higher LDLR proteins. These data constitute a proof-of-principle for the future usage of sdAbs as PCSK9-targeting drugs that can efficiently reduce LDL-cholesterol, and as tools to study the Cys-His-rich domain-dependent sorting the PCSK9-LDLR complex to lysosomes. PMID:27284008

  11. The lupus susceptibility locus Sle3 is not sufficient to accelerate atherosclerosis in lupus-susceptible low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wade, N S; Stevenson, B G; Dunlap, D S; Major, A S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk is increased in individuals suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus. Understanding the mechanism(s) of systemic lupus erythematosus-accelerated atherosclerosis is critical for the development of effective therapies. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that radiation chimeras of systemic lupus erythematosus-susceptible B6.Sle1.2.3 and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)(-/-) mice have augmented atherosclerosis, which is associated with increased T-cell burden and activation in the lesion. The goals of this study were to further define specific immune mechanisms that mediate accelerated atherosclerosis and to determine whether the gene interval Sle3, which is linked to lupus-associated T-cell dysregulation, was sufficient to modulate atherogenesis. We transferred B6.Sle3 or C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated LDLr( -/-) mice (hereafter referred to as LDLr.Sle3 and LDLr.B6, respectively). Sixteen weeks after transplantation, the mice were placed on a western-type diet for 8 weeks. Our analyses revealed that LDLr.Sle3 mice had increased auto-antibody production against double-stranded DNA and cardiolipin compared with LDLr.B6 controls. We also found an increase in atherosclerosis-associated oxLDL antibodies. Antibody isotypes and serum cytokine analysis suggested that the humoral immune response in LDLr.Sle3 mice was skewed toward a Th2 phenotype. This finding is consistent with lupus-associated immune dysregulation. Additionally, LDLr.Sle3 mice had decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. However, there was no difference in lesion area or cellular composition of lesions between the two groups. These data demonstrate that, despite no change in lesion area, transfer of Sle3-associated T-cell dysregulation alone to LDLr-deficient mice is sufficient to decrease serum cholesterol and to exacerbate humoral immune responses that are frequently associated with atherosclerosis.

  12. Quantitative dissection of the binding contributions of ligand lysines of the receptor-associated protein (RAP) to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1).

    PubMed

    Dolmer, Klavs; Campos, Andres; Gettins, Peter G W

    2013-08-16

    Although lysines are known to be critical for ligand binding to LDL receptor family receptors, relatively small reductions in affinity have been found when such lysines have been mutated. To resolve this paradox, we have examined the specific binding contributions of four lysines, Lys-253, Lys-256, Lys-270, and Lys-289, in the third domain (D3) of receptor-associated protein (RAP), by eliminating all other lysine residues. Using D3 variants containing lysine subsets, we examined binding to the high affinity fragment CR56 from LRP1. With this simplification, we found that elimination of the lysine pairs Lys-253/Lys-256 and Lys-270/Lys-289 resulted in increases in Kd of 1240- and 100,000-fold, respectively. Each pair contributed additively to overall affinity, with 61% from Lys-270/Lys-289 and 39% from Lys-253/Lys-256. Furthermore, the Lys-270/Lys-289 pair alone could bind different single CR domains with similar affinity. Within the pairs, binding contributions of Lys-270 ≫ Lys-256 > Lys-253 ∼ Lys-289 were deduced. Importantly, however, Lys-289 could significantly compensate for the loss of Lys-270, thus explaining how previous studies have underestimated the importance of Lys-270. Calorimetry showed that favorable enthalpy, from Lys-256 and Lys-270, overwhelmingly drives binding, offset by unfavorable entropy. Our findings support a mode of ligand binding in which a proximal pair of lysines engages the negatively charged pocket of a CR domain, with two such pairs of interactions (requiring two CR domains), appropriately separated, being alone sufficient to provide the low nanomolar affinity found for most protein ligands of LDL receptor family members.

  13. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 variants and dietary fatty acids: meta-analysis of European origin and African American studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, CE; Ngwa, J; Tanaka, T; Qi, Q; Wojczynski, MK; Lemaitre, RN; Anderson, JS; Manichaikul, A; Mikkilä, V; van Rooij, FJA; Ye, Z; Bandinelli, S; Frazier-Wood, AC; Houston, DK; Hu, F; Langenberg, C; McKeown, NM; Mozaffarian, D; North, KE; Viikari, J; Zillikens, MC; Djoussé, L; Hofman, A; Kähönen, M; Kabagambe, EK; Loos, RJF; Saylor, GB; Forouhi, NG; Liu, Y; Mukamal, KJ; Chen, Y-DI; Tsai, MY; Uitterlinden, AG; Raitakari, O; van Duijn, CM; Arnett, DK; Borecki, IB; Cupples, LA; Ferrucci, L; Kritchevsky, SB; Lehtimäki, T; Qi, Lu; Rotter, JI; Siscovick, DS; Wareham, NJ; Witteman, JCM; Ordovás, JM; Nettleton, JA

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Low-density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor and signaling molecule that is expressed in adipose and the hypothalamus. Evidence for a role of LRP1 in adiposity is accumulating from animal and in vitro models, but data from human studies are limited. The study objectives were to evaluate (i) relationships between LRP1 genotype and anthropometric traits, and (ii) whether these relationships were modified by dietary fatty acids. DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted race/ethnic-specific meta-analyses using data from 14 studies of US and European whites and 4 of African Americans to evaluate associations of dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hip circumference, as well as interactions between dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRP1 were evaluated in whites (N up to 42 000) and twelve SNPs in African Americans (N up to 5800). RESULTS After adjustment for age, sex and population substructure if relevant, for each one unit greater intake of percentage of energy from saturated fat (SFA), BMI was 0.104 kg m−2 greater, waist was 0.305 cm larger and hip was 0.168 cm larger (all P<0.0001). Other fatty acids were not associated with outcomes. The association of SFA with outcomes varied by genotype at rs2306692 (genotyped in four studies of whites), where the magnitude of the association of SFA intake with each outcome was greater per additional copy of the T allele: 0.107 kg m−2 greater for BMI (interaction P=0.0001), 0.267 cm for waist (interaction P=0.001) and 0.21 cm for hip (interaction P=0.001). No other significant interactions were observed. CONCLUSION Dietary SFA and LRP1 genotype may interactively influence anthropometric traits. Further exploration of this, and other diet x genotype interactions, may improve understanding of interindividual variability in the relationships of dietary factors with

  14. Prothrombotic lipoprotein patterns in stroke.

    PubMed

    Podrez, Eugene A; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2016-03-10

    The importance of research focused on the final events of atherothrombosis cannot be overestimated. Platelet hyperreactivity leading to thrombosis is the main reason for mortality and morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease and stroke, which together remain a leading cause of death in developed countries. In this issue of Blood, Shen et al1 establish another functional link between proatherogenic lipoproteins and platelet-mediated thrombus formation with a specific focus on stroke. In their model, the initiating component is L5, the electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which was shown to be substantially elevated in patients with ischemic stroke. L5 was shown to activate platelets via its receptor, lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), and αβ amyloid peptide, which together contribute to platelet hyperreactivity and stroke complications. PMID:26965920

  15. K Domain CR9 of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Is Critical for Aggregated LDL-induced Foam Cell Formation from Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Costales, Paula; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Castellano, Jose; Revuelta-Lopez, Elena; Corral-Rodríguez, Maria Ángeles; Nasarre, Laura; Badimon, Lina; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta

    2015-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) mediates the internalization of aggregated LDL (AgLDL), which in turn increases the expression of LRP1 in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). This positive feedback mechanism is thus highly efficient to promote the formation of hVSMC foam cells, a crucial vascular component determining the susceptibility of atherosclerotic plaque to rupture. Here we have determined the LRP1 domains involved in AgLDL recognition with the aim of specifically blocking AgLDL internalization in hVSMCs. The capacity of fluorescently labeled AgLDL to bind to functional LRP1 clusters was tested in a receptor-ligand fluorometric assay made by immobilizing soluble LRP1 “minireceptors” (sLRP1-II, sLRP1-III, and sLRP1-IV) recombinantly expressed in CHO cells. This assay showed that AgLDL binds to cluster II. We predicted three well exposed and potentially immunogenic peptides in the CR7–CR9 domains of this cluster (termed P1 (Cys1051–Glu1066), P2 (Asp1090–Cys1104), and P3 (Gly1127–Cys1140)). AgLDL, but not native LDL, bound specifically and tightly to P3-coated wells. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against P3 prevented AgLDL uptake by hVSMCs and were almost twice as effective as anti-P1 and anti-P2 Abs in reducing intracellular cholesteryl ester accumulation. Moreover, anti-P3 Abs efficiently prevented AgLDL-induced LRP1 up-regulation and counteracted the down-regulatory effect of AgLDL on hVSMC migration. In conclusion, domain CR9 appears to be critical for LRP1-mediated AgLDL binding and internalization in hVSMCs. Our results open new avenues for an innovative anti-VSMC foam cell-based strategy for the treatment of vascular lipid deposition in atherosclerosis. PMID:25918169

  16. Mesotocin and nonapeptide receptors promote estrildid flocking behavior.

    PubMed

    Goodson, James L; Schrock, Sara E; Klatt, James D; Kabelik, David; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2009-08-14

    Proximate neural mechanisms that influence preferences for groups of a given size are almost wholly unknown. In the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata), blockade of nonapeptide receptors by an oxytocin (OT) antagonist significantly reduced time spent with large groups and familiar social partners independent of time spent in social contact. Opposing effects were produced by central infusions of mesotocin (MT, avian homolog of OT). Most drug effects appeared to be female-specific. Across five estrildid finch species, species-typical group size correlates with nonapeptide receptor distributions in the lateral septum, and sociality in female zebra finches was reduced by OT antagonist infusions into the septum but not a control area. We propose that titration of sociality by MT represents a phylogenetically deep framework for the evolution of OT's female-specific roles in pair bonding and maternal functions. PMID:19679811

  17. High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Clowney, E. Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Colquitt, Bradley M.; Pathak, Nidhi; Lane, Robert P.; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion in olfactory neurons. Using a high-throughput approach, we mapped the transcription start sites of 1085 of the 1400 murine OR genes and performed computational analysis that revealed potential transcription factor binding sites shared by the majority of these promoters. Our analysis produced a hierarchical model for OR promoter recognition in which unusually high AT content, a unique epigenetic signature, and a stereotypically positioned O/E site distinguish OR promoters from the rest of the murine promoters. Our computations revealed an intriguing correlation between promoter AT content and evolutionary plasticity, as the most AT-rich promoters regulate rapidly evolving gene families. Within the AT-rich promoter category the position of the TATA-box does not correlate with the transcription start site. Instead, a spike in GC composition might define the exact location of the TSS, introducing the concept of “genomic contrast” in transcriptional regulation. Finally, our experiments show that genomic neighborhood rather than promoter sequence correlates with the probability of different OR genes to be expressed in the same olfactory cell. PMID:21705439

  18. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a

  19. Apolipoprotein M regulates the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 gene expression through binding to its promoter region in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Zhou, Hou-gang; Zhou, Hui; Hu, Min; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is predominantly located in the high-density lipoprotein in human plasma. It has been demonstrated that ApoM expression could be regulated by several crucial nuclear receptors that are involved in the bile acid metabolism. In the present study, by combining gene-silencing experiments, overexpression studies, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that ApoM positively regulated liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) gene expression via direct binding to an LRH-1 promoter region (nucleotides −406/ −197). In addition, we investigated the effects of farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 on hepatic ApoM expression in vitro. In HepG2 cell cultures, both mRNA and protein levels of ApoM and LRH-1 were decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of 1 μM GW4064, and the inhibition effect was gradually attenuated after 24 hours. In conclusion, our findings present supportive evidence that ApoM is a regulator of human LRH-1 transcription, and further reveal the importance of ApoM as a critical regulator of bile acids metabolism. PMID:25987835

  20. Apolipoprotein M regulates the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 gene expression through binding to its promoter region in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Zhou, Hou-gang; Zhou, Hui; Hu, Min; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is predominantly located in the high-density lipoprotein in human plasma. It has been demonstrated that ApoM expression could be regulated by several crucial nuclear receptors that are involved in the bile acid metabolism. In the present study, by combining gene-silencing experiments, overexpression studies, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that ApoM positively regulated liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) gene expression via direct binding to an LRH-1 promoter region (nucleotides -406/ -197). In addition, we investigated the effects of farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 on hepatic ApoM expression in vitro. In HepG2 cell cultures, both mRNA and protein levels of ApoM and LRH-1 were decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of 1 μM GW4064, and the inhibition effect was gradually attenuated after 24 hours. In conclusion, our findings present supportive evidence that ApoM is a regulator of human LRH-1 transcription, and further reveal the importance of ApoM as a critical regulator of bile acids metabolism.

  1. Intestinal farnesoid X receptor signaling promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changtao; Xie, Cen; Li, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Nichols, Robert G.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Cai, Jingwei; Qi, Yunpeng; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Takahashi, Shogo; Tanaka, Naoki; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu G.; Albert, Istvan; Patterson, Andrew D.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major worldwide health problem. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota influences NAFLD pathogenesis. Here, a murine model of high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) NAFLD was used, and the effects of alterations in the gut microbiota on NAFLD were determined. Mice treated with antibiotics or tempol exhibited altered bile acid composition, with a notable increase in conjugated bile acid metabolites that inhibited intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling. Compared with control mice, animals with intestine-specific Fxr disruption had reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation in response to a HFD. The decrease in hepatic triglyceride accumulation was mainly due to fewer circulating ceramides, which was in part the result of lower expression of ceramide synthesis genes. The reduction of ceramide levels in the ileum and serum in tempol- or antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD resulted in downregulation of hepatic SREBP1C and decreased de novo lipogenesis. Administration of C16:0 ceramide to antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD reversed hepatic steatosis. These studies demonstrate that inhibition of an intestinal FXR/ceramide axis mediates gut microbiota–associated NAFLD development, linking the microbiome, nuclear receptor signaling, and NAFLD. This work suggests that inhibition of intestinal FXR is a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD treatment. PMID:25500885

  2. Activation of Dopamine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Sucrose-Reinforced Cued Approach Behavior

    PubMed Central

    du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453

  3. Activation of Dopamine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Sucrose-Reinforced Cued Approach Behavior.

    PubMed

    du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453

  4. Impaired wake-promoting mechanisms in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Matthew; Pellinen, Jacob; Kapás, Levente; Szentirmai, Éva

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin receptors are expressed by key components of the arousal system. Exogenous ghrelin induces behavioral activation, promotes wakefulness and stimulates eating. We hypothesized that ghrelin-sensitive mechanisms play a role in the arousal system. To test this, we investigated the responsiveness of ghrelin receptor knockout (KO) mice to two natural wake-promoting stimuli. Additionally, we assessed the integrity of their homeostatic sleep-promoting system using sleep deprivation. There was no significant difference in the spontaneous sleep-wake activity between ghrelin receptor KO and wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice mounted robust arousal responses to a novel environment and food deprivation. Wakefulness increased for 6 h after cage change accompanied by increases in body temperature and locomotor activity. Ghrelin receptor KO mice completely lacked the wake and body temperature responses to new environment. When subjected to 48 h food deprivation, WT mice showed marked increases in their waking time during the dark periods of both days. Ghrelin receptor KO mice failed to mount an arousal response on the first night and wake increases were attenuated on the second day. The responsiveness to sleep deprivation did not differ between the two genotypes. These results indicate that the ghrelin-receptive mechanisms play an essential role in the function of the arousal system but not in homeostatic sleep-promoting mechanisms.

  5. Increased {beta}-amyloid levels in the choroid plexus following lead exposure and the involvement of low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, Mamta; Zhang Yanshu; Monnot, Andrew D.; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng Wei

    2009-10-15

    The choroid plexus, a barrier between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is known to accumulate lead (Pb) and also possibly function to maintain brain's homeostasis of A{beta}, an important peptide in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate if Pb exposure altered A{beta} levels at the blood-CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Rats received ip injection of 27 mg Pb/kg. Twenty-four hours later, a FAM-labeled A{beta} (200 pmol) was infused into the lateral ventricle and the plexus tissues were removed to quantify A{beta} accumulation. Results revealed a significant increase in intracellular A{beta} accumulation in the Pb-exposed animals compared to controls (p < 0.001). When choroidal epithelial Z310 cells were treated with 10 {mu}M Pb for 24 h and 48 h, A{beta} (2 {mu}M in culture medium) accumulation was significantly increased by 1.5 fold (p < 0.05) and 1.8 fold (p < 0.05), respectively. To explore the mechanism, we examined the effect of Pb on low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), an intracellular A{beta} transport protein. Following acute Pb exposure with the aforementioned dose regimen, levels of LRP1 mRNA and proteins in the choroid plexus were decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) and 31.8% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison to those of controls. In Z310 cells exposed to 10 {mu}M Pb for 24 h and 48 h, a 33.1% and 33.4% decrease in the protein expression of LRP1 was observed (p < 0.05), respectively. Knocking down LRP1 resulted in even more substantial increases of cellular accumulation of A{beta}, from 31% in cells without knockdown to 72% in cells with LRP1 knockdown (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that the acute exposure to Pb results in an increased accumulation of intracellular A{beta} in the choroid plexus; the effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of LRP1 production following Pb exposure.

  6. MicroRNAs 125a and 455 Repress Lipoprotein-Supported Steroidogenesis by Targeting Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I in Steroidogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Shen, Wen-Jun; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to identify and characterize microRNA (miRNAs) that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and SR-BI-linked selective high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester (CE) transport and steroidogenesis. Four miRNAs (miRNA-125a, miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-455) with a potential to regulate SR-BI were identified in silico and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and SR-BI 3′ untranslated region (UTR) reporter assays. In vitro treatment of primary rat granulosa cells and MLTC-1 cells with cyclic AMP (cAMP) or in vivo treatment of rat adrenals with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of miRNA-125a, miRNA-125b, and miRNA-455 and reciprocally increased SR-BI expression. Using luciferase constructs containing the 3′ untranslated region of SR-BI combined with miRNA overexpression and mutagenesis, we have provided evidence that steroidogenic SR-BI is a direct target of miRNA-125a and miRNA-455. Moreover, the transfection of Leydig tumor cells with precursor miRNA 125a (pre-miRNA-125a) or pre-miRNA-455 resulted in the suppression of SR-BI at both the transcript and protein levels and reduced selective HDL CE uptake and HDL-stimulated progesterone production. Transfection of liver Hepa 1-6 cells with pre-miRNA-125a significantly reduced SR-BI expression and its selective transport function. In contrast, overexpression of miRNA-145 did not affect SR-BI expression or selective HDL CE uptake mediated by SR-BI in steroidogenic cell lines. These data suggest that a trophic hormone and cAMP inversely regulate the expression of SR-BI and miRNA-125a and miRNA-455 in steroidogenic tissues/cells and that both miRNA-125a and miRNA-455, by targeting steroidogenic SR-BI, negatively regulate selective HDL CE uptake and HDL CE-supported steroid hormone production. PMID:23045399

  7. Hypervariable region 1 deletion and required adaptive envelope mutations confer decreased dependency on scavenger receptor class B type I and low-density lipoprotein receptor for hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Prentoe, Jannick; Serre, Stéphanie B N; Ramirez, Santseharay; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gottwein, Judith M; Bukh, Jens

    2014-02-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of envelope protein 2 (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) serves important yet undefined roles in the viral life cycle. We previously showed that the viability of HVR1-deleted JFH1-based recombinants with Core-NS2 of H77 (H77(ΔHVR1), genotype 1a) and S52 (S52(ΔHVR1), genotype 3a) in Huh7.5 cells was rescued by E2 substitutions N476D/S733F and an E1 substitution, A369V, respectively; HVR1-deleted J6 (J6(ΔHVR1), genotype 2a) was fully viable. In single-cycle production assays, where HCV RNA was transfected into entry-deficient Huh7-derived S29 cells with low CD81 expression, we found no effect of HVR1 deletion on replication or particle release for H77 and S52. HCV pseudoparticle assays in Huh7.5 cells showed that HVR1 deletion decreased entry by 20- to 100-fold for H77, J6, and S52; N476D/S733F restored entry for H77(ΔHVR1), while A369V further impaired S52(ΔHVR1) entry. We investigated receptor usage by antibody blocking and receptor silencing in Huh7.5 cells, followed by inoculation of parental and HVR1-deleted HCV recombinants. Compared to parental viruses, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) dependency was decreased for H77(ΔHVR1/N476D/S733F), H77(N476D/S733F), S52(ΔHVR1/A369V), and S52(A369V), but not for J6(ΔHVR1). Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) dependency was decreased for HVR1-deleted viruses, but not for H77(N476D/S733F) and S52(A369V). Soluble LDLr neutralization revealed strong inhibition of parental HCV but limited effect against HVR1-deleted viruses. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-specific HCV neutralization was similar for H77, J6, and S52 viruses with and without HVR1. In conclusion, HVR1 and HVR1-related adaptive envelope mutations appeared to be involved in LDLr and SR-BI dependency, respectively. Also, LDLr served ApoE-independent but HVR1-dependent functions in HCV entry. PMID:24257605

  8. Estrogen Receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a Corepressor Complex to the Estrogen Receptor alpha Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, ML; Fuqua, SA; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a prevalently expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically increases during breast tumorogenesis. So, it is reasonable to assume how a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the opposite role played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of the ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, side-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis have revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at −223 and −214 is crucial for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interaction within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing NCoR/SMRT (nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effect of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus inhibiting ER alpha’s driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

  9. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis. PMID:26947974

  10. The duration of sleep promoting efficacy by dual orexin receptor antagonists is dependent upon receptor occupancy threshold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism of action. Results Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the arousal-promoting activity of orexin peptides and, as demonstrated in the current work, exhibit an efficacy signal window dependent upon oscillating levels of endogenous orexin neuropeptide. Sleep efficacy of structurally diverse DORAs in rat and dog was achieved at plasma exposures corresponding to orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) occupancies in the range of 65 to 80%. In rats, the time course of OX2R occupancy was dependent upon receptor binding kinetics and was tightly correlated with the timing of active wake reduction. In rhesus monkeys, direct comparison of DORA-22 with GABA-A modulators at similar sleep-inducing doses revealed that diazepam produced next-day residual sleep and both diazepam and eszopiclone induced next-day cognitive deficits. In stark contrast, DORA-22 did not produce residual effects. Furthermore, DORA-22 evoked only minimal changes in quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) activity during the normal resting phase in contrast to GABA-A modulators which induced substantial qEEG changes. Conclusion The higher levels of receptor occupancy necessary for DORA efficacy require a plasma concentration profile sufficient to maintain sleep for the duration of the resting period. DORAs, with a half-life exceeding 8 h in humans, are expected to fulfill this requirement as exposures drop to sub-threshold receptor occupancy levels prior to the wake period, potentially avoiding next-day residual effects at therapeutic doses. PMID:23981345

  11. Diabetic lipoproteins and adrenal aldosterone synthesis--a possible pathophysiological link?

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Willenberg, H S; Bornstein, S R; Graessler, J; Kopprasch, S

    2012-03-01

    An increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). DM is associated with abnormal structure and metabolism of circulating lipoproteins, which normally serve as a major source of cholesterol for adrenocortical steroidogenesis. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of diabetically modified lipoproteins on adrenocortical aldosterone synthesis. Lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL) isolated from healthy volunteers, were subjected to oxidation or glycoxidation in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (3 mmol/l) or glucose (200 mmol/l), and aldosterone synthesis in human adrenocortical cells (H295R) was examined. Native and glycoxidized VLDL had greatest stimulatory effect on aldosterone production by 15-fold and 14-fold, respectively. At the molecular level, these VLDL produced maximum increases in Cyp11B2 mRNA level up to 17-fold. Experiments with the highly selective scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) inhibitor BLT-1 revealed that cholesterol uptake from native and glycoxidized HDL and VLDL for hormone production is considerably mediated by SR-BI. Western blot analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation and experiments with the MEK inhibitor U0126 indicated a specific mechanistic role of the ERK cascade in lipoprotein-mediated steroid hormone release. In summary, diabetic dyslipidemia and modification of circulating lipoproteins may promote adrenocortical aldosterone synthesis.

