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Sample records for lipoprotein receptor promoter

  1. Particulate Matter Promotes In Vitro Receptor-Recognizable Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Dysfunction of Lipid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Sevilla-Tapia, Laura; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Serrano, Jesús; O’Neill, Marie S.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Quintana, Raúl; Vázquez-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter may promote cardiovascular disease, possibly as a consequence of its oxidative potential. Studies using susceptible animals indicate that particulate matter aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing lipid/macrophage content in plaques. Macrophage lipid uptake requires oxidized low-density lipoprotein and scavenger receptors; same receptors are involved in particulate matter uptake. We studied in vitro particulate matter potential to oxidize low-density lipoproteins and subsequent cell uptake through scavenger receptors. Particulate matter-induced low-density lipoproteins oxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid assay. Binding/internalization was tested in wild type and scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in RAW264.7 cells using fluorescently labeled low-density lipoproteins. Dose-dependent binding/internalization only occurred in scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and RAW264.7 cells. Competition binding/internalization using particles showed that particulate matter induced decreased binding (~50%) and internalization (~70%) of particle-oxidized low-density lipoproteins and native low-density lipoproteins. Results indicate that particulate matter was capable of oxidizing low-density lipoproteins, favoring macrophage internalization, and also altered scavenger and low-density lipoproteins receptor function. PMID:23297186

  2. [Lipoprotein receptors. Old acquaintances and newcomers].

    PubMed

    Ducobu, J

    1997-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptors are plasma membrane proteins of high affinity which interact with circulating lipoprotein particles. The well characterized LDL receptor continues to be analysed and some new findings on its intracellular mechanisms of action have emerged. New lipoprotein receptors have recently been described: the chylomicron remnant receptor or LDL-related protein (LRP), the lipolysis stimulated receptor (LSR), the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), the HDL receptor (HDLR) and the scavenger receptor (SR). The molecular details of the receptors will facilitate the development of new therapeutic means to improve receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Sander

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that mediates the effect of dietary fatty acids and certain drugs on plasma lipoproteins are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Three PPAR isotypes can be distinguished, all of which have a major role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is the molecular target for the fibrate class of drugs. Activation of PPARα in mice and humans markedly reduces hepatic triglyceride production and promotes plasma triglyceride clearance, leading to a clinically significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are increased upon PPARα activation in humans. PPARγ is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Activation of PPARγ in mice and human is generally associated with a modest increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in plasma triglycerides. The latter effect is caused by an increase in lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma triglyceride clearance. Analogous to PPARα, activation of PPARβ/δ leads to increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. In this paper, a fresh perspective on the relation between PPARs and lipoprotein metabolism is presented. The emphasis is on the physiological role of PPARs and the mechanisms underlying the effect of synthetic PPAR agonists on plasma lipoprotein levels. PMID:18288277

  4. Very low density lipoprotein receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and mediates the proadipogenic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists.

    PubMed

    Tao, Huan; Hajri, Tahar

    2011-12-15

    Very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low density receptor family, expressed mostly in adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscles. VLDLR binds apolipoprotein-E-triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and plays a key role in lipid metabolism. In adipocytes, VLDLR expression increases with differentiation but it is not known whether it plays a role in the adipogenesis. Here we report that VLDLR expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is upregulated by PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) in dose- and time-dependant manners. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) with siRNA abolished pioglitazone- and 15d-PGJ(2)-induced VLDLR expression and simultaneously reduced VLDL uptake in adipocytes. In addition, PPARγ-agonist treatment of control mouse adipocytes (vldlr(+/+)) enhanced adipogenesis and VLDL uptake concurrently with the induction of VLDLR expression. However, vldlr deficiency (vldlr(-/-)) significantly blunted the proadipogenic effects of PPARγ agonists. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative PPARγ responsive sequence (PPRE) within the vldlr promoter, which is responsive to natural (15d-PGJ(2)) and synthetic (pioglitazone) PPARγ agonists. Reporter gene assays using serial deletion of the 5'-flanking region showed that this putative PPRE site induced promoter transactivation, while a site-targeted mutation abolished transactivation. Moreover, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatic immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed the specific binding of PPARγ to the PPRE sequence. Together, these results support a crucial function for VLDLR in adipocyte differentiation and mediation of the proadipogenic effect of PPARγ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of Plasma Cholesterol by Lipoprotein Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael S.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Goldstein, Joseph L.

    1981-05-01

    The lipoprotein transport system holds the key to understanding the mechanisms by which genes, diet, and hormones interact to regulate the plasma cholesterol level in man. Crucial components of this system are lipoprotein receptors in the liver and extrahepatic tissues that mediate the uptake and degradation of cholesterol-carrying lipoproteins. The number of lipoprotein receptors, and hence the efficiency of disposal of plasma cholesterol, can be increased by cholesterol-lowering drugs. Regulation of lipoprotein receptors can be exploited pharmacologically in the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in man.

  6. Enzymatically Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein Promotes Foam Cell Formation in Smooth Muscle Cells via Macropinocytosis and Enhances Receptor-Mediated Uptake of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chellan, Bijoy; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Hofmann Bowman, Marion A

    2016-06-01

    Enzyme-modified nonoxidized low-density lipoprotein (ELDL) is present in human atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective is to understand the mechanisms of ELDL uptake and its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Transformation of murine aortic SMCs into foam cells in response to ELDL was analyzed. ELDL, but not acetylated or oxidized LDL, was potent in inducing SMC foam cell formation. Inhibitors of macropinocytosis (LY294002, wortmannin, amiloride) attenuated ELDL uptake. In contrast, inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis (dynasore, sucrose) and inhibitor of caveolae-/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis (filipin) had no effect on ELDL uptake in SMC, suggesting that macropinocytosis is the main mechanism of ELDL uptake by SMC. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is not obligatory for ELDL-induced SMC foam cell formation, but primes SMC for the uptake of oxidized LDL in a RAGE-dependent manner. ELDL increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, cytosolic calcium, and expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in wild-type SMC but not in RAGE(-/-) SMC. The macropinocytotic uptake of ELDL is regulated predominantly by intracellular calcium because ELDL uptake was completely inhibited by pretreatment with the calcium channel inhibitor lacidipine in wild-type and RAGE(-/-) SMC. This is in contrast to pretreatment with PI3 kinase inhibitors which completely prevented ELDL uptake in RAGE(-/-) SMC, but only partially in wild-type SMC. ELDL is highly potent in inducing foam cells in murine SMC. ELDL endocytosis is mediated by calcium-dependent macropinocytosis. Priming SMC with ELDL enhances the uptake of oxidized LDL. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes macrophage lipid accumulation via the toll-like receptor 4-Src pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiaoqun; Liu, Zhuhui; Lu, Lin; Mao, Jinyan; Meng, Hua; Wang, Yanan; Hu, Yong; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Qiujing; Liu, Yan; Shen, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by macrophages is recognized as a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis, whereas the precise molecular mechanisms involving it remain to be elucidated. This study focused on determining the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Src kinase in macrophage lipid accumulation. oxLDL significantly enhanced Src kinase activity and intracellular lipid contents in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas the small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of TLR4 and Src or chemical inhibition of Src activity blocked oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that TLR4 was associated with Src on the plasma membrane upon oxLDL stimulation. The results of the present study suggest an essential role of TLR4-Src signaling in macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  8. Downstream promoter sequences facilitate the formation of a specific transcription factor IID-promoter complex topology required for efficient transcription from the megalin/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Knutson, A; Castaño, E; Oelgeschläger, T; Roeder, R G; Westin, G

    2000-05-12

    Megalin/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP-2) is an endocytic receptor expressed in highly specialized cell types such as parathyroid cells and epithelia of the kidney. Previous experiments identified a nonconsensus TATA element, with the sequence TAGAAAA, as crucial for accurate and efficient transcription from the LRP-2 promoter. Here we show that, in addition to the TAGA element, promoter sequences downstream of the transcription start site contribute significantly to transcription both in vitro and in transfected cells. Deletion and point mutational analyses reveal that the promoter region located between positions +5 and +11 (sequence TTTTGGC) is of particular importance. Complementation experiments in nuclear extracts lacking transcription factor IID (TFIID) activity show that TATA-binding protein-associated factors of TFIID are essential for the function of LRP-2 downstream promoter sequences. Interestingly, DNase I footprinting studies show that the downstream region between positions +5 and +11 does not significantly affect overall TFIID affinity to the promoter but that it profoundly affects the topology of the TFIID x promoter complex not only downstream of the transcription start site, but in particular in the TATA box region. Our observations suggest a model for a novel downstream sequence function, in which TATA-binding protein-associated factor-promoter interactions downstream of the transcription start site modulate TFIID-DNA interactions in the TATA box region.

  9. Hepatic lipase promotes the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein-cholesteryl esters via the scavenger receptor B1.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G; Chase, M B; Dugi, K; Bensadoun, A; Brewer, H B; Santamarina-Fojo, S

    1999-07-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) plays a major role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism both as a lipolytic enzyme and as a ligand. To investigate whether HL enhances the uptake of HDL-cholesteryl ester (CE) via the newly described scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), we measured the effects of expressing HL and SR-BI on HDL-cell association as well as uptake of 125I-labeled apoA-I and [3H]CE-HDL, by embryonal kidney 293 cells. As expected, HDL cell association and CE selective uptake were increased in SR-BI transfected cells by 2- and 4-fold, respectively, compared to controls (P < 0.001). Cells transfected with HL alone or in combination with SR-BI expressed similar amounts of HL, 20% of which was bound to cell surface proteoglycans. HL alone increased HDL cell association by 2-fold but had no effect on HDL-CE uptake in 293 cells. However, in cells expressing SR-BI, HL further enhanced the selective uptake of CE from HDL by 3-fold (P < 0.001). To determine whether the lipolytic and/or ligand function of HL are required in this process, we generated a catalytically inactive form of HL (HL-145G). Cells co-transfected with HL-145G and SR-BI increased their HDL cell association and HDL-CE selective uptake by 1.4-fold compared to cells expressing SR-BI only (P < 0.03). Heparin abolished the effect of HL-145G on SR-BI-mediated HDL-CE selective uptake.Thus, the enhanced uptake of HDL-CE by HL is mediated by both its ligand role, which requires interaction with proteoglycans, and by lipolysis with subsequent HDL particle remodeling. These results establish HL as a major modulator of SR-BI mediated selective uptake of HDL-CE.

  10. PTPRO Promotes Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Apoptosis through Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Caihong; Wang, Xiaochen; Hu, Jianping; Lian, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Tiantian; Zhang, Hui; Gu, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Critical roles of phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been implicated in inflammation. However, little is known about their functional effects on atherosclerosis (AS). We aim to study their potential function in AS. An oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced AS model constructed with PTPRO over-expressing RAW264.7 cells and PTPRO knockout macrophages. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and fatty accumulation was evaluated by oil red staining. The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), SOD (superoxide dismutase), MDA (malondialdehyde), TC (Triglyceride), and TG (total cholesterol) was evaluated. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of CD36, TLR4 and nuclear factor kB (NF-κB). PTPRO expression was promoted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner following ox-LDL challenging. In PTPRO-over-expressing cells, CD36 expression and the level of oil-red staining, TC and TG were increased; ROS production, MDA and level of cell apoptosis were improved, but SOD was reduced. However, in PTPRO knockout cells opposite results were found. TLR4 and NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation was significantly enhanced in PTPRO over-expressing cells, while significantly down-regulated in PTPRO knockout cells. PTPRO plays ital roles in AS via promoting ox-LDL induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis through TLR4/NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. High density lipoprotein promotes proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells via S1P1 receptor and Akt, ERK1/2 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Zhou, Enchen; Wei, Xiujing; Fu, Zhiwei; Niu, Chenguang; Li, Yang; Pan, Bing; Mathew, Anna V; Wang, Xu; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Zheng, Lemin; Wang, Yongyu

    2015-05-15

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) are non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells that have shown great promise in their ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Their ubiquitous nature and the ease of harvesting have attracted the attention of many researchers, and they pose as an ideal candidate for applications in regenerative medicine. Several reports have demonstrated that transplanting ADSC can promote repair of injured tissue and angiogenesis in animal models. Survival of these cells after transplant remains a key limiting factor for the success of ADSC transplantation. Circulating factors like High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been known to promote survival of other stems cells like bone marrow derived stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells, both by proliferation and by inhibiting cell apoptosis. The effect of HDL on transplanted adipose-derived stem cells in vivo is largely unknown. This study focused on exploring the effects of plasma HDL on ADSC and delineating the mechanisms involved in their proliferation after entering the bloodstream. Using the MTT and BrdU assays, we tested the effects of HDL on ADSC proliferation. We probed the downstream intracellular Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and expression of cyclin proteins in ADSC using western blot. Our study found that HDL promotes proliferation of ADSC, by binding to sphingosine-1- phosphate receptor-1(S1P1) on the cell membrane. This interaction led to activation of intracellular Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in increased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and simultaneous reduction in expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, therefore promoting cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. These studies raise the possibility that HDL may be a physiologic regulator of stem cells and increasing HDL concentrations may be valuable strategy to promote ADSC transplantation.

  12. PCSK9 Promotes Intestinal Overproduction of Triglyceride-Rich Apolipoprotein-B Lipoproteins Through Both LDL-Receptor Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shirya; Tavori, Hagai; Brown, Patrick E.; Linton, MacRae F.; He, Jane; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Fazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and its deficiency in humans results in low plasma LDL-cholesterol and protection against coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent evidence indicates that PCSK9 also modulates the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins (TRL), another important CHD risk factor. Here we studied effects of physiological levels of PCSK9 on intestinal TRL production and elucidated for the first time the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Methods and Results Treatment of human enterocytes (CaCo-2 cells) with recombinant human PCSK9 (10 μg/mL, 24 hours) increased cellular and secreted apoB48 and apoB100 by 40–55% each (p<0.01 vs. untreated cells), whereas acute deletion of PCSK9 expression reversed this effect. PCSK9 stimulation of apoB was due to: (1) a 1.5-fold increase in apoB mRNA (p<0.01); and (2) enhanced apoB protein stability through both LDLR-dependent and LDLR-independent mechanisms. PCSK9 decreased LDLR protein (p<0.01) and increased cellular apoB stability via activation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). PCSK9 also increased levels of the lipid-generating enzymes FAS, SCD and DGAT2 (p<0.05). In mice, human PCSK9 at physiologic levels increased intestinal MTP levels and activity regardless of LDLR expression. Conclusions PCSK9 markedly increases intestinal TRL apoB production through mechanisms mediated in part by transcriptional effects on apoB, MTP and lipogenic genes, and in part by post-transcriptional effects on the LDLR and MTP. These findings indicate that targeted PCSK9-based therapies may also be effective in the management of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25070550

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein promotes neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Neufert, C; Pai, R K; Noss, E H; Berger, M; Boom, W H; Harding, C V

    2001-08-01

    Certain microbial substances, e.g., LPS, can activate neutrophils or prime them to enhance their response to other activating agents, e.g., fMLP. We investigated the role of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) 19-kDa lipoprotein in activation of human neutrophils. MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein initiated phenotypic changes characteristic of neutrophil activation, including down-regulation of CD62 ligand (L-selectin) and up-regulation of CD35 (CR1) and CD11b/CD18 (CR3, Mac-1). In addition, exposure of neutrophils to MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein enhanced the subsequent oxidative burst in response to fMLP as assessed by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (determined by flow cytometry). LPS also produced these effects with similar kinetics, but an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a CpG motif failed to induce any priming or activation response. Although the effects of LPS required the presence of serum, neutrophil activation by MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein occurred independently of serum factors, suggesting the involvement of different receptors and signaling mechanisms for LPS and MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein. Thus, MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern that promotes neutrophil priming and activation.

  14. Inducible Apoe Gene Repair in Hypomorphic ApoE Mice Deficient in the LDL Receptor Promotes Atheroma Stabilization with a Human-like Lipoprotein Profile

    PubMed Central

    Eberlé, Delphine; Luk, Fu Sang; Kim, Roy Y.; Olivas, Victor R.; Kumar, Nikit; Posada, Jessica M.; Li, Kang; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Rapp, Joseph H.; Raffai, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study atherosclerosis regression in mice following plasma lipid reduction to moderately elevated apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein levels. Approach and Results Chow-fed hypomorphic Apoe mice deficient in LDL receptor expression (Apoeh/hLdlr−/−Mx1-cre mice) develop hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. These mice were studied before and after inducible cre-mediated Apoe gene repair. By 1 week, induced mice displayed a 2-fold reduction in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels and a decrease in the non-HDL:HDL-cholesterol ratio from 87%:13% to 60%:40%. This halted atherosclerotic lesion growth and promoted macrophage loss and accumulation of thick collagen fibers for up to 8 weeks. Concomitantly, blood Ly-6Chi monocytes were decreased by 2-fold but lesional macrophage apoptosis was unchanged. The expression of several genes involved in extra-cellular matrix remodeling and cell migration were changed in lesional macrophages 1 week after Apoe gene repair. However, mRNA levels of numerous genes involved in cholesterol efflux and inflammation were not significantly changed at this time point. Conclusions Restoring apoE expression in Apoeh/hLdlr−/−Mx1-cre mice resulted in lesion stabilization in the context of a human-like ratio of non-HDL:HDL-cholesterol. Our data suggest that macrophage loss derived in part from reduced blood Ly-6Chi monocytes levels and genetic reprogramming of lesional macrophages. PMID:23788760

  15. Lipoprotein lipase, LDL receptors and apo-lipoproteins in human fetal membranes at term.

    PubMed

    Huter, O; Wolf, H J; Schnetzer, A; Pfaller, K

    1997-11-01

    Ultrastructurally, all cells of human fetal membranes strongly exhibit a large amount of lipid deposits throughout pregnancy. Their origin and function is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of key components of lipid metabolism in this tissue. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the distribution of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), low density lipoprotein receptors (LDL receptors), and apo-lipoprotein B and E was investigated in 20 human fetal membranes at term. In addition, electron microscopy was used to study the intracellular localization of lipoprotein-sized particles. Amnionic epithelium and trophoblast cells reacted strongly for LPL. LDL receptors and apo-lipoproteins were present in amnionic epithelium and fibroblasts of the amnion. In none of the investigated cells were lipoprotein-sized particles identified. Similar results were obtained in all 20 cases. The findings indicate that lipoprotein from the amniotic fluid or from the maternal circulation may serve as substrate for lipids in human fetal membranes.

  16. Lipoprotein Receptors Redundantly Participate in Entry of Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satomi; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Ono, Chikako; Uemura, Kentaro; Kawachi, Yukako; Shiokawa, Mai; Mori, Hiroyuki; Wada, Masami; Shima, Ryoichi; Okamoto, Toru; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Chayama, Kazuaki; Wakita, Takaji; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are known to be involved in entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV), but their precise roles and their interplay are not fully understood. In this study, deficiency of both SR-B1 and LDLR in Huh7 cells was shown to impair the entry of HCV more strongly than deficiency of either SR-B1 or LDLR alone. In addition, exogenous expression of not only SR-B1 and LDLR but also very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) rescued HCV entry in the SR-B1 and LDLR double-knockout cells, suggesting that VLDLR has similar roles in HCV entry. VLDLR is a lipoprotein receptor, but the level of its hepatic expression was lower than those of SR-B1 and LDLR. Moreover, expression of mutant lipoprotein receptors incapable of binding to or uptake of lipid resulted in no or slight enhancement of HCV entry in the double-knockout cells, suggesting that binding and/or uptake activities of lipid by lipoprotein receptors are essential for HCV entry. In addition, rescue of infectivity in the double-knockout cells by the expression of the lipoprotein receptors was not observed following infection with pseudotype particles bearing HCV envelope proteins produced in non-hepatic cells, suggesting that lipoproteins associated with HCV particles participate in the entry through their interaction with lipoprotein receptors. Buoyant density gradient analysis revealed that HCV utilizes these lipoprotein receptors in a manner dependent on the lipoproteins associated with HCV particles. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoprotein receptors redundantly participate in the entry of HCV.

  17. Modulation of lipoprotein receptor functions by intracellular adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Peggy C; Bock, Hans H

    2006-10-01

    Members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family are critically involved in a wide range of physiological processes including lipid and vitamin homeostasis, cellular migration, neurodevelopment, and synaptic plasticity, to name a few. Lipoprotein receptors exert these diverse biological functions by acting as cellular uptake receptors or by inducing intracellular signaling cascades. It was discovered that a short sequence in the intracellular region of all lipoprotein receptors, Asn-Pro-X-Tyr (NPXY) is important for mediating either endocytosis or signal transduction events, and that this motif serves as a binding site for phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain containing scaffold proteins. These molecular adaptors connect the transmembrane receptors with the endocytosis machinery and regulate cellular trafficking, or function as assembly sites for dynamic multi-protein signaling complexes. Whereas the LDL receptor represents the archetype of an endocytic lipoprotein receptor, the structurally closely related apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor activate a kinase-dependent intracellular signaling cascade after binding to the neuronal signaling molecule Reelin. This review focuses on two related PTB domain containing adaptor proteins that mediate these divergent lipoprotein receptor responses, ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) and Dab1 (disabled-1), and discusses the structural and molecular basis of this different behaviour.

  18. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1) C4408R Mutant Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) α-Cleavage in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huayan; Habib, Ahsan; Zi, Dan; Tian, Kathy; Tian, Jun; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays conflicting roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, clearing β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain while also enhancing APP endocytosis and resultant amyloidogenic processing. We have recently discovered that co-expression of mutant LRP1 C-terminal domain (LRP1-CT C4408R) with Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decreases Aβ production, while also increasing sAPPα and APP α-C-terminal fragment (α-CTF), compared with CHO cells expressing APPswe alone. Surprisingly, the location of this mutation on LRP1 corresponded with the α-secretase cleavage site of APP. Further experimentation confirmed that in CHO cells expressing APPswe or wild-type APP (APPwt), co-expression of LRP1-CT C4408R decreases Aβ and increases sAPPα and α-CTF compared with co-expression of wild-type LRP1-CT. In addition, LRP1-CT C4408R enhanced the unglycosylated form of LRP1-CT and reduced APP endocytosis as determined by flow cytometry. This finding identifies a point mutation in LRP1 which slows LRP1-CT-mediated APP endocytosis and amyloidogenic processing, while enhancing APP α-secretase cleavage, thus demonstrating a potential novel target for slowing AD pathogenesis.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD.

  20. Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor and the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII): implications for the actions of glucocorticoids on glucose, lipoprotein, and xenobiotic metabolism.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Massimo U; Alesci, Salvatore; Chrousos, George P; Kino, Tomoshige

    2004-06-01

    Glucocorticoids exert their extremely diverse effects on numerous biologic activities of humans via only one protein module, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The GR binds to the glucocorticoid response elements located in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcriptional activity. In addition, GR associates with other transcription factors through direct protein-protein interactions and mutually represses or stimulates each other's transcriptional activities. The latter activity of GR may be more important than the former one, granted that mice harboring a mutant GR, which is active in terms of protein-protein interactions but inactive in terms of transactivation via DNA, survive and procreate, in contrast to mice with a deletion of the entire GR gene that die immediately after birth. We recently found that GR physically interacts with the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), which plays a critical role in the metabolism of glucose, cholesterol, and xenobiotics, as well as in the development of the central nervous system in fetus. GR stimulates COUP-TFII-induced transactivation by attracting cofactors via its activation function-1, while COUP-TFII represses the GR-governed transcriptional activity by tethering corepressors, such as the silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and the nuclear receptor corepressors (NCoRs) via its C-terminal domain. Their mutual interaction may play an important role in gluconeogenesis, lipoprotein metabolism, and enzymatic clearance of clinically important compounds and bioactive chemicals, by regulating their rate-limiting enzymes and molecules, including the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the cytochrome P450 CYP3A and CYP7A, and several apolipoproteins. It appears that glucocorticoids exert their intermediary effects partly via physical interaction with COUP-TFII.

  1. Functional Roles of the Interaction of APP and Lipoprotein Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Theresa; Wasser, Catherine R.; Herz, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The biological fates of the key initiator of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and a family of lipoprotein receptors, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs) and their molecular roles in the neurodegenerative disease process are inseparably interwoven. Not only does APP bind tightly to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of several members of the LRP group, their intracellular portions are also connected through scaffolds like the one established by FE65 proteins and through interactions with adaptor proteins such as X11/Mint and Dab1. Moreover, the ECDs of APP and LRPs share common ligands, most notably Reelin, a regulator of neuronal migration during embryonic development and modulator of synaptic transmission in the adult brain, and Agrin, another signaling protein which is essential for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and which likely also has critical, though at this time less well defined, roles for the regulation of central synapses. Furthermore, the major independent risk factors for AD, Apolipoprotein (Apo) E and ApoJ/Clusterin, are lipoprotein ligands for LRPs. Receptors and ligands mutually influence their intracellular trafficking and thereby the functions and abilities of neurons and the blood-brain-barrier to turn over and remove the pathological product of APP, the amyloid-β peptide. This article will review and summarize the molecular mechanisms that are shared by APP and LRPs and discuss their relative contributions to AD. PMID:28298885

  2. Phagocytosis of aggregated lipoprotein by macrophages: Low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent foam-cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; Chait, A.; Aviram, M.; Heinecke, J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by incubation with phospholipase C (PLC-LDL) aggregates in solution and is rapidly taken up and degraded by human and mouse macrophages, producing foam cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rabbit macrophages degraded {sup 125}I-labeled PLC-LDL ({sup 125}I-PLC-LDL) more rapidly than native {sup 125}I-labeled LDL ({sup 125}I-LDL), while nonphagocytic cells such as human fibroblasts and bovine aortic endothelial cells degraded {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL more slowly than {sup 125}I-LDL. This suggested the mechanism for internalization of PLC-LDL was phagocytosis. When examined by electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages appeared to be phagocytosing PLC-LDL. The uptake and degradation of {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL by human macrophages was inhibited >80% by the monoclonal antibody C7 (IgG2b) produced by hybridoma C7, which blocks the ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. Similarly, methylation of {sup 125}I-LDL ({sup 125}I-MeLDL) prior to treatment with phospholipase C decreased its subsequent uptake and degradation by human macrophages by >90%. The uptake and degradation of phospholipase C-modified {sup 125}I-MeLDL by macrophages could be restored by incubation of the methylated lipoprotein with apoprotein E, a ligand recognized by the LDL receptor. These results indicate that macrophages internalize PLC-LDL by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis.

  3. Serum lipoproteins attenuate macrophage activation and Toll-Like Receptor stimulation by bacterial lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis was previously shown to express a lipoprotein, the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip), exposed at the bacterial surface, and able to stimulate human primary monocytes/macrophages through Toll Like Receptor (TLR)2/TLR1/TLR6, and CD14. In PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells the proinflammatory activity of Mip was significantly higher in the absence than in the presence of serum. The present study aims to investigate the ability of different serum factors to attenuate Mip proinflammatory activity in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and in primary human differentiated macrophages. The study was also extend to another lipoprotein, the Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein (Osp)A. The proinflammatory activity was studied through Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin (IL)-8 release. Finally, TLR1/2 human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) transfected cells were used to test the ability of the serum factors to inhibit Mip and OspA proinflammatory activity. Results In the absence of any serum and in the presence of 10% delipidated FBS, production of Mip-induced TNF-α and IL-8 in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were similar whereas they were significantly decreased in the presence of 10% FBS suggesting an inhibiting role of lipids present in FBS. In the presence of 10% human serum, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-8 were 2 to 5 times lower than in the presence of 10% FBS suggesting the presence of more potent inhibitor(s) in human serum than in FBS. Similar results were obtained in primary human differentiated macrophages. Different lipid components of human serum were then tested (total lipoproteins, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride emulsion, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, B, E2, and E3). The most efficient inhibitors were LDL, VLDL, and apoB that reduced the mean concentration of TNF-α release in Mip-induced macrophages to 24, 20, and 2%, respectively (p < 0.0001). These lipid components were also able to prevent TLR1/2 induced

  4. Constitutive androstane receptor activation decreases plasma apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sberna, Anne-Laure; Assem, Mahfoud; Xiao, Rui; Ayers, Steve; Gautier, Thomas; Guiu, Boris; Deckert, Valérie; Chevriaux, Angélique; Grober, Jacques; Le Guern, Naig; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Moore, David D; Lagrost, Laurent; Masson, David

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western-type diet were treated weekly with the Car agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or the vehicle only for 8 weeks. In Ldlr(-/-) mice, treatment with TCPOBOP induced a decrease in plasma triglyceride and intermediate-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (≈30% decrease in both cases after 2 months, P<0.01). These mice also showed a significant reduction in the production of very-low-density lipoproteins associated with a decrease in hepatic triglyceride content and the repression of several genes involved in lipogenesis. TCPOBOP treatment also induced a marked increase in the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor in the liver, which probably contributed to the decrease in intermediate-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein levels. Atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic valves of TCPOBOP-treated Ldlr(-/-) mice were also reduced (-60%, P<0.001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, which lack the physiological apoE ligand for the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, the effect of TCPOBOP on plasma cholesterol levels and the development of atherosclerotic lesions was markedly attenuated. CAR is a potential target in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  5. An interplay between hypervariable region 1 of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein, the scavenger receptor BI, and high-density lipoprotein promotes both enhancement of infection and protection against neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Birke; Verney, Géraldine; Dreux, Marlène; Donot, Peggy; Morice, Yoann; Penin, François; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lavillette, Dimitri; Cosset, Francois-Loïc

    2005-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulates in the bloodstream in different forms, including complexes with immunoglobulins and/or lipoproteins. To address the significance of such associations, we produced or treated HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), a valid model of HCV cell entry and its inhibition, with naïve or patient-derived sera. We demonstrate that infection of hepatocarcinoma cells by HCVpp is increased more than 10-fold by human serum factors, of which high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a major component. Infection enhancement requires scavenger receptor BI, a molecule known to mediate HDL uptake into cells as well as HCVpp entry, and involves conserved amino acid positions in hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 glycoprotein. Additionally, we show that the interaction with human serum or HDL, but not with low-density lipoprotein, leads to the protection of HCVpp from neutralizing antibodies, including monoclonal antibodies and antibodies present in patient sera. Finally, the deletion or mutation of HVR1 in HCVpp abolishes infection enhancement and leads to increased sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies/sera compared to that of parental HCVpp. Altogether, these results assign to HVR1 new roles which are complementary in helping HCV to survive within its host. Besides immune escape by mutation, HRV1 can mediate the enhancement of cell entry and the protection of virions from neutralizing antibodies. By preserving a balance between these functions, HVR1 may be essential for the viral persistence of HCV.

  6. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  7. Low-density-lipoprotein receptors in different rabbit liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nenseter, M S; Myklebost, O; Blomhoff, R; Drevon, C A; Nilsson, A; Norum, K R; Berg, T

    1989-01-01

    Receptor-dependent uptake mechanisms for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were studied in rabbit liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. Hybridization studies with a cDNA probe revealed that mRNA for the apo (apolipoprotein) B,E receptor was present in endothelial and Kupffer cells as well as in parenchymal cells. By ligand-blotting experiments we showed that apo B,E-receptor protein was present in both parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. Studies of binding of homologous LDL in cultured rabbit parenchymal cells suggested that about 63% of the specific LDL binding was mediated via the apo B,E receptor. Approx. 47% of the specific LDL binding was dependent on Ca2+, suggesting that specific Ca2+-dependent as well as Ca2+-independent LDL-binding sites exist in liver parenchymal cells. Methylated LDL bound to the parenchymal cells in a saturable manner. Taken together, our results showed that apo B,E receptors are present in rabbit liver endothelial and Kupffer cells as well as in the parenchymal cells, and that an additional saturable binding activity for LDL may exist on rabbit liver parenchymal cells. This binding activity was not inhibited by EGTA or reductive methylation of lysine residues in apo B. LDL degradation in parenchymal cells was mainly mediated via the apo B,E receptor. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2549976

  8. Expression of scavenger receptor-BI and low-density lipoprotein receptor and differential use of lipoproteins to support early steroidogenesis in luteinizing macaque granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Greason, Erin; Rodriguez, Annabelle; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Chaffin, Charles L

    2009-02-01

    An ovulatory hCG stimulus to rhesus macaques undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols results in a rapid and sustained increase in progesterone synthesis. The use of lipoproteins as a substrate for progesterone synthesis remains unclear, and the expression of lipoprotein receptors [very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI)] soon after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (<12 h) has not been characterized. This study investigated lipoprotein receptor expression and lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and HDL) support of steroidogenesis during luteinization of macaque granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were aspirated from rhesus monkeys undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation before or up to 24 h after an ovulatory hCG stimulus. The expression of VLDLR decreased within 3 h of hCG, whereas LDLR and SR-BI increased at 3 and 12 h, respectively. Granulosa cells isolated before hCG were cultured for 24 h in the presence of FSH or FSH plus hCG with or without VLDL, LDL, or HDL. Progesterone levels increased in the presence of hCG regardless of lipoprotein addition, although LDL, but not HDL, further augmented hCG-induced progesterone. Other cells were cultured with FSH or FSH plus hCG without an exogenous source of lipoprotein for 24 h, followed by an additional 24 h culture with or without lipoproteins. Cells treated with hCG in the absence of any lipoprotein were unable to maintain progesterone levels through 48 h, whereas LDL (but not HDL) sustained progesterone synthesis. These data suggest that an ovulatory stimulus rapidly mobilizes stored cholesterol esters for use as a progesterone substrate and that as these are depleted, new cholesterol esters are obtained through an LDLR- and/or SR-BI-mediated mechanism.

  9. Identification of roles for H264, H306, H439, and H635 in acid-dependent lipoprotein release by the LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongyun; Zhao, Zhenze; LeBrun, Drake G; Michaely, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Lipoproteins internalized by the LDL receptor (LDLR) are released from this receptor in endosomes through a process that involves acid-dependent conformational changes in the receptor ectodomain. How acidic pH promotes this release process is not well understood. Here, we assessed roles for six histidine residues for which either genetic or structural data suggested a possible role in the acid-responsiveness of the LDLR. Using assays that measured conformational change, acid-dependent lipoprotein release, LDLR recycling, and net lipoprotein uptake, we show that H635 plays important roles in acid-dependent conformational change and lipoprotein release, while H264, H306, and H439 play ancillary roles in the response of the LDLR to acidic pH. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Human ABCA1 BAC transgenic mice show increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol and ApoAI-dependent efflux stimulated by an internal promoter containing liver X receptor response elements in intron 1.

    PubMed

    Singaraja, R R; Bocher, V; James, E R; Clee, S M; Zhang, L H; Leavitt, B R; Tan, B; Brooks-Wilson, A; Kwok, A; Bissada, N; Yang, Y Z; Liu, G; Tafuri, S R; Fievet, C; Wellington, C L; Staels, B; Hayden, M R

    2001-09-07

    By using BAC transgenic mice, we have shown that increased human ABCA1 protein expression results in a significant increase in cholesterol efflux in different tissues and marked elevation in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels associated with increases in apoAI and apoAII. Three novel ABCA1 transcripts containing three different transcription initiation sites that utilize sequences in intron 1 have been identified. In BAC transgenic mice there is an increased expression of ABCA1 protein, but the distribution of the ABCA1 product in different cells remains similar to wild type mice. An internal promoter in human intron 1 containing liver X response elements is functional in vivo and directly contributes to regulation of the human ABCA1 gene in multiple tissues and to raised HDL cholesterol, apoAI, and apoAII levels. A highly significant relationship between raised protein levels, increased efflux, and level of HDL elevation is evident. These data provide proof of the principle that increased human ABCA1 efflux activity is associated with an increase in HDL levels in vivo.

  11. Giardia lamblia low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is involved in selective lipoprotein endocytosis and parasite replication.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Maria R; Miras, Silvana L; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Rópolo, Andrea S; Touz, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    As Giardia lamblia is unable to synthesize cholesterol de novo, this steroid might be obtained from the host's intestinal milieu by endocytosis of lipoproteins. In this work, we identified a putative Giardia lamblia low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (GlLRP), a type I membrane protein, which shares the substrate N-terminal binding domain and a FXNPXY-type endocytic motif with human LRPs. Expression of tagged GlLRP showed that it was localized predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomal-like peripheral vacuoles and plasma membrane. However, the FXNPXY-deleted GlLRP was retained at the plasma membrane suggesting that it is abnormally transported and processed. The low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons interacted with GlLRP, with this interaction being necessary for lipoprotein internalization and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that GlLRP binds directly to the medium subunit of Giardia adaptor protein 2, indicating that receptor-mediated internalization occurs through an adaptin mechanism.

  12. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Dependent and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Cyclosporin A-Induced Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kockx, Maaike; Glaros, Elias; Leung, Betty; Ng, Theodore W; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Deswaerte, Virginie; Nawara, Diana; Quinn, Carmel; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Jessup, Wendy; Rensen, Patrick C N; Meikle, Peter J; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-07-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant commonly used to prevent organ rejection but is associated with hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although studies suggest that CsA-induced hyperlipidemia is mediated by inhibition of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-mediated lipoprotein clearance, the data supporting this are inconclusive. We therefore sought to investigate the role of the LDLr in CsA-induced hyperlipidemia by using Ldlr-knockout mice (Ldlr(-/-)). Ldlr(-/-) and wild-type (wt) C57Bl/6 mice were treated with 20 mg/kg per d CsA for 4 weeks. On a chow diet, CsA caused marked dyslipidemia in Ldlr(-/-) but not in wt mice. Hyperlipidemia was characterized by a prominent increase in plasma very low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein/LDL with unchanged plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, thus mimicking the dyslipidemic profile observed in humans. Analysis of specific lipid species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry suggested a predominant effect of CsA on increased very low-density lipoprotein-IDL/LDL lipoprotein number rather than composition. Mechanistic studies indicated that CsA did not alter hepatic lipoprotein production but did inhibit plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of [(14)C]cholesteryl oleate and glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-double-labeled very low-density lipoprotein-like particles. Further studies showed that CsA inhibited plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. We demonstrate that CsA does not cause hyperlipidemia via direct effects on the LDLr. Rather, LDLr deficiency plays an important permissive role for CsA-induced hyperlipidemia, which is associated with abnormal lipoprotein clearance, decreased lipoprotein lipase activity, and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Enhancing LDLr and lipoprotein lipase activity and decreasing

  13. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis. PMID:23454129

  14. Ghrelin Receptor Deficiency does not Affect Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Habegger, Kirk M.; Grant, Erin; Pfluger, Paul Thomas; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Daugherty, Alan; Bruemmer, Dennis; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hofmann, Susanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived, secreted peptide, and its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR) are known to modulate food intake and energy homeostasis. The ghrelin system is also expressed broadly in cardiovascular tissues. Since ghrelin has been associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, but is also well known to promote obesity and impair glucose metabolism, we investigated whether ghrelin has any impact on the development of atherosclerosis. The hypothesis that endogenous ghrelin signaling may be involved in atherosclerosis has not been tested previously. Methods and Results: We crossed ghrelin receptor knockout mice (GHSr−/−) into a low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (Ldlr−/−) mouse line. In this model, atherosclerotic lesions were promoted by feeding a high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet for 13 months, following a standard protocol. Body composition and glucose homeostasis were similar between Ldlr−/− and Ldlr/GHSR−/−ko mice throughout the study. Absence or presence of GHSr did not alter the apolipoprotein profile changes in response to diet exposure on an LDLRko background. Atherosclerotic plaque volume in the aortic arch and thoracic aorta were also not affected differentially in mice without ghrelin signaling due to GHSR gene disruption as compared to control LDLRko littermates. In light of the associations reported for ghrelin with cardiovascular disease in humans, the lack of a phenotype in these loss-of-function studies in mice suggests no direct role for endogenous ghrelin in either the inhibition or the promotion of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Conclusion: These data indicate that, surprisingly, the complex and multifaceted actions of endogenous ghrelin receptor mediated signaling on the cardiovascular system have minimal direct impact on atherosclerotic plaque progression as based on a loss-of-function mouse model of the disease. PMID:22649381

  15. Liver-Specific Loss of Lipolysis-Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor Triggers Systemic Hyperlipidemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Narvekar, Prachiti; Berriel Diaz, Mauricio; Krones-Herzig, Anja; Hardeland, Ulrike; Strzoda, Daniela; Stöhr, Sigrid; Frohme, Marcus; Herzig, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In mammals, proper storage and distribution of lipids in and between tissues is essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In contrast, aberrantly high levels of triglycerides in the blood (“hypertriglyceridemia”) represent a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. As hypertriglyceridemia has been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular complications, in this study we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms in aberrant triglyceride elevation under these conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To determine the importance of hepatic lipid handling for systemic dyslipidemia, we profiled the expression patterns of various hepatic lipid transporters and receptors under healthy and type 2 diabetic conditions. A differentially expressed lipoprotein receptor was functionally characterized by generating acute, liver-specific loss- and gain-of-function animal models. RESULTS We show that the hepatic expression of lipid transporter lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is specifically impaired in mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and can be restored by leptin replacement. Experimental imitation of this pathophysiological situation by liver-specific knockdown of LSR promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apolipoprotein (Apo)B and E serum levels in lean wild-type and ApoE knockout mice. In contrast, genetic restoration of LSR expression in obese animals to wild-type levels improves serum triglyceride levels and serum profiles in these mice. CONCLUSIONS The dysregulation of hepatic LSR under obese and diabetic conditions may provide a molecular rationale for systemic dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and represent a novel target for alternative treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19188430

  16. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  17. ApoB-containing lipoproteins regulate angiogenesis by modulating expression of VEGF receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Ely, Yona; Pham, Van N; Castranova, Daniel; Grunspan, Moshe; Malkinson, Guy; Gibbs-Bar, Liron; Mayseless, Oded; Allmog, Gabriella; Lo, Brigid; Warren, Carmen M; Chen, Tom T; Ungos, Josette; Kidd, Kameha; Shaw, Kenna; Rogachev, Ilana; Wan, Wuzhou; Murphy, Philip M; Farber, Steven A; Carmel, Liran; Shelness, Gregory S; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Weinstein, Brant M; Yaniv, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear major contribution of hyperlipidemia to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, the direct effects of lipoproteins on endothelial cells have remained obscure and are under debate. Here we report a previously uncharacterized mechanism of vessel growth modulation by lipoprotein availability. Using a genetic screen for vascular defects in zebrafish, we initially identified a mutation, stalactite (stl), in the gene encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp), which is involved in the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoproteins. By manipulating lipoprotein concentrations in zebrafish, we found that ApoB negatively regulates angiogenesis and that it is the ApoB protein particle, rather than lipid moieties within ApoB-containing lipoproteins, that is primarily responsible for this effect. Mechanistically, we identified downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), which acts as a decoy receptor for VEGF, as a key mediator of the endothelial response to lipoproteins, and we observed VEGFR1 downregulation in hyperlipidemic mice. These findings may open new avenues for the treatment of lipoprotein-related vascular disorders. PMID:22581286

  18. ApoB-containing lipoproteins regulate angiogenesis by modulating expression of VEGF receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Ely, Yona; Pham, Van N; Castranova, Daniel; Grunspan, Moshe; Malkinson, Guy; Gibbs-Bar, Liron; Mayseless, Oded; Allmog, Gabriella; Lo, Brigid; Warren, Carmen M; Chen, Tom T; Ungos, Josette; Kidd, Kameha; Shaw, Kenna; Rogachev, Ilana; Wan, Wuzhou; Murphy, Philip M; Farber, Steven A; Carmel, Liran; Shelness, Gregory S; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Weinstein, Brant M; Yaniv, Karina

    2012-06-01

    Despite the clear major contribution of hyperlipidemia to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, the direct effects of lipoproteins on endothelial cells have remained obscure and are under debate. Here we report a previously uncharacterized mechanism of vessel growth modulation by lipoprotein availability. Using a genetic screen for vascular defects in zebrafish, we initially identified a mutation, stalactite (stl), in the gene encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp), which is involved in the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoproteins. By manipulating lipoprotein concentrations in zebrafish, we found that ApoB negatively regulates angiogenesis and that it is the ApoB protein particle, rather than lipid moieties within ApoB-containing lipoproteins, that is primarily responsible for this effect. Mechanistically, we identified downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), which acts as a decoy receptor for VEGF, as a key mediator of the endothelial response to lipoproteins, and we observed VEGFR1 downregulation in hyperlipidemic mice. These findings may open new avenues for the treatment of lipoprotein-related vascular disorders.

  19. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  20. [New mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in familial hypercholesterolemia patients from Petrozavodsk].

    PubMed

    Komarova, T Yu; Golovina, A S; Grudinina, N A; Zakharova, F M; Korneva, V A; Lipovetsky, B M; Serebrenitskaya, M P; Konstantinov, V O; Vasilyev, V B; Mandelshtam, M Yu

    2013-06-01

    Using an automated fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the entire coding region, promoter zone, and exon-intron junctions of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, we examined 80 DNA samples of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) from Petrozavodsk. We revealed mutations that might cause FH in five probands, including FH-North Karelia (c.925-931del7) mutation and four previously unknown mutations. These novel mutations included a transversion (c.618T>G (p.S206R), one nucleotide insertion c.195_196insT (p.FsV66:D129X), a complex gene rearrangement c.192del10/ins8 (p.FsS65:D129X), and a single nucleotide deletion c.2191delG (p.FsV731:V736X). Three out of four novel mutations produce an open reading frame shift and the premature termination of translation. An analysis of the cDNA sequence of the LDL receptor showed that this might result in the formation of a transmembrane-domain-deficient receptor that is unable to bind and internalize the ligand. Our results suggest the absence of a strong founder effect associated with FH in the Petrozavodsk population.

  1. Lipoprotein binding and endosomal itinerary of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, H.; Takahashi, K.; Hamilton, R.L.; Havel, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The high affinity of {sup 45}Ca binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and the LDL-R-related protein (LRP) was utilized to study the subcellar distribution of these two proteins in rat liver. Like the LDL-R, LRP was manyfold enriched in rat liver endosomal membranes with a relative distribution in early and late endosomal compartments consistent with recycling between endosomes and the cell surface. The high concentration of LRP in hepatic endosomal membranes greatly facilitated demonstration of Ca-dependent binding of apolipoprotein E- and B-containing lipoproteins in ligand blots. LRP was severalfold more abundant than the LDL-R in hepatic parenchymal cells, showed extensive degradation in hepatic endosomes, and was found in high concentrations in the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest a high a rate of synthesis of LRP that appeared to be unaffected by treatment of rats with estradiol. The repeating cysteine-rich A-motif found in the ligand-binding domain of LRP appeared to be responsible for Ca binding by LRP, LDL-R, and complement factor C9 and accounted for immunological cross-reactivity among these proteins. The data suggest an extensive proteolytic processing of this protein and are consistent with a functional role of LRP in lipoprotein metabolism.

  2. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  3. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  4. The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family: a cellular Swiss army knife?

    PubMed

    Nykjaer, Anders; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-06-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cell-surface receptors produced by mammals and other organisms. Initially thought to be endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins, recent findings have shown that these receptors have other roles in a range of cellular processes. Among other activities, members of this family act as signal transducers in neuronal migration processes, regulate synaptic plasticity or control vitamin homeostasis. Such multifunctionality is achieved by interaction with diverse cell-surface proteins including glycolipid-anchored receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. Here, we review the molecular interactions of this protein family with other cell-surface proteins that provide specificity and versatility - a versatility that may be reminiscent of a cellular Swiss army knife.

  5. Remnant lipoproteins induced proliferation of human prostate cancer cell, PC-3 but not LNCaP, via low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Nakano, Takamitsu; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Sadao; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been shown to be one of the risk factors for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of remnant lipoproteins on cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Remnant lipoproteins were isolated as remnant like particles (RLP) from human plasma. We used RLP for TG-rich lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins (LDL) for cholesterol-rich lipoproteins respectively and examined the effect of lipoproteins on proliferation of PC-3 and LNCaP cells using MTS assays. Moreover, we studied the effect of RLP and LDL treatment on the regulation of lipoprotein receptors in prostate cancer cells to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein-induced cell proliferation and lipoprotein receptor expression using real-time PCR, Western blotting assays and siRNA. RLP effectively induced PC-3 cell proliferation more than LDL, whereas both RLP and LDL could not induce LNCaP cell proliferation except at a higher concentration of RLP. LDL receptor (LDLr) was expressed in both prostate cancer cells but there was a sharp difference of sterol regulation between two cells. In PC-3 cells, LDL decreased the LDLr expression in some degree, but RLP did not. Meanwhile LDLr expression in LNCaP was easily downregulated by RLP and LDL. Blocking LDLr function significantly inhibited both RLP- and LDL-induced PC-3 cell proliferation. This study demonstrated that RLP-induced PC-3 cell proliferation more than LDL; however, both RLP and LDL hardly induced LNCaP cell proliferation. The differences of proliferation by lipoproteins might be involved in the regulation of LDLr expression.

  6. The syndecan family of proteoglycans. Novel receptors mediating internalization of atherogenic lipoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Fuki, I V; Kuhn, K M; Lomazov, I R; Rothman, V L; Tuszynski, G P; Iozzo, R V; Swenson, T L; Fisher, E A; Williams, K J

    1997-01-01

    Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to participate in lipoprotein catabolism, but the roles of specific proteoglycan classes have not been examined previously. Here, we studied the involvement of the syndecan proteoglycan family. First, transfection of CHO cells with expression vectors for several syndecan core proteins produced parallel increases in the cell association and degradation of lipoproteins enriched in lipoprotein lipase, a heparan-binding protein. Second, a chimeric construct, FcR-Synd1, that consists of the ectodomain of the IgG Fc receptor Ia linked to the highly conserved transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of syndecan-1 directly mediated efficient internalization, in a process triggered by ligand clustering. Third, internalization of lipase-enriched lipoproteins via syndecan-1 and of clustered IgGs via the chimera showed identical kinetics (t1/2 = 1 h) and identical dose-response sensitivities to cytochalasin B, which disrupts microfilaments, and to genistein, which inhibits tyrosine kinases. In contrast, internalization of the receptor-associated protein, which proceeds via coated pits, showed a t1/2 < 15 min, limited sensitivity to cytochalasin B, and complete insensitivity to genistein. Thus, syndecan proteoglycans can directly mediate ligand catabolism through a pathway with characteristics distinct from coated pits, and might act as receptors for atherogenic lipoproteins and other ligands in vivo. PMID:9294130

  7. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 facilitates heme scavenging after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiqing; Manaenko, Anatol; Shao, Anwen; Ou, Yibo; Yang, Peng; Budbazar, Enkhjargal; Nowrangi, Derek; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2017-04-01

    Heme-degradation after erythrocyte lysis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 is a receptor expressed predominately at the neurovascular interface, which facilitates the clearance of the hemopexin and heme complex. In the present study, we investigated the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 in heme removal and neuroprotection in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Endogenous low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and hemopexin were increased in ipsilateral brain after intracerebral hemorrhage, accompanied by increased hemoglobin levels, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and neurological deficits. Exogenous human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 protein reduced hematoma volume, brain water content surrounding hematoma, blood-brain barrier permeability and improved neurological function three days after intracerebral hemorrhage. The expression of malondialdehyde, fluoro-Jade C positive cells and cleaved caspase 3 was increased three days after intracerebral hemorrhage in the ipsilateral brain tissues and decreased with recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1. Intracerebral hemorrhage decreased and recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 1. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 siRNA reduced the effect of human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 on all outcomes measured. Collectively, our findings suggest that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 contributed to heme clearance and blood-brain barrier protection after intracerebral hemorrhage. The use of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 as supplement provides a novel approach to ameliorating intracerebral hemorrhage brain injury via its pleiotropic neuroprotective effects.

  8. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    SONG, JIAN; PING, LING-YAN; DUONG, DUC M.; GAO, XIAO-YAN; HE, CHUN-YAN; WEI, LEI; WU, JUN-ZHU

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell-mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native-LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL-stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label-free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native-LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native-LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation. PMID:26781977

  9. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Ping, Ling-Yan; Duong, Duc M; Gao, Xiao-Yan; He, Chun-Yan; Wei, Lei; Wu, Jun-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell‑mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native‑LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL‑stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label‑free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native‑LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native‑LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation.

  10. Negatively Cooperative Binding of High Density Lipoprotein to the HDL Receptor SR-BI†

    PubMed Central

    Nieland, Thomas J.F.; Xu, Shangzhe; Penman, Marsha; Krieger, Monty

    2011-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, which also binds low density lipoprotein (LDL), and mediates the cellular selective uptake of cholesteryl esters from lipoproteins. SR-BI also is a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus and a signaling receptor that regulates cell metabolism. Many investigators have reported that lipoproteins bind to SR-BI via a single class of independent (not interacting), high affinity binding sites (one site model). We have re-investigated the ligand concentration dependence of 125I-HDL binding to SR-BI and SR-BI-mediated specific uptake of [3H]CE from [3H]CE-HDL using an expanded range of ligand concentrations (<1 µg protein/ml, lower than previously reported). Scatchard and non-linear least squares model fitting analyses of the binding and uptake data were both inconsistent with a single class of independent binding sites binding univalent lipoprotein ligands. The data are best fit by models in which SR-BI has either two independent classes of binding sites, or one class of sites exhibiting negative cooperativity due to either classic allostery or ensemble effects (‘ lattice model’). Similar results were observed for LDL. Application of the ‘infinite dilution’ dissociation rate method established that the binding of 125I-HDL to SR-BI at 4 °C exhibits negative cooperativity. The unexpected complexity of the interactions of lipoproteins with SR-BI should be taken into account when interpreting the results of experiments that explore the mechanism(s) by which SR-BI mediates ligand binding, lipid transport and cell signaling. PMID:21254782

  11. Hypercholesterolemia in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice and its reversal by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, S; Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L; Gerard, R D; Hammer, R E; Herz, J

    1993-01-01

    We employed homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to produce mice lacking functional LDL receptor genes. Homozygous male and female mice lacking LDL receptors (LDLR-/- mice) were viable and fertile. Total plasma cholesterol levels were twofold higher than those of wild-type litter-mates, owing to a seven- to ninefold increase in intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) and LDL without a significant change in HDL. Plasma triglyceride levels were normal. The half-lives for intravenously administered 125I-VLDL and 125I-LDL were prolonged by 30-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively, but the clearance of 125I-HDL was normal in the LDLR-/- mice. Unlike wild-type mice, LDLR-/- mice responded to moderate amounts of dietary cholesterol (0.2% cholesterol/10% coconut oil) with a major increase in the cholesterol content of IDL and LDL particles. The elevated IDL/LDL level of LDLR-/- mice was reduced to normal 4 d after the intravenous injection of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus encoding the human LDL receptor driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The virus restored expression of LDL receptor protein in the liver and increased the clearance of 125I-VLDL. We conclude that the LDL receptor is responsible in part for the low levels of VLDL, IDL, and LDL in wild-type mice and that adenovirus-encoded LDL receptors can acutely reverse the hypercholesterolemic effects of LDL receptor deficiency. Images PMID:8349823

  12. ApoC-III inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through LDL family receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gordts, Philip L.S.M.; Son, Ni-Huiping; Ramms, Bastian; Lew, Irene; Gonzales, Jon C.; Thacker, Bryan E.; Basu, Debapriya; Lee, Richard G.; Mullick, Adam E.; Graham, Mark J.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Witztum, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and plasma triglycerides (TGs) correlate strongly with plasma apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) for ApoC-III reduce plasma TGs in primates and mice, but the underlying mechanism of action remains controversial. We determined that a murine-specific ApoC-III–targeting ASO reduces fasting TG levels through a mechanism that is dependent on low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). ApoC-III ASO treatment lowered plasma TGs in mice lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, LDLR, or LRP1 and in animals with combined deletion of the genes encoding HSPG receptors and LDLRs or LRP1. However, the ApoC-III ASO did not lower TG levels in mice lacking both LDLR and LRP1. LDLR and LRP1 were also required for ApoC-III ASO–induced reduction of plasma TGs in mice fed a high-fat diet, in postprandial clearance studies, and when ApoC-III–rich or ApoC-III–depleted lipoproteins were injected into mice. ASO reduction of ApoC-III had no effect on VLDL secretion, heparin-induced TG reduction, or uptake of lipids into heart and skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that ApoC-III inhibits turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins primarily through a hepatic clearance mechanism mediated by the LDLR/LRP1 axis. PMID:27400128

  13. ApoC-III inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through LDL family receptors.

    PubMed

    Gordts, Philip L S M; Nock, Ryan; Son, Ni-Huiping; Ramms, Bastian; Lew, Irene; Gonzales, Jon C; Thacker, Bryan E; Basu, Debapriya; Lee, Richard G; Mullick, Adam E; Graham, Mark J; Goldberg, Ira J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Witztum, Joseph L; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and plasma triglycerides (TGs) correlate strongly with plasma apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) for ApoC-III reduce plasma TGs in primates and mice, but the underlying mechanism of action remains controversial. We determined that a murine-specific ApoC-III-targeting ASO reduces fasting TG levels through a mechanism that is dependent on low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). ApoC-III ASO treatment lowered plasma TGs in mice lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, LDLR, or LRP1 and in animals with combined deletion of the genes encoding HSPG receptors and LDLRs or LRP1. However, the ApoC-III ASO did not lower TG levels in mice lacking both LDLR and LRP1. LDLR and LRP1 were also required for ApoC-III ASO-induced reduction of plasma TGs in mice fed a high-fat diet, in postprandial clearance studies, and when ApoC-III-rich or ApoC-III-depleted lipoproteins were injected into mice. ASO reduction of ApoC-III had no effect on VLDL secretion, heparin-induced TG reduction, or uptake of lipids into heart and skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that ApoC-III inhibits turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins primarily through a hepatic clearance mechanism mediated by the LDLR/LRP1 axis.