  12. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  13. Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abramian, Armen M.; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N.; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E.; Maguire, Jamie L.; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A.; Moss, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within α4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

  14. Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Abramian, Armen M; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E; Maguire, Jamie L; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2014-05-13

    Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within α4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

  15. Neurotrophin receptor TrkB promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Kriegel, Christina; Bellaria, Kelly J; Lee, Jaewon; Lau, Allison N; Leeman, Kristen T; Zhou, Pengcheng; Beede, Alexander M; Fillmore, Christine M; Caswell, Deborah; Barrios, Juliana; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sholl, Lynette M; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Bronson, Roderick T; Chirieac, Lucian R; Winslow, Monte M; Haigis, Marcia C; Kim, Carla F

    2014-07-15

    Lung cancer is notorious for its ability to metastasize, but the pathways regulating lung cancer metastasis are largely unknown. An in vitro system designed to discover factors critical for lung cancer cell migration identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which stimulates cell migration through activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB; also called NTRK2). Knockdown of TrkB in human lung cancer cell lines significantly decreased their migratory and metastatic ability in vitro and in vivo. In an autochthonous lung adenocarcinoma model driven by activated oncogenic Kras and p53 loss, TrkB deficiency significantly reduced metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 directly regulated TrkB expression, and, in turn, TrkB activated Akt signaling in metastatic lung cancer cells. Finally, TrkB expression was correlated with metastasis in patient samples, and TrkB was detected more often in tumors that did not have Kras or epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. These studies demonstrate that TrkB is an important therapeutic target in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24982195

  16. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  17. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  18. CB2 cannabinoid receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation via mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Javier; Ortega, Zaira; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate neural progenitor (NP) cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In particular, CB(2) cannabinoid receptors have been shown to promote NP proliferation. As CB(2) receptors are not expressed in differentiated neurons, CB(2)-selective agonists are promising candidates to manipulate NP proliferation and indirectly neurogenesis by overcoming the undesired psychoactive effects of neuronal CB(1) cannabinoid receptor activation. Here, by using NP cells, brain organotypic cultures, and in vivo animal models, we investigated the signal transduction mechanism involved in CB(2) receptor-induced NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Exposure of hippocampal HiB5 NP cells to the CB(2) receptor-selective agonist HU-308 led to the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which, by inhibiting its downstream target p27Kip1, induced NP proliferation. Experiments conducted with the CB(2) receptor-selective antagonist SR144528, inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 axis, and CB(2) receptor transient-transfection vector further supported that CB(2) receptors control NP cell proliferation via activation of mTORC1 signaling. Likewise, CB(2) receptor engagement induced cell proliferation in an mTORC1-dependent manner both in embryonic cortical slices and in adult hippocampal NPs. Thus, HU-308 increased ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in wild-type but not CB(2) receptor-deficient NPs of the mouse subgranular zone. Moreover, adult hippocampal NP proliferation induced by HU-308 and excitotoxicity was blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Altogether, these findings provide a mechanism of action and a rationale for the use of nonpsychotomimetic CB(2) receptor-selective ligands as a novel strategy for the control of NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis.

  19. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors Promote Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation via mTORC1 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Palazuelos, Javier; Ortega, Zaira; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate neural progenitor (NP) cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In particular, CB2 cannabinoid receptors have been shown to promote NP proliferation. As CB2 receptors are not expressed in differentiated neurons, CB2-selective agonists are promising candidates to manipulate NP proliferation and indirectly neurogenesis by overcoming the undesired psychoactive effects of neuronal CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Here, by using NP cells, brain organotypic cultures, and in vivo animal models, we investigated the signal transduction mechanism involved in CB2 receptor-induced NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Exposure of hippocampal HiB5 NP cells to the CB2 receptor-selective agonist HU-308 led to the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which, by inhibiting its downstream target p27Kip1, induced NP proliferation. Experiments conducted with the CB2 receptor-selective antagonist SR144528, inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 axis, and CB2 receptor transient-transfection vector further supported that CB2 receptors control NP cell proliferation via activation of mTORC1 signaling. Likewise, CB2 receptor engagement induced cell proliferation in an mTORC1-dependent manner both in embryonic cortical slices and in adult hippocampal NPs. Thus, HU-308 increased ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in wild-type but not CB2 receptor-deficient NPs of the mouse subgranular zone. Moreover, adult hippocampal NP proliferation induced by HU-308 and excitotoxicity was blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Altogether, these findings provide a mechanism of action and a rationale for the use of nonpsychotomimetic CB2 receptor-selective ligands as a novel strategy for the control of NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:22102284

  20. A novel putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) in the hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: cloning and up-regulated expression after the injection of LPS and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Chung, J Sook

    2012-03-01

    The full-length cDNA encoding a putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) was isolated from the hemocytes of Callinectes sapidus using 5' and 3' RACEs. The open reading frame for CasLpR contains a precursor of putative CasLpR consisting of 1710 amino acid residues including 22 amino acid residues of the signal peptide (22 amino acids). Mature CasLpR (1688 amino acids with 5.6% of phosphorylation sites) has multiple, putative functional domains: five low-density lipoprotein receptor domains in the N-terminus, and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site domain and a 7 transmembrane receptor (secretin family) domain in the C-terminus. To date, there are no proteins with a similar domain structure in the GenBank. The expression pattern of CasLpR was exclusive in hemocytes among all tested tissues obtained from a juvenile female at intermolt stage: brain, eyestalk ganglia, pericardial organs, and thoracic ganglia complex (nervous system); hepatopancreas (digestive system); heart, artery and hemocytes (circulatory system); gill and antennal gland (excretory system), hypodermis; and Y-organ (endocrine organ). There was no CasLpR expression in the ovary of an adult female. A putative function of CasLpR was examined after challenges of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in vivo using qRT-PCR assays. Animals at 24 h after injection of LPS or LTA up-regulated the expression of CasLpR in hemocytes by ∼3.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to the controls that received saline injection. LPS challenge also caused the greatest increment (∼55 folds) of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression in these samples. These data indicate that putative CasLpR and CasHsp90 may be involved in the defense system or the stress response of C. sapidus.

  1. The proximal J kappa germline-transcript promoter facilitates receptor editing through control of ordered recombination.

    PubMed

    Vettermann, Christian; Timblin, Greg A; Lim, Vivian; Lai, Ernest C; Schlissel, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    V(D)J recombination creates antibody light chain diversity by joining a Vκ gene segment with one of four Jκ segments. Two Jκ germline-transcript (GT) promoters control Vκ-Jκ joining, but the mechanisms that govern Jκ choice are unclear. Here, we show in gene-targeted mice that the proximal GT promoter helps targeting rearrangements to Jκ1 by preventing premature DNA breaks at Jκ2. Consequently, cells lacking the proximal GT promoter show a biased utilization of downstream Jκ segments, resulting in a diminished potential for receptor editing. Surprisingly, the proximal--in contrast to the distal--GT promoter is transcriptionally inactive prior to Igκ recombination, indicating that its role in Jκ choice is independent of classical promoter function. Removal of the proximal GT promoter increases H3K4me3 levels at Jκ segments, suggesting that this promoter could act as a suppressor of recombination by limiting chromatin accessibility to RAG. Our findings identify the first cis-element critical for Jκ choice and demonstrate that ordered Igκ recombination facilitates receptor editing.

  2. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  3. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism.

  4. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  5. Hepatitis C virus E2 protein promotes human hepatoma cell proliferation through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via cellular receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lanjuan; Wang Lu; Ren Hao; Cao Jie; Li Li; Ke Jinshan; Qi Zhongtian . E-mail: qizt53@hotmail.com

    2005-04-15

    Dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by various viruses has been shown to be responsible for viral pathogenicity. The molecular mechanism by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused human liver diseases has been investigated on the basis of abnormal intracellular signal events. Current data are very limited involved in transmembrane signal transduction triggered by HCV E2 protein. Here we explored regulation of the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway by E2 expressed in Chinese hamster oval cells. In human hepatoma Huh-7 cells, E2 specifically activated the MAPK/ERK pathway including downstream transcription factor ATF-2 and greatly promoted cell proliferation. CD81 and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on the cell surface mediated binding of E2 to Huh-7 cells. The MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation driven by E2 were suppressed by blockage of CD81 as well as LDLR. Furthermore, pretreatment with an upstream kinase MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 also impaired the MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation induced by E2. Our results suggest that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway triggered by HCV E2 via its receptors maintains survival and growth of target cells.

  6. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration.

    PubMed

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W Marie; Gonias, Steven L

    2015-09-15

    NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  7. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline; Sun, Jianmin; Jögi, Annika; Neumann, Drorit; Rönnstrand, Lars; Påhlman, Sven

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  8. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S.; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W. Marie; Gonias, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  9. Effects of 15-oxa-32-vinyl-lanost-8-ene-3 beta,32 diol on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and low density lipoprotein receptor in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ness, G C; Lopez, D; Chambers, C M; Zhao, Z; Beach, D L; Ko, S S; Trzaskos, J M

    1998-09-15

    The mechanisms by which oxylanosterols regulate expression of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and lower serum cholesterol levels were examined by using a novel nonmetabolizable oxylanosterol mimic, 15-oxa-32-vinyl-lanost-8-ene-3 beta, 32 diol (DMP 565). This compound, unlike other nonmetabolizable oxylanosterols, is not a substrate for lanosterol 14 alpha-methyl demethylase. Feeding rats a diet supplemented with 0.02% DMP 565 markedly decreased HMG-CoA reductase immunoreactive protein and enzyme activity levels without affecting mRNA levels. The rate of reductase protein degradation was unaffected. However, the rate of translation was reduced to less than 20% of control. Thus, DMP 565 appears to regulate hepatic HMG-CoA reductase gene expression primarily at the level of translation. The pronounced inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by DMP 565 resulted in a compensatory increase in the functioning of the hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, possibly by increased cycling, as evidenced by a marked increase in the rate of degradation of the LDL receptor. The half-life of the receptor was decreased from over 7 h to only 1 h in animals receiving DMP 565. This increase in the rate of degradation occurred without a change in the steady state level of the receptor. Addition of dietary cholesterol attenuated the increased turnover of the LDL receptor. These effects on the hepatic LDL receptor have also been observed with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (G. C. Ness et al., 1996, Arch. Biochem, Biophys. 325, 242-248). However, the effect of DMP 565 on the rate of degradation of the hepatic LDL receptor was of a greater magnitude when equal doses of the drugs were used. These regulatory actions of DMP 565 provide, in part, an explanation for the observed hypocholesterolemic action of this compound.

  10. Substituted pyrrolidin-2-ones: Centrally acting orexin receptor antagonists promoting sleep. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sifferlen, Thierry; Boller, Amandine; Chardonneau, Audrey; Cottreel, Emmanuelle; Gatfield, John; Treiber, Alexander; Roch, Catherine; Jenck, Francois; Aissaoui, Hamed; Williams, Jodi T; Brotschi, Christine; Heidmann, Bibia; Siegrist, Romain; Boss, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Starting from advanced pyrrolidin-2-one lead compounds, this novel series of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists was further optimized by fine-tuning of the C-3 substitution at the γ-lactam ring. We discuss our design to align in vitro potency with metabolic stability and improved physicochemical/pharmacokinetic properties while avoiding P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. These investigations led to the identification of the orally active 3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one 46, a potent and selective orexin-2 receptor antagonist, that achieved good brain exposure and promoted physiological sleep in rats.

  11. Loss of p53 induces epidermal growth factor receptor promoter activity in normal human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bheda, A; Creek, KE; Pirisi, L

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc) is caused by the viral oncoprotein E6, which targets p53 for degradation. We have previously observed that expression of p53 RNAi in normal HKc is associated with an increase in EGFR mRNA and protein. We now report that p53 RNAi induces EGFR promoter activity up to approximately 10-fold in normal HKc, and this effect does not require intact p53 binding sites on the EGFR promoter. Exogenous wild-type p53 inhibits the EGFR promoter at low levels, and activates it at higher concentrations. Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which negatively regulates p53, induces EGFR promoter activity, and this effect is augmented by p53 RNAi. Intact p53 binding sites on the EGFR promoter are not required for activation by YY1. In addition, Sp1 and YY1 synergistically induce the EGFR promoter in normal HKc, indicating that Sp1 may recruit YY1 as a co-activator. Wild-type p53 suppressed Sp1- and YY1-mediated induction of the EGFR promoter. We conclude that acute loss of p53 in normal HKc induces EGFR expression bya mechanism that involves YY1 and Sp1 and does not require p53 binding to the EGFR promoter. PMID:18391986

  12. Transthyretin participates in beta-amyloid transport from the brain to the liver- involvement of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1?

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Mobina; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre; Santos, Luís Miguel; Gomes, João Rodrigues; Oliveira, Sandra Marisa; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio; Saraiva, Maria João; Cardoso, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) binds Aβ peptide, preventing its deposition and toxicity. TTR is decreased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Additionally, AD transgenic mice with only one copy of the TTR gene show increased brain and plasma Aβ levels when compared to AD mice with both copies of the gene, suggesting TTR involvement in brain Aβ efflux and/or peripheral clearance. Here we showed that TTR promotes Aβ internalization and efflux in a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3. TTR also stimulated brain-to-blood but not blood-to-brain Aβ permeability in hCMEC/D3, suggesting that TTR interacts directly with Aβ at the blood-brain-barrier. We also observed that TTR crosses the monolayer of cells only in the brain-to-blood direction, as confirmed by in vivo studies, suggesting that TTR can transport Aβ from, but not into the brain. Furthermore, TTR increased Aβ internalization by SAHep cells and by primary hepatocytes from TTR+/+ mice when compared to TTR−/− animals. We propose that TTR-mediated Aβ clearance is through LRP1, as lower receptor expression was found in brains and livers of TTR−/− mice and in cells incubated without TTR. Our results suggest that TTR acts as a carrier of Aβ at the blood-brain-barrier and liver, using LRP1. PMID:26837706

  13. Agonist-promoted ubiquitination differentially regulates receptor trafficking of endothelin type A and type B receptors.

    PubMed

    Terada, Koji; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Nepal, Prabha; Horiguchi, Mika; Karki, Sarita; Hatate, Chizuru; Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Mai, Yosuke; Ohba, Yusuke; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-12-19

    Two types of G protein-coupled receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ETAR) and ETBR, closely resemble each other, but upon ET-1 stimulation, they follow totally different intracellular trafficking pathways; ETAR is recycled back to plasma membrane, whereas ETBR is targeted to lysosome for degradation. However, the mechanisms for such different fates are unknown. Here we demonstrated that ETBR but not ETAR was ubiquitinated on the cell surface following ET-1 stimulation and that ETBR was internalized and degraded in lysosome more rapidly than ETAR. The mutant ETBR (designated "5KR mutant") in which 5 lysine residues in the C-tail were substituted to arginine was not ubiquitinated, and its rates of internalization and degradation after ET-1 stimulation became slower, being comparable with those of ETAR. Confocal microscopic study showed that following ET-1 stimulation, ETAR and 5KR mutant of ETBR were co-localized mainly with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosome, whereas ETBR was co-localized with Rab7, a marker of late endosome/lysosome. In the 5KR mutant, ET-1-induced ERK phosphorylation and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration upon repetitive ET-1 stimulation were larger. A series of ETBR mutants (designated "4KR mutant"), in which either one of 5 arginine residues of the 5KR mutant was reverted to lysine, were normally ubiquitinated, internalized, and degraded, with ERK phosphorylation being normalized. These results demonstrate that agonist-induced ubiquitination at either lysine residue in the C-tail of ETBR but not ETAR switches intracellular trafficking from recycling to plasma membrane to targeting to lysosome, causing decreases in the cell surface level of ETBR and intracellular signaling.

  14. α(2A) adrenergic receptor promotes amyloidogenesis through disrupting APP-SorLA interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunjia; Peng, Yin; Che, Pulin; Gannon, Mary; Liu, Yin; Li, Ling; Bu, Guojun; van Groen, Thomas; Jiao, Kai; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is the key pathogenic factor driving Alzheimer's disease (AD). Endocytic sorting of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mediated by the vacuolar protein sorting (Vps10) family of receptors plays a decisive role in controlling the outcome of APP proteolytic processing and Aβ generation. Here we report for the first time to our knowledge that this process is regulated by a G protein-coupled receptor, the α(2A) adrenergic receptor (α(2A)AR). Genetic deficiency of the α(2A)AR significantly reduces, whereas stimulation of this receptor enhances, Aβ generation and AD-related pathology. Activation of α(2A)AR signaling disrupts APP interaction with a Vps10 family receptor, sorting-related receptor with A repeat (SorLA), in cells and in the mouse brain. As a consequence, activation of α(2A)AR reduces Golgi localization of APP and concurrently promotes APP distribution in endosomes and cleavage by β secretase. The α(2A)AR is a key component of the brain noradrenergic system. Profound noradrenergic dysfunction occurs consistently in patients at the early stages of AD. α(2A)AR-promoted Aβ generation provides a novel mechanism underlying the connection between noradrenergic dysfunction and AD. Our study also suggests α(2A)AR as a previously unappreciated therapeutic target for AD. Significantly, pharmacological blockade of the α(2A)AR by a clinically used antagonist reduces AD-related pathology and ameliorates cognitive deficits in an AD transgenic model, suggesting that repurposing clinical α(2A)R antagonists would be an effective therapeutic strategy for AD.

  15. CIN85 modulates TGFβ signaling by promoting the presentation of TGFβ receptors on the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Yakymovych, Ihor; Yakymovych, Mariya; Zang, Guangxiang; Mu, Yabing; Bergh, Anders; Landström, Maréne

    2015-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGFβ receptor type II (TβRII) and type I (TβRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smad4. We report here that TβRI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGFβ stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of TβRI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGFβ-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of TβRI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGFβ receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGFβ-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate cancers. Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGFβ receptors and thereby positively regulates TGFβ signaling. PMID:26169354

  16. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  17. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, R.; Jayavardhanan, K. K.; Aravindakshan, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases. PMID:27397987

  18. [Cloning and regulation of pig estrogen related receptor β gene (ESRRB) promoter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Yaxian; Du, Lixia; Wang, Huayan

    2015-04-01

    The estrogen related receptor family member Esrrb (Estrogen related receptor β) is a gene that expresses in the early stage of embryo and plays an important role in the core pluripotent network. Its function has been analyzed in human and mouse, although no report so far related to pig. Therefore, to explore its mechanism of transcriptional regulation and expression pattern, we cloned a 3.3 kb pig ESRRB promoter by PCR and constructed the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter vector pE3.3. We used these vectors to study the ESRRB expression pattern in 293T, Hela and C2C12. Sequence was analyzed for regulatory elements that share homology to known transcription factor binding sites by TFSEARCH and JASPER program. Some pluripotency related genes such as SMAD, STAT3, MYC, KLF4 and ESRRB have been found within the 3.3 kb sequence by co-transfected pig ESRRB promoter and these potential regulators. We found that ESRRB only expressed in 293T and SMAD could activate ESRRB expression obviously. To determine the core promoter region, a series of ESRRB promoter fragments with gradually truncated 5'-end were produced by PCR and inserted into pGL3-Basic vector. After transient transfection into 293T, dual luciferase assay was used to measure these promoter activities. The result suggested that the core promoter of pig ESRRB located within -25 bp to -269 bp region. These results suggest that these transcription factor binding sites and the core promoter region may be essential for transcriptional regulation of pig ESRRB gene. PMID:26380406

  19. The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Likhite, Neah; Jackson, Christopher A; Liang, Mao-Shih; Krzyzanowski, Michelle C; Lei, Pedro; Wood, Jordan F; Birkaya, Barbara; Michaels, Kerry L; Andreadis, Stelios T; Clark, Stewart D; Yu, Michael C; Ferkey, Denise M

    2015-11-10

    Protein arginine methylation regulates diverse functions of eukaryotic cells, including gene expression, the DNA damage response, and circadian rhythms. We showed that arginine residues within the third intracellular loop of the human D2 dopamine receptor, which are conserved in the DOP-3 receptor in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, were methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). By mutating these arginine residues, we further showed that their methylation enhanced the D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells. Analysis of prmt-5-deficient worms indicated that methylation promoted the dopamine-mediated modulation of chemosensory and locomotory behaviors in C. elegans through the DOP-3 receptor. In addition to delineating a previously uncharacterized means of regulating GPCR (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor) signaling, these findings may lead to the development of a new class of pharmacological therapies that modulate GPCR signaling by changing the methylation status of these key proteins. PMID:26554819

  20. The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 promotes food intake through inhibition of the Prokineticin Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Chaly, Anna L; Srisai, Dollada; Gardner, Ellen E; Sebag, Julien A

    2016-01-01

    The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis and its loss causes severe obesity in rodents. MRAP2 mediates its action in part through the potentiation of the MC4R, however, it is clear that MRAP2 is expressed in tissues that do not express MC4R, and that the deletion of MRAP2 does not recapitulate the phenotype of Mc4r KO mice. Consequently, we hypothesized that other GPCRs involved in the control of energy homeostasis are likely to be regulated by MRAP2. In this study we identified PKR1 as the first non-melanocortin GPCR to be regulated by MRAP2. We show that MRAP2 significantly and specifically inhibits PKR1 signaling. We also demonstrate that PKR1 and MRAP2 co-localize in neurons and that Mrap2 KO mice are hypersensitive to PKR1 stimulation. This study not only identifies new partners of MRAP2 but also a new pathway through which MRAP2 regulates energy homeostasis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12397.001 PMID:26829592

  1. Human pregnane X receptor compromises the function of p53 and promotes malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, D; Cherian, M; Wu, J; Chen, T

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is well established as a nuclear receptor that has a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. However, emerging evidence suggests that PXR is also a regulator of apoptosis, promoting a malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The tumor suppressor p53 can be activated in the presence of DNA damage and induce cell cycle arrest to allow for DNA repair or, ultimately, apoptosis to suppress tumor formation. We previously identified p53 as a novel PXR-associated protein by using a mass spectrometric approach. In the current study, we identified a novel inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, revealing an anti-apoptotic function of PXR in colon carcinogenesis. PXR expression reduced p53 transactivation and the expression of its downstream target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing p53 recruitment to the promoter regions of these genes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, elevated PXR levels decreased doxorubicin- or nutlin-3a-mediated toxicity and promoted malignant transformation in colon cancer cells. Our findings show for the first time that PXR expression modulates p53 target gene promoter binding and contributes to the downregulation of p53 function in human colon cancer cells. These results define the functional significance of PXR expression in modulating p53-mediated mechanisms of tumor suppression. PMID:27547448

  2. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  3. Synergistic activation of the human orphan nuclear receptor SHP gene promoter by basic helix–loop–helix protein E2A and orphan nuclear receptor SF-1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Jong; Kim, Joon-Young; Park, Yun-Yong; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2003-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) is an unusual orphan nuclear receptor that lacks a conventional DNA-binding domain and acts as a modulator of transcriptional activities of a number of nuclear receptors. We have previously reported that the orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ activates the SHP promoter. In this study, we have found that basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors, the E2A proteins (E47, E12 and E2/5), activated the human but not the mouse SHP promoter. In contrast, the tissue-specific E47 heterodimer partner BETA2 repressed the E47- mediated transactivation of the human SHP (hSHP) promoter. Using serial deletions and E-box mutant constructs of the hSHP promoter, we identified two E-boxes (E6 and E7) as E47-responsive E-boxes, which are not conserved in the mouse SHP promoter. Moreover, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and northern blot assays demonstrated that E47 directly binds to the hSHP promoter in vivo and in vitro and that Id proteins inhibited E47 binding to the hSHP promoter. Finally, we found that E47 and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), a regulator of the SHP promoter, synergistically activate the human but not the mouse SHP promoter. Our findings suggest that the E2A proteins differentially regulate the human and mouse SHP promoters and cooperate with orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 for transcriptional activation of the hSHP promoter. PMID:14627819

  4. Esterification of Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Human Fibroblasts and Its Absence in Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joseph L.; Dana, Suzanna E.; Brown, Michael S.