  14. Baculovirus-mediated expression of human apolipoprotein E in Manduca sexta larvae generates particles that bind to the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gretch, D G; Sturley, S L; Friesen, P D; Beckage, N E; Attie, A D

    1991-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and mediates the catabolism of several classes of lipoprotein particles. Binding of apoE to the LDL receptor requires association of apoE with lipid in a vesicle or a lipoprotein particle. Because of this requirement, purified apoE or apoE derived directly from bacterial expression systems does not bind to the LDL receptor. To overcome this problem and to facilitate analysis of apoE structure, recombinant baculoviruses containing the human apoE cDNA fused to the polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus were constructed. The recombinant viruses were used to infect larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta in vivo. High levels of lipoprotein particles containing human apoE were present in the hemolymph of infected larvae. In contrast to apoE produced by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells in vitro, these particles were excellent ligands for the LDL receptor. Images PMID:1924311

  15. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Recruit the Lipoprotein LTP to the Plasma Membrane to Mediate Lipid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Míriam; Mejía-Morales, John E.; Culi, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Lipophorin, the main Drosophila lipoprotein, circulates in the hemolymph transporting lipids between organs following routes that must adapt to changing physiological requirements. Lipophorin receptors expressed in developmentally dynamic patterns in tissues such as imaginal discs, oenocytes and ovaries control the timing and tissular distribution of lipid uptake. Using an affinity purification strategy, we identified a novel ligand for the lipophorin receptors, the circulating lipoprotein Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP). We show that specific isoforms of the lipophorin receptors mediate the extracellular accumulation of LTP in imaginal discs and ovaries. The interaction requires the LA-1 module in the lipophorin receptors and is strengthened by a contiguous region of 16 conserved amino acids. Lipophorin receptor variants that do not interact with LTP cannot mediate lipid uptake, revealing an essential role of LTP in the process. In addition, we show that lipophorin associates with the lipophorin receptors and with the extracellular matrix through weak interactions. However, during lipophorin receptor-mediated lipid uptake, LTP is required for a transient stabilization of lipophorin in the basolateral plasma membrane of imaginal disc cells. Together, our data suggests a molecular mechanism by which the lipophorin receptors tether LTP to the plasma membrane in lipid acceptor tissues. LTP would interact with lipophorin particles adsorbed to the extracellular matrix and with the plasma membrane, catalyzing the exchange of lipids between them. PMID:26121667

  16. Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis increase hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ness, G C; Zhao, Z; Lopez, D

    1996-01-15

    Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis are believed to lower serum cholesterol levels by enhancing the removal of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by increasing hepatic LDL receptor function. Thus, the effects of several different inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis were examined for their effects on the expression of the hepatic LDL receptor in rats. We found that administration of inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase such as lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rivastatin resulted in increased hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels. Surprisingly, these agents failed to increase levels of immunoreactive LDL receptor protein in rat liver even when the dose and length of treatment were increased. Treatment of rats with zaragozic acid A, an inhibitor of squalene synthase, caused even greater increases in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels, but did not increase levels of immunoreactive protein. Further investigation revealed that the rate of degradation of the hepatic LDL receptor was increased in rats given inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. The greatest increase in the rate of degradation was seen in animals treated with zaragozic acid A which caused the largest increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels. In contrast, hepatic LDL receptor protein was stabilized in cholesterol-fed rats. It appears that increased potential for LDL receptor protein synthesis, reflected in increased mRNA levels, is offset by a corresponding increase in the rate of receptor protein degradation resulting in constant steady-state levels of hepatic LDL receptor protein. These findings are suggestive of increased cycling of the hepatic LDL receptor. This postulated mechanism can provide for enhanced hepatic uptake of lipoproteins without increasing steady-state levels of LDL receptor protein.

  17. Different zonal distribution of the asialoglycoprotein receptor, the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the lipoprotein-remnant receptor of rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Voorschuur, A H; Kuiper, J; Neelissen, J A; Boers, W; Van Berkel, T J

    1994-11-01

    Periportal and perivenous parenchymal cells were isolated by the digitonin-pulse perfusion method. The digitonin-pulse perfusion was shown to lead to selective lysis of the correct zone with a straight and sharp border of two to three cells. The mean ratios of alanine aminotransferase activity (a marker for periportal parenchymal cells) and glutamine synthetase activity (a perivenous marker) of periportal to perivenous parenchymal cells were 1.76 and 0.025 respectively. Cells were incubated in vitro with 125I-asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), 125I-trypsin-activated alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M-T) or 125I-beta-migrating very-low-density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), in order to determine the zonal distribution of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr), the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha 2Mr/LRP) and the lipoprotein-remnant receptor, respectively. Maximum binding capacity for 125I-ASOR on parenchymal cells showed a periportal/perivenous ratio of 0.70. The periportal/perivenous ratio of Bmax. values of binding of 125I-alpha 2M-T to parenchymal cells was 1.51. The Bmax. values of binding of 125I-beta-VLDL, however, were about equal for both cell populations. It is concluded that the maximum binding capacity of the ASGPr on isolated periportal parenchymal cells is 0.70 times that of perivenous parenchymal cells. The 1.51-fold higher expression of the alpha 2Mr/LRP on periportal cells, compared with perivenous parenchymal cells, indicates a zonal specialization for the uptake of the suggested multiple ligands. In contrast, the observed homogeneous distribution of the lipoprotein-remnant receptor is in accordance with the suggestion that lipoprotein remnants bind to a specific receptor, which is different from the alpha 2Mr/LRP. The zonal heterogeneity in the expression of receptors suggests that receptor-dependent uptake pathways are under zonal control, leading to intrahepatic heterogeneity in the removal of ligands from

  18. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 dependent endosomal trapping and recycling of apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Laatsch, Alexander; Panteli, Malamatenia; Sornsakrin, Marijke; Hoffzimmer, Britta; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Lipoprotein receptors from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family are multifunctional membrane proteins which can efficiently mediate endocytosis and thereby facilitate lipoprotein clearance from the plasma. The biggest member of this family, the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), facilitates the hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) via interaction with apolipoprotein E (apoE). In contrast to the classical LDL degradation pathway, TRL disintegrate in peripheral endosomes, and core lipids and apoB are targeted along the endocytic pathway for lysosomal degradation. Notably, TRL-derived apoE remains within recycling endosomes and is then mobilized by high density lipoproteins (HDL) for re-secretion. The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of LRP1 in the regulation of apoE recycling. Immunofluorescence studies indicate the LRP1-dependent trapping of apoE in EEA1-positive endosomes in human hepatoma cells. This processing is distinct from other LRP1 ligands such as RAP which is efficiently targeted to lysosomal compartments. Upon stimulation of HDL-induced recycling, apoE is released from LRP1-positive endosomes but is targeted to another, distinct population of early endosomes that contain HDL, but not LRP1. For subsequent analysis of the recycling capacity, we expressed the full-length human LRP1 and used an RNA interference approach to manipulate the expression levels of LRP1. In support of LRP1 determining the intracellular fate of apoE, overexpression of LRP1 significantly stimulated HDL-induced apoE recycling. Vice versa LRP1 knockdown in HEK293 cells and primary hepatocytes strongly reduced the efficiency of HDL to stimulate apoE secretion. We conclude that LRP1 enables apoE to accumulate in an early endosomal recycling compartment that serves as a pool for the intracellular formation and subsequent re-secretion of apoE-enriched HDL particles.

  19. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 Dependent Endosomal Trapping and Recycling of Apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Alexander; Panteli, Malamatenia; Sornsakrin, Marijke; Hoffzimmer, Britta; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein receptors from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family are multifunctional membrane proteins which can efficiently mediate endocytosis and thereby facilitate lipoprotein clearance from the plasma. The biggest member of this family, the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), facilitates the hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) via interaction with apolipoprotein E (apoE). In contrast to the classical LDL degradation pathway, TRL disintegrate in peripheral endosomes, and core lipids and apoB are targeted along the endocytic pathway for lysosomal degradation. Notably, TRL-derived apoE remains within recycling endosomes and is then mobilized by high density lipoproteins (HDL) for re-secretion. The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of LRP1 in the regulation of apoE recycling. Principal Findings Immunofluorescence studies indicate the LRP1-dependent trapping of apoE in EEA1-positive endosomes in human hepatoma cells. This processing is distinct from other LRP1 ligands such as RAP which is efficiently targeted to lysosomal compartments. Upon stimulation of HDL-induced recycling, apoE is released from LRP1-positive endosomes but is targeted to another, distinct population of early endosomes that contain HDL, but not LRP1. For subsequent analysis of the recycling capacity, we expressed the full-length human LRP1 and used an RNA interference approach to manipulate the expression levels of LRP1. In support of LRP1 determining the intracellular fate of apoE, overexpression of LRP1 significantly stimulated HDL-induced apoE recycling. Vice versa LRP1 knockdown in HEK293 cells and primary hepatocytes strongly reduced the efficiency of HDL to stimulate apoE secretion. Conclusion We conclude that LRP1 enables apoE to accumulate in an early endosomal recycling compartment that serves as a pool for the intracellular formation and subsequent re-secretion of apoE-enriched HDL particles. PMID:22238606

  20. Fasting induces hyperlipidemia in mice overexpressing proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9: lack of modulation of very-low-density lipoprotein hepatic output by the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Gilles; Jarnoux, Anne-Laure; Pineau, Thierry; Pape, Olivier; Chetiveaux, Maud; Laboisse, Christian; Krempf, Michel; Costet, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Several proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mutations lead to familial hypercholesterolemia by virtue of its role as a negative modulator of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr). Here, we uncover that upon dietary challenge, the down-regulation of the LDLr is also a key mechanism by which PCSK9 modulates the hepatic production of apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins. Thus, adenoviral-mediated overexpression of PCSK9 in 24-h fasted mice results in massive hyperlipidemia, due to a striking increase in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and apolipoprotein B100 hepatic output. Similar studies in LDLr (-/-) mice demonstrate that PCSK9-mediated alteration of VLDL output in the fasted state requires the LDLr. This increased production of VLDL was associated with a concomitant reduction of intrahepatic lipid stores as well as a lack of down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activity and target genes expression. Finally, we show that PCSK9 hepatic expression is inhibited by the hypotriglyceridemic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist fenofibrate. In summary, the negative modulation of LDLr expression by PCSK9, which decreases plasma LDL clearance, also promotes an overproduction of nascent VLDL in vivo upon fasting.

  1. The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Denise K; Fagan-Solis, Katerina D; Dunphy, Karen; Oliver, Shannon D; Scott, David W; Fleming, Jodie M

    2014-01-01

    The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior.

  2. Lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol in APP trafficking and proteolytic processing, implications for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Marzolo, Maria-Paz; Bu, Guojun

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ is produced through proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that alterations in APP cellular trafficking and localization directly impact its processing to Aβ. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, including LRP, LRP1B, SorLA/LR11, and apoER2, interact with APP and regulate its endocytic trafficking. Additionally, APP trafficking and processing are greatly affected by cellular cholesterol content. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the roles of lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol in APP trafficking and processing and their implication for AD pathogenesis and therapy. PMID:19041409

  3. Lipoprotein lipase regulates Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages maintained in glucose-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, B; Loike, J D; Kako, Y; Weinstock, P H; Breslow, J L; Silverstein, S C; Goldberg, I J

    1997-01-01

    During periods of intense activity such as phagocytosis, macrophages are thought to derive most of their energy from glucose metabolism under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To determine whether fatty acids released from lipoproteins by macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) could substitute for glucose as a source of energy for phagocytosis, we cultured peritoneal macrophages from normal and LPL knockout (LPL-KO) mice that had been rescued from neonatal demise by expression of human LPL via the muscle creatine kinase promoter. Normal and LPL-KO macrophages were cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or low (1 mM) glucose, and were tested for their capacity to phagocytose IgG-opsonized sheep erythrocytes. LPL-KO macrophages maintained in 1 and 5 mM glucose phagocytosed 67 and 79% fewer IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, respectively, than macrophages from normal mice. Addition of VLDL to LPL-expressing macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose enhanced the macrophages' phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, but did not stimulate phagocytosis by LPL-KO macrophages. Inhibition of secreted LPL with a monoclonal anti-LPL antibody or with tetrahydrolipstatin blocked the ability of VLDL to enhance phagocytosis by LPL-expressing macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose. Addition of oleic acid significantly enhanced phagocytosis by both LPL-expressing and LPL-KO macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose. Moreover, oleic acid stimulated phagocytosis in cells cultured in non-glucose-containing medium, and increased the intracellular stores of creatine phosphate. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, but not of glycolysis, blocked the capacity of oleic acid to stimulate phagocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of acetyl LDL by macrophages from LPL-expressing and LPL-KO mice was similar whether the cells were maintained in 5 or 1 mM glucose, and was not augmented by VLDL. We postulate that fatty acids derived from macrophage LPL-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides and

  4. New low-density lipoprotein receptor upregulators acting via a novel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ashton, M J; Brown, T J; Fenton, G; Halley, F; Harper, M F; Lockey, P M; Porter, B; Roach, A G; Stuttle, K A; Vicker, N; Walsh, R J

    1996-08-16

    The synthesis and biological activity of a new series of benzamides and related compounds that upregulate the expression of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) by a novel mechanism are described. The lead compound, N-[5-[(3-cyclohexylpropionyl)amino]-2-methylphenyl]-4-hydroxybe nzamide (1, RPR102359), increased the expression of the LDL receptors in HepG2 cells by 80% when tested at a concentration of 3 microM. Mevinolin (lovastatin) was found to increase the LDL receptor expression by 70% at the same concentration. In contrast to mevinolin, 1 was found to have no effect on cholesterol biosynthesis in liver homogenates or in HepG2 cells at doses where substantial upregulation of the LDL receptor was observed and thus stimulated LDL receptor expression by a novel mechanism.

  5. Serum Lipoproteins Promote Efficient Presentation of the Malaria Virulence Protein PfEMP1 at the Erythrocyte Surface▿

    PubMed Central

    Frankland, Sarah; Elliott, Salenna R.; Yosaatmadja, Francisca; Beeson, James G.; Rogerson, Stephen J.; Adisa, Akinola; Tilley, Leann

    2007-01-01

    The virulence of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is related to its ability to express a family of adhesive proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) at the infected red blood cell surface. The mechanism for the transport and delivery of these adhesins to the erythrocyte membrane is only poorly understood. In this work, we have used specific immune reagents in a flow cytometric assay to monitor the effects of serum components on the surface presentation of PfEMP1. We show that efficient presentation of the A4 and VAR2CSA variants of PfEMP1 is dependent on the presence of serum in the bathing medium during parasite maturation. Lipid-loaded albumin supports parasite growth but allows much less efficient presentation of PfEMP1 at the red blood cell surface. Analysis of the serum components reveals that lipoproteins, especially those of the low-density lipoprotein fraction, promote PfEMP1 presentation. Cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to the host cell receptors CD36 and ICAM-1 is also decreased in infected erythrocytes cultured in the absence of serum. The defect appears to be in the transfer of PfEMP1 from parasite-derived structures known as the Maurer's clefts to the erythrocyte membrane or in surface conformation rather than a down-regulation or switching of particular PfEMP1 variants. PMID:17644656

  6. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Contributes to β-Carotene Uptake in the Maternal Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shete, Varsha; Costabile, Brianna K.; Kim, Youn-Kyung; Quadro, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A regulates many essential mammalian biological processes, including embryonic development. β-carotene is the main source of vitamin A in the human diet. Once ingested, it is packaged into lipoproteins, predominantly low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and transported to different sites within the body, including the liver and developing tissues, where it can either be stored or metabolized to retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). The molecular mechanisms of β-carotene uptake by the liver or developing tissues remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the LDL receptor (LDLr) in β-carotene uptake by maternal liver, placenta and embryo. We administered a single dose of β-carotene to Ldlr+/− and Ldlr−/− pregnant mice via intraperitoneal injection at mid-gestation and monitored the changes in β-carotene content among maternal lipoproteins and the liver, as well as the accumulation of β-carotene in the placental–fetal unit. We showed an abnormal β-carotene distribution among serum lipoproteins and reduced hepatic β-carotene uptake in Ldlr−/− dams. These data strongly imply that LDLr significantly contributes to β-carotene uptake in the adult mouse liver. In contrast, LDLr does not seem to mediate acquisition of β-carotene by the placental–fetal unit. PMID:27916814

  7. Secreted PCSK9 downregulates low density lipoprotein receptor through receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yue-Wei; Schmidt, Robert J; Zhang, Youyan; Chu, Shaoyou; Lin, Aimin; Wang, He; Wang, Xiliang; Beyer, Thomas P; Bensch, William R; Li, Weiming; Ehsani, Mariam E; Lu, Deshun; Konrad, Robert J; Eacho, Patrick I; Moller, David E; Karathanasis, Sotirios K; Cao, Guoqing

    2007-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protease that regulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. The mechanisms of this action, however, remain to be defined. We show here that recombinant human PCSK9 expressed in HEK293 cells was readily secreted into the medium, with the prosegment associated with the C-terminal domain. Secreted PCSK9 mediated cell surface LDLR degradation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner when added to HEK293 cells. Accordingly, cellular LDL uptake was significantly reduced as well. When infused directly into C57B6 mice, purified human PCSK9 substantially reduced hepatic LDLR protein levels and resulted in increased plasma LDL cholesterol. When added to culture medium, fluorescently labeled PCSK9 was endocytosed and displayed endosomal-lysosomal intracellular localization in HepG2 cells, as was demonstrated by colocalization with DiI-LDL. PCSK9 endocytosis was mediated by LDLR as LDLR deficiency (hepatocytes from LDLR null mice), or RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LDLR markedly reduced PCSK9 endocytosis. In addition, RNA interference knockdown of the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) gene product also significantly reduced PCSK9 endocytosis. Biochemical analysis revealed that the LDLR extracellular domain interacted directly with secreted PCSK9; thus, overexpression of the LDLR extracellular domain was able to attenuate the reduction of cell surface LDLR levels by secreted PCSK9. Together, these results reveal that secreted PCSK9 retains biological activity, is able to bind directly to the LDLR extracellular domain, and undergoes LDLR-ARH-mediated endocytosis, leading to accelerated intracellular degradation of the LDLR.

  8. A green tea catechin extract upregulates the hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Bursill, Christina A; Roach, Paul D

    2007-07-01

    Green tea extracts have hypocholesterolaemic properties in epidemiological and animal intervention studies. Upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor may be one mechanism to explain this as it is the main way cholesterol is removed from the circulation. This study aimed to determine if a green tea extract could upregulate the hepatic LDL receptor in vivo in the rat. A green tea extract (GTE) enriched in its anti-oxidant constituents, the catechins, was fed to rats (n = 6) at concentrations of either 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% (w/w) mixed in with their normal chow along with 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol for 12 days. Administration of the GTE had no effect on plasma total or LDL cholesterol concentrations but high-density lipoprotein significantly increased (41%; p < 0.05). Interestingly, there was a significant increase in LDL receptor binding activity (2.7-fold) and LDL receptor protein (3.4-fold) in the 2% (w/w) treatment group compared to controls. There were also significant reductions in liver total and unesterified cholesterol (40%). Administration of the GTE significantly reduced cholesterol absorption (24%) but did not affect cholesterol synthesis. These results show that, despite no effect on plasma cholesterol, the GTE upregulated the LDL receptor in vivo. This appears to be via a reduction in liver cholesterol concentration and suggests that the green tea extract was able to increase the efflux of cholesterol from liver cells.

  9. Characterization of the role of EGF-A of low density lipoprotein receptor in PCSK9 binding

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hong-mei; Adijiang, Ayinuer; Mah, Matthew; Zhang, Da-wei

    2013-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-like 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and plays an important role in regulating plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. We have shown that the epidermal growth factor precursor homology domain A (EGF-A) of the LDLR is critical for PCSK9 binding at the cell surface (pH 7.4). Here, we further characterized the role of EGF-A in binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR. We found that PCSK9 efficiently bound to the LDLR but not to other LDLR family members. Replacement of EGF-A in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) with EGF-A of the LDLR promoted the degradation of the mutant VLDLR induced by PCSK9. Furthermore, we found that PCSK9 bound to recombinant EGF-A in a pH-dependent manner with stronger binding at pH 6.0. We also identified amino acid residues in EGF-A of the LDLR important for PCSK9 binding. Mutations G293H, D299V, L318D, and L318H reduced PCSK9 binding to the LDLR at neutral pH without effect at pH 6.0, while mutations R329P and E332G reduced PCSK9 binding at both pH values. Thus, our findings reveal that EGF-A of the LDLR is critical for PCSK9 binding at the cell surface (neutral pH) and at the acidic endosomal environment (pH 6.0), but different determinants contribute to efficient PCSK9 binding in different pH environments. PMID:24103783

  10. Characterization of the role of EGF-A of low density lipoprotein receptor in PCSK9 binding.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hong-mei; Adijiang, Ayinuer; Mah, Matthew; Zhang, Da-wei

    2013-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-like 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and plays an important role in regulating plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. We have shown that the epidermal growth factor precursor homology domain A (EGF-A) of the LDLR is critical for PCSK9 binding at the cell surface (pH 7.4). Here, we further characterized the role of EGF-A in binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR. We found that PCSK9 efficiently bound to the LDLR but not to other LDLR family members. Replacement of EGF-A in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) with EGF-A of the LDLR promoted the degradation of the mutant VLDLR induced by PCSK9. Furthermore, we found that PCSK9 bound to recombinant EGF-A in a pH-dependent manner with stronger binding at pH 6.0. We also identified amino acid residues in EGF-A of the LDLR important for PCSK9 binding. Mutations G293H, D299V, L318D, and L318H reduced PCSK9 binding to the LDLR at neutral pH without effect at pH 6.0, while mutations R329P and E332G reduced PCSK9 binding at both pH values. Thus, our findings reveal that EGF-A of the LDLR is critical for PCSK9 binding at the cell surface (neutral pH) and at the acidic endosomal environment (pH 6.0), but different determinants contribute to efficient PCSK9 binding in different pH environments.

  11. Location and regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors in intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fong, L G; Fujishima, S E; Komaromy, M C; Pak, Y K; Ellsworth, J L; Cooper, A D

    1995-07-01

    The expression, distribution, and some aspects of the regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in rat intestinal epithelial cells were examined. Cells prepared by a perfusion technique provided a pure preparation of epithelial cells and could be manipulated to produce crypt-villus units or villi alone. On a total protein basis, the abundance of LDL receptors in villus cell membranes was half that in hepatic membranes. The level of receptors in both tissues was reduced by feeding an atherogenic diet but was increased only in the liver by ethinyl estradiol-induced hypocholesterolemia. The level of LDL receptor mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells was somewhat lower than in liver. Regulation of LDL receptor mRNA was similar to that of protein. Judged by the ratio of mRNA in villus cells to the villus-crypt unit and nuclear run-on assay for LDL receptor gene transcription, we conclude that LDL receptor mRNA is produced in the villus cells. The effect of fat feeding was regulated at the level of transcription. Expression in villus cells in ileum was severalfold higher than in jejunum and higher than in the liver. Together the results suggest serum cholesterol level is not the prime determinant of LDL receptor level in intestine, but LDL degradation in this organ may be regulated by factors in the lumen.

  12. Distinct Functional Domains Contribute to Degradation of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Inducible Degrader of the LDLR (IDOL)

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Scheer, Lilith; Santos, Ana; Reits, Eric; Bleijlevens, Boris; Zelcer, Noam

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified the liver X receptor-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDL receptor (IDOL) as a modulator of lipoprotein metabolism. Acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, IDOL triggers ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). We demonstrate here that this outcome requires the conserved FERM and RING domains present in IDOL. The RING domain promotes ubiquitination in vitro and Lys-63-specific ubiquitination of the LDLR in vivo in response to IDOL or liver X receptor activation. We further identify RING residues that differentially influence ubiquitination of the LDLR or stability of IDOL. The FERM domain interacts with the LDLR and in living cells co-localizes with the receptor at the plasma membrane. Homology modeling revealed a phosphotyrosine-binding element embedded in the FERM domain. Mutating residues within this region or residues in the LDLR preceding the NPVY endocytosis motif abrogate LDLR degradation by IDOL. Collectively, our results indicate that both the FERM and RING domains are required for promoting lysosomal degradation of the LDLR by IDOL. Our findings may facilitate development of structure-based IDOL inhibitors aimed at increasing LDLR abundance in therapeutic strategies to treat cardiovascular disease. PMID:21734303

  13. Analysis of sequence variations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene among Malaysian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown. We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan). The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements. Results A total of 29 gene sequence variants were reported in 117(76.0%) of the studied subjects. Eight different mutations (1 large rearrangement, 1 short deletion, 5 missense mutations, and 1 splice site mutation), and 21 variants. Eight gene sequence variants were reported for the first time and they were noticed in familial hypercholesterolemic patients, but not in controls (p.Asp100Asp, p.Asp139His, p.Arg471Gly, c.1705+117 T>G, c.1186+41T>A, 1705+112C>G, Dup exon 12 and p.Trp666ProfsX45). The incidence of the p.Arg471Gly variant was 11%. Patients with pathogenic mutations were younger, had significantly higher incidences of cardiovascular disease, xanthomas, and family history of hyperlipidemia, together with significantly higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels than patients with non-pathogenic variants. Conclusions Twenty-nine gene sequence variants occurred among FH patients; those with predicted pathogenicity were associated with higher incidences of cardiovascular diseases, tendon xanthomas, and higher total and low density lipoprotein levels compared to the rest. These results provide preliminary information on the mutation spectrum of this gene among patients with FH in Malaysia. PMID:21418584

  14. Analysis of sequence variations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene among Malaysian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Zahri, Mohd K; Mohamed, Mohd S; Sasongko, Teguh H; Ibrahim, Suhairi; Yusof, Zurkurnai; Zilfalil, Bin A

    2011-03-19

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown.We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan). The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements. A total of 29 gene sequence variants were reported in 117(76.0%) of the studied subjects. Eight different mutations (1 large rearrangement, 1 short deletion, 5 missense mutations, and 1 splice site mutation), and 21 variants. Eight gene sequence variants were reported for the first time and they were noticed in familial hypercholesterolemic patients, but not in controls (p.Asp100Asp, p.Asp139His, p.Arg471Gly, c.1705+117 T>G, c.1186+41T>A, 1705+112C>G, Dup exon 12 and p.Trp666ProfsX45). The incidence of the p.Arg471Gly variant was 11%. Patients with pathogenic mutations were younger, had significantly higher incidences of cardiovascular disease, xanthomas, and family history of hyperlipidemia, together with significantly higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels than patients with non-pathogenic variants. Twenty-nine gene sequence variants occurred among FH patients; those with predicted pathogenicity were associated with higher incidences of cardiovascular diseases, tendon xanthomas, and higher total and low density lipoprotein levels compared to the rest. These results provide preliminary information on the mutation spectrum of this gene among patients with FH in Malaysia.

  15. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) in sickle cell disease vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingyi; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Xin; Nam, David; Ogbu-Nwobodo, Lucy; Archibald, Hannah; Joslin, Amelia; Wun, Ted; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Green, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL. Increased expression of LOX-1 has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions and diabetic vasculopathy. In this study, we investigate the expression of LOX-1 receptor in sickle cell disease (SCD) vasculopathy. Expression of LOX-1 in brain vascular endothelium is markedly increased and LOX-1 gene expression is upregulated in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells by incubation with SCD erythrocytes. Also, the level of circulating soluble LOX-1 concentration is elevated in the plasma of SCD patients. Increased LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SCD vasculopathy. Soluble LOX-1 concentration in SCD may provide a novel biomarker for risk stratification of sickle cell vascular complications. PMID:27519944

  16. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) in sickle cell disease vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingyi; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Xin; Nam, David; Ogbu-Nwobodo, Lucy; Archibald, Hannah; Joslin, Amelia; Wun, Ted; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Green, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL. Increased expression of LOX-1 has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions and diabetic vasculopathy. In this study, we investigate the expression of LOX-1 receptor in sickle cell disease (SCD) vasculopathy. Expression of LOX-1 in brain vascular endothelium is markedly increased and LOX-1 gene expression is upregulated in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells by incubation with SCD erythrocytes. Also, the level of circulating soluble LOX-1 concentration is elevated in the plasma of SCD patients. Increased LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SCD vasculopathy. Soluble LOX-1 concentration in SCD may provide a novel biomarker for risk stratification of sickle cell vascular complications.

  17. Remodeling of plasma lipoproteins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Interleukin-6 receptor-alpha inhibition with tocilizumab.

    PubMed

    Lee, Janet S; Chapman, M John; Piraino, Paolo; Lamerz, Jens; Schindler, Thomas; Cutler, Paul; Dernick, Gregor

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, mediated in part by elevated circulating interleukin-6 levels and proinflammatory changes in plasma lipoproteins. We hypothesized that RA patients acquire inflammation-induced modifications to the protein cargo of circulating lipoproteins that may be reversed by tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor-alpha inhibitor. Size-exclusion chromatography and reverse-phase protein arrays using 29 antibodies against 26 proteins were applied at baseline and after tocilizumab treatment to analyze the distributions of apolipoproteins, enzymes, lipid transfer proteins, and other associated proteins in plasma lipoprotein fractions from 20 women with RA. A 30% reduction in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated serum amyloid A4 and complement C4 occurred with tocilizumab. Levels of C-reactive protein, associated or comigrating with HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peaks, were reduced on treatment by approximately 80% and 24%, respectively. Reductions in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, lipoprotein (a), and cholesteryl ester transfer protein in the LDL fraction suggest reductions in LDL-associated proatherogenic factors. Elevations in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) enriched with apolipoprotein E were equally observed. Tocilizumab treatment led to reductions in proinflammatory components and proatherogenic proteins associated with HDL. Whether changes in the proteome of VLDL, LDL, and HDL induced by anti-inflammatory tocilizumab treatment in RA patients modify cardiovascular disease risk requires further investigation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A novel peroxisome proliferator response element modulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor gene transcription in response to PPARδ activation.

    PubMed

    Shende, Vikram R; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-12-15

    The hepatic expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) gene is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level by a sterol-regulatory element (SRE) in its proximal promoter region which is the site of action of SRE-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). However whether additional cis-regulatory elements contribute to LDLR transcription has not been fully explored. We investigated the function of a putative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-response element (PPRE) sequence motif located at -768 to -752 bases upstream of the transcription start site of human LDLR gene in response to PPARδ activation. Promoter luciferase reporter analyses showed that treating HepG2 cells with PPARδ agonist L165041 markedly increased the activity of a full-length LDLR promoter construct (pLDLR-1192) without any effects on the shorter promoter reporter pLDLR-234 that contains only the core regulatory elements SRE-1 and SP1 sites. Importantly, mutation of the PPRE sequence greatly attenuated the induction of the full-length LDLR promoter activity by L165041 without affecting rosuvastatin (RSV)-mediated transactivation. EMSA and ChIP assay further confirmed the binding of PPARδ to the LDLR-PPRE site. Treating HepG2 cells with L165041 elevated the mRNA and protein expressions of LDLR without affecting the LDLR mRNA decay rate. The induction of LDLR expression by PPARδ agonist was further observed in liver tissue of mice and hamsters treated with L165041. Altogether, our studies identify a novel PPRE-mediated regulatory mechanism for LDLR transcription and suggest that combined treatment of statin with PPARδ agonists may have advantageous effects on LDLR expression.

  19. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  20. Cholesterol lowering in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice overexpressing apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed Central

    Osuga, J; Yonemoto, M; Yamada, N; Shimano, H; Yagyu, H; Ohashi, K; Harada, K; Kamei, T; Yazaki, Y; Ishibashi, S

    1998-01-01

    Apo E is a key molecule in the lipoprotein metabolism; thus, genetic manipulation of apo E may prove useful in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have generated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice that overexpress the rat apo E transgene (ETg+/+:LDLRKO), and compared their plasma lipoprotein profiles with those of nonexpressing LDLR knockout mice (ETg-/-:LDLRKO). On a normal chow diet, the mean plasma cholesterol level of ETg+/+:LDLRKO mice was significantly lower than that of ETg-/-:LDLRKO mice (189 versus 240 mg/dl, P < 0. 01). The LDL fraction was selectively reduced in the ETg+/+:LDLRKO mice. Despite the challenge with an atherogenic diet, cholesterol lowering was persistently observed and fatty streak lesions in the aortic sinus were significantly suppressed in the mice overexpressing apo E. These results imply that stimulation of hepatic production of apo E may be used as a promising adjunctive therapy for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:9664080

  1. A Potential Neuroprotective Role of Apolipoprotein E-containing Lipoproteins through Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 in Normal Tension Glaucoma*

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hideki; Eguchi, Yuko; Fukuchi-Nakaishi, Yuko; Takeya, Motohiro; Nakagata, Naomi; Tanaka, Kohichi; Vance, Jean E.; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and the second major cause of blindness worldwide next to cataracts. The protection from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, one of the main characteristics of glaucoma, would be a straightforward treatment for this disorder. However, the clinical application of neuroprotection has not, so far, been successful. Here, we report that apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins (E-LPs) protect primary cultured RGCs from Ca2+-dependent, and mitochondrion-mediated, apoptosis induced by glutamate. Binding of E-LPs to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 recruited the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, blocked intracellular Ca2+ elevation, and inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β, thereby inhibiting apoptosis. When compared with contralateral eyes treated with phosphate-buffered saline, intravitreal administration of E-LPs protected against RGC loss in glutamate aspartate transporter-deficient mice, a model of normal tension glaucoma that causes glaucomatous optic neuropathy without elevation of intraocular pressure. Although the presence of α2-macroglobulin, another ligand of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, interfered with the neuroprotective effect of E-LPs against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, the addition of E-LPs overcame the inhibitory effect of α2-macroglobulin. These findings may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for normal tension glaucoma by an LRP1-mediated pathway. PMID:22674573

  2. Low-density lipoprotein receptor represents an apolipoprotein E-independent pathway of Aβ uptake and degradation by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Basak, Jacob M; Verghese, Philip B; Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Jungsu; Holtzman, David M

    2012-04-20

    Accumulation of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide within the brain is hypothesized to be one of the main causes underlying the pathogenic events that occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). Consequently, identifying pathways by which Aβ is cleared from the brain is crucial for better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutics. Cellular uptake and degradation by glial cells is one means by which Aβ may be cleared from the brain. In the current study, we demonstrate that modulating levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a cell surface receptor that regulates the amount of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the brain, altered both the uptake and degradation of Aβ by astrocytes. Deletion of LDLR caused a decrease in Aβ uptake, whereas increasing LDLR levels significantly enhanced both the uptake and clearance of Aβ. Increasing LDLR levels also enhanced the cellular degradation of Aβ and facilitated the vesicular transport of Aβ to lysosomes. Despite the fact that LDLR regulated the uptake of apoE by astrocytes, we found that the effect of LDLR on Aβ uptake and clearance occurred in the absence of apoE. Finally, we provide evidence that Aβ can directly bind to LDLR, suggesting that an interaction between LDLR and Aβ could be responsible for LDLR-mediated Aβ uptake. Therefore, these results identify LDLR as a receptor that mediates Aβ uptake and clearance by astrocytes, and provide evidence that increasing glial LDLR levels may promote Aβ degradation within the brain.

  3. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Represents an Apolipoprotein E-independent Pathway of Aβ Uptake and Degradation by Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Jacob M.; Verghese, Philip B.; Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Jungsu; Holtzman, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide within the brain is hypothesized to be one of the main causes underlying the pathogenic events that occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). Consequently, identifying pathways by which Aβ is cleared from the brain is crucial for better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutics. Cellular uptake and degradation by glial cells is one means by which Aβ may be cleared from the brain. In the current study, we demonstrate that modulating levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a cell surface receptor that regulates the amount of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the brain, altered both the uptake and degradation of Aβ by astrocytes. Deletion of LDLR caused a decrease in Aβ uptake, whereas increasing LDLR levels significantly enhanced both the uptake and clearance of Aβ. Increasing LDLR levels also enhanced the cellular degradation of Aβ and facilitated the vesicular transport of Aβ to lysosomes. Despite the fact that LDLR regulated the uptake of apoE by astrocytes, we found that the effect of LDLR on Aβ uptake and clearance occurred in the absence of apoE. Finally, we provide evidence that Aβ can directly bind to LDLR, suggesting that an interaction between LDLR and Aβ could be responsible for LDLR-mediated Aβ uptake. Therefore, these results identify LDLR as a receptor that mediates Aβ uptake and clearance by astrocytes, and provide evidence that increasing glial LDLR levels may promote Aβ degradation within the brain. PMID:22383525

  4. Low density lipoprotein receptor-independent hepatic uptake of a synthetic, cholesterol-scavenging lipoprotein: implications for the treatment of receptor-deficient atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Rahman, I.U.; Donnelly, T.M.; Parker, T.S.; Weinrauch, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of infused /sup 111/In-labeled phospholipid liposomes was examined in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, which lack low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and in normal control rabbits. The half-times (t/sub 1/2/) for clearance of /sup 111/In and excess phospholipid from plasma were 20.8 +/- 0.9 hr and 20.3 +/- 4.6 hr in WHHL and 20.0 +/- 0.8 hr and 19.6 +/- 2.2 hr in the normal rabbits. By 6 hr postinfusion, the plasma concentration of unesterified cholesterol increased by 2.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter in WHHL and 2.1 +/- 0.04 mmol/liter in normal rabbits, presumably reflecting mobilization of tissue sores. Disappearance of excess plasma cholesterol was > 90% complete in both groups of rabbits by 70 hr postinfusion. By quantitative ..gamma.. camera imaging, hepatic trapping of /sup 111/In-labeled liposomes over time was indistinguishable between the two groups. At autopsy, the liver was the major organ of clearance. Aortic uptake of /sup 111/In was < 0.02%. Thus, mobilization of cholesterol and hepatic uptake of phospholipid liposomes do not require LDL receptors. Because phospholipid infusions produce rapid substantial regression of atherosclerosis in genetically normal animals, the results suggest that phospholipid liposomes or triglyceride phospholipid emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) might reduce atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and in humans with familial hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Identification of low density lipoprotein as a regulator of Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, R D; Khoo, M; Lund-Katz, S; Scerbo, L; Esfahani, M

    1990-01-01

    Optimal expression of the high-affinity Fc receptor for IgG (FcRI) by the human monocyte cell line U-937 requires the presence of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and neither cholesterol nor high density lipoprotein can provide the component necessary for optimal FcRI expression. Here we show that FcR-mediated phagocytosis also requires LDL. U-937 cells were cultured in medium containing interferon gamma and either fetal calf serum (FCS) or delipidated FCS (DLFCS). The phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes was measured by a colorimetric assay. U-937 cells cultured in DLFCS medium had less than 16% of the phagocytic activity of cells cultured in normal FCS medium. Phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes could be inhibited 85% by the addition of murine IgG2a myeloma protein (5 micrograms/ml). U-937 cells cultured in DLFCS medium supplemented with pure cholesterol in ethanol (10 micrograms/ml) had only 30% of the phagocytic activity of cells grown in FCS medium. Addition of very low density lipoprotein (0.2 mg of protein per ml) to DLFCS medium also failed to increase phagocytosis. However, the addition of LDL (0.2 mg of protein per ml) to DLFCS medium restored 90% of the phagocytic activity. Since neither pure cholesterol nor very low density lipoprotein restored normal phagocytic function to U-937 cells despite a normalization of cellular cholesterol content, the restoration of phagocytosis observed with LDL replacement cannot be explained by mere delivery of cholesterol by LDL. Thus, LDL is required for the expression of FcRI and FcR-mediated phagocytosis by U-937 cells and may be an important regulator of phagocytic activity of monocytes and macrophages in vivo. PMID:2367519

  6. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Elner, Victor M

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipase in situ, in vitro, and after challenge with phagocytic stimuli. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of fluorescently labeled native, aceto-acetylated, and oxidized LDL was studied in vitro and in vivo. LDL effects on RPE lysosomal enzymes were assessed. Lysosomal enzyme activity was compared in RPE cells from monkeys fed diets rich in fish oil to those from control animals and in cultured RPE cells exposed to sera from these monkeys. RESULTS: RPE acid lipase activity was substantial and comparable to that of mononuclear phagocytes. Acid lipase activity increased significantly following phagocytic challenge with photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of labeled lipoproteins was determined in vitro. Distinctive uptake of labeled lipoproteins occurred in RPE cells and mononuclear phagocytes in vivo. Native LDL enhanced RPE lysosomal enzyme activity. RPE lysosomal enzymes increased significantly in RPE cells from monkeys fed fish oil-rich diets and in cultured RPE cells exposed to their sera. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cells contain substantial acid lipase for efficient metabolism of lipids imbibed by POS phagocytosis and LDL uptake. Diets rich in fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids, by enhancing acid lipase, may reduce RPE lipofuscin accumulation, RPE oxidative damage, and the development of ARMD. PMID:12545699

  7. IL-32 promoter SNP rs4786370 predisposes to modified lipoprotein profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Damen, Michelle S. M. A.; Agca, Rabia; Holewijn, Suzanne; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Dos Santos, Jéssica C.; van Riel, Piet L.; Fransen, Jaap; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Nurmohamed, Mike T.; Netea, Mihai G.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Heinhuis, Bas; Popa, Calin D.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Interleukin (IL)-32 has previously been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA and might be linked to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanism linking IL-32 to CVD still needs to be elucidated. The influence of a functional genetic variant of IL-32 on lipid profiles and CVD risk was therefore studied in whole blood from individuals from the NBS cohort and RA patients from 2 independent cohorts. Lipid profiles were matched to the specific IL-32 genotypes. Allelic distribution was similar in all three groups. Interestingly, significantly higher levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) were observed in individuals from the NBS cohort and RA patients from the Nijmegen cohort homozygous for the C allele (p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0314 respectively). In contrast, the CC-genotype was associated with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and total cholesterol (TC) in individuals at higher risk for CVD (plaque positive) (p = 0.0396; p = 0.0363 respectively). Our study shows a functional effect of a promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IL32 on lipid profiles in RA patients and individuals, suggesting a possible protective role of this SNP against CVD. PMID:28134327

  8. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Related Proteins as Regulators of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Young, Kaylene M.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a highly organised structure. Many signalling systems work in concert to ensure that neural stem cells are appropriately directed to generate progenitor cells, which in turn mature into functional cell types including projection neurons, interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Herein we explore the role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, in particular family members LRP1 and LRP2, in regulating the behaviour of neural stem and progenitor cells during development and adulthood. The ability of LRP1 and LRP2 to bind a diverse and extensive range of ligands, regulate ligand endocytosis, recruit nonreceptor tyrosine kinases for direct signal transduction and signal in conjunction with other receptors, enables them to modulate many crucial neural cell functions. PMID:26949399

  9. Effects of lovastatin on hepatic expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor in nephrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, L X; Chen, L; Wang, W M; Zhang, X H; Wu, J B; Liang, S F; Shu, G Y

    2014-02-19

    To investigate the effect of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin on the expression of the receptor for hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in a rat model with kidney disease, and to identify the mechanisms in statin treatment of nephrotic syndrome with hyperlipidemia, a rat model with nephrotic syndrome was established. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lovastatin for 2 weeks using gavage. The expression of protein and mRNA of the LDL receptor in the rat liver was detected with Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively, and blood-biochemical indices were also recorded for each group. Compared with the untreated control group, lovastatin treatment significantly decreased the levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and urinary protein. In addition, lovastatin treatment significantly increased the levels of serum albumin and hepatic LDL receptor proteins, but had no effect on the expression of hepatic LDL receptor mRNA. Treatment with lovastatin markedly increased the expression of the hepatic LDL receptor in rats with nephrotic syndrome, which was accompanied by significantly improved hyperlipidemia.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ regulates the expression and function of very-low-density lipoprotein receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Huan; Aakula, Srikanth; Abumrad, Naji N.

    2010-01-01

    Very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low-density receptor family, highly expressed in adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle. It binds apolipoprotein E-triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and plays a significant role in triglyceride metabolism. PPARγ is a primary regulator of lipid metabolism in adipocytes and controls the expression of an array of genes involved in lipid trafficking in adipocytes. However, it is not known whether VLDLR is also under the control of PPARγ. In this study, we investigated the role of PPARγ in the regulation of VLDLR expression and function in vivo and in vitro. During the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the levels of VLDLR protein and mRNA increased in parallel with the induction of PPARγ expression and reached maximum in mature adipocytes. Treatment of differentiated adipocytes with PPARγ agonist pioglitazone upregulated VLDLR expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. In contrast, specific inhibition of PPARγ significantly downregulated the protein level of VLDLR. Induction of VLDLR is also demonstrated in vivo in adipose tissue of wild-type (WT) mice treated with pioglitazone. In addition, pioglitazone increased plasma triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance and increased epididymal fat mass in WT mice but failed to induce similar effects in vldlr−/− mice. These results were further corroborated by the finding that pioglitazone treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid deposition in preadipocytes of WT mice, while its effect in VLDLR-null preadipocytes was significantly blunted. These findings provide direct evidence that VLDLR expression is regulated by PPARγ and contributes in lipid uptake and adipogenesis. PMID:19861583

  11. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Innerarity, T L; Weisgraber, K H; Arnold, K S; Mahley, R W; Krauss, R M; Vega, G L; Grundy, S M

    1987-01-01

    Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced ability to bind to the LDL receptors on normal human fibroblasts. The G.R. LDL possessed 32% of normal receptor binding activity (approximately equal to 9.3 micrograms of G.R. LDL per ml were required to displace 50% of 125I-labeled normal LDL, vs. approximately equal to 3.0 micrograms of normal LDL per ml). Likewise, the G.R. LDL were much less effective than normal LDL in competing with 125I-labeled normal LDL for cellular uptake and degradation and in stimulating intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. The defect in LDL binding appears to be due to a genetic abnormality of apolipoprotein B-100: two brothers of the proband possess LDL defective in receptor binding, whereas a third brother and the proband's son have normally binding LDL. Further, the defect in receptor binding does not appear to be associated with an abnormal lipid composition or structure of the LDL: the chemical and physical properties of the particles were normal, and partial delipidation of the LDL did not alter receptor binding activity. Normal and abnormal LDL subpopulations were partially separated from plasma of two subjects by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, a finding consistent with the presence of a normal and a mutant allele. The affected family members appear to be heterozygous for this disorder, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in these patients. PMID:3477815

  12. Transport of beta-very low density lipoproteins and chylomicron remnants by macrophages is mediated by the low density lipoprotein receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, J L; Kraemer, F B; Cooper, A D

    1987-02-15

    The receptor-mediated uptake of rat hypercholesterolemic very low density lipoproteins (beta VLDL) and rat chylomicron remnants was studied in monolayer cultures of the J774 and P388D1 macrophage cell lines and in primary cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Uptake of 125I-beta VLDL and 125I-chylomicron remnants was reduced 80-90% in the presence of high concentrations of unlabeled human low density lipoproteins (LDL). Human acetyl-LDL did not significantly compete at any concentration tested. Uptake of 125I-beta VLDL and 125I-chylomicron remnants was also competitively inhibited by specific polyclonal antibodies directed against the estrogen-induced LDL receptor of rat liver. Incubation in the presence of anti-LDL receptor IgG, but not nonimmune IgG, reduced specific uptake greater than 80%. Anti-LDL receptor IgG, 125I-beta VLDL, and 125I-chylomicron remnants bound to two protein components of apparent molecular weights 125,000 and 111,000 on nitrocellulose blots of detergent-solubilized macrophage membranes. Between 70-90% of 125I-lipoprotein binding was confined to the 125,000-Da peptide. Binding of 125I-beta VLDL and 125I-chylomicron remnants to these proteins was competitively inhibited by anti-LDL receptor antibodies. Comparison of anti-LDL receptor IgG immunoblot profiles of detergent-solubilized membranes from mouse macrophages, fibroblasts, and liver, and normal and estrogen-induced rat liver demonstrated that the immunoreactive LDL receptor of mouse cells is of a lower molecular weight than that of rat liver. Incubation of J774 cells with 1.0 micrograms of 25-hydroxycholesterol/ml plus 20 micrograms of cholesterol/ml for 48 h decreased 125I-beta VLDL uptake and immuno- and ligand blotting to the 125,000- and 111,000-Da peptides by only 25%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that uptake of beta VLDL and chylomicron remnants by macrophages is mediated by an LDL receptor that is immunologically related to the LDL receptor of rat liver.

  13. Low density lipoprotein receptor-independent hepatic uptake of a synthetic, cholesterol-scavenging lipoprotein: implications for the treatment of receptor-deficient atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K J; Vallabhajosula, S; Rahman, I U; Donnelly, T M; Parker, T S; Weinrauch, M; Goldsmith, S J

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of infused 111In-labeled phospholipid liposomes was examined in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, which lack low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and in normal control rabbits. The half-times (t1/2) for clearance of 111In and excess phospholipid from plasma were 20.8 +/- 0.9 hr and 20.3 +/- 4.6 hr in WHHL and 20.0 +/- 0.8 hr and 19.6 +/- 2.2 hr in the normal rabbits (means +/- SEM; n = 4). By 6 hr postinfusion, the plasma concentration of unesterified cholesterol increased by 2.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter in WHHL and 2.1 +/- 0.04 mmol/liter in normal rabbits, presumably reflecting mobilization of tissue stores. Disappearance of excess plasma cholesterol was greater than 90% complete in both groups of rabbits by 70 hr postinfusion. By quantitative gamma camera imaging, hepatic trapping of 111In-labeled liposomes over time was indistinguishable between the two groups. At autopsy, the liver was the major organ of clearance, acquiring 22.0% +/- 1.7% (WHHL) and 16.8% +/- 1.0% (normal of total 111In. Aortic uptake of 111In was less than 0.02%. Thus, mobilization of cholesterol and hepatic uptake of phospholipid liposomes do not require LDL receptors. Because phospholipid infusions produce rapid substantial regression of atherosclerosis in genetically normal animals, our results suggest that phospholipid liposomes or triglyceride phospholipid emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) might reduce atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and in humans with familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:3422421

  14. Cubilin, the endocytic receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B(12) complex, mediates high-density lipoprotein holoparticle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hammad, S M; Stefansson, S; Twal, W O; Drake, C J; Fleming, P; Remaley, A; Brewer, H B; Argraves, W S

    1999-08-31

    Receptors that endocytose high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have been elusive. Here yolk-sac endoderm-like cells were used to identify an endocytic receptor for HDL. The receptor was isolated by HDL affinity chromatography and identified as cubilin, the recently described endocytic receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B(12). Cubilin antibodies inhibit HDL endocytosis by the endoderm-like cells and in mouse embryo yolk-sac endoderm, a prominent site of cubilin expression. Cubilin-mediated HDL endocytosis is inhibitable by HDL(2), HDL(3), apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, apoA-II, apoE, and RAP, but not by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized LDL, VLDL, apoC-I, apoC-III, or heparin. These findings, coupled with the fact that cubilin is expressed in kidney proximal tubules, suggest a role for this receptor in embryonic acquisition of maternal HDL and renal catabolism of filterable forms of HDL.

  15. Cubilin, the endocytic receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex, mediates high-density lipoprotein holoparticle endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Samar M.; Stefansson, Steingrimur; Twal, Waleed O.; Drake, Christopher J.; Fleming, Paul; Remaley, Alan; Brewer, H. Bryan; Argraves, W. Scott

    1999-01-01

    Receptors that endocytose high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have been elusive. Here yolk-sac endoderm-like cells were used to identify an endocytic receptor for HDL. The receptor was isolated by HDL affinity chromatography and identified as cubilin, the recently described endocytic receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12. Cubilin antibodies inhibit HDL endocytosis by the endoderm-like cells and in mouse embryo yolk-sac endoderm, a prominent site of cubilin expression. Cubilin-mediated HDL endocytosis is inhibitable by HDL2, HDL3, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, apoA-II, apoE, and RAP, but not by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized LDL, VLDL, apoC-I, apoC-III, or heparin. These findings, coupled with the fact that cubilin is expressed in kidney proximal tubules, suggest a role for this receptor in embryonic acquisition of maternal HDL and renal catabolism of filterable forms of HDL. PMID:10468579

  16. Neuronal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 binds and endocytoses prion fibrils via receptor cluster 4

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Angela; Parkyn, Celia J.; Mootoosamy, Roy C.; Ford, Melanie J.; Warley, Alice; Liu, Qiang; Bu, Guojun; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Moestrup, Søren; McGuinness, Lindsay; Emptage, Nigel; Morris, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    For infectious prion protein (designated PrPSc) to act as a template to convert normal cellular protein (PrPC) to its distinctive pathogenic conformation, the two forms of prion protein (PrP) must interact closely. The neuronal receptor that rapidly endocytoses PrPC is the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We show here that on sensory neurons LRP1 is also the receptor that binds and rapidly endocytoses smaller oligomeric forms of infectious prion fibrils, and recombinant PrP fibrils. Although LRP1 binds two molecules of most ligands independently to its receptor clusters 2 and 4, PrPC and PrPSc fibrils bind only to receptor cluster 4. PrPSc fibrils out-compete PrPC for internalization. When endocytosed, PrPSc fibrils are routed to lysosomes, rather than recycled to the cell surface with PrPC. Thus, although LRP1 binds both forms of PrP, it traffics them to separate fates within sensory neurons. The binding of both to ligand cluster 4 should enable genetic modification of PrP binding without disrupting other roles of LRP1 essential to neuronal viability and function, thereby enabling in vivo analysis of the role of this interaction in controlling both prion and LRP1 biology. PMID:20048341

  17. SEIRA Spectroscopy on a Membrane Receptor Monolayer Using Lipoprotein Particles as Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Saavedra, Marcia; Banerjee, Sourabh; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Vogel, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) difference spectroscopy can probe reactions in a protein monolayer tethered to a nanostructured gold surface. SEIRA studies of membrane proteins, however, remain challenging due to sample stability, effects of the metal surface on function, and the need for a membrane-mimicking environment. Here we demonstrate and characterize a model system for membrane receptor investigations using SEIRA spectroscopy. The system employs nanoscale apolipoprotein bound bilayer (NABB) particles, similar to discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles, as soluble carriers for the G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin. The His-tag of the engineered apolipoprotein allows for selective binding of the NABBs to a Ni-NTA modified surface, while the lipid environment of the particle ensures stability and protection of the embedded receptor. Using SEIRA spectroscopy, we followed specific binding of rhodopsin-loaded NABB particles to the surface and formation of a membrane protein monolayer. Functionality of the photoreceptor in the immobilized NABBs was probed by SEIRA difference spectroscopy confirming protein conformational changes associated with photoactivation. Orientation of the immobilized NABB particles was assessed by comparing SEIRA data with polarized attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Thus, SEIRA difference spectroscopy supported by the NABB technology provides a promising approach for further functional studies of transmembrane receptors. PMID:20923668

  18. High Density Lipoproteins Selectively Promote the Survival of Human Regulatory T-cells.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Cesar M; Rodriguez-Perea, Ana Lucia; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria; Jackson, Courtney M; Melchior, John T; Davidson, W Sean; Chougnet, Claire A

    2017-04-04

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to affect regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis, as suggested by the increased Treg counts in HDL-treated mice and by the positive correlation between Treg frequency and HDL-C levels in statin-treated healthy adults. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we show that HDL, not LDL, significantly decreased the apoptosis of human Treg in vitro, whereas they did not alter naive or memory CD4+ T-cell survival. Similarly, oleic acid bound to serum albumin increased Treg survival. Treg bound and internalized high amounts of HDL compared to other subsets, which might arise from the higher expression of the scavenger receptor class B-type I by Treg; accordingly, blocking this receptor hindered HDL-mediated Treg survival. Mechanistically, we showed that HDL increased Treg ATP concentration and mitochondrial activity, enhancing basal respiration, maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity. Blockade of fatty acid oxidation by etoxomir abolished the HDL-mediated enhanced survival and mitochondrial activity. Our findings thus suggest that Treg can specifically internalize HDL from their microenvironment and use them as an energy source. Furthermore, a novel implication of our data is that enhanced Treg survival may contribute to HDL anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Expression of alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and scavenger receptor in human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Luoma, J; Hiltunen, T; Särkioja, T; Moestrup, S K; Gliemann, J; Kodama, T; Nikkari, T; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    1994-01-01

    Macrophage- and smooth muscle cell (SMC)-derived foam cells are typical constituents of human atherosclerotic lesions. At least three receptor systems have been characterized that could be involved in the development of foam cells: alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/LDL receptor-related protein (alpha 2 MR/LRP), scavenger receptor, and LDL receptor. We studied the expression of these receptors in human atherosclerotic lesions with in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. An abundant expression of alpha 2MR/LRP mRNA and protein was found in SMC and macrophages in both early and advanced lesions in human aortas. alpha 2MR/LRP was also present in SMC in normal aortas. Scavenger receptor mRNA and protein were expressed in lesion macrophages but no expression was found in lesion SMC. LDL receptor was absent from the lesion area but was expressed in some aortas in medial SMC located near the adventitial border. The results demonstrate that (a) alpha 2MR/LRP is, so far, the only lipoprotein receptor expressed in lesions SMC in vivo; (b) scavenger receptors are expressed only in lesion macrophages; and (c) both receptors may play important roles in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions. Images PMID:8182133

  20. Familial hypercholesterolemia in a rhesus monkey pedigree: molecular basis of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, M; Li, Z G; Pfaffinger, D; Neven, L; Scanu, A M

    1990-01-01

    We have recently identified a family of rhesus monkeys with members exhibiting a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia associated with a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency. By using the polymerase chain reaction, we now show that the affected monkeys are heterozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 6 of the LDLR gene. This mutation changes the sequence of the codon for amino acid 284 (tryptophan) from TGG to TAG, thereby generating a nonsense codon potentially resulting in a truncated 283-amino acid protein, which needs documentation, however. This G----A mutation also creates a site for the restriction endonuclease Spe I. Using this site as a marker for this nonsense mutation, we have shown that the mutation is present in all of the affected members of the pedigree and absent in unaffected members and that the mutation segregates with the phenotype of spontaneous hypercholesterolemia through three generations. Quantitative analyses of RNA obtained from liver biopsies show that the abundance of the LDLR RNA is also reduced by about 50%. Thus, we have identified a primate model for human familial hypercholesterolemia which will be useful for studying the relationship between the LDLR and lipoprotein metabolism and for assessing the efficacy of diets and drugs in the treatment of human familial hypercholesterolemia. Images PMID:2326270

  1. cDNA cloning of the bovine low density lipoprotein receptor: feedback regulation of a receptor mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D W; Yamamoto, T; Schneider, W J; Slaughter, C J; Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L

    1983-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor belongs to a class of migrant cell surface proteins that mediate endocytosis of macromolecular ligands. No cDNAs for this class of proteins have been isolated to date. In the current paper, we report the isolation of a cDNA clone for the LDL receptor from a bovine adrenal cDNA library. The library was constructed by the Okayama-Berg method from poly(A)+ RNA that had been enriched in receptor mRNA by immunopurification of polysomes. Mixtures of synthetic oligonucleotides encoding the amino acid sequence of two neighboring regions of a single cyanogen bromide fragment were used as hybridization probes to identify a recombinant plasmid containing the LDL receptor cDNA. This plasmid, designated pLDLR-1, contains a 2.8-kilobase (kb) insert that includes a sequence which corresponds to the known amino acid sequence of a 36-residue cyanogen bromide fragment of the receptor. pLDLR-1 hybridized to a mRNA of approximately equal to 5.5 kb in the bovine adrenal gland. This mRNA, like the receptor protein, was 9-fold more abundant in bovine adrenal than in bovine liver. pLDLR-1 cross-hybridized to a mRNA of approximately equal to 5.5 kb in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. This mRNA was markedly reduced in amount when sterols were added to the culture medium, an observation that explains the previously observed feedback regulation of LDL receptor protein. Southern blot analysis of bovine genomic DNA with 32P-labeled pLDLR-1 revealed a simple pattern of hybridization, consistent with a single-copy gene containing introns. Images PMID:6143315

  2. Sequence analysis of the non-recurring C-terminal domains shows that insect lipoprotein receptors constitute a distinct group of LDL receptor family members.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Kees W; Smolenaars, Marcel M W; Van Hoof, Dennis; Van der Horst, Dick J

    2006-04-01

    Lipoprotein-mediated delivery of lipids in mammals involves endocytic receptors of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family. In contrast, in insects, the lipoprotein, lipophorin (Lp), functions as a reusable lipid shuttle in lipid delivery, and these animals, therefore, were not supposed to use endocytic receptors. However, recent data indicate additional endocytic uptake of Lp, mediated by a Lp receptor (LpR) of the LDLR family. The two N-terminal domains of LDLR family members are involved in ligand binding and dissociation, respectively, and are composed of a mosaic of multiple repeats. The three C-terminal domains, viz., the optional O-linked glycosylation domain, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular domain, are of a non-repetitive sequence. The present classification of newly discovered LDLR family members, including the LpRs, bears no relevance to physiological function. Therefore, as a novel approach, the C-terminal domains of LDLR family members across the entire animal kingdom were used to perform a sequence comparison analysis in combination with a phylogenetic tree analysis. The LpRs appeared to segregate into a specific group distinct from the groups encompassing the other family members, and each of the three C-terminal domains of the insect receptors is composed of unique set of sequence motifs. Based on conservation of sequence motifs and organization of these motifs in the domains, LpR resembles most the groups of the LDLRs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, and vitellogenin receptors. However, in sequence aspects in which LpR deviates from these three receptor groups, it most notably resembles LDLR-related protein-2, or megalin. These features might explain the functional differences disclosed between insect and mammalian lipoprotein receptors.