    1974-01-01

    A new mechanism is described for the cellular esterification of cholesterol derived from extra-cellular lipoproteins. Incubation of monolayers of cultured fibroblasts from normal human subjects with low density lipoproteins led to a 30- to 40-fold increase in the rate of incorporation of either [14C]acetate or [14C]oleate into the fatty acid fraction of cholesteryl [14C]esters. This stimulation of cholesteryl ester formation by low density lipoproteins occurred despite the fact that endogenous synthesis of free cholesterol was completely suppressed by the lipoprotein. Thus, exogenous cholesterol contained in low density lipoproteins, rather than endogenously synthesized sterol, appeared to provide the cholesterol substrate for this cellular esterfication process. High density lipoproteins and the lipoprotein-deficient fraction of serum neither stimulated cholesteryl ester formation nor inhibited cholesterol synthesis. Both the low density lipoprotein-dependent increase in cholesterol esterification and decrease in free cholesterol synthesis required the interaction of the lipoprotein with its recently described cell surface receptor. Cells from homozygotes with familial hypercholesterolemia, which lack specific low density lipoprotein receptors, showed neither lipoprotein-dependent cholesterol esterification nor suppression of cholesterol synthesis. The reciprocal changes in free cholesterol synthesis and cholesteryl ester formation produced by low density lipoprotein-receptor interactions may play an important role in the regulation of the cholesterol content of mammalian cells. PMID:4373706

  5. Esterification of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in human fibroblasts and its absence in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J L; Dana, S E; Brown, M S

    1974-11-01

    A new mechanism is described for the cellular esterification of cholesterol derived from extra-cellular lipoproteins. Incubation of monolayers of cultured fibroblasts from normal human subjects with low density lipoproteins led to a 30- to 40-fold increase in the rate of incorporation of either [(14)C]acetate or [(14)C]oleate into the fatty acid fraction of cholesteryl [(14)C]esters. This stimulation of cholesteryl ester formation by low density lipoproteins occurred despite the fact that endogenous synthesis of free cholesterol was completely suppressed by the lipoprotein. Thus, exogenous cholesterol contained in low density lipoproteins, rather than endogenously synthesized sterol, appeared to provide the cholesterol substrate for this cellular esterfication process. High density lipoproteins and the lipoprotein-deficient fraction of serum neither stimulated cholesteryl ester formation nor inhibited cholesterol synthesis. Both the low density lipoprotein-dependent increase in cholesterol esterification and decrease in free cholesterol synthesis required the interaction of the lipoprotein with its recently described cell surface receptor. Cells from homozygotes with familial hypercholesterolemia, which lack specific low density lipoprotein receptors, showed neither lipoprotein-dependent cholesterol esterification nor suppression of cholesterol synthesis. The reciprocal changes in free cholesterol synthesis and cholesteryl ester formation produced by low density lipoprotein-receptor interactions may play an important role in the regulation of the cholesterol content of mammalian cells.

  6. The putative signal peptide of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is not required for receptor synthesis but promotes receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yunjun; Yang, Dehua; Dai, Antao; Zhou, Caihong; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    GLP-1R (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) mediates the ‘incretin effect’ and many other anti-diabetic actions of its cognate ligand, GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1). It belongs to the class B family of GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors) and possesses an N-terminal putative SP (signal peptide). It has been reported that this sequence is required for the synthesis of GLP-1R and is cleaved after receptor synthesis. In the present study, we conducted an in-depth exploration towards the role of the putative SP in GLP-1R synthesis. A mutant GLP-1R without this sequence was expressed in HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) and displayed normal functionality with respect to ligand binding and activation of adenylate cyclase. Thus the putative SP does not seem to be required for receptor synthesis. Immunoblotting analysis shows that the amount of GLP-1R synthesized in HEK293 cells is low when the putative SP is absent. This indicates that the role of the sequence is to promote the expression of GLP-1R. Furthermore, epitopes tagged at the N-terminal of GLP-1R are detectable by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting in our experiments. In conclusion, the present study points to different roles of SP in GLP-1R expression which broadens our understanding of the functionality of this putative SP of GLP-1R and possibly other Class B GPCRs. PMID:25330813

  7. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Lolita M.; Lough, Christopher M.; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

  8. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S

    2013-07-12

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.

  9. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

  10. Blockade of orexin-1 receptors attenuates orexin-2 receptor antagonism-induced sleep promotion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E; Aluisio, Leah E; Fraser, Ian C; Jiang, Xiaohui; Sutton, Steven W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Yun, Sujin; Li, Xiaorong; Lord, Brian; Dvorak, Curt A; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2009-07-01

    Orexins are peptides produced by lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in the maintenance of wakefulness by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptor located in wake-active structures. Pharmacological blockade of both receptors by the dual OX1/2R antagonist (2R)-2-[(1S)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-{2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl]-N-methyl-2-phenylethanamide (almorexant) has been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans during their active period. However, the selective distribution of OX1R and OX2R in distinct neuronal circuits may result in a differential impact of these receptors in sleep-wake modulation. The respective role of OX1R and OX2R on sleep in correlation with monoamine release was evaluated in rats treated with selective antagonists alone or in combination. When administered in either phase of the light/dark cycle, the OX2R antagonist 1-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-3-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea (JNJ-10397049) decreased the latency for persistent sleep and increased nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep time. Almorexant produced less hypnotic activity, whereas the OX1R antagonist 1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea (SB-408124) had no effect. Microdialysis studies showed that either OX2R or OX1/2R antagonism decreased extracellular histamine concentration in the lateral hypothalamus, whereas both OX1R and OX1/2R antagonists increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, coadministration of the OX1R with the OX2R antagonist greatly attenuated the sleep-promoting effects of the OX2R antagonist. These results indicate that blockade of OX2R is sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, consistent with the hypothesis of a deactivation of the histaminergic system. In addition, it is suggested that simultaneous inhibition of OX1R attenuates the sleep-promoting effects mediated by selective OX2R blockade, possibly correlated

  11. The DEK oncogene promotes cellular proliferation through paracrine Wnt signaling in Ron receptor positive breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Privette Vinnedge, Lisa M.; Benight, Nancy M.; Wagh, Purnima K.; Pease, Nicholas A.; Nashu, Madison A.; Serrano-Lopez, Juana; Adams, Allie K.; Cancelas, Jose A.; Waltz, Susan E.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Disease progression and recurrence are major barriers to surviving breast cancer. Understanding the etiology of recurrent or metastatic breast cancer and underlying mechanisms is critical for the development of new treatments and improved survival. Here, we report that two commonly over-expressed breast cancer oncogenes, Ron and DEK, cooperate to promote advanced disease through multi-pronged effects on β-catenin signaling. The Ron receptor is commonly activated in breast cancers, and Ron over-expression in human disease stimulates β-catenin nuclear translocation and is an independent predictor of metastatic dissemination. Dek is a chromatin-associated oncogene whose expression has been linked to cancer through multiple mechanisms, including β-catenin activity. We demonstrate here that Dek is a downstream target of Ron receptor activation in murine and human models. The absence of Dek in the MMTV-Ron mouse model led to a significant delay in tumor development, characterized by decreased cell proliferation, diminished metastasis, and fewer cells expressing cancer stem cell markers. Dek complementation of cell lines established from this model was sufficient to promote cellular growth and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Dek expression stimulated the production and secretion of Wnt ligands to sustain an autocrine/paracrine canonical β-catenin signaling loop. Finally, we show that Dek over-expression promotes tumorigenic phenotypes in immortalized human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells and, in the context of Ron receptor activation, correlates with disease recurrence and metastasis in patients. Overall, our studies demonstrate that DEK over-expression, due in part to Ron receptor activation, drives breast cancer progression through the induction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:24954505

  12. Transcriptional activation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor promoter by human p53.

    PubMed Central

    Ludes-Meyers, J H; Subler, M A; Shivakumar, C V; Munoz, R M; Jiang, P; Bigger, J E; Brown, D R; Deb, S P; Deb, S

    1996-01-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter is activated by both wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53. In this communication, we demonstrate that EGFR promoter sequence requirements for transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53 are different. Transient-expression assays with EGFR promoter deletions identified a wild-type human p53 response element, 5'-AGCTAGACGTCCGGGCAGCCCCCGGCG -3', from positions --265 to --239. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and DNase I footprinting assays indicated that wild-type p53 binds sequence specifically to the response element. Using circularly permuted DNA fragments containing the p53-binding site, we show that wild-type p53 binding induces DNA bending at this site. We further show that the EGFR promoter is also activated by tumor-derived p53 mutants p53-143A, p53-175H, p53-248W, p53-273H, and p53-281G. However, the transactivation by mutant p53 does not require the wild-type p53-binding site. The minimal EGFR promoter from positions --104 to --20 which does not contain the wild-type p53-binding site is transactivated by the p53 mutants but not by the wild-type protein, showing a difference in the mechanism of transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53. Transactivation of the EGFR promoter by p53 may represent a novel mechanism of cell growth regulation. PMID:8887630

  13. A MARCH6 and IDOL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Circuit Uncouples Cholesterol Synthesis from Lipoprotein Uptake in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Loregger, Anke; Cook, Emma Claire Laura; Nelson, Jessica Kristin; Moeton, Martina; Sharpe, Laura Jane; Engberg, Susanna; Karimova, Madina; Lambert, Gilles; Brown, Andrew John

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein uptake are tightly coordinated to ensure that the cellular level of cholesterol is adequately maintained. Hepatic dysregulation of these processes is associated with pathological conditions, most notably cardiovascular disease. Using a genetic approach, we have recently identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 as a regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, owing to its ability to promote degradation of the rate-limiting enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene epoxidase (SQLE). Here, we present evidence for MARCH6 playing a multifaceted role in the control of cholesterol homeostasis in hepatocytes. We identify MARCH6 as an endogenous inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional program. Accordingly, loss of MARCH6 increases expression of SREBP-regulated genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake. Unexpectedly, this is associated with a decrease in cellular lipoprotein uptake, induced by enhanced lysosomal degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Finally, we provide evidence that induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL represents the molecular mechanism underlying this MARCH6-induced phenotype. Our study thus highlights a MARCH6-dependent mechanism to direct cellular cholesterol accretion that relies on uncoupling of cholesterol synthesis from lipoprotein uptake. PMID:26527619

  14. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-01

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:26518877

  15. Tumour-cell-induced endothelial cell necroptosis via death receptor 6 promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Strilic, Boris; Yang, Lida; Albarrán-Juárez, Julián; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Han, Kang; Müller, Ulrike C; Pasparakis, Manolis; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-08-11

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. It is a complex multistep process during which individual tumour cells spread primarily through the circulatory system to colonize distant organs. Once in the circulation, tumour cells remain vulnerable, and their metastatic potential largely depends on a rapid and efficient way to escape from the blood stream by passing the endothelial barrier. Evidence has been provided that tumour cell extravasation resembles leukocyte transendothelial migration. However, it remains unclear how tumour cells interact with endothelial cells during extravasation and how these processes are regulated on a molecular level. Here we show that human and murine tumour cells induce programmed necrosis (necroptosis) of endothelial cells, which promotes tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. Treatment of mice with the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-inhibitor necrostatin-1 or endothelial-cell-specific deletion of RIPK3 reduced tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis, tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. In contrast, pharmacological caspase inhibition or endothelial-cell-specific loss of caspase-8 promoted these processes. We furthermore show in vitro and in vivo that tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis leading to extravasation and metastasis requires amyloid precursor protein expressed by tumour cells and its receptor, death receptor 6 (DR6), on endothelial cells as the primary mediators of these effects. Our data identify a new mechanism underlying tumour cell extravasation and metastasis, and suggest endothelial DR6-mediated necroptotic signalling pathways as targets for anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:27487218

  16. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hongyi; Kantekure, Kanchan; Paterson, Jennifer C; Liu, Xiaobin; Schaffer, Andras; Paulos, Chrystal; Milone, Michael C; Odum, Niels; Turner, Suzanne; Marafioti, Teresa; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2011-09-15

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative enhancer region, of the ICOS gene, whereas cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines, which strongly express ICOS, show no methylation of the island. Treatment of the ALK(+) TCL cell lines with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed the CpG island methylation and augmented the expression of ICOS mRNA and protein. Stimulation of the ICOS receptor with anti-ICOS antibody or ICOS ligand-expressing B cells markedly enhanced proliferation of the ALK(+) TCL cells. These results demonstrate that NPM-ALK, acting through STAT3 as the gene transcriptional activator, induces the expression of ICOS, a cell growth promoting receptor. These data also show that the DNA methylation status of the intronic CpG island affects transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene and, consequently, modulates the concentration of the expressed ICOS protein.

  17. Nerve growth factor and its low-affinity receptor promote Schwann cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Anton, E S; Weskamp, G; Reichardt, L F; Matthew, W D

    1994-01-01

    Migrating Schwann cells in developing or regenerating peripheral nerves are known to express dramatically increased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the low-affinity NGF receptor (LNGFR). Schwann cells do not express detectable pp140trk, the NGF-activated receptor tyrosine kinase which is essential for neuronal responses to NGF. The temporal correlation observed in Schwann cells between migration and the enhanced expression of NGF and LNGFR suggests that NGF and LNGFR may promote Schwann cell migration. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of NGF on Schwann cell migration on cryostat sections of biologically relevant NGF-poor and NGF-rich substrates--normal or denervated peripheral (sciatic) nerve, untreated or pretreated with NGF. Results show that Schwann cells migrate more rapidly on denervated than on normal sciatic nerve. Antibodies to NGF or to LNGFR strongly, but incompletely, inhibit enhanced migration on denervated nerves. Pretreatment of denervated nerve sections with NGF increases further the rate of Schwann cell migration. The same antibodies to NGF or to LNGFR abolish this response. These results suggest that one function of the elevated levels of NGF known to be present in embryonic and regenerating peripheral nerves is to promote the migration of Schwann cells. In contrast to neurons, where pp140trk appears to be the functionally critical NGF receptor, NGF responses in Schwann cells depend on LNGFR. Images PMID:8146193

  18. AMPA-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery in Premature Rabbits with Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dohare, Preeti; Zia, Muhammad T.; Ahmed, Ehsan; Ahmed, Asad; Yadala, Vivek; Schober, Alexandra L.; Ortega, Juan Alberto; Kayton, Robert; Ungvari, Zoltan; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    of survivors with IVH develop cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. The development of IVH leads to inflammation of the periventricular white matter, apoptosis and arrested maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and hypomyelination. Here, we show that AMPA-kainate receptor inhibition by NBQX suppresses inflammation, attenuates apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and promotes myelination as well as clinical recovery in preterm rabbits with IVH. Importantly, AMPA-specific inhibition by the FDA-approved perampanel, which unlike NBQX has a low side-effect profile, also enhances myelination and neurological recovery in rabbits with IVH. Hence, the present study highlights the role of AMPA-kainate receptor in IVH-induced white matter injury and identifies a novel strategy of neuroprotection, which might improve the neurological outcome for premature infants with IVH. PMID:26985043

  19. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  20. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (P<0.005). Among six isoflavones, daidzin was positively associated with MCF-7 cell growth (P<0.005, r = 0.13966), whereas the negative correlation between genistin and MCF-7 cell growth was nearly significant (P≤0.0562, r = -0.026141). Furthermore, in drug interaction studies daidzin-rich isoflavone extracts antagonized tamoxifen, an ER inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that the glyconic daidzin-rich soy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic

  1. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-06-21

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of 'exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of 'endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of 'endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.

  2. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and white-colored blood vessels in the retinas Pancreatitis that keeps returning Yellowing of the eyes and ... discuss your diet needs with a registered dietitian. Pancreatitis that is related to lipoprotein lipase deficiency responds ...

  3. Nanoparticle-induced unfolding of fibrinogen promotes Mac-1 receptor activation and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Liang, Mingtao; Monteiro, Michael; Toth, Istvan; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition, size, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles affect the way proteins bind to these particles, and this in turn influences the way in which nanoparticles interact with cells and tissues. Nanomaterials bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, including macrophage uptake, blood coagulation, protein aggregation and complement activation, but the mechanisms that lead to these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that negatively charged poly(acrylic acid)-conjugated gold nanoparticles bind to and induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes interaction with the integrin receptor, Mac-1. Activation of this receptor increases the NF-κB signalling pathway, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, not all nanoparticles that bind to fibrinogen demonstrated this effect. Our results show that the binding of certain nanoparticles to fibrinogen in plasma offers an alternative mechanism to the more commonly described role of oxidative stress in the inflammatory response to nanomaterials.

  4. Formylpeptide Receptors Promote the Migration and Differentiation of Rat Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xingxing; Xue, Xin; Guo, Qiaonan; Liu, Mingyong; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) bear characteristics for proliferation, migration and differentiation into three main neural cell type(s): neurons, astrocytes and/or oligodendrocytes. Formylpeptide receptors (Fprs), belonging to the family of G protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors, have been detected on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Fpr1 and Fpr2 are expressed on NSCs as detected with immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and WB assays. In addition, Fpr1 and Fpr2 promoted NSC migration through F-actin polymerization and skewed NSC differentiation to neurons. Our study demonstrates a unique role of Fpr1 and Fpr2 in NSCs and opens a novel window for cell replacement therapies for brain and spinal cord injury. PMID:27173446

  5. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [(3)H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD.

  6. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [3H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD. PMID:27458015

  7. Cyclic tensile stretch load and oxidized low density lipoprotein synergistically induce lectin-like oxidized ldl receptor-1 in cultured bovine chondrocytes, resulting in decreased cell viability and proteoglycan synthesis.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Masao; Nishimura, Shunji; Yoshida, Kohji; Kakinuma, Takumi; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Munakata, Hiroshi; Hamanishi, Chiaki

    2006-08-01

    Mechanical stimulation is known to be an essential factor in the regulation of cartilage metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) can be modulated by cyclic tensile stretch load in chondrocytes. Cyclic loading of repeated stretch stress at 10 cycles per minute with 10 kPa of stress for 6 h induced expression of LOX-1 to 2.6 times control in cultured bovine articular chondrocytes, equivalent to the addition of 10 microg/mL oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) (2.4 times control). Application of the cyclic load to the chondrocytes along with 10 microg/mL ox-LDL resulted in synergistically increased LOX-1 expression to 6.3 times control. Individual application of cyclic loading and 10 microg/mL ox-LDL significantly suppressed chondrocytes viability (84.6% +/- 3.4% and 80.9% +/- 3.2% of control at 24 h, respectively; n = 3; p < 0.05) and proteoglycan synthesis [81.0% +/- 7.1% and 85.7% +/- 5.2% of control at 24 h, respectively; p < 0.05 when compared with 94.6% +/- 4.6% for native-LDL (n = 3)]. Cyclic loading and 10 microg/mL ox-LDL synergistically affected cell viability and proteoglycan synthesis, which were significantly suppressed to 45.6% +/- 4.9% and 48.7% +/- 6.7% of control at 24 h, respectively (n = 3; p < 0.01 when compared with individual application of cyclic loading or 10 microg/mL ox-LDL). In this study, we demonstrated synergistic effects of cyclic tensile stretch load and ox-LDL on cell viability and proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes, which may be mediated through enhanced expression of LOX-1 and which has important implications in the progression of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis.

  8. Upregulation of the low density lipoprotein receptor at the blood-brain barrier: intercommunications between brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the endothelial cells in large vessels where LDL receptors are downregulated, brain capillary endothelial cells in vivo express an LDL receptor. Using a cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier consisting of a coculture of brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes, we observed that the capacity of endothelial cells to bind LDL is enhanced threefold when cocultured with astrocytes. We next investigated the ability of astrocytes to modulate endothelial cell LDL receptor expression. We have shown that the lipid requirement of astrocytes increases the expression of endothelial cell LDL receptors. Experiments with dialysis membranes of different pore size showed that this effect is mediated by a soluble factor(s) with relative molecular mass somewhere between 3,500 and 14,000. Substituting astrocytes with smooth muscle cells or brain endothelium with endothelium from the aorta or the adrenal cortex did not enhance the luminal LDL receptor expression on endothelial cells, demonstrating the specificity of the interactions. This factor(s) is exclusively secreted by astrocytes cocultured with brain capillary endothelial cells, but it also upregulates the LDL receptor on other cell types. This study confirms the notion that the final fine tuning of cell differentiation is under local control. PMID:8034745

  9. The Shh receptor Boc promotes progression of early medulloblastoma to advanced tumors.

    PubMed

    Mille, Frédéric; Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Lévesque, Martin; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Cardin, Julie; Bouchard, Nicolas; Izzi, Luisa; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Taylor, Michael D; Pfister, Stefan M; Charron, Frédéric

    2014-10-13

    During cerebellar development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling drives the proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Aberrant activation of Shh signaling causes overproliferation of GCPs, leading to medulloblastoma. Although the Shh-binding protein Boc associates with the Shh receptor Ptch1 to mediate Shh signaling, whether Boc plays a role in medulloblastoma is unknown. Here, we show that BOC is upregulated in medulloblastomas and induces GCP proliferation. Conversely, Boc inactivation reduces proliferation and progression of early medulloblastomas to advanced tumors. Mechanistically, we find that Boc, through elevated Shh signaling, promotes high levels of DNA damage, an effect mediated by CyclinD1. High DNA damage in the presence of Boc increases the incidence of Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity, an important event in the progression from early to advanced medulloblastoma. Together, our results indicate that DNA damage promoted by Boc leads to the demise of its own coreceptor, Ptch1, and consequently medulloblastoma progression. PMID:25263791

  10. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  11. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  12. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  13. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Casado, Fanny L

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  14. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  15. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chenglin; Zhao, Ruonan; Vallejo, Julian; Igwe, Orisa; Bonewald, Lynda; Wetmore, Lori; Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from osteocytes enhances myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, suggesting that signaling from bone may be important for skeletal muscle myogenesis. The effect of CM was closely mimicked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid mediator in various physiological or pathological conditions. PGE2 is secreted at high levels by osteocytes and such secretion is further enhanced under loading conditions. Although four types of receptors, EP1 to EP4, mediate PGE2 signaling, it is unknown whether these receptors play a role in myogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the expression of EPs in mouse primary myoblasts was characterized, followed by examination of their roles in myoblast proliferation by treating myoblasts with PGE2 or specific agonists. All four PGE2 receptor mRNAs were detectable by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but only PGE2 and EP4 agonist CAY 10598 significantly enhance myoblast proliferation. EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects. Moreover, treatment with EP4 antagonist L161,982 dose-dependently inhibited myoblast proliferation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis and the gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Concomitant with the inhibition of myoblast proliferation, treatment with L161,982 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Cotreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or sodium ascorbate (SA) successfully reversed the inhibition of myoblast proliferation and ROS overproduction caused by L161,982. Therefore, PGE2 signaling via the EP4 receptor regulates myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and blocking this receptor results in increased ROS production in myoblasts.

  16. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  17. Interferon-gamma receptor 1 promoter polymorphisms: population distribution and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Ding, Li; Sullivan, Rachel; Enyedi, Balasz; Yim, Jae-Joon; Cook, James L; Musser, James M; Holland, Steven M

    2004-07-01

    Different polymorphisms have been described in the minimal promoter region (MPR) of the interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1), a molecule that plays a critical role in mycobacterial control. We sequenced the IFNGR1 MPR from African American, Caucasian and Korean controls, and from mycobacteria-infected patients. Six different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the IFNGR1 MPR. The three ethnic groups showed different SNP distribution patterns, but no significant differences were detected between mycobacterial cases and controls. Two polymorphisms were found in all populations (G-611A, T-56C). We cloned the four allelic variants (var) of haplotype G-611A/T-56C into a luciferase reporter vector and determined their promoter activity. Polymorphisms at position -611 had a stronger effect on the promoter activity than those at position -56, and constructs carrying G-611 produced a stronger promoter activity than -611A constructs. The IFNGR1 MPR is a polymorphic region with at least two SNPs influencing its activity, but these are not associated with increased mycobacterial susceptibility.

  18. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  19. The effects of chemically modifying serum apolipoproteins on their ability to activate lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, P F; Lopez-Johnston, A; Welch, V A; Gurr, M I

    1987-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase activity was measured in an acetone-dried-powder preparation from rat epididymal adipose tissue using pig serum or pig serum lipoprotein, which had been chemically modified, as activator. Modification of acidic amino acids of lipoproteins with NN-dimethyl-1,3-diamine resulted in a complete loss of ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. Modification of 34% of lipoprotein arginine groups with cyclohexanedione resulted in the loss of 75% of the activation of lipoprotein lipase; approx. 42% of the original activity was recovered after reversal of the modification. This effect was dependent on the cyclohexanedione concentration. Modification of 48% of lipoprotein lysine groups with malonaldehyde decreased the maximum activation by 20%, but three times as much lipoprotein was required to achieve this. Non-enzymic glycosylation of lipoprotein with glucose, under a variety of conditions resulting in up to 28 nmol of glucose/mg of protein, had no effect upon the ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. In contrast non-enzymic sialylation resulted in a time-dependent loss of up to 60% of ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. Reductive methylation and acetoacetylation of serum did not affect the ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. The results are compared to the effects of similar modifications to low density lipoproteins on receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:3593262

  20. New horizons in lipoprotein research.

    PubMed

    Scott, J

    1987-08-01

    The present decade was heralded by the identification of cDNA clones for apo-AI, HMG CoA reductase and the LDL receptor. Today we have descriptions of many other proteins involved in lipid metabolism and of the genes that code for them. Structure and function have been probed by techniques for protein blotting and by in vitro mutagenesis of proteins. The details of gene regulation are now beginning to be unravelled and we can expect exciting new developments in the understanding of how gene expression affects plasma lipoprotein levels. New and powerful techniques have been established for identifying known mutations and for detecting new mutations. Discovery of restriction fragment length polymorphisms have allowed the association between these DNA markers and particular genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism to be probed. The extent to which particular gene loci contribute to the variation in plasma cholesterol levels is being analysed using the methods of genetic epidemiology. With the advent of methods for establishing linkage and physical maps of the human genome, it is now possible to identify the genes responsible for any disorder in which clinical material can be assembled. From this rapidly advancing knowledge it must be anticipated that many new exciting diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities will emerge.

  1. Term myometrium is characterized by increased activating epigenetic modifications at the progesterone receptor-A promoter.

    PubMed

    Chai, S Y; Smith, R; Zakar, T; Mitchell, C; Madsen, G

    2012-08-01

    Term human myometrial expression of progesterone receptor (PR)-A is increased relative to PR-B, and as PR-A is a repressor of progesterone action mediated through PR-B, this increase may mediate the withdrawal of progesterone action and precipitate the onset of labour. PR-A and PR-B expression is regulated by two separate promoters of the PR gene. We hypothesized that epigenetic histone modifications at the two promoters contribute to the labour-associated regulation of PR-A and PR-B expression in term myometrium. PR total, PR-B and PR-A mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine the levels of activating and repressive histone modifications at the PR-A and PR-B promoters in human myometrial samples not in labour (n = 4) and in labour (n = 4). Chromatin extracts were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against activating (histone H3 and H4 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation), and repressive (histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and asymmetrical histone H3 arginine 2 dimethylation) histone modifications. PR-A mRNA levels increased during labour, while PR-B mRNA levels remained constant resulting in an increase of PR-A/PR-B mRNA ratio, as expected. Regardless of labour status, significantly higher levels of the activating histone modifications were found at the PR-A promoter compared with the PR-B promoter (P <0.001). H3K4me3 increased significantly at both promoters with labour onset (P =0.001). Low levels of the repressive histone modifications were also present at both promoters, with no labour-associated changes observed. Our data indicate that the PR-A promoter is epigenetically marked for activation in term myometrium more extensively than the PR-B promoter, and that labour is associated with an increase in H3K4me3 activating modification, consistent with the previously described increase in PR protein at this time. PMID:22369759

  2. Liver X receptors alpha and beta promote myelination and remyelination in the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Meffre, Delphine; Shackleford, Ghjuvan’Ghjacumu; Hichor, Mehdi; Gorgievski, Victor; Tzavara, Eleni T.; Trousson, Amalia; Ghoumari, Abdel M.; Deboux, Cyrille; Nait Oumesmar, Brahim; Liere, Philippe; Schumacher, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Charbonnier, Frédéric; Grenier, Julien; Massaad, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    The identification of new pathways governing myelination provides innovative avenues for remyelination. Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols that originated from the oxidation of cholesterol. They are crucial for cholesterol homeostasis, a major lipid constituent of myelin sheaths that are formed by oligodendrocytes. However, the role of LXRs in myelin generation and maintenance is poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRs are involved in myelination and remyelination processes. LXRs and their ligands are present in oligodendrocytes. We found that mice invalidated for LXRs exhibit altered motor coordination and spatial learning, thinner myelin sheaths, and reduced myelin gene expression. Conversely, activation of LXRs by either 25-hydroxycholesterol or synthetic TO901317 stimulates myelin gene expression at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels, directly implicating LXRα/β in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression. Interestingly, activation of LXRs also promotes oligodendroglial cell maturation and remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. Together, our findings represent a conceptual advance in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression and strongly support a new role of LXRs as positive modulators in central (re)myelination processes. PMID:26023184

  3. Extracellular vimentin interacts with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor to promote axonal growth.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, Michiko; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Sawai, Yusuke; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is generally recognised as an intracellular protein. Previously, we reported that vimentin was secreted from astrocytes and promoted axonal growth. The effect of extracellular vimentin in neurons was a new finding, but its signalling pathway was unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the signalling mechanism of extracellular vimentin that facilitates axonal growth. We first identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a receptor that is highly phosphorylated by vimentin stimulation. IGF1R blockades diminished vimentin- or IGF1-induced axonal growth in cultured cortical neurons. IGF1, IGF2 and insulin were not detected in the neuron culture medium after vimentin treatment. The combined drug affinity responsive target stability method and western blotting analysis showed that vimentin and IGF1 interacted with IGF1R directly. In addition, immunoprecipitation and western blotting analyses confirmed that recombinant IGF1R bound to vimentin. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that C-terminal residues (residue number 330-407) in vimentin are the most appropriate binding sites with IGF1R. Thus, extracellular vimentin may be a novel ligand of IGF1R that promotes axonal growth in a similar manner to IGF1. Our results provide novel findings regarding the role of extracellular vimentin and IGF1R in axonal growth. PMID:26170015

  4. Liver X receptors alpha and beta promote myelination and remyelination in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Meffre, Delphine; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Hichor, Mehdi; Gorgievski, Victor; Tzavara, Eleni T; Trousson, Amalia; Ghoumari, Abdel M; Deboux, Cyrille; Nait Oumesmar, Brahim; Liere, Philippe; Schumacher, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Charbonnier, Frédéric; Grenier, Julien; Massaad, Charbel

    2015-06-16

    The identification of new pathways governing myelination provides innovative avenues for remyelination. Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols that originated from the oxidation of cholesterol. They are crucial for cholesterol homeostasis, a major lipid constituent of myelin sheaths that are formed by oligodendrocytes. However, the role of LXRs in myelin generation and maintenance is poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRs are involved in myelination and remyelination processes. LXRs and their ligands are present in oligodendrocytes. We found that mice invalidated for LXRs exhibit altered motor coordination and spatial learning, thinner myelin sheaths, and reduced myelin gene expression. Conversely, activation of LXRs by either 25-hydroxycholesterol or synthetic TO901317 stimulates myelin gene expression at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels, directly implicating LXRα/β in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression. Interestingly, activation of LXRs also promotes oligodendroglial cell maturation and remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. Together, our findings represent a conceptual advance in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression and strongly support a new role of LXRs as positive modulators in central (re)myelination processes.

  5. Lipoprotein mediated lipid uptake in oocytes of polychaetes (Annelida).

    PubMed

    Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    The uptake of the 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-labeled sex-unspecific Nereis lipoprotein was investigated in oocytes of the nereidid polychaetes Nereis virens and Platynereis dumerilii. The fluorescence label was first observed in endocytic vesicles (<1 microm diameter), which later fused to larger vesicles (2-3 microm); these were finally incorporated into existing unlabeled yolk granules (5-6 microm). In Platynereis oocytes, the fusion of endocytic vesicles was delayed in oocytes at their final stage of development compared with those at an early stage of development. Lipoprotein double-labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and DiI revealed that both the protein and the lipid moiety remained co-localized during incorporation into the yolk granules of the oocyte. No labeling of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets was observed. In N. virens, unlabeled Nereis lipoprotein was effective as a competitive inhibitor of DiI-labeled Nereis lipoprotein. Ligand blot experiments demonstrated the presence of a lipoprotein receptor with an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa, which is different from that of the known yolk protein receptor. This indicates the presence, in the polychaete oocyte, of two distinct receptors mediating yolk protein and lipoprotein uptake, respectively. Thus, the sex-unspecific lipoprotein contributes to the lipid supply of the growing oocyte in addition to the known uptake of the yolk-protein-associated lipids. The absence of label in the cytoplasmic lipid droplets, even after prolonged incubation with labeled lipoprotein, suggests that these lipids arise either by the breakdown and resynthesis of lipoprotein-derived lipids and/or by de novo synthesis within the oocyte.

  6. Paeoniflorin Promotes Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Sun, Yu; Luo, Yan-Jia; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF, C23H28O11), one of the principal active ingredients of Paeonia Radix, exerts depressant effects on the central nervous system. We determined whether PF could modulate sleep behaviors and the mechanisms involved. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings in mice showed that intraperitoneal PF administered at a dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Immunohistochemical study revealed that PF decreased c-fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-fos induced by PF were reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and PF-induced sleep was not observed in adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice. Whole-cell patch clamping in mouse brain slices showed that PF significantly decreased the firing frequency of histaminergic neurons in TMN, which could be completely blocked by CPT. These results indicate that PF increased NREM sleep by inhibiting the histaminergic system via A1 receptors.

  7. Phosphorylation of farnesoid X receptor by protein kinase C promotes its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Gineste, Romain; Sirvent, Audrey; Paumelle, Réjane; Helleboid, Stéphane; Aquilina, Alexis; Darteil, Raphaël; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2008-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and is activated by bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, or synthetic ligands such as GW4064. FXR is implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Posttranslational modifications regulating its activity have not been investigated yet. Here, we demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition impairs ligand-mediated regulation of FXR target genes. Moreover, in a transactivation assay, we show that FXR transcriptional activity is modulated by PKC. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate , a PKC activator, induces the phosphorylation of endogenous FXR in HepG2 cells and PKCalpha phosphorylates in vitro FXR in its DNA-binding domain on S135 and S154. Mutation of S135 and S154 to alanine residues reduces in cell FXR phosphorylation. In contrast to wild-type FXR, mutant FXRS135AS154A displays an impaired PKCalpha-induced transactivation and a decreased ligand-dependent FXR transactivation. Finally, phosphorylation of FXR by PKC promotes the recruitment of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha. In conclusion, these findings show that the phosphorylation of FXR induced by PKCalpha directly modulates the ability of agonists to activate FXR.

  8. Involvement of RTE1 in conformational changes promoting ETR1 ethylene receptor signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Josephine S; Rivarola, Maximo; Chang, Caren

    2008-11-01

    Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis perceives ethylene through five homologous receptors that negatively regulate ethylene responses. RTE1, a novel gene conserved in plants, animals and some protists, was recently identified as a positive regulator of the ETR1 ethylene receptor. Here, we genetically analyze the dependence of ETR1 on RTE1 in order to obtain further insight into RTE1 function. The function of RTE1 was found to be independent and distinct from that of RAN1, which encodes a copper transporter required for ethylene receptor function. We tested the ability of an rte1 loss-of-function mutation to suppress 11 etr1 ethylene-binding domain mis-sense mutations, all of which result in dominant ethylene insensitivity due to constitutive signaling. This suppression test uncovered two classes of etr1 mutations -RTE1-dependent and RTE1-independent. The nature of these mutations suggests that the ethylene-binding domain is a possible target of RTE1 action. Based on these findings, we propose that RTE1 promotes ETR1 signaling through a conformational effect on the ethylene-binding domain.

  9. The High Affinity Binding Site on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) for the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP1) Is Composed of Four Basic Residues.

    PubMed

    Gettins, Peter G W; Dolmer, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a serpin inhibitor of the plasminogen activators urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator, which binds tightly to the clearance and signaling receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in both proteinase-complexed and uncomplexed forms. Binding sites for PAI-1 within LRP1 have been localized to CR clusters II and IV. Within cluster II, there is a strong preference for the triple CR domain fragment CR456. Previous mutagenesis studies to identify the binding site on PAI-1 for LRP1 have given conflicting results or implied small binding contributions incompatible with the high affinity PAI-1/LRP1 interaction. Using a highly sensitive solution fluorescence assay, we have examined binding of CR456 to arginine and lysine variants of PAI-1 and definitively identified the binding site as composed of four basic residues, Lys-69, Arg-76, Lys-80, and Lys-88. These are highly conserved among mammalian PAI-1s. Individual mutations result in a 13-800-fold increase in Kd values. We present evidence that binding involves engagement of CR4 by Lys-88, CR5 by Arg-76 and Lys-80, and CR6 by Lys-69, with the strongest interactions to CR5 and CR6. Collectively, the individual binding contributions account quantitatively for the overall PAI-1/LRP1 affinity. We propose that the greater efficiency of PAI-1·uPA complex binding and clearance by LRP1, compared with PAI-1 alone, is due solely to simultaneous binding of the uPA moiety in the complex to its receptor, thereby making binding of the PAI-1 moiety to LRP1 a two-dimensional surface-localized association.

  10. The High Affinity Binding Site on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) for the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP1) Is Composed of Four Basic Residues.

    PubMed

    Gettins, Peter G W; Dolmer, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a serpin inhibitor of the plasminogen activators urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator, which binds tightly to the clearance and signaling receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in both proteinase-complexed and uncomplexed forms. Binding sites for PAI-1 within LRP1 have been localized to CR clusters II and IV. Within cluster II, there is a strong preference for the triple CR domain fragment CR456. Previous mutagenesis studies to identify the binding site on PAI-1 for LRP1 have given conflicting results or implied small binding contributions incompatible with the high affinity PAI-1/LRP1 interaction. Using a highly sensitive solution fluorescence assay, we have examined binding of CR456 to arginine and lysine variants of PAI-1 and definitively identified the binding site as composed of four basic residues, Lys-69, Arg-76, Lys-80, and Lys-88. These are highly conserved among mammalian PAI-1s. Individual mutations result in a 13-800-fold increase in Kd values. We present evidence that binding involves engagement of CR4 by Lys-88, CR5 by Arg-76 and Lys-80, and CR6 by Lys-69, with the strongest interactions to CR5 and CR6. Collectively, the individual binding contributions account quantitatively for the overall PAI-1/LRP1 affinity. We propose that the greater efficiency of PAI-1·uPA complex binding and clearance by LRP1, compared with PAI-1 alone, is due solely to simultaneous binding of the uPA moiety in the complex to its receptor, thereby making binding of the PAI-1 moiety to LRP1 a two-dimensional surface-localized association. PMID:26555266

  11. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  12. Morphine Inhibits Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area Via Mu Receptors and Induces Wakefulness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Yue, Xiao-Fang; Qu, Wei-Min; Tan, Rong; Zheng, Ping; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    Morphine is the most efficacious and widely prescribed treatment for pain. However, it decreases the total amount of deep sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in humans. Acute morphine administration at low doses causes wakefulness in animal models. To clarify the mechanism by which morphine affects sleep–wake behavior, we investigated the effects of morphine on the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), a putative sleep-active nucleus, using in vitro brain slices by the patch-clamp technique. We also examined the effects of morphine on sleep–wake profiles after administration of opioid receptor antagonist to the VLPO using EEG and electromyogram recordings in freely moving rats. The results showed that morphine inhibited the firing rate of sleep-promoting neurons and hyperpolarized their membrane potentials without affecting interneurons in the VLPO. Morphine-induced hyperpolarization of membrane potentials could be reversed by, D-Phe-Cys-Thr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu receptor antagonist, in the presence of tetrodotoxin. However, after the mu receptors were blocked by CTOP, morphine still suppressed the firing of the sleep-promoting neurons. This effect was antagonized by nor-BIN, a kappa receptor antagonist. Activation of kappa receptor by U50488H inhibited the firing of the sleep-promoting neurons. These results indicate that morphine could inhibit the activity of sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO through mu and kappa receptors. EEG recordings revealed that morphine injected subcutaneously induced arousal in a dose-dependent manner. CTOP microinjected into VLPO antagonized the arousal effects of morphine, but nor-BIN did not. However, CTOP alone was not associated with any changes in the physiological sleep–wake cycle. Taken together, these findings clearly indicate that morphine inhibits sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO by affecting mu receptors and so induces wakefulness in rats. PMID:23303062

  13. Association of follicle stimulating hormone receptor promoter with ovarian response in IVF-ET patients

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Wang; Jing, Gao; Liangbin, Xia; Ting, Zhang; Ying, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor ovarian response phenomenon has been observed in some of the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer patients. Some investigations found that follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene plays a role in the process, but no direct evidence shows the correlation between genotypes of FSHR and ovarian response. Objective: Exploring the molecular mechanism behind the mutation of FSHR promoter association with ovarian granulosa cells and poor ovarian response. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed using 158 women undergoing the controlled short program ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment. The 263 bp DNA fragments before the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor 5' initiation site were sequenced in the patients under IVF cycle, 70 of which had poor ovarian response and 88 showed normal ovarian responses. Results: With a mutation rate of 40%, 63 in 158 cases showed a 29th site G→A point mutation; among the mutated cases, the mutation rate of the poor ovarian responders was significantly higher than the normal group (60% versus 23.9%; χ2=21.450, p<0.001). Besides, the variability was also obvious in antral follicle count, and ovum pick-ups. The estradiol peak values and the number of mature eggs between the two groups had significant difference. However, there was no obvious variability (t=0.457, p=0.324) in the basic FSH values between the two groups (normal group, 7.2±2.3 U/L; mutation group, 7.1±2.0 U/L). Conclusion: The activity of FSHR promoter is significantly affected by the 29th site G→A mutation that will weaken promoter activity and result in poor response to FSH. PMID:26730247

  14. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kasina, Sathish; Macoska, Jill A

    2012-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the transition of some prostate cancers from androgen ligand-dependent to androgen ligand-independent are incompletely established. Molecules that are ligands for G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in ligand-independent androgen receptor (AR) activation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CXCL12, the ligand for the GPCR, CXCR4, might mediate prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR-dependent mechanisms involving functional transactivation of the AR in the absence of androgen. The results of these studies showed that activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promoted: The nuclear accumulation of both wild-type and mutant AR in several prostate epithelial cell lines; AR-dependent proliferative responses; nuclear accumulation of the AR co-regulator SRC-1 protein; SRC-1:AR protein:protein association; co-localization of AR and SRC-1 on the promoters of AR-regulated genes; AR- and SRC-1 dependent transcription of AR-regulated genes; AR-dependent secretion of the AR-regulated PSA protein; P13K-dependent phosphorylation of AR; MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of SRC-1, and both MAPK- and P13K-dependent secretion of the PSA protein, in the absence of androgen. Taken together, these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel, non-steroidal growth factor that promotes the growth of prostate epithelial cells through AR-dependent mechanisms in the absence of steroid hormones. These findings support the development of novel therapeutics targeting the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as an ancillary to those targeting the androgen/AR axis to effectively treat castration resistant/recurrent prostate tumors.