  3. Interaction of apolipoprotein AII with the putative high-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, P K; Allan, C M; Murray, B J; Fidge, N H

    1993-09-14

    There is strong evidence to indicate that binding of HDL by cells is due to recognition of apoproteins residing on the surface of the lipoprotein by the putative HDL receptor(s). Although both of the major HDL apoproteins, AI and AII, are recognized by the putative receptor, the nature of the binding interaction and the domains of the apoproteins involved are largely unknown. Previous data from this laboratory led to the proposal of a model to explain how HDL particles containing AII interacted with the HDL receptor in a different manner as compared to HDL particles which contain apoAI but not apoAII [Vadiveloo, P. K., & Fidge, N. H. (1992) Biochem. J. 284, 145-151]. The model predicted that each chain of the apoAII homodimer contained a binding domain capable of interacting with the HDL receptor. This model was tested in the current study by preparing apoAII monomers, complexing them with phospholipid, and determining the ability of these complexes to bind to putative HDL receptors in rat liver plasma membranes (RLPM) and bovine aortic endothelial cell membranes (BAECM) by ligand blotting. The data showed that these complexes were bound by HB1 and HB2 from RLPM, and to the 110-kDa HDL binding protein from BAECM, providing critical evidence to support the model. Further investigation into the binding interaction revealed that apoAII complexed with phospholipid (apoAII-PC) bound more than delipidated apoAII, which bound more than delipidated apoAII monomers. Thus, optimum binding required the presence of lipid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 determines plasma remnant lipoproteins and accelerates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Saito, Ryo; Sekiya, Motohiro; Igarashi, Masaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Miyahara, Shoko; Koyasu, Saori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Ishii, Kiyoaki; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yahagi, Naoya; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hirohito; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is nutritionally regulated and is known to be a key transcription factor regulating lipogenic enzymes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the roles of SREBP-1 in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Transgenic mice that overexpress SREBP-1c in the liver and SREBP-1-deficient mice were crossed with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice, and the plasma lipids and atherosclerosis were analyzed. Hepatic SREBP-1c overexpression in LDLR-deficient mice caused postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, which resulted in accelerated aortic atheroma formation. Conversely, absence of SREBP-1 suppressed Western diet-induced hyperlipidemia in LDLR-deficient mice and ameliorated atherosclerosis. In contrast, bone marrow-specific SREBP-1 deficiency did not alter the development of atherosclerosis. The size of nascent VLDL particles secreted from the liver was increased in SREBP-1c transgenic mice and reduced in SREBP-1-deficient mice, accompanied by upregulation and downregulation of phospholipid transfer protein expression, respectively. Hepatic SREBP-1c determines plasma triglycerides and remnant cholesterol and contributes to atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic states. Hepatic SREBP-1c also regulates the size of nascent VLDL particles.

  5. Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes intracellular degradation of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Dijk, Wieneke; Beigneux, Anne P; Larsson, Mikael; Bensadoun, André; Young, Stephen G; Kersten, Sander

    2016-09-01

    LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins along the capillaries of heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. The activity of LPL is repressed by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Our objective was to study the cellular location and mechanism for LPL inhibition by ANGPTL4. We performed studies in transfected cells, ex vivo studies, and in vivo studies with Angptl4(-/-) mice. Cotransfection of CHO pgsA-745 cells with ANGPTL4 and LPL reduced intracellular LPL protein levels, suggesting that ANGPTL4 promotes LPL degradation. This conclusion was supported by studies of primary adipocytes and adipose tissue explants from wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice. Absence of ANGPTL4 resulted in accumulation of the mature-glycosylated form of LPL and increased secretion of LPL. Blocking endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi transport abolished differences in LPL abundance between wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) adipocytes, suggesting that ANGPTL4 acts upon LPL after LPL processing in the ER. Finally, physiological changes in adipose tissue ANGPTL4 expression during fasting and cold resulted in inverse changes in the amount of mature-glycosylated LPL in wild-type mice, but not Angptl4(-/-) mice. We conclude that ANGPTL4 promotes loss of intracellular LPL by stimulating LPL degradation after LPL processing in the ER. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Modifications in low-density lipoprotein receptor expression affects Cyclosporin A cellular uptake and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Leon, Carlos; Jia, Jessica; Qiu, Guosong; Hill, John S; Wasan, Kishor M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of modulating the expression of the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in human embryonic kidney (293T) cells on Cyclosporin A (CsA) cellular uptake and CsA-mediated cytotoxicity. LDLr expression was modulated using RNA interference (RNAi) and an LDLr overexpression plasmid. One of the small-interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs, LDLr-792, showed a 60% decrease in LDLr protein expression. The downregulation effect was specific as transfection with an annexin V (AxV) siRNA construct did not decrease LDLr expression levels. AxV and ABCA1 expression levels were not affected in the cells transfected with LDLr-792 (LDLr(LOW) cells) compared to the controls. At a functional level, fluorescent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (DiI-LDL) internalization in the LDLr(LOW) cells was decreased (30%) compared to control cells. We tested the dose-dependent cytotoxicity induced by CsA using a respiration assay. We found a decrease in CsA-mediated cytotoxicity in the range of CsA doses studied (1-10 microg/mL) in the LDLr(LOW) cells compared to the pSHAG-transfected cells, reaching a statistical significance at 10 microg/mL CsA. At higher CsA doses we found a significant decrease in LDLr expression. When the control and LDLr(LOW) cells were treated with another cytotoxic drug, gentamycin, there was no difference in the cell viability, suggesting that this effect is specific for CsA. We confirmed the association of LDLr expression levels with CsA uptake by overexpressing the LDLr. The LDLr overexpressing cells showed an enhanced uptake of radiolabelled CsA. Taken together these results suggest that CsA internalization and cytotoxicity are affected by the LDL receptor expression levels.

  7. Liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independently of LDL receptor family members

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, Jennifer M.; Bishop, Joseph R.; Stanford, Kristin I.; Wang, Lianchun; Bensadoun, André; Witztum, Joseph L.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of hepatic heparan sulfate in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism by inactivating the biosynthetic gene GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (Ndst1) in hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system, which resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in sulfation of liver heparan sulfate. Mice were viable and healthy, but they accumulated triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles containing apoB-100, apoB-48, apoE, and apoCI-IV. Compounding the mutation with LDL receptor deficiency caused enhanced accumulation of both cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich particles compared with mice lacking only LDL receptors, suggesting that heparan sulfate participates in the clearance of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins as well. Mutant mice synthesized VLDL normally but showed reduced plasma clearance of human VLDL and a corresponding reduction in hepatic VLDL uptake. Retinyl ester excursion studies revealed that clearance of intestinally derived lipoproteins also depended on hepatocyte heparan sulfate. These findings show that under normal physiological conditions, hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycans play a crucial role in the clearance of both intestinally derived and hepatic lipoprotein particles. PMID:17200715

  8. Purification and Characterization of a Bovine Acetyl Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Reddy, Pranhitha; Kishimoto, Chiharu; Krieger, Monty

    1988-12-01

    The acetyl low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is expressed on macrophages and some endothelial cells and mediates macrophage--foam cell formation in culture. A 220-kDa acetyl LDL binding protein was partially purified from bovine liver membranes and was used to make a specific monoclonal antibody. The 220-kDa protein immunoprecipitated by this antibody retained binding activity, and the antibody was used to detect this protein in cells lining bovine liver sinusoids and on the surface of cultured bovine alveolar macrophages. In the human monocytic cell line THP-1, the expression of both acetyl LDL receptor activity and a 220-kDa acetyl LDL binding protein were dramatically induced in parallel after differentiation to a macrophage-like state induced by phorbol ester. The ligand specificity, tissue and cell-type specificity, and coinduction data indicated that this 220-kDa cell-surface binding protein is probably a receptor that mediates acetyl LDL endocytosis. The 220-kDa protein, which was purified 238,000-fold from bovine lung membranes to near homogeneity using monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography, is a trimer of 77-kDa subunits that contain asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains.

  9. Transcriptional Activation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene by DJ-1 and Effect of DJ-1 on Cholesterol Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato, Izumi; Niki, Takeshi; Goldberg, Matthew S.; Shen, Jie; Ishimoto, Kenji; Doi, Takefumi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    DJ-1 is a novel oncogene and also causative gene for familial Parkinson’s disease park7. DJ-1 has multiple functions that include transcriptional regulation, anti-oxidative reaction and chaperone and mitochondrial regulation. For transcriptional regulation, DJ-1 acts as a coactivator that binds to various transcription factors, resulting in stimulation or repression of the expression of their target genes. In this study, we found the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene is a transcriptional target gene for DJ-1. Reduced expression of LDLR mRNA and protein was observed in DJ-1-knockdown cells and DJ-1-knockout mice and this occurred at the transcription level. Reporter gene assays using various deletion and point mutations of the LDLR promoter showed that DJ-1 stimulated promoter activity by binding to the sterol regulatory element (SRE) with sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and that stimulating activity of DJ-1 toward LDLR promoter activity was enhanced by oxidation of DJ-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, gel-mobility shift and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that DJ-1 made a complex with SREBP on the SRE. Furthermore, it was found that serum LDL cholesterol level was increased in DJ-1-knockout male, but not female, mice and that the increased serum LDL cholesterol level in DJ-1-knockout male mice was cancelled by administration with estrogen, suggesting that estrogen compensates the increased level of serum LDL cholesterol in DJ-1-knockout female mice. This is the first report that DJ-1 participates in metabolism of fatty acid synthesis through transcriptional regulation of the LDLR gene. PMID:22666465

  10. Transcriptional activation of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene by DJ-1 and effect of DJ-1 on cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shiori; Yamane, Takuya; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato, Izumi; Niki, Takeshi; Goldberg, Matthew S; Shen, Jie; Ishimoto, Kenji; Doi, Takefumi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    DJ-1 is a novel oncogene and also causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease park7. DJ-1 has multiple functions that include transcriptional regulation, anti-oxidative reaction and chaperone and mitochondrial regulation. For transcriptional regulation, DJ-1 acts as a coactivator that binds to various transcription factors, resulting in stimulation or repression of the expression of their target genes. In this study, we found the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene is a transcriptional target gene for DJ-1. Reduced expression of LDLR mRNA and protein was observed in DJ-1-knockdown cells and DJ-1-knockout mice and this occurred at the transcription level. Reporter gene assays using various deletion and point mutations of the LDLR promoter showed that DJ-1 stimulated promoter activity by binding to the sterol regulatory element (SRE) with sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and that stimulating activity of DJ-1 toward LDLR promoter activity was enhanced by oxidation of DJ-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, gel-mobility shift and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that DJ-1 made a complex with SREBP on the SRE. Furthermore, it was found that serum LDL cholesterol level was increased in DJ-1-knockout male, but not female, mice and that the increased serum LDL cholesterol level in DJ-1-knockout male mice was cancelled by administration with estrogen, suggesting that estrogen compensates the increased level of serum LDL cholesterol in DJ-1-knockout female mice. This is the first report that DJ-1 participates in metabolism of fatty acid synthesis through transcriptional regulation of the LDLR gene.

  11. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction improves the low density lipoprotein receptor gene expression in HepG{sub 2} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dongping; Li Xiaoyu; Sun, Ping; Tang Yibo; Chen Xiuying; Chen Qi; Fan Leming . E-mail: lmfan@njmu.edu.cn; Zang Bin; Shao Lizheng; Li Xiaorong

    2006-05-05

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction had been employed in gene delivery and promised great potential. Liver has unique features that make it attractive for gene therapy. However, it poses formidable obstacles to hepatocyte-specific gene delivery. This study was designed to test the efficiency of therapeutic gene transfer and expression mediated by ultrasound/microbubble strategy in HepG{sub 2} cell line. Air-filled albumin microbubbles were prepared and mixed with plasmid DNA encoding low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and green fluorescent protein. The mixture of the DNA and microbubbles was administer to cultured HepG{sub 2} cells under variable ultrasound conditions. Transfection rate of the transferred gene and cell viability were assessed by FACS analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, Western blot analysis and Trypan blue staining. The result demonstrated that microbubbles with ultrasound irradiation can significantly elevate exogenous LDLR gene expression and the expressed LDLRs were functional and active to uptake their ligands. We conclude that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction has the potential to promote safe and efficient LDLR gene transfer into hepatocytes. With further refinement, it may represent an effective nonviral avenue of gene therapy for liver-involved genetic diseases.

  12. [Atherogenic lipoprotein remnants in humans].

    PubMed

    Wikinski, Regina; Schreier, Laura E; Berg, Gabriela A; Brites, Fernando D; López, Graciela; González, Ana I; Zago, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) are the lipolytic product of triglycerides transported by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) of hepatic and intestinal origin and intestinal chylomicrons. Lipoprotein lipase activity hydrolyse triglycerides in several steps, producing heterogeneous particles. Fasting plasma concentration in normolipidemic subjects is low, but it increases in post-prandial states. Genetic alterations in Apo-E subtypes increases RLPs plasma concentration and produce dyslipoproteinemia phenotype. RLPs atherogenicity depends on their role as endothelial injuring factors, their impaired recognition by lipoprotein receptors, and their susceptibility to oxidative stress. They also promote the circulation of molecular adhesion molecules, the internalization in subendothelial macrophages via scavenger receptors and the accumulation in foam cells, all of them early mechanisms of atheromatosis. RLPs metabolism has been a subject of controversial studies. Their origin from different lipoproteins may explain their structural heterogeneity, therefore increasing the methodological difficulties to include RLPs in the atherogenic lipoprotein profile in the epidemiological studies of the field. Last advances on metabolism of RLPs and their emergent clinical role justifies an up dated revision of RLPs.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Is Cleared from the Circulation by Hepatocytes via the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Topchiy, Elena; Cirstea, Mihai; Kong, HyeJin Julia; Boyd, John H.; Wang, Yingjin; Russell, James A.; Walley, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. While decreased Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) function improves clinical outcomes in murine and human sepsis, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin, is cleared from the circulation by hepatocyte Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors (LDLR)—receptors downregulated by PCSK9. We directly visualized LPS uptake and found that LPS is rapidly taken up by hepatocytes into the cell periphery. Over the course of 4 hours LPS is transported towards the cell center. We next found that clearance of injected LPS from the blood was reduced substantially in Ldlr knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice compared to wild type controls and, simultaneously, hepatic uptake of LPS was also reduced in Ldlr-/- mice. Specifically examining the role of hepatocytes, we further found that primary hepatocytes isolated from Ldlr-/- mice had greatly decreased LPS uptake. In the HepG2 immortalized human hepatocyte cell line, LDLR silencing similarly resulted in decreased LPS uptake. PCSK9 treatment reduces LDLR density on hepatocytes and, therefore, was another independent strategy to test our hypothesis. Incubation with PCSK9 reduced LPS uptake by hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hepatocytes clear LPS from the circulation via the LDLR and PCSK9 regulates LPS clearance from the circulation during sepsis by downregulation of hepatic LDLR. PMID:27171436

  14. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Signaling Mediates the Triglyceride-Lowering Action of Akkermansia muciniphila in Genetic-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Tong, Xuedong; Sud, Neetu; Khound, Rituraj; Song, Yongyan; Maldonado-Gomez, Maria X; Walter, Jens; Su, Qiaozhu

    2016-07-01

    Akkermansia muciniphila (A muciniphila) is a mucin-degrading bacterium that resides in the mucus layer whose abundance inversely correlates with body weight and the development of diabetes mellitus in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to explore the regulatory effect of A muciniphila on host lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic metabolic inflammation. By establishing a novel mouse model that colonized the A muciniphila in the gastrointestinal tract of the cAMP-responsive binding protein H (CREBH)-deficient mouse and in vivo chylomicron assay, we found that increased colonization of A muciniphila in the gastrointestinal tract of wild-type mice protected mice from an acute fat load-induced hyperlipidemia compared with vehicle-treated mice. A muciniphila administration also significantly ameliorated chronic hypertriglyceridemia, improved insulin sensitivity, and prevented overproduction of postprandial chylomicrons in CREBH-null mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that increased A muciniphila colonization induced expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors and apolipoprotein E in the hepatocytes of CREBH-null mice, which facilitated the uptake of intermediate-density lipoprotein via the mediation of apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E, leading to the increased clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants, chylomicron remnants, and intermediate-density lipoproteins, from the circulation. Treatment with A muciniphila further improved hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and metabolic inflammation in CREBH-null mice. Increased colonization of the disease-protective gut bacteria A muciniphila protected the host from acute and chronic hyperlipidemia by enhancing the low-density lipoprotein receptor expression and alleviating hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and the inflammatory response in CREBH-null mice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR)*

    PubMed Central

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A.; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757–866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. PMID:25882847

  16. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR).

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-05-29

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757-866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Fluid-phase pinocytosis of native low density lipoprotein promotes murine M-CSF differentiated macrophage foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Barthwal, Manoj K; Anzinger, Joshua J; Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P; Kruth, Howard S

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR-/-) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR-/- macrophages with increasing concentrations of (125)I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on (125)I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect (125)I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR-/- mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  18. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  19. Deubiquitylase Inhibition Reveals Liver X Receptor-independent Transcriptional Regulation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL and Lipoprotein Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jessica Kristine; Cook, Emma Clare Laura; Loregger, Anke; Hoeksema, Marten Anne; Scheij, Saskia; Kovacevic, Igor; Hordijk, Peter Lodewijk; Ovaa, Huib; Zelcer, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is subject to complex transcriptional and nontranscriptional regulation. Herein, the role of ubiquitylation is emerging as an important post-translational modification that regulates cholesterol synthesis and uptake. Similar to other post-translational modifications, ubiquitylation is reversible in a process dependent on activity of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Yet whether these play a role in cholesterol metabolism is largely unknown. As a first step to test this possibility, we used pharmacological inhibition of cellular DUB activity. Short term (2 h) inhibition of DUBs resulted in accumulation of high molecular weight ubiquitylated proteins. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in abundance of the LDLR and attenuated LDL uptake into hepatic cells. Importantly, this occurred in the absence of changes in the mRNA levels of the LDLR or other SREBP2-regulated genes, in line with this phenotype being a post-transcriptional event. Mechanistically, we identify transcriptional induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL in human and rodent cells as the underlying cause for ubiquitylation-dependent lysosomal degradation of the LDLR following DUB inhibition. In contrast to the established transcriptional regulation of IDOL by the sterol-responsive liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors, induction of IDOL by DUB inhibition is LXR-independent and occurs in Lxrαβ−/− MEFs. Consistent with the role of DUBs in transcriptional regulation, we identified a 70-bp region in the proximal promoter of IDOL, distinct from that containing the LXR-responsive element, which mediates the response to DUB inhibition. In conclusion, we identify a sterol-independent mechanism to regulate IDOL expression and IDOL-mediated lipoprotein receptor degradation. PMID:26719329

  20. Deubiquitylase Inhibition Reveals Liver X Receptor-independent Transcriptional Regulation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL and Lipoprotein Uptake.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jessica Kristine; Cook, Emma Clare Laura; Loregger, Anke; Hoeksema, Marten Anne; Scheij, Saskia; Kovacevic, Igor; Hordijk, Peter Lodewijk; Ovaa, Huib; Zelcer, Noam

    2016-02-26

    Cholesterol metabolism is subject to complex transcriptional and nontranscriptional regulation. Herein, the role of ubiquitylation is emerging as an important post-translational modification that regulates cholesterol synthesis and uptake. Similar to other post-translational modifications, ubiquitylation is reversible in a process dependent on activity of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Yet whether these play a role in cholesterol metabolism is largely unknown. As a first step to test this possibility, we used pharmacological inhibition of cellular DUB activity. Short term (2 h) inhibition of DUBs resulted in accumulation of high molecular weight ubiquitylated proteins. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in abundance of the LDLR and attenuated LDL uptake into hepatic cells. Importantly, this occurred in the absence of changes in the mRNA levels of the LDLR or other SREBP2-regulated genes, in line with this phenotype being a post-transcriptional event. Mechanistically, we identify transcriptional induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL in human and rodent cells as the underlying cause for ubiquitylation-dependent lysosomal degradation of the LDLR following DUB inhibition. In contrast to the established transcriptional regulation of IDOL by the sterol-responsive liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors, induction of IDOL by DUB inhibition is LXR-independent and occurs in Lxrαβ(-/-) MEFs. Consistent with the role of DUBs in transcriptional regulation, we identified a 70-bp region in the proximal promoter of IDOL, distinct from that containing the LXR-responsive element, which mediates the response to DUB inhibition. In conclusion, we identify a sterol-independent mechanism to regulate IDOL expression and IDOL-mediated lipoprotein receptor degradation.

  1. Apolipoprotein E mediates enhanced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol clearance by low-dose streptococcal serum opacity factor via hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant streptococcal serum opacity factor (rSOF) mediates the in vitro disassembly of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, a neo-HDL that is cholesterol poor, and a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) containing apoE. Given the occurrence of apoE on the CERM, we tested the hypothesis that rSOF injection into mice would reduce total plasma cholesterol clearance via apoE-dependent hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). rSOF (4 μg) injection into wild-type C57BL/6J mice formed neo-HDL, CERM, and lipid-free apoA-I, as observed in vitro, and reduced plasma total cholesterol (-43%, t(1/2)=44±18 minutes) whereas control saline injections had a negligible effect. Similar experiments with apoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice reduced plasma total cholesterol ≈0% and 20%, respectively. rSOF was potent; injection of 0.18 μg of rSOF produced 50% of maximum reduction of plasma cholesterol 3 hours postinjection, corresponding to a ≈0.5-mg human dose. Most cholesterol was cleared hepatically (>99%), with rSOF treatment increasing clearance by 65%. rSOF injection into mice formed a CERM that was cleared via hepatic LDLR that recognize apoE. This reaction could provide an alternative mechanism for reverse cholesterol transport.

  2. Severe Atherosclerosis and Hypercholesterolemia in Mice Lacking Both the Melanocortin Type 4 Receptor and Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, Andrej; Teupser, Daniel; Ricken, Albert; Thiery, Joachim; Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Schöneberg, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of the melanocortin system can result in severe obesity accompanied with dyslipidemia and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome but the effect on vascular atherogenesis is not known. To study the impact of obesity and dyslipidemia on the cardiovascular system, we generated mice double-deficient for the melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut mice) and the LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- mice). Mc4rmut mice develop obesity due to hyperphagia. Double-mutant mice (Mc4rmut;Ldlr-/-) exhibited massive increases in body weight, plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and developed atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic lesion size was affected throughout the aortic root and brachiocephalic artery not only under semisynthetic, cholesterol-containing diet but also under cholesterol-free standard chow. The Mc4rmut mice developed a hepatic steatosis which contributes to increased plasma cholesterol levels even under cholesterol-free standard chow. Transcripts of cholesterol biosynthesis components and liver cholesterol levels did not significantly differ between wild-type and all mutant mouse strains but RNA sequencing data and biochemical measurements point to an altered bile acid elimination in Mc4rmut;Ldlr-/-. Therefore, the unchanged endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis together with a reduced hepatic VLDL and LDL-cholesterol clearance most likely led to increased plasma lipid levels and consequently to atherosclerosis in this animal model. Our data indicate that dysfunction of the melanocortin-regulated food intake and the resulting obesity significantly add to the proatherogenic lipoprotein profile caused by LDL receptor deficiency and, therefore, can be regarded as relevant risk factor for atherosclerosis. PMID:28030540

  3. Homozygous Deletion of the Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Causes Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Hypoplasia with Cerebral Gyral Simplification

    PubMed Central

    Boycott, Kym M.; Flavelle, Shauna; Bureau, Alexandre; Glass, Hannah C.; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Wirrell, Elaine; Davey, Krista; Chudley, Albert E.; Scott, James N.; McLeod, D. Ross; Parboosingh, Jillian S.

    2005-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome of nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation is associated with inferior cerebellar hypoplasia and mild cerebral gyral simplification in the Hutterite population. An identity-by-descent mapping approach using eight patients from three interrelated Hutterite families localized the gene for this syndrome to chromosome region 9p24. Haplotype analysis identified familial and ancestral recombination events and refined the minimal region to a 2-Mb interval between markers D9S129 and D9S1871. A 199-kb homozygous deletion encompassing the entire very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene was present in all affected individuals. VLDLR is part of the reelin signaling pathway, which guides neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. To our knowledge, this syndrome represents the first human lipoprotein receptor malformation syndrome and the second human disease associated with a reelin pathway defect. PMID:16080122

  4. C-type lectin-like receptor LOX-1 promotes dendritic cell-mediated class-switched B cell responses.

    PubMed

    Joo, HyeMee; Li, Dapeng; Dullaers, Melissa; Kim, Tae-Whan; Duluc, Dorothee; Upchurch, Katherine; Xue, Yaming; Zurawski, Sandy; Le Grand, Roger; Liu, Yong-Jun; Kuroda, Marcelo; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, SangKon

    2014-10-16

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. However, LOX-1 function in the host immune response is not fully understood. Here, we report that LOX-1 expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells promotes humoral responses. On B cells LOX-1 signaling upregulated CCR7, promoting cellular migration toward lymphoid tissues. LOX-1 signaling on DCs licensed the cells to promote B cell differentiation into class-switched plasmablasts and led to downregulation of chemokine receptor CXCR5 and upregulation of chemokine receptor CCR10 on plasmablasts, enabling their exit from germinal centers and migration toward local mucosa and skin. Finally, we found that targeting influenza hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) subunit to LOX-1 elicited HA1-specific protective antibody responses in rhesus macaques. Thus, LOX-1 expressed on B cells and DC cells has complementary functions to promote humoral immune responses.

  5. Ethanol extract of propolis protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury by inhibiting lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongqi; Li, Jinguo; Ding, Mingde; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiajun; Jiao, Peng; Han, Ping; Wang, Jiafu; Yao, Shutong

    2014-12-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), as the primary oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) receptor on endothelial cells, plays a crucial role in endothelial injury, which is a driving force in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Our previous studies have shown that ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development. However, the protective effects of EEP against ox-LDL-induced injury in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that EEP attenuates ox-LDL-induced endothelial oxidative injury via modulation of LOX-1-mediated oxidative stress. Our results showed that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to ox-LDL (100 mg/L) led to the decrease in cell viability and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with EEP (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/L) protected against such damages in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EEP mitigated ox-LDL uptake by HUVECs and attenuated ox-LDL-upregulated LOX-1 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, EEP suppressed the ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress as assessed by decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Similar results were observed in the anti-LOX-1 antibody or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)-pretreated HUVECs. These data indicate that EEP may protect HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced injury and that the mechanism at least partially involves its ability to inhibit endothelial LOX-1 upregulation and subsequent oxidative stress.

  6. Increased expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in a Smith-Lemli-Opitz infant with elevated bilirubin levels.

    PubMed

    Ness, G C; Lopez, D; Borrego, O; Gilbert-Barness, E

    1997-01-31

    We report on an infant girl with severe RSH or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with hyperbilirubinemia. The infant died at age 2 months. Sterol analysis of liver and brain tissues showed marked elevations of 7-dehydrocholesterol with decreased levels of cholesterol. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated remarkable increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these tissues, indicative of a deficiency in available cholesterol for tissue needs.

  7. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein and Apolipoprotein E Expression is Altered in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Andrew Stuart; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Scarr, Elizabeth; Dean, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Our recent microarray study reported altered mRNA expression of several low density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP) associated with the first 4 years following diagnosis with schizophrenia. Whilst this finding is novel, apolipoprotein E (APOE), which mediates its activity through LRPs, has been reported by several studies to be altered in brains of subjects with schizophrenia. We used qPCR to measure the expression of LRP2, LRP4, LRP6, LRP8, LRP10 and LRP12 mRNA in Brodmann's area (BA) 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in 15 subjects with short duration of illness schizophrenia (SDS) and 15 pair matched controls. We also used Western blotting to measure APOE protein expression in BA46 from these subjects. Amongst the LRPs examined, LRP10 expression was significantly increased (P = 0.03) and LRP12 was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in SDS. APOE protein expression was also increased in SDS (P = 0.01). No other marker examined in this study was altered with diagnosis. Our data supports a role for distinct members of the LRP family in the pathology of schizophrenia and adds weight to the hypothesis that aberrant apolipoprotein signaling is involved in the early stages of schizophrenia. PMID:21423430

  8. Stabilization of advanced atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Yao, Yuemang; Tung, Liun X; Praticò, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    COX-1-dependent eicosanoid formation accelerates atherogenesis, and low-dose aspirin reduces early atherosclerosis. However, the role of aspirin in modulating progression of vascular atherosclerotic lesions once established is less investigated. We wished to determine the effect of low-dose aspirin on vascular inflammation, plaque composition, and progression of established atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (LDLR(-/-)) were fed a high-fat diet for 3 months. At this time, one group of mice underwent baseline analysis. Two additional groups, while continuing the high-fat diet, were randomized to receive placebo or aspirin for additional 3 months. At the end of the study, LDLR(-/-) mice that had received aspirin had suppressed biosynthesis of thromboxane B2, the major products of COX-1 activity, reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels compared with controls. Compared with baseline, the placebo group had significant progression of atherosclerosis. In contrast, aspirin treated mice showed a significant reduction in progression of atherosclerosis, and a significant decrease in foam cell content. These results suggest that in murine atherosclerosis, low-dose aspirin retards progression of established and advanced vascular atherosclerotic lesions by suppressing the formation of bioactive lipids and vascular inflammation.

  9. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 is required for parathyroid hormone-induced Sost suppression.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Wang, Weishan; Xie, Liang; Luo, Xianghang; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppresses the expression of the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin (Sost) in osteocytes by inducing nuclear accumulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) to inhibit the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-dependent Sost bone enhancer. Previous studies revealed that lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) mediates the intracellular signaling activation and the anabolic bone effect of PTH. Here, we investigated whether LRP6 mediates the inhibitory effect of PTH on Sost using an osteoblast-specific Lrp6-knockout (LRP6-KO) mouse model. An increased level of Sost mRNA expression was detected in femur tissue from LRP6-KO mice, compared to wild-type littermates. The number of osteocytes expressing sclerostin protein was also increased in bone tissue of LRP6-KO littermates, indicating a negative regulatory role of LRP6 on Sost/sclerostin. In wild-type littermates, intermittent PTH treatment significantly suppressed Sost mRNA expression in bone and the number of sclerostin(+) osteocytes, while the effect of PTH was much less significant in LRP6-KO mice. Additionally, PTH-induced downregulation of MEF2C and 2D, as well as HDAC changes in osteocytes, were abrogated in LRP6-KO mice. These data indicate that LRP6 is required for PTH suppression of Sost expression.

  10. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2015-11-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential.

  11. Phospholipase A2-modified low-density lipoprotein activates macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Namgaladze, Dmitry; Morbitzer, Daniel; von Knethen, Andreas; Brüne, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors modulating metabolic and inflammatory responses of phagocytes to stimuli such as fatty acids and their metabolites. We studied the role of PPARs in macrophages exposed to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA). By analyzing PPAR ligand-binding domain luciferase reporter activation, we observed that PLA-LDL transactivates PPARalpha and PPARdelta, but not PPARgamma. We confirmed that PLA-LDL induced PPAR response element reporter activation by endogenous PPARalpha and PPARdelta in human THP-1 macrophages. By using THP-1 cells with a stable knockdown of PPARalpha and PPARdelta, we showed that PLA-LDL-activated PPARdelta altered macrophage gene expression related to lipid metabolism and lipid droplet formation. Although PPARalpha/delta silencing did not affect cholesterol and triglyceride accumulation in PLA-LDL-treated macrophages, PPARdelta activation by PLA-LDL attenuated macrophage inflammatory gene expression induced by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide. PPARdelta activation by PLA-LDL does not influence lipid accumulation in PLA-LDL-treated macrophages. However, it attenuates macrophage inflammatory responses, thus contributing to an anti-inflammatory cell phenotype.

  12. Polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Gang; Gu, Mingyong; Zhou, Zhenyu; Cao, Xuecheng

    2014-01-01

    Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP5) Ala1330Val polymorphism and fracture; however, the conclusions remained controversial. We therefore performed an extensive meta-analysis on 10 published studies with 184479 subjects. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models. LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; I(2) = 29%). We also found that this polymorphism increased fracture risk in Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis according to gender, women was significantly associated with risk of fracture. In the subgroup analysis by type of fracture, LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism showed increased osteoporotic fracture risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that an increased risk of fracture was associated with the LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism.

  13. Alpha-2-macroglobulin gene, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 locus, and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colacicco, Anna Maria; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Kehoe, Patrick G; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Santamato, Andrea; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    A total sample of 169 AD patients, and 264 age- and sex-matched unrelated caregivers from Apulia, southern Italy, were genotypized for alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) Val1000/Ile single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs669), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and SNPs (+1073 and +1071) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (OLR1) gene on chromosome 12. A2M allele and genotype frequencies were similar between AD patients and controls, also after stratification for late onset (>/=70 years) and early onset (<70 years) or APOE varepsilon4 status. However, there was evidence in support of LD between the OLR1+1071, the OLR1+1073, and the rs669 SNPs, with T-C-A haplotype being associated with significant increased risk of AD in both the whole sample and when we stratified according to early and late onset AD subjects, with the allelic association with AD predominantly from the OLR1+1073 SNP, further supporting the role of OLR1 as a candidate risk gene for sporadic AD.

  14. Polymorphisms in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Introno, Alessia; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna M; Capurso, Cristiano; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Sabrina A; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    The +1073 C/T polymorphism of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (OLR1) gene has been reported to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, whereas for the +1071 T/A polymorphism no association was found. We genotyped 169 sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients and 264 sex- and age-matched nondemented controls from Southern Italy for OLR1 +1073 C/T and +1071 T/A polymorphisms and for apolipoprotein E and LBP-1c/CP2/LSF. We also performed haplotype analysis. For the +1073 C/T polymorphism, the C allele and the CC genotype have been associated with a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease without apolipoprotein E or CP2 interaction. The two polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium, with the haplotype T-C at significant increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in the whole sample and in elderly persons 70 years or older. In our population, the +1073 C/T OLR1 polymorphism exhibited a significant association with Alzheimer's disease, further supporting the role of OLR1 as a candidate risk gene for sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L; Varughese, Kottayil I

    2015-11-18

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential.

  16. Dietary corn fractions reduce atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Le, Khuong; Ghazzawi, Nora; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that intake of whole grains is a protective factor against pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The exact mechanisms, however, are still not clearly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that adequate intake of corn fractions (aleurone, endosperm and germ) can modify lipid profiles in relation to atherosclerotic lesion development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of corn fractions in LDLr-KO mice through a number of biomarkers including lipid profile, and morphologic and morphometrical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root. Four groups of male LDLr-KO mice were fed with the experimental diets supplemented with (3 treated) or without (control) 5% (wt/wt) of each of corn fractions for 10 weeks. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (wt/wt) cholesterol. Compared with mice in the control group, atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots were significantly reduced (P=.003) in the mice that were fed diet supplemented with aleurone and germ fractions. This effect was associated with significant reductions in plasma total (P=.02) and LDL (P=.03) cholesterol levels, and an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion (P=.04). Furthermore, abdominal fat mass was significantly reduced by consumption of aleurone (P=.03). In summary, the consumption of aleurone and germ may help attenuate atherosclerosis by reducing plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels.

  17. Targeting low-density lipoprotein receptors with protein-only nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhikun; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Unzueta, Ugutz; Álamo, Patricia; Pesarrodona, Mireia; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus

    2015-03-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) are appealing cell surface targets in drug delivery, as they are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium and are able to mediate transcytosis of functionalized drugs for molecular therapies of the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, brain-targeted drug delivery is currently limited, among others, by the poor availability of biocompatible vehicles, as most of the nanoparticles under development as drug carriers pose severe toxicity issues. In this context, protein nanoparticles offer functional versatility, easy and cost-effective bioproduction, and full biocompatibility. In this study, we have designed and characterized several chimerical proteins containing different LDLR ligands, regarding their ability to bind and internalize target cells and to self-organize as viral mimetic nanoparticles of about 18 nm in diameter. While the self-assembling of LDLR-binding proteins as nanoparticles positively influences cell penetration in vitro, the nanoparticulate architecture might be not favoring BBB crossing in vivo. These findings are discussed in the context of the use of nanostructured materials as vehicles for the systemic treatment of CNS diseases.

  18. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency increases atherosclerosis in the low density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Furbee, James W; Sawyer, Janet K; Parks, John S

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency would accelerate atherosclerosis development in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLr-/-) and apoE (apoE-/-) knockout mice. After 16 weeks of atherogenic diet (0.1% cholesterol, 10% calories from palm oil) consumption, LDLr-/- LCAT-/- double knockout mice, compared with LDLr-/- mice, had similar plasma concentrations of free (FC), esterified (EC), and apoB lipoprotein cholesterol, increased plasma concentrations of phospholipid and triglyceride, decreased HDL cholesterol, and 2-fold more aortic FC (142 +/- 28 versus 61 +/- 20 mg/g protein) and EC (102 +/- 27 versus 61+/- 27 mg/g). ApoE-/- LCAT-/- mice fed the atherogenic diet, compared with apoE-/- mice, had higher concentrations of plasma FC, EC, apoB lipoprotein cholesterol, and phospholipid, and significantly more aortic FC (149 +/- 62 versus 109 +/- 33 mg/g) and EC (101 +/- 23 versus 69 +/- 20 mg/g) than did the apoE-/- mice. LCAT deficiency resulted in a 12-fold increase in the ratio of saturated + monounsaturated to polyunsaturated cholesteryl esters in apoB lipoproteins in LDLr-/- mice and a 3-fold increase in the apoE-/- mice compared with their counterparts with active LCAT. We conclude that LCAT deficiency in LDLr-/- and apoE-/- mice fed an atherogenic diet resulted in increased aortic cholesterol deposition, likely due to a reduction in plasma HDL, an increased saturation of cholesteryl esters in apoB lipoproteins and, in the apoE-/- background, an increased plasma concentration of apoB lipoproteins.

  19. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kitjaroentham, Anong; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Preutthipan, Sangchai; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and high bone fracture risk, is prevalent in Thai menopausal women. Genetic factors are known to play a key role in BMD. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a co-receptor in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, is involved in many aspects of bone biology. As coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of LRP5, including A1330V (rs3736228), and Asian-related Q89R (rs41494349) and N740N (rs2306862), are associated with lowered BMD, this study aimed to determine the relationship between these LRP5 polymorphisms and BMD in 277 Thai menopausal women. Only rs3736228 deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of allele frequency (p = 0.022). The median, range and p value for the BMD related to each SNP parameter were compared (Mann-Whitney U test). Significant differences were observed between wild-type and risk alleles for both rs3736228 (total radial, p = 0.011; and radial 33, p = 0.001) and rs2306862 (radial 33: p = 0.015) SNPs, with no significant difference for rs41494349 SNP. Linkage disequilibrium was strong for both rs3736228 and rs2306862 SNPs. Haplotype analysis identified high CC frequency in both normal and osteopenia/osteoporosis groups, with a significant odds ratio for carrying the TT haplotype; however, this was non-significant after adjusting for age. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis performed for rs3736228 showed that individuals with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2) had an increased risk of osteoporosis for each decade, but the polymorphism had no effect. This study did not identify LRP5 polymorphisms as a risk factor for osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further clarify the role of LRP5 as a genetic determinant of osteoporosis.

  20. Novel Bacterial Lipoprotein Structures Conserved in Low-GC Content Gram-positive Bacteria Are Recognized by Toll-like Receptor 2*

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the “N-acetyl” lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis

  1. Chlamydial Lipoproteins Stimulate Toll-Like Receptors 1/2 Mediated Inflammatory Responses through MyD88-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Ding; Guan, Jie; Ma, Linghui; Zhong, Guangming; Shu, Hengping; Wu, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydiae are very important pathogens which could cause several types of diseases in human, but little is known about its pathogenic mechanism. In order to elucidate host inflammatory response and the signal pathway induced by Chlamydial lipoproteins, the predicted lipoproteins of Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for their ability to induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines by mouse macrophages or human TLR (Toll-Like Receptor) expressing cell lines. The results showed that recombinant proteins of C. trachomatis D381, D541, D067, and D775 displayed a strong ability to induce the release of IL-8 in TLR expressing cell line. The signal pathways involved TLR1/2 and TLR2/CD14 but not TLR4. Moreover, except D067, the proinflammatory cytokine induction by D381, D541, and D775 required the thioacylation site (cysteine) for lipid modification and the induction was through MyD88-mediated pathway. Our data supported that lipoproteins played a vital role in pathogenesis of C. trachomatis-induced inflammatory responses via TLR pathway. It was the first study to characterize other chlamydial lipoproteins after identifying the role of MIP (D541) on pathogenesis of Chlamydial diseases. PMID:28184217

  2. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: Unique tissue-specific functions revealed by selective gene knockout studies

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Anna P.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2008-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (originally called LRP, but now referred to as LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. LRP1 is a member of the LDL receptor family that plays diverse roles in various biological processes including lipoprotein metabolism, degradation of proteases, activation of lysosomal enzymes and cellular entry of bacterial toxins and viruses. Deletion of the LRP1 gene leads to lethality in mice, revealing a critical, but as of yet, undefined role in development. Tissue-specific gene deletion studies reveal an important contribution of LRP1 in the vasculature, central nervous system, in macrophages and in adipocytes. Three important properties of LRP1 dictate its diverse role in physiology: first, its ability to recognize more than thirty distinct ligands; second, its ability to bind a large number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins via determinants located on its cytoplasmic domain in a phosphorylation-specific manner; and third, its ability to associate with and modulate the activity of other transmembrane receptors such as integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:18626063

  3. Annexin A2 is a C-terminal PCSK9-binding protein that regulates endogenous low density lipoprotein receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gaétan; Poirier, Steve; Seidah, Nabil G

    2008-11-14

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9), which promotes degradation of the hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), is now recognized as a major player in plasma cholesterol metabolism. Several gain-of-function mutations in PCSK9 cause hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis, and thus, inhibition of PCSK9-induced degradation of the LDLR may be used to treat this deadly disease. Herein, we discovered an endogenous PCSK9 binding partner by Far Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated that PCSK9 binds to a approximately 33-kDa protein identified as annexin A2 (AnxA2) but not to the closely related annexin A1. Furthermore, our functional LDLR assays and small hairpin RNA studies show that AnxA2 and the AnxA2.p11 complex could prevent PCSK9-directed LDLR degradation in HuH7, HepG2, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that PCSK9 and AnxA2 co-localize at the cell surface, indicating a possible competition with the LDLR. Structure-function analyses demonstrated that the C-terminal cysteine-histidine-rich domain of PCSK9 interacts specifically with the N-terminal repeat R1 of AnxA2. Mutational analysis of this 70-amino acid-long repeat indicated that the RRTKK81 sequence of AnxA2 is implicated in this binding because its mutation to AATAA81 prevents its interaction with PCSK9. To our knowledge, this work constitutes the first to show that PCSK9 activity on LDLR can be regulated by an endogenous inhibitor. The identification of the minimal inhibitory sequence of AnxA2 should pave the way toward the development of PCSK9 inhibitory lead molecules for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  4. A two-step binding model of PCSK9 interaction with the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Lu, Christine; Ryan, Robert O

    2011-02-18

    PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9) is an emerging target for pharmaceutical intervention. This multidomain protein interacts with the LDL receptor (LDLR), promoting receptor degradation. Insofar as PCSK9 inhibition induces a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels, understanding the nature of the binding interaction between PCSK9 and the LDLR is of critical importance. In this study, the ability of PCSK9 to compete with apoE3 N-terminal domain-containing reconstituted HDL for receptor binding was examined. Whereas full-length PCSK9 was an effective competitor, the N-terminal domain (composed of the prodomain and catalytic domain) was not. Surprisingly, the C-terminal domain (CT domain) of PCSK9 was able to compete. Using a direct binding interaction assay, we show that the PCSK9 CT domain bound to the LDLR in a calcium-dependent manner and that co-incubation with the prodomain and catalytic domain had no effect on this binding. To further characterize this interaction, two LDLR fragments, the classical ligand-binding domain (LBD) and the EGF precursor homology domain, were expressed in stably transfected HEK 293 cells and isolated. Binding assays showed that the PCSK9 CT domain bound to the LBD at pH 5.4. Thus, CT domain interaction with the LBD of the LDLR at endosomal pH constitutes a second step in the PCSK9-mediated LDLR binding that leads to receptor degradation.

  5. mRNA for low density lipoprotein receptor in brain and spinal cord of immature and mature rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.L.; Russell, D.W.; Goldstein, J.L.; Brown, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Hybridization studies with (/sup 32/P)cDNA probes revealed detectable amounts of mRNA for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the central nervous system (CNS) of rabbits. mRNA levels were highest in the medulla/pons and spinal cord, which were the most heavily myelinated regions that were studied. Lower, but detectable levels were present in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. In the medulla/pons and spinal cord, the levels of receptor mRNA were in a range comparable to that detected in the liver. The levels of receptor mRNA in whole brain were constant from 3 days of age to adulthood and, thus, did not vary in proportion to the rate of myelin synthesis. LDL receptor mRNA in the CNS was produced by the same gene that produced the liver and adrenal mRNA as revealed by the demonstration of a deletion in the neural mRNA of Watanabe-heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits identical to the deletion in the LDL receptor gene of these mutant animals. Using antibodies directed against the bovine LDL receptor, the authors showed that LDL receptor protein is present in the medulla/pons of adult cows. The cell types that express LDL receptors in the CNS and the functions of these receptors are unknown.

  6. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 and 6 gene variants and ischaemic stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Harriott, A M; Heckman, M G; Rayaprolu, S; Soto-Ortolaza, A I; Diehl, N N; Kanekiyo, T; Liu, C-C; Bu, G; Malik, R; Cole, J W; Meschia, J F; Ross, O A

    2015-08-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins (LRPs) 1 and 6 have been implicated in cerebral ischaemia. In addition, genetic variation in LRP1 and LRP6 has been linked with various factors that are related to risk of ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the association of LRP1 and LRP6 gene variants with risk of ischaemic stroke as part of the Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS). A Caucasian series (434 stroke patients, 319 controls) and an African American series (161 stroke patients, 116 controls) were included. Fourteen LRP6 variants and three LRP1 variants were genotyped and assessed for association with ischaemic stroke. In the Caucasian series, significant associations with ischaemic stroke were observed for LRP6 rs2075241 [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, P = 0.023], rs2302685 (OR 0.44, P = 0.049), rs7975614 (OR 0.07, P = 0.017), rs10492120 (OR 0.62, P = 0.036) and rs10743980 (OR 0.66, P = 0.037). Risk of ischaemic stroke was significantly lower for carriers of any of these five protective LRP6 variants (24.0% of subjects) compared to non-carriers (OR 0.57, P = 0.003). The protective association for LRP6 rs2075241 was observed at a similar magnitude across ischaemic stroke subtypes, whilst the effects of rs23022685, rs10492120 and rs10743980 were most apparent for cardioembolic and large vessel stroke. In the African American series, LRP1 rs11172113 was associated with an increased risk of stroke (OR 1.89, P = 0.006). The results of our preliminary study provide evidence that LRP6 and LRP1 variants may be associated with risk of ischaemic stroke. Validation in larger studies is warranted. © 2015 EAN.

  7. Streptococcus gordonii induces nitric oxide production through its lipoproteins stimulating Toll-like receptor 2 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Baik, Jung Eun; Ahn, Ki Bum; Seo, Ho Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, a Gram-positive commensal in the oral cavity, is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause endodontic and systemic infections resulting in infective endocarditis. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipoprotein are major virulence factors of Gram-positive bacteria that are preferentially recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on immune cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S. gordonii LTA and lipoprotein on the production of the representative inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) by the mouse macrophages. Heat-killed S. gordonii wild-type and an LTA-deficient mutant (ΔltaS) but not a lipoprotein-deficient mutant (Δlgt) induced NO production in mouse primary macrophages and the cell line, RAW 264.7. S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS also induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, the Δlgt mutant showed little effect under the same condition. Furthermore, S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS induced NF-κB activation, STAT1 phosphorylation, and IFN-β expression, which are important for the induction of iNOS gene expression, with little activation by Δlgt. S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS showed an increased adherence and internalization to RAW 264.7 cells compared to Δlgt. In addition, S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS, but not Δlgt, substantially increased TLR2 activation while none of these induced NO production in TLR2-deficient macrophages. Triton X-114-extracted lipoproteins from S. gordonii were sufficient to induce NO production. Collectively, we suggest that lipoprotein is an essential cell wall component of S. gordonii to induce NO production in macrophages through TLR2 triggering NF-κB and STAT1 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on lipoprotein metabolism and glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2007-02-19

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are central regulators of lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis that are considered particularly useful for improving glycemic control and comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials of PPAR-alpha agonists have demonstrated efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events; however, these benefits have been confined to subgroups of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides. While activators of PPAR-gamma reduce early atherosclerotic lesions and reduce cardiovascular events, these agents have the effect of increasing fluid retention in patients, which results in more hospitalizations for congestive heart failure. Future studies of PPAR-gamma agonists or dual PPAR-alpha/gamma agonists will require further delineation of the risk profile to avoid adverse outcomes in susceptible patients.

  9. FERM-dependent E3 ligase recognition is a conserved mechanism for targeted degradation of lipoprotein receptors

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna C.; Goult, Benjamin T.; Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Hong, Cynthia; Schwabe, John W. R.; Tontonoz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDL receptor) regulates LDL receptor (LDLR)-dependent cholesterol uptake, but its mechanism of action, including the molecular basis for its stringent specificity, is poorly understood. Here we show that IDOL uses a singular strategy among E3 ligases for target recognition. The IDOL FERM domain binds directly to a recognition sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors. This physical interaction is independent of IDOL's really interesting new gene (RING) domain E3 ligase activity and its capacity for autoubiquitination. Furthermore, IDOL controls its own stability through autoubiquitination of a unique FERM subdomain fold not present in other FERM proteins. Key residues defining the IDOL–LDLR interaction and IDOL autoubiquitination are functionally conserved in their insect homologs. Finally, we demonstrate that target recognition by IDOL involves a tripartite interaction between the FERM domain, membrane phospholipids, and the lipoprotein receptor tail. Our data identify the IDOL–LDLR interaction as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of lipid uptake and suggest that this interaction could potentially be exploited for the pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:22109552

  10. FERM-dependent E3 ligase recognition is a conserved mechanism for targeted degradation of lipoprotein receptors.

    PubMed

    Calkin, Anna C; Goult, Benjamin T; Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Hong, Cynthia; Schwabe, John W R; Tontonoz, Peter

    2011-12-13

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDL receptor) regulates LDL receptor (LDLR)-dependent cholesterol uptake, but its mechanism of action, including the molecular basis for its stringent specificity, is poorly understood. Here we show that IDOL uses a singular strategy among E3 ligases for target recognition. The IDOL FERM domain binds directly to a recognition sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors. This physical interaction is independent of IDOL's really interesting new gene (RING) domain E3 ligase activity and its capacity for autoubiquitination. Furthermore, IDOL controls its own stability through autoubiquitination of a unique FERM subdomain fold not present in other FERM proteins. Key residues defining the IDOL-LDLR interaction and IDOL autoubiquitination are functionally conserved in their insect homologs. Finally, we demonstrate that target recognition by IDOL involves a tripartite interaction between the FERM domain, membrane phospholipids, and the lipoprotein receptor tail. Our data identify the IDOL-LDLR interaction as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of lipid uptake and suggest that this interaction could potentially be exploited for the pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism.

  11. Arginase I induction by modified lipoproteins in macrophages: a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma/delta-mediated effect that links lipid metabolism and immunity.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Soler, Alejandro; Gómez-Nieto, Carlos; Campo, María Luisa; Marathe, Chaitra; Tontonoz, Peter; Castrillo, Antonio; Corraliza, Inés

    2008-06-01

    Macrophages are phagocytic cells that play essential roles in innate immunity and lipid homeostasis. The uptake of modified lipoproteins is an important early event in the development of atherosclerosis. We analyzed the ability of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (oxidized and acetylated) to alter the expression and activity of arginases (ArgI and ArgII) in macrophages. We show that ArgI expression is potently induced by both oxidized and acetylated LDL in macrophages. We further show that this effect is mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). ArgI expression is highly responsive to agonists for PPARgamma and PPARdelta but not PPARalpha. Moreover, the induction of ArgI by both PPAR agonists and IL-4 is blocked in macrophages from PPARgamma- and PPARdelta-deficient mice. Functionally, PPAR activity induces macrophage activation toward a more Th2 immune phenotype in a model of Leishmania major infection. We show that PPARgamma and -delta ligands promote intracellular amastigote growth in infected macrophages, and this effect is dependent on both PPAR expression and Arg activity. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that ArgI is a key marker of the alternative program triggered by PPAR in macrophages.

  12. The association between soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels and patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia.

    PubMed

    Balin, Mehmet; Celik, Ahmet; Kobat, M Ali

    2012-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of coronary artery ectasia. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 is involved in multiple phases of vascular dysfunction, including endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, initiation of plaque rupture, and restenosis. The objectives was to study the purpose of the current study was to determine whether soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 is associated with isolated coronary artery ectasia patients. Forty-six patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia without stenosis and 46 control subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries were included in this study. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels were measured in serum by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Plasma levels of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 were significantly higher in the coronary artery ectasia group than normal coronary artery group (1.7 ± 0.8 ng/ml vs. 1.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). No correlation was found between plasma soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels and different types of ectasia in patients with coronary artery ectasia. In this study, we found significantly higher levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in coronary artery ectasia patients when compared to control subjects with normal coronary arteries, suggesting that soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia.

  13. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.; Hyman, B.T.

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-r mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-NGF increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in neuronal cells partly by different mechanisms: role of LDL in neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Pham, Dan Duc; Jauhiainen, Matti; Eriksson, Ove; Korhonen, Laura T; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) mediate the uptake of lipoprotein particles into cells, as studied mainly in peripheral tissues. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) increases LDLR levels in PC6.3 cells and in cultured septal neurons from embryonic rat brain. Study of the mechanisms showed that NGF enhanced transcription of the LDLR gene, acting mainly via Tropomyosin receptor kinase A receptors. Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also increased the LDLR expression in PC6.3 cells. In addition, pro-NGF and pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acting via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) also increased LDLRs. We further observed that Myosin Regulatory Light Chain-Interacting Protein/Inducible Degrader of the LDLR (Mylip/Idol) was down-regulated by pro-NGF, whereas the other LDLR regulator, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) was not significantly changed. On the functional side, NGF and pro-NGF increased lipoprotein uptake by neuronal cells as shown using diacetyl-labeled LDL. The addition of serum-derived lipoprotein particles in conjunction with NGF or simvastatin enhanced neurite outgrowth. Collectively, these results show that NGF and simvastatin are able to stimulate lipoprotein uptake by neurons with a positive effect on neurite outgrowth. Increases in LDLRs and lipoprotein particles in neurons could play a functional role during brain development, in neuroregeneration and after brain injuries. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-NGF induce the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in neuronal cells leading to increased LDLR levels. Pro-NGF also down-regulated myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein/inducible degrader of the LDLR (Mylip/Idol) that is involved in the degradation of LDLRs. NGF acts mainly via Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptors, whereas pro-NGF stimulates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Elevated LDLRs upon NGF and pro-NGF treatments enhanced lipoprotein uptake

  15. Lipoprotein-X in cholestatic patients causes xanthomas and promotes foam cell formation in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Luka; Hirayama, Satoshi; Fukui, Mariko; Sasaki, Makoto; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Ayaori, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Tozuka, Minoru; Watada, Hirotaka; Miida, Takashi

    Lipoprotein-X (Lp-X) is an abnormal phospholipid-rich lipoprotein found in patients with cholestatic liver disease. Some patients exhibit skin xanthomas and severe hyperlipidemia. We investigated whether Lp-X induces foam cell formation in human-derived macrophages. To compare the atherogenic properties of Lp-X and modified LDL, we isolated Lp-X from 2 patients who had drug-induced cholestasis and xanthoma striata in the interphalangeal folds. We prepared oxidized LDL and acetylated LDL from healthy volunteers for the positive control experiments. When human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with these lipoproteins, the isolated Lp-X induced more prominent lipid accumulation than oxidized LDL or acetylated LDL. One case underwent liver biopsy, with the bile ducts showing marked damage, fulfilling the criteria for vanishing bile duct syndrome. The other case was clinically diagnosed as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. In both cases, Lp-X levels decreased markedly and the xanthomas disappeared completely after the improvement of cholestasis. This study indicates that Lp-X induces foam cell formation in human-derived macrophages. Our findings strongly suggest that persistently elevated Lp-X may cause xanthomas. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 variants and dietary fatty acids: meta-analysis of European origin and African American studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor and signaling molecule that is expressed in adipose and the hypothalamus. Evidence for a role of LRP1 in adiposity is accumulating from animal and in vitro models, but data from human studies are limit...

  17. LDL receptor/lipoprotein recognition: endosomal weakening of ApoB and ApoE binding to the convex face of the LR5 repeat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Oliván, Juan; Arias-Moreno, Xabier; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrián; Millet, Oscar; Sancho, Javier

    2014-03-01

    The molecular mechanism of lipoprotein binding by the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) is poorly understood, one reason being that structures of lipoprotein-receptor complexes are not available. LDLR uses calcium-binding repeats (LRs) to interact with apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E (ApoB and ApoE). We have used NMR and SPR to characterize the complexes formed by LR5 and three peptides encompassing the putative binding regions of ApoB (site A and site B) and ApoE. The three peptides bind at the hydrophilic convex face of LR5, forming complexes that are weakened at low [Ca(2+) ] and low pH. Thus, endosomal conditions favour dissociation of LDLR/lipoprotein complexes regardless of whether active displacement of bound lipoproteins by the β-propeller in LDLR takes place. The multiple ApoE copies in β very low density lipoproteins (β-VLDLs), and the presence of two competent binding sites (A and B) in LDLs, suggest that LDLR chelates lipoproteins and enhances complex affinity by using more than one LR.

  18. Losartan attenuates human monocyte-derived dendritic cell immune maturation via downregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Lu, Hao; Liu, Hongying; Yao, Kang; Sun, Aijun; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2012-08-01

    The angiotensin II receptor-1 blockers have generally been shown to have antiatherogenic effects, and dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells that play an active role in the development of atherosclerosis through inflammatory-immune responses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the antiatherogenic effect of losartan, the first angiotensin II receptor-1 blockers, might partly be mediated by attenuating DCs maturation. In this study, we showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and angiotensin II (Ang II) could induce the maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs, stimulate CD83, HLA-DR expressions and IL-12, interferon-gamma secretions and increase the capacity of DCs to stimulate T-cell proliferation, which were suppressed by losartan. OxLDL could promote the autocrine secretion of Ang II by DCs and upregulate the expressions of 3 scavenger receptors SR-A, CD36, and LOX-1. Losartan reduced oxLDL-induced LOX-1 expression but not SR-A and CD36 expressions. Ang II could only upregulate the LOX-1 expression, which was reduced by losartan. OxLDL- and Ang II-induced upregulation of CD83 and secretion of IL-12 were all attenuated by LOX-1 neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, losartan could attenuate the oxLDL- and Ang II-induced immune maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs partly through downregulation of the LOX-1 expression.