  15. Cell surface expression of mouse macrosialin and human CD68 and their role as macrophage receptors for oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ramprasad, M P; Terpstra, V; Kondratenko, N; Quehenberger, O; Steinberg, D

    1996-12-10

    We have previously identified a 94- to 97-kDa oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding protein in mouse macrophages as macrosialin (MS), a member of the lamp family. Earlier immunostaining studies have shown that MS and its human homolog, CD68, are predominantly intracellular proteins. However, using sensitive techniques such as flow cytometry (FACS) and cell-surface-specific biotinylation, we now show that there is significant surface expression of these proteins. FACS analysis of intact cells using mAb FA/11 showed small but definite surface expression of MS in resident mouse peritoneal macrophages but this was greatly enhanced with thioglycollate elicitation. Biotinylation of intact cells and detergent-solubilized cell preparations followed by immunoprecipitation revealed 10-15% of the total MS content of elicited macrophages on the plasma membrane. Similar results were obtained with untreated RAW 264.7 cells. FACS analysis of intact THP-1 monocytic cells showed minimal surface expression of CD68 on unactivated cells (4% of total cell content). Stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased both surface and total CD68 expression considerably. Furthermore, the specific binding at 4 degrees C and uptake at 37 degrees C of 125I-labeled oxidized LDL by activated THP-1 cells was inhibited by 30-50% by CD68 mAbs KP-1 and EBM-11. Thus, although the surface expression of MS/CD68 at steady-state represents only a small percentage of their total cellular content, these proteins can play a significant role in oxidized LDL uptake by activated macrophages in vitro and could contribute to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. Farnesoid X receptor activation promotes cell proliferation via PDK4-controlled metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xuefang; Wu, Yuzheng; Cao, Lijuan; Wu, Mengqiu; Xie, Wen; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways as well as liver regeneration. However, the casual link between cell proliferative effects during liver regeneration and metabolic regulation of FXR was elusive. In this study, we found that FXR activation significantly promotes HepG2 cell proliferation accompanied with metabolic switch towards the excessive accumulation of aerobic glycolytic intermediates including lactic acid, pyruvate and the subsequently increased biosynthesis of glycine. This FXR-induced metabolic switch was found dependent on an up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenate kinase 4 (PDK4), a FXR target gene. FXR agonists were found to promote liver regeneration in the murine model of APAP induced liver injury, which was associated with a metabolic switch favoring the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates as precursors for generation of biomass. However, FXR activation has little effect on the glycolytic metabolism in healthy primary hepatocytes in vitro and the liver of healthy mice in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that FXR may promote the proliferation of tumor cells and the hepatocytes in the process of liver regeneration by activating the PDK4-mediated metabolic reprogramming to generate glycolytic intermediates essential for rapid biomass generation, establishing a mechanistic link between cell proliferation and metabolic switch. PMID:26728993

  17. Loss of estrogen-related receptor α promotes hepatocarcinogenesis development via metabolic and inflammatory disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Levasseur, Marie-Pier; Dufour, Catherine R.; Perry, Marie-Claude; Giguère, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is a key regulator of mitochondrial function and metabolism essential for energy-driven cellular processes in both normal and cancer cells. ERRα has also been shown to mediate bone-derived macrophage activation by proinflammatory cytokines. However, the role of ERRα in cancer in which inflammation acts as a tumor promoter has yet to be investigated. Herein we show that global loss of ERRα accelerates the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochemical and metabolomics studies revealed that loss of ERRα promotes hepatocyte necrosis over apoptosis in response to DEN due to a deficiency in energy production. We further show that increased hepatocyte death and associated compensatory proliferation observed in DEN-injured ERRα-null livers is concomitant with increased nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)–dependent transcriptional control of cytokine expression in Kupffer cells. In particular, we demonstrate that loss of ERRα-dependent regulation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα leads to enhanced NF-κB activity and cytokine gene activation. Our work thus shows that global loss of ERRα activity promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by independent but synergistic mechanisms in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, implying that pharmacological manipulation of ERRα activity may have a significant clinical impact on carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24127579

  18. MEK5/ERK5 signaling suppresses estrogen receptor expression and promotes hormone-independent tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Antoon, James W; Martin, Elizabeth C; Lai, Rongye; Salvo, Virgilo A; Tang, Yan; Nitzchke, Ashley M; Elliott, Steven; Nam, Seung Yoon; Xiong, Wei; Rhodes, Lyndsay V; Collins-Burow, Bridgette; David, Odile; Wang, Guandi; Shan, Bin; Beckman, Barbara S; Nephew, Kenneth P; Burow, Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine resistance and metastatic progression are primary causes of treatment failure in breast cancer. While mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to promote ligand-independent cell growth, the role of the MEK5-ERK5 pathway in the progression of clinical breast carcinoma remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated increased ERK5 activation in 30 of 39 (76.9%) clinical tumor samples, as well as across breast cancer cell systems. Overexpression of MEK5 in MCF-7 cells promoted both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo and conferred endocrine therapy resistance to previously sensitive breast cancer cells. Expression of MEK5 suppressed estrogen receptor (ER)α, but not ER-β protein levels, and abrogated downstream estrogen response element (ERE) transcriptional activity and ER-mediated gene transcription. Global gene expression changes associated with upregulation of MEK5 included increased activation of ER-α independent growth signaling pathways and promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Taken together, our findings show that the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates progression to an ER(-), mesenchymal and endocrine therapy resistant phenotype. Given the need for new clinical therapeutic targets, our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting the MEK5-ERK5 pathway in breast cancer.

  19. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, R J; Brent, G A; Warne, R L; Larsen, P R; Moore, D D

    1987-01-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor. Images PMID:3475698

  20. Adrenergic stimulation of lipoprotein lipase gene expression in rat brown adipocytes differentiated in culture: mediation via beta3- and alpha1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kuusela, P; Rehnmark, S; Jacobsson, A; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate whether the positive effect of adrenergic stimulation on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression in brown adipose tissue is a direct effect on the brown adipocytes themselves, the expression of the LPL gene was investigated by measuring LPL mRNA levels in brown adipocytes, isolated as precursors from the brown adipose tissue of rats and grown in culture in a fully defined medium before experimentation. Addition of noradrenaline led to an enhancement of LPL gene expression; the mRNA levels increased as a linear function of time for at least 5 h and were finally approx. 3 times higher than in control cells, an increase commensurate with that seen in vivo in both LPL mRNA levels and LPL activity during physiological stimulation. The increase was dependent on transcription. The effect of noradrenaline showed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an EC50 of approx. 11 nM. beta3-Agonists (BRL-37344 and CGP-12177) could mimic the effect of noradrenaline; the beta1-agonist dobutamine and the beta2-agonist salbutamol could not; the alpha1-agonist cirazoline had only a weak effect. The effect of noradrenaline was fully inhibited by the beta-antagonist propranolol and was halved by the alpha1-antagonist prazosin; the alpha2-antagonist yohimbine was without effect. An increase in LPL mRNA level similar to (but not significantly exceeding) that caused by noradrenaline could also be induced by the cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and cholera toxin, and 8-Br-cAMP also increased LPL mRNA levels. The increase in LPL gene expression was not mediated via an increase in the level of an intermediary proteinaceous factor. It is concluded that the physiologically induced increase in LPL gene expression is a direct effect of noradrenaline on the brown adipocytes themselves, mediated via a dominant beta3-adrenergic pathway and an auxiliary alpha1-adrenergic pathway which converge at a regulatory point in transcriptional control. PMID:9032464

  1. The Pentapeptide RM-131 Promotes Food Intake and Adiposity in Wildtype Mice but Not in Mice Lacking the Ghrelin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katrin; Finan, Brian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; van der Ploeg, Lex H. T.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Müller, Timo D.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (a.k.a. ghrelin receptor, GHR). Currently, ghrelin is the only circulating peripheral hormone with the ability to promote a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake while decreasing energy expenditure and body fat utilization, as defined in rodents. Based on these and additional, beneficial effects on metabolism, the endogenous ghrelin system is considered an attractive target to treat diverse pathological conditions including those associated with eating/wasting disorders and cachexia. As the pharmacological potential of ghrelin is hampered by its relatively short half-life, ghrelin analogs with enhanced pharmacokinetics offer the potential to sustainably improve metabolism. One of these ghrelin analogs is the pentapeptide RM-131, which promotes food intake and adiposity with higher potency as compared to native ghrelin in rodents. Whereas, the effect of RM-131 on energy metabolism is solidly confirmed in rodents, it remains elusive whether RM-131 exerts its effect solely via the ghrelin receptor. Accordingly, we assessed the receptor specificity of RM-131 to promote food intake and adiposity in mice lacking the GHR. Our data show that in wildtype mice RM-131 potently promotes weight gain and adiposity through stimulation of food intake. However, RM-131 fails to affect food intake and body weight in mice lacking the GHR, underlining that the anabolic effects of RM-131 are mediated via the ghrelin receptor in mice. PMID:25988130

  2. Asperosaponin VI promotes progesterone receptor expression in decidual cells via the notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yadi; Gao, Feixia; Wu, Haiwang; Yang, Lilin; Qiu, Weiyu; Zhu, Lin; Du, Xin; Lin, Weixian; Huang, Dandan; Liu, Haibin; Liang, Chun; Luo, Songping

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common clinical condition, but its reasons remain unknown in 37-79% of the affected women. The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is an integral mediator of early pregnancy events, exerting its effects via the progesterone receptor (PR). Dipsaci Radix (DR) has long been used for treating gynecological diseases in Chinese medicine, while its molecular mechanisms and active ingredients are still unclear. We report here the progesterone-like effects of the alcohol extraction and Asperosaponin VI from DR in primary decidual cells and HeLa cell line. We first determined the safe concentration of Asperosaponin VI in the cells with MTT assay and then found by using dual luciferase reporter and Western blotting that Asperosaponin VI significantly increased PR expression. Moreover, we explored the mechanisms of action of the DR extracts and Asperosaponin VI, and the results showed that they could activate Notch signaling, suggesting that they may function by promoting decidualization. PMID:27370099

  3. Small-molecule ghrelin receptor antagonists improve glucose tolerance, suppress appetite, and promote weight loss.

    PubMed

    Esler, William P; Rudolph, Joachim; Claus, Thomas H; Tang, Weifeng; Barucci, Nicole; Brown, Su-Ellen; Bullock, William; Daly, Michelle; Decarr, Lynn; Li, Yaxin; Milardo, Lucinda; Molstad, David; Zhu, Jian; Gardell, Stephen J; Livingston, James N; Sweet, Laurel J

    2007-11-01

    Ghrelin, through action on its receptor, GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), exerts a variety of metabolic functions including stimulation of appetite and weight gain and suppression of insulin secretion. In the present study, we examined the effects of novel small-molecule GHS-R1a antagonists on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, and weight loss. Ghrelin dose-dependently suppressed insulin secretion from dispersed rat islets. This effect was fully blocked by a GHS-R1a antagonist. Consistent with this observation, a single oral dose of a GHS-R1a antagonist improved glucose homeostasis in an ip glucose tolerance test in rat. Improvement in glucose tolerance was attributed to increased insulin secretion. Daily oral administration of a GHS-R1a antagonist to diet-induced obese mice led to reduced food intake and weight loss (up to 15%) due to selective loss of fat mass. Pair-feeding experiments indicated that weight loss was largely a consequence of reduced food intake. The impact of a GHS-R1a antagonist on gastric emptying was also examined. Although the GHS-R1a antagonist modestly delayed gastric emptying at the highest dose tested (10 mg/kg), delayed gastric emptying does not appear to be a requirement for weight loss because lower doses produced weight loss without an effect on gastric emptying. Consistent with the hypothesis that ghrelin regulates feeding centrally, the anorexigenic effects of potent GHS-R1a antagonists in mice appeared to correspond with their brain exposure. These observations demonstrate that GHS-R1a antagonists have the potential to improve the diabetic condition by promoting glucose-dependent insulin secretion and promoting weight loss.

  4. An olfactory receptor for food-derived odours promotes male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yael; Rytz, Raphael; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Abuin, Liliane; Cortot, Jérôme; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; Benton, Richard

    2011-10-13

    Many animals attract mating partners through the release of volatile sex pheromones, which can convey information on the species, gender and receptivity of the sender to induce innate courtship and mating behaviours by the receiver. Male Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies display stereotyped reproductive behaviours towards females, and these behaviours are controlled by the neural circuitry expressing male-specific isoforms of the transcription factor Fruitless (FRU(M)). However, the volatile pheromone ligands, receptors and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that promote male courtship have not been identified in this important model organism. Here we describe a novel courtship function of Ionotropic receptor 84a (IR84a), which is a member of the chemosensory ionotropic glutamate receptor family, in a previously uncharacterized population of FRU(M)-positive OSNs. IR84a-expressing neurons are activated not by fly-derived chemicals but by the aromatic odours phenylacetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde, which are widely found in fruit and other plant tissues that serve as food sources and oviposition sites for drosophilid flies. Mutation of Ir84a abolishes both odour-evoked and spontaneous electrophysiological activity in these neurons and markedly reduces male courtship behaviour. Conversely, male courtship is increased--in an IR84a-dependent manner--in the presence of phenylacetic acid but not in the presence of another fruit odour that does not activate IR84a. Interneurons downstream of IR84a-expressing OSNs innervate a pheromone-processing centre in the brain. Whereas IR84a orthologues and phenylacetic-acid-responsive neurons are present in diverse drosophilid species, IR84a is absent from insects that rely on long-range sex pheromones. Our results suggest a model in which IR84a couples food presence to the activation of the fru(M) courtship circuitry in fruitflies. These findings reveal an unusual but effective evolutionary solution to coordinate feeding and

  5. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  6. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mimche, Patrice N.; Brady, Lauren M.; Bray, Christian F.; Mimche, Sylvie M.; Thapa, Manoj; King, Thayer P.; Quicke, Kendra; McDermott, Courtney D.; Lee, Choon M.; Grakoui, Arash; Morgan, Edward T.; Lamb, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the well-defined role of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases in developmental processes, cell motility, cell trafficking/adhesion and cancer, nothing is known about their involvement in liver pathologies. During blood-stage rodent malaria infection we have found that EphB2 transcripts and proteins were upregulated in the liver, a result likely driven by elevated surface expression on immune cells including macrophages. This was significant for malaria pathogenesis because EphB2−/− mice were protected from malaria-induced liver fibrosis despite having a similar liver parasite burden compared with littermate control mice. This protection was correlated with a defect in the inflammatory potential of hepatocytes from EphB2−/− mice resulting in a reduction in adhesion molecules, chemokines/chemokines receptors RNA levels and infiltration of leukocytes including macrophages/Kupffer cells which mediate liver fibrosis during rodent malaria infections. These observations are recapitulated in the well-established carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) model of liver fibrosis in which EphB2−/− CCL4-treated mice showed a significant reduction of liver fibrosis compared to CCL4-treated littermate mice. Depletion of macrophages by clodronate-liposome abrogates liver EphB2 mRNA and proteins up-regulation and fibrosis in malaria-infected mice. Conclusion: During rodent malaria, EphB2 expression promotes malaria-associated liver fibrosis. To our knowledge, our data is the first to reveal the implication of the EphB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in liver fibrosis or in the pathogenesis of malaria infection. PMID:25784101

  7. Endothelin-1 Promotes Survival and Chemoresistance in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells through ETA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Silvia; Castelli, Ilaria; Valenti, Vanessa; Rossi, Davide; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Zucchini, Patrizia; Potenza, Leonardo; Vallisa, Daniele; Gattei, Valter; Poeta, Giovanni Del; Forconi, Francesco; Gaidano, Gianluca; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Marasca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The endothelin axis, comprising endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and their receptors (ETAR and ETBR), has emerged as relevant player in tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we investigated the involvement of ET-1/ETAR axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CLL cells expressed higher levels of ET-1 and ETA receptor as compared to normal B cells. ET-1 peptide stimulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, improved survival and promoted proliferation of leukemic cells throughout ETAR triggering. Moreover, the blockade of ETAR by the selective antagonist BQ-123 inhibited the survival advantage acquired by CLL cells in contact with endothelial layers. We also found that blocking ETAR via BQ-123 interferes with ERK phosphorylation and CLL pro-survival effect mediated by B-cell receptor (BCR) activation. The pro-apoptotic effect of phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ inhibitor idelalisib and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 was decreased by the addition of ET-1 peptide. Then, ET-1 also reduced the cytotoxic effect of fludarabine on CLL cells cultured alone or co-cultured on endothelial layers. ETAR blockade by BQ-123 inhibited the ET-1-mediated protection against drug-induced apoptosis. Lastly, higher plasma levels of big ET-1 were detected in patients (n = 151) with unfavourable prognostic factors and shorter time to first treatment. In conclusion, our data describe for the first time a role of ET-1/ETAR signaling in CLL pathobiology. ET-1 mediates survival, drug-resistance, and growth signals in CLL cells that can be blocked by ETAR inhibition. PMID:24901342

  8. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFRα may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFRα, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFRα mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFRα contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFRα is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFRα depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFRα is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  9. Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Promotes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Miguel, Anitza San; Puertollano, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To address if cellular kinases regulate EGFR internalization, we used anisomycin, a potent activator of kinase cascades in mammalian cells, especially the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes. Here, we report that activation of p38 MAP kinase by anisomycin is sufficient to induce internalization of EGFR. Anisomycin and EGF employ different mechanisms to promote EGFR endocytosis as anisomycin-induced internalization does not require tyrosine kinase activity or ubiquitination of the receptor. In addition, anisomycin treatment did not result in delivery and degradation of EGFR at lysosomes. Incubation with a specific inhibitor of p38, or depletion of endogenous p38 by small interfering RNAs, abolished anisomycin-induced internalization of EGFR while having no effect on transferrin endocytosis, indicating that the effect of p38 activation on EGFR endocytosis is specific. Interestingly, inhibition of p38 activation also abolished endocytosis of EGFR induced by UV radiation. Our results reveal a novel role for p38 in the regulation of EGFR endocytosis and suggest that stimulation of EGFR internalization by p38 might represent a general mechanism to prevent generation of proliferative or anti-apoptotic signals under stress conditions. PMID:16683917

  10. GABA A receptor π subunit promotes apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells: Implications in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    LU, JUNJIE; ZHANG, QIAN; TAN, DONGMEI; LUO, WENPING; ZHAO, HAI; MA, JING; LIANG, HAO; TAN, YI

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter through its receptors in the mature central nervous system. The GABA type A receptor π subunit (GABRP) has been identified in the tissues of the reproductive system, particularly in the uterus. In addition, we have previously detected GABRP expression in both human and mouse placentas. To examine the role of GABRP in trophoblastic cell invasion, we constructed a pIRES2-GABRP-EGFP plasmid which was used for the transfection of a human placental cell line derived from first trimester extravillous trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo). The number of invaded cells was decreased by GABRP overexpression. Notably, the decrease in the invasive cell number may be due to the increased apoptosis of the HTR-8/SVneo cells following GABRP transfection, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the increased apoptosis of trophoblastic cells in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and the fact that GABRP promotes the apoptosis of trophoblastic cells, we hypothesized that GABRP expression is increased in the placental tissues from patients with PE compared with that in the normal groups and this hypothesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these findings imply that GABRP plays an important role in placentation and this pathway may be a promising molecular target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for PE. PMID:27221053

  11. Histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis regulates wake-promoting signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons.

  12. The chemokine receptor CCR7 promotes mammary tumorigenesis through amplification of stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S T; Ingman, W V; Poltavets, V; Faulkner, J W; Whitfield, R J; McColl, S R; Kochetkova, M

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is widely implicated in breast cancer pathobiology. Although recent reports correlated high CCR7 levels with more advanced tumor grade and poor prognosis, limited in vivo data are available regarding its specific function in mammary gland neoplasia and the underlying mechanisms involved. To address these questions we generated a bigenic mouse model of breast cancer combined with CCR7 deletion, which revealed that CCR7 ablation results in a considerable delay in tumor onset as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Importantly, CCR7 was found to exert its function by regulating mammary cancer stem-like cells in both murine and human tumors. In vivo experiments showed that loss of CCR7 activity either through deletion or pharmacological antagonism significantly decreased functional pools of stem-like cells in mouse primary mammary tumors, providing a mechanistic explanation for the tumor-promoting role of this chemokine receptor. These data characterize the oncogenic properties of CCR7 in mammary epithelial neoplasia and point to a new route for therapeutic intervention to target evasive cancer stem cells.

  13. Phase transitions of multivalent proteins can promote clustering of membrane receptors

    PubMed Central

    Banjade, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of proteins into micrometer-sized structures at membranes is observed in many signaling pathways. Most models of clustering are specific to particular systems, and relationships between physical properties of the clusters and their molecular components are not well understood. We report biochemical reconstitution on supported lipid bilayers of protein clusters containing the adhesion receptor Nephrin and its cytoplasmic partners, Nck and N-WASP. With Nephrin attached to the bilayer, multivalent interactions enable these proteins to polymerize on the membrane surface and undergo two-dimensional phase separation, producing micrometer-sized clusters. Dynamics and thermodynamics of the clusters are modulated by the valencies and affinities of the interacting species. In the presence of the Arp2/3 complex, the clusters assemble actin filaments, suggesting that clustering of regulatory factors could promote local actin assembly at membranes. Interactions between multivalent proteins could be a general mechanism for cytoplasmic adaptor proteins to organize membrane receptors into micrometer-scale signaling zones. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04123.001 PMID:25321392

  14. Histamine-HisCl1 Receptor Axis Regulates Wake-Promoting Signals in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons. PMID:23844178

  15. mGlu3 receptor blockade inhibits proliferation and promotes astrocytic phenotype in glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Song, Yechun; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Chunqing; Shu, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Wang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    We have characterised, using both in vivo and in vitro methods, the effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGlu3) antagonist (LY341495) and agonist (LY379268) on the proliferation and differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSC). For in vitro studies, a CCK-8 assay was used to determine the cell proliferation, flow cytometry was performed to determine cell cycle phases, and immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy were employed to detect CD133 expression. For in vivo studies, GSCs were injected into nude mice treated with either LY379268 or LY341495 and the growth of the tumours was measured after 3 weeks. When compared with controls, the proliferation rates and proportion of cells in S phase within the LY341495 treated group decreased in a time-dependent manner. In the presence of differentiation medium containing LY341495, GSC differentiation was diverted into an astrocyte rather than neuronal phenotype. The growth rate and volume of tumours injected into nude mice was reduced in LY341495 treated mice compared with controls. Thus pharmacological blockade of mGlu3 receptor signalling pathway significantly inhibits the growth and proliferation of GSCs both in vitro and in vivo while promoting differentiation to astrocytes. These results further implicate mGlu3 in the biology of glioma and as a target for continued research. PMID:24482010

  16. The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Jun; Ueno, Taro; Mitsuyoshi, Madoka; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that sleep is essential for learning and memory. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a novel model for studying sleep. We previously found a short sleeper mutant, fumin (fmn), and identified its mutation in the dopamine transporter gene. We reported similarities in the molecular basis of sleep and arousal regulation between mammals and Drosophila. In aversive olfactory learning tasks, fmn mutants demonstrate defective memory retention, which suggests an association between sleep and memory. In an attempt to discover additional sleep related genes in Drosophila, we carried out a microarray analysis comparing mRNA expression in heads of fmn and control flies and found that 563 genes are differentially expressed. Next, using the pan-neuronal Gal4 driver elav-Gal4 and UAS-RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown individual genes, we performed a functional screen. We found that knockdown of the NMDA type glutamate receptor channel gene (Nmdar1) (also known as dNR1) reduced sleep. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays an important role in learning and memory both in Drosophila and mammals. The application of the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, reduced sleep in control flies, but not in fmn. These results suggest that NMDAR promotes sleep regulation in Drosophila. PMID:26023770

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Daniela S.; Soria, Javier A.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M.; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C.; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.—Arroyo, D. S., Soria, J. A., Gaviglio, E. A., Garcia-Keller, C., Cancela, L. M., Rodriguez-Galan, M. C., Wang, J. M., Iribarren, P. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy. PMID:23073832

  18. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2008-10-15

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  19. Mutation of tyrosine-141 inhibits insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and increased responsiveness of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, M; Parent, S; Loisel, T P; Bouvier, M

    1995-01-01

    The ability of insulin to promote phosphorylation of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) was assessed in Chinese hamster fibroblasts transfected with beta 2AR cDNA. Phosphotyrosine residues were detected in purified beta 2AR using a polyclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and by phosphoamino acid analysis following metabolic labelling with inorganic 32P. Treatment of the cells with insulin induced a 2.4-fold increase in the phosphotyrosine content of the receptor. The insulin-promoted phosphorylation of the beta 2AR was accompanied by an increase in the beta-adrenergic-stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Substitution of a phenylalanine residue for tyrosine-141 completely prevented both the increased tyrosine phosphorylation and the enhanced responsiveness of the beta 2AR promoted by insulin treatment. Mutation of three other tyrosines located in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, tyrosine-366, tyrosine-350 and tyrosine-354, did not abolish the insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin promotes phosphorylation of the beta 2AR on tyrosine-141 and that such phosphorylation leads to a supersensitization of the receptor. Images PMID:8521811

  20. The fibrate drug gemfibrozil disrupts lipoprotein metabolism in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Prindiville, John S; Mennigen, Jan A; Zamora, Jake M; Moon, Thomas W; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-15

    Gemfibrozil (GEM) is a fibrate drug consistently found in effluents from sewage treatment plants. This study characterizes the pharmacological effects of GEM on the plasma lipoproteins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Our goals were to quantify the impact of the drug on: 1) lipid constituents of lipoproteins (phospholipids (PL), triacylglycerol (TAG), and cholesterol), 2) lipoprotein classes (high, low and very low density lipoproteins), and 3) fatty acid composition of lipoproteins. Potential mechanisms of GEM action were investigated by measuring lipoprotein lipase activity (LPL) and the hepatic gene expression of LPL and of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, and γ isoforms. GEM treatment resulted in decreased plasma lipoprotein levels (-29%) and a reduced size of all lipoprotein classes (lower PL:TAG ratios). However, the increase in HDL-cholesterol elicited by GEM in humans failed to be observed in trout. Therefore, HDL-cholesterol cannot be used to assess the impact of the drug on fish. GEM also modified lipoprotein composition by reducing the abundance of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, thereby potentially reducing the nutritional quality of exposed fish. The relative gene expression of LPL was increased, but the activity of the enzyme was not, and we found no evidence for the activation of PPAR pathways. The depressing effects of GEM on fish lipoproteins demonstrated here may be a concern in view of the widespread presence of fibrates in aquatic environments. Work is needed to test whether exposure to environmental concentrations of these drugs jeopardizes the capacity of fish for reproduction, temperature acclimation or migratory behaviors. PMID:21195106

  1. The fibrate drug gemfibrozil disrupts lipoprotein metabolism in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Prindiville, John S. Mennigen, Jan A.; Zamora, Jake M.; Moon, Thomas W.; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-15

    Gemfibrozil (GEM) is a fibrate drug consistently found in effluents from sewage treatment plants. This study characterizes the pharmacological effects of GEM on the plasma lipoproteins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Our goals were to quantify the impact of the drug on: 1) lipid constituents of lipoproteins (phospholipids (PL), triacylglycerol (TAG), and cholesterol), 2) lipoprotein classes (high, low and very low density lipoproteins), and 3) fatty acid composition of lipoproteins. Potential mechanisms of GEM action were investigated by measuring lipoprotein lipase activity (LPL) and the hepatic gene expression of LPL and of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} isoforms. GEM treatment resulted in decreased plasma lipoprotein levels (- 29%) and a reduced size of all lipoprotein classes (lower PL:TAG ratios). However, the increase in HDL-cholesterol elicited by GEM in humans failed to be observed in trout. Therefore, HDL-cholesterol cannot be used to assess the impact of the drug on fish. GEM also modified lipoprotein composition by reducing the abundance of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, thereby potentially reducing the nutritional quality of exposed fish. The relative gene expression of LPL was increased, but the activity of the enzyme was not, and we found no evidence for the activation of PPAR pathways. The depressing effects of GEM on fish lipoproteins demonstrated here may be a concern in view of the widespread presence of fibrates in aquatic environments. Work is needed to test whether exposure to environmental concentrations of these drugs jeopardizes the capacity of fish for reproduction, temperature acclimation or migratory behaviors.

  2. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promote down-regulation and display functional selectivity at human 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Andressen, K W; Manfra, O; Brevik, C H; Ulsund, A H; Vanhoenacker, P; Levy, F O; Krobert, K A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Classically, ligands of GPCRs have been classified primarily upon their affinity and efficacy to activate a signal transduction pathway. Recent reports indicate that the efficacy of a particular ligand can vary depending on the receptor-mediated response measured (e.g. activating G proteins, other downstream responses, internalization). Previously, we reported that inverse agonists induce both homo- and heterologous desensitization, similar to agonist stimulation, at the Gs-coupled 5-HT7 receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether different inverse agonists at the 5-HT7 receptor also induce internalization and/or degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Experimental Approach HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT7(a, b or d) receptors were pre-incubated with 5-HT, clozapine, olanzapine, mesulergine or SB269970 and their effects upon receptor density, AC activity, internalization, recruitment of β-arrestins and lysosomal trafficking were measured. Key Results The agonist 5-HT and three out of four inverse agonists tested increased internalization independently of β-arrestin recruitment. Among these, only the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promoted lysosomal sorting and reduced 5-HT7 receptor density (∼60% reduction within 24 h). Inhibition of lysosomal degradation with chloroquine blocked the clozapine- and olanzapine-induced down-regulation of 5-HT7 receptors. Incubation with SB269970 decreased both 5-HT7(b) constitutive internalization and receptor density but increased 5-HT7(d) receptor density, indicating differential ligand regulation among the 5-HT7 splice variants. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, we found that various ligands differentially activate regulatory processes governing receptor internalization and degradation in addition to signal transduction. Thus, these data extend our understanding of functional selectivity at the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25884989

  3. Mycoplasmal lipoprotein p37 binds human protein HER2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Lijuan; Fang, Cheng; Nie, Rong; Wang, Jiamou; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-11-01

    Mycoplasmas are a group of microbes that can cause human diseases. The mycoplasmal lipoprotein p37 promotes cancer metastasis, at least in part, by interacting with EGFR. In this study, we show that the p37 lipoprotein binds another member of the EGFR family, HER2, through the HER2 extracellular domain. The binding of p37-HER2 promotes phosphorylation of HER2 and activates the downstream signaling molecule Erk1/2. Because the HER2 signaling pathway contributes to breast tumor metastasis, our results imply that the mycoplasmal lipoprotein p37 may also be involved in breast cancer metastasis. This study contributes to our understanding of mycoplasmal lipoprotein p37 function and its potential involvement in tumorigenesis. PMID:27664744

  4. The Liver Clock Controls Cholesterol Homeostasis through Trib1 Protein-mediated Regulation of PCSK9/Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Axis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Di; Liu, Tongyu; Chang, Lin; Rui, Crystal; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Li, Siming; Hogenesch, John B; Chen, Y Eugene; Lin, Jiandie D

    2015-12-25

    Disruption of the body clock has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. How the circadian pacemaker interacts with the genetic factors associated with plasma lipid traits remains poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified an expanding list of genetic variants that influence plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Here we analyzed circadian regulation of lipid-associated candidate genes in the liver and identified two distinct groups exhibiting rhythmic and non-rhythmic patterns of expression during light-dark cycles. Liver-specific inactivation of Bmal1 led to elevated plasma LDL/VLDL cholesterol levels as a consequence of the disruption of the PCSK9/LDL receptor regulatory axis. Ablation of the liver clock perturbed diurnal regulation of lipid-associated genes in the liver and markedly reduced the expression of the non-rhythmically expressed gene Trib1. Adenovirus-mediated rescue of Trib1 expression lowered plasma PCSK9 levels, increased LDL receptor protein expression, and restored plasma cholesterol homeostasis in mice lacking a functional liver clock. These results illustrate an unexpected mechanism through which the biological clock regulates cholesterol homeostasis through its regulation of non-rhythmic genes in the liver.

  5. Pathways for Modulating Exosome Lipids Identified By High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanoparticle Binding to Scavenger Receptor Type B-1

    PubMed Central

    Angeloni, Nicholas L.; McMahon, Kaylin M.; Swaminathan, Suchitra; Plebanek, Michael P.; Osman, Iman; Volpert, Olga V.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are produced by cells to mediate intercellular communication, and have been shown to perpetuate diseases, including cancer. New tools are needed to understand exosome biology, detect exosomes from specific cell types in complex biological media, and to modify exosomes. Our data demonstrate a cellular pathway whereby membrane-bound scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) in parent cells becomes incorporated into exosomes. We tailored synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles (HDL NP), high-affinity ligands for SR-B1, to carry a fluorescently labeled phospholipid. Data show SR-B1-dependent transfer of the fluorescent phospholipid from HDL NPs to exosomes. Modified exosomes are stable in serum and can be directly detected using flow cytometry. As proof-of-concept, human serum exosomes were found to express SR-B1, and HDL NPs can be used to label and isolate them. Ultimately, we discovered a natural cellular pathway and nanoparticle-receptor pair that enables exosome modulation, detection, and isolation. PMID:26964503

  6. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  7. Hepatic Scavenger Receptor BI Protects Against Polymicrobial-induced Sepsis through Promoting LPS Clearance in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Zheng, Zhong; Ai, Junting; Huang, Bin; Li, Xiang-An

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1I179N mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1I179N mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1I179N mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic SR-BI-mediated LPS clearance may provide a therapeutic approach for sepsis. PMID:24719333

  8. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  9. Activation of NMDA receptors promotes dendritic spine development through MMP-mediated ICAM-5 cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Stefanidakis, Michael; Ning, Lin; Van Lint, Philippe; Nyman-Huttunen, Henrietta; Libert, Claude; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Mishina, Masayoshi; Rauvala, Heikki; Gahmberg, Carl G.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 are pivotal in remodeling many tissues. However, their functions and candidate substrates for brain development are poorly characterized. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5; Telencephalin) is a neuronal adhesion molecule that regulates dendritic elongation and spine maturation. We find that ICAM-5 is cleaved from hippocampal neurons when the cells are treated with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA). The cleavage is blocked by MMP-2 and -9 inhibitors and small interfering RNAs. Newborn MMP-2– and MMP-9–deficient mice brains contain more full-length ICAM-5 than wild-type mice. NMDA receptor activation disrupts the actin cytoskeletal association of ICAM-5, which promotes its cleavage. ICAM-5 is mainly located in dendritic filopodia and immature thin spines. MMP inhibitors block the NMDA-induced cleavage of ICAM-5 more efficiently in dendritic shafts than in thin spines. ICAM-5 deficiency causes retraction of thin spine heads in response to NMDA stimulation. Soluble ICAM-5 promotes elongation of dendritic filopodia from wild-type neurons, but not from ICAM-5–deficient neurons. Thus, MMPs are important for ICAM-5–mediated dendritic spine development. PMID:17682049

  10. Growth-promoting effect of oestriol in a lymphoma lacking oestrogen receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kawatsu, R.; Ezaki, T.; Kotani, M.; Akagi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various doses (1 microgram to 10 mg) of oestriol (E3) were intraperitoneally injected into mice immediately after subcutaneous inoculation of an oestrogen receptor-negative lymphoma cell line (KE-5) established from a spontaneously developed AKR thymic lymphoma. The growth of KE-5 cells was markedly promoted by E3 at the early stage of tumour growth. At this stage, 1 microgram E3 enhanced tumour growth significantly and the maximum effect was obtained with 1 mg E3. Normal female mice showed a higher incidence and shorter latency than males. However, once tumours became palpable, the tumour growth rate appeared to be unaffected. Histological observations using Alcian blue and colloidal iron revealed a marked increase of hyaluronic acid in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the tumour-injection site within 3-5 days after intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg E3. Biochemical analyses showed a rapid and marked increase in skin hyaluronic acid content to over 3 times the control levels (0.25 +/- 0.10 mg g-1 skin) within 3 days of E3 administration. Subcutaneous inoculation of KE-5 cells together with hyaluronic acid (0.2 mg) resulted in markedly enhanced tumour growth, particularly at the early stage. These results suggest that an increase in stromal hyaluronic acid content is the most likely mechanism responsible for the promoting effect of E3 on KE-5 cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2713243

  11. Promoter Methylation of Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Is Associated with Subclinical Atherosclerosis: a Monozygotic Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinying; An, Qiang; Goldberg, Jack; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endothelial dysfunction assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a marker of early atherosclerosis. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) regulates many biological processes, including stress response, behavioral, cardiometabolic and immunologic functions. Genetic variants in NR3C1 have been associated with atherosclerosis and related risk factors. This study investigated the association of NR3C1 promoter methylation with FMD, independent of genetic and family-level environmental factors. Methods We studied 84 middle-aged, male-male monozygotic twin pairs recruited from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Brachial artery FMD was measured by ultrasound. DNA methylation levels at 22 CpG residues in the NR3C1 exon 1F promoter region were quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing in genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Co-twin control analyses were conducted to examine the association of methylation variation with FMD, adjusting for smoking, physical activity, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and depressive symptoms. Multiple testing was corrected using the false discovery rate. Results Mean methylation level across the 22 studied CpG sites was 2.02%. Methylation alterations at 12 out of the 22 CpG residues were significantly associated with FMD. On average, a 1% increase in the intra-pair difference in mean DNA methylation was associated with 2.83% increase in the intra-pair difference in FMD (95% CI: 1.46-4.20; P <0.0001) after adjusting for risk factors and multiple testing. Conclusion Methylation variation in NR3C1 exon 1F promoter significantly influences subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of genetic, early family environmental and other risk factors. PMID:26186654

  12. Low-Density Lipoprotein Modified by Myeloperoxidase in Inflammatory Pathways and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vanhamme, Luc; Roumeguère, Thierry; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has a key role in atherogenesis. Among the different models of oxidation that have been studied, the one using myeloperoxidase (MPO) is thought to be more physiopathologically relevant. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the unique protein of LDL and is the major target of MPO. Furthermore, MPO rapidly adsorbs at the surface of LDL, promoting oxidation of amino acid residues and formation of oxidized lipoproteins that are commonly named Mox-LDL. The latter is not recognized by the LDL receptor and is accumulated by macrophages. In the context of atherogenesis, Mox-LDL accumulates in macrophages leading to foam cell formation. Furthermore, Mox-LDL seems to have specific effects and triggers inflammation. Indeed, those oxidized lipoproteins activate endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages and induce proinflammatory molecules such as TNFα and IL-8. Mox-LDL may also inhibit fibrinolysis mediated via endothelial cells and consecutively increase the risk of thrombus formation. Finally, Mox-LDL has been involved in the physiopathology of several diseases linked to atherosclerosis such as kidney failure and consequent hemodialysis therapy, erectile dysfunction, and sleep restriction. All these issues show that the investigations of MPO-dependent LDL oxidation are of importance to better understand the inflammatory context of atherosclerosis. PMID:23983406

  13. Evidence that estrogen receptor beta enhances MMP-13 promoter activity in HIG-82 cells and that this enhancement can be influenced by ligands and involves specific promoter sites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Achari, Yamini; Rattner, Jerome B; Hart, David A

    2007-06-01

    Degradation of articular cartilage is characteristic of osteoarthritis, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been implicated in this condition. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are present in connective tissues, indicating these tissues' potential responsiveness to estrogen. We based this study on the hypothesis that estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) can modulate MMP-13 promoter activity. Transfection of cells with ERbeta constructs led to the induction of the endogenous MMP-13 gene, as evidenced by increased mRNA levels. The results also indicated that MMP-13 promoter construct activity in the HIG-82 cell line significantly increased when ERbeta was present, and that estrogen downregulated this response in a dose-dependent manner. ERbeta was shown to enhance MMP-13 expression somewhat more strongly than ERalpha, and the impact of a number of selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and ICI 182,780) on ERbeta enhancement of promoter activity was found to be significantly less than that of estrogen. Furthermore, transcription regulatory sites in the MMP-13 promoter, specifically AP-1 and PEA-3, were shown to act in conjunction to mediate ERbeta effects. Thus, ERbeta likely influences MMP-13 promoter expression in normal and disease processes.

  14. High-density lipoprotein of patients with breast cancer complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes cancer cells adhesion to vascular endothelium via ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dan; Ming, Jia; He, Yubin; Zhou, Champion; Ren, Hui; He, Xin; Wang, Chenguang; Jin, Jingru; Ji, Liang; Willard, Belinda; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion of disseminating tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal starting point in the metastasis cascade. We have shown previously that diabetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has the capability of promoting breast cancer metastasis, and this report summarizes our more recent work studying the role of abnormal HDL in facilitating the adhesion of the circulating tumor cells to the endothelium. This is an initiating step in breast cancer metastasis, and this work assesses the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in this process. MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal HDL from healthy controls (N-HDL), HDL from breast cancer patients (B-HDL), or HDL from breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BD-HDL), and the cell adhesion abilities were determined. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. The effect of PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA on adhesion was also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin from breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined. Our results indicate that BD-HDL promoted an increase in breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the cells surface of both breast cancer and HUVEC cells, along with the activation of PKC. Increased tumor cell (TC)-HUVEC adhesion, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by BD-HDL, could be inhibited by staurosporine and PKC siRNA. In addition, a Db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model has more TC-Vascular Endothelium adhesion compared to a normal model. However, BD patients have a lower expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in their tumor tissues. BD-HDL facilitates the adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, thereby promoting the initial progression of breast cancer metastasis

  15. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  16. [Basic mechanisms: structure, function and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Errico, Teresa L; Chen, Xiangyu; Martin Campos, Jesús M; Julve, Josep; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present basic information on the lipoprotein physiology. The protein fraction of lipoproteins consists of several apolipoproteins and enzymes whose functions are lipid transport and metabolism. Classification of lipoproteins is based on their density. Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL and HDL can be isolated by ultracentrifugation. Both chylomicrons- and VLDL-triglycerides are transported from the intestine and liver, respectively, to the peripheral tissues. The metabolism of VLDL originates IDL and LDL. LDL is the main transporter of cholesterol to extrahepatic tissues. HDL mobilizes cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver where it is secreted to bile as free cholesterol or bile salts, a process termed reverse cholesterol transport. Lipoprotein metabolism can be regulated by nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in triglyceride and apolipoprotein metabolism. PMID:23769508

  17. [Basic mechanisms: structure, function and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Errico, Teresa L; Chen, Xiangyu; Martin Campos, Jesús M; Julve, Josep; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present basic information on the lipoprotein physiology. The protein fraction of lipoproteins consists of several apolipoproteins and enzymes whose functions are lipid transport and metabolism. Classification of lipoproteins is based on their density. Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL and HDL can be isolated by ultracentrifugation. Both chylomicrons- and VLDL-triglycerides are transported from the intestine and liver, respectively, to the peripheral tissues. The metabolism of VLDL originates IDL and LDL. LDL is the main transporter of cholesterol to extrahepatic tissues. HDL mobilizes cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver where it is secreted to bile as free cholesterol or bile salts, a process termed reverse cholesterol transport. Lipoprotein metabolism can be regulated by nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in triglyceride and apolipoprotein metabolism.

  18. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    DOEpatents

    Cubicciotti, Roger S.; Karu, Alexander E.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  19. Progesterone receptor directly inhibits β-casein gene transcription in mammary epithelial cells through promoting promoter and enhancer repressive chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Buser, Adam C; Obr, Alison E; Kabotyanski, Elena B; Grimm, Sandra L; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Dean P

    2011-06-01

    Differentiated HC-11 cells ectopically expressing progesterone receptor (PR) were used to explore the molecular mechanisms by which progesterone suppresses β-casein gene transcription induced by prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids in the mammary gland. As detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, treatment of cells with the progestin agonist R5020 induced a rapid recruitment (5 min) of PR to the proximal promoter (-235 bp) and distal enhancer (-6 kb upstream of transcription start site) of β-casein. PR remained bound for 4 h and was dissociated by 24 h after treatment. Despite efficient binding, the hormone agonist-occupied PR did not stimulate transcription of the β-casein gene. Recruitment of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a, glucocorticoid receptor, and the CCAAT enhancer binding protein β to the enhancer and proximal promoter of β-casein induced by PRL and glucocorticoids was blocked by progestin cotreatment, whereas PR binding was induced under these conditions. PRL/glucocorticoid-induced histone acetylation and the recruitment of the coactivator p300 and RNA polymerase II required for gene activation were also inhibited by progestin. In addition, progestin prevented dissociation of the corepressors Yin and Yang 1 and histone deacetylase 3 from the promoter, and demethylation of lysine 9 of histone 3 induced by PRL and glucocorticoids. These studies are consistent with the conclusion that progesterone interferes with PRL/glucocorticoid induction of β-casein transcription by a physical interaction of PR with the promoter and enhancer that blocks assembly of a transcriptional activation complex and dissociation of corepressors and promotes repressive chromatin modifications. These studies define a novel mechanism of steroid receptor-mediated transcriptional repression of a physiologically important gene in mammary gland development and differentiation.

  20. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane. PMID:20419407

  1. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane.