  19. Cholesterol-lowering drugs inhibit lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 receptor function by membrane raft disruption.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Sara; Quitadamo, Maria Chiara; Mango, Ruggiero; Ciccone, Sarah; Novelli, Giuseppe; Biocca, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1), the primary receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in endothelial cells, is up-regulated in atherosclerotic lesions. Statins are the principal therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases and are known to down-regulate LOX-1 expression. Whether the effect on the LOX-1 receptor is related to statin-mediated cholesterol-lowering activity is unknown. We investigate the requirement of cholesterol for LOX-1-mediated lipid particle internalization, trafficking, and processing and the role of statins as inhibitors of LOX-1 function. Disruption of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains by acute exposure of cells to methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chronic exposure to different statins (lovastatin and atorvastatin) led to a spatial disorganization of LOX-1 in plasma membranes and a marked loss of specific LOX-1 function in terms of ox-LDL binding and internalization. Subcellular fractionation and immunochemical studies indicate that LOX-1 is naturally present in caveolae-enriched lipid rafts and, by cholesterol reduction, the amount of LOX-1 in this fraction is highly decreased (≥60%). In contrast, isoprenylation inhibition had no effect on the distribution and function of LOX-1 receptors. Furthermore, in primary cultures from atherosclerotic human aorta lesions, we confirm the presence of LOX-1 in caveolae-enriched lipid rafts and demonstrate that lovastatin treatment led to down-regulation of LOX-1 in lipid rafts and rescue of the ox-LDL-induced apoptotic phenotype. Taken together, our data reveal a previously unrecognized essential role of membrane cholesterol for LOX-1 receptor activity and suggest that statins protect vascular endothelium against the adverse effect of ox-LDL by disruption of membrane rafts and impairment of LOX-1 receptor function.

  20. A novel gene silencer, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene improves endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takahiro; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Yao, En-Hui; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Tahira, Kazunobu; Matsumoto, Taro; Matsumoto, Koichi; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sawamura, Tatsuya

    2009-03-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes along the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are effective inhibitors of transcription factors as well as viral repressors and transactivators. Recently, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) was reported to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. In this study, we designed a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide specific for the LOX-1 gene and evaluated its effect on LOX-1 gene transcription. A pyrrole-imidazole polyamide was designed to target the AP-1 binding site of the LOX-1 gene and synthesized by solid phase methods. This pyrrole-imidazole polyamide significantly inhibited LOX-1 promoter activity in HEK293 cells, determined by the luciferase assay. LOX-1 mRNA expression was also inhibited by the pyrrole-imidazole polyamide at a concentration of 10-9 mol/l in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), determined by the real-time PCR method. HUVEC were treated by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting the LOX-1 gene, and apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst stain, terminal deoxy nucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling method, and dye-uptake bioassay. Treatment of HUVEC for 72 h with LOX-1 targeted pyrrole-imidazole polyamide decreased apoptosis induced by angiotensin II and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) loading in all assays. This novel therapeutic agent, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, could specifically inhibit LOX-1 gene expression by reducing the promoter activity of the gene. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seems to be a powerful promising new agent that can be used to explore therapies based on inhibition of transcription. Molecular recognition of DNA by small molecules could provide insight into the development of new human medicines.

  1. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 gene association with egg traits in dwarf chickens.

    PubMed

    Yao, J F; Chen, Z X; Xu, G Y; Wang, X L; Ning, Z H; Zheng, J X; Qu, L J; Yang, N

    2010-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family with a role in clusterin processing, was investigated as a candidate gene for egg quality-related traits. One SNP from C to T at position 1623 of the open reading frame of LRP8 was identified and genotyped by a high-throughput genotyping method, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in 747 egg-type dwarf layers from 44 sire families. There were no significant differences among genotypes for any interior egg traits measured, except for yolk color, in which color was deeper for the TT genotype than CC or CT (P < 0.05). For shell traits, strength and thickness were greater for TT than CC (P < 0.05), with CT intermediate and not different from either. Shape index was lower for CT than either TT or CC, which did not differ, whereas for shell color, CT was intermediate to the homozygotes, which differed (CC > TT). The present results indicated that LRP8, as a new member of eggshell matrix protein, may be a candidate gene associated with eggshell traits.

  2. Glucose-regulated protein 78 inhibits scavenger receptor A-mediated internalization of acetylated low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ben, Jingjing; Gao, Song; Zhu, Xudong; Zheng, Yuan; Zhuang, Yan; Bai, Hui; Xu, Yong; Ji, Yong; Sha, Jiahao; He, Zhigang; Chen, Qi

    2009-11-01

    Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) plays an important role in foam cell formation. However, the mechanism underlying the internalization of the receptor-ligand complexes remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism to regulate SR-A-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. A pull-down assay was performed and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) was identified to bind with the cytoplasmic domain of SR-A (CSR-A). Immunoprecipitation and artificially expressed protein binding assay demonstrated the direct specific binding of GRP78 with SR-A in cells. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed their co-localization in membrane and cytoplasm. Over-expression of GRP78 specifically inhibited SR-A-mediated uptake of fluorescent acetylated low-density lipoprotein, a specific ligand for SR-A, without altering cellular SR-A expression and binding ability, and significantly inhibited cholesterol ester accumulation in cells, which can be partly attributed to the suppression of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase signaling pathway. These results suggest that GRP78 may act as an inhibitor of SR-A-mediated internalization of modified low-density lipoprotein into macrophages.

  3. Nerve growth factor induces rapid increases in functional cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Bu, G; Sun, Y; Schwartz, A L; Holtzman, D M

    1998-05-22

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large endocytic receptor that binds multiple ligands and is highly expressed in neurons. Several LRP ligands, including apolipoprotein E/lipoproteins and amyloid precursor protein, have been shown to participate either in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis or pathology. However, factors that regulate LRP expression in neurons are unknown. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment on LRP expression, distribution, and function within neurons in two neuronal cell lines. Our results show that NGF induces a rapid increase of cell surface LRP expression in a central nervous system-derived neuronal cell line, GT1-1 Trk, which was seen within 10 min and reached a maximum at about 1 h of NGF treatment. This increase of cell surface LRP expression is concomitant with an increase in the endocytic activity of LRP as measured via ligand uptake and degradation assays. We also found that the cytoplasmic tail of LRP is phosphorylated and that NGF rapidly increases the amount of phosphorylation. Furthermore, we detected a significant increase of LRP expression at the messenger RNA level following 24 h of NGF treatment. Both rapid and long term induction of LRP expression were also detected in peripheral nervous system-derived PC12 cells following NGF treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NGF regulates LRP expression in neuronal cells.

  4. Mild oxidation promotes and advanced oxidation impairs remodeling of human high-density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuan; Jayaraman, Shobini; Gursky, Olga

    2008-02-29

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) prevent atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from macrophages and by exerting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidation is thought to impair HDL functions, yet certain oxidative modifications may be advantageous; thus, mild oxidation reportedly enhances cell cholesterol uptake by HDL whereas extensive oxidation impairs it. To elucidate the underlying energetic and structural basis, we analyzed the effects of copper and hypochlorite (which preferentially oxidize lipids and proteins, respectively) on thermal stability of plasma spherical HDL. Circular dichroism, light scattering, calorimetry, gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy showed that mild oxidation destabilizes HDL and accelerates protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion, while extensive oxidation inhibits these reactions; this inhibition correlates with massive protein cross-linking and with lipolysis. We propose that mild oxidation lowers kinetic barriers for HDL remodeling due to diminished apolipoprotein affinity for lipids resulting from oxidation of methionine and aromatic residues in apolipoproteins A-I and A-II followed by protein cross-linking into dimers and/or trimers. In contrast, advanced oxidation inhibits protein dissociation and HDL fusion due to lipid redistribution from core to surface upon lipolysis and to massive protein cross-linking. Our results help reconcile the apparent controversy in the studies of oxidized HDL and suggest that mild oxidation may benefit HDL functions.

  5. Mild Oxidation Promotes and Advanced Oxidation Impairs Remodeling of Human High-Density Lipoprotein in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuan; Jayaraman, Shobini; Gursky, Olga

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY High-density lipoproteins (HDL) prevent atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from macrophages and by exerting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidation is thought to impair HDL functions, yet certain oxidative modifications may be advantageous; thus, mild oxidation reportedly enhances cell cholesterol uptake by HDL whereas extensive oxidation impairs it. To elucidate the underlying energetic and structural basis, we analyzed the effects of copper and hypochlorite (that preferentially oxidize lipids and proteins, respectively) on thermal stability of plasma spherical HDL. Circular dichroism, light scattering, calorimetry, gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy showed that mild oxidation destabilizes HDL and accelerates protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion, while extensive oxidation inhibits these reactions; this inhibition correlates with massive protein cross-linking and lipolysis. We propose that mild oxidation lowers kinetic barriers for HDL remodeling due to diminished apolipoprotein affinity for lipids resulting from oxidation of methionine and aromatic residues in apolipoproteins A-I and A-II followed by protein cross-linking into dimers and/or trimers. In contrast, advanced oxidation inhibits protein dissociation and HDL fusion due to lipid re-distribution from core to surface upon lipolysis and to massive protein cross-linking. Our results help reconcile the apparent controversy in the studies of oxidized HDL and suggest that mild oxidation may benefit HDL functions. PMID:18190928

  6. Essential role of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghe; Lu, Wenyan; Bu, Guojun

    2003-12-04

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a multifunctional cell surface receptor highly expressed in human aortic smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we used the short interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to explore the role of LRP in smooth muscle cell migration. We identified an LRP-specific siRNA that selective silences LRP expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells. As a consequence, LRP-mediated ligand degradation was significantly reduced. More important, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cell migration was inhibited in cells transfected with LRP siRNA. These results demonstrate an important role of LRP in smooth muscle cell migration.

  7. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-05

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J.

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  9. Association between the Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphism −174G/C and Serum Lipoprotein(a) Concentrations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, Heiner K.; Laudes, Matthias; Krone, Wilhelm; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist tocilizumab has been shown to lower serum Lp(a) concentrations. We investigated whether the IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphism −174G/C is associated with baseline serum Lp(a) concentrations. Methodology/Principal Findings We divided 2321 subjects from the Lipid Analytic Cologne (LIANCO) cohort into 2 groups, the ones with substantially elevated Lp(a), defined as concentrations ≥60 mg/dl (n = 510), and the ones with Lp(a) <60 mg/dl (n = 1811). The association with the genotypes GG (33.7%), GC (50.75%) and CC (15.55%) was investigated. The GC and the CC genotype were associated with a significantly increased odds ratio of having substantially elevated Lp(a) concentrations (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.63, P = 0.02 and OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.93, P = 0.018). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking behavior, body mass index, serum lipoproteins, hypertension and diabetes. Of these covariates, only LDL cholesterol was significantly and independently associated with elevated Lp(a) concentrations. Conclusions/Significance The IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphism −174G/C is associated with increased odds of having elevated Lp(a). Whether this association plays a role in the Lp(a)-lowering effects of IL-6 receptor antagonists remains to be established. PMID:21935443

  10. Catalytic activity is not required for secreted PCSK9 to reduce low density lipoprotein receptors in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Markey C; Lagace, Thomas A; Horton, Jay D

    2007-07-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a member of the proteinase K subfamily of subtilases, promotes internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) after binding the receptor on the surface of hepatocytes. PCSK9 has autocatalytic activity that releases the prodomain at the N terminus of the protein. The prodomain remains tightly associated with the catalytic domain as the complex transits the secretory pathway. It is not known whether enzymatic activity is required for the LDLR-reducing effects of PCSK9. Here we expressed the prodomain together with a catalytically inactive protease domain in cells and purified the protein from the medium. The ability of the catalytically inactive PCSK9 to bind and degrade LDLRs when added to culture medium of human hepatoma HepG2 cells at physiological concentrations was similar to that seen using wild-type protein. Similarly, a catalytic-dead version of a gain-of-function mutant, PCSK9(D374Y), showed no loss of activity compared with a catalytically active counterpart; both proteins displayed approximately 10-fold increased activity in degradation of cell surface LDLRs compared with wild-type PCSK9. We conclude that the ability of PCSK9 to degrade LDLRs is independent of catalytic activity and suggest that PCSK9 functions as a chaperone to prevent LDLR recycling and/or to target LDLRs for lysosomal degradation.

  11. Neutral glycosphingolipids in human blood: a precise mass spectrometry analysis with special reference to lipoprotein-associated Shiga toxin receptors[S

    PubMed Central

    Schweppe, Christian H.; Hoffmann, Petra; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Mormann, Michael; Karch, Helge; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Müthing, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli are the leading cause of hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening extraintestinal complications in humans. Stx1 and Stx2 are transferred by yet to be delineated mechanisms from the intestine to the circulation where they injure microvascular endothelial cells. The resulting vascular lesions cause renal failure and brain damage. Because lipoproteins are potential carriers of Stx through the circulation, we investigated human lipoprotein-associated neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with emphasis on high (globotriaosylceramide) and low (globotetraosylceramide) affinity Stx-receptors. TLC overlay employing Stx1, Stx2, and anti-GSL antibodies demonstrated preferential distribution of globo-series GSLs to very low- and low-density lipoproteins compared with minor association with high-density lipoproteins. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry portrayed C24:0/C24:1 and C16:0 as the major fatty acid of the ceramide moieties of Stx-receptors carrying nonvarying d18:1 sphingosine. This structural heterogeneity was also found in precursor lactosylceramide, glucosylceramide, and galactosylceramide, the last showing an exceptionally high degree of hydroxylated C24 fatty acids. Our findings provide the basis for exploring the functional role of lipoprotein-associated Stx-receptors in human blood. PMID:20444989

  12. Chlordecone, a mixed pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) agonist, alters cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Zhang Yuan; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-12-01

    Chlordecone (CD) is one of many banned organochlorine (OC) insecticides that are widespread persistent organic pollutants. OC insecticides alter lipid homeostasis in rodents at doses that are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic. Pretreatment of mice or rats with CD altered tissue distribution of a subsequent dose of [{sup 14}C]CD or [{sup 14}C]cholesterol (CH). Nuclear receptors regulate expression of genes important in the homeostasis of CH and other lipids. In this study, we report that CD suppresses in vitro reporter systems for human liver X receptors (LXRs) and activates those for human farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) in a concentration-dependent manner (0-50 {mu}M). Consistent with human PXR activation in vitro, three days after a single dose of CD (15 mg/kg) hepatic microsomal CYP3A11 protein increases in C57BL/6 mice. CD decreases hepatic CH ester content without altering total CH concentration. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) contents of hepatic lipoprotein-rich and microsomal fractions of CD-treated mice are higher than controls. There is a significant reduction in non-high density lipoprotein CH but not apolipoprotein B-48/100 (apoB-48/100) in plasma from CD-treated mice after a 4 h fast. At 14 days after 15 mg CD/kg apoA-I and apoB-100 proteins but not CYP3A11 protein in hepatic microsomes are similar to controls. This work indicates that altered CH homeostasis is a mode of OC insecticide action of relevance after a single dose. This at least partially explains altered CH tissue distribution in CD-pretreated mice.

  13. Selective uptake of a toxic lipophilic anthracycline derivative by the low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway in cultured fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vitols, S.G.; Masquelier, M.; Peterson, C.O.

    1985-04-01

    N-(N-Retinoyl)-L-leucyldoxorubicin 14-linoleate (r11-DOX), a new lipophilic derivative of doxorubicin, was synthesized and incorporated into low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The drug-LDL complex contained 100- 200 drug molecules/LDL particle. When cultured normal human fibroblasts were incubated with /sup 125/I-LDL-incorporated drug, there was a perfect correlation between the cellular uptake plus degradation of /sup 125/I-LDL and the cellular drug accumulation. The presence of excess native LDL inhibited the cellular uptake and degradation of /sup 125/I-LDL and the drug accumulation to the same extent. In contrast, methylated LDL, which does not bind to the LDL receptor, did not alter the cellular uptake and degradation of /sup 125/I-LDL nor did it alter the drug accumulation. When LDL receptor negative fibroblasts from a patient with the homozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia were incubated with the drug-/sup 125/I-LDL complex, cellular drug accumulation was very low. The drug-LDL complex inhibited the growth of cultured normal human fibroblasts. The drug incorporated into methylated LDL was much less toxic. These findings suggest that r11-DOX incorporated into LDL is delivered to cells selectively by the LDL receptor pathway. This might be of value in the treatment of leukemia, since it has been previously found that leukemic cells exhibit higher LDL receptor activity than white blood cells and bone marrow cells from healthy subjects.

  14. High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles from end-stage renal disease patients are defective in promoting reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Josephine L.C.; Gautier, Thomas; Nijstad, Niels; Tölle, Markus; Schuchardt, Mirjam; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the largest cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CVD in ESRD is not explained by classical CVD risk factors such as HDL cholesterol mass levels making functional alterations of lipoproteins conceivable. HDL functions in atheroprotection by promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), comprising cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, uptake into hepatocytes and final excretion into the feces. ESRD-HDL (n = 15) were compared to healthy control HDL (n = 15) for their capacity to promote in vitro (i) cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage foam cells and (ii) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into ldla[SR-BI] cells as well as (iii) in vivo RCT. Compared with HDL from controls, ESRD-HDL displayed a significant reduction in mediating cholesterol efflux (p < 0.001) and SR-BI-mediated selective uptake (p < 0.01), two key steps in RCT. Consistently, also the in vivo capacity of ESRD-HDL to promote RCT when infused into wild-type mice was significantly impaired (p < 0.01). In vitro oxidation of HDL from healthy controls with hypochloric acid was able to fully mimic the impaired biological activities of ESRD-HDL. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HDL from ESRD patients is dysfunctional in key steps as well as overall RCT, likely due to oxidative modification. PMID:28148911

  15. High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles from end-stage renal disease patients are defective in promoting reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Josephine L C; Gautier, Thomas; Nijstad, Niels; Tölle, Markus; Schuchardt, Mirjam; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2017-02-02

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the largest cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CVD in ESRD is not explained by classical CVD risk factors such as HDL cholesterol mass levels making functional alterations of lipoproteins conceivable. HDL functions in atheroprotection by promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), comprising cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, uptake into hepatocytes and final excretion into the feces. ESRD-HDL (n = 15) were compared to healthy control HDL (n = 15) for their capacity to promote in vitro (i) cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage foam cells and (ii) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into ldla[SR-BI] cells as well as (iii) in vivo RCT. Compared with HDL from controls, ESRD-HDL displayed a significant reduction in mediating cholesterol efflux (p < 0.001) and SR-BI-mediated selective uptake (p < 0.01), two key steps in RCT. Consistently, also the in vivo capacity of ESRD-HDL to promote RCT when infused into wild-type mice was significantly impaired (p < 0.01). In vitro oxidation of HDL from healthy controls with hypochloric acid was able to fully mimic the impaired biological activities of ESRD-HDL. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HDL from ESRD patients is dysfunctional in key steps as well as overall RCT, likely due to oxidative modification.

  16. The endothelial cholesterol efflux is promoted by the high-density lipoprotein anionic peptide factor.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Nicole; Mastellone, Isabelle; Grès, Sandra; Marin, Valérie; Lorec, Anne Marie; Tosini, Frédéric; Grosclaude, Jeanne; Farnarier, Catherine; Chanussot, Françoise

    2005-08-01

    The prevention of atherosclerosis depends on the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) capacity to stimulate the efflux of unesterified cholesterol (UC). We tested here the effects of 2 HDL apolipoproteins, apo A-I and the 7-kd anionic peptide factor (APF), on the UC efflux by human endothelial ECV 304 cells in culture. Apolipoprotein A-I (10 micromol/L) or APF (3.5 micromol/L) in lipid-free forms or small particles (13 nm with apo A-I or 19 nm with APF) were incubated in the presence of [4-14C]UC. The phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were present either at a low level (0.35 mmol/L with apo A-I or 0.20 mmol/L with APF) or at a high level (1 mmol/L with apo A-I). We also tested either large 53-nm bile lipoprotein complex-like particles (3.5 micromol/L APF [13 microg/500 microL]) with a high PC level (0.65 mmol/L) or a 9-residue synthetic peptide (13 microg/500 microL), derived from the NH2-terminal domain of HDL3-APF, in a lipid-free or low-lipidated (0.20 mmol/L PCs) form. A control was developed in absence of the added compounds. A rapid [4-14C]UC efflux mediated by APF added in free form or in 19-nm complexes was 2.2- to 2.3-fold higher than that mediated by apo A-I in free form or in 13-nm particles (P < .05). The level of this high APF-related efflux was comparable with that obtained with the 12-nm native HDLs (10 micromol/L apo A-I) or free PCs (1 mmol/L). The increase in the UC efflux was much more limited (1.4-fold) in the presence of the 53-nm APF/high-PC particles, but it was higher than that mediated by apo A-I. In addition, the efflux mediated by the synthetic peptide, in lipid-free or low-lipidated form, constituted the major part of that related to the full-length APF. Thus, all these particles are very active HDL components, able to act as cholesterol acceptors. Interestingly, we further showed a new anti-atherogenic property of APF as well as its metabolic importance and clinical relevance. By its involvement in the first step of the reverse cholesterol transport

  17. Structure of an LDLR-RAP Complex Reveals a General Mode for Ligand Recognition by Lipoprotein Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher,C.; Beglova, N.; Blacklow, s.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family are remarkable in their ability to bind an extremely diverse range of protein and lipoprotein ligands, yet the basis for ligand recognition is poorly understood. Here, we report the 1.26 Angstroms X-ray structure of a complex between a two-module region of the ligand binding domain of the LDLR and the third domain of RAP, an escort protein for LDLR family members. The RAP domain forms a three-helix bundle with two docking sites, one for each LDLR module. The mode of recognition at each site is virtually identical: three conserved, calcium-coordinating acidic residues from each LDLR module encircle a lysine side chain protruding from the second helix of RAP. This metal-dependent mode of electrostatic recognition, together with avidity effects resulting from the use of multiple sites, represents a general binding strategy likely to apply in the binding of other basic ligands to LDLR family proteins.

  18. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  19. Antagonism of secreted PCSK9 increases low density lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Markey C; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R; Horton, Jay D; Lagace, Thomas A

    2009-04-17

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  20. The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is a high-affinity apolipoprotein A-I receptor facilitating endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kozyraki, R; Fyfe, J; Kristiansen, M; Gerdes, C; Jacobsen, C; Cui, S; Christensen, E I; Aminoff, M; de la Chapelle, A; Krahe, R; Verroust, P J; Moestrup, S K

    1999-06-01

    Cubilin is the intestinal receptor for the endocytosis of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12. However, several lines of evidence, including a high expression in kidney and yolk sac, indicate it may have additional functions. We isolated apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), using cubilin affinity chromatography. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated a high-affinity binding of apoA-I and HDL to cubilin, and cubilin-expressing yolk sac cells showed efficient 125I-HDL endocytosis that could be inhibited by IgG antibodies against apoA-I and cubilin. The physiological relevance of the cubilin-apoA-I interaction was further emphasized by urinary apoA-I loss in some known cases of functional cubilin deficiency. Therefore, cubilin is a receptor in epithelial apoA-I/HDL metabolism.

  1. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-dependent Intracellular Signaling and NMDA-induced Regulation of Postsynaptic Protein Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Chikako; Kulik, Akos; Frotscher, Michael; Herz, Joachim; Schäfer, Michael; Bock, Hans H.; May, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The lipoprotein receptor LRP1 is essential in neurons of the central nervous system, as was revealed by the analysis of conditional Lrp1-deficient mouse models. The molecular basis of its neuronal functions, however, is still incompletely understood. Here we show by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and postsynaptic density preparation that LRP1 is located postsynaptically. Basal and NMDA-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as NMDA target gene transcription are reduced in LRP1-deficient neurons. In control neurons, NMDA promotes γ-secretase-dependent release of the LRP1 intracellular domain (LRP1-ICD). However, pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed no direct interaction between the LRP1-ICD and either CREB or target gene promoters. On the other hand, NMDA-induced degradation of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 was impaired in the absence of LRP1, whereas its ubiquitination was increased, indicating that LRP1 influences the composition of postsynaptic protein complexes. Accordingly, NMDA-induced internalization of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 was impaired in LRP1-deficient neurons. These results show a role of LRP1 in the regulation and turnover of synaptic proteins, which may contribute to the reduced dendritic branching and to the neurological phenotype observed in the absence of LRP1. PMID:23760271

  2. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, Kenichi; Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  3. [PCSK9: Structure and function. PCSK9 and low-density lipoprotein receptor. Mutations and their effects].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Badimón, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and then targets it for lysosomal degradation in cells, thus preventing LDLr from recycling back to the hepatocyte surface, with a consequent decrease in LDLr density and clearance of LDL-cholesterol (LDLc). There have been reports of both gain-of-function mutations in the PCSK9 gene that cause a marked increase in LDLc conentrations and loss-of-function mutations, which lead to modest reductions in LDLc and low rates of coronary heart disease. The PCSK9 gene has become a promising therapeutic target to reduce blood cholesterol levels. This review discusses the most interesting recent data on PCSK9 regulation and its molecular function in cholesterol homeostasis.

  4. Low density lipoprotein receptor-binding activity in human tissues: Quantitative importance of hepatic receptors and evidence for regulation of their expression in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rudling, M.J. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm ); Reihner, E.; Einarsson, K.; Ewerth, S.; Angelin, B. )

    1990-05-01

    The heparin-sensitive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to homogenates from 18 different normal human tissues and some solid tumors was determined. The binding to adrenal and liver homogenates fulfilled criteria established for the binding of LDL to its receptor--namely, (i) saturability, (ii) sensitivity to proteolytic destruction, (iii) inhibition by EDTA, and (iv) heat sensitivity. When the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled LDL was assayed at a constant concentration, the adrenal gland and the ovary had the highest binding of normal tissues. The highest binding per g of tissue overall was obtained in homogenates of a gastric carcinoma and a parotid adenoma. When the weights of the parenchymatous organs were considered, the major amount of LDL receptors was contained in the liver. To study the possible regulation of hepatic LDL-receptor expression, 11 patients were pretreated with cholestyramine. Increased binding activity was obtained in homogenates from liver biopsies from the cholestyramine-treated patients as compared with 12 untreated controls. It is concluded that the liver is the most important organ for LDL catabolism in humans and that the receptor activity in this organ can be regulated upon pharmacologic intervention. Further studies are needed to confirm the possibility that certain solid tumors can exhibit high numbers of LDL receptors.

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibition by an apolipoprotein E-derived peptide relies on low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated protein

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhenyu; Prorok, Mary; Brown, Brigid E.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a synthetic apoE1 peptide, viz., residues 133–149 (apoE[133–149]), a mimetic that comprises the apoE receptor-binding domain, on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/glycine-induced ion flow through NMDA receptor (NMDAR) channels, has been investigated. The activity of apoE[133–149] was found to depend on the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Competition experiments with receptor associated protein (RAP) and activated α2macroglobulin (α2M*), two proteins that compete for apoE binding to LRP, demonstrate that apoE[133–149] inhibition of NMDAR function is mediated at a locus in LRP that overlaps with the binding sites of RAP and α2M*. A co-receptor of LRP, cell-surface heparin sulfate proteoglycan, did not function in this system. Additional electrophysiology experiments demonstrated that the inhibitory potency of apoE[133–149] was 3-fold greater for NMDAR-transfected wild-type Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells compared with NMDAR-transfected CHO cells deficient in LRP. Studies with truncation and replacement variants of the apoE peptide demonstrated that the NMDAR-inhibitory properties of these peptides correlate with their binding affinities for LRP. These novel results indicate that apoE functions as an inhibitor of NMDAR ion channels indirectly via LRP, and are suggestive of a participatory role for LRP in NMDAR-based neuropathies. PMID:18602124

  6. Modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein B, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA and plasma lipoprotein concentrations by defined dietary fats. Comparison of trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A J; Billett, M A; Salter, A M; Mangiapane, E H; Bruce, J S; Anderton, K L; Marenah, C B; Lawson, N; White, D A

    1995-01-01

    Different dietary fatty acids exert specific effects on plasma lipids but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Hamsters were fed on low-cholesterol diets containing triacylglycerols enriched in specific saturated fatty acids, and effects on plasma lipids and the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipoprotein metabolism were measured. Trimyristin and tripalmitin caused significant rises in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol which were accompanied by significant reductions in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels. Tripalmitin also increased hepatic expression of the apolipoprotein B gene, implying an increased production of LDL via very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and decreased removal of LDL in animals fed this fat. Hepatic levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA did not vary significantly between the groups. Compared with triolein, tristearin had little effect on hepatic gene expression or total plasma cholesterol. However, it caused a marked decrease in VLDL cholesterol and a rise in LDL cholesterol such that overall it appeared to be neutral. Lipid analysis suggested a rapid desaturation of much of the dietary stearate. The differential changes in plasma lipids and hepatic mRNA levels induced by specific dietary fats suggests a role for fatty acids or a metabolite thereof in the regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:7575449

  7. Prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) pectin reverses low density lipoprotein receptor suppression induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Lin, E C; Trejo, A; McNamara, D J

    1992-12-01

    The effects of prickly pear pectin on plasma LDL metabolism were investigated by feeding guinea pigs either a diet containing 15 g/100 g lard and 0.25 g/100 g cholesterol (LC diet) or the LC diet in which cellulose was partially replaced (2.5 g/100 g) by prickly pear pectin (LC-P diet). The LC-P diet lowered plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations by 33% (P < 0.001). Low density lipoprotein composition was modified by intake of prickly pear pectin; the relative percentages of free and esterified cholesterol were lower and triglycerides were higher in LDL from animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.05). Intake of prickly pear pectin did not affect hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity; however, hepatic free and esterified cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 46 and 64%, respectively. Hepatic apolipoprotein B/E receptor expression (Bmax) was 60% higher in animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.01). Similar to the in vitro data, receptor-mediated LDL fractional catabolic rates were 190% higher in animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.05), whereas apolipoprotein LDL flux rates were not affected. Apolipoprotein LDL pool size and fractional catabolic rates exhibited a significant correlation (r = -0.52, P < 0.01). These data indicate that an increase in apolipoprotein B/E receptor expression is a major metabolic response by which intake of prickly pear pectin decreases plasma LDL concentrations.

  8. Silencing Triggering Receptors Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 Impaired the Inflammatory Response to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Houxuan; Hong, Feifei; Pan, Shengbo; Lei, Lang; Yan, Fuhua

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipid contents in arterial walls. Previous studies suggest participation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in lipid deposition and inflammatory response in vascular wall. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which amplifies signal transduction of TLR pathway and enhances immune response to microbial infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on the expression of the TREM-1, as well as its engagement in proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation in RAW264.7 mice macrophages. oxLDL enhanced TREM-1 and TLR-4, but not TLR-2 gene expression in macrophages; furthermore, silencing TREM-1 expression by short hairpin interfering RNA inhibited lipid phagocytosis and proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in macrophages; moreover, application of synthetic antagonist, LP-17 polypeptide, reduced IL-6 production upon oxLDL stimulation in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, in macrophages, oxLDL enhanced expression of TREM-1, which amplifies the innate immune response of TLR pathway; activation of TREM-1 contributes to atherogenesis process by enhancing proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation.

  9. Human degenerative valve disease is associated with up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 receptor-mediated bone formation.

    PubMed

    Caira, Frank C; Stock, Stuart R; Gleason, Thomas G; McGee, Edwin C; Huang, Jie; Bonow, Robert O; Spelsberg, Thomas C; McCarthy, Patrick M; Rahimtoola, Shahbudin H; Rajamannan, Nalini M

    2006-04-18

    The goal of this research was to define the cellular mechanisms involved in myxomatous mitral valve disease and calcific aortic valve disease and to redefine the term degenerative valve disease in terms of an active cellular biology. "Degenerative" valvular heart disease is the primary cause of regurgitant and stenotic valvular lesion in the U.S. However, the signaling pathways are not known. We hypothesize that valve degeneration occurs due to an osteoblastic differentiation process mediated by the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) signaling pathway to cause valve thickening. We examined human diseased valves: myxomatous mitral valves (n = 23), calcified tricuspid aortic valves (n = 27), calcified bicuspid aortic valves (n = 23), and control tissue from mitral and aortic valves (n = 40). The valves were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry for signaling markers important in osteoblast differentiation: Sox9 and Cbfa1 (transcription factors for osteoblast differentiation); Lrp5 and Wnt3 (osteoblast differentiation signaling marker), osteopontin and osteocalcin (osteoblast endochrondral bone matrix proteins), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (a marker of cell proliferation). Cartilage development and bone formation was measured by Alcian blue stain and Alizarin red stain. Computed Scano MicroCT-40 (Bassersdorf, Switzerland) analysis measured calcium burden. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, osteocalcin, and other osteochrondrogenic differentiation markers were increased in the calcified aortic valves by protein and gene expression (p > 0.001). Sox9, Lrp5 receptor, and osteocalcin were increased in myxomatous mitral valves by protein and gene expression (p > 0.001). MicroCT was positive in the calcified aortic valves and negative in the myxomatous mitral valves. The mechanism of valvular heart disease involves an endochondral bone process that is expressed as

  10. MicroRNA-144 regulates hepatic ATP binding cassette transporter A1 and plasma high-density lipoprotein after activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Kim, Tammy; Civelek, Mete; Baldán, Ángel; Esau, Christine; Edwards, Peter A

    2013-06-07

    The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates many aspects of lipid metabolism by variouscomplex and incompletely understood molecular mechanisms. We set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms for FXR-dependent regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify FXR-regulated microRNAs that were subsequently involved in regulating lipid metabolism. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major determinant of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Here, we show that activation of the nuclear receptor FXR in vivo increases hepatic levels of miR-144, which in turn lowers hepatic ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. We identified 2 complementary sequences to miR-144 in the 3' untranslated region of ABCA1 mRNA that are necessary for miR-144-dependent regulation. Overexpression of miR-144 in vitro decreased both cellular ABCA1 protein and cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I protein, whereas overexpression in vivo reduced hepatic ABCA1 protein and plasma HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, silencing miR-144 in mice increased hepatic ABCA1 protein and HDL-cholesterol. In addition, we used tissue-specific FXR-deficient mice to show that induction of miR-144 and FXR-dependent hypolipidemia requires hepatic, but not intestinal, FXR. Finally, we identified functional FXR response elements upstream of the miR-144 locus, consistent with direct FXR regulation. We have identified a novel pathway involving FXR, miR-144, and ABCA1 that together regulate plasma HDL-cholesterol.

  11. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Landowski, Lila M; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V; West, Adrian K; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-15

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system.

  12. Restraint stress up-regulates lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Irene J; Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Davidge, Sandra T

    2010-09-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. The vascular lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved in vascular pathology and early atherogenesis. We hypothesized that LOX-1 is up-regulated by psychological stress via the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals, and that treatment with EUK-8 (a superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic) prevents production of oxygen-derived free radicals and leads to reduced expression of LOX-1 in the vascular wall. As a model for psychological stress, we exposed male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to repeated restraint stress by placement in a conical tube for 2 h per day for 14 consecutive days. Stressed and control mice were treated with EUK-8 (n = 4-5) or vehicle (n = 4-5). Reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite levels, as detected by oxidative fluorescence microscopy, were increased in the aortic root of mice exposed to stress compared to those of controls by 212 +/- 22% (mean +/- SEM; p < 0.001) and 110 +/- 6% (p < 0.001), respectively. LOX-1, as detected by immunohistochemistry, was increased by 443 +/- 63% in stressed mice compared to control mice (p < 0.001). EUK-8 reduced reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and LOX-1 levels in stressed mice compared to vehicle-treated stressed mice. To conclude, LOX-1 induced by reactive oxygen species and/or peroxynitrite could be one mechanism by which stress promotes cardiovascular disease.

  13. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation of the very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) receptor phosphorylation for VHDL uptake.

    PubMed

    Dong, Du-Juan; Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-04-01

    During the metamorphic stage of holometabolous insects, the biosynthetic precursors needed for the synthesis of a large number of adult proteins are acquired from the selective absorption of storage proteins. The very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL), a non-hexameric storage protein, is consumed by the fat body from the hemolymph through VHDL receptor (VHDL-R)-mediated endocytosis. However, the mechanism of the uptake of VHDL by a VHDL-R remains unclear. In this study, a VHDL-R from Helicoverpa armigera was found to be involved in 20E-regulated VHDL uptake through the regulation of steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The transcripts of VHDL-R were detected mainly in the fat body and integument during the wandering stage. The transcription of VHDL-R was upregulated by 20E through the ecdysteroid receptor (EcRB1) and Ultraspiracle (USP1). In addition, 20E stimulates the phosphorylation of VHDL-R through protein kinase C for ligand binding. VHDL-R knockdown in larvae results the inhibition of development to adulthood. These data imply that 20E regulates VHDL-R on both transcriptional and posttranslational levels for VHDL absorption.

  14. Disrupted recycling of the low density lipoprotein receptor by PCSK9 is not mediated by residues of the cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Thea Bismo; Holla, Øystein L; Tveten, Kristian; Cameron, Jamie; Berge, Knut Erik; Leren, Trond P

    2010-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) post-translationally regulates the number of cell-surface low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). This is accomplished by the ability of PCSK9 to mediate degradation of the LDLR. The underlying mechanism involves binding of secreted PCSK9 to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A of the extracellular domain of the LDLR at the cell surface, followed by lysosomal degradation of the internalized LDLR:PCSK9 complex. However, the mechanism by which the normal recycling of the LDLR is disrupted by PCSK9, remains to be determined. In this study we have investigated the role of the cytoplasmic domain of the LDLR for this process. This has been done by studying the ability of a mutant LDLR (K811X-LDLR) which lacks the cytoplasmic domain, to be degraded by PCSK9. We show that this mutant receptor is degraded by PCSK9. Thus, the machinery which directs the LDLR:PCSK9 complex to the lysosomes for degradation, does not interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the LDLR.

  15. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infectivity by Interacting with Heparan Sulfate, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor, and DC-SIGN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jo-Mei; Fan, Yi-Chin; Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2017-09-12

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) presents in milk and has been shown to inhibit several viral infections. Effective drugs are unavailable for the treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of bLF against DENV infection in vivo and in vitro. Bovine LF significantly inhibited the infection of the four serotypes of DENV in Vero cells. In the time-of-drug addition test, DENV-2 infection was remarkably inhibited when bLF was added during or prior to the occurrence of virus attachment. We also revealed that bovine LF blocks binding between DENV-2 and the cellular membrane by interacting with heparan sulfate (HS), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), and low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). In addition, bLF inhibits DENV-2 infection and decreases morbidity in a suckling mouse challenge model. This study supports the finding that bLF may inhibit DENV infection by binding to the potential DENV receptors.

  16. Significance of the variant and full-length forms of the very low density lipoprotein receptor in brain.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Kumamaru, E

    2001-12-20

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a newly described receptor which binds to apolipoprotein E (apoE) specifically. The authors designed a synthetic peptide of 17 amino acids representing the N-terminus of the putative first ligand binding domain of human VLDLR, this being a unique domain for VLDLR. When the synthetic peptide was used as the antigen, two different monoclonal antibodies were obtained (anti-VLDLR1 and anti-VLDLR2). Expressional cloning revealed that anti-VLDLR1 recognized the variant form of VLDLR which lacks 84 bp of O-linked sugar domain and anti-VLDLR2 recognized the full length form of VLDLR. The variant VLDLR was expressed in neuroblasts as well as matrix cells and Cajal-Retzius cells in the early stages of the developing human brain; later its expression was sequentially found in glioblasts, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and finally in myelin. The expression of a full length form of VLDLR was detected in senile plaques and some neurons and satellite glia in aged and Alzheimer brains. This suggests that the variant VLDLR is important for the developing human brain and the full length VLDLR has modified functions in aged and Alzheimer brains.

  17. Pharmaceutical stabilization of mast cells attenuates experimental atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Sjöberg, Sara; Tia, Viviane; Secco, Blandine; Chen, Han; Yang, Min; Sukhova, Galina K.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) contribute to atherogenesis by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators to activate vascular cells and other inflammatory cells. This study examined whether MC activation or stabilization affects diet-induced atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice. When Ldlr−/− mice consumed an atherogenic diet for 3 or 6 months, MC activation with compound 48/80 (C48/80) increased aortic arch intima and total lesion areas, and plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels, whereas MC stabilization with cromolyn reduced these parameters. There were significant differences in arch intima and total lesion areas, and plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels between C48/80-treated and cromolyn-treated mice. To examine a therapeutic application of cromolyn in atherosclerosis, we fed Ldlr−/− mice an atherogenic diet for 3 months followed by giving mice cromolyn for additional 3 months. Cromolyn did not affect aortic arch intima area, but significantly reduced lipid deposition in the thoracic-abdominal aortas. In aortic arches, however, cromolyn treatment significantly reduced lesion contents of Mac-3+ macrophages, CD4+ T cells, activated MCs, and lesion cell proliferation. While plasma total cholesterol and LDL levels increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels decreased from 3 months to 6 months of an atherogenic diet, cromolyn treatment decreased significantly plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels and increased HDL levels above those of 3-month time point. These observations demonstrate that MC stabilization reduces lesion inflammation, ameliorates plasma lipid profiles, and may serve as a potential therapy for this cardiovascular disease. PMID:23880180

  18. Interplay between basic residues of hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 with viral receptors, neutralizing antibodies and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Koutsoudakis, George; Dragun, Jakub; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Sofia; Coto-Llerena, Mairene; Mensa, Laura; Crespo, Gonzalo; González, Patricia; Navasa, Miquel; Forns, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Positively-charged amino acids are located at specific positions in the envelope glycoprotein E2 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV): two histidines (H) and four arginines (R) in two conserved WHY and one RGERCDLEDRDR motifs, respectively. Additionally, the E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) is rich in basic amino acids. To investigate the role(s) of these residues in HCV entry, we subjected to comparative infection and sedimentation analysis cell culture-produced (HCVcc, genotype 2a) wild type virus, a panel of alanine single-site mutants and a HVR1-deletion variant. Initially, we analyzed the effects of these mutations on E2-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions. The positive milieu of the HVR1, formulated by its basic amino acids (key residues the conserved H³⁸⁶ and R⁴⁰⁸), and the two highly conserved basic residues H⁴⁸⁸ and R⁶⁴⁸ contributed to E2-HS interactions. Mutations in these residues did not alter the HCVcc-CD81 entry, but they modified the HCVcc-scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) dependent entry and the neutralization by anti-E2 or patients IgG. Finally, separation by density gradients revealed that mutant viruses abolished partially or completely the infectivity of low density particles, which are believed to be associated with lipoproteins. This study shows that there exists a complex interplay between the basic amino acids located in HVR1 and other conserved E2 motifs with the HS, the SR-BI, and neutralizing antibodies and suggests that HCV-associated lipoproteins are implicated in these interactions.

  19. Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein interaction.

    PubMed

    Olsson, U; Ostergren-Lundén, G; Moses, J

    2001-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) bound to various proteoglycans (PGs) present in the cardiovascular system have been proposed to perform a wide range of functions. These include conferring viscoelastic properties; interacting with and modulating growth factors and enzymes; and as receptors and co-receptors in lipoprotein metabolism. Binding of apoB-100 lipoproteins, particularly low density lipoproteins (LDL), to GAGs of extracellular matrix PGs in arteries has been proposed to be an initiating event in development of atherosclerosis. This study was initiated with the aim of getting an overview of the binding patterns of different lipoprotein subclasses with individual GAG categories. We thus evaluated the interaction of lipoproteins with GAGs commonly found in the cardiovascular system using a gel mobility-shift assay developed for this purpose. The same procedure was used to measure lipoproteins binding to metabolically [(35)S]-labeled whole PGs prepared from three cell types, arterial smooth muscle cells, THP-1 macrophages and from HepG2 cells. The effect of GAG composition on PGs on lipoprotein binding was evaluated by enzymatic degradation of the carbohydrate chains. Heparan sulfate was found to bind beta very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL) and a chylomicron remnant model (beta-VLDL+apoE), but not LDL. Dermatan sulfate was found to bind LDL, but not beta-VLDL or the chylomicron remnant model. Chondroitin sulfate and heparin were found to bind all lipoproteins tested (LDL, beta-VLDL and beta-VLDL+apoE) although with different affinities. We can conclude that each lipoprotein subclass tested binds a specific assortment of the GAGs tested. The observations made contribute to the understanding of new and complex mechanisms by which carbohydrate and lipid metabolism may be linked.

  20. Up-regulation of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor and Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinping; Guo, Zhongmao; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Lin, Xinhua; Rollins, Allman T.; Yang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Activation of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) results in either pro- or anti-atherogenic effects depending on the ligand. Using reelin and apoE as ligands, we studied the impact of VLDLR- and apoER2-mediated signaling on the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and cholesterol efflux using RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of these mouse macrophages with reelin or human apoE3 significantly increased ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels, and apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux. In addition, both reelin and apoE3 significantly increased phosphorylated disabled-1 (Dab1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ), and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). This reelin- or apoER2-mediated up-regulation of ABCA1 expression was suppressed by 1) knockdown of Dab1, VLDLR, and apoER2 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 2) inhibition of PI3K and PKC with kinase inhibitors, 3) overexpression of kinase-dead PKCζ, and 4) inhibition of Sp1 DNA binding with mithramycin A. Activation of the Dab1-PI3K signaling pathway has been implicated in VLDLR- and apoER2-mediated cellular functions, whereas the PI3K-PKCζ-Sp1 signaling cascade has been implicated in the regulation of ABCA1 expression induced by apoE/apoB-carrying lipoproteins. Taken together, these data support a model in which activation of VLDLR and apoER2 by reelin and apoE induces ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux via a Dab1-PI3K-PKCζ-Sp1 signaling cascade. PMID:22170052

  1. mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptors are overexpressed in the foci of deep bowel endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Gibran, Luciano; Maranhão, Raul C; Tavares, Elaine R; Carvalho, Priscila O; Abrão, Maurício S; Podgaec, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Is mRNA expression of LDL receptors altered in deep bowel endometriotic foci? SUMMARY ANSWER: mRNA expression of LDL receptors is up-regulated in deep bowel endometriotic foci of patients with endometriosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in various tumour cell lines and endometriosis has similar aspects to cancer, mainly concerning the pathogenesis of both diseases. This is the first study we know of to investigate lipoprotein receptors expression in deep endometriosis with bowel involvement. During 2014-2015, an exploratory case-control study was conducted with 39 patients, including 20 women with a histological diagnosis of deep endometriosis compromising the bowel and 19 women without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation. Peripheral blood samples were collected on the day of surgery for lipid profile analysis, and samples of endometrial tissue and of bowel endometriotic lesions were also collected. The tissue samples were sent for histopathological analysis and for LDL-R and LRP-1 gene expression screening using quantitative real-time PCR. Patients with deep endometriosis had lower LDL-cholesterol than patients without the disease (119 ± 23 versus 156 ± 35; P = 0.001). Gene expression analysis of LDL receptors revealed that LDL-R was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions when compared to the endometrium of the same patient but not more than in the endometrium of women without endometriosis (0.027 ± 0.022 versus 0.012 ± 0.009 versus 0.019 ± 0.01, respectively; P < 0.001). LRP-1 was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions, both when compared with the endometrium of the same patient and when compared with the endometrium of patients without the disease (0.307 ± 0.207 versus 0.089 ± 0.076 and versus 0.126 ± 0.072, respectively; P < 0.001). The study also showed that LDL-R gene expression in the endometrium of women with endometriosis was higher during the

  2. Factor VIII Interacts with the Endocytic Receptor Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 via an Extended Surface Comprising “Hot-Spot” Lysine Residues♦

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Madsen, Jesper J.; Faber, Johan H.; Zuurveld, Marleen G.; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Olsen, Ole H.; Stennicke, Henning R.; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Lysine residues are implicated in driving the ligand binding to the LDL receptor family. However, it has remained unclear how specificity is regulated. Using coagulation factor VIII as a model ligand, we now study the contribution of individual lysine residues in the interaction with the largest member of the LDL receptor family, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1). Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and SPR interaction analysis on a library of lysine replacement variants as two independent approaches, we demonstrate that the interaction between factor VIII (FVIII) and LRP1 occurs over an extended surface containing multiple lysine residues. None of the individual lysine residues account completely for LRP1 binding, suggesting an additive binding model. Together with structural docking studies, our data suggest that FVIII interacts with LRP1 via an extended surface of multiple lysine residues that starts at the bottom of the C1 domain and winds around the FVIII molecule. PMID:25903134

  3. Glycation of high-density lipoprotein triggers oxidative stress and promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qian; Qian, Ming-Ming; Liu, Pin-Li; Zhang, Le; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) impairs its anti-atherogenic properties and even develops to a pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype because of abnormal compositions and modifications. In this study, we examined the effects and the related mechanisms of glycation of HDL on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods & Results Glycated HDL (G-HDL) was modified with D-glucose (25 mmol/L) in vitro. Diabetic HDL (D-HDL) was isolated from T2DM patients. Rat VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aortas. Human VSMCs were obtained from ScienCell Research Laboratories. Alpha-actin was detected through immunofluorescence. VSMC proliferation was assayed by Cell Count. VSMC migration was determined by transwell chamber and scratch-wound assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected based on ROS-mediated 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. Compared to native HDL (N-HDL), G-HDL remarkably promoted VSMC proliferation and migration in the dose and time-dependent manners. In addition, G-HDL enhanced ROS generation in VSMCs. However, the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, efficiently decreased ROS production and subsequently inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by G-HDL. Similarly, D-HDL from T2DM patients also promoted ROS release and VSMC proliferation and migration. Conclusions HDL either glycated in vitro or isolated from T2DM patients triggered VSMC proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress. These results might partly interpret the higher morbidity of cardiovascular disease in T2DM patients. PMID:28868076

  4. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Samantha K.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation. PMID:28362856

  5. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Samantha K; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  6. Detection of a novel mutation Y468X in exon 10 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene causing heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia among French Canadians

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, P.; Simard, J.; Moorjani, S.

    1994-09-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene and characterized by raised plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) and premature coronary heart disease. FH has higher frequency among French Canadians (FC) in northeastern Quebec than in most other populations, 1:154 vs. 1:500. In FC, five mutations account for all the mutant alleles in homozygous FH and 81% in heterozygous FH; thus 19% are uncharacterized at the molecular level. We investigated the possibility of additional mutations(s), and direct sequencing of asymmetric PCR fragments showed a novel mutation (468 stop-codon) in the heterozygous form in exon 10 of the LDL receptor gene. This mutation results from cytosine to guanine transversion, converting codon 468 (TAC) encoding tyrosine into TAG stop-codon (Y468X). This nonsense mutation will result in a truncated protein shortened by 371 amino acids which will be rapidly degraded. However, we did not ascertain the functional aspects. We rather assessed its effects on the extent of elevation of LDL-C in heterozygous FH children. The Y468X mutation resulted in raised LDL-C levels which were comparable to subjects with a non-functional `null` allele due to deletion of the promoter region and exon 1 (237{plus_minus}49 vs. 248 {plus_minus}41 mg/dl; mean{plus_minus}SD, p<0.05). The relative frequency of the Y468X mutation in a cohort of 343 children suspected for FH is 4.1% and it ranks number 4 in term of its prevalence. High frequency of FH among FC is attributed to a founder effect due to a high prevalence of one mutation; it is suggested that this novel mutation with low prevalence may be of later entry in this population.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a novel modulator of radial glia stem cell proliferation, survival and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Safina, Dina; Schlitt, Frederik; Romeo, Ramona; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Edenhofer, Frank; Faissner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The LDL family of receptors and its member LRP1 have classically been associated with a modulation of lipoprotein metabolism. Current studies, however, indicate diverse functions for this receptor in various aspects of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. LRP1 is essential for normal neuronal function in the adult CNS, whereas the role of LRP1 in development remained unclear. Previously we have observed an upregulation of LewisX (LeX) glycosylated LRP1 in the stem cells of the developing cortex and demonstrated its importance for oligodendrocyte differentiation. In the current study we show that LeX-glycosylated LRP1 is also expressed in the stem cell compartment of the developing spinal cord and has broader functions in the developing CNS. We have investigated the basic properties of LRP1 conditional knockout on the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from the cortex and the spinal cord, created by means of Cre-loxp mediated recombination in vitro. The functional status of LRP1-deficient cells has been studied using proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis assays. LRP1 deficient NSPCs from both CNS regions demonstrated altered differentiation profiles. Their differentiation capacity towards oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), mature oligodendrocytes and neurons was reduced. In contrast, astrocyte differentiation was promoted. Moreover, LRP1 deletion had a negative effect on NSPCs proliferation and survival. Our observations suggest that LRP1 facilitates NSPCs differentiation via interaction with ApoE. Upon ApoE4 stimulation wild type NSPCs generated more oligodendrocytes, but LRP1 knockout cells showed no response. The effect of ApoE seems to be independent of cholesterol uptake, but is rather mediated by downstream MAPK and Akt activation. PMID:27258849

  8. Interaction of Fibrin with the Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) Receptor: Further Characterization and Localization of the VLDL Receptor-Binding Site in Fibrin βN-Domains.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Sergiy; Medved, Leonid

    2017-05-16

    Our recent study revealed that fibrin and the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) interact with each other through a pair of fibrin βN-domains and CR domains of the receptor and this interaction promotes transendothelial migration of leukocytes and thereby inflammation. The major objectives of this study were to further clarify the molecular mechanism of fibrin-VLDLR interaction and to identify amino acid residues in the βN-domains involved in this interaction. Our binding experiments with the (β15-66)2 fragment, which corresponds to a pair of fibrin βN-domains, and the VLDLR(1-8) fragment, consisting of eight CR domains of VLDLR, revealed that interaction between them strongly depends on ionic strength and chemical modification of all Lys or Arg residues in (β15-66)2 results in abrogation of this interaction. To identify which of these residues are involved in the interaction, we mutated all Lys or Arg residues in each of the three positively charged Lys/Arg clusters of the (β15-66)2 fragment, as well as single Arg17 and Arg30, and tested the affinity of the mutants obtained for VLDLR(1-8) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance. The experiments revealed that the second and third Lys/Arg clusters make the major contribution to this interaction while the contribution of the first cluster is moderate. The results obtained suggest that interaction between fibrin and the VLDL receptor employs the "double-Lys/Arg" recognition mode previously proposed for the interaction of the LDL receptor family members with their ligands. They also provide valuable information for the development of highly specific peptide-based inhibitors of fibrin-VLDLR interaction.

  9. Increased susceptibility to amyloid-β-induced neurotoxicity in mice lacking the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jade; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; dos Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Piermartiri, Tetsadê Camboim; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Pinton, Simone; Tasca, Carla Inês; Farina, Marcelo; Prediger, Rui Daniel Schröder; de Bem, Andreza Fabro

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by inherited genetic abnormalities that directly or indirectly affect the function of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. This condition is characterized by defective catabolism of LDL which results in increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and premature coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, there is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicating that familial hypercholesterolemia subjects show a particularly high incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, the LDL receptor (LDLr) has been implicated as the main central nervous system apolipoprotein E receptor that regulates amyloid deposition in distinct mouse models of β-amyloidosis. In this regard, herein we hypothesized that the lack of LDLr would enhance the susceptibility to amyloid-β-(Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Using the acute intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated Aβ(1-40) peptide (400 pmol/mouse), a useful approach for the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in Aβ toxicity, we observed oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal membrane damage within the hippocampus of C57BL/6 wild-type mice, which were associated with spatial reference memory and working memory impairments. In addition, our data show that LDLr knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice, regardless of Aβ treatment, displayed memory deficits and increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Nonetheless, LDLr(-/-) mice treated with Aβ(1-40) peptide presented increased acetylcholinesterase activity, astrogliosis, oxidative imbalance, and cell permeability within the hippocampus in comparison with Aβ(1-40)-treated C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Overall, the present study shows that the lack of LDLr increases the susceptibility to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in mice providing new evidence about the crosslink between familial hypercholesterolemia and cognitive impairment.

  10. What are lipoproteins doing in the brain?

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins in plasma transport lipids between tissues, however, only high-density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB); thus, lipoproteins found in the brain must be produced within the central nervous system. Apolipoproteins E (ApoE) and ApoJ are the most abundant apolipoproteins in the brain, are mostly synthesized by astrocytes, and are found on HDL. In the hippocampus and other brain regions, lipoproteins help to regulate neurobehavioral functions by processes that are lipoprotein receptor-mediated. Moreover, lipoproteins and their receptors also have roles in the regulation of body weight and energy balance, acting through lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP). Thus, understanding lipoproteins and their metabolism in the brain provides a new opportunity with potential therapeutic relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electric field-induced redistribution and postfield relaxation of low density lipoprotein receptors on cultured human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The lateral mobility of unliganded low density lipoprotein-receptor (LDL-R) on the surface of human fibroblasts has been investigated by studying the generation and relaxation of concentration differences induced by exposure of the cultured cells to steady electric fields. The topographic distribution of receptors was determined by fluorescence microscopy of cells labeled with the intensely fluorescent, biologically active LDL derivative dioctadecylindolcarbocyanine LDL (dil(3)-LDL), or with native LDL and anti-LDL indirect immunofluorescence. Exposure of the LDL-receptor- internalization defective J. D. cells (GM2408A) to an electric field of 10 V/cm for 1 h at 22 degrees C causes greater than 80% of the cells to have an asymmetric distribution of LDL-R; receptors accumulate at the more negative pole of the cell. In contrast, only 20% of LDL- internalization normal GM3348 cells exposed to identical conditions have asymmetrical distributions. Phase micrographs taken during electric-field exposure rule out cell movement as the responsible mechanism for the effect. In both cell types, postfield labeling with the F-actin-specific fluorescent probe nitrobenzoxadiazole-phallacidin shows that no topographic alteration of the actin cytoskeleton accompanies the redistribution of cell surface LDL-Rs, and indirect immunofluorescence labeling of the coat protein clathrin shows that coated pits do not redistribute asymmetrically. Measurements of the postfield relaxation in the percentage of GM2408A cells showing an asymmetric distribution allow an estimate of the effective postfield diffusion coefficient of the unliganded LDL-R. At 37 degrees C, D = 2.0 X 10(-9) cm2/s, decreasing to 1.1 X 10(-9) cm2/s at 22 degrees C, and D = 3.5 X 10(-10) cm2/s at 10 degrees C. These values are substantially larger than those measured by photobleaching methods for the LDL-R complexed with dil(3)-LDL on intact cells, but are comparable to those measured on membrane blebs, and are consistent

  12. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response.

    PubMed

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-10-21

    To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30.6%, GG: 17.2%) (P < 0

  13. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. METHODS: Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30

  14. Induction of Experimental Arthritis by Borrelial Lipoprotein and CpG Motifs: Are Toll-Like Receptors 2, 4, 9 or CD-14 Involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Batsford, S.; Dunn, J.; Mihatsch, M.