  2. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 87 (GPR87) Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Liu, Dage; Hayashida, Yushi; Okazoe, Homare; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Nobufumi; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 87 (GPR87) is a newly deorphanized member of the cell surface molecule G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR signaling was shown to play a role in promotion of cell growth and survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. The overexpression of GPR87 has also been reported in many malignant tumors including bladder cancer. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of silencing GPR87 expression with a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting GPR87 (Ad-shGPR87) and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in bladder cancer cells. Six GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells, HT1197, HT1376, J82, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, were used. Infection with Ad-shGPR87 effectively downregulated the GPR87 expression, and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells in 4 of 6 cell lines as detected by an MTT assay. Significant inhibition on cell proliferation with Ad-shGPR87 was observed in the wild-type p53 bladder cancer cell lines (HT1197, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3), but not in the mutant p53 cells (HT1376 and J82). As represented by a wild-type p53 RT112 cell, Ad-shGPR87 infection significantly enhanced p53 and p21 expression and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with Ad-shGPR87 exerted a significant antitumor effect against the GPR87-expressing RT112 xenografts. GPR87 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shGPR87 had strong antitumor effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells. PMID:26473854

  3. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  4. Deficiency of interferon-gamma or its receptor promotes colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Song, Zhiyu; Chu, Jiahui; Qu, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    Genetic variations in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and its receptor (IFNγR) subunits are closely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and survival after diagnosis. However, the role of loss of IFN-γ or IFNγR function in the pathogenesis of CRC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous IFN-γ deficiency in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)-mediated intestinal tumor by developing a variant of Apc(Min/+) mice. The Apc(Min/+)IFN-γ(+/-) mice presented with increased number and size of adenomas, and 41.7% of these mice developed adenocarcinoma. Molecular analyses of the adenomas suggested that heterozygous deletion of IFN-γ promoted EGFR/Erk1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In vitro, IFN-γ administration inhibited Apc-mutated HT-29 colon cancer cell proliferation and had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116 colon cancer cells that express wild-type Apc. Besides, we challenged HT-29 cells with small interfering RNA targeting one of its receptor subunits IFNγR1. We found that knockdown of IFNγR1 in HT-29 cells stimulated cell proliferation and colony formation, which was also related to the regulation of EGFR/Erk1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, our results strongly support the notion that IFN-γ and IFNγR1 act as a rate-limiting factor in the development of CRC, uncovering a novel role for them in cancer biology.

  5. Learning from Biology: Synthetic Lipoproteins for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huang; Cruz, William; Chen, Juan; Zheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic lipoproteins represent a relevant tool for targeted delivery of biological/chemical agents (chemotherapeutics, siRNAs, photosensitizers and imaging contrast agents) into various cell types. These nanoparticles offer a number of advantages on drugs delivery over their native counterparts while retaining their natural characteristics and biological functions. Their ultra-small size (<30nm), high biocompatibility, favorable circulation half-life and natural ability to bind specific lipoprotein receptors i.e. low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SRB1) that are found in a number of pathological conditions (e.g. cancer, atherosclerosis), make them superior delivery strategies when compared to other nanoparticle systems. We review the various approaches that have been developed for the generation of synthetic lipoproteins and their respective applications in vitro and in vivo. More specifically, we summarize the way to address the limitation on use of reconstituted lipoproteins by means of natural or recombinant apolipoproteins, as well as apolipoprotein mimetic molecules. Finally, we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches and discuss future perspectives for clinical translation of these nanoparticles. PMID:25346461

  6. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Becker, Howard C.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Methods: Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Results: Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. Conclusions: These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase

  7. Identification of a common low density lipoprotein receptor mutation (R329X) in the south of England: complete linkage disequilibrium with an allele of microsatellite D19S394.

    PubMed Central

    Day, I N; Haddad, L; O'Dell, S D; Day, L B; Whittall, R A; Humphries, S E

    1997-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia is commonly caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene and more than 300 different mutations have been described worldwide. Some mutations occur at relatively higher frequency in certain populations, reflecting both chance and demography, most evident in founder populations. As part of a study of kindreds of 78 probands from Southampton and south west Hampshire, we identified the same mutation (R329X) in 9/78 (11.5%) probands. In all (100%) of these probands, length allele 259nt of the 17 allele microsatellite D19S394, sited approximately 250 kilobases telomeric and 5' to the LDLR gene, was observed, although in the general population this allele has a prevalence of only 16.1%. A simple diagnostic assay for R329X was constructed in conjunction with more detailed family studies. Both the R329X and linked D19S394 allele also cosegregated with the FH phenotype within each kindred. Although R329X involves a CpG site, it is highly likely that the families are identical by descent for R329X, we surmise with a common ancestor within 500 to 1000 years, although the mutation is not restricted to this geographical area. This relationship illustrates that the linkage disequilibrium of gene LDLR with marker D19S394 will enable rapid recognition using D19S394 genotype of possible common FH mutation(s) within a cohort of FH patients from a particular locality or ethnic group. Images PMID:9039985

  8. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. PMID:25182422

  9. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  10. Syndecan-4 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling through regulation of low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP6) and R-spondin 3.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Pablo; Carrasco, Héctor; Larraín, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of Wnt signaling is crucial for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Here we study the role of Syndecan-4 (SDC4), a cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan, and Fibronectin (FN), in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mammalian cell lines and Xenopus embryos demonstrate that SDC4 and FN inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Epistatic and biochemical experiments show that this inhibition occurs at the cell membrane level through regulation of LRP6. R-spondin 3, a ligand that promotes canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling, is more prone to potentiate Wnt/β-catenin signaling when SDC4 levels are reduced, suggesting a model whereby SDC4 tunes the ability of R-spondin to modulate the different Wnt signaling pathways. Since SDC4 has been previously related to non-canonical Wnt signaling, our results also suggest that this proteoglycan can be a key component in the regulation of Wnt signaling.

  11. High Affinity Binding of the Receptor-associated Protein D1D2 Domains with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP1) Involves Bivalent Complex Formation: CRITICAL ROLES OF LYSINES 60 AND 191.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Joni M; Young, Patricia A; Strickland, Dudley K

    2016-08-26

    The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that binds and mediates the endocytosis of numerous structurally diverse ligands. Currently, the basis for ligand recognition by LRP1 is not well understood. LRP1 requires a molecular chaperone, termed the receptor-associated protein (RAP), to escort the newly synthesized receptor from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. RAP is a three-domain protein that contains the following two high affinity binding sites for LRP1: one is located within domains 1 and 2, and one is located in its third domain. Studies on the interaction of the RAP third domain with LRP1 reveal critical contributions by lysine 256 and lysine 270 for this interaction. From these studies, a model for ligand recognition by this class of receptors has been proposed. Here, we employed surface plasmon resonance to investigate the binding of RAP D1D2 to LRP1. Our results reveal that the high affinity of D1D2 for LRP1 results from avidity effects mediated by the simultaneous interactions of lysine 60 in D1 and lysine 191 in D2 with sites on LRP1 to form a bivalent D1D2-LRP1 complex. When lysine 60 and 191 are both mutated to alanine, the binding of D1D2 to LRP1 is ablated. Our data also reveal that D1D2 is able to bind to a second distinct site on LRP1 to form a monovalent complex. The studies confirm the canonical model for ligand recognition by this class of receptors, which is initiated by pairs of lysine residues that dock into acidic pockets on the receptor. PMID:27402839

  12. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component.

  13. A Matrix Metalloproteinase-1/Protease Activated Receptor-1 signaling axis promotes melanoma invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S.; Liu, Ingrid; Coon, Charles I.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2009-01-01

    Hallmarks of malignant melanoma are its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to treatment, giving patients with advanced disease a poor prognosis. The transition of melanoma from non-invasive radial growth phase (RGP) to invasive and metastatically competent vertical growth phase (VGP) is a major step in tumor progression, yet the mechanisms governing this transformation are unknown. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is highly expressed by VGP melanomas, and is thought to contribute to melanoma progression by degrading type I collagen within the skin to facilitate melanoma invasion. Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is activated by MMP-1, and is also expressed by VGP melanomas. However, the effects MMP-1 signaling through PAR-1 have not been examined in melanoma. Here, we demonstrate that an MMP-1/PAR-1 signaling axis exists in VGP melanoma, and is necessary for melanoma invasion. Introduction of MMP-1 into RGP melanoma cells induced gene expression associated with tumor progression and promoted invasion in vitro, and enhanced tumor growth and conferred metastatic capability in vivo. This study demonstrates that both the type I collagenase and PAR-1 activating functions of MMP-1 are required for melanoma progression, and suggests that MMP-1 may be a major contributor to the transformation of melanoma from non-invasive to malignant disease. PMID:19734937

  14. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Román, Angel C.; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R.; García-Pérez, José L.; Merino, Jaime M.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630

  15. Targeted overexpression of androgen receptor with a liver-specific promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, B; Song, C S; Jung, M H; Chen, S; Walter, C A; Herbert, D C; Weaker, F J; Mancini, M A; Roy, A K

    1996-01-01

    The rodent liver displays marked age- and sex-dependent changes in androgen sensitivity due to the sexually dimorphic and temporally programmed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We have altered this normal phenotype by constitutive overexpression of the rat AR transgene in the mouse liver by targeting it via the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH) gene promoter. These transgenic animals in their heterozygous state produce an approximately 30-fold higher level of the AR in the liver as compared with the nontransgenic control. Androgen inactivation via sulfonation of the hormone by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DST), an androgen-repressible enzyme, also contributes to the age- and sex-dependent regulation of hepatic androgen sensitivity. DST has a broad range of substrate specificity and is responsible for the age- and sex-specific activation of certain polycyclic aromatic hepatocarcinogens as well, by converting them to electrophilic sulfonated derivatives. In the transgenic female, the hepatic expression of DST was approximately 4-fold lower than in normal females, a level comparable to that in normal males. The hPAH-AR mice will serve as a valuable model for studying the sex- and age-invariant expression of liver-specific genes, particularly those involved in the activation of environmental hepatocarcinogens such as the aromatic hydrocarbons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570624

  16. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component. PMID:24911647

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cyclin O to promote epithelial multiciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Matteo; Crotta, Stefania; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Gialitakis, Manolis; Ahlfors, Helena; Smith, James C.; Stockinger, Brigitta; Wack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction. This is mediated by the persistence of Notch signalling, as Notch blockade renders multiciliogenesis and Ccno induction by AhR independent from air exposure. In contrast to Ccno induction, air exposure does not induce the canonical AhR target cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). Inversely, exposure to AhR ligands induces Cyp1a1 but not Ccno and impeded ciliogenesis. These data indicate that AhR involvement in detoxification of environmental pollutants may impede its physiological role, resulting in respiratory pathology. PMID:27554288

  18. Enhanced Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 IIIc Promotes Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Akio; Kanai, Michiyuki; Iwaya, Yugo; Ueda, Shugo; Nakayama, Jun; Seo, Misuzu Kurokawa

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and their ligands plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. The gene expression of an alternatively spliced isoforms of FGFR3, FGFR3IIIc, was analyzed by RT-PCR in samples from patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC), including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of FGFR3IIIc was higher in EC [12/16 (75%); p=0.073] than in non-cancerous mucosa (NCM) [6/16 (38%)]. Indeed, an immunohistochemical analysis of early-stage ESCC showed that carcinoma cells expressing FGFR3IIIc stained positively with SCC-112, a tumor marker, and Ki67, a cell proliferation marker, suggesting that the expression of FGFR3IIIc promotes cell proliferation. We used EC-GI-10 cells endogenously expressing FGFR3IIIc as a model of ESCC to provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR3IIIc in ESCC. The knockdown of endogenous FGFR3 using siRNA treatment significantly abrogated cell proliferation and the overexpression of FGFR3IIIc in cells with enhanced cell proliferation. EC-GI-10 cells and ESCC from patients with EC showed endogenous expression of FGF2, a specific ligand for FGFR3IIIc, suggesting that the upregulated expression of FGFR3IIIc may create autocrine FGF signaling in ESCC. Taken together, FGFR3IIIc may have the potential to be an early-stage tumor marker and a molecular target for ESCC therapy.

  19. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα)-Associated Fibroblasts Promote Cell Growth in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Da, Jun; Lu, Mujun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-12-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the stromal compartment of cancerous prostate. However, the effect of ERα in CAF cells on prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth remains unclear. We used lentiviral transduction to stably express ERα in CAF cells isolated from transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model. MTT and 3D colony-formation assays demonstrated that conditioned medium from ERα-expressing CAF cells (CAF-ERα+) promoted cell proliferation and colony growth of various PCa cell lines, such as PC3, LNCaP, 22RV1, and C4-2. We further confirmed the in vitro data by orthotopically co-implanting 22RV1, transfected with firefly luciferase, and CAF-ERα+ cells in vivo using mouse model. Mice co-implanted with CAF-ERα+ exhibited stronger luciferase signals and bigger tumor size compared to animals co-implanted with CAF that do not express ER. Our results demonstrate that ER expressed in CAF might play a pro-proliferative role in PCa. PMID:27259327

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cyclin O to promote epithelial multiciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Villa, Matteo; Crotta, Stefania; Dingwell, Kevin S; Hirst, Elizabeth M A; Gialitakis, Manolis; Ahlfors, Helena; Smith, James C; Stockinger, Brigitta; Wack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction. This is mediated by the persistence of Notch signalling, as Notch blockade renders multiciliogenesis and Ccno induction by AhR independent from air exposure. In contrast to Ccno induction, air exposure does not induce the canonical AhR target cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). Inversely, exposure to AhR ligands induces Cyp1a1 but not Ccno and impeded ciliogenesis. These data indicate that AhR involvement in detoxification of environmental pollutants may impede its physiological role, resulting in respiratory pathology. PMID:27554288

  1. α7 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes the Neuroprotective Functions of Astrocytes against Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Tenci, Barbara; Zanardelli, Matteo; Failli, Paola; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathies are characterized by a complex response of the central nervous system to injuries. Glial cells are recruited to maintain neuronal homeostasis but dysregulated activation leads to pain signaling amplification and reduces the glial neuroprotective power. Recently, we highlighted the property of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR) agonists to relieve pain and induce neuroprotection simultaneously with a strong increase in astrocyte density. Aimed to study the role of α7 nAChR in the neuron-glia cross-talk, we treated primary rat neurons and astrocytes with the neurotoxic anticancer drug oxaliplatin evaluating the effect of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 (PNU). Oxaliplatin (1 μM, 48 h) reduced cell viability and increased caspase-3 activity of neuron monocultures without damaging astrocytes. In cocultures, astrocytes were not able to protect neurons by oxaliplatin even if glial cell metabolism was stimulated (pyruvate increase). On the contrary, the coculture incubation with 10 μM PNU improved neuron viability and inhibited apoptosis. In the absence of astrocytes, the protection disappeared. Furthermore, PNU promoted the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 and the expression of the glutamate-detoxifying enzyme glutamine synthetase. The α7 nAChR stimulation protects neurons from oxaliplatin toxicity through an astrocyte-mediated mechanism. α7 nAChR is suggested for recovering the homeostatic role of astrocytes. PMID:26146570

  2. Selective Retinoic Acid Receptor γ Agonists Promote Repair of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Di Rocco, Agnese; Uchibe, Kenta; Larmour, Colleen; Berger, Rebecca; Liu, Min; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling regulates several biological events, including myogenesis. We previously found that retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) agonist blocks heterotopic ossification, a pathological bone formation that mostly occurs in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, RARγ agonist also weakened deterioration of muscle architecture adjacent to the heterotopic ossification lesion, suggesting that RARγ agonist may oppose skeletal muscle damage. To test this hypothesis, we generated a critical defect in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7-week-old mice with a cautery, treated them with RARγ agonist or vehicle corn oil, and examined the effects of RARγ agonist on muscle repair. The muscle defects were partially repaired with newly regenerating muscle cells, but also filled with adipose and fibrous scar tissue in both RARγ-treated and control groups. The fibrous or adipose area was smaller in RARγ agonist–treated mice than in the control. In addition, muscle repair was remarkably delayed in RARγ-null mice in both critical defect and cardiotoxin injury models. Furthermore, we found a rapid increase in retinoid signaling in lacerated muscle, as monitored by retinoid signaling reporter mice. Together, our results indicate that endogenous RARγ signaling is involved in muscle repair and that selective RARγ agonists may be beneficial to promote repair in various types of muscle injuries. PMID:26205250

  3. BAP18 coactivates androgen receptor action and promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiying; Zhong, Xinping; Wang, Chunyu; Sun, Hongmiao; Wang, Shengli; Zhou, Tingting; Zou, Renlong; Lin, Lin; Sun, Ning; Sun, Ge; Wu, Yi; Wang, Botao; Song, Xiaoyu; Cao, Liu; Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    BPTF associated protein of 18 kDa (BAP18) has been reported as a component of MLL1-WDR5 complex. However, BAP18 is an uncharacterized protein. The detailed biological functions of BAP18 and underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Androgen receptor (AR), a member of transcription factor, plays an essential role in prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Here, we demonstrate that BAP18 is identified as a coactivator of AR in Drosophilar experimental system and mammalian cells. BAP18 facilitates the recruitment of MLL1 subcomplex and AR to androgen-response element (ARE) of AR target genes, subsequently increasing histone H3K4 trimethylation and H4K16 acetylation. Knockdown of BAP18 attenuates cell growth and proliferation of PCa cells. Moreover, BAP18 depletion results in inhibition of xenograft tumor growth in mice even under androgen-depletion conditions. In addition, our data show that BAP18 expression in clinical PCa samples is higher than that in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Our data suggest that BAP18 as an epigenetic modifier regulates AR-induced transactivation and the function of BAP18 might be targeted in human PCa to promote tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance. PMID:27226492

  4. Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by a Unique Nuclear Receptor, HNF4[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Rha, Geun Bae; Melikishvili, Manana; Wu, Guangteng; Adkins, Brandon C.; Fried, Michael G.; Chi, Young-In

    2010-11-09

    HNF4{alpha} (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}) plays an essential role in the development and function of vertebrate organs, including hepatocytes and pancreatic {beta}-cells by regulating expression of multiple genes involved in organ development, nutrient transport, and diverse metabolic pathways. As such, HNF4{alpha} is a culprit gene product for a monogenic and dominantly inherited form of diabetes, known as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). As a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, HNF4{alpha} recognizes target genes containing two hexanucleotide direct repeat DNA-response elements separated by one base pair (DR1) by exclusively forming a cooperative homodimer. We describe here the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of human HNF4{alpha} DNA binding domain in complex with a high affinity promoter element of another MODY gene, HNF1{alpha}, which reveals the molecular basis of unique target gene selection/recognition, DNA binding cooperativity, and dysfunction caused by diabetes-causing mutations. The predicted effects of MODY mutations have been tested by a set of biochemical and functional studies, which show that, in contrast to other MODY gene products, the subtle disruption of HNF4{alpha} molecular function can cause significant effects in afflicted MODY patients.

  5. Epigenetic DNA methylation in the promoters of the Igf1 receptor and insulin receptor genes in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nikoshkov, Andrej; Sunkari, Vivekananda; Savu, Octavian; Forsberg, Elisabete; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Brismar, Kerstin

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated promoter methylation of the Insr, Igf1 and Igf1r genes in skeletal and cardiac muscles of normal and diabetic db/db mice. No differences in Insr promoter methylation were found in the heart and skeletal muscles and no methylation was detected in the Igf1 promoter in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, db/db males exhibited a 7.4-fold increase in Igf1r promoter methylation, which was accompanied by a 1.8-fold decrease in Igf1r mRNA levels, compared with controls. More than 50% of the detected methylation events were concentrated within an 18 bp sequence that includes one of the Sp1 binding sites. We conclude that the methylation level and pattern of the Igf1r promoter in skeletal muscle is related to gender and the diabetic state. PMID:21474992

  6. Deletion of G-protein-coupled receptor 55 promotes obesity by reducing physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical c...

  7. Triglycerides and atherogenic lipoproteins: rationale for lipid management.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1998-07-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated a relation between plasma triglyceride levels and risk of coronary artery disease and an amplification of risk with combined elevations of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In patients with coronary disease, angiographic progression and clinical events have been correlated with concentrations of smaller very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), consistent with evidence for enhanced atherogenicity of lipolytic products of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism, including postprandial lipoproteins. IDL levels also have been shown to be strongly and independently predictive of progression of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, a measure of early atherogenesis that is related to coronary disease risk. Although there is evidence that these triglyceride-rich lipoprotein species may have direct atherogenic effects, other lipoprotein changes associated with altered triglyceride metabolism may be of particular importance in the development of coronary artery disease. These include reductions in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increases in small, dense LDL particles (LDL subclass pattern B). Because of the strong interrelations among elevated triglyceride, reduced HDL, and small dense LDL, it is difficult to use statistical techniques to determine the independent contributions of these traits to coronary disease risk. Based on their biologic properties, it is likely that each are involved in multiple steps of the disease process. Moreover, this cluster of lipoprotein changes is associated with other conditions that can promote vascular disease, including increases in coagulation factors and reduced insulin sensitivity. Analyses from intervention trials in patients with coronary disease have indicated that measurement of plasma triglyceride and LDL particle distributions can be of value in predicting the benefits of specific lipid-altering therapies

  8. Correlation between hormone dependency and the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by tumor promoters in human mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, W; Fabbro, D; Küng, W; Costa, S D; Eppenberger, U

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the tumor promoter phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels were investigated in hormone-dependent (MCF-7, T-47-D, and ZR-75-1) and hormone-independent (MDA-MB-231, HBL-100, and BT-20) human mammary carcinoma cell lines. In the absence of TPA, hormone-independent cell lines contained high concentrations of low-affinity EGF receptors (apparent Kd = 8 X 10(-10) M), whereas hormone-dependent cell lines exhibited low concentrations of high-affinity receptors (apparent Kd = 1 X 10(-10) M). TPA causes a change of the receptor from a high- to the low-affinity state in hormone-dependent cell lines (MCF-7, T-47-D, and ZR-75-1), as well as in the hormone-independent HBL-100, whereas the affinity remained unchanged in MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 cells. In addition, progesterone receptor levels are decreased after TPA treatment in the hormone-dependent cell lines MCF-7, T-47-D, and ZR-75-1, whereas the estrogen receptor levels remained unchanged. Tumor promoters such as TPA or teleocidin inhibited the proliferation of these cell lines at concentrations above 10 microM with the exception of the T-47-D cells. The most sensitive cell line towards growth inhibition by tumor promoter was the hormone-dependent MCF-7 cell line. Evaluation of different TPA analogs indicated a positive correlation between the growth-inhibitory effects and their ability to stimulate the subcellular redistribution of protein kinase C activity in MCF-7 cells. These data suggest a protein kinase C-mediated down-regulation of the progesterone receptor concentration and of the EGF receptor affinity, which is supposed to mediate the mitogenic response. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that the tumor-derived growth factors induced by estradiol act via the EGF receptor in hormone-dependent mammary carcinoma cells. PMID:3006036

  9. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  10. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes phosphorylation at threonine-654 of the EGF receptor: possible role of protein kinase C in homologous regulation of the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, B.; Glaser, L.

    1986-10-01

    Treatment of cells with tumor-promoting phorbol diesters, which causes activation of protein kinase C, leads to phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor at threonine-654. Addition of phorbol diesters to intact cells causes inhibition of the EGF-induced tyrosine-protein kinase activity of the EGF receptor and it has been suggested that this effect of phorbol diesters is mediated by the phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C. The authors measured the activity of protein kinase C in A431 cells by determining the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into peptides containing threonine-654 obtained by trypsin digestion of EGF receptors. After 3 h of exposure to serum-free medium, A431 cells had no detectable protein kinase C activity. Addition of EGF to these cells resulted in (/sup 32/P) incorporation into threonine-654 as well as into tyrosine residues. This indicates that EGF promotes the activation of protein kinase C in A431 cells. The phophorylation of threonine-654 induced by EGF was maximal after only 5 min of EGF addition and the (/sup 32/P) incorporation into threonine-654 reached 50% of the (/sup 32/P) in a tyrosine-containing peptide. This indicates that a significant percentage of the total EGF receptors are phosphorylated by protein kinase C. A variety of external stimuli activate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange, including EGF, phorbol diesters, and hypertonicity. To ascertain whether activation of protein kinase C is an intracellular common effector of all of these systems, the authors measured the activity of protein kinase C after exposure of A431 cells to hyperosmotic conditions and observed no effect on phosphorylation of threonine-654, therefore, activation of Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange by hypertonic medium is independent of protein kinase C activity.

  11. Structure of the LDL receptor extracellular domain at endosomalpH

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, Gabby; Henry, Lisa; Henderson, Keith; Ichtchenko,Konstantin; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Deisenhofer, Johann

    2002-09-05

    The structure of the low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular portion has been determined. The document proposes a mechanism for the release of lipoprotein in the endosome. Without this release, the mechanism of receptor recycling cannot function.

  12. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Lushuai; Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia; Han, Xiao; Li, Xiaohua; Niu, Yuanjie; Ren, Shancheng; Sun, Yingli

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  13. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  14. PPARα and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R.; Peters, Luanne L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many acute and chronic anemias, including hemolysis, sepsis, and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production 1,2,3–5,6,7,8,9. Treatment of these anemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of the early erythroid progenitor, the burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells 10,11. Here we demonstrate that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by PPARα agonists, GW7647 and fenofibrate, synergizes with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures both of mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and of mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, the latter employing a new and effective culture system that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. While PPARα−/− mice show no hematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPARα agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type mice, but not PPARα−/− mice, from PHZ-induced acute hemolytic anemia. We also showed that PPARα alleviates anemia in a mouse model of chronic anemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells PPARα co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPARα agonists, additional PPARα is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPARα agonists in stimulating self

  15. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  16. Hydrophobic surface patches on LolA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are essential for lipoprotein binding.

    PubMed

    Remans, Kim; Pauwels, Kris; van Ulsen, Peter; Buts, Lieven; Cornelis, Pierre; Tommassen, Jan; Savvides, Savvas N; Decanniere, Klaas; Van Gelder, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Many lipoproteins reside in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, and their biogenesis is dependent on the Lol (localization of lipoproteins) system. The periplasmic chaperone LolA accepts OM-destined lipoproteins that are released from the inner membrane by the LolCDE complex and transfers them to the OM receptor LolB. The exact nature of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is still unknown. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli LolA features an open beta-barrel covered by alpha helices that together constitute a hydrophobic cavity, which would allow the binding of one acyl chain. However, OM lipoproteins contain three acyl chains, and the stoichiometry of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is 1:1. Here we present the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LolA that projects clear hydrophobic surface patches. Since these patches are large enough to accommodate acyl chains, their role in lipoprotein binding was investigated. Several LolA mutant proteins were created, and their functionality was assessed by studying their capacity to release lipoproteins produced in sphaeroplasts. Interruption of the largest hydrophobic patch completely destroyed the lipoprotein-releasing capacity of LolA, while interruption of smaller patches apparently reduced efficiency. Thus, the results show a new lipoprotein transport model that places (some of) the acyl chains on the hydrophobic surface patches. PMID:20620146

  17. Cross-talk between lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and tropomyosin receptor kinase A promotes lung epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Nan, Ling; Wei, Jianxin; Jacko, Anastasia M; Culley, Miranda K; Zhao, Jing; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Ma, Haichun; Zhao, Yutong

    2016-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. LPA exerts its biological effects mainly through binding to cell-surface LPA receptors (LPA1-6), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and GPCRs modulates GPCRs-mediated signaling. Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) is a RTK, which mediates nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced biological functions including cell migration in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we show LPA1 transactivation of TrkA in murine lung epithelial cells (MLE12). LPA induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkA in both time- and dose-dependent manners. Down-regulation of LPA1 by siRNA transfection attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA, suggesting a cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA. To investigate the molecular regulation of the cross-talk, we focused on the interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. We found that LPA induced interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. The LPA1/TrkA complex was localized on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. The C-terminus of LPA1 was identified as the binding site for TrkA. Inhibition of TrkA attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA and LPA1 internalization, as well as lung epithelial cell migration. These studies provide a molecular mechanism for the transactivation of TrkA by LPA, and suggest that the cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA regulates LPA-induced receptor internalization and lung epithelial cell migration. PMID:26597701

  18. Altered promoter recycling rates contribute to dominant-negative activity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mutations associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Leff, Todd

    2007-04-01

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays an important role in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients when activated by thiazolidinedione drugs. Several loss-of-function mutations in PPARgamma have been identified that cause lipodystrophy and diabetes in humans. Because affected individuals are heterozygotes and have one normal PPARgamma allele, it is of interest to know whether these mutations act in a dominant-negative fashion to inhibit the activity of the wild-type (WT) receptor. Here we compare the molecular phenotypes of two previously identified PPARgamma mutations: P467L, reported to be dominant negative; and F388L, reported to be devoid of dominant-negative activity. We developed a competitive chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to measure the relative ability of mutant PPARgamma to compete with WT receptor for binding to a PPAR regulatory element (PPRE)-containing promoter. By determining the ratio of mutant and WT receptors bound to a PPRE over time, we estimated the relative promoter turnover rate of each receptor. This assay demonstrated that PPARgamma bearing the P467L had a reduced promoter turnover rate compared with the F388L receptor, and over time out-competed the WT receptor for promoter binding sites. We propose that the P467L receptor is dominant negative because in a cell containing both WT and mutant receptors, the majority of the PPAR-regulated promoters will be occupied by the transcriptionally defective mutant receptor. In contrast, the F388L mutation lacks dominant-negative activity because its more rapid promoter turnover rate prevented it from out-competing the WT receptor for promoter binding sites.

  19. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  20. The HIV coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hangxiu; Bae, Mihyun; Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B.; Patel, Neha; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Pomerantz, Daniel; Steiner, Joseph; Haughey, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    Infection by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in debilitating neurological syndromes collectively known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the HIV coat protein gp120 has been identified as a potent neurotoxin that enhances NMDA receptor function, the exact mechanisms for effect are not known. Here we provide evidence that gp120 activates two separate signaling pathways that converge to enhance NMDA-evoked calcium flux by clustering NMDA receptors in modified membrane microdomains. HIV gp120 enlarged, and stabilized the structure of lipid rafts on neuronal dendrites by mechanisms that involved a redox-regulated translocation of a sphingomyelin hydrolase (neutral sphingomyelinase-2; nSMase2) to the plasma membrane. A concurrent pathway was activated that enhanced the forward traffic of NMDA receptors by promoting a PKA-dependent phopshorylation of the NR1 C-terminal serine 897 (that masks an ER retention signal), followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of serine 896 (important for surface expression). NMDA receptors were preferentially targeted to synapses, and clustered in modified membrane microdomains. In these conditions, NMDA receptors were unable to laterally disperse, and did not internalize, even in response to strong agonist induction. Focal NMDA-evoked calcium bursts were enhanced three-fold in these regions. Inhibiting membrane modification or NR1 phosphorylation prevented gp120 from enhancing the surface localization and clustering of NMDA receptors, while disrupting the structure of membrane microdomains restored the ability of NMDA receptors to disperse and internalize following gp120. These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV-infection by interfering with the traffic of NMDA receptors. PMID:22114277

  1. Lipoprotein (a) and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Milionis, H.; Winder, A.; Mikhailidis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Strokes are one of the most common causes of mortality and long term severe disability. There is evidence that lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a predictor of many forms of vascular disease, including premature coronary artery disease. Several studies have also evaluated the association between Lp(a) and ischaemic (thrombotic) stroke. Several cross sectional (and a few prospective) studies provide contradictory findings regarding Lp(a) as a predictor of ischaemic stroke. Several factors might contribute to the existing confusion—for example, small sample sizes, different ethnic groups, the influence of oestrogens in women participating in the studies, plasma storage before Lp(a) determination, statistical errors, and selection bias. This review focuses on the Lp(a) related mechanisms that might contribute to the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. The association between Lp(a) and other cardiovascular risk factors is discussed. Therapeutic interventions that can lower the circulating concentrations of Lp(a) and thus possibly reduce the risk of stroke are also considered. Key Words: atherothrombosis • fibrinogen • homocysteine • lipids • lipoprotein a • stroke PMID:10961170

  2. Central Nervous System Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is primarily responsible for lipid transport and cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Normally produced mostly by astrocytes, apoE is also produced under neuropathologic conditions by neurons. ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is critical in redistributing cholesterol and phospholipids for membrane repair and remodeling. The 3 main structural isoforms differ in their effectiveness. Unlike apoE2 and apoE3, apoE4 has markedly altered CNS metabolism, is associated with Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, and is expressed at lower levels in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. ApoE4-expressing cultured astrocytes and neurons have reduced cholesterol and phospholipid secretion, decreased lipid-binding capacity, and increased intracellular degradation. Two structural features are responsible for apoE4 dysfunction: domain interaction, in which arginine-61 interacts ionically with glutamic acid-255, and a less stable conformation than apoE3 and apoE2. Blocking domain interaction by gene targeting (replacing arginine-61 with threonine) or by small-molecule structure correctors increases CNS apoE4 levels and lipid-binding capacity and decreases intracellular degradation. Small molecules (drugs) that disrupt domain interaction, so-called structure correctors, could prevent the apoE4-associated neuropathology by blocking the formation of neurotoxic fragments. Understanding how to modulate CNS cholesterol transport and metabolism is providing important insights into CNS health and disease. PMID:27174096

  3. Atherosclerosis, diabetes and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-07-01

    The enormous burden of vascular disease is likely to expand rapidly as sedentary obesity and diabetes increase. Although cholesterol plays a major role in atherosclerosis and LDL is the major carrier of cholesterol in the blood, the importance of the postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the development of atherosclerosis is gaining recognition. The role of HDL-cholesterol is also receiving more attention. These changes have been forced upon us by the realization that statins, which primarily lower LDL-cholesterol, only reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by 30%, suggesting that 70% of the risk still has to be explained and treated. In diabetes, abnormality in the metabolism of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and the inter-relationship with HDL-cholesterol appears to be of primary importance in atherosclerotic risk. Postprandial studies are difficult to carry out, which is one reason why large studies have not so far been performed. The important new findings in chylomicron metabolism suggest new treatments for the future.

  4. Characterization of lipoproteins in human and canine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

    SciTech Connect

    Pitas, R.E.; Weisgraber, K.H.; Boyles, J.K.; Lee, S.; Mahley, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Previously the authors demonstrated that rat brain astrocytes in vitro synthesize and secrete apo-E and possess apo-B,E(LDL) receptors. The apo-E secreted by astrocytes and apo-E in rat brain extracts differed from serum apo-E in two respects. Brain apo-E had a higher apparent molecular weight and a higher percentage of more acidic isoforms. To characterize further the apo-E within the central nervous system, apo-E in human and canine CSF was investigated. Compared to plasma apo-E, CSF apo-E had a higher apparent M/sub r/ and a higher percentage of acidic isoforms which were sialylated, as shown by neuraminidase digestion. The apo-E in human CSF was approx.5-10% of the plasma level. In CSF 60-80% of the apo-E was in lipoproteins with d = 1.09-1.15. The remainder of the apo-E was in the d > 1.21 fraction. Human CSF lipoproteins were primarily spherical (110-190 A) while canine CSF lipoproteins were a mixture of discs (205 x 65 A) while canine CSF lipoproteins were a mixture of discs (205 x 65 A) and spheres (100-150 A). The CSF also contained apo-AI in the d = 1.09-1.15 g/ml fraction. Human CSF lipoproteins containing both apo-E and apo-AI were isolated on an anti-apo-E affinity column, suggesting that apo-E and AI occurred in the same particles. The CSF apo-E-containing lipoproteins competed for binding of /sup 125/I-LDL to the apo-B,E(LDL) receptor. There was no detectable apo-B in CSF. These data suggest that CSF lipoproteins might transport lipid and regulate lipid homeostasis within the brain.

  5. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P < 0.05). Compared to WT mice, bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P < 0.05). Collagen I was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (0.838 ± 0.352 vs 2.427 ± 0.551, P < 0.05). Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P < 0.05). Body weight reduction was lower in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice; this difference was not statistically significant (-3.735 ± 5.276 vs -6.698 ± 3.218, P > 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  7. Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes bladder cancer in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, MO; DUAN, XIUZHI; ZHOU, PING; ZHOU, WU; WU, XIULING; XU, SIQI; CHEN, YUHUA; TAO, ZHIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common tumor of the urinary system. Chronic inflammation in the papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)may contribute to carcinogenesis, including that of BCa, via poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) is upregulated in BCa via activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The mRNA expression of LTβR in 81 BCa, 10 chronic cystitis and 23 healthy bladder mucosa tissues was investigated by reverse transcription-fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR), and protein expression was studied in 73 BCa, 30 cystitis and 15 healthy paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Both LTβR mRNA and protein were upregulated in BCa and cystitis compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The mRNA level of the downstream NF-κB canonical pathway p65 gene and of the non-canonical pathway RelB gene were higher in the BCa and cystitis groups compared to the healthy one. The level of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) protein of the canonical NF-κB pathway and that of p52, a protein of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, were also higher in the BCa and cystitis group compared to the healthy group. The levels of these proteins significantly correlated to the pathological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of BCa patients (P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LTβR and NF-κB pathway proteins. Thus, LTβR signaling may be involved in promoting BCa through the NF-κB pathway, and which may represent the molecular link between inflammation and BCa. PMID:25369740

  8. Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes bladder cancer in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mo; Duan, Xiuzhi; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Wu; Wu, Xiuling; Xu, Siqi; Chen, Yuhua; Tao, Zhihua

    2015-02-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common tumor of the urinary system. Chronic inflammation in the papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)may contribute to carcinogenesis, including that of BCa, via poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) is upregulated in BCa via activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The mRNA expression of LTβR in 81 BCa, 10 chronic cystitis and 23 healthy bladder mucosa tissues was investigated by reverse transcription-fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR), and protein expression was studied in 73 BCa, 30 cystitis and 15 healthy paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Both LTβR mRNA and protein were upregulated in BCa and cystitis compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The mRNA level of the downstream NF-κB canonical pathway p65 gene and of the non-canonical pathway RelB gene were higher in the BCa and cystitis groups compared to the healthy one. The level of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) protein of the canonical NF-κB pathway and that of p52, a protein of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, were also higher in the BCa and cystitis group compared to the healthy group. The levels of these proteins significantly correlated to the pathological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of BCa patients (P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LTβR and NF-κB pathway proteins. Thus, LTβR signaling may be involved in promoting BCa through the NF-κB pathway, and which may represent the molecular link between inflammation and BCa.

  9. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 promotes the development of the lymphatic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Michael T; Meadows, Stryder M; Wynne, Katherine; Cleaver, Ondine; Brekken, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is highly expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells and has been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis in adult mice. However, the role VEGFR2 serves in the development of the lymphatic vascular system has not been defined. Here we use the Cre-lox system to show that the proper development of the lymphatic vasculature requires VEGFR2 expression by lymphatic endothelium. We show that Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice possess significantly fewer dermal lymphatic vessels than Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice. Although Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice exhibit lymphatic hypoplasia, the lymphatic network is functional and contains all of the key features of a normal lymphatic network (initial lymphatic vessels and valved collecting vessels surrounded by smooth muscle cells (SMCs)). We also show that Lyve-1(Cre) mice display robust Cre activity in macrophages and in blood vessels in the yolk sac, liver and lung. This activity dramatically impairs the development of blood vessels in these tissues in Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) embryos, most of which die after embryonic day14.5. Lastly, we show that inactivation of Vegfr2 in the myeloid lineage does not affect the development of the lymphatic vasculature. Therefore, the abnormal lymphatic phenotype of Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice is due to the deletion of Vegfr2 in the lymphatic vasculature not macrophages. Together, this work demonstrates that VEGFR2 directly promotes the expansion of the lymphatic network and further defines the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the lymphatic vascular system.

  11. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11βHSD2) and inhibition of 11βHSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11βHSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  12. EP4 Receptor-Associated Protein in Microglia Promotes Inflammation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Yokode, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu

    2016-08-01

    Microglial cells play a key role in neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. Overactivated microglia induce detrimental neurotoxic effects through the excess production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of microglial activation are poorly understood. We focused on prostaglandin E2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP), which suppresses macrophage activation. We demonstrated that EPRAP exists in microglia in the brain. Furthermore, EPRAP-deficient mice displayed less microglial accumulation, and intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA in the brains of EPRAP-deficient mice. Consistently, EPRAP-deficient microglia showed a marked decrease in the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced by LPS treatment compared with wild-type controls. In addition, EPRAP deficiency decreased microglial activation and neuronal cell death induced by intraventricular injection of kainic acid. EPRAP deficiency impaired the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in microglia. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-which phosphorylates c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-were also decreased in EPRAP-deficient microglia after LPS stimulation. Although EPRAP in macrophages plays a role in the attenuation of inflammation, EPRAP promotes proinflammatory activation of microglia through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-mediated signaling and may be key to the deteriorating neuronal damage brought on by brain inflammation. PMID:27315781

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui; Suo, Ning; Chen, Yu-Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  14. Activation of purinergic receptors (P2) in the renal medulla promotes endothelin-dependent natriuresis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gohar, Eman Y; Speed, Joshua S; Kasztan, Malgorzata; Jin, Chunhua; Pollock, David M

    2016-08-01

    Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) and purinergic signaling systems regulate Na(+) reabsorption in the renal medulla. A link between the renal ET-1 and purinergic systems was demonstrated in vitro, however, the in vivo interaction between these systems has not been defined. To test whether renal medullary activation of purinergic (P2) receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, we determined the effect of increased medullary NaCl loading on Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence and absence of purinergic receptor antagonism. Isosmotic saline (NaCl; 284 mosmol/kgH2O) was infused into the medullary interstitium (500 μl/h) during a 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by isosmotic or hyperosmotic saline (1,800 mosmol/kgH2O) for two further 30-min urine collection periods. Na(+) excretion was significantly increased during intramedullary infusion of hyperosmotic saline. Compared with isosmotic saline, hyperosmotic saline infused into the renal medulla caused significant increases in inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression. Renal intramedullary infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin inhibited the increase in Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression induced by NaCl loading in the renal medulla. Activation of medullary P2Y2/4 receptors by infusion of UTP increased urinary Na(+) excretion. Combined ETA and ETB receptor blockade abolished the natriuretic response to intramedullary infusion of UTP. These data demonstrate that activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis in male rats, suggesting that the renal ET-1 and purinergic signaling systems interact to efficiently facilitate excretion of a NaCl load.

  15. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  16. B cell IFN-γ receptor signaling promotes autoimmune germinal centers via cell-intrinsic induction of BCL-6

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Shaun W.; Jacobs, Holly M.; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Dam, Elizabeth M.; Scharping, Nicole E.; Kolhatkar, Nikita S.; Hou, Baidong; Buckner, Jane H.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated germinal center (GC) responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although both type 1 and type 2 interferons (IFNs) are involved in lupus pathogenesis, their respective impacts on the establishment of autoimmune GCs has not been addressed. In this study, using a chimeric model of B cell-driven autoimmunity, we demonstrate that B cell type 1 IFN receptor signals accelerate, but are not required for, lupus development. In contrast, B cells functioning as antigen-presenting cells initiate CD4+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production, and strikingly, B cell–intrinsic deletion of the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) abrogates autoimmune GCs, class-switched autoantibodies (auto-Abs), and systemic autoimmunity. Mechanistically, although IFN-γR signals increase B cell T-bet expression, B cell–intrinsic deletion of T-bet exerts an isolated impact on class-switch recombination to pathogenic auto-Ab subclasses without impacting GC development. Rather, in both mouse and human B cells, IFN-γ synergized with B cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and/or CD40 activation signals to promote cell-intrinsic expression of the GC master transcription factor, B cell lymphoma 6 protein. Our combined findings identify a novel B cell–intrinsic mechanism whereby IFN signals promote lupus pathogenesis, implicating this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:27069113

  17. A framework for lipoprotein ontology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meifania; Hadzic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have established a significant correlation between abnormal plasma lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of mortality in the world today. In addition, lipoprotein dysregulation, known as dyslipidemia, is a central feature in disease states, such as diabetes and hypertension, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. While a corpus of literature exists on different areas of lipoprotein research, one of the major challenges that researchers face is the difficulties in accessing and integrating relevant information amidst massive quantities of heterogeneous data. Semantic web technologies, specifically ontologies, target these problems by providing an organizational framework of the concepts involved in a system of related instances to support systematic querying of information. In this paper, we identify issues within the lipoprotein research domain and present a preliminary framework for Lipoprotein Ontology, which consists of five specific areas of lipoprotein research: Classification, Metabolism, Pathophysiology, Etiology, and Treatment. By integrating specific aspects of lipoprotein research, Lipoprotein Ontology will provide the basis for the design of various applications to enable interoperability between research groups or software agents, as well as the development of tools for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia.

  18. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone promoter activity in GT1 hypothalamic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chandran, U R; Attardi, B; Friedman, R; Dong, K W; Roberts, J L; DeFranco, D B

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis and release of GnRH within a specific subset of neurons in the hypothalamus, which serves as the primary drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, is subject to various levels of control. Although a number of direct synaptic connections to GnRH-containing neurons have been identified, which presumably provide some regulatory inputs, the mechanisms responsible for hormonal regulation of GnRH synthesis and release mediated by either cell surface or intracellular receptors remain controversial. The recent demonstration that a subset of GnRH-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamus possesses immunoreactive glucocorticoid receptors (GR) implies that this class of steroid hormones could exert a direct effect to regulate the functioning of these neurons and perhaps the HPG axis. We used the GT1-3 and GT1-7 cell lines of immortalized GnRH-secreting hypothalamic neurons as a model to study the direct effects of glucocorticoids on GnRH gene expression. We demonstrated that these cell lines possess GR that bind the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, in vitro with high affinity (Kd = 2-3 nM). These receptors are functional, as indicated by their ability to activate transcription from exogenously introduced heterologous glucocorticoid-responsive promoters. Furthermore, dexamethasone represses both the endogenous mouse GnRH gene, decreasing steady state levels of GnRH mRNA, and the transcriptional activity of transfected rat GnRH promoter-reporter gene vectors. Glucocorticoid repression of rat GnRH promoter activity appears to be mediated by sequences contained within the promoter proximal 459 basepairs and not be influenced by the relative basal activity of the GnRH promoter. Thus, our results provide the first direct demonstration of glucocorticoid repression of transcription in a hypothalamic cell line and suggest that GR acting directly within GnRH neurons could be at least partly responsible for negative regulation of the HPG axis by

  19. Associations of hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities with changes in dietary composition and low density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Campos, H; Dreon, D M; Krauss, R M

    1995-03-01

    and small IDL, whereas increased hepatic lipase may promote catabolism or clearance of tri