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins and CpG-DNA are ligands for Toll-Like-Receptors (TLR) 2 and 9 respectively. Both classes of molecules were reported to induce experimental arthritis in rodents following direct intra-articular injection. Here we studied: (1) whether arthritis induction by Outer surface (Lipo)protein A (OspA) (B.burgdorferi) involved the TLR-2 as well as the TLR-4 or the CD-14 receptors in addition, and (2) re-examined the arthritogenic potential of CpG-DNA motifs in mice. Following intra-articular injection of the test substances [20 {micro}g recombinant, lipidated OspA; 1nM(6 {micro}g) to 10nM(60 {micro}g) synthetic CpG-DNA], inflammation was monitored by {sup 99}Tc scintigraphy (ratio left/right knee joint uptake > 1.1 indicates inflammation) and by histology. Lipoprotein OspA induced severe, acute arthritis in TLR-2{sup +/+} w.t. but not in TLR-2{sup -/-} mice (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the severity of arthritis induced in TLR-4{sup +/+} w.t. and TLR-4{sup -/-} mutant mice, or between CD14{sup +/+} w.t. and CD14{sup -/-} mice. CpG-DNA (1or 10 nM) did not cause notable inflammation in C57BL/6 mice; {sup 99}Tc ratios were < 1.0 and histology showed only minimal changes. Induction of arthritis by the OspA lipoprotein of B.burgdorferi involves the TLR-2 receptor, no evidence for additional participation of TLR-4 or CD14 receptors was found. Intra-articular injection of CpG-DNA did not produce manifest joint injury in mice, at variance with previous reports.

  15. Effect of hyperlipidemia on femoral biomechanics and morphology in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Soares, Evelise Aline; Nakagaki, Wilson Romero; Garcia, José Antonio Dias; Camilli, José Angelo

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperlipidemia on the biomechanical and morphological properties of the femur of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene knockout mice (LDLr-/-) mice. Ten wild-type mice (C57BL6) and 10 LDLr-/- mice generated on a C57BL6 background were used. Male 3-month-old animals were divided into four groups (n = 5): group W (wild type) and group L (LDLr-/-) receiving low-fat commercial ration, and group WH (wild type) and group LH (LDLr-/-) receiving a high-fat diet. After 60 days, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis of calcium, triglycerides, and cholesterol. The femur was excised for mechanical testing and morphometric analysis. LDLr-/- mice receiving the high-fat diet presented more marked alterations in the mechanical and morphological properties of femoral cortical and trabecular bone. Changes in the plasma levels of calcium, triglycerides, cholesterol, and fractions were also more pronounced in this group. The present results demonstrate that hyperlipidemia causes alterations in the structure and mechanical properties of the femur of LDLr-/- mice. These effects were more pronounced when associated with a high-fat diet.

  16. Common genetic variation within the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Biechele, Travis; Wavrant De-Vrieze, Fabienne; Avila, Miguel E.; Major, Michael B.; Myers, Amanda; Sáez, Katia; Henríquez, Juan P.; Zhao, Alice; Wollmer, M. Axel; Nitsch, Roger M.; Hock, Christoph; Morris, Chris M.; Hardy, John; Moon, Randall T.

    2007-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage studies have defined a broad susceptibility region for late-onset Alzheimer's disease on chromosome 12, which contains the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6) gene, a coreceptor for Wnt signaling. Here, we report the association between common LRP6 variants and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in a multicenter case-control series as well as in a large family-based series ascertained by the National Institute of Mental Health–National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative. As shown in the genome-wide linkage studies, our association depends mainly on apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) carrier status. Haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a set of seven allelic variants of LRP6 identified a putative risk haplotype, which includes a highly conserved coding sequence SNP: Ile-1062 → Val. Functional analyses revealed that the associated allele Val-1062, an allele previously linked to low bone mass, has decreased β-catenin signaling in HEK293T cells. Our study unveils a genetic relationship between LRP6 and APOE and supports the hypothesis that altered Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be involved in this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:17517621

  17. Protein interactions among Fe65, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, and the amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Melinda M; Guttman, Miklos; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-19

    The adapter protein Fe65 has been proposed to be the link between the intracellular domains of the amyloid precursor protein, APP (AICD), and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-CT). Functional linkage between these two proteins has been established, and mutations within LRP-CT affect the amount of Aβ produced from APP. Previous work showed that AICD binds to protein interaction domain 2 (PID2) of Fe65. Although the structure of PID1 was determined recently, all attempts to demonstrate LRP-CT binding to this domain failed. We used biophysical experiments and binding studies to investigate the binding among these three proteins. Full-length Fe65 bound more weakly to AICD than did N-terminally truncated forms; however, the intramolecular domain-domain interactions that had been proposed to inhibit binding could not be observed using amide H-D exchange. Surprisingly, when LRP-CT is phosphorylated at Tyr4507, it bound to Fe65 PID1 despite the fact that this domain belongs to the Dab-like subclass of PIDs that are not supposed to be phosphorylation-dependent. Mutation of a critical arginine abolished binding, providing further proof of the phosphorylation dependence. Fe65 PID1 thus provides a link between the Dab-like class and the IRS-like class of PIDs and is the first Dab-like family member to show phosphorylation-dependent binding.

  18. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediated endocytosis of β1-integrin influences cell adhesion and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Rabiej, Verena K; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Wagner, Timo; Goetze, Kristina; Storck, Steffen E; Eble, Johannes A; Weggen, Sascha; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2016-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) has been shown to interact with β1-integrin and regulate its surface expression. LRP1 knock-out cells exhibit altered cytoskeleton organization and decreased cell migration. Here we demonstrate coupled endocytosis of LRP1 and β1-integrin and the involvement of the intracellular NPxY2 motif of LRP1 in this process. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts harboring a knock in replacement of the NPxY2 motif of LRP1 by a multiple alanine cassette (AAxA) showed elevated surface expression of β1-integrin and decreased β1-integrin internalization rates. As a consequence, cell spreading was altered and adhesion rates were increased in our cell model. Cells formed more focal adhesion complexes, whereby in vitro cell migration rates were decreased. Similar results could be observed in a corresponding mouse model, the C57Bl6 LRP1 NPxYxxL knock in mice, therefore, the biochemistry of cellular adhesion was altered in primary cortical neurons. In vivo cell migration experiments demonstrated a disturbance of neuroblast cell migration along the rostral migratory stream. In summary, our results indicate that LRP1 interacts with β1-integrin mediating integrin internalization and thus correlates with downstream signaling of β1-integrin such as focal adhesion dynamics. Consequently, the disturbance of this interaction resulted in a dysfunction in in vivo and in vitro cell adhesion and cell migration.

  19. Near-infrared fluorescent imaging of metastatic ovarian cancer using folate receptor-targeted high-density lipoprotein nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Ian R; Ng, Kenneth K; Ding, Lili; Jurisicova, Andrea; Zheng, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Aim The targeting efficiency of folate receptor-α (FR-α)-targeted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles (HDL NPs) was evaluated in a syngeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Materials & methods Folic acid was conjugated to the surface of fluorescent-labeled HDL NPs. In vivo tumor targeting of folic acid-HDL NPs and HDL NPs were evaluated in mice with metastatic ovarian cancer following intravenous or intraperitoneal (ip.) administration. Results & discussion Intravenous FR-α-targeted HDL resulted in high uptake of the fluorescent nanoparticle in host liver and spleen. The ip. injection of fluorescent HDL produced moderate fluorescence throughout the abdomen. Conversely, animals receiving the ip. FR-α-targeted HDL showed a high fluorescence signal in ovarian tumors, surpassing that seen in all of the host tissues. Conclusion The authors' findings demonstrate that the combination of local–regional ip. administration and FR-α-directed nanoparticles provides an enhanced approach to selectively targeting ovarian cancer cells for drug treatment. PMID:23067398

  20. Hepatic Farnesoid X-Receptor Isoforms α2 and α4 Differentially Modulate Bile Salt and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boesjes, Marije; Bloks, Vincent W.; Hageman, Jurre; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; Wolters, Henk; Jonker, Johan W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor FXR acts as an intracellular bile salt sensor that regulates synthesis and transport of bile salts within their enterohepatic circulation. In addition, FXR is involved in control of a variety of crucial metabolic pathways. Four FXR splice variants are known, i.e. FXRα1-4. Although these isoforms show differences in spatial and temporal expression patterns as well as in transcriptional activity, the physiological relevance hereof has remained elusive. We have evaluated specific roles of hepatic FXRα2 and FXRα4 by stably expressing these isoforms using liver-specific self-complementary adeno-associated viral vectors in total body FXR knock-out mice. The hepatic gene expression profile of the FXR knock-out mice was largely normalized by both isoforms. Yet, differential effects were also apparent; FXRα2 was more effective in reducing elevated HDL levels and transrepressed hepatic expression of Cyp8b1, the regulator of cholate synthesis. The latter coincided with a switch in hydrophobicity of the bile salt pool. Furthermore, FXRα2-transduction caused an increased neutral sterol excretion compared to FXRα4 without affecting intestinal cholesterol absorption. Our data show, for the first time, that hepatic FXRα2 and FXRα4 differentially modulate bile salt and lipoprotein metabolism in mice. PMID:25506828

  1. Intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia induce pulmonary artery atherosclerosis and ventricular dysfunction in low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Robert M; Bowden, Karen; Pattison, Jennifer; Peterson, Alexander B; Juliano, Joseph; Dalton, Nancy D; Gu, Yusu; Alvarez, Erika; Imamura, Toshihiro; Peterson, Kirk L; Witztum, Joseph L; Haddad, Gabriel G; Li, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea, who experience episodic hypoxia and hypercapnia during sleep, often demonstrate increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that sleep apnea patients would be predisposed to the development of atherosclerosis. To dissect the mechanisms involved, we developed an animal model in mice whereby we expose mice to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia (IHH) in normobaric environments. Two- to three-month-old low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 or 16 wk while being exposed to IHH for either 10 h/day or 24 h/day. Plasma lipid levels, pulmonary artery and aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiac function were then assayed. Surprisingly, atherosclerosis in the aorta of IHH mice was similar compared with controls. However, in IHH mice, atherosclerosis was markedly increased in the trunk and proximal branches of the pulmonary artery of exposed mice; even though plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were lower than in controls. Hemodynamic analysis revealed that right ventricular maximum pressure and isovolumic relaxation constant were significantly increased in IHH exposed mice and left ventricular % fractional shortening was reduced. In conclusion, 1) Intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia remarkably accelerated atherosclerotic lesions in the pulmonary artery of Ldlr(-/-) mice and 2) increased lesion formation in the pulmonary artery was associated with right and left ventricular dysfunction. These findings raise the possibility that patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be susceptible to atherosclerotic disease in the pulmonary vasculature, an observation that has not been previously recognized.

  2. Dysregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Pathway Is Involved in Lipid Disorder-Mediated Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Kun Ling; Ruan, Xiong Zhong; Liu, Bi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is a negative feedback system that plays important roles in the regulation of plasma and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. To maintain a cholesterol homeostasis, LDLR expression is tightly regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in transcriptional level and by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in posttranscriptional level. The dysregulation of LDLR expression results in abnormal lipid accumulation in cells and tissues, such as vascular smooth muscle cells, hepatic cells, renal mesangial cells, renal tubular cells and podocytes. It has been demonstrated that inflammation, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and hyperglycemia induce the disruption of LDLR pathway, which might contribute to lipid disorder-mediated organ injury (atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, kidney fibrosis, etc). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a critical mediator in the disruption of LDLR pathway caused by pathogenic factors. The mTOR complex1 activation upregulates LDLR expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, consequently resulting in lipid deposition. This paper mainly reviews the mechanisms for the dysregulation of LDLR pathway and its roles in lipid disorder-mediated organ injury under various pathogenic conditions. Understanding these mechanisms leading to the abnormality of LDLR expression contributes to find potential new drug targets in lipid disorder-mediated diseases. PMID:27019638

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li Juan; Liu, Xin He; Liu, Zhu Hui; Wang, Xiao Qun; Chen, Qiu Jin; Lu, Lin; Shen, Wei Feng; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-regulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regarded as an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in oxLDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in SMCs both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the levels of TLR4, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression were increased in the SMCs of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with femoral artery stenosis. In cultured primary arterial SMCs from wild type mice, oxLDL caused dose- and time-dependent increase in the expression levels of TLR4 and cytokines. These effects were significantly weakened in arterial SMCs derived from TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4−/−). Moreover, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was blocked by TLR4-specific antibodies in primary SMCs. Ox-LDL induced activation of p38 and NFκB was also inhibited in TLR4−/− primary SMCs or when treated with TLR4-specific antibodies. These results demonstrated that TLR4 is a crucial mediator in oxLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion, and p38 and NFκB activation. PMID:24755612

  4. Serum soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halac, G; Kilic, E; Cikrikcioglu, M A; Celik, K; Toprak-Erek, A; Keskin, S; Gultepe, I; Celik, R S; Ozaras, N; Yildiz, A; Aydin, S; Akan, O; Karatoprak, C; Sekin, Y; Asil, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the predisposition for atherosclerosis in patients with RLS through serum sLOX-1 (serum Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1) measurements. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested an association of RLS with certain chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia. LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, macrophages, and in smooth muscle cells under the effect of proatherogenic conditions. This study was a prospective, cross-sectional, case-controlled. We measured the serum sLOX-1 levels in 37 restless legs syndrome patients and 38 controls. Serum sLOX-1 level was significantly lower in the patient group. The two groups were similar in glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, LDL cholesterol, TG, HDL, total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, HGB, HCT, MCV, transferrin saturation rate (TSR), ferritin, CRP, TSH, FT4, FT3, B12, and folic acid levels. Also the two groups were similar with respect to age at menarche, number of previous births, number of abortions and/or curettage, total duration of breastfeeding, percentage of patients in menopause, and age at menopause. Our results may suggest a lower atherosclerotic risk among RLS patients as compared to the general population (Tab. 3, Ref. 33).

  5. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-11-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using /sup 125/I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, /sup 125/I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using /sup 131/I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal.

  6. F-spondin inhibits differentiation of clastic precursors via lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8).

    PubMed

    Oka, Hiroko; Kitagawa, Masae; Takata, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    F-spondin, known to be a secreted neuronal glycoprotein, is highly expressed on the tooth root surface. The authors previously reported that F-spondin is one of the specific markers of cementoblasts in periodontal tissue. In chronic periodontitis, significant cemental resorption rarely occurs on the root side, although alveolar bone resorption by osteoclasts is one of the major pathologic changes. Thus, it was hypothesized that secretory F-spondin from cementoblasts might be involved in differentiation of clastic cells on the root surface. The authors studied effects of secretory F-spondin from F-spondin-expressing cells and its pathway on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated differentiation of clastic cells. Osteoclast precursors were used in this study. With a chamber assay, the authors examined effects of secretory molecules from F-spondin-expressing cells of transgenic mice on RANKL-induced clastic cell differentiation. Secretory molecules from F-spondin-overexpressing cells significantly inhibited the RANKL-mediated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells from primary progenitor cells with the chamber system. F-spondin suppressed RANKL-mediated nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1); TRAP; cathepsin K; and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) expression in the cells. The suppressive effect of F-spondin on RANKL-induced differentiation of clastic cells was partially blocked by knockdown of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8). These findings indicate that secretory factors from F-spondin-expressing cells, including F-spondin, downregulate differentiation of clastic precursors. Moreover, F-spondin inhibits RANKL-mediated differentiation of clastic cells partially via LRP8. It is suggested that secretory F-spondin may act protectively from cemental resorption partially via LRP8 in periodontal tissue.

  7. Strong improvement of apolipoprotein E/low-density lipoprotein receptor signals by telmisartan in poststroke spontaneously hypertensive stroke resistant.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toru; Zhai, Yun; Kurata, Tomoko; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker also called metabosartan, is a promising solution for preventing cognitive decline or the incidence of dementia. We examined the effects of telmisartan on cholesterol transport-related proteins (apolipoprotein E [ApoE]/low-density lipoprotein receptor [LDL-R]) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive stroke resistant (SHR-SR). SHR-SR received transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 minutes at 12 weeks of age and then was divided into 3 experiment groups including a vehicle, low-dose telmisartan (.3 mg/kg/day), and high-dose telmisartan (3 mg/kg/day). The low dose served to improve the metabolic syndrome of SHR-SR without lowering the blood pressure (BP) whereas the high dose was used to improve metabolic syndrome while lowering BP. Immunohistologic analysis showed that ApoE expression of cortical neurons was strong in the vehicle group at 6, 12, and 18 months of age, and that this ApoE expression pattern was very similar between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of cerebral ischemia. On the other hand, LDL-R expression of cortical neurons was transiently increased at 6 months of age only on the ipsilateral side. Telmisartan dramatically suppressed the expression of ApoE/LDL-R at both doses. There was no remarkable difference in neuronal MAP2 staining between the 3 groups. These findings suggest that both low and high doses of telmisartan prevented the activation of ApoE/LDL-R in SHR-SR after tMCAO, and that the antimetabolic effect was regarded as the most important mechanism with few additional benefits by lowering BP in this transient stroke model. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ah receptor ligands and tumor promotion: survival of neoplastic cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, M; Buchmann, A; Stinchcombe, S; Kalkuhl, A; Bock, K

    2000-03-15

    A number of agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon or dioxin receptor (AhR) are potent tumor promoters in rodent liver. The prototype compound is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Tumor promotion by TCDD is likely to be AhR-mediated. Tumor promoters may affect the rate of division, terminal differentiation or death (apoptosis) of tumor precursor cells. The present paper reviews some of the effects of TCDD on liver cell homeostasis that have been observed under diverse experimental settings and discusses some of the possible underlying mechanisms.

  9. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willecke, Florian; Yuan, Chujun; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Hu, Yunying; Barnhart, Shelley; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD) containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR). After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD), showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states. PMID:26046657

  10. Molecular cloning and partial characterization of an ovarian receptor with seven ligand binding repeats, an orthologue of low-density lipoprotein receptor, in the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki).

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenshu; Ito, Yuta; Mizuta, Hiroko; Massaki, Kiyohiro; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Todo, Takashi; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V; Hara, Akihiko

    2013-10-01

    Teleost fish eggs contain a substantial yolk mass consisting of lipids and proteins that provides essential nutrients for embryonic and larval development. The polar lipid and protein components of the yolk are delivered to oocytes by circulating vitellogenins, however the source(s) of the neutral lipid remains unknown. We cloned a cDNA encoding an orthologue of low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) from the ovary of cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki (ct-Ldlr). Predominant expression of ct-ldlr mRNA was observed in the ovary and moderate expression was detected in intestine, gill and brain. The relative abundance of ct-ldlr transcripts was highest in early pre-vitellogenic ovaries and significantly decreased during vitellogenesis, followed by a slight increase during final maturation and in post-ovulatory follicles. In situ hybridization revealed an intense and evenly distributed localization of ct-ldlr transcripts in the ooplasm of pre-vitellogenic oocytes and these signals disappeared in vitellogenic follicles. Collectively, these results suggest that the Ldlr is involved in deposition of yolk lipids in cutthroat trout oocytes. The ct-ldlr transcripts also were detected in theca and granulosa cells, suggesting that this receptor may be involved in cholesterol uptake for ovarian steroidogenesis. This is the first report on partial characterization of an ldlr orthologue in any fish species.

  11. Lectin-like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LOX-1): A Chameleon Receptor for Oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Zeya, Bushra; Arjuman, Albina; Chandra, Nimai Chand

    2016-08-16

    LOX-1, one of the main receptors for oxLDL, is found mainly on the surface of endothelial cells. It is a multifacet 52 kDa type II transmembrane protein that structurally belongs to the C-type lectin family. It exists with short intracellular N-terminal and long extracellular C-terminal hydrophilic domains separated by a hydrophobic domain of 26 amino acids. LOX-1 acts like a bifunctional receptor either showing pro-atherogenicity by activating the NFκB-mediated down signaling cascade for gene activation of pro-inflammatory molecules or playing an atheroprotective agent by receptor-mediated uptake of oxLDL in the presence of an anti-inflammatory molecule like IL-10. Mildly, moderately, and highly oxidized LDL show their characteristic features upon LOX-1 activation and its ligand binding indenture. The polymorphic LOX-1 genes are intensively associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial diseases. The splicing variant LOX IN dimerizes with the native form of LOX-1 and protects cells from damage by oxidized LDL. In the developing field of regenerating medicine, LOX-1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  12. NOD2 stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan is boosted by Toll-like receptor 2 costimulation with lipoproteins in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schäffler, Holger; Demircioglu, Dogan Doruk; Kühner, Daniel; Menz, Sarah; Bender, Annika; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bodammer, Peggy; Lamprecht, Georg; Götz, Friedrich; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that senses bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) structures, e.g., muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here we focused on the effect of more-cross-linked, polymeric PGN fragments (PGNpol) in the activation of the innate immune system. In this study, the effect of combined NOD2 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation was examined compared to single stimulation of the NOD2 receptor alone. PGNpol species derived from a lipoprotein-containing Staphylococcus aureus strain (SA113) and a lipoprotein-deficient strain (SA113 Δlgt) were isolated. While PGNpol constitutes a combined NOD2 and TLR2 ligand, lipoprotein-deficient PGNpolΔlgt leads to activation of the immune system only via the NOD2 receptor. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), J774 cells, and Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells were stimulated with these ligands. Cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) as well as DC activation and maturation parameters were measured. Stimulation with PGNpolΔlgt did not lead to enhanced cytokine secretion or DC activation and maturation. However, stimulation with PGNpol led to strong cytokine secretion and subsequent DC maturation. These results were confirmed in MM6 and J774 cells. We showed that the NOD2-mediated activation of DCs with PGNpol was dependent on TLR2 costimulation. Therefore, signaling via both receptors leads to a more potent activation of the immune system than that with stimulation via each receptor alone.

  13. Macrophage-derived foam cells freshly isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions degrade modified lipoproteins, promote oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and contain oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, M E; Khoo, J C; Miller, E; Parthasarathy, S; Palinski, W; Witztum, J L

    1991-01-01

    Pure macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of rabbits made atherosclerotic by balloon deendothelialization followed by diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The MFC were isolated under sterile conditions using an enzymatic digestion procedure and discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The purity of the MFC preparations was verified immunocytochemically with the macrophage specific monoclonal antibody RAM-11. MFC plated in medium containing 0.5% FCS for 24 h contained approximately 600 micrograms cholesterol per mg cell protein, 80% of which was esterified cholesterol. The MFC specifically degraded low density lipoprotein (LDL), acetyl-LDL, copper oxidized LDL, and beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) at rates comparable to mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in 5-h assays. MFC within sections of the atherosclerotic lesions from the ballooned rabbits as well as the MFC isolated from the same lesions in the presence of antioxidants, exhibited positive immunoreactivity with polyclonal guinea pig antisera and mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against malondialdehyde-LDL, and 4-hydroxynonal-LDL. The MFC also exhibited the capacity to induce the oxidation of LDL at rates comparable to those exhibited by MPM and rabbit aortic endothelial cells. These data provide direct evidence that arterial wall macrophages express modified LDL receptors in vivo, contain epitopes found in oxidized-LDL and are capable of oxidizing LDL even when maximally loaded with cholesterol. Images PMID:1985115

  14. Listeria monocytogenes CadC regulates cadmium efflux and fine-tunes lipoprotein localization to escape the host immune response and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Pombinho, Rita; Camejo, Ana; Vieira, Ana; Reis, Olga; Carvalho, Filipe; Almeida, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, Jorge Campos; Sousa, Sandra; Cabanes, Didier

    2017-03-23

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed Lm-cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that Lm-CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC, but not CadA, is required for Lm infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection. lspB overexpression promotes the release of the LpeA lipoprotein to the extracellular medium, inducing TNF- and IL-6 expression, thus impairing Lm survival in macrophages. We propose that Lm uses CadC to repress lspB expression during infection to avoid LpeA exposure to the host immune system, diminishing inflammatory cytokine expression and promoting intramacrophage survival and virulence. CadC appears as the first metal efflux pump regulator repurposed during infection to fine-tune lipoprotein processing and host responses.

  15. Listeria monocytogenes CadC regulates cadmium efflux and fine-tunes lipoprotein localization to escape the host immune response and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Pombinho, Rita; Camejo, Ana; Vieira, Ana; Reis, Olga; Carvalho, Filipe; Almeida, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, Jorge Campos; Sousa, Sandra; Cabanes, Didier

    2017-03-09

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed Lm-cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that Lm-CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC, but not CadA, is required for Lm infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection. lspB overexpression promotes the release of the LpeA lipoprotein to the extracellular medium, inducing TNF- and IL-6 expression, thus impairing Lm survival in macrophages. We propose that Lm uses CadC to repress lspB expression during infection to avoid LpeA exposure to the host immune system, diminishing inflammatory cytokine expression and promoting intramacrophage survival and virulence. CadC appears as the first metal efflux pump regulator repurposed during infection to fine-tune lipoprotein processing and host responses.

  16. Age- and sex-related differences in extra-hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Trapani, Laura; Marino, Maria; Pallottini, Valentina

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether differences in LDLr behavior in extra-hepatic tissues and whether extra-hepatic receptors could differentially contribute to cholesterol homeostasis under physiological conditions, we evaluated the presence and regulation of LDLr from both a gender and an aging perspective. We used the brain cortex, the gastrocnemius, and the heart ventricle of 3- and 12-month-old male and female rats. We observed a protein decrease of total LDLr in 12-month-old female rat brains that was completely restored by 17-β estradiol treatment. In the gastrocnemius, LDLr accumulates in the skeletal muscle in both male and female aged rats as a precursor probably due to a glycosylation impairment. In the heart, no modifications were observed in either older rats or rats of a specific gender. These data highlight a tissue-specific dysregulation of LDLr that is age- and gender-dependent.

  17. A randomized trial and novel SPR technique identifies altered lipoprotein-LDL receptor binding as a mechanism underlying elevated LDL-cholesterol in APOE4s

    PubMed Central

    Calabuig-Navarro, M. V.; Jackson, K. G.; Kemp, C. F.; Leake, D. S.; Walden, C. M.; Lovegrove, J. A.; Minihane, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    At a population level APOE4 carriers (~25% Caucasians) are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The penetrance of genotype is however variable and influenced by dietary fat composition, with the APOE4 allele associated with greater LDL-cholesterol elevation in response to saturated fatty acids (SFA). The etiology of this greater responsiveness is unknown. Here a novel surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR) is developed and used, along with hepatocyte (with the liver being the main organ modulating lipoprotein metabolism and plasma lipid levels) uptake studies to establish the impact of dietary fatty acid composition on, lipoprotein-LDL receptor (LDLR) binding, and hepatocyte uptake, according to APOE genotype status. In men prospectively recruited according to APOE genotype (APOE3/3 common genotype, or APOE3/E4), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) were isolated at fasting and 4–6 h following test meals rich in SFA, unsaturated fat and SFA with fish oil. In APOE4s a greater LDLR binding affinity of postprandial TRL after SFA, and lower LDL binding and hepatocyte internalization, provide mechanisms for the greater LDL-cholesterol raising effect. The SPR technique developed may be used for the future study of the impact of genotype, and physiological and behavioral variables on lipoprotein metabolism. Trial registration number NCT01522482. PMID:28276521

  18. A randomized trial and novel SPR technique identifies altered lipoprotein-LDL receptor binding as a mechanism underlying elevated LDL-cholesterol in APOE4s.

    PubMed

    Calabuig-Navarro, M V; Jackson, K G; Kemp, C F; Leake, D S; Walden, C M; Lovegrove, J A; Minihane, A M

    2017-03-09

    At a population level APOE4 carriers (~25% Caucasians) are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The penetrance of genotype is however variable and influenced by dietary fat composition, with the APOE4 allele associated with greater LDL-cholesterol elevation in response to saturated fatty acids (SFA). The etiology of this greater responsiveness is unknown. Here a novel surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR) is developed and used, along with hepatocyte (with the liver being the main organ modulating lipoprotein metabolism and plasma lipid levels) uptake studies to establish the impact of dietary fatty acid composition on, lipoprotein-LDL receptor (LDLR) binding, and hepatocyte uptake, according to APOE genotype status. In men prospectively recruited according to APOE genotype (APOE3/3 common genotype, or APOE3/E4), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) were isolated at fasting and 4-6 h following test meals rich in SFA, unsaturated fat and SFA with fish oil. In APOE4s a greater LDLR binding affinity of postprandial TRL after SFA, and lower LDL binding and hepatocyte internalization, provide mechanisms for the greater LDL-cholesterol raising effect. The SPR technique developed may be used for the future study of the impact of genotype, and physiological and behavioral variables on lipoprotein metabolism. Trial registration number NCT01522482.

  19. Characterization of a family of gamma-ray-induced CHO mutants demonstrates that the ldlA locus is diploid and encodes the low-density lipoprotein receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sege, R.D.; Kozarsky, K.F.; Krieger, M.

    1986-09-01

    The ldlA locus is one of four Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell loci which are known to be required for the synthesis of functional low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Previous studies have suggested that the ldlA locus is diploid and encodes the LDL receptor. To confirm this assignment, we have isolated a partial genomic clone of the Chinese hamster LDL receptor gene and used this and other nucleic acid and antibody probes to study a family of ldlA mutants isolated after gamma-irradiation. Our analysis suggests that there are two LDL receptor alleles in wild-type CHO cells. Each of the three mutants isolated after gamma-irradiation had detectable deletions affecting one of the two LDL receptor alleles. One of the mutants also had a disruption of the remaining allele, resulting in the synthesis of an abnormal receptor precursor which was not subject to Golgi-associated posttranslational glycoprotein processing. The correlation of changes in the expression, structure, and function of LDL receptors with deletions in the LDL receptor genes in these mutants directly demonstrated that the ldlA locus in CHO cells is diploid and encodes the LDL receptor. In addition, our analysis suggests that CHO cells in culture may contain a partial LDL receptor pseudogene.

  20. Characterization of a family of gamma-ray-induced CHO mutants demonstrates that the ldlA locus is diploid and encodes the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Sege, R D; Kozarsky, K F; Krieger, M

    1986-09-01

    The ldlA locus is one of four Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell loci which are known to be required for the synthesis of functional low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Previous studies have suggested that the ldlA locus is diploid and encodes the LDL receptor. To confirm this assignment, we have isolated a partial genomic clone of the Chinese hamster LDL receptor gene and used this and other nucleic acid and antibody probes to study a family of ldlA mutants isolated after gamma-irradiation. Our analysis suggests that there are two LDL receptor alleles in wild-type CHO cells. Each of the three mutants isolated after gamma-irradiation had detectable deletions affecting one of the two LDL receptor alleles. One of the mutants also had a disruption of the remaining allele, resulting in the synthesis of an abnormal receptor precursor which was not subject to Golgi-associated posttranslational glycoprotein processing. The correlation of changes in the expression, structure, and function of LDL receptors with deletions in the LDL receptor genes in these mutants directly demonstrated that the ldlA locus in CHO cells is diploid and encodes the LDL receptor. In addition, our analysis suggests that CHO cells in culture may contain a partial LDL receptor pseudogene.

  1. promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V.; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert; Stone, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are universal processes, which are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptor on the plasma membrane polarizes to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin-cable dependent vesicle delivery (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independent of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. PMID:27072657

  2. promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion.

  3. Altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice lacking both the melanocortin type 4 receptor and low density lipoprotein receptor

    PubMed Central

    Garten, Antje; Popkova, Yulia; Penke, Melanie; Franke, Christin; Ricken, Albert; Schulz, Angela; Kiess, Wieland; Huster, Daniel; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schiller, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. A number of animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are established but they significantly differ in the molecular and biochemical changes depending on the genetic modification and diet used. Mice deficient for melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut) develop hyperphagia, obesity, and subsequently NAFLD already under regular chow and resemble more closely the energy supply-driven obesity found in humans. This animal model was used to assess the molecular and biochemical consequences of hyperphagia-induced obesity on hepatic lipid metabolism. We analyzed transcriptome changes in Mc4rmut mice by RNA sequencing and used high resolution 1H magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to assess changes in the lipid composition. On the transcriptomic level we found significant changes in components of the triacylglycerol metabolism, unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathways, and lipid transport and storage compared to the wild-type. These findings were supported by increases in triacylglycerol, monounsaturated fatty acid, and arachidonic acid levels. The transcriptome signatures significantly differ from those of other NAFLD mouse models supporting the concept of hepatic subphenotypes depending on the genetic background and diet. Comparative analyses of our data with previous studies allowed for the identification of common changes and genotype-specific components and pathways involved in obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:28207798

  4. What are Lipoproteins doing in the Brain?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins in plasma transport lipids between tissues, however, only high density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to traverse the blood brain barrier; thus, lipoproteins found in the brain must be produced within the central nervous system. Apolipoproteins E (ApoE) and ApoJ are the most abundant apolipoproteins in the brain, are mostly synthesized by astrocytes and are found on HDL. In the hippocampus and other brain regions lipoproteins help regulate neurobehavioral functions by processes that are lipoprotein receptor-mediated. Moreover, lipoproteins and their receptors also have roles in the regulation of body weight and energy balance, i.e. through lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). Thus, understanding lipoproteins and their metabolism in the brain provides a new opportunity with potential therapeutic relevance. PMID:24189266

  5. Effect of alcohol on hepatic receptor of high density lipoproteins (HDL)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.C.; Miller, B.M. V.A. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN )

    1991-03-11

    Moderate alcohol intake has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol and proteins. The seemingly protective effect' of moderate alcohol drinking against cardiovascular diseases has been attributed to an increase in serum HDL. In this study, the authors show that a receptor for HDL is present in rat liver. Rat liver membrane was prepared by stepwise ultracentrifugation. Apo Al was iodinated using {sup 125}I-NaI and IODO-beads. HDL was labeled by incubating with {sup 125}I-apo Al then refloated be centrifugation. Binding of {sup 125}I-HDL to rat liver membrane reached equilibrium by 2-3 h and was saturable at 37C. The binding was inhibited 80% by excess unlabeled HDL, but was inhibited only 25% by excess LDL. It could also be inhibited by preincubating HDL with anti-apo Al or anti-apo E antisera but not with anti-apo AIV or control sera. The binding affinity of HDL to the liver membrane of rats fed alcohol for 5 wk was 50% that of their pair-fed controls. Thus a decrease in the binding of HDL to liver membrane due to alcohol-drinking may result in a slower clearance of HDL by the liver and consequently a higher HDL concentration in the serum.

  6. Kinetics of low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells: derivation and validation of a Briggs-Haldane-based kinetic model for evaluating receptor-mediated endocytotic processes in which receptors recycle.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, H J; Pellarin, L D

    1997-01-01

    The process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for receptors that recycle to the cell surface in an active form can be considered as being kinetically analogous to that of a uni-substrate, uni-product enzyme-catalysed reaction. In this study we have derived steady-state initial-velocity rate equations for this process, based on classical Briggs-Haldane and King-Altman kinetic approaches to multi-step reactions, and have evaluated this kinetic paradigm, using as a model system the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-mediated endocytosis of the trapped label [14C]sucrose-LDL in uninduced, steady-state Hep-G2 cells. Using the derived rate equations, together with experimentally determined values for Bmax (123 fmol/mg of cell protein), Kd (14.3 nM), the endocytotic rate constant ke (analogous to kcat; 0.163 min-1), Km (80 nM) and maximal internalization velocity (26.4 fmol/min per mg), we have calculated the ratio ke/Km (0.00204 nM-1.min-1), the bimolecular rate constant for LDL and LDL-receptor association (0. 00248 nM-1.min-1), the first-order rate constant for LDL-LDL-receptor complex dissociation (0.0354 min-1), the total cellular content of LDL receptors (154 fmol/mg of cell protein), the intracellular LDL receptor concentration (30.7 fmol/mg of cell protein) and the pseudo-first-order rate constant for LDL receptor recycling (0.0653 min-1). Based on this mathematical model, the kinetic mechanism for the receptor-mediated endocytosis of [14C]sucrose-LDL by steady-state Hep-G2 cells is one of constitutive endocytosis via independent internalization sites that follows steady-state Briggs-Haldane kinetics, such that LDL-LDL-receptor interactions are characterized by a rapid-high-affinity ligand-receptor association, followed by ligand-receptor complex internalization that is rapid relative to complex dissociation, and by receptor recycling that is more rapid than complex internalization and that serves to maintain 80% of cellular LDL receptors on the cell surface in

  7. The VLDL receptor promotes lipotoxicity and increases mortality in mice following an acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Perman, Jeanna C.; Boström, Pontus; Lindbom, Malin; Lidberg, Ulf; StÅhlman, Marcus; Hägg, Daniel; Lindskog, Henrik; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Omerovic, Elmir; Mattsson Hultén, Lillemor; Jeppsson, Anders; Petursson, Petur; Herlitz, Johan; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Strickland, Dudley K.; Ekroos, Kim; Olofsson, Sven-Olof; Borén, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Impaired cardiac function is associated with myocardial triglyceride accumulation, but it is not clear how the lipids accumulate or whether this accumulation is detrimental. Here we show that hypoxia/ischemia-induced accumulation of lipids in HL-1 cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts is dependent on expression of the VLDL receptor (VLDLR). Hypoxia-induced VLDLR expression in HL-1 cells was dependent on HIF-1α through its interaction with a hypoxia-responsive element in the Vldlr promoter, and VLDLR promoted the endocytosis of lipoproteins. Furthermore, VLDLR expression was higher in ischemic compared with nonischemic left ventricles from human hearts and was correlated with the total lipid droplet area in the cardiomyocytes. Importantly, Vldlr–/– mice showed improved survival and decreased infarct area following an induced myocardial infarction. ER stress, which leads to apoptosis, is known to be involved in ischemic heart disease. We found that ischemia-induced ER stress and apoptosis in mouse hearts were reduced in Vldlr–/– mice and in mice treated with antibodies specific for VLDLR. These findings suggest that VLDLR-induced lipid accumulation in the ischemic heart worsens survival by increasing ER stress and apoptosis. PMID:21670500

  8. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis. PMID:26237273

  9. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer. PMID:27036040

  10. Oxidized Lipoprotein Uptake Through the CD36 Receptor Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaguru, Gopalan; Choi, Ariel R.; Amarnani, Dhanesh; D'Amore, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accumulation of oxidized phospholipids/lipoproteins with age is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. We investigated the effect of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) on human RPE cells. Methods Primary human fetal RPE (hf-RPE) and ARPE-19 cells were treated with different doses of LDL or ox-LDL. Assessment of cell death was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release into the conditioned media. Barrier function of RPE was assayed by measuring transepithelial resistance. Lysosomal accumulation of ox-LDL was determined by immunostaining. Expression of CD36 was determined by RT-PCR; protein blot and function was examined by receptor blocking. NLRP3 inflammasome activation was assessed by RT-PCR, protein blot, caspase-1 fluorescent probe assay, and inhibitor assays. Results Treatment with ox-LDL, but not LDL, for 48 hours caused significant increase in hf-RPE and ARPE-19 (P < 0.001) cell death. Oxidized LDL treatment of hf-RPE cells resulted in a significant decrease in transepithelial resistance (P < 0.001 at 24 hours and P < 0.01 at 48 hours) relative to LDL-treated and control cells. Internalized ox-LDL was targeted to RPE lysosomes. Uptake of ox-LDL but not LDL significantly increased CD36 protein and mRNA levels by more than 2-fold. Reverse transcription PCR, protein blot, and caspase-1 fluorescent probe assay revealed that ox-LDL treatment induced NLRP3 inflammasome when compared with LDL treatment and control. Inhibition of NLRP3 activation using 10 μM isoliquiritigenin significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited ox-LDL induced cytotoxicity. Conclusions These data are consistent with the concept that ox-LDL play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD by NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation could attenuate RPE degeneration and AMD progression. PMID:27607416

  11. Intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia induce pulmonary artery atherosclerosis and ventricular dysfunction in low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Karen; Pattison, Jennifer; Peterson, Alexander B.; Juliano, Joseph; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Alvarez, Erika; Imamura, Toshihiro; Peterson, Kirk L.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Li, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea, who experience episodic hypoxia and hypercapnia during sleep, often demonstrate increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that sleep apnea patients would be predisposed to the development of atherosclerosis. To dissect the mechanisms involved, we developed an animal model in mice whereby we expose mice to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia (IHH) in normobaric environments. Two- to three-month-old low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 or 16 wk while being exposed to IHH for either 10 h/day or 24 h/day. Plasma lipid levels, pulmonary artery and aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiac function were then assayed. Surprisingly, atherosclerosis in the aorta of IHH mice was similar compared with controls. However, in IHH mice, atherosclerosis was markedly increased in the trunk and proximal branches of the pulmonary artery of exposed mice; even though plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were lower than in controls. Hemodynamic analysis revealed that right ventricular maximum pressure and isovolumic relaxation constant were significantly increased in IHH exposed mice and left ventricular % fractional shortening was reduced. In conclusion, 1) Intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia remarkably accelerated atherosclerotic lesions in the pulmonary artery of Ldlr−/− mice and 2) increased lesion formation in the pulmonary artery was associated with right and left ventricular dysfunction. These findings raise the possibility that patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be susceptible to atherosclerotic disease in the pulmonary vasculature, an observation that has not been previously recognized. PMID:23990245

  12. Dissection of the endogenous cellular pathways of PCSK9-induced low density lipoprotein receptor degradation: evidence for an intracellular route.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Steve; Mayer, Gaetan; Poupon, Viviane; McPherson, Peter S; Desjardins, Roxane; Ly, Kevin; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Day, Robert; Duclos, Franck J; Witmer, Mark; Parker, Rex; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G

    2009-10-16

    Elevated levels of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, leading to familial hypercholesterolemia, are enhanced by mutations in at least three major genes, the LDL receptor (LDLR), its ligand apolipoprotein B, and the proprotein convertase PCSK9. Single point mutations in PCSK9 are associated with either hyper- or hypocholesterolemia. Accordingly, PCSK9 is an attractive target for treatment of dyslipidemia. PCSK9 binds the epidermal growth factor domain A (EGF-A) of the LDLR and directs it to endosomes/lysosomes for destruction. Although the mechanism by which PCSK9 regulates LDLR degradation is not fully resolved, it seems to involve both intracellular and extracellular pathways. Here, we show that clathrin light chain small interfering RNAs that block intracellular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes rapidly increased LDLR levels within HepG2 cells in a PCSK9-dependent fashion without affecting the ability of exogenous PCSK9 to enhance LDLR degradation. In contrast, blocking the extracellular LDLR endocytosis/degradation pathway by a 4-, 6-, or 24-h incubation of cells with Dynasore or an EGF-AB peptide or by knockdown of endogenous autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia did not significantly affect LDLR levels. The present data from HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes favor a model whereby depending on the dose and/or incubation period, endogenous PCSK9 enhances the degradation of the LDLR both extra- and intracellularly. Therefore, targeting either pathway, or both, would be an effective method to reduce PCSK9 activity in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease.

  13. Development of Accelerated Coronary Atherosclerosis Model Using Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knock-Out Swine with Balloon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Onishi, Akira; Tsuboi, Shuta; Wada, Hideki; Konishi, Hirokazu; Naito, Ryo; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Kojima, Yuko; Schwartz, Robert S.; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Several animal models have facilitated the evaluation and pathological understanding of atherosclerosis, but a definitive animal model of coronary atherosclerosis is not available. We therefore developed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-KO) pigs with hypercholesterolemia, a model which rapidly developed coronary atherosclerosis following balloon injury. Methods and Results We deleted LDLR exon regions from cultured porcine fetal fibroblasts and cloned LDLR knockout (LDLR-KO) embryos microinjecting fetal fibroblast nuclei into enucleated oocytes. Twelve LDLR-KO pigs were fed a 2.0% cholesterol and 20% fat diet. Baseline serum LDL cholesterol level was 510.0±86.1 mg/dL. Balloon injury was created in 46 coronary segments and necropsy were obtained 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. Coronary artery sections were reviewed to evaluate lesion progression. We found lipid accumulation with foam cells and inflammatory cells beginning four weeks after balloon injury. The mean ratio of macrophages to plaque area was significantly higher in the four- weeks and eight-week animals compared with those at 2-weeks (8.79% ± 5.98% and 17.00% ± 10.38% vs. 1.14% ± 1.88%, P < 0.0001). At 12 weeks the ratio decreased toward the level at 2 week level (4.00% ± 4.56%, P = 0.66 vs. baseline). Advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions contained lipid pools at eight-weeks with fibrous components beginning at 12 weeks. Conclusions We developed a model of rapid coronary atherosclerosis using LDLR KO pigs with balloon injury. This model may be useful for preclinical evaluation of medication or devices, and may also help investigate mechanisms of plaque progression. PMID:27631974

  14. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-05-10

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer.

  15. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis.

  16. N-Succinyl-chitosan nanoparticles coupled with low-density lipoprotein for targeted osthole-loaded delivery to low-density lipoprotein receptor-rich tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-ge; Zhu, Qiao-ling; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei-liang; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Shu-di; Zhou, Xiao-feng; Zhu, Ai-jun; Zhang, Xue-nong; Jin, Yong

    2014-01-01

    N-Succinyl-chitosan (NSC) was synthesized and NSC nanoparticles (NPs) with loaded osthole (Ost) (Ost/NSC-NPs) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion. Subsequently, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated NSC-NPs with loaded Ost (Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs) were obtained by coupling LDL with Ost/NSC-NPs through amide linkage. The average particle size of Ost/NSC-NPs was approximately 145 nm, the entrapment efficiency was 78.28%±2.06%, and the drug-loading amount was 18.09%±0.17%. The release of Ost from Ost/NSC-NPs in vitro showed a more evident sustained effect than the native material. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs was only 16.23% that of the free Ost at 24 hours in HepG2 cells. Ost inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation by arresting cells in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle and by triggering apoptosis. Cellular uptake and subcellular localization in vitro and near-infrared fluorescence real-time imaging in vivo showed that Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs had high targeting efficacy. Therefore, LDL-NSC-NPs are a promising system for targeted Ost delivery to liver tumor. PMID:24966673

  17. Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein Increases C-Reactive Protein Expression in Vascular Endothelial Cells through the LOX-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Sheng; Wang, Yu-Chen; Lu, Long-Sheng; Walton, Brian; Yilmaz, H. Ramazan; Huang, Roger Y.; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Dixon, Richard A. F.; Lai, Wen-Ter; Chen, Chu-Huang; Lu, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1. Methods and Results Plasma LDL samples isolated from asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] levels, 154.6±20 mg/dL; n = 7) patients and normocholesterolemic (LDL-C levels, 86.1±21 mg/dL; P<0.001; n = 7) control individuals were chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions, L1-L5. The L5 percentage (L5%) and the plasma L5 concentration ([L5]  =  L5% × LDL-C) in the patient and control groups were 8.1±2% vs. 2.3±1% (P<0.001) and 12.6±4 mg/dL vs. 1.9±1 mg/dL (P<0.001), respectively. In hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin for 6 months (10 mg/day), [L5] decreased from 12.6±4 mg/dL to 4.5±1.1 mg/dL (P = 0.011; n = 5), whereas both [L5] and L5% returned to baseline levels in 2 noncompliant patients 3 months after discontinuation. In cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs), L5 upregulated CRP expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner up to 2.5-fold (P<0.01), whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, had no effect. DiI-labeled L1, internalized through the LDL receptor, became visible inside HAECs within 30 seconds. In contrast, DiI-labeled L5, internalized through LOX-1, became apparent after 5 minutes. L5-induced CRP expression manifested at 30 minutes and was attenuated by neutralizing LOX-1. After 30 minutes, L5 but not L1 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both L5-induced ROS and CRP production were attenuated by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine. Conclusions Our results suggest that CRP, L5, and LOX-1 form a cyclic

  18. Prior exposure to oxidized low-density lipoprotein limits apoptosis in subsequent generations of endothelial cells by altering promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sona; Khaidakov, Magomed; Lu, Jingjun; Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Szwedo, Jackob; Wang, Xian Wei; Chen, Chien; Khaidakov, Said; Kasula, Srikanth Reddy; Stone, Annjanette; Pogribny, Igor; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2011-08-01

    Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in atherogenesis, including apoptosis. As hypercholesterolemia causes epigenetic changes resulting in long-term phenotypic consequences, we hypothesized that repeated and continuous exposure to ox-LDL may alter the pattern of apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also analyzed global and promoter-specific methylation of apoptosis-related genes. As expected, ox-LDL evoked a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis in the first passage HUVECs that was completely abrogated by lectin-like ox-LDL receptor (LOX-1)-neutralizing antibody. Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis was associated with upregulation of proapoptotic LOX-1, ANXA5, BAX, and CASP3 and inhibition of antiapoptotic BCL2 and cIAP-1 genes accompanied with reciprocal changes in the methylation of promoter regions of these genes. Subsequent passages of cells displayed attenuated apoptotic response to repeat ox-LDL challenge with blunted gene expression and exaggerated methylation of LOX-1, BAX, ANXA5, and CASP3 genes (all P < 0.05 vs. first exposure to ox-LDL). Treatment of cells with LOX-1 antibody before initial ox-LDL treatment prevented both gene-specific promoter methylation and expression changes and reduction of apoptotic response to repeat ox-LDL challenge. Based on these data, we conclude that exposure of HUVECs to ox-LDL induces epigenetic changes leading to resistance to apoptosis in subsequent generations and that this effect may be related to the LOX-1-mediated increase in DNA methylation.

  19. Mechanism of GABAB receptor-induced BDNF secretion and promotion of GABAA receptor membrane expression.

    PubMed

    Kuczewski, Nicola; Fuchs, Celine; Ferrand, Nadine; Jovanovic, Jasmina N; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Porcher, Christophe

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that GABA(B) receptors play more than a classical inhibitory role and can function as an important synaptic maturation signal early in life. In a previous study, we reported that GABA(B) receptor activation triggers secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and promotes the functional maturation of GABAergic synapses in the developing rat hippocampus. To identify the signalling pathway linking GABA(B) receptor activation to BDNF secretion in these cells, we have now used the phosphorylated form of the cAMP response element-binding protein as a biological sensor for endogenous BDNF release. In the present study, we show that GABA(B) receptor-induced secretion of BDNF relies on the activation of phospholipase C, followed by the formation of diacylglycerol, activation of protein kinase C, and the opening of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. We further show that once released by GABA(B) receptor activation, BDNF increases the membrane expression of β(2/3) -containing GABA(A) receptors in neuronal cultures. These results reveal a novel function of GABA(B) receptors in regulating the expression of GABA(A) receptor through BDNF-tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor dependent signalling pathway.

  20. Effects of dietary sodium on reactive oxygen species formation and endothelial dysfunction in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice on high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ketonen, Juha; Mervaala, Eero

    2008-11-01

    Hypertension and high serum cholesterol level are important risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In the present study we tested the hypothesis whether high sodium intake, when given in combination with Western type high-fat diet, induces endothelial dysfunction and promotes atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the role and enzyme sources of increased oxidative stress were examined. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (LDLR(-/-)) and control C57Bl/6 mice received either high-fat, normal-sodium diet (fat 18% and cholesterol 0.5%; NaCl 0.7%; w/w) or high-fat, high-sodium diet (7% NaCl w/w) for 12 weeks. Superoxide formation was assessed by lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence, endothelial functions were examined ex vivo, and atherosclerotic lesions from the aorta were assessed by light microscopy. High-fat, high-sodium diet increased systolic blood pressure in LDLR(-/-) mice but not in C57Bl/6 mice, whereas it induced cardiac hypertrophy in both mouse strains. Dietary combination of fat and sodium induced endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice. Preincubation with a superoxide scavenger Tiron normalized endothelial dysfunction, whereas the hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase did not alter endothelial function. High sodium intake induced superoxide formation in LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors in the endothelial cells by acetylcholine increased superoxide generation, whereas preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-arginine methyl ester or endothelium removal reduced superoxide production. Inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase by apocynin decreased vascular superoxide formation whereas the xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol did not significantly affect oxidative stress in LDLR(-/-) mice. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of dietary sodium on endothelial function and progression of atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet are

  1. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is upregulated in epicardial fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and correlates with glucose and triglyceride plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Nasarre, L; Juan-Babot, O; Gastelurrutia, P; Llucia-Valldeperas, A; Badimon, L; Bayes-Genis, A; Llorente-Cortés, V

    2014-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptor expression plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of adipose tissue in in vivo models of diabetes. However, there are no studies in diabetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression in epicardial and subcutaneous fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with nondiabetic patients and (b) the possible correlation between the expression of these receptors and plasmatic parameters. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained from diabetic (n = 54) and nondiabetic patients (n = 22) undergoing cardiac surgery before the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adipose LRP1 and VLDLR expression was analyzed at mRNA level by real-time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Adipose samples were also subjected to lipid extraction, and fat cholesterol ester, triglyceride, and free cholesterol contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. LRP1 expression was higher in epicardial fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (mRNA 17.63 ± 11.37 versus 7.01 ± 4.86; P = 0.02; protein 11.23 ± 7.23 versus 6.75 ± 5.02, P = 0.04). VLDLR expression was also higher in epicardial fat from diabetic patients but only at mRNA level (231.25 ± 207.57 versus 56.64 ± 45.64, P = 0.02). No differences were found in the expression of LRP1 or VLDLR in the subcutaneous fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Epicardial LRP1 and VLDLR mRNA overexpression positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01 and R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.03, respectively) and epicardial LRP1 also correlated with plasma glucose levels (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.03). These results suggest that epicardial overexpression of certain lipoprotein receptors such as LRP1 and VLDLR expression may play a key role in the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  3. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  4. Liver X receptor activation promotes macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport in a dyslipidemic hamster model

    PubMed Central

    Briand, François; Tréguier, Morgan; André, Agnès; Grillot, Didier; Issandou, Marc; Ouguerram, Khadija; Sulpice, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) activation promotes reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in rodents but has major side effects (increased triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels) in species expressing cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). In the face of dyslipidemia, it remains unclear whether LXR activation stimulates RCT in CETP species. We therefore used a hamster model made dyslipidemic with a 0.3% cholesterol diet and treated with vehicle or LXR agonist GW3965 (30 mg/kg bid) over 10 days. To investigate RCT, radiolabeled 3H-cholesterol macrophages or 3H-cholesteryl oleate-HDL were then injected to measure plasma and feces radioactivity over 72 or 48 h, respectively. The cholesterol-enriched diet increased VLDL-triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in all lipoprotein fractions and strongly increased liver lipids. Overall, GW3965 failed to improve both dyslipidemia and liver steatosis. However, after 3H-cholesterol labeled macrophage injection, GW3965 treatment significantly increased the 3H-tracer appearance by 30% in plasma over 72 h, while fecal 3H-cholesterol excretion increased by 156% (P < 0.001). After 3H-cholesteryl oleate-HDL injection, GW3965 increased HDL-derived cholesterol fecal excretion by 64% (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle), while plasma fractional catabolic rate remained unchanged. Despite no beneficial effect on dyslipidemia, LXR activation promotes macrophage-to-feces RCT in dyslipidemic hamsters. These results emphasize the use of species with a more human-like lipoprotein metabolism for drug profiling. PMID:19965597

  5. Physical and functional interactions between nuclear receptor LXRα and the forkhead box transcription factor FOXA2 regulate the response of the human lipoprotein lipase gene to oxysterols in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Maria; Tiniakou, Ioanna; Thymiakou, Efstathia; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2017-08-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as VLDL and chylomicrons in the circulation. Mutations in LPL or its activator apolipoprotein C-II cause hypertriglyceridemia in humans and animal models. The levels of LPL in the liver are low but they can be strongly induced by a high cholesterol diet or by synthetic ligands of Liver X Receptors (LXRs). However, the mechanism by which LXRs activate the human LPL gene is unknown. In the present study we show that LXR agonists increased the mRNA and protein levels as well as the promoter activity of human LPL in HepG2 cells. A promoter deletion analysis defined the proximal -109/-28 region, which contains a functional FOXA2 element, as essential for transactivation by ligand-activated LXRα/RXRα heterodimers. Silencing of endogenous FOXA2 in HepG2 cells by siRNAs or by treatment with insulin compromised the induction of the LPL gene by LXR agonists whereas mutations in the FOXA2 site abolished the synergistic transactivation of the LPL promoter by LXRα/RXRα and FOXA2. Physical and functional interactions between LXRα and FOXA2 were established in vitro and ex vivo. In summary, the present study revealed a novel mechanism of human LPL gene induction by oxysterols in the liver with is based on physical and functional interactions between transcription factors LXRα and FOXA2. This mechanism, which may not be restricted to the LPL gene, is critically important for a better understanding of the regulation of cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in the liver under healthy or pathological states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the ligand-binding domain of human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Tomoko; Ohki, Izuru; Oyama, Takuji; Machida, Sachiko; Morikawa, Kousuke; Tate, Shin-ichi

    2005-05-01

    Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. One crystal form contains the disulfide-linked dimer, which is the form of the molecule present on the cell surface; the other contains a monomeric form of the receptor that lacks the cysteine residue necessary to form disulfide-linked homodimers. The crystal of the monomeric ligand-binding domain belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.79, b = 67.57, c = 79.02 Å. The crystal of the dimeric form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.86, b = 49.56, c = 76.73 Å, β = 98.59°. Data for the dimeric form of the LOX-1 ligand-binding domain have been collected to 2.4 Å. For the monomeric form of the ligand-binding domain, native, heavy-atom derivative and SeMet-derivative crystals have been obtained; their diffraction data have been measured to 3.0, 2.4 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively.

  7. Macrophage impairment produced by Fc receptor gamma deficiency plays a principal role in the development of lipoprotein glomerulopathy in concert with apoE abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenji; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Maho; Ishimura, Atsunori; Miyahara, Yoshito; Abe, Yasuhiro; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Ifuku, Masakazu; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Saito, Takao

    2012-10-01

    To obtain a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG), we studied the role of the deficiency of Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRγ) for the development of LPG in concert with apolipoprotein E (apoE) abnormalities. We generated apoE and FcRγ double-knockout (FcRγ/apoE-KO) mice, and subsequently introduced several kinds of human recombinant apoE genes. At 21 days after infection, the mice were sacrificed and histologically examined. Peritoneal macrophages were evaluated for their response to modified lipids. In the FcRγ/apoE-KO mice, the human apoE3-injected mice showed the most drastic LPG-like changes, as well as prominent hypertriglyceridemia. Meanwhile, relative to the human apoE3-injected mice, the FcRγ/apoE-KO mice showed greater lipoprotein deposition and less macrophage infiltration into the mesangial area. Moreover, the peritoneal macrophages in the apoE/FcRγ-KO mice were impaired in lipid uptake and secretion of the cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, after the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. These results suggest that the impairment of macrophage function resulting from FcRγ deficiency plays a principal role in the development of LPG in the presence of apoE abnormalities.

  8. Lectin-like, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1-deficient mice show resistance to age-related knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Oda, Yutaka; Nakamura, Fumihisa; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Akagi, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The lectin-like, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1)/ox-LDL system contributes to atherosclerosis and may be involved in cartilage degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the LOX-1/ox-LDL system contributes to age-related osteoarthritis (OA) in vivo, using LOX-1 knockout (LOX-1 KO) mice. Knee cartilage from 6, 12, and 18-month old (n = 10/group) C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) and LOX-1 KO mice was evaluated by determining the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score of Safranin-O stained samples. The prevalence of knee OA in both mouse strains was also investigated. Expression levels of LOX-1, ox-LDL, runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), type-X collagen (COL X), and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in the articular chondrocytes were analyzed immunohistologically. No significant difference was observed in the mean scores of WT (2.00±0.61) and LOX-1 KO mice (2.00±0.49) at 6 months of age (P=1.00, n=10). At 12 and 18 months of age, the mean scores of LOX-1 KO mice (3.75±0.93 and 5.50±0.78) were significantly lower than those of WT mice (5.25±1.14 and 9.00±1.01; P<0.001 in both cases; n=10). The prevalence of OA in LOX-1 KO mice was lower than that in WT mice at 12 and 18 months of age (40 vs 70%, 70 vs 90%, respectively; n=10). The expression levels of Runx2, COL X, and MMP-13 in articular chondrocytes significantly decreased in LOX-1 KO, mice compared with those in WT mice. The study indicated that the LOX-1/ox-LDL system in chondrocytes plays a role in the pathogenesis of age-related knee OA, which is potentially a target for preventing OA progression. PMID:28348422

  9. Identification of a common low density lipoprotein receptor mutation (C163Y) in the west of Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W K; Haddad, L; Macleod, M J; Dorrance, A M; Wilson, D J; Gaffney, D; Dominiczak, M H; Packard, C J; Day, I N; Humphries, S E; Dominiczak, A F

    1998-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal codominant disorder characterised by high levels of LDL cholesterol and a high incidence of coronary artery disease. Our aims were to track the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in individual families with phenotypic FH and to identify and characterise any mutations of the LDLR gene that may be common in the west of Scotland FH population using single strand conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP). Patient samples consisted of 80 heterozygous probands with FH, 200 subjects who were related to the probands, and a further 50 normal, unrelated control subjects. Tracking of the LDLR gene was accomplished by amplification of a 19 allele tetranucleotide microsatellite that is tightly linked to the LDLR gene locus. Primers specific for exon 4 of the LDLR gene were used to amplify genomic DNA and used for SSCP analysis. Any PCR products with different migration patterns as assessed by SSCP were then sequenced directly. In addition to identifying probands with a common mutation, family members were screened using a forced restriction site assay and analysed using microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis (MADGE). Microsatellite D19S394 analysis was informative in 20 of 23 families studied. In these families there was no inconsistency with segregation of the FH phenotype with the LDLR locus. Of the FH probands, 15/80 had a mutant allele as assessed by SSCP using three pairs of primers covering the whole of exon 4 of the LDLR gene. Direct DNA sequencing showed that 7/15 of the probands had a C163Y mutation. Using a PCR induced restriction site assay for the enzyme RsaI and MADGE, it was determined that the C163Y mutation cosegregated with the FH phenotype in family members of the FH probands. This mutant allele was not present in any of the control subjects. Microsatellite analysis has proven useful in tracking the LDLR gene and could be used in conjunction with LDL cholesterol levels to diagnose FH

  10. Brain endogenous liver X receptor ligands selectively promote midbrain neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Wang, Yuqin; Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Sacchetti, Paola; Sousa, Kyle M; Bodin, Karl; Kirk, Jayne; Saltó, Carmen; Gustafsson, Magnus; Toledo, Enrique M; Karu, Kersti; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R; Ernfors, Patrik; Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J; Arenas, Ernest

    2013-02-01

    Liver X receptors (Lxrα and Lxrβ) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors critical for ventral midbrain neurogenesis in vivo. However, no endogenous midbrain Lxr ligand has so far been identified. Here we used LC/MS and functional assays to identify cholic acid as a new Lxr ligand. Moreover, 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (24,25-EC) was found to be the most potent and abundant Lxr ligand in the developing mouse midbrain. Both Lxr ligands promoted neural development in an Lxr-dependent manner in zebrafish in vivo. Notably, each ligand selectively regulated the development of distinct midbrain neuronal populations. Whereas cholic acid increased survival and neurogenesis of Brn3a-positive red nucleus neurons, 24,25-EC promoted dopaminergic neurogenesis. These results identify an entirely new class of highly selective and cell type-specific regulators of neurogenesis and neuronal survival. Moreover, 24,25-EC promoted dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells, suggesting that Lxr ligands may thus contribute to the development of cell replacement and regenerative therapies for Parkinson's disease.

  11. [Association and interaction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α with low high-density lipoprotein hyperlipidemia and with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-meng; Gu, Shu-jun; Guo, Zhi-rong; Wu, Ming; Chen, Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Yu, Hao; Ding, Yi; Luo, Wen-shu

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the association of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (α, δ, γ) with low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) hyperlipidemia and the additional role of a gene-gene interactions among the 10 SNPs. Participants were recruited under the framework of the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and MS in Jiangsu Province) cohort populations survey, in the urban community of Jiangsu province, China. 820 subjects (579 normal HDL-C, 241 low HDL-C) were randomly selected, with one of them related to each other. Ten SNPs (rs135539, rs4253778, rs1800206, rs2016520, rs9794, rs10865710, rs1805192, rs709158, rs3856806, rs4684847) were selected from the HapMap database, which covered PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between ten SNPs in the PPARs and low HDL-C. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confident interval (95%CI) were calculated. Interactions were explored by using the method of Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR). After adjusting the factors as age, sex, smoking status, occupational physical activity, high-fat diet as well as low-fiber diet, both rs135539 and rs1800206 were significantly associated with the incidence of low HDL-C, with the OR (95% CI) values as 1.46 (1.07 - 1.99) and 0.62 (0.42 - 0.90). No statistically significant difference was found between other SNPs and the occurrence of low HDL-C. Data from GMDR analysis showed significant gene-gene interaction among rs135539, rs4253778 of PPARα and rs10865710, rs3856806, rs709158 and rs4684847 of PPAR γ (P = 0.0107). PPARα rs135539 was associated with the occurrence of low HDL-C, and had interacted with rs4253778, rs10865710, rs3856806, rs709158 and rs4684847.

  12. Marked hypocholesterolemia in a case with adrenal adenoma--enhanced catabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptors of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Ueyama, Y; Nozaki, S; Yamashita, S; Menju, M; Funahashi, T; Kameda-Takemura, K; Kubo, M; Tokunaga, K; Tanaka, T

    1995-01-01

    A 16-yr-old girl was hospitalized because of amenorrhea and virilism, and was diagnosed with an adrenal tumor on the right side. Her serum androgen levels were markedly elevated, and severe hypocholesterolemia (total cholesterol, 0.59 mmol/L) was observed. After resection of the tumor, her serum cholesterol level dramatically rose to normal, suggesting a role of this tumor in her marked hypocholesterolemia. To investigate the mechanism of hypocholesterolemia in this case, we examined the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity of fibroblasts. These hormones did not have any effect on LDL receptor activity. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the LDL receptor messenger ribonucleic acid level of this tumor tissue was increased about 8-fold compared with that of normal adrenal cortex. The LDL receptor activity of the cultured cells established from this tumor was 2-fold higher than that of Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, the LDL receptor activity could not be down-regulated by an excessive dose of 25-hydroxycholesterol. These results suggest that increased LDL receptor activity and unrestricted uptake of LDL by the adrenal tumor may have caused the marked hypocholesterolemia in this patient.

  13. Interactions among the glucocorticoid receptor, lipoprotein lipase and adrenergic receptor genes and abdominal fat in the Québec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, O; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2001-09-01

    To investigate whether interactions between glucocorticoid receptor (GRL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adrenergic receptor (ADR) gene markers contribute to individual differences in indicators of adiposity and abdominal obesity, including visceral fat level. Cross-sectional study; 742 individuals from the phase 2 of the Québec Family Study cohort. Total body fat assessed by hydrodensitometry and the sum of six skinfolds. Abdominal fat areas measured by computed tomography and adjusted for age, sex and total fat mass in all analyses. GRL Bcl I, alpha 2A-ADR Dra I and beta 2-ADR Ban I markers were typed by Southern blot, and other markers by polymerase chain reaction technique. It is confirmed that the 4.5 kb allele of the GRL BclI polymorphism is associated with a higher amount of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) depot (P for trend<0.001) independent of the level of total body fat. Furthermore, the alpha 2-ADR Dra I variant is associated with lower cross-sectional areas of abdominal total (P=0.003) and subcutaneous (P=0.012) adipose tissue. Gene-gene interactions between GRL and alpha 2-ADR genes affecting overall adiposity (P=0.016) as well as between GRL and beta 2-ADR genes (P=0.049) having influence on total abdominal fat levels were observed. When the three genes were considered together in the same analysis, significant interactions having influence on overall adiposity (P=0.017), abdominal total (P=0.032) and visceral fat (P=0.002) were observed. About 1-2% of the total variation in total fatness and abdominal fat was explained by these gene-gene interactions. There is an association between the GRL BclI polymorphism and increased AVF levels independent of the level of total body fat. The alpha 2-ADR DraI variant is associated with a lower cross-sectional area of abdominal total fat. Numerous interactions between GRL and ADR markers on overall adiposity and total abdominal fat as well as between GRL, LPL and ADR genes on overall adiposity, abdominal total and

  14. Lipoprotein binding to cultured human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krempler, F; Kostner, G M; Friedl, W; Paulweber, B; Bauer, H; Sandhofer, F

    1987-01-01

    Binding of various 125I-lipoproteins to hepatic receptors was studied on cultured human hepatoma cells (Hep G2). Chylomicrons, isolated from a chylothorax, chylomicron remnants, hypertriglyceridemic very low-density lipoproteins, normotriglyceridemic very low-density lipoproteins (NTG-VLDL), their remnants, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and HDL-E (an Apo E-rich high-density lipoprotein isolated from the plasma of a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis) were bound by high-affinity receptors. Chylomicron remnants and HDL-E were bound with the highest affinity. The results, obtained from competitive binding experiments, are consistent with the existence of two distinct receptors on Hep G2 cells: (a) a remnant receptor capable of high-affinity binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL-E, but not of Apo E free LDL, and (b) a LDL receptor capable of high-affinity binding of LDL, NTG-VLDL, and HDL-E. Specific binding of Apo E-free LDL was completely abolished in the presence of 3 mM EDTA, indicating that binding to the LDL receptor is calcium dependent. Specific binding of chylomicron remnants was not inhibited by the presence of even 10 mM EDTA. Preincubation of the Hep G2 cells in lipoprotein-containing medium resulted in complete suppression of LDL receptors but did not affect the remnant receptors. Hep G2 cells seem to be a suitable model for the study of hepatic receptors for lipoprotein in man. Images PMID:3038957

  15. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein/Apolipoprotein E receptor and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9pter-p23[sup 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gafvels, M.E.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Caird, M.; Patterson, D. ); Britt, D.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors report the cloning of a 3656-bp cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor. The gene encoding this protein was mapped to chromosome 9pter-p23. Northern analysis of human RNA identified cognate mRNAs of 6.0 and 3.8 kb with most abundant expression in heart and skeletal muscle, followed by kidney, placenta, pancreas, and brain. The pattern of expression generally paralleled that of lipoprotein lipase mRNA but differed from that of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/[alpha][sub 2]-macroglobulin receptor (LRP), which are members of the same gene family. VLDL/ApoE receptor message was not detected in liver, whereas mRNAs for both LDL receptor and LRP were found in hepatic tissue. In mouse 3T3-L1 cells, VLDL/ApoE receptor mRNA was induced during the transformation of the cells into adipocytes. Expression was also detected in human choriocarcinoma cells, suggesting that at least part of the expression observed in placenta may be in trophoblasts, cells which would be exposed to maternal blood. Expression in brain may be related to high levels of ApoE expression in that organ, an observation of potential relevance to the recently hypothesized role for ApoE in late onset Alzheimer disease. The results suggest that the putative VLDL/ApoE receptor could play a role in the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles by specific organs including striated and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue and in the transport of maternal lipids across the placenta. The findings presented here, together with recent observations from other laboratories, bring up the possibility that a single gene, the VLDL/ApoE receptor, may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and obesity.

  16. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Koki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hirase, Tetsuaki; Node, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  17. Differential expression of Low density lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in prostate gland: From normal to malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Gilardoni, Mónica B; Remedi, María M; Oviedo, Mabel; Dellavedova, Tristán; Sarría, Juan P; Racca, Laura; Dominguez, Mariana; Pellizas, Claudia G; Donadio, Ana C

    2017-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are relevant modulators of inflammation, tumor microenvironment, cancer invasion and metastasis. They can be regulated by the Low density lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP-1), a receptor reported to mediate the clearance of lipoproteins, extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules and proteinases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of LRP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 across various grades of prostatic diseases as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), BPH plus prostatitis (BPH+P), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostate cancer (PCa). LRP-1 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and MMPs proteolytic activity by zymography in prostate tissues with different prostatic diseases. LRP-1 was detected in epithelial cells in BPH (16/18), BPH+P (21/21) and HGPIN (6/6), with a staining intensity of 1+, 1+/2+ and 3+, respectively. In PCa, LRP-1 was absent in 19/27 samples while a low expression was observed in 8/27 biopsies. MMP-9 activity was higher and statistically significant in PCa than in BPH (p≤0.01). Considering that LRP-1, by mediating the clearance of MMPs, is involved in the regulation of ECM remodeling and cell migration, we conclude that a decreased expression of LRP-1 could be involved with the increasing activity of MMPs shown in cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent advances in physiological lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Indra

    2014-12-01

    Research into lipoprotein metabolism has developed because understanding lipoprotein metabolism has important clinical indications. Lipoproteins are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Recent advances include the identification of factors in the synthesis and secretion of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, chylomicrons (CM) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). These included the identification of microsomal transfer protein, the cotranslational targeting of apoproteinB (apoB) for degradation regulated by the availability of lipids, and the characterization of transport vesicles transporting primordial apoB containing particles to the Golgi. The lipase maturation factor 1, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1 and an angiopoietin-like protein play a role in lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated hydrolysis of secreted CMs and VLDL so that the right amount of fatty acid is delivered to the right tissue at the right time. Expression of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has a pivotal role in the degradation of LDL receptor. Plasma remnant lipoproteins bind to specific receptors in the liver, the LDL receptor, VLDL receptor and LDL receptor-like proteins prior to removal from the plasma. Reverse cholesterol transport occurs when lipid free apoAI recruits cholesterol and phospholipid to assemble high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The discovery of ABC transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) provided further information on the biogenesis of HDL. In humans HDL-cholesterol can be returned to the liver either by direct uptake by SR-BI or through cholesteryl ester transfer protein exchange of cholesteryl ester for triglycerides in apoB lipoproteins, followed by hepatic uptake of apoB containing particles. Cholesterol content in cells is regulated by several

  19. CdiA promotes receptor-independent intercellular adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Zachary C; Townsley, Loni; Wallace, Adam B; King, Andrew; Van der Woude, Marjan W; Low, David A; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Hayes, Christopher S

    2015-10-01

    CdiB/CdiA proteins mediate inter-bacterial competition in a process termed contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Filamentous CdiA exoproteins extend from CDI(+) cells and bind specific receptors to deliver toxins into susceptible target bacteria. CDI has also been implicated in auto-aggregation and biofilm formation in several species, but the contribution of CdiA-receptor interactions to these multi-cellular behaviors has not been examined. Using Escherichia coli isolate EC93 as a model, we show that cdiA and bamA receptor mutants are defective in biofilm formation, suggesting a prominent role for CdiA-BamA mediated cell-cell adhesion. However, CdiA also promotes auto-aggregation in a BamA-independent manner, indicating that the exoprotein possesses an additional adhesin activity. Cells must express CdiA in order to participate in BamA-independent aggregates, suggesting that adhesion could be mediated by homotypic CdiA-CdiA interactions. The BamA-dependent and BamA-independent interaction domains map to distinct regions within the CdiA filament. Thus, CdiA orchestrates a collective behavior that is independent of its growth-inhibition activity. This adhesion should enable 'greenbeard' discrimination, in which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate with one another based on a single shared trait. This kind-selective social behavior could provide immediate fitness benefits to bacteria that acquire the systems through horizontal gene transfer.

  20. Decreased expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 in hypothyroidism: a novel mechanism of atherogenic dyslipidemia in hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kim, Hyun Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Jang, Hak Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2013-09-01

    The atherogenic effects of hypothyroidism on lipid metabolism could result, in part, from the reduced clearance of remnant lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated the expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a receptor for remnant lipoproteins, in hypothyroidism and the effect of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) treatment on hepatic LRP1 expression. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (control group) or a low-iodine diet supplemented with 0.15% propylthiouracil (PTU/LI group) for 4 weeks. Mice in the PTU/LI group were injected intraperitoneally with T3 (0, 30, and 150 μg/kg of body weight) for 7 days. HepG2 cells were incubated in fetal bovine serum or charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum with various concentrations of T3. The expression and function of LRP1 in liver samples and cells were analyzed. Hypothyroidism was successfully induced in PTU/LI mice. Hepatic LRP1 protein expression was lower in the PTU/LI group than in the control group. T3 treatment upregulated hepatic LRP1 protein expression in PTU/LI mice. LRP1 expression in HepG2 cells was reduced after incubation in the medium containing charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum, which mimics hypothyroidism in vitro, and was recovered by T3 treatment. The protein expression of LRP1 in HepG2 cells was increased by T3 treatment in a dose-dependent manner up to 2.0 nM T3. However, LRP1 mRNA transcription was not affected by hypothyroidism conditions or T3 treatment, either in liver samples or in HepG2 cells. T3 treatment on HepG2 cells increased cellular uptake of lipid-conjugated apolipoprotein E through LRP1. Our data demonstrate that hepatic LRP1 expression and function decrease in hypothyroidism and are regulated by the thyroid hormone. These results suggest that in hypothyroidism, decreased expression of hepatic LRP1 may be associated with reduced clearance of circulating remnant lipoproteins.

  1. Familial hypercholesterolemia in St-Petersburg: the known and novel mutations found in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Faina M; Damgaard, Dorte; Mandelshtam, Michail Y; Golubkov, Valery I; Nissen, Peter H; Nilsen, Gitte G; Stenderup, Anette; Lipovetsky, Boris M; Konstantinov, Vladimir O; Denisenko, Alexander D; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Faergeman, Ole

    2005-02-08

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a human monogenic disease caused by population-specific mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene. Despite thirteen different mutations of the LDL receptor gene were reported from Russia prior to 2003, the whole spectrum of disease-causing gene alterations in this country is poorly known and requires further investigation provided by the current study. Forty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of FH were tested for the apolipoprotein B (apoB) mutation R3500Q by restriction fragment length analysis. After exclusion of R3500Q mutation high-sensitive fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and automatic DNA sequencing were used to search for mutations in the LDL receptor gene. We found twenty one rare sequence variations of the LDL receptor gene. Nineteen were probably pathogenic mutations, and two (P518P, T705I) were considered as neutral ones. Among the mutations likely to be pathogenic, eight were novel (c.670-671insG, C249X, c.936-940del5, c.1291-1331del41, W422X, c.1855-1856insA, D601N, C646S), and eleven (Q12X, IVS3+1G>A, c.651-653del3, E207X, c.925-931del7, C308Y, L380H, c.1302delG, IVS9+1G>A, V776M, V806I) have already been described in other populations. None of the patients had the R3500Q mutation in the apoB gene. Nineteen pathogenic mutations in the LDL receptor gene in 23 probands were identified. Two mutations c.925-931del7 and L380H are shared by St.-Petersburg population with neighbouring Finland and several other mutations with Norway, Sweden or Denmark, i.e. countries from the Baltic Sea region. Only four mutations (c.313+1G>A, c.651-653del3, C308Y and W422X) were recurrent as all those were found in two unrelated families. By this study the number of known mutations in the LDL receptor gene in St.-Petersburg area was increased nearly threefold. Analysis of all 34 low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations found in St.-Petersburg argues against strong founder

  2. Familial hypercholesterolemia in St.-Petersburg: the known and novel mutations found in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Faina M; Damgaard, Dorte; Mandelshtam, Michail Y; Golubkov, Valery I; Nissen, Peter H; Nilsen, Gitte G; Stenderup, Anette; Lipovetsky, Boris M; Konstantinov, Vladimir O; Denisenko, Alexander D; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Faergeman, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is a human monogenic disease caused by population-specific mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene. Despite thirteen different mutations of the LDL receptor gene were reported from Russia prior to 2003, the whole spectrum of disease-causing gene alterations in this country is poorly known and requires further investigation provided by the current study. Methods Forty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of FH were tested for the apolipoprotein B (apoB) mutation R3500Q by restriction fragment length analysis. After exclusion of R3500Q mutation high-sensitive fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and automatic DNA sequencing were used to search for mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Results We found twenty one rare sequence variations of the LDL receptor gene. Nineteen were probably pathogenic mutations, and two (P518P, T705I) were considered as neutral ones. Among the mutations likely to be pathogenic, eight were novel (c.670-671insG, C249X, c.936-940del5, c.1291-1331del41, W422X, c.1855-1856insA, D601N, C646S), and eleven (Q12X, IVS3+1G>A, c.651-653del3, E207X, c.925-931del7, C308Y, L380H, c.1302delG, IVS9+1G>A, V776M, V806I) have already been described in other populations. None of the patients had the R3500Q mutation in the apoB gene. Conclusions Nineteen pathogenic mutations in the LDL receptor gene in 23 probands were identified. Two mutations c.925-931del7 and L380H are shared by St.-Petersburg population with neighbouring Finland and several other mutations with Norway, Sweden or Denmark, i.e. countries from the Baltic Sea region. Only four mutations (c.313+1G>A, c.651-653del3, C308Y and W422X) were recurrent as all those were found in two unrelated families. By this study the number of known mutations in the LDL receptor gene in St.-Petersburg area was increased nearly threefold. Analysis of all 34 low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations found in St

  3. The inhibitory effect of soy protein isolate on atherosclerosis in mice does not require the presence of LDL receptors or alteration of plasma lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael R; Golden, Deborah L; Anthony, Mary S; Register, Thomas C; Williams, J Koudy

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary soy favorably influences lipoprotein metabolism and inhibits atherosclerosis are uncertain. Studies of blood mononuclear cells and cultured hepatocytes have indicated that certain soy peptides (i.e., 7S globulins) stimulate expression of LDL receptors. This pathway represents a hypothetical mechanism by which soy's hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects may be mediated. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. To address this, we compared effects of dietary soy protein isolate in two genetically engineered mouse models of atherosclerosis. One mouse [LDL receptor -/- + apolipoprotein (apo) B transgenic] is devoid of LDL receptors and overproduces apolipoprotein B, whereas the other (apoE -/-) has a normal complement of LDL receptors but does not produce apolipoprotein E. Male (n = 10-12/group) and ovariectomized female (n = 10-12/group) mice were studied. There were three treatment groups, which differed principally by the source of the protein component of the diet: 1) casein/lactalbumin (no isoflavones), 2) alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (total isoflavones = 0.04 mg/g), and 3) intact soy protein isolate (total isoflavones = 1.72 mg/g). Atherosclerosis was assessed by quantifying the aortic content of esterified cholesterol. Atherosclerosis was inhibited (relative to the casein/lactalbumin group) by both alcohol-washed (45 and 31%) (P < 0.05) and intact (65 and 41%) (P < 0.05) soy protein isolate in LDL receptor -/- and apoE -/- mice, respectively. There was no sex difference. In a two-way analysis, there were significant effects of type of soy isolate and type of mouse. The antiatherosclerosis effect was enhanced in LDL receptor -/- mice (P < 0.001) and diminished in mice fed alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (P < 0.001). Furthermore, inhibitory effects of soy on atherosclerosis were unrelated to plasma LDL, VLDL or HDL cholesterol concentrations. The results represent direct evidence for the

  4. Generation of a Potent Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Antagonist by Engineering a Stable Form of the Receptor-associated Protein (RAP) D3 Domain.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Joni M; Migliorini, Mary; Galisteo, Rebeca; Strickland, Dudley K

    2015-07-10

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family and plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Expression of LRP1 requires the receptor-associated protein (RAP), a molecular chaperone that binds LRP1 and other low density lipoprotein receptor family members in the endoplasmic reticulum and traffics with them to the Golgi where the acidic environment causes its dissociation. Exogenously added RAP is a potent LRP1 antagonist and binds to LRP1 on the cell surface, preventing ligands from binding. Following endocytosis, RAP dissociates in the acidic endosome, allowing LRP1 to recycle back to the cell surface. The acid-induced dissociation of RAP is mediated by its D3 domain, a relatively unstable three-helical bundle that denatures at pH <6.2 due to protonation of key histidine residues on helices 2 and 3. To develop an LRP1 inhibitor that does not dissociate at low pH, we introduced a disulfide bond between the second and third helices in the RAP D3 domain. By combining this disulfide bond with elimination of key histidine residues, we generated a stable RAP molecule that is resistant to both pH- and heat-induced denaturation. This molecule bound to LRP1 with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH and proved to be a potent inhibitor of LRP1 function both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that our stable RAP molecule may be useful in multiple pathological settings where LRP1 blockade has been shown to be effective. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Generation of a Potent Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Antagonist by Engineering a Stable Form of the Receptor-associated Protein (RAP) D3 Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Joni M.; Migliorini, Mary; Galisteo, Rebeca; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2015-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family and plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Expression of LRP1 requires the receptor-associated protein (RAP), a molecular chaperone that binds LRP1 and other low density lipoprotein receptor family members in the endoplasmic reticulum and traffics with them to the Golgi where the acidic environment causes its dissociation. Exogenously added RAP is a potent LRP1 antagonist and binds to LRP1 on the cell surface, preventing ligands from binding. Following endocytosis, RAP dissociates in the acidic endosome, allowing LRP1 to recycle back to the cell surface. The acid-induced dissociation of RAP is mediated by its D3 domain, a relatively unstable three-helical bundle that denatures at pH <6.2 due to protonation of key histidine residues on helices 2 and 3. To develop an LRP1 inhibitor that does not dissociate at low pH, we introduced a disulfide bond between the second and third helices in the RAP D3 domain. By combining this disulfide bond with elimination of key histidine residues, we generated a stable RAP molecule that is resistant to both pH- and heat-induced denaturation. This molecule bound to LRP1 with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH and proved to be a potent inhibitor of LRP1 function both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that our stable RAP molecule may be useful in multiple pathological settings where LRP1 blockade has been shown to be effective. PMID:26013822

  6. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 facilitates metastasis of gastric cancer through driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Can; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Li, Lili; Yang, Caiting; Song, Shushu; Peng, Peike; Shao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Junjie; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Weicheng; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a pattern recognition receptor that plays a critical role in vascular diseases and host immune response. Recently, our research discovered that LOX-1 could facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen via binding with heat shock proteins, which have a close relationship with gastric neoplasia. Therefore, we speculated that LOX-1 may serve as an oncogene in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. In this study, through immunohistochemistry staining assay and cancer-related databases, we found that LOX-1 expression was up-regulated in GC tissues and correlated with a poor prognosis in GC patients. The expression of LOX-1 was an independent prognostic factor for OS in GC patients, and the incorporation of LOX-1 with TNM stage is more accurate for predicting prognosis. Additionally, in vitro study by transwell assay and western blot analysis confirmed that LOX-1 could promote the migration and invasion of GC cells by driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β activation. Taken together, we first explored the expression profiles, clinical significance and biological function of LOX-1 in GC, and these data suggest that LOX-1 may represent a promising prognostic biomarker for GC and offer a novel molecular target for GC therapies. PMID:28345638

  7. Heparan sulfate dissociates serum amyloid A (SAA) from acute-phase high-density lipoprotein, promoting SAA aggregation.

    PubMed

    Noborn, Fredrik; Ancsin, John B; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Kisilevsky, Robert; Li, Jin-Ping

    2012-07-20

    Inflammation-related (AA) amyloidosis is a severe clinical disorder characterized by the systemic deposition of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA is normally associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma, but under yet unclear circumstances, the apolipoprotein is converted into amyloid fibrils. AA amyloid and heparan sulfate (HS) display an intimate relationship in situ, suggesting a role for HS in the pathogenic process. This study reports that HS dissociates SAA from HDLs isolated from inflamed mouse plasma. Application of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggests that HS simultaneously binds to two apolipoproteins of HDL, SAA and ApoA-I, and thereby induce SAA dissociation. The activity requires a minimum chain length of 12-14 sugar units, proposing an explanation to previous findings that short HS fragments preclude AA amyloidosis. The results address the initial events in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis.

  8. Heparan Sulfate Dissociates Serum Amyloid A (SAA) from Acute-phase High-density Lipoprotein, Promoting SAA Aggregation*

    PubMed Central

    Noborn, Fredrik; Ancsin, John B.; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Kisilevsky, Robert; Li, Jin-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation-related (AA) amyloidosis is a severe clinical disorder characterized by the systemic deposition of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA is normally associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma, but under yet unclear circumstances, the apolipoprotein is converted into amyloid fibrils. AA amyloid and heparan sulfate (HS) display an intimate relationship in situ, suggesting a role for HS in the pathogenic process. This study reports that HS dissociates SAA from HDLs isolated from inflamed mouse plasma. Application of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggests that HS simultaneously binds to two apolipoproteins of HDL, SAA and ApoA-I, and thereby induce SAA dissociation. The activity requires a minimum chain length of 12–14 sugar units, proposing an explanation to previous findings that short HS fragments preclude AA amyloidosis. The results address the initial events in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. PMID:22654109

  9. Central nervous system neuropeptide Y signaling via the Y1 receptor partially dissociates feeding behavior from lipoprotein metabolism in lean rats.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jennifer M; Stafford, John M; Saadat, Sanaz; Printz, Richard L; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Niswender, Kevin D

    2012-12-15

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels contribute to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity are characterized by increased central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptide Y (NPY) tone that contributes to excess food intake and obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of NPY in lean fasted rats also elevates hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. Thus, we hypothesize that elevated CNS NPY action contributes to not only the pathogenesis of obesity but also dyslipidemia. Here, we sought to determine whether the effects of NPY on feeding and/or obesity are dissociable from effects on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Pair-fed, icv NPY-treated, chow-fed Long-Evans rats develop hypertriglyceridemia in the absence of increased food intake and body fat accumulation compared with vehicle-treated controls. We then modulated CNS NPY signaling by icv injection of selective NPY receptor agonists and found that Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5 receptor agonists all induced hyperphagia in lean, ad libitum chow-fed Long-Evans rats, with the Y2 receptor agonist having the most pronounced effect. Next, we found that at equipotent doses for food intake NPY Y1 receptor agonist had the most robust effect on VLDL-TG secretion, a Y2 receptor agonist had a modest effect, and no effect was observed for Y4 and Y5 receptor agonists. These findings, using selective agonists, suggest the possibility that the effect of CNS NPY signaling on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion may be relatively dissociable from effects on feeding behavior via the Y1 receptor.

  10. Amyloid-β peptide(1-40) elimination from cerebrospinal fluid involves low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Masachika; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Ito, Shingo; Uchida, Yasuo; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Kamiie, Junichi; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) concentration in CSF is potentially a diagnostic and therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to clarify the elimination mechanism of human Aβ(1-40) [hAβ (1-40)] from CSF. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration, [(125) I]hAβ(1-40) was eliminated from the rat CSF with a half-life of 17.3 min. The elimination of [(125) I]hAβ(1-40) was significantly inhibited by human receptor-associated protein (RAP) and the elimination was attenuated in either anti-low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)1 antibody-treated or RAP-deficient mice, suggesting that a member(s) of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is involved in the elimination of hAβ(1-40) from CSF. The amounts of LRP1 and LRP2 proteins were determined by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the LRP1 content in rat choroid plexus was determined to be 3.7 fmol/μg protein, whereas the LRP2 content was below the detection limit (<0.2 fmol/μg protein). Conditionally, immortalized rat choroid plexus epithelial cells exhibited predominant apical-to-basal and apical-to-cell transport of [(125) I]hAβ(1-40). These results indicated that hAβ(1-40) is actively eliminated from CSF and this process is at least partly mediated by LRP1 expressed at choroid plexus epithelial cells, which therefore play a role in determining CSF concentrations of hAβ(1-40). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Human Serum Amyloid A3 (SAA3) Protein, Expressed as a Fusion Protein with SAA2, Binds the Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Takeshi; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Maru, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) possesses characteristics distinct from the other serum amyloid A isoforms, SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4. High density lipoprotein contains the latter three isoforms, but not SAA3. The expression of mouse SAA3 (mSAA3) is known to be up-regulated extrahepatically in inflammatory responses, and acts as an endogenous ligand for the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. We previously reported that mSAA3 plays an important role in facilitating tumor metastasis by attracting circulating tumor cells and enhancing hyperpermeability in the lungs. On the other hand, human SAA3 (hSAA3) has long been regarded as a pseudogene, which is in contrast to the abundant expression levels of the other isoforms. Although the nucleotide sequence of hSAA3 is very similar to that of the other SAAs, a single oligonucleotide insertion in exon 2 causes a frame-shift to generate a unique amino acid sequence. In the present study, we identified that hSAA3 was transcribed in the hSAA2-SAA3 fusion transcripts of several human cell lines. In the fusion transcript, hSAA2 exon 3 was connected to hSAA3 exon 1 or hSAA3 exon 2, located approximately 130kb downstream from hSAA2 exon 3 in the genome, which suggested that it is produced by alternative splicing. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting and isolating hSAA3 protein for the first time by an immunoprecipitation-enzyme linked immune assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize the hSAA3 unique amino acid sequence. We also demonstrated that hSAA3 bound oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor (oxLDL receptor, LOX-1) and elevated the phosphorylation of ERK, the intracellular MAP-kinase signaling protein. PMID:25738827

  12. Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and clearance function

    PubMed Central

    Selvais, Charlotte; D'Auria, Ludovic; Tyteca, Donatienne; Perrot, Gwenn; Lemoine, Pascale; Troeberg, Linda; Dedieu, Stéphane; Noël, Agnès; Nagase, Hideaki; Henriet, Patrick; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Marbaix, Etienne; Emonard, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a plasma membrane scavenger and signaling receptor, composed of a large ligand-binding subunit (515-kDa α-chain) linked to a shorter transmembrane subunit (85-kDa β-chain). LRP-1 cell-surface level and function are controlled by proteolytic shedding of its ectodomain. Here, we identified ectodomain sheddases in human HT1080 cells and demonstrated regulation of the cleavage by cholesterol by comparing the classical fibroblastoid type with a spontaneous epithelioid variant, enriched ∼2-fold in cholesterol. Two membrane-associated metalloproteinases were involved in LRP-1 shedding: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM-12) and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Although both variants expressed similar levels of LRP-1, ADAM-12, MT1-MMP, and specific tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), LRP-1 shedding from epithelioid cells was ∼4-fold lower than from fibroblastoid cells. Release of the ectodomain was triggered by cholesterol depletion in epithelioid cells and impaired by cholesterol overload in fibroblastoid cells. Modulation of LRP-1 shedding on clearance was reflected by accumulation of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in the medium. We conclude that cholesterol exerts an important control on LRP-1 levels and function at the plasma membrane by modulating shedding of its ectodomain, and therefore represents a novel regulator of extracellular proteolytic activities.—Selvais, C., D'Auria, L., Tyteca, D., Perrot, G, Lemoine, P., Troeberg, L., Dedieu, S., Noël, A., Nagase, H., Henriet, P., Courtoy, P. J., Marbaix, E., Emonard, H. Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and clearance function. PMID:21518850

  13. The low density lipoprotein receptor modulates the effects of hypogonadism on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Caterina; Mpatsoulis, Diogenis; Natsos, Anastasios; Petropoulou, Peristera-Ioanna; Zvintzou, Evangelia; Traish, Abdulmaged M.; Voshol, Peter J.; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Kypreos, Kyriakos E.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigated how LDL receptor deficiency (Ldlr−/−) modulates the effects of testosterone on obesity and related metabolic dysfunctions. Though sham-operated Ldlr−/− mice fed Western-type diet for 12 weeks became obese and showed disturbed plasma glucose metabolism and plasma cholesterol and TG profiles, castrated mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity and had improved glucose metabolism and reduced plasma TG levels, despite a further deterioration in their plasma cholesterol profile. The effect of hypogonadism on diet-induced weight gain of Ldlr−/− mice was independent of ApoE and Lrp1. Indirect calorimetry analysis indicated that hypogonadism in Ldlr−/− mice was associated with increased metabolic rate. Indeed, mitochondrial cytochrome c and uncoupling protein 1 expression were elevated, primarily in white adipose tissue, confirming increased mitochondrial metabolic activity due to thermogenesis. Testosterone replacement in castrated Ldlr−/− mice for a period of 8 weeks promoted diet-induced obesity, indicating a direct role of testosterone in the observed phenotype. Treatment of sham-operated Ldlr−/− mice with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane for 8 weeks showed that the obesity of castrated Ldlr−/− mice is independent of estrogens. Overall, our data reveal a novel role of Ldlr as functional modulator of metabolic alterations associated with hypogonadism. PMID:24837748

  14. Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0412 TITLE: Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13...semenogelin I (SgI) in the presence of zinc, promote prostate cancer growth via functioning as androgen receptor (AR) co-activators. Using cell lines

  15. High-density lipoprotein inhibits mechanical stress-induced cardiomyocyte autophagy and cardiac hypertrophy through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Liu, Xuebo; Xu, Jianfeng; Weng, Liqing; Ren, Jun; Ge, Junbo; Zou, Yunzeng

    2015-08-01

    Mechanical stress triggers cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy through an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor-dependent mechanism. Low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is an independent risk factor for cardiac hypertrophy. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of HDL on mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy. A 48-hr mechanical stretch and a 4-week transverse aortic constriction were employed to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, respectively, prior to the assessment of myocardial autophagy using LC3b-II and beclin-1. Our results indicated that HDL significantly reduced mechanical stretch-induced rise in autophagy as demonstrated by LC3b-II and beclin-1. In addition, mechanical stress up-regulated AT1 receptor expression in both cultured cardiomyocytes and in mouse hearts, whereas HDL significantly suppressed the AT1 receptor. Furthermore, the role of Akt phosphorylation in HDL-mediated action was assessed using MK-2206, a selective inhibitor for Akt phosphorylation. Our data further revealed that MK-2206 mitigated HDL-induced beneficial responses on cardiac remodelling and autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that HDL inhibited mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy through downregulation of AT1 receptor, and HDL ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy via Akt-dependent mechanism. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Associations of apolipoprotein E and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 polymorphisms with dyslipidemia and generalized aggressive periodontitis in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Tian, Y; Meng, H; Hou, J; Xu, L; Zhang, L; Shi, D; Lu, R; Feng, X; Wang, X; Chen, Z

    2015-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is associated with aggressive periodontitis, a condition characterized by the rapid destruction of the periodontium. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) are involved in immunomodulation and inflammatory activity. We evaluated the association of LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms with serum lipid concentrations and generalized aggressive periodontitis within a Chinese population. Mean serum lipid concentrations were compared across LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms, among cases (n = 185) and controls (n = 138). Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent and combined associations of LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Compared with controls, individuals with generalized aggressive periodontitis exhibited significantly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Individuals with LRP5 polymorphisms (rs682429-AA or rs312016-GG) exhibited higher TC, higher HDL-c and decreased odds for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Haplotype (A-G), determined by rs682429 and rs312016, was also associated with decreased odds for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, individuals with the combined polymorphisms (LRP5-rs682429-AA and APOE-rs429358-CC/CT) had higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, higher levels of TC and decreased odds for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Independently or combined with APOE, LRP5 polymorphisms may lead to dyslipidemia and are associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Dyslipidemia may be a risk indicator for generalized aggressive periodontitis in the Chinese population. Furthermore, two LRP5 polymorphisms (rs682429 and rs312016) might be useful for identifying subjects at higher risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Activation by Ligands and Dephosphorylation Induces Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin Type 9 and Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yajun; Chen, Yuanli; Hu, Wenquan; Li, Xiaoju; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Xin; Yin, Zhinan; Kong, Deling; Yao, Zhi; Hajjar, David P.; Liu, Lin; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by enhancing the degradation of LDL receptor (LDLR) protein. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be atheroprotective. PPARγ can be activated by ligands and/or dephosphorylation with ERK1/2 inhibitors. The effect of PPARγ on PCSK9 and LDLR expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of PPARγ on PCSK9 and LDLR expression. At the cellular levels, PPARγ ligands induced PCSK9 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells. PCSK9 expression was induced by inhibition of ERK1/2 activity but inhibited by ERK1/2 activation. The mutagenic study and promoter activity assay suggested that the induction of PCSK9 expression by ERK1/2 inhibitors was tightly linked to PPARγ dephosphorylation. However, PPARγ activation by ligands or ERK1/2 inhibitors induced hepatic LDLR expression. The promoter assay indicated that the induction of LDLR expression by PPARγ was sterol regulatory element-dependent because PPARγ enhanced sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) processing. In vivo, administration of pioglitazone or U0126 alone increased PCSK9 expression in mouse liver but had little effect on PCSK9 secretion. However, the co-treatment of pioglitazone and U0126 enhanced both PCSK9 expression and secretion. Similar to in vitro, the increased PCSK9 expression by pioglitazone and/or U0126 did not result in decreased LDLR expression and function. In contrast, pioglitazone and/or U0126 increased LDLR protein expression and membrane translocation, SREBP2 processing, and CYP7A1 expression in the liver, which led to decreased total and LDL cholesterol levels in serum. Our results indicate that although PPARγ activation increased PCSK9 expression, PPARγ activation induced LDLR and CYP7A1 expression that enhanced LDL cholesterol metabolism. PMID:22593575

  18. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  19. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes across species

    PubMed Central

    Eckers, Anna; Jakob, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goy, Christine; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Sansone, Roberto; Esser, Charlotte; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Altschmied, Joachim; Ventura, Natascia; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces drug metabolizing enzymes as well as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Certain AhR ligands promote atherosclerosis, an age-associated vascular disease. Therefore, we investigated the role of AhR in vascular functionality and aging. We report a lower pulse wave velocity in young and old AhR-deficient mice, indicative of enhanced vessel elasticity. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) showed increased activity in the aortas of these animals, which was reflected in increased NO production. Ex vivo, AhR activation reduced the migratory capacity of primary human endothelial cells. AhR overexpression as well as treatment with a receptor ligand, impaired eNOS activation and reduced S-NO content. All three are signs of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, AhR expression in blood cells of healthy human volunteers positively correlated with vessel stiffness. In the aging model Caenorhabditis elegans, AhR-deficiency resulted in increased mean life span, motility, pharynx pumping and heat shock resistance, suggesting healthier aging. Thus, AhR seems to have a negative impact on vascular and organismal aging. Finally, our data from human subjects suggest that AhR expression levels could serve as an additional, new predictor of vessel aging. PMID:26790370

  1. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion.

  2. CdiA promotes receptor-independent intercellular adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ruhe, Zachary C.; Townsley, Loni; Wallace, Adam B.; King, Andrew; der Woude, Marjan W. Van; Low, David A.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CdiB/CdiA proteins mediate inter-bacterial competition in a process termed contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Filamentous CdiA exoproteins extend from CDI+ cells and bind specific receptors to deliver toxins into susceptible target bacteria. CDI has also been implicated in auto-aggregation and biofilm formation in several species, but the contribution of CdiA-receptor interactions to these multi-cellular behaviors has not been examined. Using Escherichia coli isolate EC93 as a model, we show that cdiA and bamA receptor mutants are defective in biofilm formation, suggesting a prominent role for CdiA-BamA mediated cell-cell adhesion. However, CdiA also promotes auto-aggregation in a BamA-independent manner, indicating that the exoprotein possesses an additional adhesin activity. Cells must express CdiA in order to participate in BamA-independent aggregates, suggesting that adhesion could be mediated by homotypic CdiA-CdiA interactions. The BamA-dependent and BamA-independent interaction domains map to distinct regions within the CdiA filament. Thus, CdiA orchestrates a collective behavior that is independent of its growth-inhibition activity. This adhesion should enable “greenbeard” discrimination, in which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate with one another based on a single shared trait. This kind-selective social behavior could provide immediate fitness benefits to bacteria that acquire the systems through horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26135212

  3. Variation in the human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) gene is associated with plasma soluble LOX-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Tina E; Kume, Noriaki; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Brown, Michael D; Phares, Dana A; Ferrell, Robert E; Kita, Toru; Hagberg, James M

    2008-09-01

    The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) expressed on vascular cells plays a major role in atherogenesis by internalizing and degrading oxidized low-density lipoprotein. LOX-1 can be cleaved from the cell surface and released as soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1), and elevated sLOX-1 levels may be indicative of atherosclerotic plaque instability. We examined associations between the LOX-1 gene 3'UTR-C/T and G501C polymorphisms and plasma sLOX-1 levels in 97 healthy older men and women. The frequencies for the 3'UTR-T and 501C alleles were 46 and 10%, respectively. Plasma sLOX-1 levels were significantly higher in the 3'UTR CC genotype group compared with both the CT (P=0.02) and TT genotype groups (P=0.002). Plasma sLOX-1 levels were also significantly higher in the 501GC genotype group compared with the GG genotype group (P=0.004). In univariate analyses, sLOX-1 levels were significantly associated with both the 3'UTR-C/T and G501C polymorphisms. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race and body mass index. In conclusion, variation in the LOX-1 gene is associated with plasma sLOX-1 levels in older men and women.

  4. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important factor to induce metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, some antihyperlipidemic agents from herbal medicines have been in the spotlight in the medical science field. Thus, the present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) that has been used as a folk remedy for heart disease. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EOPK up-regulated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA level as well as negatively suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) involved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Also, western blotting showed that EOPK activated LDLR and attenuated the expression of FAS at the protein level in the cells. Consistently, EOPK significantly inhibited the level of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT)1 and 2 and reduced the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation activity. Furthermore, chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that EOPK, an essential oil mixture, contained camphene (21.11%), d-limonene (21.01%), α-pinene (16.74%) and borneol (11.52%). Overall, the findings suggest that EOPK can be a potent pharmaceutical agent for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  5. SKI-II--a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor--exacerbates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Ceglarek, Uta; Burkhardt, Ralph; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysosphingolipid associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that contributes to their anti-atherogenic potential. We investigated whether a reduction in S1P plasma levels affects atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice. LDL-R-/- mice on Western diet containing low (0.25% w/w) or high (1.25% w/w) cholesterol were treated for 16 weeks with SKI-II, a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor that significantly reduced plasma S1P levels. SKI-II treatment increased atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta in mice on high but not low cholesterol diet. This compound did not affect body weight, blood cell counts and plasma total and HDL cholesterol, but decreased triglycerides. In addition, mice on high cholesterol diet receiving SKI-II showed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and endothelial adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1). Prolonged lowering of plasma S1P produces pro-atherogenic effects in LDL-R-/- mice that are evident under condition of pronounced hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does mercury promote lipid peroxidation? An in vitro study concerning mercury, copper, and iron in peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Kari; Soininen, Pasi; Salonen, Jukka T; Lötjönen, Simo; Laatikainen, Reino

    2004-11-01

    In order to explore the observed association among mercury, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease, the effects of mercury, copper, and iron on the peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and on the enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase were investigated in vitro. On the basis of our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we conclude that mercury does not promote the direct nonenzymatic peroxidation of LDL, like copper and iron. In our enzyme measurements, mercury inhibited slightly myeloperoxidase, although not significantly in presence of LDL. Instead, inorganic mercury, but not methylmercury chloride, inhibited glutathione peroxidase effectively and copper even at 10 micromol/L, below physiological concentrations, doubled the inhibition rate. Copper and iron had no direct effect on glutathione peroxidase, but they both seem to activate production of HOCl by myeloperoxidase. We conclude here that, first, mercury and methylmercury do not promote direct lipid peroxidation, but that, second, a simultaneous exposure to high inorganic mercury, copper, and iron and low selenium concentrations can lead to a condition in which mercury promotes lipid peroxidations. This mechanism provides a plausible molecular-level explanation for the observed association between high body mercury content and atherosclerosis.

  7. Molecular cloning and partial characterization of a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 13 (Lrp13) involved in vitellogenin uptake in the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki).

    PubMed

    Mushirobira, Yuji; Mizuta, Hiroko; Luo, Wenshu; Todo, Takashi; Hara, Akihiko; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V; Hiramatsu, Naoshi

    2015-12-01

    Multiple ovarian membrane proteins that bind vitellogenin (Vtg) have been detected in teleosts. One of these Vtg receptors was recently identified as low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 13 (lrp13/Lrp13) in perciform species, but little is known about this Vtg receptor in salmonid fish. In this study, a cDNA encoding a putative Vtg receptor with 13+1 ligand binding repeats (lr13+1) was cloned from the ovary, and identified as an lrp13 ortholog for cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki). This lrp13 was predominantly expressed in the pre-vitellogenic stage ovary, and its expression decreased during vitellogenesis. Ovarian localization of Lrp13 was observed by immunohistochemistry using specific antiserum against recombinant Lrp13. Lrp13 immunoreactivity was observed at the oolemma, throughout the zona radiata, and within the perivitelline space between the zona radiata and granulosa cells in ovarian follicles at both the lipid-droplet and vitellogenic stages of growth-an expression pattern that mimics that of a lr8/LR8-type Vtg receptor in this species and of lrp13/Lrp13 in Morone species. Six discrete Vtg-binding proteins were detected in cutthroat trout ovarian membrane proteins when probing with a digoxygenin-labeled salmonid A-type Vtg (VtgAs) followed by chemiluminescent ligand detection. Western blotting using the anti-Lrp13 serum revealed a broad signal consisting of two proteins with masses ranging from ∼190 to ∼210 kDa, which corresponded with some of the VtgA-binding proteins. These findings suggest that, in addition to lr8/LR8, lrp13/Lrp13 acts as a VtgA receptor in trout.

  8. Silicon-Enriched Restructured Pork Affects the Lipoprotein Profile, VLDL Oxidation, and LDL Receptor Gene Expression in Aged Rats Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Garcimartín, Alba; Santos-López, Jorge A; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown that silicon can play an important role in protecting against degenerative diseases. Restructuring pork by partially disassembling meat permits the incorporation of active components with potential functional effects. However, there has been no research to date on the impact that silicon, as a functional ingredient in restructured pork (RP), has on lipoprotein composition, metabolism, and oxidation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon-enriched RP on lipemia, lipoprotein profile, and oxidation markers of aged rats fed high-fat, high-energy, cholesterol-enriched diets. RP samples similar to commercial sausages (16% protein and 22% fat, wt:wt) were prepared by mixing lean pork and lard alone or with silicon (1.3 g Si/kg fresh matter) under controlled conditions and then freeze-dried. Saturated fat-rich diets were designed by mixing 78.3% purified diet with 21.7% freeze-dried RP. Three groups composed of 8 aged male Wistar rats (1 y old) were fed for 8 wk a control RP (C) diet, a cholesterol-enriched RP (Chol-C) diet [C diet enriched with 1.26% cholesterol plus 0.25% cholic acid, or a cholesterol and silicon-enriched RP (Chol-Si) diet (same as the Chol-C diet but containing silicon)]. Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein profile, the degree of VLDL oxidation, and LDL receptor gene (Ldlr) expression were tested. Compared with the C diet, the Chol-C diet did not modify food intake or body weight but significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma cholesterol (32%) and total lipids (19%), VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein + LDL cholesterol (both >600%), total lipids and proteins (both >300%), and the degree of VLDL oxidation [conjugated dienes >250%; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), 900%] and reduced Ldlr expression (64%) and liver arylesterase activity (54%). The Chol-Si diet partially normalized changes induced by the Chol-C diet. Compared with the Chol-C group, Chol-Si rats had lower VLDL compound

  9. Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutation analysis and structure-function correlation in an Omani arab family with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zidi, Ward Al-Muna; Al-Abri, Abdul Rahim; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al-Tobi, Sheikha; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Zadjali, Fahad; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Banerjee, Yajnavalka

    2014-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder typified by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Previously, we reported a novel mutation in the exon-3 of LDLR gene, observed in a 9-year-old Omani Arab female. Here, we investigated the mode of inheritance of this mutation and confirmed that FH in this family is due to mutation only in the LDLR and not PCSK9 and ApoB genes. Further, the effect of the mutation has been appraised in silico on the tertiary structure of LDLR. A model of the mutant LDLR has been constructed using the coordinates of the wild-type LDLR extracellular domain. Based on the model, we present a mechanistic justification behind the observed detrimental effect of the mutation on LDL-C levels.

  10. Complement protein C1q promotes macrophage anti-inflammatory M2-like polarization during the clearance of atherogenic lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Spivia, Weston; Magno, Patrick S.; Le, Patrick; Fraser, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Innate immune protein C1q plays a dual role in the chronic inflammatory disease of atherosclerosis. Complement activation via C1q exacerbates pathology in the atherosclerotic lesion in later stages of the disease. However, in early stages of disease C1q is protective. We hypothesize that complement-independent activities of C1q are involved in reprogramming macrophage inflammatory polarization. Methods The influence of C1q on macrophage inflammatory responses during clearance of oxLDL was examined. Changes in cytokines at the gene and protein level were measured by quantitative PCR and ELISA assay. Results C1q modulated cytokine expression in Raw264.7 macrophages during ingestion of oxLDL. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 were downregulated by C1q, whereas levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased. In addition, data from an NFκB-luciferase gene reporter assay suggest that C1q suppresses activation of NFκB during lipoprotein clearance in macrophages, providing one mechanism by which C1q downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Conclusions C1q-polarization of macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory (M2-like) phenotype may be important in dampening inflammation in the early atherosclerotic lesion. Further investigation of molecular pathways targeted by C1q may provide novel therapeutic targets for this disease. PMID:25091012

  11. Reductions in serum levels of LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a) in hypercholesterolaemic patients treated with the liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist eprotirome.

    PubMed

    Angelin, Bo; Kristensen, Jens D; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Bo; Klein, Irwin; Olsson, Anders G; Chester Ridgway, E; Ladenson, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Liver-selective thyromimetic agents could provide a new approach for treating dyslipidaemia. We performed a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eprotirome, a liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist, in 98 patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. After previous drug wash-out and dietary run-in, patients received 100 or 200 μg day(-1) eprotirome or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was change in serum LDL cholesterol; secondary end-points included changes in other lipid parameters and safety measures. Eprotirome treatment at 100 and 200 μg daily reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels by 23 ± 5% and 31 ± 4%, respectively, compared with 2 ± 6% for placebo (P < 0.0001). Similar reductions were seen in non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B, whereas serum levels of HDL cholesterol and apo A-I were unchanged. There were also considerable reductions in serum triglycerides and lipoprotein(a), in particular in patients with elevated levels at baseline. There was no evidence of adverse effects on heart or bone and no changes in serum thyrotropin or triiodothyronine, although the thyroxine level decreased. Low-grade increases in liver enzymes were evident in most patients. In hypercholesterolaemic patients, the liver-selective thyromimetic eprotirome decreased serum levels of atherogenic lipoproteins without signs of extra-hepatic side effects. Selective stimulation of hepatic thyroid hormone receptors may be an attractive way to modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidaemia. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Acceleration of Lung Regeneration by Platelet-Rich Plasma Extract through the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5-Tie2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Ingber, Donald E; Mammoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, plays a key role in organ development, homeostasis, and regeneration. The cooperation of multiple angiogenic factors, rather than a single factor, is required for physiological angiogenesis. Recently, we have reported that soluble platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract, which contains abundant angiopoietin-1 and multiple other angiogenic factors, stimulates angiogenesis and maintains vascular integrity in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we have demonstrated that mouse PRP extract increases phosphorylation levels of the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and thereby activates angiogenic factor receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells (ECs) and accelerates EC sprouting and lung epithelial cell budding in vitro. PRP extract also increases phosphorylation levels of Tie2 in the mouse lungs and accelerates compensatory lung growth and recovery of exercise capacity after unilateral pneumonectomy in mice, whereas soluble Tie2 receptor or Lrp5 knockdown attenuates the effects of PRP extract. Because human PRP extract is generated from autologous peripheral blood and can be stored at -80°C, our findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions for various angiogenesis-related lung diseases and to the improvement of strategies for lung regeneration.

  13. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL Induces the Degradation of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Family Members VLDLR and ApoER2*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cynthia; Duit, Sarah; Jalonen, Pilvi; Out, Ruud; Scheer, Lilith; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Boyadjian, Rima; Rodenburg, Kees W.; Foley, Edan; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan; Nimpf, Johannes; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Tontonoz, Peter; Zelcer, Noam

    2010-01-01

    We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase-inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (Idol) as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by liver X receptors (LXRs), and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the sterol-response element-binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that Idol also targets two closely related LDLR family members, VLDLR and ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), proteins implicated in both neuronal development and lipid metabolism. Idol triggers ubiquitination of the VLDLR and ApoER2 on their cytoplasmic tails, leading to their degradation. We further show that the level of endogenous VLDLR is sensitive to cellular sterol content, Idol expression, and activation of the LXR pathway. Pharmacological activation of the LXR pathway in mice leads to increased Idol expression and to decreased Vldlr levels in vivo. Finally, we establish an unexpected functional link between LXR and Reelin signaling. We demonstrate that LXR activation results in decreased Reelin binding to VLDLR and reduced Dab1 phosphorylation. The identification of VLDLR and ApoER2 as Idol targets suggests potential roles for this LXR-inducible E3 ligase in the central nervous system in addition to lipid metabolism. PMID:20427281

  14. Gene expression in macrophage-rich human atherosclerotic lesions. 15-lipoxygenase and acetyl low density lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA colocalize with oxidation specific lipid-protein adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Rosenfeld, M E; Parthasarathy, S; Sigal, E; Särkioja, T; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1991-01-01

    Oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) exhibits several potentially atherogenic properties, and inhibition of LDL oxidation in rabbits decreases the rate of the development of atherosclerotic lesions. In vitro studies have suggested that cellular lipoxygenases may be involved in LDL oxidation, and we have shown previously that 15-lipoxygenase and oxidized LDL are present in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. We now report that epitopes of oxidized LDL are also found in macrophage-rich areas of human fatty streaks as well as in more advanced human atherosclerotic lesions. Using in situ hybridization and immunostaining techniques, we also report that 15-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein colocalize to the same macrophage-rich areas. Moreover, these same lesions express abundant mRNA for the acetyl LDL receptor but no detectable mRNA for the LDL receptor. We suggest that atherogenesis in human arteries may be linked to macrophage-induced oxidative modification of LDL mediated by 15-lipoxygenase, leading to subsequent enhanced macrophage uptake, partly by way of the acetyl LDL receptor. Images PMID:2010531

  15. Development of a conditional Mesd (mesoderm development) allele for functional analysis of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related family in defined tissues.

    PubMed

    Taibi, Andrew V; Lighthouse, Janet K; Grady, Richard C; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Holdener, Bernadette C

    2013-01-01

    The Low-density lipoprotein receptor-Related Protein (LRP) family members are essential for diverse processes ranging from the regulation of gastrulation to the modulation of lipid homeostasis. Receptors in this family bind and internalize a diverse array of ligands in the extracellular matrix (ECM). As a consequence, LRPs regulate a wide variety of cellular functions including, but not limited to lipid metabolism, membrane composition, cell motility, and cell signaling. Not surprisingly, mutations in single human LRPs are associated with defects in cholesterol metabolism and development of atherosclerosis, abnormalities in bone density, or aberrant eye vasculature, and may be a contributing factor in development of Alzheimer's disease. Often, members of this diverse family of receptors perform overlapping roles in the same tissues, complicating the analysis of their function through conventional targeted mutagenesis. Here, we describe development of a mouse Mesd (Mesoderm Development) conditional knockout allele, and demonstrate that ubiquitous deletion of Mesd using Cre-recombinase blocks gastrulation, as observed in the traditional knockout and albino-deletion phenotypes. This conditional allele will serve as an excellent tool for future characterization of the cumulative contribution of LRP members in defined tissues.

  16. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-mediated delivery of a lipophilic daunorubicin derivative to B16 tumours in mice using apolipoprotein E-enriched liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Versluis, A. J.; Rensen, P. C.; Rump, E. T.; Van Berkel, T. J.; Bijsterbosch, M. K.

    1998-01-01

    Many tumours express relatively high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on their membranes. The LDL receptor is, therefore, an attractive target for the selective delivery of antineoplastic drugs to tumour cells. We reported previously on the synthesis of small apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing liposomes that behave in vivo in a very similar way to native LDL. In this study, we examined the interaction of this liposomal carrier with cultured B16 melanoma cells. Binding of apoE liposomes to the cells is saturable, with a maximum binding of approximately 90000 particles per cell. Cross-competition studies indicated that apoE liposomes are bound by the LDL receptor. Association of apoE liposomes to B16 cells is strictly Ca2+ dependent, which forms additional evidence for a role of the LDL receptor. The affinity of apoE liposomes for the LDL receptor on B16 cells is 15-fold higher than that of LDL (0.77 vs 11.5 nM respectively). ApoE is essential for the LDL receptor recognition because liposomes lacking apoE were, in competition studies, 20- to 50-fold less effective than apoE-containing liposomes. We examined in B16 tumour-bearing mice the tumour-localizing properties of apoE liposomes and the disposition of an incorporated lipophilic derivative of daunorubicin (LAD). Tissue distribution studies showed that LAD-loaded apoE liposomes were taken up and processed by the major LDL receptor-expressing organs (i.e. adrenals, liver and spleen). Of all other tissues, the tumour showed the highest uptake. The distribution patterns of LAD-loaded apoE liposomes and native LDL in the tumour-bearing mice were very similar, which supports the role of the LDL receptor in the disposition of the prodrug-loaded particles. The disposition of LAD followed the pattern of the liposomal carrier. We conclude that apoE liposomes enable LDL receptor-mediated specific delivery of antineoplastic (pro)drugs to tumours, and, therefore, constitute an attractive novel option for

  17. Serum Amyloid A Receptor Blockade and Incorporation into High-Density Lipoprotein Modulates Its Pro-Inflammatory and Pro-Thrombotic Activities on Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Belal; Barrie, Nicola; Cai, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaosuo; Paul, Moumita; Morton-Chandra, Rebecca; Sharland, Alexandra; Dennis, Joanne M.; Freedman, Saul B.; Witting, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), a marker of inflammation, induces expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and tissue factor (TF) in both monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells, and induces endothelial dysfunction—a precursor to atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effect of pharmacological inhibition of known SAA receptors on pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic activities of SAA in human carotid artery endothelial cells (HCtAEC). HCtAEC were pre-treated with inhibitors of formyl peptide receptor-like-1 (FPRL-1), WRW4; receptor for advanced glycation-endproducts (RAGE), (endogenous secretory RAGE; esRAGE) and toll-like receptors-2/4 (TLR2/4) (OxPapC), before stimulation by added SAA. Inhibitor activity was also compared to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a known inhibitor of SAA-induced effects on endothelial cells. SAA significantly increased gene expression of TF, NFκB and TNF and protein levels of TF and VEGF in HCtAEC. These effects were inhibited to variable extents by WRW4, esRAGE and OxPapC either alone or in combination, suggesting involvement of endothelial cell SAA receptors in pro-atherogenic gene expression. In contrast, HDL consistently showed the greatest inhibitory action, and often abrogated SAA-mediated responses. Increasing HDL levels relative to circulating free SAA may prevent SAA-mediated endothelial dysfunction and ameliorate atherogenesis. PMID:25988387

  18. Concerted transcriptional activation of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene by insulin and luteinizing hormone in cultured porcine granulosa-luteal cells: possible convergence of protein kinase a, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sekar, N; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-07-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can amplify gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis by augmenting the expression of key sterol regulatory genes in ovarian cells, viz. low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A). The mechanisms underlying the foregoing bihormonal interactions are not known. Accordingly, in relation to the LDL receptor gene, the present study tests the hypothesis that insulin/IGF-I and LH can act via concerted transcriptional control of promoter expression. To this end, we transiently transfected primary monolayer cultures of porcine granulosa-luteal cells with a reporter vector containing the putative 5'-upstream full-length (pLDLR1076/luc) regulatory region (-1076 to +11 bp) of the homologous LDL receptor gene driving firefly luciferase in the presence or absence of insulin (or IGF-I) and/or LH (each 100 ng/ml). Combined exposure to LH and insulin (or IGF-I) stimulated LDL receptor transcriptional activity maximally at 4 h by 8- to 20-fold, as normalized by coexpression of Renilla luciferase. Further analysis of multiple 5'-nested deletional constructs of the LDL receptor gene promoter showed that deletion of -139 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site virtually abolished basal expression and promoter responsiveness to LH and insulin/IGF-I. In contrast, full basal activity and 60-80% of maximal monohormonal and bihormonal drive were retained by the -255 to +11 bp fragment. As LDL receptor gene expression in other tissues is negatively regulated by the abundance of intracellular free cholesterol, we assessed the impact of concomitant pretreatment of granulosa-luteal cells with an exogenous soluble sterol (25-hydroxycholesterol, 1 and 10 microM). Excess sterol markedly (50-70%) attenuated bihormonally and, in lesser measure, LH-stimulated and basal LDL receptor promoter expression, thus affirming a feedback-sensitive sterol

  19. Lipoprotein(a) Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Dedifferentiation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Human Apo(a) Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Unoki, Hiroyuki; Sun, Huijun; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Marcovina, Santica; Shikama, Hisataka; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin

    2002-01-01

    Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels constitute an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism underlying Lp(a) atherogenicity is unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that Lp(a) may potentially be proatherogenic in transgenic rabbits expressing human apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. In this study, we further investigated atherosclerotic lesions of transgenic rabbits by morphometry and immunohistochemistry. On a cholesterol diet, human apo(a) transgenic rabbits had more extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, carotid artery, iliac artery, and coronary artery than did nontransgenic littermate rabbits as defined by increased intimal lesion area. Enhanced lesion development in transgenic rabbits was characterized by increased accumulation of smooth muscle cells, that was often associated with the Lp(a) deposition. To explore the possibility that Lp(a) may be involved in the smooth-muscle cell phenotypic modulation, we stained the lesions using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against smooth-muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms (SM1, SM2, and SMemb) and basic transcriptional element binding protein-2 (BTEB2). We found that a large number of smooth muscle cells located in the apo(a)-containing areas of transgenic rabbits were positive for SMemb and BTEB2, suggesting that these smooth muscle cells were either immature or in the state of activation. In addition, transgenic rabbits showed delayed fibrinolytic activity accompanied by increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. We conclude that Lp(a) may enhance the lesion development by mediating smooth muscle cell proliferation and dedifferentiation possibly because of impaired fibrinolytic activity. PMID:11786416

  20. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  2. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Griffith, Malachi; Krysiak, Kilannin; Skidmore, Zachary L; Hundal, Jasreet; Allen, Julie A; Arthur, Cora D; Runci, Daniele; Bugatti, Mattia; Miceli, Alexander P; Schmidt, Heather; Trani, Lee; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Fulton, Robert S; Vermi, William; Wilson, Richard K; Schreiber, Robert D; Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-09-27

    Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation.

  3. CXCL16 Is Expressed in Podocytes and Acts as a Scavenger Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gutwein, Paul; Abdel-Bakky, Mohamed Sadek; Schramme, Anja; Doberstein, Kai; Kämpfer-Kolb, Nicole; Amann, Kerstin; Hauser, Ingeborg A.; Obermüller, Nicholas; Bartel, Christine; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz H.; El Sayed, El Sayed M.; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Podocytes are a crucial cell type in the kidney and play an important role in the pathology of glomerular kidney diseases like membranous nephropathy (MN). The identification of new factors involved in the progression of glomerular kidney diseases is of great importance to the development of new strategies for the treatment of renal injury. Here we demonstrate that CXCL16 and ADAM10 are constitutively expressed in human podocytes in normal renal tissue. Proinflammatory cytokines like interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α induced the expression of cellular CXCL16 and the release of its soluble form from human podocytes. Using different metalloproteinase inhibitors, we provide evidence that ADAM10 is involved in the interferon-γ- and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced shedding of CXCL16 from human podocytes. In addition, ADAM10 knockdown by siRNA significantly increased both CXCL16 levels and, surprisingly, its ADAM17-mediated release. Notably, targeting of CXCL16 in human podocytes both decreased the chemotaxis of CXCR6-expressing T cells and strongly reduced oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake in human podocytes. Importantly, in kidney biopsies of patients with MN, increased glomerular CXCL16 expression was accompanied by high levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and decreased expression of ADAM10. In addition, we found increased glomerular ADAM17 expression in patients diagnosed with MN. In summary, we presume important roles for CXCL16, ADAM10, and ADAM17 in the development of MN, suggesting these proteins as new therapeutic targets in this glomerular kidney disease. PMID:19435795

  4. Low Density Lipoproteins Promote Unstable Calcium Handling Accompanied by Reduced SERCA2 and Connexin-40 Expression in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Llach, Anna; Vallmitjana, Alexander; Benítez, Raúl; Badimon, Lina; Cinca, Juan; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    The damaging effects of high plasma levels of cholesterol in the cardiovascular system are widely known, but little attention has been paid to direct effects on cardiomyocyte function. We therefore aimed at testing the hypothesis that Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol affects calcium dynamics and signal propagation in cultured atrial myocytes. For this purpose, mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and intracellular calcium was visualized in fluo-4 loaded atrial HL-1 myocyte cultures subjected to field stimulation. At low stimulation frequencies all cultures had uniform calcium transients at all tested LDL concentrations. However, 500 µg LDL/mL maximally reduced the calcium transient amplitude by 43% from 0.30±0.04 to 0.17±0.02 (p<0.05). Moreover, LDL-cholesterol dose-dependently increased the fraction of alternating and irregular beat-to-beat responses observed when the stimulation interval was shortened. This effect was linked to a concurrent reduction in SERCA2, RyR2, IP3RI and IP3RII mRNA levels. SERCA2 protein levels were also reduced by 43% at 200 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05) and SR calcium loading was reduced by 38±6% (p<0.001). By contrast, HDL-cholesterol had no significant effect on SERCA expression or SR calcium loading. LDL-cholesterol also slowed the conduction velocity of the calcium signal from 3.2+0.2 mm/s without LDL to 1.7±0.1 mm/s with 500 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05). This coincided with a reduction in Cx40 expression (by 44±3%; p<0.05 for mRNA and by 79±2%; p<0.05 for Cx40 protein at 200 µg/ml LDL) whereas the Cx-43 expression did not significantly change. In conclusion, LDL-cholesterol destabilizes calcium handling in cultured atrial myocytes subjected to rapid pacing by reducing SERCA2 and Cx40 expression and by slowing the conduction velocity of the calcium signal. PMID:23516438

  5. IL-36 receptor promotes resolution of intestinal damage

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Harusato, Akihito; Nishio, Hikaru; Flannigan, Kyle L.; Ngo, Vu; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Geem, Duke; Lili, Loukia N.; Ramadas, Ravisankar A.; Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Kohlmeier, Jacob E.; Parkos, Charles A.; Towne, Jennifer E.; Nusrat, Asma; Denning, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 family members are central mediators of host defense. Here we show that the novel IL-1 family member, IL-36γ, was expressed during experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced damage, germ-free (GF) mice failed to induce IL-36γ, suggesting that gut microbiota are involved in its induction. Surprisingly, IL-36R-deficient (Il1rl2−/−) mice exhibited defective recovery following DSS-induced damage and impaired closure of colonic mucosal biopsy wounds, which coincided with impaired neutrophil accumulation in the wound bed. Failure of Il1rl2−/− mice to recover from DSS-induced damage was associated with a profound reduction in IL-22 expression, particularly by colonic neutrophils. Defective recovery of Il1rl2−/− mice could be rescued an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, which was sufficient to restore IL-22 expression and promote full recovery from DSS-induced damage. These findings implicate the IL-36/IL-36R axis in the resolution of intestinal mucosal wounds. PMID:26590314

  6. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  7. Estrogen receptor subtype- and promoter-specific modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Wihlén, Björn; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Inzunza, José; Matthews, Jason

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we examined the role of estrogen receptors (ER) in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent transactivation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that AHR agonists differentially induced recruitment of ERalpha to the AHR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol significantly increased beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)- and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced recruitment of ERalpha to CYP1A1, whereas 3,3'-diindolylmethane induced promoter occupancy of ERalpha at CYP1A1 that was unaffected by cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol. Cyclical recruitment of AHR and ERalpha to CYP1A1 was only observed in cells treated with BNF. Stable and subtype-specific knockdown of ERalpha or ERbeta using shRNA showed that suppression of ERalpha significantly reduced, whereas knockdown of ERbeta significantly enhanced, AHR agonist-induced Cyp1a1 expression in HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells. AHR agonist-induced Cyp1b1 expression was reduced by ERbeta knockdown but unaffected by ERalpha knockdown. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERalpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells did not affect 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dependent regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression. In agreement with our in vitro findings in the HC11 cells, ERalpha knockout mice exhibit reduced BNF-dependent induction of Cyp1a1 mRNA. These results establish ligand- and promoter-specific influences on the cyclical recruitment patterns for AHR and show ER species-, subtype-, and promoter-specific modulation of AHR-dependent transcription.

  8. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) expression in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, María C; Barcelona, Pablo F; Luna, Jose D; Ortiz, Susana G; Juarez, Patricio C; Riera, Clelia M; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2006-12-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a high-molecular weight receptor of the LDL receptor gene family. Its ability to bind and internalize both proteinases and proteinase-inhibitor complexes from the extracellular space suggests that it has a major role in modulating uncontrolled retinal cell proliferation. In order to test this assumption, we investigated the expression of LRP-1 and receptor-associated ligands in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization. Wistar albino rats were placed into incubators at birth and exposed to an atmosphere alternating between 50% and 10% of oxygen every 24 h. After 14 days, the animals were allowed to recover in room air and sacrificed at postnatal day 20 (P20). The protein expression of LRP-1 and alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) in the retina from unexposed and hyperoxia-exposed rats was investigated by Western blot. The localization of LRP-1 after neovascularization was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined by zymography. Histological analysis was done to quantitate the neovascular response in these animals. Western blot analysis showed that LRP-1 was expressed, along with alpha2M, in the retina of rats with oxygen-induced neovascularization at P20. By immunohistochemical analysis, positive staining for LRP-1 appeared in cells extending from the inner limiting membrane (ILM) to the outer limiting membrane (OLM). The cells of the retina that expressed LRP-1 were identified by immunofluorescence as Müller cells. Zymographic analysis demonstrated increased activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 under neovascular conditions. This is the first demonstration of the involvement of LRP-1 in retinal neovascularization. In retinas of rats with oxygen-induced neovascularization, the expression of LRP-1 and alpha2M was increased along with an enhanced activity of MMPs, suggesting that LRP-1 expression may play a role in modulating retinal

  9. Oxidized or acetylated low density lipoproteins are rapidly cleared by the liver in mice with disruption of the scavenger receptor class A type I/II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Lougheed, M; Suzuki, H; Buchan, A; Kodama, T; Steinbrecher, U P

    1997-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and acetyl LDL are recognized by the scavenger receptor class A type I/II (SR-AI/II) on macrophages and liver endothelial cells. Several investigators have suggested that there are additional receptors specific for oxidized LDL, but characterization of these alternate receptors for oxidized LDL and evaluation of their quantitative importance in uptake of oxidized LDL has been difficult because of overlapping ligand specificity with SR-AI/II. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of SR-AI/II in the removal of modified LDL from the bloodstream in vivo. The clearance rate of oxidized LDL from plasma in normal mice was very rapid, and > 90% of injected dose was removed from the blood within 5 min. Clearance rates of oxidized LDL were equally high in SR-AI/II knockout mice, indicating that this receptor is not required for removal of oxidized LDL from plasma. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the clearance rate of acetyl LDL in wild-type and SR-AI/II knockout animals. The plasma clearance of radioiodinated acetyl LDL was almost fully blocked by a 50-fold excess of unlabeled acetyl LDL, but the latter only inhibited oxidized LDL clearance by approximately 5%. Both modified LDLs were cleared mostly by the liver, and there was no difference in the tissue distribution of modified LDL in control and knockout mice. Studies in isolated nonparenchymal liver cells showed that Kupffer cells accounted for most of the uptake of oxidized LDL. Extensively oxidized LDL and LDL modified by exposure to fatty acid peroxidation products were efficient competitors for the uptake of labeled oxidized LDL by SR-AI/II-deficient Kupffer cells, while acetyl LDL and malondialdehyde-modified LDL were relatively poor competitors. PMID:9218499

  10. A role for apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-I, and low density lipoprotein receptors in cholesterol transport during regeneration and remyelination of the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, J K; Zoellner, C D; Anderson, L J; Kosik, L M; Pitas, R E; Weisgraber, K H; Hui, D Y; Mahley, R W; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Ignatius, M J

    1989-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that apo E secretion and accumulation increase in the regenerating peripheral nerve. The fact that apoE, in conjunction with apoA-I and LDL receptors, participates in a well-established lipid transfer system raised the possibility that apoE is also involved in lipid transport in the injured nerve. In the present study of the crushed rat sciatic nerve, a combination of techniques was used to trace the cellular associations of apoE, apoA-I, and the LDL receptor during nerve repair and to determine the distribution of lipid at each stage. After a crush injury, as axons died and Schwann cells reabsorbed myelin, resident and monocyte-derived macrophages produced large quantities of apoE distal to the injury site. As axons regenerated in the first week, their tips contained a high concentration of LDL receptors. After axon regeneration, apoE and apoA-I began to accumulate distal to the injury site and macrophages became increasingly cholesterol-loaded. As remyelination began in the second and third weeks after injury, Schwann cells exhausted their cholesterol stores, then displayed increased LDL receptors. Depletion of macrophage cholesterol stores followed over the next several weeks. During this stage of regeneration, apoE and apoA-I were present in the extracellular matrix as components of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Our results demonstrate that the regenerating peripheral nerve possesses the components of a cholesterol transfer mechanism, and the sequence of events suggests that this mechanism supplies the cholesterol required for rapid membrane biogenesis during axon regeneration and remyelination. Images PMID:2493483

  11. Coarse grained molecular dynamics of engineered macromolecules for the inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophage scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Michael D; Zablocki, Kyle; Petersen, Latrisha K; Moghe, Prabhas V; Tomassone, M Silvina

    2013-08-12

    Atherosclerosis is a condition resulting from the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) in arterial walls. Previously developed macromolecules consisting of alkyl chains and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on a mucic acid backbone, termed nanolipoblockers (NLBs) are hypothesized to mitigate the uptake of oxLDL by macrophage scavenger receptors. In this work, we developed a coarse grained model to characterize the interactions between NLBs with a segment of human scavenger receptor A (SR-A), a key receptor domain that regulates cholesterol uptake and foam cell conversion of macrophages, and studied NLB ability to block oxLDL uptake in PBMC macrophages. We focused on four different NLB configurations with variable molecular charge, charge location, and degree of NLB micellization. Kinetic studies showed that three of the four NLBs form micelles within 300 ns and of sizes comparable to literature results. In the presence of SR-A, micelle-forming NLBs interacted with the receptor primarily in an aggregated state rather than as single unimers. The model showed that incorporation of an anionic charge near the NLB mucic acid head resulted in enhanced interaction with the proposed binding pocket of SR-A compared to uncharged NLBs. By contrast, NLBs with an anionic charge located at the PEG tail showed no interaction increase as NLB aggregates were predominately observed to interact away from the oxLDL binding site. Additionally, using two different methods to assess the number of contacts that each NLB type formed with SR-A, we found that the rank order of contacts coincided with our experimental flow cytometry results evaluating the ability of the different NLBs to block the uptake of oxLDL.

  12. The P2Y2 receptor mediates uptake of matrix-retained and aggregated low density lipoprotein in primary vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Dissmore, Tixieanna; Seye, Cheikh I.; Medeiros, Denis M.; Weisman, Gary A.; Bardford, Barry; Mamedova, Laman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The internalization of aggregated low-density lipoproteins (agLDL) mediated by low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP1) may involve the actin cytoskeleton in ways that differ from the endocytosis of soluble LDL by the LDL receptor (LDLR). This study aims to define novel mechanisms of agLDL uptake through modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, to identify molecular targets involved in foam cell formation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The critical observation that formed the basis for these studies is that under pathophysiological conditions, nucleotide release from blood-derived and vascular cells activates SMC P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) leading to rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that P2Y2R activation mediates agLDL uptake by VSMCs. Methods Primary VSMCs were isolated from aortas of wild type (WT) C57BL/6 and.P2Y2R−/− mice to investigate whether P2Y2R activation modulates LRP1 expression. Cells were transiently transfected with cDNA encoding a hemagglutinin-tagged (HA-tagged) WT P2Y2R, or a mutant P2Y2R that unlike the WT P2Y2R does not bind the cytoskeletal actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLN-A). Results P2Y2R activation significantly increased agLDL uptake, and LRP1 mRNA expression decreased in P2Y2R−/− VSMCs versus WT. SMCs, expressing P2Y2R defective in FLN-A binding, exhibit 3-fold lower LDLR expression levels than SMCs expressing WT P2Y2R, while cells transfected with WT P2Y2R show greater agLDL uptake in both WT and P2Y2R−/− VSMCs versus cells transfected with the mutant P2Y2R. Conclusions Together, these results show that both LRP1 and LDLR expression and agLDL uptake are regulated by P2Y2R in VSMCs, and that agLDL uptake due to P2Y2R activation is dependent upon cytoskeletal reorganization mediated by P2Y2R binding to FLN-A. PMID:27522265

  13. The P2Y2 receptor mediates uptake of matrix-retained and aggregated low density lipoprotein in primary vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dissmore, Tixieanna; Seye, Cheikh I; Medeiros, Denis M; Weisman, Gary A; Bardford, Barry; Mamedova, Laman

    2016-09-01

    The internalization of aggregated low-density lipoproteins (agLDL) mediated by low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP1) may involve the actin cytoskeleton in ways that differ from the endocytosis of soluble LDL by the LDL receptor (LDLR). This study aims to define novel mechanisms of agLDL uptake through modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, to identify molecular targets involved in foam cell formation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The critical observation that formed the basis for these studies is that under pathophysiological conditions, nucleotide release from blood-derived and vascular cells activates SMC P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) leading to rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that P2Y2R activation mediates agLDL uptake by VSMCs. Primary VSMCs were isolated from aortas of wild type (WT) C57BL/6 and.P2Y2R-/- mice to investigate whether P2Y2R activation modulates LRP1 expression. Cells were transiently transfected with cDNA encoding a hemagglutinin-tagged (HA-tagged) WT P2Y2R, or a mutant P2Y2R that unlike the WT P2Y2R does not bind the cytoskeletal actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLN-A). P2Y2R activation significantly increased agLDL uptake, and LRP1 mRNA expression decreased in P2Y2R-/- VSMCs versus WT. SMCs, expressing P2Y2R defective in FLN-A binding, exhibit 3-fold lower LDLR expression levels than SMCs expressing WT P2Y2R, while cells transfected with WT P2Y2R show greater agLDL uptake in both WT and P2Y2R-/- VSMCs versus cells transfected with the mutant P2Y2R. Together, these results show that both LRP1 and LDLR expression and agLDL uptake are regulated by P2Y2R in VSMCs, and that agLDL uptake due to P2Y2R activation is dependent upon cytoskeletal reorganization mediated by P2Y2R binding to FLN-A. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein levels and endocytic function are reduced by overexpression of the FE65 adaptor protein, FE65L1.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne Y; Chang, Yang; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Rebeck, G William

    2002-08-01

    The FE65 adaptor protein family was identified in two-hybrid screens as proteins that bind the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies have shown that FE65 binding to APP modulates APP processing. Increased levels of alpha-secretase derived secreted APP (APPsalpha) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) were recovered from conditioned media upon FE65L1 or FE65 overexpression. These effects were associated with an increase in the ratio of mature/immature APP and increased cell-surface APP. FE65 has also been reported to bind low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Here we show that FE65L1 overexpression results in decreased LRP steady state levels, LRPs, and LRP endocytic receptor function. These changes in LRP protein levels are not due to decreased transcription of LRP. Furthermore, pulse/chase experiments demonstrate that changes in LRP protein only occurred 12-18 h after translation. We conclude that the decreases in LRP levels likely reflect routing of LRP away from the cell surface into a degradative pathway. Previous studies suggested that LRP plays an important role for Abeta production of Kunitz protease inhibitor forms of APP in the endocytic pathway. These data show that FE65L1 can differentially affect the metabolic fate of APP and LRP. In addition, these data suggest that the LRP decrease observed in FE65L1 overexpressing cells may in part contribute to altered APP processing.

  15. Low-density lipoprotein receptor overexpression enhances the rate of brain-to-blood Aβ clearance in a mouse model of β-amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Joseph M.; Deane, Rashid; Gottesdiener, Andrew J.; Verghese, Philip B.; Stewart, Floy R.; West, Tim; Paoletti, Andrew C.; Kasper, Tristan R.; DeMattos, Ronald B.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Holtzman, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease, likely increasing risk by altering amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. We recently demonstrated that the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a major apoE receptor in the brain that strongly regulates amyloid plaque deposition. In the current study, we sought to understand the mechanism by which LDLR regulates Aβ accumulation by altering Aβ clearance from brain interstitial fluid. We hypothesized that increasing LDLR levels enhances blood–brain barrier-mediated Aβ clearance, thus leading to reduced Aβ accumulation. Using the brain Aβ efflux index method, we found that blood–brain barrier-mediated clearance of exogenously administered Aβ is enhanced with LDLR overexpression. We next developed a method to directly assess the elimination of centrally derived, endogenous Aβ into the plasma of mice using an anti-Aβ antibody that prevents degradation of plasma Aβ, allowing its rate of appearance from the brain to be measured. Using this plasma Aβ accumulation technique, we found that LDLR overexpression enhances brain-to-blood Aβ transport. Together, our results suggest a unique mechanism by which LDLR regulates brain-to-blood Aβ clearance, which may serve as a useful therapeutic avenue in targeting Aβ clearance from the brain. PMID:22927427

  16. Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling Interacts with CREBH to Modulate High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) in Response to Bacterial Endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Aditya; Qiu, Yining; Kim, Hyunbae; Wang, Jiemei; Hou, Xia; Zhang, Xuebao; Zheng, Ze; Mendez, Roberto; Yu, Fu-Shin; Kumar, Ashok; Fang, Deyu; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-10-28

    Bacterial endotoxin can induce inflammatory and metabolic changes in the host. In this study, we revealed a molecular mechanism by which a stress-inducible, liver-enriched transcription factor, cAMP-responsive element-binding protein hepatic-specific (CREBH), modulates lipid profiles to protect the liver from injuries upon the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS challenge can activate CREBH in mouse liver tissues in a toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88-dependent manner. Upon LPS challenge, CREBH interacts with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions as a key mediator of TLR signaling, and this interaction relies on MyD88. Further analysis demonstrated that TRAF6 mediates K63-linked ubiquitination of CREBH to facilitate CREBH cleavage and activation. CREBH directly activates expression of the gene encoding Apolipoprotein A4 (ApoA4) under LPS challenge, leading to modulation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in animals. CREBH deficiency led to reduced production of circulating HDL and increased liver damage upon high-dose LPS challenge. Therefore, TLR/MyD88-dependent, TRAF6-facilitated CREBH activation represents a mammalian hepatic defense response to bacterial endotoxin by modulating HDL. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. DC-SIGN and Toll-like receptor 4 mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Liu, Xinhe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinqiong; Cao, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Xu, Chundi; Shen, Weifeng; Zhou, Tong

    2017-06-12

    The regulation of inflammatory responses by innate immune receptors is recognized as a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study focused on illustrating the roles of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)- and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-regulated inflammatory responses in macrophages. We found that DC-SIGN expression levels were increased in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) significantly enhanced DC-SIGN protein expression levels after a short-term exposure. Knockdown of DC-SIGN decreased expression and secretion of interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that DC-SIGN and TLR4 co-localized in regions of the plaques. Moreover, DC-SIGN was co-expressed with TLR4 on the plasma membrane after oxLDL stimulation. The presence of an endogenous interaction and the results of the in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DC-SIGN binds directly with TLR4. We also present evidence that DC-SIGN mediates TLR4-regulated NFκB activation but not activation of p38 and JNK. Our results suggest an essential role of DC-SIGN/TLR4 signaling in macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  18. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-02-19

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. The {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3{beta} phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated {beta}-catenin. Nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  19. Silent exonic mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that cause familial hypercholesterolemia by affecting mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Defesche, J C; Schuurman, E J M; Klaaijsen, L N; Khoo, K L; Wiegman, A; Stalenhoef, A F H

    2008-06-01

    In a large group of patients with the clinical phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis, but without functional mutations in the genes coding for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B, we examined the effect of 128 seemingly neutral exonic and intronic DNA variants, discovered by routine sequencing of these genes. Two variants, G186G and R385R, were found to be associated with altered splicing. The nucleotide change leading to G186G resulted in the generation of new 3'-splice donor site in exon 4 and R385R was associated with a new 5'-splice acceptor site in exon 9 of the LDL receptor gene. Splicing of these alternate splice sites leads to an in-frame 75-base pair deletion in a stable mRNA of exon 4 in case of G186G and R385R resulted in a 31-base pair frame-shift deletion in exon 9 and non-sense-mediated mRNA decay.

  20. A Genomic DNA Reporter Screen Identifies Squalene Synthase Inhibitors That Act Cooperatively with Statins to Upregulate the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Alastair G.; Tam, Lawrence C. S.; Hale, Ashley B.; Cioroch, Milena; Douglas, Gillian; Agkatsev, Sarina; Hibbitt, Olivia; Mason, Joseph; Holt-Martyn, James; Bataille, Carole J. R.; Wynne, Graham M.; Channon, Keith M.; Russell, Angela J.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia remains one of the leading risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Many large double-blind studies have demonstrated that lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol using a statin can reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event by approximately 30%. However, despite the success of statins, some patient populations are unable to lower their LDL cholesterol to meet the targeted lipid levels, due to compliance or potency issues. This is especially true for patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who may require additional upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to reduce LDL cholesterol levels below those achievable with maximal dosing of statins. Here we identify a series of small molecules from a genomic DNA reporter screen that upregulate the LDLR in mouse and human liver cell lines at nanomolar potencies (EC50 = 39 nM). Structure-activity relationship studies carried out on the lead compound, OX03771 [(E)-N,N-dimethyl-3-(4-styrylphenoxy)propan-1-amine], led to the identification of compound OX03050 [(E)-3-(4-styrylphenoxy)propan-1-ol], which had similar potency (EC50 = 26 nM) but a much-improved pharmacokinetic profile and showed in vivo efficacy. Compounds OX03050 and OX03771 were found to inhibit squalene synthase, the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. These squalene synthase inhibitors were shown to act cooperatively with statins to increase LDLR expression in vitro. Overall, we demonstrated here a novel series of small molecules with the potential to be further developed to treat patients either alone or in combination with statins. PMID:28360334

  1. NARC-1/PCSK9 and its natural mutants: zymogen cleavage and effects on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Benjannet, Suzanne; Rhainds, David; Essalmani, Rachid; Mayne, Janice; Wickham, Louise; Jin, Weijun; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Hamelin, Josée; Varret, Mathilde; Allard, Delphine; Trillard, Mélanie; Abifadel, Marianne; Tebon, Angie; Attie, Alan D; Rader, Daniel J; Boileau, Catherine; Brissette, Louise; Chrétien, Michel; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G

    2004-11-19

    The discovery of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemic patients with mutations in the PCSK9 gene, encoding the proprotein convertase NARC-1, resulting in the missense mutations suggested a role in low density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism. We show that the endoplasmic reticulum-localized proNARC-1 to NARC-1 zymogen conversion is Ca2+-independent and that within the zymogen autocatalytic processing site SSVFAQ [downward arrow]SIP Val at P4 and Pro at P3' are critical. The S127R and D374Y mutations result in approximately 50-60% and > or =98% decrease in zymogen processing, respectively. In contrast, the double [D374Y + N157K], F216L, and R218S natural mutants resulted in normal zymogen processing. The cell surface LDL receptor (LDLR) levels are reduced by 35% in lymphoblasts of S127R patients. The LDLR levels are also reduced in stable HepG2 cells overexpressing NARC-1 or its natural mutant S127R, and this reduction is abrogated in the presence of 5 mm ammonium chloride, suggesting that overexpression of NARC-1 increases the turnover rate of the LDLR. Adenoviral expression of wild type human NARC-1 in mice resulted in a maximal approximately 9-fold increase in circulating LDL cholesterol, while in LDLR-/- mice a delayed approximately 2-fold increase in LDL cholesterol was observed. In conclusion, NARC-1 seems to affect both the level of LDLR and that of circulating apoB-containing lipoproteins in an LDLR-dependent and -independent fashion.

  2. A Genomic DNA Reporter Screen Identifies Squalene Synthase Inhibitors That Act Cooperatively with Statins to Upregulate the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Alastair G; Tam, Lawrence C S; Hale, Ashley B; Cioroch, Milena; Douglas, Gillian; Agkatsev, Sarina; Hibbitt, Olivia; Mason, Joseph; Holt-Martyn, James; Bataille, Carole J R; Wynne, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Russell, Angela J; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia remains one of the leading risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Many large double-blind studies have demonstrated that lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol using a statin can reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event by approximately 30%. However, despite the success of statins, some patient populations are unable to lower their LDL cholesterol to meet the targeted lipid levels, due to compliance or potency issues. This is especially true for patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who may require additional upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to reduce LDL cholesterol levels below those achievable with maximal dosing of statins. Here we identify a series of small molecules from a genomic DNA reporter screen that upregulate the LDLR in mouse and human liver cell lines at nanomolar potencies (EC50 = 39 nM). Structure-activity relationship studies carried out on the lead compound, OX03771 [(E)-N,N-dimethyl-3-(4-styrylphenoxy)propan-1-amine], led to the identification of compound OX03050 [(E)-3-(4-styrylphenoxy)propan-1-ol], which had similar potency (EC50 = 26 nM) but a much-improved pharmacokinetic profile and showed in vivo efficacy. Compounds OX03050 and OX03771 were found to inhibit squalene synthase, the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. These squalene synthase inhibitors were shown to act cooperatively with statins to increase LDLR expression in vitro. Overall, we demonstrated here a novel series of small molecules with the potential to be further developed to treat patients either alone or in combination with statins. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  3. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) regulates cholesterol homeostasis and low-density lipoprotein receptor metabolism in N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Warren

    2011-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) has been identified as a possible regulator of lipid metabolism. ABCA2 is most highly expressed in the brain but its effects on cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal-type cells have not been characterized. It is important to study the role of ABCA2 in regulating cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal-type cells because ABCA2 has been identified as a possible genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the effects of ABCA2 expression on cholesterol homeostasis were examined in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. ABCA2 reduced total, free- and esterified cholesterol levels as well as membrane cholesterol but did not perturb cholesterol distribution in organelle or lipid raft compartments. ABCA2 did not modulate de novo cholesterol biosynthesis from acetate. Cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane was not affected by ABCA2 but efflux to the physiological acceptor ApoE3 and mobilization of plasma membrane cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum for esterification were reduced by ABCA2. ABCA2 reduced esterification of serum and low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol but not 25-hydroxycholesterol. ABCA2 decreased low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein levels and increased its turnover rate. The surface expression of LDLR as well as the uptake of fluroresecent DiI-LDL was also reduced by ABCA2. Reduction of endogenous ABCA2 expression by RNAi treatment of N2a cells and rat primary cortical neurons produced the opposite effects of over-expression of ABCA2, increasing LDLR protein levels. This report identifies ABCA2 as a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR metabolism in neuronal cells.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) binds triacylated glycolipid agonists of Toll-like receptor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drage, Michael G.; Tsai, Han-Chun; Pecora, Nicole D.; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Arida, Ahmad R.; Shukla, Supriya; Rojas, Roxana E.; Seshadri, Chetan; Moody, D. Branch; Boom, W. Henry; Sacchettini, James C.; Harding, Clifford V.

    2010-09-27

    Knockout of lprG results in decreased virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. MTB lipoprotein LprG has TLR2 agonist activity, which is thought to be dependent on its N-terminal triacylation. Unexpectedly, here we find that nonacylated LprG retains TLR2 activity. Moreover, we show LprG association with triacylated glycolipid TLR2 agonists lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (which share core structures). Binding of triacylated species was specific to LprG (not LprA) and increased LprG TLR2 agonist activity; conversely, association of glycolipids with LprG enhanced their recognition by TLR2. The crystal structure of LprG in complex with phosphatidylinositol mannoside revealed a hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the three alkyl chains of the ligand. In conclusion, we demonstrate a glycolipid binding function of LprG that enhances recognition of triacylated MTB glycolipids by TLR2 and may affect glycolipid assembly or transport for bacterial cell wall biogenesis.

  6. Neonatal Fc Receptor Promotes Immune Complex–Mediated Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Suleiman, Hani; St. John, Patricia L.; Ge, Linna; Mezo, Adam R.; Shaw, Andrey S.; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis systemically and in the kidneys. We investigated the role of FcRn in the development of immune complex–mediated glomerular disease in mice. C57Bl/6 mice immunized with the noncollagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3NC1) developed albuminuria associated with granular capillary loop deposition of exogenous antigen, mouse IgG, C3 and C5b-9, and podocyte injury. High-resolution imaging showed abundant IgG deposition in the expanded glomerular basement membrane, especially in regions corresponding to subepithelial electron dense deposits. FcRn-null and -humanized mice immunized with α3NC1 developed no albuminuria and had lower levels of serum IgG anti-α3NC1 antibodies and reduced glomerular deposition of IgG, antigen, and complement. Our results show that FcRn promotes the formation of subepithelial immune complexes and subsequent glomerular pathology leading to proteinuria, potentially by maintaining higher serum levels of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Therefore, reducing pathogenic IgG levels by pharmacologic inhibition of FcRn may provide a novel approach for the treatment of immune complex–mediated glomerular diseases. As proof of concept, we showed that a peptide inhibiting the interaction between human FcRn and human IgG accelerated the degradation of human IgG anti-α3NC1 autoantibodies injected into FCRN-humanized mice as effectively as genetic ablation of FcRn, thus preventing the glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing human IgG. PMID:24357670

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells by up-regulating Osterix expression in an Msx2-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jesse; Butcher, Martin; Zeadin, Melec; Politano, Amanda; Shaughnessy, Stephen G

    2011-02-01

    We have previously shown that oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) act synergistically with β-glycerophosphate to induce the osteogenic differentiation of primary bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs). In the present study, we attempt to resolve the mechanism responsible for this effect by examining the expression of several osteoblast-specific transcription factors. Thus, by culturing BASMCs in the absence or presence of β-glycerophosphate and/or oxLDL, we demonstrate that β-glycerophosphate induces both Runx2 and Osterix (Osx) expression. In contrast, oxLDL has no effect on Runx2 expression but rather it enhances β-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblast differentiation by further up-regulating Osx expression. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this latter effect, we examined the ability of oxLDL to affect Msh homeobox 2 (Msx2) expression. Similar to its effect on Osx expression, oxLDL was found to synergistically enhance β-glycerophosphate-induced Msx2 expression in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk 1 and 2)-dependent manner. Furthermore, oxLDL's ability to enhance both β-glycerophosphate-induced Osx expression and alkaline phosphatase activity was prevented when the BASMCs were first transfected with Msx2-specific siRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest a plausible mechanism by which oxLDL may promote osteoblast differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo.

  8. Leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein LipL32 binding on toll-like receptor 2 of renal cells as determined with an atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Lo, Yueh-Yu; Tung, Jung-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ching; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Fu, Chien-Chung; Pan, Rong-Long

    2010-07-06

    Leptopirosis is a renal disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira that primarily infects the renal proximal tubules, consequently resulting in severe tubular injuries and malfunctions. The protein extracted from the outer membrane of this pathogenic strain contains a major component of a 32 kDa lipoprotein (LipL32), which is absent in the counter membrane of nonpathogenic strains and has been identified as a crucial factor for host cell infection. Previous studies showed that LipL32 induced inflammatory responses and interacted with the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the host cell. However, the exact relationship between LipL32-mediated inflammatory responses and ECM binding is still unknown. In this study, an atomic force microscope with its tip modified by purified LipL32 was used to assess the interaction between LipL32 and cell surface receptors. Furthermore, an antibody neutralization technique was employed to identify Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 as the major target of LipL32 attack. The interaction force between LipL32 and TLR2 was measured as approximately 59.5 +/- 8.7 pN, concurring with the theoretical value for a single-pair molecular interaction. Moreover, transformation of a TLR deficient cell line with human TLR2 brought the interaction force from the basal level to approximately 60.4 +/- 11.5 pN, confirming unambiguously TLR2 as counter receptor for LipL32. The stimulation of CXCL8/IL-8 expression by full-length LipL32 as compared to that without the N-terminal signal peptide domain suggests a significant role of the signal peptide of the protein in the inflammatory responses. This study provides direct evidence that LipL32 binds to TLR2, but not TLR4, on the cell surface, and a possible mechanism for the virulence of leptospirosis is accordingly proposed.

  9. Apolipoprotein E – Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Interaction Affects Spatial Memory Retention and Brain ApoE Levels in an Isoform-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lance A.; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Merkens, Louise S.; DeBarber, Andrea; Steiner, Robert D.; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ε4 (E4) is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its receptor family to demonstrate an apoE isoform specific binding affinity (E4>E3>>E2). Evidence suggests that a functional interaction between apoE and LDLR influences the risk of CVD and AD. We hypothesize that the differential cognitive effects of the apoE isoforms are a direct result of their varying interactions with LDLR. To test this hypothesis, we have employed transgenic mice that express human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4, and either human LDLR (hLDLR) or no LDLR (LDLR−/−). Our results show that plasma and brain apoE levels, cortical cholesterol, and spatial memory are all regulated by isoform-dependent interactions between apoE and LDLR. Conversely, both anxiety-like behavior and cued associative memory are strongly influenced by APOE genotype, but these processes appear to occur via an LDLR-independent mechanism. Both the lack of LDLR and the interaction between E4 and the LDLR were associated with significant impairments in the retention of long term spatial memory. Finally, levels of hippocampal apoE correlate with long term spatial memory retention in mice with human LDLR. In summary, we demonstrate that the apoE-LDLR interaction affects regional brain apoE levels, brain cholesterol, and cognitive function in an apoE isoform-dependent manner. PMID:24412220

  10. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) can mediate degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1).

    PubMed

    Canuel, Maryssa; Sun, Xiaowei; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Paramithiotis, Eustache; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G

    2013-01-01

    Elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDLc) levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. LDLc is cleared from circulation by the LDL receptor (LDLR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) enhances the degradation of the LDLR in endosomes/lysosomes, resulting in increased circulating LDLc. PCSK9 can also mediate the degradation of LDLR lacking its cytosolic tail, suggesting the presence of as yet undefined lysosomal-targeting factor(s). Herein, we confirm this, and also eliminate a role for the transmembrane-domain of the LDLR in mediating its PCSK9-induced internalization and degradation. Recent findings from our laboratory also suggest a role for PCSK9 in enhancing tumor metastasis. We show herein that while the LDLR is insensitive to PCSK9 in murine B16F1 melanoma cells, PCSK9 is able to induce degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), suggesting distinct targeting mechanisms for these receptors. Furthermore, PCSK9 is still capable of acting upon the LDLR in CHO 13-5-1 cells lacking LRP-1. Conversely, PCSK9 also acts on LRP-1 in the absence of the LDLR in CHO-A7 cells, where re-introduction of the LDLR leads to reduced PCSK9-mediated degradation of LRP-1. Thus, while PCSK9 is capable of inducing degradation of LRP-1, the latter is not an essential factor for LDLR regulation, but the LDLR effectively competes with LRP-1 for PCSK9 activity. Identification of PCSK9 targets should allow a better understanding of the consequences of PCSK9 inhibition for lowering LDLc and tumor metastasis.

  11. Suppression of atherogenesis in female low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice following magnesium fortification of drinking water: the importance of diet.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Y; Shoenfeld, Y; Shaish, A; Levkovitz, H; Bitzur, R; Harats, D

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) has previously been found to modulate blood lipid levels, atherogenesis and atherosclerosis in rabbits when used as a dietary supplement. In addition, we have reported that Mg fortification of drinking water can attenuate atherogenesis in male low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-deficient mice, but had a mild and nonsignificant effect on female mice fed a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with cholic acid. The aim of this study was to examine whether Mg has an antiatherogenic effect in female mice fed a high-cholesterol diet without cholic acid. Two groups of female LDL-receptor-deficient mice were included. The mice received either distilled water or water with 50 g of Mg sulfate per liter. In the first (12 weeks) and second (6 weeks) stages of the experiment, the mice received low- and high-cholesterol diets, respectively, both without cholic acid. At the end of each stage of the experiment, blood was drawn for the determination of plasma Mg, calcium and lipid levels. In addition, the extent of atherosclerosis was determined at the aortic sinus level. Mg fortification was associated with higher levels of plasma Mg while the mice were on a high-cholesterol diet, and the extent of atherosclerosis at the aortic sinus was significantly decreased in the female mice that received high levels of Mg compared with the female mice that received distilled water. The female mice that received water fortified with Mg had lower levels of triglycerides after stage 2, whereas no differences regarding cholesterol levels were found. These results confirm that Mg fortification of drinking water is capable of inhibiting atherogenesis also in female LDL-receptor-deficient mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, and demonstrate the importance of the nutritional composition of diet in this experimental model. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Strong reduction of low-density lipoprotein receptor/apolipoprotein E expressions by telmisartan in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of stroke resistant spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yun; Yamashita, Toru; Kurata, Tomoko; Fukui, Yusuke; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Liu, Wentao; Omote, Yoshio; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker with a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonistic property to exert not only antihypertensive effect but also antimetabolic syndrome effect. We examined the long-term effect of telmisartan on cholesterol transport-related proteins (low-density lipoprotein receptor [LDL-R]/apolipoprotein E [ApoE]) and microtubule-associated proteins 2 (MAP2) in the brains of stroke resistant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SRs), which were divided into 3 experiment groups including vehicle group (SHR/Ve), low-dose telmisartan group (SHR/Low, .3 mg/kg/day), and high-dose telmisartan group (SHR/High, 3 mg/kg/day). The numbers of LDL-R- and immuno-ApoE-positive neurons increased in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR/Ve throughout 6, 12, and 18 months of age, compared with age-matched normotensive Wistar rats. On the other hand, telmisartan significantly reduced the numbers of LDL-R- and ApoE immuno-positive neurons in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus, with similar effectiveness in the SHR/Low group without blood pressure (BP) lowering to BP lowering (SHR/High). The decrease of MAP2-positive neuron in SHR/Ve was recovered by telmisartan in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These findings suggest that a long-term treatment with telmisartan directly improved neuronal lipid metabolism in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR-SR, mainly improving LDL-R and ApoE metabolism (SHR/Low) with a small additive benefit by BP lowering (SHR/High), which could provide a preventative approach in patients with hypertension at risk of Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Apolipoprotein E-low density lipoprotein receptor interaction affects spatial memory retention and brain ApoE levels in an isoform-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lance A; Olsen, Reid H J; Merkens, Louise S; DeBarber, Andrea; Steiner, Robert D; Sullivan, Patrick M; Maeda, Nobuyo; Raber, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its receptor family to demonstrate an apoE isoform specific binding affinity (E4>E3>E2). Evidence suggests that a functional interaction between apoE and LDLR influences the risk of CVD and AD. We hypothesize that the differential cognitive effects of the apoE isoforms are a direct result of their varying interactions with LDLR. To test this hypothesis, we have employed transgenic mice that express human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4, and either human LDLR (hLDLR) or no LDLR (LDLR(-/-)). Our results show that plasma and brain apoE levels, cortical cholesterol, and spatial memory are all regulated by isoform-dependent interactions between apoE and LDLR. Conversely, both anxiety-like behavior and cued associative memory are strongly influenced by APOE genotype, but these processes appear to occur via an LDLR-independent mechanism. Both the lack of LDLR and the interaction between E4 and the LDLR were associated with significant impairments in the retention of long term spatial memory. Finally, levels of hippocampal apoE correlate with long term spatial memory retention in mice with human LDLR. In summary, we demonstrate that the apoE-LDLR interaction affects regional brain apoE levels, brain cholesterol, and cognitive function in an apoE isoform-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Up-regulation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: a possible novel mechanism of antiatherogenic activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor Atorvastatin and hepatic LRP1 expression.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Kang, Saet Byol; Park, Jong Suk; Lee, Byung Wan; Kang, Eun Seok; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2011-07-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) binds to apolipoprotein E and serves as a receptor for remnant lipoproteins in the liver, thus playing an important role in clearing these atherogenic particles. In this study, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, on hepatic LRP1 expression. We used HepG2 and Hep3B cells for in vitro study, and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty and Sprague-Dawley rats for in vivo study. We used relatively high pharmacologic dose of atorvastatin in this study (in vitro, 0.5 μmol/L in culture media, for 48 hours; in vivo, 20 mg/[kg d], for 6 weeks). Atorvastatin increased LRP1 and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and induced hepatic LRP1 and LDL receptor expression in chow diet-fed Sprague-Dawley rats and high-fat diet-fed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats. Atorvastatin decreased intracellular sterol level and increased the amount of the nuclear form of sterol response element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells as well as in two animal models. Treatment of HepG2 cells with LDL increased intracellular sterol level and reduced LRP1, LDL receptor, and SREBP-2. When SREBP-2 in HepG2 cells was knocked down by small interfering RNA, the induction of LRP1 expression by atorvastatin did not take place. In conclusion, up-regulation of hepatic LRP1 might be a novel mechanism by which statin treatment decreases remnant lipoproteins. In addition, SREBP-2 acts as a mediator of atorvastatin-induced up-regulation of hepatic LRP1. Future studies using standard doses of atorvastatin in humans are needed to elucidate clinical relevance of these findings.

  15. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation is mediated by formyl peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Young; Oh, Eunseo; Kim, Sang Doo; Seo, Jeong Kon; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2014-01-17

    The increased level of LDL and its modification into oxLDL has been regarded as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Although some scavenger receptors including CD36 and RAGE have been considered as target receptors for oxLDL, involvement of other receptors should be investigated for oxLDL-induced pathological responses. In this study, we found that oxLDL-induced foam cell formation was inhibited by formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antagonist WRW(4). oxLDL also stimulated calcium signaling and chemotactic migration in FPR2-expressing RBL-2H3 cells but not in vector-expressing RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, oxLDL stimulated TNF-α production, which was also almost completely inhibited by FPR2 antagonist. Our findings therefore suggest that oxLDL stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration, TNF-α production, and foam cell formation via FPR2 signaling, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Two novel mutations in exon 3 and 4 of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Samia Perwaiz; Ghani, Rubina; Ahmed, Khwaja Zafar; Yaqoob, Zia

    2011-07-01

    To determine the common mutation of low density lipoprotein receptor in hypercholesterolemia patients requiring screening for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) in Karachi. Case-series. Dr. Ziauddin Hospital Laboratory and Dr. Rubina Ghani's Pathological and Molecular Laboratories, Karachi, for the PCR bench work from June 2008 to October 2009. All the patients selected for this study were from Dr. Ziauddin Hospital and National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases. All the patients having high total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were included in this study with premature coronary artery diseases or a family history of hypercholesterolemia. Exclusion criteria included Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, renal disease, hypothyroidism and steroid therapy. After lipid profile with overnight fasting, DNA was extracted from whole blood collected in EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid) tube and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using forward and reverse primers of exons 3, 4, 9 and 14 of base pairs 162, 431, 550 and 496 respectively. Out of total of 120 hypercholesterolemia cases, 42 patients were classical cases of HeFH (heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia) with xanthomas, xanthelasmas and LDL-C > 160 mg/dl. The total cholesterol (260± 57 mg/dL) and LDL-C (192 ± 39 mg/dL ) of cases was significantly high as compared to, controls having total cholesterol (184 ± 27 mg/dL) and LDL-C (105 ± 22 mg/dL), p > 0.001. Two novel point mutations were noted in exon 3 and exon 4. The other 78 cases were probable with raised LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) and family history of premature coronary heart diseases. The frequency of HeFH was 35% classical and 65% probable cases out of total 120 hypercholesterolemia patients from two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi. The point mutation on exon 3 and exon 4 of LDLR gene was the most common. PCR is useful for the detection of large re-arrangements in the LDL-receptor gene and is a rapid and

  17. Decoding of lipoproteinreceptor interactions; Properties of ligand binding modules governing interactions with ApoE

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Miklos; Prieto, J. Helena; Croy, Johnny E.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Clusters of complement-type ligand binding repeats in the LDL receptor family are thought to mediate the interactions between these receptors and their various ligands. Apolipoprotein E, a key ligand for cholesterol homeostasis, has been shown to interact with LDLR, LRP and VLDLR, through these clusters. LDLR and VLDLR each contain a single ligand-binding repeat cluster, whereas LRP contains three large clusters of ligand binding repeats, each with ligand binding functions. We show that within sLRP3, the three-repeat subcluster CR16-18 recapitulated ligand binding to the isolated receptor binding portion of ApoE (residues 130-149). Binding experiments with LA3-5 of LDLR and CR16-18 showed that a conserved W25/D30 pair appears critical for high affinity binding to ApoE(130-149). The triple repeat LA3-5 showed the expected interaction with ApoE(1-191)•DMPC, but surprisingly CR16-18 did not interact with this form of ApoE. To understand these differences in ApoE binding affinity, we introduced mutations of conserved residues from LA5 into CR18, and produced a CR16-18 variant capable of binding ApoE(1-191)•DMPC. This change cannot fully be accounted for by the interaction with the proposed ApoE receptor binding region, therefore we speculate that LA5 is recognizing a distinct epitope on ApoE that may only exists in the lipid bound form. The combination of avidity effects with this distinct recognition process likely governs the ApoE-LDL receptor interaction. PMID:20030366

  18. Dietary Fat Interacts with PCBs to Induce Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Mice Deficient in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Bernhard; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Matveev, Sergey V.; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric; Robertson, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (LDL-R−/−) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was non-detectable in the olive-oil–fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil–enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil–diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil–fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil–fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:15626652

  19. Identification of a small peptide that inhibits PCSK9 protein binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingnan; Eigenbrot, Charles; Zhou, Lijuan; Shia, Steven; Li, Wei; Quan, Clifford; Tom, Jeffrey; Moran, Paul; Di Lello, Paola; Skelton, Nicholas J; Kong-Beltran, Monica; Peterson, Andrew; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2014-01-10

    PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is a negative regulator of the hepatic LDL receptor, and clinical studies with PCSK9-inhibiting antibodies have demonstrated strong LDL-c-lowering effects. Here we screened phage-displayed peptide libraries and identified the 13-amino acid linear peptide Pep2-8 as the smallest PCSK9 inhibitor with a clearly defined mechanism of inhibition that has been described. Pep2-8 bound to PCSK9 with a KD of 0.7 μm but did not bind to other proprotein convertases. It fully restored LDL receptor surface levels and LDL particle uptake in PCSK9-treated HepG2 cells. The crystal structure of Pep2-8 bound to C-terminally truncated PCSK9 at 1.85 Å resolution showed that the peptide adopted a strand-turn-helix conformation, which is remarkably similar to its solution structure determined by NMR. Consistent with the functional binding site identified by an Ala scan of PCSK9, the structural Pep2-8 contact region of about 400 Å(2) largely overlapped with that contacted by the EGF(A) domain of the LDL receptor, suggesting a competitive inhibition mechanism. Consistent with this, Pep2-8 inhibited LDL receptor and EGF(A) domain binding to PCSK9 with IC50 values of 0.8 and 0.4 μm, respectively. Remarkably, Pep2-8 mimicked secondary structural elements of the EGF(A) domain that interact with PCSK9, notably the β-strand and a discontinuous short α-helix, and it engaged in the same β-sheet hydrogen bonds as EGF(A) does. Although Pep2-8 itself may not be amenable to therapeutic applications, this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing peptidic inhibitors to functionally relevant sites on PCSK9.

  20. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yoshio; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Nagano, Tomohisa; Abe, Hiroshi

    2015-09-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotrophic virus and a major cause of chronic liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma, worldwide. The life cycle of HCV is closely associated with the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. The main function of lipoproteins is transporting lipids throughout the body. Triglycerides, free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids are the major components of the transported lipids. The pathway of HCV assembly and secretion is closely linked to lipoprotein production and secretion, and the infectivity of HCV particles largely depends on the interaction of lipoproteins. Moreover, HCV entry into hepatocytes is strongly influenced by lipoproteins. The key lipoprotein molecules mediating these interactions are apolipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are amphipathic proteins on the surface of a lipoprotein particle, which help stabilize lipoprotein structure. They perform a key role in lipoprotein metabolism by serving as receptor ligands, enzyme co-factors, and lipid transport carriers. Understanding the association between the life cycle of HCV and lipoprotein metabolism is important because each step of the life cycle of HCV that is associated with lipoprotein metabolism is a potential target for anti-HCV therapy. In this article, we first concisely review the nature of lipoprotein and its metabolism to better understand the complicated interaction of HCV with lipoprotein. Then, we review the outline of the processes of HCV assembly, secretion, and entry into hepatocytes, focusing on the association with lipoproteins. Finally, we discuss the clinical aspects of disturbed lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and the significance of dyslipoproteinemia in chronic HCV infection with regard to abnormal apolipoproteins.

  1. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator Response Element Modulates Hepatic Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Transcription in Response to PPARδ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Vikram R.; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    The hepatic expression of LDLR gene is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level by a sterol-regulatory element (SRE) in its proximal promoter region which is the site of action of SRE-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). However whether additional cis-regulatory elements contribute to LDLR transcription has not been fully explored. We investigated the function of a putative PPAR-response element (PPRE) sequence motif located at −768 to −752 bases upstream of the transcription start site of human LDLR gene in response to PPARδ activation. Promoter luciferase reporter analyses showed that treating HepG2 cells with PPARδ agonist L165041 markedly increased the activity of a full-length LDLR promoter construct (pLDLR-1192) without any effects on the shorter promoter reporter pLDLR-234 that contains only the core regulatory elements SRE-1 and SP1 sites. Importantly, mutation of the PPRE sequence greatly attenuated the induction of the full-length LDLR promoter activity by L165041 without affecting rosuvastatin mediated transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed the binding of PPARδ to the LDLR-PPRE site. Treating HepG2 cells with L165041 elevated the mRNA and protein expressions of LDLR without affecting the LDLR mRNA decay rate. The induction of LDLR expression by PPARδ agonist was further observed in liver tissue of mice and hamsters treated with L165041. Altogether, our studies identify a novel PPRE-mediated regulatory mechanism for LDLR transcription and suggest that combined treatment of statin with PPARδ agonists may have advantageous effects on LDLR expression. PMID:26443862

  2. Association between Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 5 Polymorphisms and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Han Chinese: a Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    You, Hai Fei; Zhao, Jing Zhi; Zhai, Yu Jia; Yin, Lei; Pang, Chao; Luo, Xin Ping; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jin Jin; Li, Lin Lin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Wang, Bing Yuan; Ren, Yong Cheng; Hu, Dong Sheng

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) variants (rs12363572 and rs4930588) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Han Chinese. A total of 1842 T2DM cases (507 newly diagnosed cases and 1335 previously diagnosed cases) and 7777 controls were included in this case-control study. PCR-RFLP was conducted to detect the genotype of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to describe the strength of the association by logistic regression. In the study subjects, neither rs12363572 nor rs4930588 was significantly associated with T2DM, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), the two SNPs were also not associated with T2DM. Among the 3 common haplotypes, only haplotype TT was associated with reduced risk of T2DM (OR 0.820, 95% CI 0.732-0.919). In addition, rs12363572 was associated with BMI (P<0.001) and rs4930588 was associated with triglyceride levels (P=0.043) in 507 newly diagnosed T2DM cases but not in healthy controls. No LRP5 variant was found to be associated with T2DM in Han Chinese, but haplotype TT was found to be associated with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  4. Combination of body mass index and oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 in prognosis prediction of patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Long; Jiang, Shanshan; Lin, Yongbin; Yang, Han; Zhao, Zerui; Xie, Zehua; Lin, Yaobin; Long, Hao

    2015-09-08

    Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), represents enormous challenges in continuously achieving treatment improvements. Besides cancer, obesity is becoming ever more prevalent. Obesity is increasingly acknowledged as a major risk factor for several types of common cancers. Significant mechanisms overlap in the pathobiology of obesity and tumorigenesis. One of these mechanisms involves oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), as a link between obesity and cancer. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) has been widely used in exploiting the role of obesity on a series of diseases, including cancer. Significantly, squamous NSCLC revealed to be divergent clinical and molecular phenotypes compared with non-squamous NSCLC. Consequently, OLR1 immunostaining score and BMI were assessed by Fisher's linear discriminant analysis to discriminate if progression-free survival (PFS) would exceed 2 years. In addition, the final model was utilized to calculate the discriminant score in each study participant. Finally, 131 patients with squamous NCSLC were eligible for analysis. And a prediction model was established for PFS based on these 2 markers and validated in a second set of squamous NCSLC patients. The model offers a novel tool for survival prediction and could establish a framework for future individualized therapy for patients with squamous NCSLC.

  5. Exon organization of the mouse entactin gene corresponds to the structural domains of the polypeptide and has regional homology to the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, M.E.; Chung, A.E.; Wewer, U.M.

    1995-03-20

    Entactin is a widespread basement membrane protein of 150 kDa that binds to type IV collagen and laminin. The complete exon-intron structure of the mouse entactin gene has been determined from {lambda} genomic DNA clones. The gene spans at least 65 kb and contains 20 exons. The exon organization of the mouse entactin gene closely corresponds to the organization of the polypeptide into distinct structural and functional domains. The two amino-terminal globular domains are encoded by three exons each. Single exons encode the two protease-sensitive, O-glycosylated linking regions. The six EGF-like repeats and the single thyroglobulin-type repeat are each encoded by separate exons. The carboxyl-terminal half of entactin displays sequence homology to the growth factor-like region of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, and in both genes this region is encoded by eight exons. The positions of four introns are also conserved in the homologous region of the two genes. These observations suggest that the entactin gene has evolved via exon shuffling. Finally, several sequence polymorphisms useful for gene linkage analysis were found in the 3{prime} noncoding region of the last exon. 52 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment. PMID:27424515

  7. Inflammation-induced dysfunction of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 at the blood-brain barrier: protection by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Michelle A; Hansen, Kim; Banks, William A

    2012-10-01

    Impairment in two blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters, p-glycoprotein (Pgp) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) are thought to contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by resulting in the brain accumulation of their substrate amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). The initial cause of impaired efflux, however, is unknown. We have shown that induction of systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide impairs the efflux of Aβ from the brain, suggesting that systemic inflammation could be one such initiator. In this study, we determined whether pre-administration of the antioxidant N-aceytlcysteine (Nac) has a protective effect against LPS-induced Aβ transporter dysfunction. Our findings were that Nac protected against LPS-induced Aβ transport dysfunction at the BBB through an LRP-1-dependent and Pgp-independent mechanism. This was associated with Nac exerting antioxidant effects in the periphery but not the brain, despite an increased rate of entry of Nac into the brain following LPS. We also found that Nac pre-administration resulted in lower blood levels of the cytokines and chemokines interferon-γ, interleukin-10, CCL2, CCL4, and CCL5, but only lowered CCL4 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Finally, we observed that hippocampal cytokine responses to LPS were decreased compared to cortex. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which antioxidants prevent Aβ accumulation in the brain caused by inflammation, and therefore protect against AD.

  8. Expressions of the low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase genes are stimulated by recombinant platelet-derived growth factor isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.; Emmons, L.R.; Perruchoud, A. ); Block, L.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The plausible role that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has in the localized pathophysiological changes that occur in the arterial wall during development of atherosclerotic lesions led the authors to investigate the influence of recombinant (r)PDGF isomers -AA, -AB, and -BB on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG0CoA) reductase ((S)-mevalonate:NAD{sup +} oxidoreductase (CoA-acylating), EC 1.1.1.88) genes. In addition, they clarified the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in expression of the two genes in human skin fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. The various rPDGF isoforms are distinct in their ability to activate transcription of both genes: (i) both rPDGF-AA and -BB stimulate transcription of the LDL-R gene; in contrast, rPDGF-BB but not -AA, activates transcription of the HMG-CoA reductase gene; (ii) all recombinant isoforms of PDGF activate transcription of the c-fos gene; (iii) while rPDGF-dependent transcription of the lDL-R gene occurs independently of PKC, transcription of the HMG-CoA reductase gene appears to involve the action of that enzyme.

  9. The Trypanosoma cruzi neuraminidase contains sequences similar to bacterial neuraminidases, YWTD repeats of the low density lipoprotein receptor, and type III modules of fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi expresses a developmentally regulated neuraminidase (TCNA) implicated in parasite invasion of cells. We isolated full- length DNA clones encoding TCNA. Sequence analysis demonstrated an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 1,162 amino acids. In the N- terminus there is a cysteine-rich domain containing a stretch of 332 amino acids nearly 30% identical to the Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase, three repeat motifs highly conserved in bacterial and viral neuraminidases, and two segments with similarity to the YWTD repeats found in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and in other vertebrate and invertebrate proteins. This domain is connected by a structure characteristic of type III modules of fibronectin to a long terminal repeat (LTR) consisting of 44 full length copies of twelve amino acids rich (75%) in serine, threonine, and proline. LTR is unusual in that it contains at least 117 potential phosphorylation sites. At the extreme C-terminus is a hydrophobic segment of 35 amino acids, which could mediate anchorage of TCNA to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. This is the first time a protozoan protein has been found to contain a YWTD repeat and a fibronectin type III module. The domain structure of TCNA suggests that the enzyme may have functions additional to its catalytic activity such as in protein-protein interaction, which could play a role in T. cruzi binding to host cells. PMID:1711561

  10. Receptor-independent fluid-phase pinocytosis mechanisms for induction of foam cell formation with native low-density lipoprotein particles.

    PubMed

    Kruth, Howard S

    2011-10-01

    Because early findings indicated that native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) did not substantially increase macrophage cholesterol content during in-vitro incubations, investigators presumed that LDL must be modified in some way to trigger its uptake by the macrophage. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings showing that native unmodified LDL can induce massive macrophage cholesterol accumulation mimicking macrophage foam cell formation that occurs within atherosclerotic plaques. Macrophages that show high rates of fluid-phase pinocytosis also show similar high rates of uptake of native unmodified LDL through nonreceptor mediated uptake within both macropinosomes and micropinosomes. Nonsaturable fluid-phase uptake of LDL by macrophages converts the macrophages into foam cells. Different macrophage phenotypes demonstrate either constitutive fluid-phase pinocytosis or inducible fluid-phase pinocytosis. Fluid-phase pinocytosis has been demonstrated by macrophages within mouse atherosclerotic plaques indicating that this pathway contributes to plaque macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Contrary to what has been believed previously, macrophages can take up large amounts of native unmodified LDL by receptor-independent, fluid-phase pinocytosis converting these macrophages into foam cells. Thus, targeting macrophage fluid-phase pinocytosis should be considered when investigating strategies to limit macrophage cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques.

  11. Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 reduces cardiac fibroblast proliferation by suppressing GATA Binding Protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Ning-Ning; Liu, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Shuang-Wei; Zhang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Ai-Qun; Liu, Shi-Ming

    2016-07-08

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4) are important for the growth of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). When deregulated, LOX-1 and GATA4 can cause cardiac remodeling. In the present study, we found novel evidence that GATA4 was required for the LOX-1 regulation of CF proliferation. The inhibition of LOX-1 by RNA interference LOX-1 lentivirus resulted in the loss of PI3K/Akt activation and GATA4 protein expression. The overexpression of LOX-1 by lentivirus rescued CF proliferation, PI3K/Akt activation, and GATA4 protein expression. Moreover, GATA4 overexpression enhanced CF proliferation with LOX-1 inhibition. We also found that the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and protein level of GATA4. In summary, GATA4 may play an important role in the LOX-1 and PI3K/Akt regulation of CF proliferation. -- Highlights: •GATA4 is regulated by LOX-1 signaling in CFs. •GATA4 is involved in LOX-1 regulating CF proliferation. •GATA4 is regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling in CFs.

  12. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

  13. The association of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) haplotypes with egg production indicates VLDLR is a candidate gene for modulating egg production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZhePeng; Meng, GuoHua; Li, Na; Yu, MingFen; Liang, XiaoWei; Min, YuNa; Liu, FuZhu; Gao, YuPeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) transports egg yolk precursors into oocytes. However, our knowledge of the distribution patterns of VLDLR variants among breeds and their relationship to egg production is still incomplete. In this study, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that account for 87% of all VLDLR variants were genotyped in Nick Chick (NC, n=91), Lohmann Brown (LohB, n=50) and Lueyang (LY, n=381) chickens, the latter being an Chinese indigenous breed. Egg production by NC and LY chickens was recorded from 17 to 50 weeks. Only four similar haplotypes were found in NC and LohB, of which two accounted for 100% of all NC haplotypes and 92.5% of LohB haplotypes. In contrast, there was considerable haplotypic diversity in LY. Comparison of egg production in LY showed that hens with NC-like haplotypes had a significantly higher production (p < 0.05) than those without the haplotypes. However, VLDLR expression was not significantly different between the haplotypes. These findings indicate a divergence in the distribution of VLDLR haplotypes between selected and non-selected breeds and suggest that the near fixation of VLDLR variants in NC and LohB is compatible with signature of selection. These data also support VLDLR as a candidate gene for modulating egg production. PMID:27560838

  14. Human Lipopolysaccharide-binding Protein (LBP) and CD14 Independently Deliver Triacylated Lipoproteins to Toll-like Receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 and Enhance Formation of the Ternary Signaling Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Ranoa, Diana Rose E.; Kelley, Stacy L.; Tapping, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are the most potent microbial agonists for the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily, and this pattern recognition event induces cellular activation, leading to host immune responses. Triacylated bacterial lipoproteins coordinately bind TLR1 and TLR2, resulting in a stable ternary complex that drives intracellular signaling. The sensitivity of TLR-expressing cells to lipoproteins is greatly enhanced by two lipid-binding serum proteins known as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14); however, the physical mechanism that underlies this increased sensitivity is not known. To address this, we measured the ability of LBP and sCD14 to drive ternary complex formation between soluble extracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 and a synthetic triacylated lipopeptide agonist. Importantly, addition of substoichiometric amounts of either LBP or sCD14 significantly enhanced formation of a TLR1·TLR2 lipopeptide ternary complex as measured by size exclusion chromatography. However, neither LBP nor sCD14 was physically associated with the final ternary complex. Similar results were obtained using outer surface protein A (OspA), a naturally occurring triacylated lipoprotein agonist from Borrelia burgdorferi. Activation studies revealed that either LBP or sCD14 sensitized TLR-expressing cells to nanogram levels of either the synthetic lipopeptide or OspA lipoprotein agonist. Together, our results show that either LBP or sCD14 can drive ternary complex formation and TLR activation by acting as mobile carriers of triacylated lipopeptides or lipoproteins. PMID:23430250

  15. Taurine suppresses oxidative stress-potentiated expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor and restenosis in balloon-injured rabbit iliac artery.

    PubMed

    Gokce, G; Ozsarlak-Sozer, G; Oran, I; Oktay, G; Ozkal, S; Kerry, Z

    2011-12-01

    1. In endothelial cells, the major receptor for the binding and internalization of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of taurine on intimal thickening and LOX-1 expression under normal and oxidative conditions. 2. The iliac artery of rabbits were subjected to balloon injury and oxidative stress was induced by 14 days treatment of rabbits with 75 mg/kg, s.c., buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Taurine was administered in drinking water (1%, w/v) for 14 days in the presence (BSO + Taurine group) and in the absence of BSO treatment (Taurine group). In taurine and placebo groups, rabbits were injected with 4 mL, s.c., 0.9% NaCl (vehicle for BSO) for 14 days. 3. Taurine (1% in drinking water, w/v) preserved plasma levels of anti-oxidants and lowered the increased blood pressure induced by BSO. The stenosis rate of 29.92% in the placebo group increased to 72.20% in the BSO group, which was significantly reduced to 42.21% by taurine (P < 0.001; n = 5). Localization of LOX-1 to the intima and media of the iliac artery was demonstrated in the present study. Taurine treatment reduced the BSO-induced increase in LOX-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). 4. The results demonstrate that the stenosis rate and LOX-1 expression correlate well with oxidative status. Manipulation of LOX-1 expression by taurine may have therapeutic benefits in preventing restenosis.

  16. Activated α2 -Macroglobulin Induces Mesenchymal Cellular Migration Of Raw264.7 Cells Through Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Darío G; Dato, Virginia Actis; Fincati, Javier R Jaldín; Lorenc, Valeria E; Sánchez, María C; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2017-07-01

    Distinct modes of cell migration contribute to diverse types of cell movements. The mesenchymal mode is characterized by a multistep cycle of membrane protrusion, the formation of focal adhesion, and the stabilization at the leading edge associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and with regulated extracellular proteolysis. Both α2 -Macroglobulin (α2 M) and its receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), play important roles in inflammatory processes, by controlling the extracellular activity of several proteases. The binding of the active form of α2 M (α2 M*) to LRP1 can also activate different signaling pathways in macrophages, thus inducing extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and cellular proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether the α2 M*/LRP1 interaction induces cellular migration of the macrophage-derived cell line, Raw264.7. By using the wound-scratch migration assay and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that α2 M* induces LRP1-mediated mesenchymal cellular migration. This migration exhibits the production of enlarged cellular protrusions, MT1-MMP distribution to these leading edge protrusions, actin polymerization, focal adhesion formation, and increased intracellular LRP1/β1-integrin colocalization. Moreover, the presence of calphostin-C blocked the α2 M*-stimulated cellular protrusions, suggesting that the PKC activation is involved in the cellular motility of Raw264.7 cells. These findings could constitute a therapeutic target for inflammatory processes with deleterious consequences for human health, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1810-1818, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effects of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein/apoB48 receptor axis in human monocyte/macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Intestinally produced triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relevance of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) in postprandial TRL in affecting the transcriptional activity of the apolipoprotein-B48 receptor (ApoB48R) and its functionality in human monocyte/macrophage cells. Healthy male volunteers were administered four standardized high-fat meals containing butter, high-palmitic sunflower oil, olive oil (ROO) or a mixture of vegetable and fish oils (50 g/m(2) body surface area) to obtain a panel of postprandial TRL with gradual MUFA oleic acid-to-SFA palmitic acid ratios. The increase in this ratio was linearly associated with a decrease of ApoB48R up-regulation and lipid accumulation in THP-1 and primary monocytes. ApoB48R mRNA levels and intracellular triglycerides were also lower in the monocytes from volunteers after the ingestion of the ROO meal when compared to the ingestion of the butter meal. In THP-1 macrophages, the increase in the MUFA oleic acid-to-SFA palmitic acid ratio in the postprandial TRL was linearly correlated with an increase in ApoB48R down-regulation and a decrease in lipid accumulation. We also revealed that the nuclear receptor transcription factors PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ and the PPAR-RXR transcriptional complex were involved in sensing the proportion of MUFA oleic acid and SFA palmitic acid, and these were also involved in adjusting the transcriptional activity of ApoB48R. The results of this study support the notion that MUFA-rich dietary fats may prevent excessive lipid accumulation in monocyte/macrophage cells by targeting the postprandial TRL/ApoB48R axis.

  18. Development and application of a nonradioactive binding assay of oxidized low-density lipoprotein to macrophage scavenger receptors

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Erica N.; Boullier, Agnès; Almazan, Felicidad; Binder, Christoph J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Hartvigsen, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis in part through excessive uptake of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) via scavenger receptors. Binding of OxLDL to macrophages has traditionally been assessed using radiolabeled OxLDL. To allow more efficient and convenient measurements, we developed a nonradioactive binding assay in which biotinylated OxLDL (Bt-OxLDL) is added to macrophages in 96-well microtiter culture plates under various conditions and the extent of binding is determined using solid phase chemiluminescent immunoassay techniques. As examples, we show that Bt-OxLDL displayed high and saturable binding to macrophages in contrast to Bt-LDL, which showed very low binding. In competition assays, unlabeled OxLDL and the anti-OxLDL monoclonal antibody E06 inhibited Bt-OxLDL binding to macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Specific binding of Bt-OxLDL to ApoE/SR-A/CD36 triple knockout macrophages was reduced by 80% as compared with binding to macrophages from ApoE knockout mice. Binding of Bt-OxLDL to CD36 transfected COS-7 cells showed enhanced saturable binding compared with mock-transfected cells. This assay avoids the use of radioactivity and uses small amounts of materials. It can be used to study binding of OxLDL to macrophages and factors that influence this binding. The techniques described should be readily adaptable to study of other ligands, receptors, and cell types. PMID:23997238

  19. Lipoprotein(a) levels in familial hipercholesterolaemia: an important predictor for cardiovascular disease independent of the type of LDL-receptor mutation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the relationship between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients. Lipoprotein(a) is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. Nevertheless, the role of Lp(a) as a predictor of CVD in FH has been...

  20. Mutation of miR-21 targets endogenous lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Ping; Li, Hong-Jue; Nie, Jiao; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disorder characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and abnormal lipid metabolism. Although miR-21 has been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is unknown whether miR-21 could function as a therapeutic target. Here, we perform transfection analysis of miR-21 mimic or control mimic to evaluate the effects of miR-21 expression levels on human HepG2 nonalcoholic fatty liver cells. We used siRNA techniques to knock down miR-21 in HepG2 and control 293T cell lines, and then monitored lipid production and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The effects of miR-21 expression levels on LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression were evaluated using qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the effects of miR-21 expression levels on LRP6. The results indicated that transfection of miR-21 mimic induced changes in the expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), stearoyl CoA desaturase (1SCD1), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). Transfection of miR-21 mimic suppressed the transcription and translation of LRP6 at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas miR-21 knockdown increased the expression levels of LRP6. Transfection of miR-21 mimic in HepG2 cells also induced lipid production and triggered the expression of critical lipid metabolic enzymes. These data suggest that mutation of miR-21 may be a new therapeutic strategy to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases by targeting endogenous LRP6.

  1. Mutation of miR-21 targets endogenous lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Ping; Li, Hong-Jue; Nie, Jiao; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disorder characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and abnormal lipid metabolism. Although miR-21 has been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is unknown whether miR-21 could function as a therapeutic target. Here, we perform transfection analysis of miR-21 mimic or control mimic to evaluate the effects of miR-21 expression levels on human HepG2 nonalcoholic fatty liver cells. We used siRNA techniques to knock down miR-21 in HepG2 and control 293T cell lines, and then monitored lipid production and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The effects of miR-21 expression levels on LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression were evaluated using qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the effects of miR-21 expression levels on LRP6. The results indicated that transfection of miR-21 mimic induced changes in the expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), stearoyl CoA desaturase (1SCD1), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). Transfection of miR-21 mimic suppressed the transcription and translation of LRP6 at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas miR-21 knockdown increased the expression levels of LRP6. Transfection of miR-21 mimic in HepG2 cells also induced lipid production and triggered the expression of critical lipid metabolic enzymes. These data suggest that mutation of miR-21 may be a new therapeutic strategy to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases by targeting endogenous LRP6. PMID:28337300

  2. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  3. Lipoproteins in bacteria: structures and biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Kenji; Lee, Bok Luel

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are characterized by the presence of a conserved N-terminal lipid-modified cysteine residue that allows the hydrophilic protein to anchor onto bacterial cell membranes. These proteins play important roles in a wide variety of bacterial physiological processes, including virulence, and induce innate immune reactions by functioning as ligands of the mammalian Toll-like receptor 2. We review recent advances in our understanding of bacterial lipoprotein structure, biosynthesis and structure-function relationships between bacterial lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor 2. Notably, 40 years after the first report of the triacyl structure of Braun's lipoprotein in Escherichia coli, recent intensive MS-based analyses have led to the discovery of three new lipidated structures of lipoproteins in monoderm bacteria: the lyso, N-acetyl and peptidyl forms. Moreover, the bacterial lipoprotein structure is considered to be constant in each bacterium; however, lipoprotein structures in Staphylococcus aureus vary between the diacyl and triacyl forms depending on the environmental conditions. Thus, the lipidation state of bacterial lipoproteins, particularly in monoderm bacteria, is more complex than previously assumed. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  4. Lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenneth K; Lovell, Jonathan F; Zheng, Gang

    2011-10-18

    Over hundreds of millions of years, animals have evolved endogenous lipoprotein nanoparticles for shuttling hydrophobic molecules to different parts of the body. In the last 70 years, scientists have developed an understanding of lipoprotein function, often in relationship to lipid transport and heart disease. Such biocompatible, lipid-protein complexes are also ideal for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents, which means that lipoprotein and lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles also offer opportunities for cancer theranostics. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the nanocarrier can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. The small size (less than 30 nm) of the low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) classes of lipoproteins allows them to maneuver deeply into tumors. Furthermore, lipoproteins can be targeted to their endogenous receptors, when those are implicated in cancer, or to other cancer receptors. In this Account, we review the field of lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles related to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapy agents. LDL has innate cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate diverse hydrophobic molecules and deliver them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL in atherosclerosis provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins beyond its narrow purview. Although LDL has shown promise as a drug nanocarrier for cancer imaging and therapy, increasing evidence indicates that HDL, the smallest lipoprotein, may also be of use for drug targeting and uptake into cancer cells. We also discuss how synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles, which do not include human or recombinant proteins, can deliver molecules directly to the cytoplasm of certain cancer cells, effectively bypassing the endosomal compartment. This strategy could allow HDL-like nanoparticles to be used to

  5. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) in hippocampal neurons does not proportionately reduce, or otherwise alter, amyloid deposition in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) and its family members have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple susceptibility factors converge to metabolic pathways that involve LRP1, including modulation of the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the clearance of Aβ peptide. Methods We used the Cre-lox system to lower LRP1 levels in hippocampal neurons of mice that develop Alzheimer-type amyloid by crosses between mice that express Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the GFAP promoter, mice that harbor loxp sites in the LRP1 gene, and the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic model. We compared amyloid plaque numbers in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice lacking LRP1 expression in hippocampus (n = 13) to mice with normal levels of LRP1 (n = 12). Student t-test was used to test whether there were significant differences in plaque numbers and amyloid levels between the groups. A regression model was used to fit two regression lines for these groups, and to compare the rates of Aβ accumulation. Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated efficient elimination of LRP1 expression in the CA fields and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Within hippocampus, we observed no effect on the severity of amyloid deposition, the rate of Aβ40/42 accumulation, or the architecture of amyloid plaques when LRP1 levels were reduced. Conclusions Expression of LRP1 by neurons in proximity to senile amyloid plaques does not appear to play a major role in modulating the formation of these proximal deposits or in the appearance of the associated neuritic pathology. PMID:22537779

  6. Scavenger receptor CD36 mediates uptake of high density lipoproteins in mice and by cultured cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Brundert, May; Heeren, Joerg; Merkel, Martin; Carambia, Antonella; Herkel, Johannes; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Moore, Kathryn J.; Rinninger, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of HDL-mediated cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues to the liver are incompletely defined. Here the function of scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) for HDL uptake by the liver was investigated. CD36 knockout (KO) mice, which were the model, have a 37% increase (P = 0.008) of plasma HDL cholesterol compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. To explore the mechanism of this increase, HDL metabolism was investigated with HDL radiolabeled in the apolipoprotein (125I) and cholesteryl ester (CE, [3H]) moiety. Liver uptake of [3H] and 125I from HDL decreased in CD36 KO mice and the difference, i. e. hepatic selective CE uptake ([3H]125I), declined (–33%, P = 0.0003) in CD36 KO compared with WT mice. Hepatic HDL holo-particle uptake (125I) decreased (–29%, P = 0.0038) in CD36 KO mice. In vitro, uptake of 125I-/[3H]HDL by primary liver cells from WT or CD36 KO mice revealed a diminished HDL uptake in CD36-deficient hepatocytes. Adenovirus-mediated expression of CD36 in cells induced an increase in selective CE uptake from HDL and a stimulation of holo-particle internalization. In conclusion, CD36 plays a role in HDL uptake in mice and by cultured cells. A physiologic function of CD36 in HDL metabolism in vivo is suggested. PMID:21217164

  7. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles*

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. PMID:26018414

  9. Quantitative dissection of the binding contributions of ligand lysines of the receptor-associated protein (RAP) to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1).

    PubMed

    Dolmer, Klavs; Campos, Andres; Gettins, Peter G W

    2013-08-16

    Although lysines are known to be critical for ligand binding to LDL receptor family receptors, relatively small reductions in affinity have been found when such lysines have been mutated. To resolve this paradox, we have examined the specific binding contributions of four lysines, Lys-253, Lys-256, Lys-270, and Lys-289, in the third domain (D3) of receptor-associated protein (RAP), by eliminating all other lysine residues. Using D3 variants containing lysine subsets, we examined binding to the high affinity fragment CR56 from LRP1. With this simplification, we found that elimination of the lysine pairs Lys-253/Lys-256 and Lys-270/Lys-289 resulted in increases in Kd of 1240- and 100,000-fold, respectively. Each pair contributed additively to overall affinity, with 61% from Lys-270/Lys-289 and 39% from Lys-253/Lys-256. Furthermore, the Lys-270/Lys-289 pair alone could bind different single CR domains with similar affinity. Within the pairs, binding contributions of Lys-270 ≫ Lys-256 > Lys-253 ∼ Lys-289 were deduced. Importantly, however, Lys-289 could significantly compensate for the loss of Lys-270, thus explaining how previous studies have underestimated the importance of Lys-270. Calorimetry showed that favorable enthalpy, from Lys-256 and Lys-270, overwhelmingly drives binding, offset by unfavorable entropy. Our findings support a mode of ligand binding in which a proximal pair of lysines engages the negatively charged pocket of a CR domain, with two such pairs of interactions (requiring two CR domains), appropriately separated, being alone sufficient to provide the low nanomolar affinity found for most protein ligands of LDL receptor family members.

  10. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. Methods: We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40–79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Results: Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86–7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13–16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke. PMID:27025681

  11. Two novel susceptibility loci for non-small cell lung cancer map to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongjun; Fang, Meiyu; Bao, Wenglong; Deng, Dehou

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for genotyping of 11 SNPs of LRP5. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Eleven Tag SNPs were detected. The frequency of the LRP5 rs3736228 T allele (18.9% in male NSCLC cases and 23.9% in male controls) was statistically different between male NSCLCs and male controls (P=0.03), and the T allele was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (OR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.56–0.67), whereas the C/C homozygous genotype and the LRP5 rs64843 T/T genotype were associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively (OR=1.43 and 1.77, respectively). Using Haploview software, the frequency of the haplotypes of rs312009/rs3120015/rs3120014 CCC was was significantly higher in female SCC cases compared with female controls (0.064 vs. 0.009, P=0.04). LRP5 rs3736228 and rs64843 SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and SCC, respectively. Further studies are required to investigate the functional changes in LRP5 expression and activity in NSCLC in vitro. PMID:27698794

  12. Binding of thyroglobulin (Tg) to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated protein (RAP) during the biosynthetic pathway prevents premature Tg interactions with sortilin.

    PubMed

    Botta, R; Lisi, S; Rotondo Dottore, G; Vitti, P; Marinò, M

    2017-04-05

    Sortilin, a Vps10p family member, is expressed by thyroid epithelial cells (TEC), where it binds to internalized thyroglobulin (Tg) molecules. Premature binding of Tg to sortilin during biosynthesis may cause intracellular retention of Tg. Such a premature interaction may be prevented by one or more inhibitor/s. Because both sortilin and Tg bind to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated protein (RAP), we investigated whether RAP serves such a function. Immunofluorescence staining for sortilin, Tg, and RAP was performed in FRTL-5 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed in extracts from FRTL-5 or COS-7 cells, the former co-transfected with Tg and/or RAP and/or sortilin, or in thyroid extracts from RAP KO mice. Tg and sortilin did not co-localize in FRTL-5 cells following inhibition of protein synthesis, suggesting that newly synthesized, endogenous sortilin and Tg do not interact, in confirmation of which an anti-sortilin antibody did not co-precipitate Tg in FRTL-5 cells. In contrast, Tg co-localized with RAP in FRTL-5 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of Tg with an anti-sortilin antibody in COS-7 cells transfected with sortilin and Tg was abolished when cells were co-transfected with RAP, indicating that RAP prevents binding of Tg to sortilin during biosynthesis, in confirmation of which an anti-sortilin antibody co-precipitated Tg in thyroid extracts from RAP KO mice to a greater extent than in thyroid extracts from WT mice. Tg does not bind prematurely to sortilin because of its interaction with RAP during protein biosynthesis. These findings add new information to the knowledge of thyroid physiology.

  13. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, dietary fat intakes and gene-diet interactions on peak particle diameters of low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Godin, Gaston; Lamarche, Benoît; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2011-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is modulated by gene-diet interactions. The objective of this study was to examine whether gene-diet interactions affect peak particle diameters (PPD) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The study included 674 participants. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain dietary information. LDL-PPD was determined by non-denaturing 2-16% polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene polymorphisms PPARα L162V (rs1800206), PPARγ P12A (rs1801282) and PPARδ -87T→C (rs2016520) were determined by PCR-RFLP. Among carriers of thePPARα L162V polymorphism, gene-diet interaction effects on LDL-PPD were observed with saturated fat (p=0.0005) and total dietary fat (p=0.006). Among PPARα V162 carriers, subjects with higher saturated fat intakes had smaller LDL-PPD than those with lower intakes (254.23±2.74 vs. 256.21±2.61 Å, respectively, p=0.007). Among subjects homozygous for the PPARα L162 allele, those with higher saturated fat intakes had larger LDL-PPD than those with lower saturated fat intakes (255.86±2.66 vs. 255.05±2.65 Å, respectively, p=0.01). Gene-diet interactions were also found for PPARγ P12A polymorphism with saturated fat intake (p=0.04) and for PPARδ -87T→C with the polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio (p=0.0013). These results stress that dietary factors should be included in studies determining the effect of different polymorphisms on CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Development of Human-Like Advanced Coronary Plaques in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Pigs and Justification for Statin Treatment Before Formation of Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxin; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Sudo, Mitsumasa; Haruta, Hironori; Lin, Qing-Fei; Takayama, Tadateru; Morita, Shotaro; Nochi, Tomonori; Suzuki, Shunichi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Nakai, Michiko; Kojima, Misaki; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yoda, Shunichi; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Hiro, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Taro; Mitsumata, Masako; Sugitani, Masahiko; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Onishi, Akira

    2016-04-18

    Although clinical trials have proved that statin can be used prophylactically against cardiovascular events, the direct effects of statin on plaque development are not well understood. We generated low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) pigs to study the effects of early statin administration on development of atherosclerotic plaques, especially advanced plaques. LDLR(-/-) pigs were generated by targeted deletion of exon 4 of the LDLR gene. Given a standard chow diet, LDLR(-/-) pigs showed atherosclerotic lesions starting at 6 months of age. When 3-month-old LDLR(-/-) pigs were fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat (HCHF) diet for 4 months (HCHF group), human-like advanced coronary plaques developed. We also fed 3-month-old LDLR(-/-) pigs an HCHF diet with pitavastatin for 4 months (Statin Prophylaxis Group). Although serum cholesterol concentrations did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, intravascular ultrasound revealed 52% reduced plaque volume in statin-treated pigs. Pathological examination revealed most lesions (87%) in the statin prophylaxis group were early-stage lesions, versus 45% in the HCHF diet group (P<0.01). Thin-cap fibroatheroma characterized 40% of the plaques in the HCHF diet group versus 8% in the statin prophylaxis group (P<0.01), intraplaque hemorrhage characterized 11% versus 1% (P<0.01), and calcification characterized 22% versus 1% (P<0.01). Results of our large animal experiment support statin prophylaxis before the occurrence of atherosclerosis. Early statin treatment appears to retard development of coronary artery atherosclerosis and ensure lesion stability. In addition, the LDLR(-/-) pigs we developed represent a large animal model of human-like advanced coronary plaque suitable for translational research. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) profoundly excludes high density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein AII as it nibbles HDL-cholesteryl ester.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Baiba K; Bassett, G Randall; Gotto, Antonio M; Rosales, Corina; Pownall, Henry J

    2017-05-26

    Reverse cholesterol transport (transfer of macrophage-cholesterol in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall to the liver) is terminated by selective high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, mediated by scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1). We tested the validity of two models for this process: "gobbling," i.e. one-step transfer of all HDL-CE to the cell and "nibbling," multiple successive cycles of SR-B1-HDL association during which a few CEs transfer to the cell. Concurrently, we compared cellular uptake of apoAI with that of apoAII, which is more lipophilic than apoAI, using HDL-[(3)H]CE labeled with [(125)I]apoAI or [(125)I]apoAII. The studies were conducted in CHO-K1 and CHO-ldlA7 cells (LDLR(-/-)) with (CHO-SR-B1) and without SR-B1 overexpression and in human Huh7 hepatocytes. Relative to CE, both apoAI and apoAII were excluded from uptake by all cells. However, apoAII was more highly excluded from uptake (2-4×) than apoAI. To distinguish gobbling versus nibbling mechanisms, media from incubations of HDL with CHO-SR-B1 cells were analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, and the distribution of apoAI, apoAII, cholesterol, and phospholipid among HDL species as a function of incubation time. HDL size gradually decreased, i.e. nibbling, with the concurrent release of lipid-free apoAI; apoAII was retained in an HDL remnant. Our data support an SR-B1 nibbling mechanism that is similar to that of streptococcal serum opacity factor, which also selectively removes CE and releases apoAI, leaving an apoAII-rich remnant. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Molecular characterisation of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its potential connection with lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Mi, Hai-Feng; Liu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Ye-Yang; Wang, Kai-Zhou; Jiang, Guang-Zhen

    2017-02-13

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one kind of cytokines which is related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. TNF-α cDNA was cloned from the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA of TNF-α covered 1467 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 723 bp, which encodes 240 amino acids. It possessed the TNF family signature IIIPDDGIYFVYSQ. After the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge test, a graded tissue-specific expression pattern of TNF-α was observed and there was high expression abundance in the kidney, brain and liver. After 8 weeks feeding trial, liver samples, two groups fed with 6% and 11% lipid levels, were collected. The results showed that, for fish fed with high-fat diet, the triglyceride of serum and lipid content of liver were elevated. Furthermore, TNF-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, β) mRNA expression of fish fed 11% lipid diet were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05). Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and PPARγ mRNA expression of fish fed 11% lipid lever diet were significantly decreased compared to those of fish fed 6% (p < 0.05). The differences between the various expression of related genes in the high and low fat groups demonstrated that TNF-α played a key role in lipid metabolism, which may have an influence on fat metabolism through reducing fat synthesis and strengthening the β-oxidation of fatty acid. These discrepancies warrant further research.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide Preparation Extracted from Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipoprotein-Deficient Mutant Shows a Marked Decrease in Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Miyake, Kensuke; Akira, Shizuo; Ogawa, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a new PG1828-encoded lipoprotein (PG1828LP) was able to be separated from a Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparation, and we found that it exhibited strong cell activation, similar to that of Escherichia coli LPS, through a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent pathway. In order to determine the virulence of PG1828LP toward cell activation, we generated a PG1828-deficient mutant of P. gingivalis strain 381 by allelic exchange mutagenesis using an ermF-ermAM antibiotic resistance cassette. A highly purified preparation of LPS from a PG1828-deficient mutant (ΔPG1828-LPS) showed nearly the same ladder-like patterns in silver-stained gels as a preparation of LPS from a wild-type strain (WT-LPS), as well as Limulus amoebocyte lysate activities that were similar to those of the WT-LPS preparation. However, the ability of the ΔPG1828-LPS preparation to activate NF-κB in TLR2-expressing cells was markedly attenuated. Cytokine production by human gingival fibroblasts was also decreased in response to the ΔPG1828-LPS preparation in comparison with the WT-LPS preparation, and the activity was comparable to the stimulation of highly purified lipid A of P. gingivalis by TLR4. Further, lethal toxicity was rarely observed following intraperitoneal injection of the PG1828-deficient mutant into mice compared to that with the wild-type strain, while the ΔPG1828-LPS preparation showed no lethal toxicity. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that PG1828LP plays an essential role in inflammatory responses and may be a major virulence factor of P. gingivalis. PMID:15784558

  18. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Single Domain Antibodies Are Potent Inhibitors of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Degradation.

    PubMed

    Weider, Elodie; Susan-Resiga, Delia; Essalmani, Rachid; Hamelin, Josée; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Nimesh, Surendra; Ashraf, Yahya; Wycoff, Keith L; Zhang, Jianbing; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G

    2016-08-05

    Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) correspond to the antigen-binding domains of camelid antibodies. They have the same antigen-binding properties and specificity as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) but are easier and cheaper to produce. We report here the development of sdAbs targeting human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) as an alternative to anti-PCSK9 mAbs. After immunizing a llama with human PCSK9, we selected four sdAbs that bind PCSK9 with a high affinity and produced them as fusion proteins with a mouse Fc. All four sdAb-Fcs recognize the C-terminal Cys-His-rich domain of PCSK9. We performed multiple cellular assays and demonstrated that the selected sdAbs efficiently blocked PCSK9-mediated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) degradation in cell lines, in human hepatocytes, and in mouse primary hepatocytes. We further showed that the sdAb-Fcs do not affect binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR but rather block its induced cellular LDLR degradation. Pcsk9 knock-out mice expressing a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgene were generated, resulting in plasma levels of ∼300 ng/ml human PCSK9. Mice were singly or doubly injected with the best sdAb-Fc and analyzed at day 4 or 11, respectively. After 4 days, mice exhibited a 32 and 44% decrease in the levels of total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and ∼1.8-fold higher liver LDLR protein levels. At 11 days, the equivalent values were 24 and 46% and ∼2.3-fold higher LDLR proteins. These data constitute a proof-of-principle for the future usage of sdAbs as PCSK9-targeting drugs that can efficiently reduce LDL-cholesterol, and as tools to study the Cys-His-rich domain-dependent sorting the PCSK9-LDLR complex to lysosomes.

  19. Cholesterol reduction ameliorates glucose-induced calcium handling and insulin secretion in islets from low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Souza, J C; Vanzela, E C; Ribeiro, R A; Rezende, L F; de Oliveira, C A; Carneiro, E M; Oliveira, H C F; Boschero, A C

    2013-04-01

    Changes in cellular cholesterol level may contribute to beta cell dysfunction. Islets from low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice have higher cholesterol content and secrete less insulin than wild-type (WT) mice. Here, we investigated the association between cholesterol content, insulin secretion and Ca(2+) handling in these islets. Isolated islets from both LDLR(-/-) and WT mice were used for measurements of insulin secretion (radioimmunoassay), cholesterol content (fluorimetric assay), cytosolic Ca(2+) level (fura-2AM) and SNARE protein expression (VAMP-2, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A). Cholesterol was depleted by incubating the islets with increasing concentrations (0-10mmol/l) of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD). The first and second phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were lower in LDLR(-/-) than in WT islets, paralleled by an impairment of Ca(2+) handling in the former. SNAP-25 and VAMP-2, but not syntaxin-1A, were reduced in LDLR(-/-) compared with WT islets. Removal of excess cholesterol from LDLR(-/-) islets normalized glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin release. Glucose-stimulated Ca(2+) handling was also normalized in cholesterol-depleted LDLR(-/-) islets. Cholesterol removal from WT islets by 0.1 and 1.0mmol/l MβCD impaired both GSIS and Ca(2+) handling. In addition, at 10mmol/l MβCD WT islet showed a loss of membrane integrity and higher DNA fragmentation. Abnormally high (LDLR(-/-) islets) or low cholesterol content (WT islets treated with MβCD) alters both GSIS and Ca(2+) handling. Normalization of cholesterol improves Ca(2+) handling and insulin secretion in LDLR(-/-) islets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunization with malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Turunen, S Pauliina; Kummu, Outi; Wang, Chunguang; Harila, Kirsi; Mattila, Riikka; Sahlman, Marjo; Pussinen, Pirkko J; Hörkkö, Sohvi

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal infections increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease via partly unresolved mechanisms. Of the natural IgM Abs that recognize molecular mimicry on bacterial epitopes and modified lipid and protein structures, IgM directed against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is associated with atheroprotective properties. Here, the effect of natural immune responses to malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) in conferring protection against atherosclerosis, which was accelerated by the major periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, was investigated. LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice were immunized with mouse MDA-LDL without adjuvant before topical application challenge with live P. gingivalis. Atherosclerosis was analyzed after a high-fat diet, and plasma IgG and IgM Ab levels were measured throughout the study, and the secretion of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ in splenocytes stimulated with MDA-LDL was determined. LDLR(-/-) mice immunized with MDA-LDL had elevated IgM and IgG levels to MDA-LDL compared with saline-treated controls. MDA-LDL immunization diminished aortic lipid depositions after challenge with P. gingivalis compared with mice receiving only P. gingivalis challenge. Immunization of LDLR(-/-) mice with homologous MDA-LDL stimulated the production of IL-5, implicating general activation of B-1 cells. Immune responses to MDA-LDL protected from the P. gingivalis-accelerated atherosclerosis. Thus, the linkage between bacterial infectious burden and atherogenesis is suggested to be modulated via natural IgM directed against cross-reactive epitopes on bacteria and modified LDL. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Chiaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40-79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86-7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13-16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke.

  2. Cholesterol accumulation caused by low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency or a cholesterol-rich diet results in ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de Munter, Wouter; Blom, Arjen B; Helsen, Monique M; Walgreen, Birgitte; van der Kraan, Peter M; Joosten, Leo A B; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2013-11-04

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the metabolic syndrome, however the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) accumulation leads to increased LDL uptake by synovial macrophages and affects synovial activation, cartilage destruction and enthesophyte/osteophyte formation during experimental OA in mice. LDL receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice and wild type (WT) controls received a cholesterol-rich or control diet for 120 days. Experimental OA was induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase twelve weeks after start of the diet. OA knee joints and synovial wash-outs were analyzed for OA-related changes. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated with oxidized LDL (oxLDL), whereupon growth factor presence and gene expression were analyzed. A cholesterol-rich diet increased apolipoprotein B (ApoB) accumulation in synovial macrophages. Although increased LDL levels did not enhance thickening of the synovial lining, S100A8 expression within macrophages was increased in WT mice after receiving a cholesterol-rich diet, reflecting an elevated activation status. Both a cholesterol-rich diet and LDLr deficiency had no effect on cartilage damage; in contrast, ectopic bone formation was increased within joint ligaments (fold increase 6.7 and 6.1, respectively). Moreover, increased osteophyte size was found at the margins of the tibial plateau (4.4 fold increase after a cholesterol-rich diet and 5.3 fold increase in LDLr-/- mice). Synovial wash-outs of LDLr-/- mice and supernatants of macrophages stimulated with oxLDL led to increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling compared to controls. LDL accumulation within synovial lining cells leads to increased activation of synovium and osteophyte formation in experimental OA. OxLDL uptake by macrophages activates growth factors of the TGF-superfamily.

  3. Lipoprotein(a) levels in familial hypercholesterolemia: an important predictor of cardiovascular disease independent of the type of LDL receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Andres, Eduardo; Mata, Nelva; Fuentes-Jiménez, Francisco; Badimón, Lina; López-Miranda, José; Padró, Teresa; Muñiz, Ovidio; Díaz-Díaz, Jose Luis; Mauri, Marta; Ordovás, Jose María; Mata, Pedro

    2014-05-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Lp(a) is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. Nevertheless, the role of Lp(a) as a predictor of CVD in patients with FH has been a controversial issue. A cross-sectional analysis of 1,960 patients with FH and 957 non-FH relatives recruited for SAFEHEART (Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Cohort Study), a long-term observational cohort study of a molecularly well-defined FH study group, was performed. Lp(a) concentrations were measured in plasma using an immunoturbidimetric method. Patients with FH, especially those with CVD, had higher Lp(a) plasma levels compared with their unaffected relatives (p < 0.001). A significant difference in Lp(a) levels was observed when the most frequent null and defective mutations in LDLR mutations were analyzed (p < 0.0016). On multivariate analysis, Lp(a) was an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Patients carrying null mutations and Lp(a) levels >50 mg/dl showed the highest cardiovascular risk compared with patients carrying the same mutations and Lp(a) levels <50 mg/dl. Lp(a) is an independent predictor of CVD in men and women with FH. The risk of CVD is higher in those patients with an Lp(a) level >50 mg/dl and carrying a receptor-negative mutation in the LDLR gene compared with other less severe mutations. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Clowney, E. Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Colquitt, Bradley M.; Pathak, Nidhi; Lane, Robert P.; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion in olfactory neurons. Using a high-throughput approach, we mapped the transcription start sites of 1085 of the 1400 murine OR genes and performed computational analysis that revealed potential transcription factor binding sites shared by the majority of these promoters. Our analysis produced a hierarchical model for OR promoter recognition in which unusually high AT content, a unique epigenetic signature, and a stereotypically positioned O/E site distinguish OR promoters from the rest of the murine promoters. Our computations revealed an intriguing correlation between promoter AT content and evolutionary plasticity, as the most AT-rich promoters regulate rapidly evolving gene families. Within the AT-rich promoter category the position of the TATA-box does not correlate with the transcription start site. Instead, a spike in GC composition might define the exact location of the TSS, introducing the concept of “genomic contrast” in transcriptional regulation. Finally, our experiments show that genomic neighborhood rather than promoter sequence correlates with the probability of different OR genes to be expressed in the same olfactory cell. PMID:21705439

  5. The iron-regulated staphylococcal lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E

    2012-01-01

    Lipoproteins fulfill diverse roles in antibiotic resistance, adhesion, protein secretion, signaling and sensing, and many also serve as the substrate binding protein (SBP) partner to ABC transporters for the acquisition of a diverse array of nutrients including peptides, sugars, and scarcely abundant metals. In the staphylococci, the iron-regulated SBPs are significantly upregulated during iron starvation and function to sequester and deliver iron into the bacterial cell, enabling staphylococci to circumvent iron restriction imposed by the host environment. Accordingly, this subset of lipoproteins has been implicated in staphylococcal pathogenesis and virulence. Lipoproteins also activate the host innate immune response, triggered through Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and, notably, the iron-regulated subset of lipoproteins are particularly immunogenic. In this review, we discuss the iron-regulated staphylococcal lipoproteins with regard to their biogenesis, substrate specificity, and impact on the host innate immune response.

  6. A mutation in the first ligand-binding repeat of the human very-low-density lipoprotein receptor results in high-affinity binding of the single V1 module to human rhinovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Nizet, Stephane; Wruss, Juergen; Landstetter, Nathalie; Snyers, Luc; Blaas, Dieter

    2005-12-01

    Minor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs) bind members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family for cell entry. The ligand-binding domains of these membrane proteins are composed of various numbers of direct repeats of about 40 amino acids in length. Residues involved in binding of module 3 (V3) of the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) to HRV2 have been identified by X-ray crystallography (N. Verdaguer, I. Fita, M. Reithmayer, R. Moser, and D. Blaas, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 11:429-434, 2004). Sequence comparisons of the eight repeats of VLDLR with respect to the residues implicated in the interaction between V3 and HRV2 suggested that (in addition to V3) V1, V2, V5, and V6 also fulfill the requirements for interacting with the virus. Using a highly sensitive binding assay employing phage display, we demonstrate that single modules V2, V3, and V5 indeed bind HRV2. However, V1 does not. A single mutation from threonine 17 to proline converted the nonbinding wild-type form of V1 into a very strong binder. We interpret the dramatic increase in affinity by the generation of a hydrophobic patch between virus and receptor; in the presence of threonine, the contact area might be disturbed. This demonstrates that the interaction between virus and its natural receptors can be strongly enhanced by mutation.

  7. LPA1 receptor activation promotes renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pradère, Jean-Philippe; Klein, Julie; Grès, Sandra; Guigné, Charlotte; Neau, Eric; Valet, Philippe; Calise, Denis; Chun, Jerold; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Schanstra, Joost P

    2007-12-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic renal disease is strongly associated with progressive loss of renal function. We studied the potential involvement of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor-like phospholipid, and its receptors LPA(1-4) in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). Renal fibrosis was induced in mice by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for up to 8 d, and kidney explants were prepared from the distal poles to measure LPA release into conditioned media. After obstruction, the extracellular release of LPA increased approximately 3-fold. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated significant upregulation in the expression of the LPA(1) receptor subtype, downregulation of LPA3, and no change of LPA2 or LPA4. TIF was significantly attenuated in LPA1 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type littermates, as measured by expression of collagen III, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and F4/80. Furthermore, treatment of wild-type mice with the LPA1 antagonist Ki16425 similarly reduced fibrosis and significantly attenuated renal expression of the profibrotic cytokines connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). In vitro, LPA induced a rapid, dose-dependent increase in CTGF expression that was inhibited by Ki16425. In conclusion, LPA, likely acting through LPA1, is involved in obstruction-induced TIF. Therefore, the LPA1 receptor might be a pharmaceutical target to treat renal fibrosis.

  8. [Dihydrotestosterone inhibits foam cell formation via a lectin-like ox-low-density lipoprotein receptor mediated mechanism in J774.1 cell line].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Hu, H D; Hu, B Q; Chen, X Y; Xu, P Y; Cui, L; Li, P; Liu, C; Li, L

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on lectin-like ox- low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor(LOX-1)expression and foam cell formation in the female macrophage cell line J774.1. Methods: In cultured J774.1 cells, after pretreated with DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L, ox-LDL-induced LOX-1 expression and foam cell formation were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and oil-red O staining. Results: DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L inhibited ox-LDL-induced LOX-1 mRNA (2.81±0.46 and 2.29±0.21 vs 4.71±0.31, both P<0.01) and protein expression (1.35±0.06 and 1.09±0.04 vs 1.75±0.11, both P<0.05). The effect was partly reversed by the androgen receptor (AR) blocker flutamide (87.6%, P=0.004). Oil-red O staining also revealed that DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L suppressed ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation as quantified by the number of foam cells per high-power field (HPF) (36.0±3.0 and 29.1±1.3 vs 45.9±3.7, both P<0.05) and by the area of oil-red O stained particles per HPF (7 983±1 035 and 4 060±390 vs 14 750±2 489, both P<0.05). Conclusion: DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L decreases LOX-1 expression and foam cell formation via AR.

  9. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 variants and dietary fatty acids: meta-analysis of European origin and African American studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Ngwa, J; Tanaka, T; Qi, Q; Wojczynski, M K; Lemaitre, R N; Anderson, J S; Manichaikul, A; Mikkilä, V; van Rooij, F J A; Ye, Z; Bandinelli, S; Frazier-Wood, A C; Houston, D K; Hu, F; Langenberg, C; McKeown, N M; Mozaffarian, D; North, K E; Viikari, J; Zillikens, M C; Djoussé, L; Hofman, A; Kähönen, M; Kabagambe, E K; Loos, R J F; Saylor, G B; Forouhi, N G; Liu, Y; Mukamal, K J; Chen, Y-D I; Tsai, M Y; Uitterlinden, A G; Raitakari, O; van Duijn, C M; Arnett, D K; Borecki, I B; Cupples, L A; Ferrucci, L; Kritchevsky, S B; Lehtimäki, T; Qi, Lu; Rotter, J I; Siscovick, D S; Wareham, N J; Witteman, J C M; Ordovás, J M; Nettleton, J A

    2013-09-01

    Low-density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor and signaling molecule that is expressed in adipose and the hypothalamus. Evidence for a role of LRP1 in adiposity is accumulating from animal and in vitro models, but data from human studies are limited. The study objectives were to evaluate (i) relationships between LRP1 genotype and anthropometric traits, and (ii) whether these relationships were modified by dietary fatty acids. We conducted race/ethnic-specific meta-analyses using data from 14 studies of US and European whites and 4 of African Americans to evaluate associations of dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hip circumference, as well as interactions between dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRP1 were evaluated in whites (N up to 42 000) and twelve SNPs in African Americans (N up to 5800). After adjustment for age, sex and population substructure if relevant, for each one unit greater intake of percentage of energy from saturated fat (SFA), BMI was 0.104 kg m(-2) greater, waist was 0.305 cm larger and hip was 0.168 cm larger (all P<0.0001). Other fatty acids were not associated with outcomes. The association of SFA with outcomes varied by genotype at rs2306692 (genotyped in four studies of whites), where the magnitude of the association of SFA intake with each outcome was greater per additional copy of the T allele: 0.107 kg m(-2) greater for BMI (interaction P=0.0001), 0.267 cm for waist (interaction P=0.001) and 0.21 cm for hip (interaction P=0.001). No other significant interactions were observed. Dietary SFA and LRP1 genotype may interactively influence anthropometric traits. Further exploration of this, and other diet x genotype interactions, may improve understanding of interindividual variability in the relationships of dietary factors with anthropometric traits.

  10. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 variants and dietary fatty acids: meta-analysis of European origin and African American studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, CE; Ngwa, J; Tanaka, T; Qi, Q; Wojczynski, MK; Lemaitre, RN; Anderson, JS; Manichaikul, A; Mikkilä, V; van Rooij, FJA; Ye, Z; Bandinelli, S; Frazier-Wood, AC; Houston, DK; Hu, F; Langenberg, C; McKeown, NM; Mozaffarian, D; North, KE; Viikari, J; Zillikens, MC; Djoussé, L; Hofman, A; Kähönen, M; Kabagambe, EK; Loos, RJF; Saylor, GB; Forouhi, NG; Liu, Y; Mukamal, KJ; Chen, Y-DI; Tsai, MY; Uitterlinden, AG; Raitakari, O; van Duijn, CM; Arnett, DK; Borecki, IB; Cupples, LA; Ferrucci, L; Kritchevsky, SB; Lehtimäki, T; Qi, Lu; Rotter, JI; Siscovick, DS; Wareham, NJ; Witteman, JCM; Ordovás, JM; Nettleton, JA

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Low-density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor and signaling molecule that is expressed in adipose and the hypothalamus. Evidence for a role of LRP1 in adiposity is accumulating from animal and in vitro models, but data from human studies are limited. The study objectives were to evaluate (i) relationships between LRP1 genotype and anthropometric traits, and (ii) whether these relationships were modified by dietary fatty acids. DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted race/ethnic-specific meta-analyses using data from 14 studies of US and European whites and 4 of African Americans to evaluate associations of dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hip circumference, as well as interactions between dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRP1 were evaluated in whites (N up to 42 000) and twelve SNPs in African Americans (N up to 5800). RESULTS After adjustment for age, sex and population substructure if relevant, for each one unit greater intake of percentage of energy from saturated fat (SFA), BMI was 0.104 kg m−2 greater, waist was 0.305 cm larger and hip was 0.168 cm larger (all P<0.0001). Other fatty acids were not associated with outcomes. The association of SFA with outcomes varied by genotype at rs2306692 (genotyped in four studies of whites), where the magnitude of the association of SFA intake with each outcome was greater per additional copy of the T allele: 0.107 kg m−2 greater for BMI (interaction P=0.0001), 0.267 cm for waist (interaction P=0.001) and 0.21 cm for hip (interaction P=0.001). No other significant interactions were observed. CONCLUSION Dietary SFA and LRP1 genotype may interactively influence anthropometric traits. Further exploration of this, and other diet x genotype interactions, may improve understanding of interindividual variability in the relationships of dietary factors with

  11. Expression of type I and type II bovine scavenger receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells: Lipid droplet accumulation and nonreciprocal cross competition by acetylated and oxidized low density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston ); Ekkel, Y.; Rohrer, L.; Penman, M.; Freedman, N.J.; Krieger, M. ); Chisolm, G.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Type I and type II scavenger receptors, which have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and other macrophage-associated functions, differ only by the presence in the type I receptor of an extracellular cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. Stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants expressing high levels of either the type I or type II bovine scavenger receptors have been generated. Type I and type II receptors in these cells mediated high-affinity saturable endocytosis of both {sup 125}I-labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and {sup 125}I-labeled oxidized LDL with the distinctive broad ligand specificity characteristic of scavenger receptors. After incubation for 2 days with acetylated LDL, the transfected cells accumulated oil red O-staining lipid droplets reminiscent of those in macrophage foam cells, whereas untransfected CHO cells did not. Thus, macrophage-specific gene products other than the scavenger receptor are not required for modified-LDL-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. In transfected cells, acetylated LDL efficiently competed for both its own endocytosis and that of oxidized LDL. This nonreciprocal cross competition suggests that these ligands may bind to nonidentical but interacting sites on a single receptor. Results were similar for transfectants expressing either type I or type II scavenger receptors. The nonreciprocal cross competition seen in the transfected CHO cells differs from that previously observed with cultured macrophages.

  12. P2Y2 receptor promotes cell invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, W-H; Qiu, Y; Zhang, H-Q; Liu, Y; You, J-F; Tian, X-X; Fang, W-G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our previous study demonstrated that extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) stimulated prostate cancer cell invasion via P2Y receptors. However, the purinergic receptor subtype(s) involved in this process remains unclear. Here we aimed to determine whether P2Y2, one subtype of P2Y receptors, was involved in the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Methods: RNAi was introduced to silence the expression of P2Y2. In vitro invasion and migration assays and in vivo experiments were carried out to examine the role of P2Y2 receptor in cell invasion and metastasis. cDNA microarray was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes downstream of ATP treatment. Results: P2Y2 was significantly expressed in the prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of P2Y2 receptor suppressed cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Further experiments identified that ATP could promote IL-8 and Snail expression and inhibit E-cadherin and Claudin-1 expression. Knockdown of P2Y2 receptor affected the expression of these EMT/invasion-related genes in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: P2Y2 receptor promotes cell invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer cells via some EMT/invasion-related genes. Thereby, P2Y2 receptor could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23969730

  13. P2Y2 receptor promotes cell invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, W-H; Qiu, Y; Zhang, H-Q; Liu, Y; You, J-F; Tian, X-X; Fang, W-G

    2013-09-17

    Our previous study demonstrated that extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) stimulated prostate cancer cell invasion via P2Y receptors. However, the purinergic receptor subtype(s) involved in this process remains unclear. Here we aimed to determine whether P2Y2, one subtype of P2Y receptors, was involved in the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. RNAi was introduced to silence the expression of P2Y2. In vitro invasion and migration assays and in vivo experiments were carried out to examine the role of P2Y2 receptor in cell invasion and metastasis. cDNA microarray was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes downstream of ATP treatment. P2Y2 was significantly expressed in the prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of P2Y2 receptor suppressed cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Further experiments identified that ATP could promote IL-8 and Snail expression and inhibit E-cadherin and Claudin-1 expr